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Sample records for activating kras mutations

  1. Kras mutations increase telomerase activity and targeting telomerase is a promising therapeutic strategy for Kras-mutant NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bowen; Zhang, Lianmin; Qian, Dong; Li, Chenguang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Shengguang; Zhu, Jinfang; Gao, Liuwei; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Bin; Hao, Ligang; Wang, Changli; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    As shortened telomeres inhibit tumor formation and prolong life span in a KrasG12D mouse lung cancer model, we investigated the implications of telomerase in Kras-mutant NSCLC. We found that Kras mutations increased TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) mRNA expression and telomerase activity and telomere length in both immortalized bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and lung adenocarcinoma cells (Calu-3). MEK inhibition led to reduced TERT expression and telomerase activity. Furthermore, telomerase inhibitor BIBR1532 shortened telomere length and inhibited mutant Kras-induced long-term proliferation, colony formation and migration capabilities of BEAS-2B and Calu-3 cells. Importantly, BIBR1532 sensitized oncogenic Kras expressing Calu-3 cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The Calu-3-KrasG12D xenograft mouse model confirmed that BIBR1532 enhanced the antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel in vivo. In addition, higher TERT expression was seen in Kras-mutant NSCLC than that with wild-type Kras. Our data suggest that Kras mutations increase telomerase activity and telomere length by activating the RAS/MEK pathway, which contributes to an aggressive phenotype of NSCLC. Kras mutations-induced lung tumorigenesis and chemoresistance are attenuated by telomerase inhibition. Targeting telomerase/telomere may be a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with Kras-mutant NSCLC. PMID:27329725

  2. Anti-tumor activity of ESX1 on cancer cells harboring oncogenic K-ras mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Junta; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Masatomo; Koike, Takao; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2008-05-23

    Human ESX1 is a 65-kilodalton (kDa) paired-like homeoprotein that is proteolytically processed into N-terminal 45-kDa and C-terminal 20-kDa fragments. The N-terminal ESX1 fragment, which contains the homeodomain, localizes to the nucleus and represses mRNA transcription from the K-ras gene. When we inoculated human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 constitutive expressing N-terminal region of ESX1 (N-ESX1) into nude mice, transfectant cells uniformly showed decreased tumor-forming activity compared with that of the parental cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of HCT116 carcinoma cells with a fusion protein consisting of N-ESX1 and the protein-transduction domain derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 TAT protein gave rise to a dramatic reduction in the tumorigenicity of HCT116 cells in nude mice. Our results provide first in vivo evidence for the molecular targeting therapeutic application of the K-ras repressor ESX1, especially TAT-mediated transduction of N-ESX1, in the treatment of human cancers having oncogenic K-ras mutations.

  3. Diagnostic application of KRAS mutation testing in uterine microglandular proliferations.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Abi-Raad, Rita; Alomari, Ahmed K; Hui, Pei; Buza, Natalia

    2015-07-01

    Microglandular proliferations often pose a diagnostic challenge in small endocervical and endometrial biopsies. Microglandular hyperplasia (MGH) is one of the most common pseudoneoplastic glandular proliferations of uterine cervix, which can closely mimic endometrial adenocarcinomas (EAC) with a microglandular pattern (microglandular EAC). Although MGH is typically characterized by relatively uniform nuclei and rare to absent mitoses, atypical forms with architectural and/or cytologic deviation from the usual morphology have been previously described. Recently, a series of MGH with high mitotic activity has also been documented. Although careful morphological assessment and immunohistochemical workup can resolve the diagnostic dilemma in some cases, additional differential diagnostic tools are needed to separate both the common and atypical variants of MGH from EAC with microglandular pattern. Frequent KRAS mutation has been previously reported in endometrial complex mucinous lesions and endometrial mucinous carcinomas. However, the diagnostic utility of KRAS mutation analysis has not yet been explored in the context of cervical and endometrial microglandular lesions. Twelve mitotically active MGH cases and 15 cases of EAC with microglandular growth pattern were selected for the study. KRAS mutation analysis was performed in all cases by highly sensitive single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Clinical history and follow-up data were retrieved from electronic medical records. KRAS mutation was absent in all MGH cases, whereas 9 (60%) of 15 microglandular EAC cases tested positive for KRAS mutation. Our data indicate that KRAS mutation analysis may offer additional discriminatory power in separating benign MGH from EAC with microglandular pattern.

  4. KRAS insertion mutations are oncogenic and exhibit distinct functional properties

    PubMed Central

    White, Yasmine; Bagchi, Aditi; Van Ziffle, Jessica; Inguva, Anagha; Bollag, Gideon; Zhang, Chao; Carias, Heidi; Dickens, David; Loh, Mignon; Shannon, Kevin; Firestone, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS mutations introduce discrete amino acid substitutions that reduce intrinsic Ras GTPase activity and confer resistance to GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here we discover a partial duplication of the switch 2 domain of K-Ras encoding a tandem repeat of amino acids G60_A66dup in a child with an atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm. K-Ras proteins containing this tandem duplication or a similar five amino acid E62_A66dup mutation identified in lung and colon cancers transform the growth of primary myeloid progenitors and of Ba/F3 cells. Recombinant K-RasG60_A66dup and K-RasE62_A66dup proteins display reduced intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates, accumulate in the GTP-bound conformation and are resistant to GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Remarkably, K-Ras proteins with switch 2 insertions are impaired for PI3 kinase binding and Akt activation, and are hypersensitive to MEK inhibition. These studies illuminate a new class of oncogenic KRAS mutations and reveal unexpected plasticity in oncogenic Ras proteins that has diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26854029

  5. K-ras oncogene mutation in pterygium.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, B T; Yıldırım, M S; Zamani, A; Bozkurt, B

    2017-03-01

    PurposePterygium is claimed to be a benign proliferation triggered by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The frequency of K-ras oncogene mutation, which is among the initial mutations in tumorigenesis, is evaluated in this study.Patients and methodsIn this prospective randomized clinical, trial pterygium tissues and normal conjunctiva tissue specimens are obtained from the superotemporal quadrant of patients who underwent primary pterygium excision with autograft transplantation. DNA extraction from tissues was performed using the QIAamp DNA FFPE tissue kit. A PCR reaction was performed to amplify sequences containing codons 12, 13, and 61 of the K-ras gene in DNA. These PCR products then underwent the 'pyrosequencing' procedure for mutations at these codons.ResultsPterygium and normal conjunctival tissue samples of 25 patients (10 females, 15 males) were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.54±13.13 years. Genetic analysis revealed no K-ras mutations in normal conjunctival tissues, whereas pterygium tissues of the same cases demonstrated mutation at codon 12 in one case and mutations at codon 61 in seven cases, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The point missense mutations at codon 61 were glutamine to arginine (Glu61Arg CAA>CGA) in four cases and glutamine to leucine (Glu61Leu CAA>CTA) in three cases.ConclusionThe significantly higher frequency of codon 61 mutation of the ras oncogene in primary and bilateral pterygium specimens compared with normal conjunctiva supports the tumoral origin of pterygium, and thus set the stage for research into a targeted therapy for pterygium with better outcomes than surgical excision.

  6. Comparative Roles of Overexpressed and Mutated H- and K-ras in Mammary Carcinogenesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    initiated tumors ) using the mismatch amplification mutation assay ( MAMA ) developed by Cha et al (5). Our initial studies indicated that there was...fold more potent at inducing mammary tumors than the activated K-ras gene. Yet, the K-ras oncogene was still effective at mammary carcinoma induction...transgenic rats harboring a H-ras gene (HrHr transgenics) or K-ras gene (HrKr transgenics) controlled by H-ras gene regulatory elements. Mammary tumor

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in Brazilian lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Carlos E.; Ciol, Heloísa; Queiroga, Eduardo M.; Benine, Lucimara C.; Silva, Luciana H.; Ojopi, Elida B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer and has recently emerged as an important target for molecular therapeutics. The KRAS oncogene also plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a population of Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 207 specimens from Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed for activating epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS somatic mutations, and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics (including age, gender, ethnicity, smoking habits, and histological subtype) were examined. RESULTS: We identified 63 cases (30.4%) with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and 30 cases (14.6%) with KRAS mutations. The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation we detected was a deletion in exon 19 (60.3%, 38 patients), followed by an L858R amino acid substitution in exon 21 (27%, 17 patients). The most common types of KRAS mutations were found in codon 12. There were no significant differences in epidermal growth factor receptor or KRAS mutations by gender or primary versus metastatic lung cancer. There was a higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in the non-Asian patients. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were more prevalent in adenocarcinomas than in non-adenocarcinoma histological types. Being a non-smoker was significantly associated with the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, but the prevalence of KRAS mutations was significantly associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a Brazilian population sample with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:22666783

  8. Frequent mutations of KRAS in addition to BRAF in colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stefanius, Karoliina; Ylitalo, Laura; Tuomisto, Anne; Kuivila, Rami; Kantola, Tiina; Sirniö, Päivi; Karttunen, Tuomo J; Mäkinen, Markus J

    2011-01-01

    Aims To define the occurrence of KRAS and BRAF mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI), and MGMT and hMLH1 methylation and expression in colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma. Methods and results KRAS codon 12/13 and 59/61 and BRAF V600E mutations, MSI, and MGMT and hMLH1 methylation and expression in 42 serrated adenocarcinomas and 17 serrated adenomas were compared with those in 59 non-serrated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and nine adenomas. KRAS and BRAF mutations were observed in 45% and 33% of serrated adenocarcinomas and in 27% and 0% of non-serrated CRCs (P < 0.001). The KRAS c12G→A transition was the predominant type of mutation in serrated adenocarcinomas. Forty-two per cent of BRAF-mutated serrated adenocarcinomas showed high-level MSI (MSI-H) (P = 0.075), 100% showed hMLH1 methylation (P = 0.001) and 90.9% showed MGMT methylation (P = 0.019). Fifty-six per cent of serrated adenocarcinomas with microsatellite stability/low-level microsatellite instability harboured KRAS mutations. In non-serrated cancers, KRAS mutations were not associated with MSI status. Conclusions A high combined mutation rate (79–82%) of KRAS and BRAF in serrated adenomas and adenocarcinomas indicates that mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is a crucial part of the serrated pathway. BRAF mutations are specific for serrated adenocarcinoma and identify a subset of serrated adenocarcinomas with gene methylation and a tendency for MSI-H. A high frequency of KRAS mutations in serrated adenocarcinomas suggests that a significant proportion of KRAS-mutated CRCs originate from serrated precursors, thus challenging the traditional model of Vogelstein. PMID:21457162

  9. Mutations of p53 and KRAS activate NF-κB to promote chemoresistance and tumorigenesis via dysregulation of cell cycle and suppression of apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Zhou, Yunjiao; Li, Yinghua; Zhou, Juan; Wu, Yougen; Cui, Yunqing; Yang, Gong; Hong, Yang

    2015-02-28

    Although mutations of p53 and KRAS and activation of NF-κB signaling have been highly associated with chemoresistance and tumorigenesis of lung cancer, the interactive mechanisms between two of p53, KRAS, and NF-κB are elusive. In the present study, we first observed that blocking of NF-κB function in KRAS mutant A549 cell line with an IκBα mutant (IκBαM) inhibited cell cycle progression, anti-apoptosis, chemoresistance, and tumorigenesis. Silencing of p53 or KRAS in A549 or H358 cells either enhanced or attenuated the resistance of cells to cisplatin and taxol through promotion or suppression of the NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Introduction of a wild type p53 into p53 null lung cancer cell lines H1299 and H358 inhibited NF-κB activity, leading to the enhanced response to chemotherapeutic drugs. Delivery of a mutant p53 or KRAS-V12 into A549/IκBαM or H1299/p53Wt cells increased cell cycle progression, anti-apoptosis, chemoresistance, and tumorigenesis due to the accumulated nuclear localization of NF-κB p65, while treatment of H1299/p53Wt/KRAS-V12 with NF-κB inhibitor PS1145 diminished these effects. Thus, we conclude that p53 deficiency and KRAS mutation activate the NF-κB signaling to control chemoresistance and tumorigenesis, and that the status of p53 and KRAS may be considered for the targeted therapy against NF-κB in lung cancer patients.

  10. Characterization of a novel oncogenic K-ras mutation in colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Akagi, Kiwamu . E-mail: akagi@cancer-c.pref.saitama.jp; Uchibori, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Kurosawa, Keiko; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Kozu, Tomoko

    2007-01-19

    Activating mutations of RAS are frequently observed in subsets of human cancers, indicating that RAS activation is involved in tumorigenesis. Here, we identified and characterized a novel G to T transversion mutation of the K-ras gene at the third position of codon 19 (TTG) which substituted phenylalanine for leucine in 3 primary colon carcinomas. Biological and biochemical activity was examined using transformed NIH3T3 cells expressing mutant or wild-type K-ras. Transformants harboring the K-ras mutation at codon 19 showed proliferative capacity under serum-starved conditions, less contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, tumorigenicity in nude mice and elevation of active Ras-GTP levels. These results indicated that this novel mutation possesses high oncogenic activity.

  11. Across the universe of K-RAS mutations in non-small-cell-lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Piva, Sheila; Ganzinelli, Monica; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Caiola, Elisa; Farina, Gabriella; Broggini, Massimo; Marabese, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    RAS family proteins are important signaling molecules that regulate cell growth, survival and differentiation by coupling receptor activation to downstream effector pathways. Three distinct genes encode for the three different proteins H-, K-, and N- RAS. These proteins share high sequence homology, particularly at the N-Terminal domain. Among them, K-RAS is one of the most frequently mutated in human cancer. The majority of the mutations present in K-RAS are at codon 12 (from 80 to 100%) followed by codon 13 and 61. In all cases, aminoacid change leads to a constitutively activated protein. K-RAS mutations have a role in tumor development as well as in tumor progression and resistance. Despite the various studies which have been published, the prognostic and predictive role of K-RAS mutations is still under debate. Keeping in mind that the glycine present at position 12 can be substituted by valine, aspartic acid or cysteine, it could be well understood that each different substitution plays a different role in K-RAS-dependent processes. The present article focuses on the molecular and biological characteristics of K-RAS protein, its role in NSCLC tumor development and progression. We also present an overview of the preclinical models both in vitro and in vivo available to determine the role of K-RAS in tumor progression and response to treatment and on the recent results obtained in this field. Finally, we have considered the impact of KRAS mutations in clinical practice, analyzing the different recent trials that have taken into consideration K-RAS.

  12. Analysis of KRAS and BRAF genes mutation in the central nervous system metastases of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicoś, Marcin; Krawczyk, Paweł; Jarosz, Bożena; Sawicki, Marek; Szumiłło, Justyna; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-05-01

    KRAS mutations are associated with tumor resistance to EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib) and to monoclonal antibody against EGFR (cetuximab). Targeted treatment of mutated RAS patients is still considered as a challenge. Inhibitors of c-Met (onartuzumab or tiwantinib) and MEK (selumetinib-a dual inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2) signaling pathways showed activity in patients with mutations in KRAS that can became an effective approach in carriers of such disorders. BRAF mutation is very rare in patients with NSCLC, and its presence is associated with sensitivity of tumor cells to BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib, dabrafenib). In the present study, the frequency and type of KRAS and BRAF mutation were assessed in 145 FFPE tissue samples from CNS metastases of NSCLC. In 30 patients, material from the primary tumor was simultaneously available. Real-time PCR technique with allele-specific molecular probe (KRAS/BRAF Mutation Analysis Kit, Entrogen, USA) was used for molecular tests. KRAS mutations were detected in 21.4 % of CNS metastatic lesions and in 23.3 % of corresponding primary tumors. Five mutations were identified both in primary and in metastatic lesions, while one mutation only in primary tumor and one mutation only in the metastatic tumor. Most of mutations were observed in codon 12 of KRAS; however, an individual patient had diagnosed a rare G13D and Q61R substitutions. KRAS mutations were significantly more frequent in adenocarcinoma patients and smokers. Additional analysis indicated one patient with rare coexistence of KRAS and DDR2 mutations. BRAF mutation was not detected in the examined materials. KRAS frequency appears to be similar in primary and CNS.

  13. Oncogene KRAS activates fatty acid synthase, resulting in specific ERK and lipid signatures associated with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gouw, Arvin M; Eberlin, Livia S; Margulis, Katherine; Sullivan, Delaney K; Toal, Georgia G; Tong, Ling; Zare, Richard N; Felsher, Dean W

    2017-04-11

    KRAS gene mutation causes lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS activation has been associated with altered glucose and glutamine metabolism. Here, we show that KRAS activates lipogenesis, and this activation results in distinct proteomic and lipid signatures. By gene expression analysis, KRAS is shown to be associated with a lipogenesis gene signature and specific induction of fatty acid synthase (FASN). Through desorption electrospray ionization MS imaging (DESI-MSI), specific changes in lipogenesis and specific lipids are identified. By the nanoimmunoassay (NIA), KRAS is found to activate the protein ERK2, whereas ERK1 activation is found in non-KRAS-associated human lung tumors. The inhibition of FASN by cerulenin, a small molecule antibiotic, blocked cellular proliferation of KRAS-associated lung cancer cells. Hence, KRAS is associated with activation of ERK2, induction of FASN, and promotion of lipogenesis. FASN may be a unique target for KRAS-associated lung adenocarcinoma remediation.

  14. KRAS-mutation incidence and prognostic value are metastatic site-specific in lung adenocarcinoma: poor prognosis in patients with KRAS mutation and bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lohinai, Zoltan; Klikovits, Thomas; Moldvay, Judit; Ostoros, Gyula; Raso, Erzsebet; Timar, Jozsef; Fabian, Katalin; Kovalszky, Ilona; Kenessey, István; Aigner, Clemens; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Klepetko, Walter; Dome, Balazs; Hegedus, Balazs

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines lack comprehensive information on the metastatic site-specific role of KRAS mutation in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). We investigated the effect of KRAS mutation on overall survival (OS) in this setting. In our retrospective study, 500 consecutive Caucasian metastatic LADC patients with known KRAS mutational status were analyzed after excluding 32 patients with EGFR mutations. KRAS mutation incidence was 28.6%. The most frequent metastatic sites were lung (45.6%), bone (26.2%), adrenal gland (17.4%), brain (16.8%), pleura (15.6%) and liver (11%). Patients with intrapulmonary metastasis had significantly increased KRAS mutation frequency compared to those with extrapulmonary metastases (35% vs 26.5%, p = 0.0125). In contrast, pleural dissemination and liver involvement were associated with significantly decreased KRAS mutation incidence (vs all other metastatic sites; 17% (p < 0.001) and 16% (p = 0.02) vs 33%, respectively). Strikingly, we found a significant prognostic effect of KRAS status only in the bone metastatic subcohort (KRAS-wild-type vs KRAS-mutant; median OS 9.7 v 3.7 months; HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.79; p  = 0.003). Our study suggests that KRAS mutation frequency in LADC patients shows a metastatic site dependent variation and, moreover, that the presence of KRAS mutation is associated with significantly worse outcome in bone metastatic cases. PMID:28051122

  15. The cornerstone K-RAS mutation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: From cell signaling network, target genes, biological processes to therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Vasseur, Romain; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    RAS belongs to the super family of small G proteins and plays crucial roles in signal transduction from membrane receptors in the cell. Mutations of K-RAS oncogene lead to an accumulation of GTP-bound proteins that maintains an active conformation. In the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most deadly cancers in occidental countries, mutations of the K-RAS oncogene are nearly systematic (>90%). Moreover, K-RAS mutation is the earliest genetic alteration occurring during pancreatic carcinogenetic sequence. In this review, we discuss the central role of K-RAS mutations and their tremendous diversity of biological properties by the interconnected regulation of signaling pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, PI3K, Ral…). In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, transcriptome analysis and preclinical animal models showed that K-RAS mutation alters biological behavior of PDAC cells (promoting proliferation, migration and invasion, evading growth suppressors, regulating mucin pattern, and miRNA expression). K-RAS also impacts tumor microenvironment and PDAC metabolism reprogramming. Finally we discuss therapeutic targeting strategies of K-RAS that have been developed without significant clinical success so far. As K-RAS is considered as the undruggable target, targeting its multiple effectors and target genes should be considered as potential alternatives.

  16. Prognostic significance of K-Ras mutation rate in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Cremolini, Chiara; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Russo, Antonio; Mannavola, Francesco; Perrone, Giuseppe; Pantano, Francesco; Loupakis, Fotios; Rossini, Daniele; Ongaro, Elena; Bonazzina, Erica; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Imperatori, Marco; Zoccoli, Alice; Bronte, Giuseppe; De Maglio, Giovanna; Fontanini, Gabriella; Natoli, Clara; Falcone, Alfredo; Santini, Daniele; Onetti-Muda, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore; Tonini, Giuseppe; Aprile, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Activating mutations of K-Ras gene have a well-established role as predictors of resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Their prognostic value is controversial, and no data regarding the prognostic value of mutation rate, defined as the percentage of mutated alleles/tumor sample, are available. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of K-Rasmutation rate in a homogenous cohort of mCRC patients receiving first-line doublet plus bevacizumab. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 397 K-Ras mutant mCRC patients from 6 Italian centers, and 263 patients were fully evaluable for our analysis. K-Ras mutation rate was assessed by pyrosequencing. Patients with less than 60% of cancer cells in tumor tissue were excluded. No patients received anti-EGFR containing anticancer therapy, at any time. Median mutation rate was 40% and was adopted as cut-off. The primary and secondary endpoints were PFS and OS respectively. Results: At univariate analysis, K-Ras mutation rate higher than 40% was significantly associated with lower PFS (7.3 vs 9.1 months; P < 0.0001) and OS (21 vs 31 months; P = 0.004). A multivariate model adjusted for age at diagnosis, site of origin of tumor tissue (primary vs metastases), referral center, number of metastatic sites, and first-line chemotherapy backbone, showed that K-Ras mutation rate remained a significant predictor of PFS and OS in the whole population. Discussion: Our data demonstrate an association between K-Ras mutation rate and prognosis in mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab-containing first-line therapy. These data deserve to be verified in an independent validation set. PMID:26384309

  17. KRAS Mutations in Primary Colorectal Cancer Tumors and Related Metastases: A Potential Role in Prediction of Lung Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Cejas, Paloma; López-Gómez, Miriam; Aguayo, Cristina; Madero, Rosario; de Castro Carpeño, Javier; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; Barriuso, Jorge; Moreno García, Víctor; Larrauri, Javier; López, Rocío; Casado, Enrique; Gonzalez-Barón, Manuel; Feliu, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Background KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer primary tumors predict resistance to anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, and thus represent a true indicator of EGFR pathway activation status. Methodology/Principal Findings KRAS mutations were retrospectively studied using polymerase chain reactions and subsequent sequencing of codons 12 and 13 (exon 2) in 110 patients with metastatic colorectal tumors. These studies were performed using tissue samples from both the primary tumor and their related metastases (93 liver, 84%; 17 lung, 16%). All patients received adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil-based polychemotherapy after resection of metastases. None received anti-EGFR therapy. Mutations in KRAS were observed in 37 (34%) of primary tumors and in 40 (36%) of related metastases, yielding a 94% level of concordance (kappa index 0.86). Patients with primary tumors possessing KRAS mutations had a shorter disease-free survival period after metastasis resection (12.0 vs 18.0 months; P = 0.035) than those who did not. A higher percentage of KRAS mutations was detected in primary tumors of patiens with lung metastases than in patients with liver metastases (59% vs 32%; p = 0.054). To further evaluate this finding we analyzed 120 additional patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who previously had their primary tumors evaluated for KRAS mutational status for clinical purposes. Separately, the analysis of these 120 patients showed a tendency towards a higher degree of KRAS mutations in primary tumors of patients with lung metastases, although it did not reach statistical significance. Taken together the group of 230 patients showed that KRAS was mutated significantly more often in the primary tumors of patients with lung metastases (57% vs 35%; P = 0.006). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest a role for KRAS mutations in the propensity of primary colorectal tumors to

  18. KRAS mutation leads to decreased expression of regulator of calcineurin 2, resulting in tumor proliferation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niitsu, H; Hinoi, T; Kawaguchi, Y; Sentani, K; Yuge, R; Kitadai, Y; Sotomaru, Y; Adachi, T; Saito, Y; Miguchi, M; Kochi, M; Sada, H; Shimomura, M; Oue, N; Yasui, W; Ohdan, H

    2016-01-01

    KRAS mutations occur in 30–40% of all cases of human colorectal cancer (CRC). However, to date, specific therapeutic agents against KRAS-mutated CRC have not been developed. We previously described the generation of mouse models of colon cancer with and without Kras mutations (CDX2P-G22Cre;Apcflox/flox; LSL-KrasG12D and CDX2P-G22Cre;Apcflox/flox mice, respectively). Here, the two mouse models were compared to identify candidate genes, which may represent novel therapeutic targets or predictive biomarkers. Differentially expressed genes in tumors from the two mouse models were identified using microarray analysis, and their expression was compared by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses in mouse tumors and surgical specimens of human CRC, with or without KRAS mutations, respectively. Furthermore, the functions of candidate genes were studied using human CRC cell lines. Microarray analysis of 34 000 transcripts resulted in the identification of 19 candidate genes. qRT–PCR analysis data showed that four of these candidate genes (Clps, Irx5, Bex1 and Rcan2) exhibited decreased expression in the Kras-mutated mouse model. The expression of the regulator of calcineurin 2 (RCAN2) was also observed to be lower in KRAS-mutated human CRC. Moreover, inhibitory function for cancer cell proliferation dependent on calcineurin was indicated with overexpression and short hairpin RNA knockdown of RCAN2 in human CRC cell lines. KRAS mutations in CRC lead to a decrease in RCAN2 expression, resulting in tumor proliferation due to derepression of calcineurin–nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. Our findings suggest that calcineurin–NFAT signal may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of KRAS-mutated CRC. PMID:27526107

  19. Picoliter droplet-based digital peptide nucleic acid clamp PCR and dielectric sorting for low abundant K-ras mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huidan; Sperling, Ralph; Rotem, Assaf; Shan, Lianfeng; Heyman, John; Zhang, Yizhe; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the US, and the 5-year survival of metastatic CRC (mCRC) is less than 10%. Although monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) provide incremental improvements in survival, approximately 40% of mCRC patients with activating KRAS mutations won't benefit from this therapy. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA), a synthetic non-extendable oligonucleotides, can bind strongly to completely complementary wild-type KRAS by Watson-Crick base pairing and suppress its amplification during PCR, while any mutant allele will show unhindered amplification. The method is particularly suitable for the simultaneously detection of several adjoining mutant sites, just as mutations of codons 12 and 13 of KRAS gene where there are totally 12 possible mutation types. In this work, we describe the development and validation of this method, based on the droplet-based digital PCR. Using a microfluidic system, single target DNA molecule is compartmentalized in microdroplets together with PNA specific for wild-type KRAS, thermocycled and the fluorescence of each droplet was detected, followed by sorting and sequencing. It enables the precise determination of all possible mutant KRAS simultaneously, and the precise quantification of a single mutated KRAS in excess background unmutated KRAS.

  20. Low frequency KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer patients and the presence of multiple mutations in oncogenic drivers in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liyan; Huang, Jiaqi; Morehouse, Chris; Zhu, Wei; Korolevich, Susana; Sui, Dan; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Lehmann, Kim; Liu, Zheng; Kiefer, Christine; Czapiga, Meggan; Su, Xinying; Brohawn, Philip; Gu, Yi; Higgs, Brandon W; Yao, Yihong

    2013-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity can confound the results of mutation analyses in oncodriver genes using traditional methods thereby challenging the application of targeted cancer therapy strategies for patients Ultradeep sequencing can detect low frequency and expanded clonal mutations in primary tumors to better inform treatment decisions. KRAS coding exons in 61 treatment-naive colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors and KRAS, EGFR, ALK, and MET in lung tumors from three Chinese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were sequenced using ultradeep sequencing methods. Forty-one percent of CRC patients (25/61) harbored mutations in the KRAS active domain, eight of which (13%) were not detected by Sanger sequencing. Three (of eight) had frequencies less than 10% and one patient harbored more than one mutation. Low frequency KRAS active (G12R) and EGFR kinase domain mutations (G719A) were identified in one NSCLC patient. A second NSCLC patient showed an EML4-ALK fusion with ALK, EGFR, and MET mutations. A third NSCLC patient harbored multiple low frequency mutations in KRAS, EGFR, and MET as well as ALK gene copy number increases. Within the same patient, multiple low frequency mutations occurred within a gene. A complex pattern of intrinsic low frequency driver mutations in well-known tumor oncogenes may exist prior to treatment, resulting in resistance to targeted therapies. Ultradeep sequencing can characterize intratumor heterogeneity and identify such mutations to ultimately affect treatment decisions.

  1. Coexistence of MSI with KRAS mutation is associated with worse prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Yan, Wen-Yue; Xie, Li; Cheng, Lei; Yang, Mi; Li, Li; Shi, Jiong; Liu, Bao-Rui; Qian, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kristen rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and microsatellite instability (MSI) are prognostic markers of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the clinical value is still not fully understood, when giving the consideration to both the molecular makers. Five hundred fifty-one patients with CRC were retrospectively assessed by determining their clinicopathological features. KRAS mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction. MSI, a defect in the mismatch repair (MMR) system, was detected by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic value of KRAS in combination with MSI was studied. Among 551 CRC patients, mutations in KRAS codon 12 and KRAS codon 13 were detected in 34.5% and 10.5% of patients, respectively. Four hundred one tumors were randomly selected to detect for MMR proteins expression. In this analysis, 30 (7.5%) tumors that had at least 1 MMR protein loss were defined as MMR protein-deficient (MMR-D), and the remaining tumors were classed as MMR protein-intact (MMR-I). According to KRAS mutation and MSI status, CRC was classified into 4 groups: Group 1, KRAS-mutated and MMR-I; Group 2, KRAS-mutated and MMR-D; Group 3, KRAS wild and MMR-I; and Group 4, KRAS wild and MMR-D. We found that patients in Group4 had the best prognosis. In conclusion, combination status of KRAS and MSI status may be used as a prognostic biomarker for CRC patient, if validated by larger studies. PMID:27977612

  2. Selective Targeting of the KRAS Codon 12 Mutation Sequence by Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide seco-CBI Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys D; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hashiya, Kaori; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-10-12

    Mutation of KRAS is a key step in many cancers. Mutations occur most frequently at codon 12, but the targeting of KRAS is notoriously difficult. We recently demonstrated selective reduction in the volume of tumors harboring the KRAS codon 12 mutation in a mouse model by using an alkylating hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide seco-1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[1,2-c]benz[1,2-e]indol-4-one conjugate (conjugate 4) designed to target the KRAS codon 12 mutation sequence. Herein, we have compared the alkylating activity of 4 against three other conjugates that were also designed to target the KRAS codon 12 mutation sequence. Conjugate 4 displayed greater affinity for the G12D mutation sequence than for the G12V sequence. A computer-minimized model suggested that conjugate 4 could bind more efficiently to the G12D match sequence than to a one-base-pair mismatch sequence. Conjugate 4 was modified for next-generation sequencing. Bind-n-Seq analysis supported the evidence showing that conjugate 4 could target the G12D mutation sequence with exceptionally high affinity and the G12V mutation sequence with much higher affinity than that for the wild-type sequence.

  3. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease with somatic KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masatoshi; Shinoda, Kunihiro; Piao, Jinhua; Mitsuiki, Noriko; Takagi, Mari; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Doisaki, Sayoko; Nagasawa, Masayuki; Morio, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Yoshihito; Koike, Kenichi; Kojima, Seiji; Takao, Akira; Mizutani, Shuki

    2011-03-10

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is classically defined as a disease with defective FAS-mediated apoptosis (type I-III). Germline NRAS mutation was recently identified in type IV ALPS. We report 2 cases with ALPS-like disease with somatic KRAS mutation. Both cases were characterized by prominent autoimmune cytopenia and lymphoadenopathy/splenomegaly. These patients did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for ALPS or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and are probably defined as a new disease entity of RAS-associated ALPS-like disease (RALD).

  4. Disruption of thioredoxin metabolism enhances the toxicity of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) inhibition in KRAS-mutated colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hrabe, Jennifer E.; O’Leary, Brianne R.; Fath, Melissa A.; Rodman, Samuel N.; Button, Anna M.; Domann, Frederick E.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Mezhir, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is critical for survival of many KRAS mutated colorectal cancer cells, and TAK1 inhibition with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol has been associated with oxidative stress leading to tumor cell killing. When SW 620 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cells were treated with 5 µM 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, cell viability, growth, and clonogenic survival were significantly decreased. Consistent with TAK1 inhibition being causally related to thiol-mediated oxidative stress, 10 mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed the growth inhibitory effects of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol. In addition, 5Z-7-oxozeaenol also increased steady-state levels of H2DCFDA oxidation as well as increased levels of total glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Interestingly, depletion of GSH using buthionine sulfoximine did not significantly potentiate 5Z-7-oxozeaenol toxicity in either cell line. In contrast, pre-treatment of cells with auranofin (Au) to inhibit thioredoxin reductase activity significantly increased levels of oxidized thioredoxin as well as sensitized cells to 5Z-7-oxozeaenol-induced growth inhibition and clonogenic cell killing. These results were confirmed in SW 620 murine xenografts, where treatment with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol or with Au plus 5Z-7-oxozeaenol significantly inhibited growth, with Au plus 5Z-7-oxozeaenol trending toward greater growth inhibition compared to 5Z-7-oxozeaenol alone. These results support the hypothesis that thiol-mediated oxidative stress is causally related to TAK1-induced colon cancer cell killing. In addition, these results support the hypothesis that thioredoxin metabolism is a critical target for enhancing colon cancer cell killing via TAK1 inhibition and could represent an effective therapeutic strategy in patients with these highly resistant tumors. PMID:26114584

  5. The Structural Basis of Oncogenic Mutations G12, G13 and Q61 in Small GTPase K-Ras4B

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ras mediates cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Mutations in K-Ras4B are predominant at residues G12, G13 and Q61. Even though all impair GAP-assisted GTP → GDP hydrolysis, the mutation frequencies of K-Ras4B in human cancers vary. Here we aim to figure out their mechanisms and differential oncogenicity. In total, we performed 6.4 μs molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type K-Ras4B (K-Ras4BWT-GTP/GDP) catalytic domain, the K-Ras4BWT-GTP–GAP complex, and the mutants (K-Ras4BG12C/G12D/G12V-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BG13D-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BQ61H-GTP/GDP) and their complexes with GAP. In addition, we simulated ‘exchanged’ nucleotide states. These comprehensive simulations reveal that in solution K-Ras4BWT-GTP exists in two, active and inactive, conformations. Oncogenic mutations differentially elicit an inactive-to-active conformational transition in K-Ras4B-GTP; in K-Ras4BG12C/G12D-GDP they expose the bound nucleotide which facilitates the GDP-to-GTP exchange. These mechanisms may help elucidate the differential mutational statistics in K-Ras4B-driven cancers. Exchanged nucleotide simulations reveal that the conformational transition is more accessible in the GTP-to-GDP than in the GDP-to-GTP exchange. Importantly, GAP not only donates its R789 arginine finger, but stabilizes the catalytically-competent conformation and pre-organizes catalytic residue Q61; mutations disturb the R789/Q61 organization, impairing GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Together, our simulations help provide a mechanistic explanation of key mutational events in one of the most oncogenic proteins in cancer. PMID:26902995

  6. A novel KRAS gene mutation report in sporadic colorectal cancer, from Northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Kermani, Iraj Asvadi; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    While the role of KRAS gene mutations has been widely accepted for predicting responses to anti-EGFR therapy in patients with colorectal cancer, although this study was based on observation of a single case it gives hope that some KRAS gene mutation may have favorable prognosis. More studies are required on patients with similar mutation to validate this finding.

  7. The status of Her2 amplification and Kras mutations in mucinous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuang-Leei; Lee, Ming-Yung; Chao, Wan-Ru; Han, Chih-Ping

    2016-12-28

    Jayson GC et al. remarked in Lancet that nearly 100% of mucinous ovarian cancer cases have Kras mutation as well as a high frequency of Her2 amplification. Using the Abbott PathVysion Her2 DNA Probe Kit and Kras mutant-enriched PCR Kits (FemtoPath®), 21 samples of primary ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinomas from Taiwanese patients were examined to determine the status of Her2 amplification and Kras mutations. Our results showed the Her2 amplification rates were 33.33%, while the Kras mutation rates were 61.90%. We present here our results in order to enlighten the readership that the ~100% Kras mutant frequency and the high Her2 amplification rate reported by Jayson et al. may be too exaggerated to be applicable into all populations. Additionally, we report another 2 novel Kras mutations (A11V, V14I).

  8. Rapid KRAS Mutation Detection via Hybridization-Induced Aggregation of Microbeads.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Hillary S; Kelly, Kimberly A; Landers, James P

    2015-10-20

    Using hybridization-induced aggregation (HIA), a unique bead-based DNA detection technology scalable for a microchip platform, we describe a simplistic, low-cost method for rapid mutation testing. HIA utilizes a pair of sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes bound to magnetic microbeads. Hybridization to a target DNA strand tethers the beads together, inducing bead aggregation. By simply using the extent of bead aggregation as a measure of the hybridization efficiency, we avoid the need for additional labels and sophisticated analytical equipment. Through strategic manipulation of the assay design and experimental parameters, we use HIA to facilitate, for the first time, the detection of single base mutations in a gene segment and, specifically, the detection of activating KRAS mutations. Following the development and optimization of the assay, we apply it for KRAS mutation analysis of four human cancer cell lines. Ultimately, we present a proof-of-principle method for detecting any of the common KRAS mutations in a single-step, 2 min assay, using only one set of oligonucleotide probes, for a total analysis time of less than 10 min post-PCR. The assay is performed at room temperature and uses simple, inexpensive instrumentation that permits multiplexed analysis.

  9. Single Synonymous Mutations in KRAS Cause Transformed Phenotypes in NIH3T3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Andrew M.; Bagni, Rachel; Portugal, Franklin; Hartley, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Synonymous mutations in the KRAS gene are clustered at G12, G13, and G60 in human cancers. We constructed 9 stable NIH3T3 cell lines expressing KRAS, each with one of these synonymous mutations. Compared to the negative control cell line expressing the wild type human KRAS gene, all the synonymous mutant lines expressed more KRAS protein, grew more rapidly and to higher densities, and were more invasive in multiple assays. Three of the cell lines showed dramatic loss of contact inhibition, were more refractile under phase contrast, and their refractility was greatly reduced by treatment with trametinib. Codon usage at these glycines is highly conserved in KRAS compared to HRAS, indicating selective pressure. These transformed phenotypes suggest that synonymous mutations found in driver genes such as KRAS may play a role in human cancers. PMID:27684555

  10. Dietary heme iron and the risk of colorectal cancer with specific mutations in KRAS and APC.

    PubMed

    Gilsing, Anne M J; Fransen, Fiona; de Kok, Theo M; Goldbohm, Alexandra R; Schouten, Leo J; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; van Engeland, Manon; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2013-12-01

    Red meat intake has been linked to increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, experimental studies suggest a role for dietary heme iron. Because heme iron was shown to promote specific mutations, it would be insightful to link heme iron data to CRC with mutations in key genes in an observational, population-based study. We investigated the association between dietary heme iron intake and risk of CRC with mutations in APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) and KRAS (Kirsten ras) and P53 overexpression in the Netherlands Cohort Study. After 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years due to incomplete coverage of the pathology registry and to avoid preclinical disease, adjusted hazard ratios (including adjustment for total meat) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, using 4026 subcohort members (aged 55-69 years at baseline), 435 colon and 140 rectal cancer patients. When comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of intake, heme iron intake was associated with an increased risk of CRC harboring activating mutations in KRAS (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-2.57; P for trend = 0.03) and CRC without truncating mutations in APC (hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.60; P for trend = 0.003). We observed a positive association between heme iron intake and the risk of CRC with activating G>A mutations in KRAS (P for trend = 0.01) and overall G>A mutations in APC (P for trend = 0.005). No associations were found with CRC harboring G>T mutations in KRAS/APC. Heme iron intake was positively associated with the risk of P53 overexpressed tumors but not with tumors without P53 overexpression (Pheterogeneity = 0.12). Heme iron intake was associated with an increased risk of colorectal tumors harboring G>A transitions in KRAS and APC and overexpression of P53. These novel findings suggest that alkylating rather than oxidative DNA-damaging mechanisms are involved in heme

  11. KRAS Mutation Test in Korean Patients with Colorectal Carcinomas: A Methodological Comparison between Sanger Sequencing and a Real-Time PCR-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hak; Chung, Arthur Minwoo; Lee, Ahwon; Oh, Woo Jin; Choi, Yeong Jin; Lee, Youn-Soo; Jung, Eun Sun

    2017-01-01

    Background Mutations in the KRAS gene have been identified in approximately 50% of colorectal cancers (CRCs). KRAS mutations are well established biomarkers in anti–epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Therefore, assessment of KRAS mutations is needed in CRC patients to ensure appropriate treatment. Methods We compared the analytical performance of the cobas test to Sanger sequencing in 264 CRC cases. In addition, discordant specimens were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing. Results KRAS mutations for codons 12/13 were detected in 43.2% of cases (114/264) by Sanger sequencing. Of 257 evaluable specimens for comparison, KRAS mutations were detected in 112 cases (43.6%) by Sanger sequencing and 118 cases (45.9%) by the cobas test. Concordance between the cobas test and Sanger sequencing for each lot was 93.8% positive percent agreement (PPA) and 91.0% negative percent agreement (NPA) for codons 12/13. Results from the cobas test and Sanger sequencing were discordant for 20 cases (7.8%). Twenty discrepant cases were subsequently subjected to 454 pyrosequencing. After comprehensive analysis of the results from combined Sanger sequencing–454 pyrosequencing and the cobas test, PPA was 97.5% and NPA was 100%. Conclusions The cobas test is an accurate and sensitive test for detecting KRAS-activating mutations and has analytical power equivalent to Sanger sequencing. Prescreening using the cobas test with subsequent application of Sanger sequencing is the best strategy for routine detection of KRAS mutations in CRC. PMID:28013534

  12. A mutation spectrum that includes GNAS, KRAS and TP53 may be shared by mucinous neoplasms of the appendix.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kieko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Takuo; Yimit, Alkam; Takahashi, Michiko; Mitani, Keiko; Takahashi, Makoto; Yao, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Appendiceal mucinous tumors (AMTs) are classified as low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) or mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs), although their carcinogenesis is not well understood. As somatic activating mutations of GNAS are considered to be characteristic of LAMNs while TP53 mutations have been shown to be specific to MACs, MACs are unlikely to result from transformation of LAMNs. However, emerging evidence also shows the presence of GNAS mutations in MACs. We examined 16 AMTs (11 LAMNs and 5 MACs) for genetic alterations of GNAS, KRAS, BRAF, TP53, CTNNB1, and TERT promoter in order to elucidate the possibility of a shared genetic background in the two tumor types. Extensive histological examination revealed the presence of a low-grade component in all cases of MAC. GNAS mutations were detected in two LAMNs and in one MAC, although the GNAS mutation in this MAC was a nonsense mutation (Q227X) expected not to be activating mutation. TP53 mutations were detected in three LAMNs; they were frequently detected in MACs. KRAS mutations were detected in three LAMNs and three MACs, and CTNNB1 mutations were detected in two LAMNs. KRAS mutation and activating mutation of GNAS occurred exclusively in AMTs. BRAF and TERT mutations were not detected. Overexpression of p53 was observed in only two MACs, and p53 immunostaining clearly discriminated the high-grade lesion from a low-grade component in one. These findings suggest that p53 overexpression plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of AMTs and that, in addition to mutations of GNAS, KRAS and TP53 alterations might be shared by AMTs, thus providing evidence for the possible progression of LAMNs to MAC.

  13. CYP1B1 polymorphisms and k-ras mutations in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Crous-Bou, Marta; De Vivo, Immaculata; Porta, Miquel; Pumarega, José A; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Joan; Morales, Eva; Malats, Núria; Rifà, Juli; Hunter, David J; Real, Francisco X

    2008-05-01

    The frequency of CYP1B1 polymorphisms in pancreatic cancer has never been reported. There is also no evidence on the relationship between CYP1B1 variants and mutations in ras genes (K-, H- or N-ras) in any human neoplasm. We analyzed the following CYP1B1 polymorphisms in 129 incident cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA): the m1 allele (Val to Leu at codon 432) and the m2 allele (Asn to Ser at codon 453). The calculated frequencies for the m1 Val and m2 Asn alleles were 0.45 and 0.68, respectively. CYP1B1 genotypes were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; this was largely due to K-ras mutated PDA cases. The Val/Val genotype was over five times more frequent in PDA cases with a K-ras mutation than in wild-type cases (OR = 5.25; P = 0.121). In PDA, polymorphisms in CYP1B1 might be related with K-ras activation pathways.

  14. EGF-Induced Acetylation of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins Is Dependent on KRAS Mutational Status in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Roda, Desamparados; Castillo, Josefa; Telechea-Fernández, Marcelino; Gil, Anabel; López-Rodas, Gerardo; Franco, Luís; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Roselló, Susana; Pérez-Fidalgo, J Alejandro; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Cervantes, Andrés; Zaragozá, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    KRAS mutational status is considered a negative predictive marker of the response to anti-EGFR therapies in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, conflicting data exist regarding the variable response to EGFR-targeted therapy. The effects of oncogenic KRAS on downstream targets were studied in cell lines with different KRAS mutations. Cells harboring a single KRASG13D allele showed the most tumorigenic profile, with constitutive activation of the downstream pathway, rendering them EGF-unresponsive. Conversely, KRASA146T cells showed a full EGF-response in terms of signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, migration or adhesion. Moreover, the global acetylome of CRC cells was also dependent on KRAS mutational status. Several hnRNP family members were identified within the 36 acetylated-proteins. Acetylation status is known to be involved in the modulation of EGF-response. In agreement with results presented herein, hnRNPA1 and L acetylation was induced in response to EGF in KRASA146T cells, whereas acetyl-hnRNPA1 and L levels remained unchanged after growth factor treatment in KRASG13D unresponsive cells. Our results showed that hnRNPs induced-acetylation is dependent on KRAS mutational status. Nevertheless hnRNPs acetylation might also be the point where different oncogenic pathways converge.

  15. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of colorectal cancer with specific mutations in KRAS and APC.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, Janneke G F; de Bruijn-Geraets, Daisy; Schouten, Leo J; van Engeland, Manon; de Kok, Theo M C M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2014-05-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is present in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. Epidemiological studies have not shown a clear association between acrylamide intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. This may be due to the molecular heterogeneity in colorectal tumors, which was not taken into consideration before. Since the acrylamide metabolite glycidamide induces specific DNA mutations in rodents, we investigated whether acrylamide is associated with CRC risk characterized by mutations in Kirsten-ras (KRAS) and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC); key genes in colorectal carcinogenesis. This case-cohort analysis, within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, was based on 7.3 years of follow-up. Acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Mutation analysis of codons 1286-1520 in exon 15 in APC and codons 12 and 13 in exon 1 in KRAS was performed on tumor tissue of 733 cases. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Among men, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of particularly tumors with an activating KRAS mutation {HR fourth versus first quartile: 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-3.87], P trend: 0.01}. Among women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly associated with a decreased risk of particularly tumors with a truncating APC mutation (fourth versus first quartile: 0.47 (95% CI: 0.23-0.94), P trend: 0.02), but only in the highest quartile of intake. This is the first study to show that acrylamide might be associated with CRC with specific somatic mutations, differentially in men and women. More research is needed to corroborate or refute these findings.

  16. Lin28-let7 Modulates Radiosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells With Activation of K-Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jee-Sun.; Kim, Jae-Jin; Byun, Ju-Yeon; Kim, In-Ah

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of targeting Lin28-let7 microRNA regulatory network for overcoming the radioresistance of cancer cells having activated K-Ras signaling. Methods and Materials: A549 lung carcinoma cells and ASPC1 pancreatic cancer cells possessing K-RAS mutation were transfected with pre-let7a microRNA or Lin28 siRNA, respectively. Clonogenic assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western analysis were performed. The effects of Lin28 on SQ20B cells having wild-type K-RAS, and a normal fibroblast were also assessed. Results: The overexpression of let-7a decreased expression of K-Ras and radiosensitized A549 cells. Inhibition of Lin28, a repressor of let-7, attenuated K-Ras expression and radiosensitized A549 and ASPC1 cells. Neither SQ20B cells expressing wild-type K-RAS nor HDF, the normal human fibroblasts, were radiosensitized by this approach. Conclusions: The Lin28-let7 regulatory network may be a potentially useful therapeutic target for overcoming the radioresistance of human cancers having activated K-Ras signaling.

  17. KRAS Mutation as a Potential Prognostic Biomarker of Biliary Tract Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Masaaki; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Kouki; Matsushima, Satsuki; Ohkura, Yasuo; Furuse, Junji; Watanabe, Takashi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to identify the unique molecular characteristics of biliary tract cancer (BTC) for the development of novel molecular-targeted therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed mutational analysis of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and FBXW7 and immunohistochemical analysis of EGFR and TP53 in 63 Japanese patients with BTC and retrospectively evaluated the association between the molecular characteristics and clinicopathological features of BTC. RESULTS KRAS mutations were identified in 9 (14%) of the 63 BTC patients; no mutations were detected within the analyzed regions of BRAF, PIK3CA, and FBXW7. EGFR overexpression was observed in 5 (8%) of the 63 tumors, while TP53 overexpression was observed in 48% (30/63) of the patients. Overall survival of patients with KRAS mutation was significantly shorter than that of patients with the wild-type KRAS gene (P = 0.005). By multivariate analysis incorporating molecular and clinicopathological features, KRAS mutations and lymph node metastasis were identified to be independently associated with shorter overall survival (KRAS, P = 0.004; lymph node metastasis, P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that KRAS mutation is a poor prognosis predictive biomarker for the survival in BTC patients. PMID:28008299

  18. KRAS and PIK3CA mutations in colorectal adenocarcinomas correlate with aggressive histological features and behavior.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sejin; Hong, Mineui; Shin, Mi Kyung; Kim, Byung Chun; Shin, Hyung-Sik; Yu, Eunsil; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Jihun; Chun, Sung Min; Kim, Tae-Im; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Ko, Young Woong; Kim, Jeong Won

    2017-02-08

    Tumor budding (TB) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and has been recently characterized as an indicator of poor prognosis along with lymphovascular tumor emboli (LVE), perineural invasion (PNI), and an infiltrative growth pattern. Mutations in the genes of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways are associated with EMT and an aggressive CRC phenotype and have been used in patient stratification for anti-EGF receptor therapies; however, the impact of these mutations on CRC morphology and behavior remains unclear. In this study, using a multi-gene panel, we detected KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, and POLE mutations in 90 CRCs and investigated their associations with clinicopathological parameters, including TB. Our results showed that 21 of 34 tumors with high-grade TB had KRAS mutations (P=.001) and KRAS G12D and PIK3CA exon 9 variants were significantly associated with high-grade TB (P=.002 and .006, respectively); furthermore, tumors with KRAS mutations in exons 3 and 4 tended to have LVE and PNI (P=.044 and .049, respectively). PIK3CA exon 9 mutations indicated a tendency for shorter disease-free survival (P=.030), whereas BRAF mutations were associated with extracellular mucin deposition (P=.016). Our study revealed a correlation of KRAS mutations with high-grade TB, an association of certain KRAS and PIK3CA variants with aggressive clinicopathological features, as well as a possible relationship between BRAF mutations and mucin production in CRC.

  19. Prognostic role of KRAS mutations in Sardinian patients with colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Grazia; Cossu, Antonio; Paliogiannis, Panagiotis; Pazzola, Antonio; Baldino, Giovanni; Scartozzi, Mario; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Ortu, Salvatore; Capelli, Francesca; Lanzillo, Annamaria; Sedda, Tito; Sanna, Giovanni; Barca, Michela; Virdis, Luciano; Budroni, Mario; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The presence of mutations in the KRAS gene is a predictor of a poor clinical response to EGFR-targeted agents in patients affected by colorectal cancer (CRC), but its significance as a global prognostic factor remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the KRAS mutational status on time to first metastasis (TTM) and overall survival (OS) in a cohort of Sardinian CRC patients. A total of 551 patients with metastatic CRC at the time of enrolment were included. Clinical and pathological features of the disease, including follow-up information, were obtained from medical records and cancer registry data. For mutational analysis formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were processed using a standard protocol. The coding sequence and splice junctions of exons 2 and 3 of the KRAS gene were screened for mutations by direct automated sequencing. Overall, 186 KRAS mutations were detected in 183/551 (33%) patients: 125 (67%) were located in codon 12, 36 (19%) in codon 13, and 18 (10%) in codon 61. The remaining mutations (7; 4%) were detected in uncommonly-affected codons. No significant correlation between KRAS mutations and gender, age, anatomical location and stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis was identified. Furthermore, no prognostic value of KRAS mutations was found considering either TTM or OS. When patients were stratified by KRAS mutational status and gender, males were significantly associated with a longer TTM. The results of the present study indicate that KRAS mutation correlated with a slower metastatic progression in males with CRC from Sardinia, irrespective of the age at diagnosis and the codon of the mutation. PMID:27446446

  20. EGFR and KRAS mutations in Turkish non-small cell lung cancer patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bircan, Sema; Baloglu, Huseyin; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Bircan, Ahmet

    2014-08-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutation profile in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) shows wide variations due to geographic and ethnic background. We aimed to determine the frequency and types of EGFR and KRAS mutations in a sample group of Turkish NSCLC cases. The study included 14 adenocarcinomas (ACs), 11 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients selected from archival material including small biopsy or surgical specimens. Their formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues were used for genomic DNA extraction for EGFR exon 19 and 21, and KRAS exon 2 mutations. Eleven NSCLCs (44 %) had EGFR mutations. Exon 19 and 21 mutations were found in 8 (32 %) and 5 (20 %) cases. Two cases showed double EGFR mutations. In ACs, 5 (35.7 %) patients had EGFR gene mutation, 3 in exon 19 and 3 in exon 21. In SCCs, 6 (54.5 %) cases had EGFR mutation, 5 in exon 19 and 2 in exon 21. All exon 19 mutations were deletion-type mutations. For exon 21, 3 cases had L858R point mutation (CTG>CGG) and two cases showed deletion-type mutations. Six (24 %) NSCLCs showed KRAS mutations (three ACC, three SCC), 5 codon 12 mutations (G>T, T>C, G>A) and one codon 13 mutation (G>T). Three NSCLC cases showed both EGFR and KRAS mutations together. The profile of KRAS mutation in our AC cases was quite similar to those seen in the Western countries; however, frequency and clustering of EGFR mutations were similar to those seen in the Eastern countries.

  1. KRAS mutational status as a predictor of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor efficacy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Roy D; Gansert, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have demonstrated promising potential in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. However, a proportion of patients do not respond to therapy with EGFR inhibitors, and therefore, there has been interest in identifying those patients most likely to benefit from therapy with these agents. KRAS, a member of the RAS family of signaling proteins, plays an important role in EGFR-mediated regulation of cellular proliferation and survival. Although there is still some debate regarding the prognostic importance of KRAS mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, several recent phase 2 and 3 studies have identified the presence of mutations at codons 12 and 13 of KRAS as predictors of poor response to the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies panitumumab and cetuximab. Patients with wild-type KRAS were found to have significantly better progression-free survival, overall survival, and/or objective response rate compared with patients harboring KRAS mutations. As a result, there has been growing interest in the development of KRAS mutational status as a biomarker for predicting patient response to EGFR-targeted therapy. Screening colorectal tumors for the absence of KRAS mutations may help identify patients most likely to benefit from anti-EGFR therapies.

  2. Association between coffee drinking and K-ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer. PANKRAS II Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Porta, M.; Malats, N.; Guarner, L.; Carrato, A.; Rifa, J.; Salas, A.; Corominas, J. M.; Andreu, M.; Real, F. X.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relation between coffee consumption and mutations in the K-ras gene in exocrine pancreatic cancer. DESIGN: Case- case study. Consumption of coffee among cases with the activating mutation in the K-ras gene was compared with that of cases without the mutation. SETTING AND PATIENTS: All cases of pancreatic cancer newly diagnosed at five hospitals in Spain during three years were included in the PANKRAS II Study (n = 185, of whom 121 whose tissue was available for molecular analysis are the object of the present report). Over 88% were personally interviewed in hospital. DNA was amplified from paraffin wax embedded tissues, and mutations in codon 12 of K-ras were detected by the artificial RFLP technique. MAIN RESULTS: Mutations were found in tumours from 94 of 121 patients (77.7%). Mutations were more common among regular coffee drinkers than among non-regular coffee drinkers (82.0% v 55.6%, p = 0.018, n = 107). The odds ratio adjusted by age, sex, smoking and alcohol drinking was 5.41 (95% CI 1.64, 17.78). The weekly intake of coffee was significantly higher among patients with a mutated tumour (mean of 14.5 cups/week v 8.8 among patients with a wild type tumour, p < 0.05). With respect to non- regular coffee drinkers, the odds ratio of a mutated tumour adjusted by age, sex, smoking and alcohol drinking was 3.26 for drinkers of 2-7 cups/week, 5.77 for drinkers of 8-14 cups/week and 9.99 for drinkers of > or = 15 cups/week (p < 0.01, test for trend). CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic cancer cases without activating mutations in the K-ras gene had drank significantly less coffee than cases with a mutation, with a significant dose response relation: the less they drank, the less likely their tumours were to harbour a mutation. In exocrine pancreatic cancer the K-ras gene may be activated less often among non-regular coffee drinkers than among regular drinkers. Caffeine, other coffee compounds or other factors with which coffee drinking is

  3. KRAS Mutations Testing in Colorectal Carcinoma Patients in Italy: From Guidelines to External Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Normanno, Nicola; Pinto, Carmine; Castiglione, Francesca; Bardelli, Alberto; Gambacorta, Marcello; Botti, Gerardo; Nappi, Oscar; Siena, Salvatore; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Taddei, GianLuigi; Marchetti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background Monoclonal antibodies directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) that do not carry KRAS mutations. Therefore, KRAS testing has become mandatory to chose the most appropriate therapy for these patients. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to guarantee the possibility for mCRC patients to receive an high quality KRAS testing in every Italian region, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) and the Italian Society of Pathology and Cytopathology -Italian division of the International Academy of Pathology (SIAPEC-IAP) started a program to improve KRAS testing. AIOM and SIAPEC identified a large panel of Italian medical oncologists, pathologists and molecular biologists that outlined guidelines for KRAS testing in mCRC patients. These guidelines include specific information on the target patient population, the biological material for molecular analysis, the extraction of DNA, and the methods for the mutational analysis that are summarized in this paper. Following the publication of the guidelines, the scientific societies started an external quality assessment scheme for KRAS testing. Five CRC specimens with known KRAS mutation status were sent to the 59 centers that participated to the program. The samples were validated by three referral laboratories. The participating laboratories were allowed to use their own preferred method for DNA extraction and mutational analysis and were asked to report the results within 4 weeks. The limit to pass the quality assessment was set at 100% of true responses. In the first round, only two centers did not pass (3%). The two centers were offered to participate to a second round and both centers failed again to pass. Conclusions The results of this first Italian quality assessment for KRAS testing suggest that KRAS mutational analysis is performed with good quality in the majority of Italian centers

  4. The value of KRAS mutation testing with CEA for the diagnosis of pancreatic mucinous cysts

    PubMed Central

    Kadayifci, Abdurrahman; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Atar, Mustafa; Dewitt, John M.; Forcione, David G.; Sherman, Stuart; Casey, Brenna W.; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Schmidt, C. Max; Pitman, Martha B.; Brugge, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF) CEA has been shown to be the most accurate preoperative test for detection of cystic mucinous neoplasms (CMNs). This study aimed to assess the added value of PCF KRAS mutational analysis to CEA for diagnosis of CMNs. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) fine-needle aspiration (FNA) data. KRAS mutation was determined by direct sequencing or equivalent methods. Cysts were classified histologically (surgical cohort) or by clinical (EUS or FNA) findings (clinical cohort). Performance characteristics of KRAS, CEA and their combination for detection of a cystic mucinous neoplasm (CMN) and malignancy were calculated. Results: The study cohort consisted of 943 patients: 147 in the surgical cohort and 796 in the clinical cohort. Overall, KRAS and CEA each had high specificity (100 % and 93.2 %), but low sensitivity (48.3 % and 56.3 %) for the diagnosis of a CMN. The positivity of KRAS or CEA increased the diagnostic accuracy (80.8 %) and AUC (0.84) significantly compared to KRAS (65.3 % and 0.74) or CEA (65.8 % and 0.74) alone, but only in the clinical cohort (P < 0.0001 for both). KRAS mutation was significantly more frequent in malignant CMNs compared to histologically confirmed non-malignant CMNs (73 % vs. 37 %, P = 0.001). The negative predictive value of KRAS mutation was 77.6 % in differentiating non-malignant cysts. Conclusions: The detection of a KRAS mutation in PCF is a highly specific test for mucinous cysts. It outperforms CEA for sensitivity in mucinous cyst diagnosis, but the data does not support its routine use. PMID:27092317

  5. Mutations of KRAS/NRAS/BRAF predict cetuximab resistance in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hung-Chih; Thiam, Tan Kien; Lu, Yen-Jung; Yeh, Chien Yuh; Tsai, Wen-Sy; You, Jeng Fu; Hung, Hsin Yuan; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Hsu, An; Chen, Hua-Chien; Chen, Shu-Jen; Yang, Tsai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 45% of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with wild-type KRAS exon 2 are resistant to cetuximab treatment. We set out to identify additional genetic markers that might predict the response to cetuximab treatment. Fifty-three wild-type KRAS exon 2 mCRC patients were treated with cetuximab/irinotecan-based chemotherapy as a first- or third-line therapy. The mutational statuses of 10 EGFR pathway genes were analyzed in primary tumors using next-generation sequencing. BRAF, PIK3CA, KRAS (exons 3 and 4), NRAS, PTEN, and AKT1 mutations were detected in 6, 6, 5, 4, 1, and 1 patient, respectively. Four of the BRAF mutations were non-V600 variants. Four tumors harbored multiple co-existing (complex) mutations. All patients with BRAF mutations or complex mutation patterns were cetuximab non-responders. All patients but one harboring KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF mutations were non-responders. Mutations in any one of these three genes were associated with a poor response rate (7.1%) and reduced survival (PFS = 8.0 months) compared to wild-type patients (74.4% and 11.6 months). Our data suggest that KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations predict response to cetuximab treatment in mCRC patients. PMID:26989027

  6. KRAS mutations: variable incidences in a Brazilian cohort of 8,234 metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background KRAS mutations are frequently found in colorectal cancer (CRC) indicating the importance of its genotyping in the study of the molecular mechanisms behind this disease. Although major advances have occurred over the past decade, there are still important gaps in our understanding of CRC carcinogenesis, particularly whether sex-linked factors play any role. Methods The profile of KRAS mutations in the Brazilian population was analyzed by conducting direct sequencing of KRAS codons 12 and 13 belonging to 8,234 metastatic CRC patient samples. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue, exon 1 was amplified by PCR and submitted to direct sequencing. The data obtained was analysed comparing different geographical regions, gender and age. Results The median age was 59 years and the overall percentage of wild-type and mutated KRAS was 62.8% and 31.9%, respectively. Interestingly, different percentages of mutated KRAS patients were observed between male and female patients (32.5% versus 34.8%, respectively; p = 0.03). KRAS Gly12Asp mutation was the most prevalent for both genders and for most regions, with the exception of the North where Gly12Val was the most frequent mutation found. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this is one of the largest cohorts of KRAS genotyping in CRC patients and the largest to indicate a higher incidence of KRAS mutation in females compared to males in Brazil. Nevertheless, further research is required to better address the impact of gender differences in colorectal cancer. PMID:24720724

  7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Is Not Associated with KRAS Mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Ali; van der Wekken, Anthonie J.; Kerner, Gerald S. M. A.; van den Berge, Maarten; Timens, Wim; Schuuring, Ed; ter Elst, Arja; van den Berg, Anke; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), as well as in the EGFR downstream target KRAS are frequently observed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an independent risk factor for developing NSCLC, is associated with an increased activation of EGFR. In this study we determined presence of EGFR and KRAS hotspot mutations in 325 consecutive NSCLC patients subjected to EGFR and KRAS mutation analysis in the diagnostic setting and for whom the pulmonary function has been determined at time of NSCLC diagnosis. Information about age at diagnosis, sex, smoking status, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) was collected. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) was defined according to 2013 GOLD criteria. Chi-Square, student t-test and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the data. A total of 325 NSCLC patients were included, 193 with COPD and 132 without COPD. COPD was not associated with presence of KRAS hotspot mutations, while EGFR mutations were significantly higher in non-COPD NSCLC patients. Both female gender (HR 2.61; 95% CI: 1.56–4.39; p<0.001) and smoking (HR 4.10; 95% CI: 1.14–14.79; p = 0.03) were associated with KRAS mutational status. In contrast, only smoking (HR 0.11; 95% CI: 0.04–0.32; p<0.001) was inversely associated with EGFR mutational status. Smoking related G>T and G>C transversions were significantly more frequent in females (86.2%) than in males (61.5%) (p = 0.008). The exon 19del mutation was more frequent in non-smokers (90%) compared to current or past smokers (36.8%). In conclusion, KRAS mutations are more common in females and smokers, but are not associated with COPD-status in NSCLC patients. EGFR mutations are more common in non-smoking NSCLC patients. PMID:27008036

  8. Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutation by Pyrosequencing Analysis in Cytologic Samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, So-Young; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Oh, Seo-Young; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Kye-Young; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2016-08-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutations are two of the most common mutations that are present in lung cancer. Screening and detecting these mutations are of issue these days, and many different methods and tissue samples are currently used to effectively detect these two mutations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations by pyrosequencing method, and compared the yield of cytology versus histology specimens in a consecutive series of patients with lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR and KRAS mutation results of 399 (patients with EGFR mutation test) and 323 patients (patients with KRAS mutation test) diagnosed with lung cancer in Konkuk University Medical Center from 2008 to 2014. Among them, 60 patients had received both EGFR and KRAS mutation studies. We compared the detection rate of EGFR and KRAS tests in cytology, biopsy, and resection specimens. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 29.8% and 8.7% of total patients, and the positive mutation results of EGFR and KRAS were mutually exclusive. The detection rate of EGFR mutation in cytology was higher than non-cytology (biopsy or resection) materials (cytology: 48.5%, non-cytology: 26.1%), and the detection rate of KRAS mutation in cytology specimens was comparable to non-cytology specimens (cytology: 8.3%, non-cytology: 8.7%). We suggest that cytology specimens are good alternatives that can readily substitute tissue samples for testing both EGFR and KRAS mutations. Moreover, pyrosequencing method is highly sensitive in detecting EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients.

  9. Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, David G.; Politi, Katerina; Bhutkar, Arjun; Chen, Frances K.; Song, Xiaoling; Pirun, Mono; Santiago, Philip M.; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Platt, James T.; Lee, Emily; Hodges, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Jacks, Tyler; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene. Tumors from EGFR- and Kras-driven models exhibited, respectively, 0.02 and 0.07 nonsynonymous mutations per megabase, a dramatically lower average mutational frequency than observed in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tumors from models driven by strong cancer drivers (mutant EGFR and Kras) harbored few mutations in known cancer genes, whereas tumors driven by MYC, a weaker initiating oncogene in the murine lung, acquired recurrent clonal oncogenic Kras mutations. In addition, although EGFR- and Kras-driven models both exhibited recurrent whole-chromosome DNA copy number alterations, the specific chromosomes altered by gain or loss were different in each model. These data demonstrate that GEMM tumors exhibit relatively simple somatic genotypes compared with human cancers of a similar type, making these autochthonous model systems useful for additive engineering approaches to assess the potential of novel mutations on tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug sensitivity. PMID:27702896

  10. Mutated KRAS Results in Overexpression of DUSP4, a MAP-Kinase Phosphatase, and SMYD3, a Histone Methyltransferase, in Rectal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Gaedcke, Jochen; Grade, Marian; Jung, Klaus; Camps, Jordi; Jo, Peter; Emons, Georg; Gehoff, Anastasia; Sax, Ulrich; Schirmer, Markus; Becker, Heinz; Beissbarth, Tim; Ried, Thomas; Ghadimi, B. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of the KRAS oncogene are predictive for resistance to treatment with antibodies against the epithelial growth factor receptor in patients with colorectal cancer. Overcoming this therapeutic dilemma could potentially be achieved by the introduction of drugs that inhibit signaling pathways that are activated by KRAS mutations. To identify comprehensively such signaling pathways we profiled pretreatment biopsies and normal mucosa from 65 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer - 30 of which carried mutated KRAS - using global gene expression microarrays. By comparing all tumor tissues exclusively to matched normal mucosa, we could improve assay sensitivity, and identified a total of 22,297 features that were differentially expressed (adjusted P-value <0.05) between normal mucosa and cancer, including several novel potential rectal cancer genes. We then used this comprehensive description of the rectal cancer transcriptome as the baseline for identifying KRAS-dependent alterations. The presence of activating KRAS mutations is significantly correlated to an upregulation of 13 genes (adjusted P-value <0.05), among them DUSP4, a MAP-kinase phosphatase, and SMYD3, a histone methyltransferase. Inhibition of the expression of both genes has previously been shown using the MEK1-inhibitor PD98059 and the antibacterial compound Novobiocin, respectively. These findings suggest a potential approach to overcome resistance to treatment with antibodies against the epithelial growth factor receptor in patients with KRAS-mutant rectal carcinomas. PMID:20725992

  11. Mutational analysis of HRAS and KRAS genes in oral carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Maemoto, Sachiko; Yumoto, Megumi; Ibata, Masato; Torizuka, Sho; Ozawa, Naohumi; Tatsumi, Shunsuke; Hashido, Moeko; Morikawa, Masako; Maeda, Genta; Imai, Kazushi

    2012-07-01

    RAS overexpression and its active mutations are involved in malignant tumorigenesis. However, the mutation rates in oral carcinoma cells differ between populations. In the present study, genomic DNA of oral carcinoma cells (HOC313, TSU, HSC2, HSC3, KOSC2, KOSC3, SCCKN, OSC19, Ca9.22, and Ho1u1 cells) or normal gingival fibroblasts (GF12 cells) derived from a Japanese population were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primer sets, spanning HRAS and KRAS exons. Nucleotide substitutions were analyzed by single strand conformation polymorphism. In contrast to no substitutions in KRAS, nine different substitutions were detected in HRAS. Of the nine, six substitutions were located at intron 1 (HSC2 and HSC3 cells) or intron 2 (HSC3, SCCKN and Ca9.22 cells), and one each of exon 1 (all cells), exon 2 (HOC313, TSU, HSC2 and HSC3 cells) and the 5' upstream region (all cells). Substitutions at exons 1 and 2 did not affect the amino acid sequence; the exon 1 substitution was positioned at the 5' untranslated region, which may be a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequence because all the cells were isolated from a Japanese population, and the mutations at exon 2 was a silent mutation. A substitution at the 5' upstream region was an SNP. These data demonstrate that SNPs and point mutations observed in HRAS do not change the amino acid sequence, and suggest that the mutations affecting the amino acid sequence may be a rare event in oral carcinomas of the Japanese population.

  12. Evaluation of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Haluk; Bulut, Ersan; Cengiz, Beyhan; Karakok, Metin; Erturhan, Sakip; Seckiner, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    A subset of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients has been shown to respond to anti-EGFR therapy. As KRAS and BRAF mutations are associated with poor response to anti-EGFR therapy in some cancers, it has been suggested that screening for KRAS and BRAF mutations in RCC may be a promising strategy to identify patients who might respond to EGFR-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation status of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF in RCC patients. Renal tumors and normal renal samples from forty-eight patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer were used in this study. Histological classification of the tumors was performed according to International Union against Cancer (UICC) / American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification. Seventeen patients (48%) had clear-cell RCC, 7 (20%) had chromophobe RCC, and 11 patients (32%) had papillary RCC. DNA isolated from the samples was subjected to melting curve mutation analysis for EGFR, BRAF and KRAS using ABI-3130 DNA sequencer. DNA sequencing analysis of RCC samples, when compared with morphologically normal matched regions, did not show any exon mutations. Our results do not support the notion that EGFR, KRAS and BRAF might be mutated in RCC.

  13. Prevalence of K-Ras mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma: A Turkish Oncology Group pilot study

    PubMed Central

    TURHAL, NAZIM SERDAR; SAVAŞ, BERNA; ÇOŞKUN, ÖZNUR; BAŞ, EMINE; KARABULUT, BÜLENT; NART, DENIZ; KORKMAZ, TANER; YAVUZER, DILEK; DEMIR, GÖKHAN; DOĞUSOY, GÜLEN; ARTAÇ, MEHMET

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common male-predominant type of cancer worldwide. There is no effective treatment regimen available for advanced-stage disease and chemotherapy is generally ineffective in these patients. The number of studies on the prevalence of K-Ras mutations in HCC patients is currently limited. A total of 58 patients from 6 comprehensive cancer centers in 4 metropolitan cities of Turkey were enrolled in this study. Each center committed to enroll approximately 10 random patients whose formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues were available for K-Ras, exon 2 genotyping. Two methods were applied based on the availability of adequate amounts of tumor DNA. In the first method, the samples were processed using TheraScreen. The genomic DNA was further used to detect the 7 most frequent somatic mutations (35G>A; 35G>C; 35G>T; 34G>A; 34G>C; 34G>T and 38G>A) in codons 12 and 13 in exon 2 of the K-Ras oncogene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the second method, the genomic DNA was amplified by PCR using primers specific for K-Ras exon 2 with the GML SeqFinder Sequencing System's KRAS kit. The identified DNA sequence alterations were confirmed by sequencing both DNA strands in two independent experiments with forward and reverse primers. A total of 40 samples had adequate tumor tissue for the mutation analysis. A total of 33 (82.5%) of the investigated samples harbored no mutations in exon 2. All the mutations were identified via a direct sequencing technique, whereas none were identified by TheraScreen. In conclusion, in our patients, HCC exhibited a remarkably low (<20%) K-Ras mutation rate. Patients harboring K-Ras wild-type tumors may be good candidates for treatment with epidermal growth factor inhibitors, such as cetuximab. PMID:26807232

  14. K-Ras gene mutation status as a prognostic and predictive factor in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Stec, Rafał; Bodnar, Lubomir; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Korniluk, Jan; Rokita, Marta; Smoter, Marta; Ciechowicz, Marzena; Chyczewski, Lech; Nikliński, Jacek; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Szczylik, Cezary

    2012-01-01

    Background: CRC caused more than 600,000 estimated deaths in 2008. Dysregulated signaling through the RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway due to mutations in K-Ras and B-Raf are common events in CRC. Methods: Incidence of mutations in codons 12 and 13 of K-Ras and exons 11 and 15 of B-Raf were analyzed in amplified PCR products from primary tumors of 273 patients with CRC, and their prognostic and predictive significance was assessed. The prognostic role of clinical and pathological factors was also examined. Results: K-Ras mutations were present in 89 patients (32.6%), of whom 76 (85.4%) had mutations in codon 12 and 10 (11.2%) had mutations in codon 13. B-Raf gene mutations were present in 17 patients (6.9%), of whom 6 (35.3%) had mutations in exon 15. Multivariate analysis revealed a predictive significance for K-Ras mutations with respect to time to progression in patients treated with irinotecan and oxaliplatin as first-line chemotherapy. There was no predictive significance for B-Raf gene mutation status in these patients. The following risk factors were found to affect overall survival (OS) rates: primary tumor location, lymph node involvement grade, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level before treatment, and performance status according to WHO criteria. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, K-Ras mutation status may be a suitable indicator of patient eligibility and a prognostic indicator for responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapy alone, or in combination with chemotherapy. Also, K-Ras mutation status may predict time to progression in patients treated with irinotecan and oxaliplatin. PMID:22909976

  15. A comparison of four methods for detecting KRAS mutations in formalin-fixed specimens from metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    MATSUNAGA, MOTOTSUGU; KANETA, TOSHIKADO; MIWA, KEISUKE; ICHIKAWA, WATARU; FUJITA, KEN-ICHI; NAGASHIMA, FUMIO; FURUSE, JUNJI; KAGE, MASAYOSHI; AKAGI, YOSHITO; SASAKI, YASUTSUNA

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no standard method for the detection of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation status in colorectal tumors. In the present study, we compared the KRAS mutation detection ability of four methods: direct sequencing, Scorpion-ARMS assaying, pyrosequencing and multi-analyte profiling (Luminex xMAP). We evaluated 73 cases of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) resistant to irinotecan, oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine that were enrolled in an all-case study of cetuximab. The KRAS mutation detection capacity of the four analytical methods was compared using DNA samples extracted from tumor tissue, and the detection success rate and concordance of the detection results were evaluated. KRAS mutations were detected by direct sequencing, Scorpion-ARMS assays, pyrosequencing and Luminex xMAP at success rates of 93.2%, 97.3%, 95.9% and 94.5%, respectively. The concordance rates of the detection results by Scorpion-ARMS, pyrosequencing and Luminex xMAP with those of direct sequencing were 0.897, 0.923 and 0.900 (κ statistics), respectively. The direct sequencing method could not determine KRAS mutation status in five DNA samples. Of these, Scorpion-ARMS, pyrosequencing and Luminex xMAP successfully detected three, two and one KRAS mutation statuses, respectively. Three cases demonstrated inconsistent results, whereby Luminex xMAP detected mutated KRAS in two samples while wild-type KRAS was detected by the other methods. In the remaining case, direct sequencing detected wild-type KRAS, which was identified as mutated KRAS by the other methods. In conclusion, we confirmed that Scorpion-ARMS, pyrosequencing and Luminex xMAP were equally reliable in detecting KRAS mutation status in mCRC. However, in rare cases, the KRAS status was differentially diagnosed using these methods. PMID:27347117

  16. A comparison of four methods for detecting KRAS mutations in formalin-fixed specimens from metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Mototsugu; Kaneta, Toshikado; Miwa, Keisuke; Ichikawa, Wataru; Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Nagashima, Fumio; Furuse, Junji; Kage, Masayoshi; Akagi, Yoshito; Sasaki, Yasutsuna

    2016-07-01

    There is currently no standard method for the detection of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation status in colorectal tumors. In the present study, we compared the KRAS mutation detection ability of four methods: direct sequencing, Scorpion-ARMS assaying, pyrosequencing and multi-analyte profiling (Luminex xMAP). We evaluated 73 cases of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) resistant to irinotecan, oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine that were enrolled in an all-case study of cetuximab. The KRAS mutation detection capacity of the four analytical methods was compared using DNA samples extracted from tumor tissue, and the detection success rate and concordance of the detection results were evaluated. KRAS mutations were detected by direct sequencing, Scorpion-ARMS assays, pyrosequencing and Luminex xMAP at success rates of 93.2%, 97.3%, 95.9% and 94.5%, respectively. The concordance rates of the detection results by Scorpion-ARMS, pyrosequencing and Luminex xMAP with those of direct sequencing were 0.897, 0.923 and 0.900 (κ statistics), respectively. The direct sequencing method could not determine KRAS mutation status in five DNA samples. Of these, Scorpion-ARMS, pyrosequencing and Luminex xMAP successfully detected three, two and one KRAS mutation statuses, respectively. Three cases demonstrated inconsistent results, whereby Luminex xMAP detected mutated KRAS in two samples while wild-type KRAS was detected by the other methods. In the remaining case, direct sequencing detected wild-type KRAS, which was identified as mutated KRAS by the other methods. In conclusion, we confirmed that Scorpion-ARMS, pyrosequencing and Luminex xMAP were equally reliable in detecting KRAS mutation status in mCRC. However, in rare cases, the KRAS status was differentially diagnosed using these methods.

  17. KRAS mutations in blood circulating cell-free DNA: a pancreatic cancer case-control

    PubMed Central

    Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Foll, Matthieu; Wozniak, Magdalena B.; Delhomme, Tiffany M.; Durand, Geoffroy; Chopard, Priscilia; Pertesi, Maroulio; Fabianova, Eleonora; Adamcakova, Zora; Holcatova, Ivana; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Vallee, Maxime P.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.; Byrnes, Graham B.; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2016-01-01

    The utility of KRAS mutations in plasma circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples as non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of pancreatic cancer has never been evaluated in a large case-control series. We applied a KRAS amplicon-based deep sequencing strategy combined with analytical pipeline specifically designed for the detection of low-abundance mutations to screen plasma samples of 437 pancreatic cancer cases, 141 chronic pancreatitis subjects, and 394 healthy controls. We detected mutations in 21.1% (N=92) of cases, of whom 82 (89.1%) carried at least one mutation at hotspot codons 12, 13 or 61, with mutant allelic fractions from 0.08% to 79%. Advanced stages were associated with an increased proportion of detection, with KRAS cfDNA mutations detected in 10.3%, 17,5% and 33.3% of cases with local, regional and systemic stages, respectively. We also detected KRAS cfDNA mutations in 3.7% (N=14) of healthy controls and in 4.3% (N=6) of subjects with chronic pancreatitis, but at significantly lower allelic fractions than in cases. Combining cfDNA KRAS mutations and CA19-9 plasma levels on a limited set of case-control samples did not improve the overall performance of the biomarkers as compared to CA19-9 alone. Whether the limited sensitivity and specificity observed in our series of KRAS mutations in plasma cfDNA as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer detection are attributable to methodological limitations or to the biology of cfDNA should be further assessed in large case-control series. PMID:27705932

  18. Optimized Multiplex Detection of 7 KRAS Mutations by Taqman Allele-Specific qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Andrea; Rieber, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the KRAS mutational status of tumor samples is essential to manage patients with colorectal or lung cancer, since these mutations preclude treatment with monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies. We report an inexpensive, rapid multiplex allele-specific qPCR method detecting the 7 most clinically relevant KRAS somatic mutations with concomitant amplification of non-mutated KRAS in tumor cells and tissues from CRC patients. Positive samples evidenced in the multiplex assay were further subjected to individual allele-specific analysis, to define the specific mutation. Reference human cancer DNA harbouring either G12A, G12C, G12D, G12R, G12S, G12V and G13D confirmed assay specificity with ≤1% sensitivity of mutant alleles. KRAS multiplex mutation analysis usefulness was also demonstrated with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) from CRC biopsies. Conclusion. Co-amplification of non-mutated DNA avoided false negatives from degraded samples. Moreover, this cost effective assay is compatible with mutation detection by DNA sequencing in FFPE tissues, but with a greater sensitivity when mutant DNA concentrations are limiting. PMID:27632281

  19. Multiple KRAS mutations in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: molecular features of neoplastic clones indicate the selection of divergent populations of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Visani, Michela; de Biase, Dario; Baccarini, Paola; Fabbri, Carlo; Polifemo, Anna Maria; Zanini, Nicola; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    KRAS is one of the most common genes mutated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Multiple KRAS mutations may be detected within the same pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but it is usually unclear whether the different mutations represent biologically irrelevant molecular events or whether they indicate the coexistence of distinct sizable neoplastic clones within a given tumor. We identified a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with 5 different mutations in the KRAS gene and have been able to characterize the allelic distribution of the KRAS mutations and the size of the neoplastic clones using allele-specific locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior). The results indicate that the tumor is composed of 5 distinct cell populations: one is KRAS G12V mutated (~38% of neoplastic cells), the second is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12D in the other (~32%), the third is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12R in the other (~24%), and the fourth is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12C in the other (~6%). The fifth clone, representing a minority of neoplastic cells, has a KRAS Q61H mutation in addition to one of the above alterations. Microsatellite analysis identified mutation of the NR21 marker out of the 13 tested, indicating that the tumor has a defect in maintaining DNA integrity different from loss of conventional DNA mismatch repair. These results are consistent with the successive selection of divergent populations of tumor cells and underscore the relevance of nucleotide instability in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  20. Inhibition of HSP90 by AUY922 Preferentially Kills Mutant KRAS Colon Cancer Cells by Activating Bim through ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Yan; Guo, Su Tang; Wang, Jia Yu; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yuan Yuan; Yari, Hamed; Yan, Xu Guang; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Xu Dong; Jiang, Chen Chen

    2016-03-01

    Oncogenic mutations of KRAS pose a great challenge in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Here we report that mutant KRAS colon cancer cells are nevertheless more susceptible to apoptosis induced by the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 than those carrying wild-type KRAS. Although AUY922 inhibited HSP90 activity with comparable potency in colon cancer cells irrespective of their KRAS mutational statuses, those with mutant KRAS were markedly more sensitive to AUY922-induced apoptosis. This was associated with upregulation of the BH3-only proteins Bim, Bik, and PUMA. However, only Bim appeared essential, in that knockdown of Bim abolished, whereas knockdown of Bik or PUMA only moderately attenuated apoptosis induced by AUY922. Mechanistic investigations revealed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was responsible for AUY922-induced upregulation of Bim, which was inhibited by a chemical chaperone or overexpression of GRP78. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of GRP78 or XBP-1 enhanced AUY922-induced apoptosis. Remarkably, AUY922 inhibited the growth of mutant KRAS colon cancer xenografts through activation of Bim that was similarly associated with ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that AUY922 is a promising drug in the treatment of mutant KRAS colon cancers, and the agents that enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of Bim may be useful to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  1. KRAS driven expression signature has prognostic power superior to mutation status in non‐small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Ádám; Pongor, Lőrinc Sándor; Szabó, András; Santarpia, Mariacarmela

    2016-01-01

    KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic role of KRAS mutation status in NSCLC still remains controversial. We hypothesize that the expression changes of genes affected by KRAS mutation status will have the most prominent effect and could be used as a prognostic signature in lung cancer. We divided NSCLC patients with mutation and RNA‐seq data into KRAS mutated and wild type groups. Mann‐Whitney test was used to identify genes showing altered expression between these cohorts. Mean expression of the top five genes was designated as a “transcriptomic fingerprint” of the mutation. We evaluated the effect of this signature on clinical outcome in 2,437 NSCLC patients using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Mutation of KRAS was most common in adenocarcinoma. Mutation status and KRAS expression were not correlated to prognosis. The transcriptomic fingerprint of KRAS include FOXRED2, KRAS, TOP1, PEX3 and ABL2. The KRAS signature had a high prognostic power. Similar results were achieved when using the second and third set of strongest genes. Moreover, all cutoff values delivered significant prognostic power (p < 0.01). The KRAS signature also remained significant (p < 0.01) in a multivariate analysis including age, gender, smoking history and tumor stage. We generated a “surrogate signature” of KRAS mutation status in NSCLC patients by computationally linking genotype and gene expression. We show that secondary effects of a mutation can have a higher prognostic relevance than the primary genetic alteration itself. PMID:27859136

  2. A combined oncogenic pathway signature of BRAF, KRAS and PI3KCA mutation improves colorectal cancer classification and cetuximab treatment prediction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sun; Simon, Iris; Moreno, Victor; Roepman, Paul; Tabernero, Josep; Snel, Mireille; van't Veer, Laura; Salazar, Ramon; Bernards, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop gene expression profiles that characterise KRAS-, BRAF- or PIK3CA-activated- tumours, and to explore whether these profiles might be helpful in predicting the response to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway inhibitors better than mutation status alone. Design Fresh frozen tumour samples from 381 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were collected and mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA were assessed. Using microarray data, three individual oncogenic and a combined model were developed and validated in an independent set of 80 CRC patients, and in a dataset from metastatic CRC patients treated with cetuximab. Results 175 tumours (45.9%) harboured oncogenic mutations in KRAS (30.2%), BRAF (11.0%) and PIK3CA (11.5%). Activating mutation signatures for KRAS (75 genes), for BRAF (58 genes,) and for PIK3CA (49 genes) were developed. The development of a combined oncogenic pathway signature-classified tumours as ‘activated oncogenic’, or as ‘wildtype-like’ with a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 61.7%. The identified signature revealed other mechanisms that can activate ERK/MAPK pathway in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA wildtype patients. The combined signature is associated with response to cetuximab treatment in patients with metastatic CRC (HR 2.51, p<0.0009). Conclusion A combined oncogenic pathway signature allows the identification of patients with an active EGFR-signalling pathway that could benefit from downstream pathway inhibition. PMID:22798500

  3. Multi-Center Evaluation of the Fully Automated PCR-Based Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Assay for Rapid KRAS Mutation Status Determination on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue of Human Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Solassol, Jérôme; Vendrell, Julie; Märkl, Bruno; Haas, Christian; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Montagut, Clara; Smith, Matthew; O’Sullivan, Brendan; D’Haene, Nicky; Le Mercier, Marie; Grauslund, Morten; Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Burt, Emma; Cotter, Finbarr; Stieber, Daniel; Schmitt, Fernando de Lander; Motta, Valentina; Lauricella, Calogero; Colling, Richard; Soilleux, Elizabeth; Fassan, Matteo; Mescoli, Claudia; Collin, Christine; Pagès, Jean-Christophe; Sillekens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in colorectal cancer therapy, the determination of RAS mutational status is needed for therapeutic decision-making. Most prevalent in colorectal cancer are KRAS exon 2 mutations (40% prevalence); lower prevalence is observed for KRAS exon 3 and 4 mutations (6%) and NRAS exon 2, 3, and 4 mutations (5%). The Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Test on the molecular diagnostics Idylla™ platform is a simple (<2 minutes hands-on time), highly reliable, and rapid (approximately 2 hours turnaround time) in vitro diagnostic sample-to-result solution. This test enables qualitative detection of 21 mutations in codons 12, 13, 59, 61, 117, and 146 of the KRAS oncogene being clinically relevant according to the latest clinical guidelines. Here, the performance of the Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Assay, for Research Use Only, was assessed on archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections by comparing its results with the results previously obtained by routine reference approaches for KRAS genotyping. In case of discordance, samples were assessed further by additional methods. Among the 374 colorectal cancer FFPE samples tested, the overall concordance between the Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Assay and the confirmed reference routine test results was found to be 98.9%. The Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Assay enabled detection of 5 additional KRAS-mutated samples not detected previously with reference methods. As conclusion the Idylla™ KRAS Mutation Test can be applied as routine tool in any clinical setting, without needing molecular infrastructure or expertise, to guide the personalized treatment of colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27685259

  4. KRAS and TP53 mutations in bronchoscopy samples from former lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weimin; Jin, Jide; Yin, Jinling; Land, Stephanie; Gaither-Davis, Autumn; Christie, Neil; Luketich, James D; Siegfried, Jill M; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in the KRAS and TP53 genes have been found frequently in lung tumors and specimens from individuals at high risk for lung cancer and have been suggested as predictive markers for lung cancer. In order to assess the prognostic value of these two genes' mutations in lung cancer recurrence, we analyzed mutations in codon 12 of the KRAS gene and in hotspot codons of the TP53 gene in 176 bronchial biopsies obtained from 77 former lung cancer patients. Forty-seven patients (61.0%) showed mutations, including 35/77 (45.5%) in the KRAS gene and 25/77 (32.5%) in the TP53 gene, among them 13/77 (16.9%) had mutations in both genes. When grouped according to past or current smoking status, a higher proportion of current smokers showed mutations, in particular those in the TP53 gene (P = 0.07), compared with ex-smokers. These mutations were found in both abnormal lesions (8/20 or 40%) and histologically normal tissues (70/156 or 44.9%) (P = 0.812). They consisted primarily of G to A transition and G to T transversion in both the KRAS (41/56 or 73.2%) and TP53 (24/34 or 70.6%) genes, consistent with mutations found in lung tumors of smoking lung cancer patients. Overall, recurrence-free survival (RFS) among all subjects could be explained by age at diagnosis, tumor stage, tumor subtype, and smoking (P < 0.05, Cox proportional hazard). Therefore, KRAS and TP53 mutations were frequently detected in bronchial tissues of former lung cancer patients. However, the presence of mutation of bronchial biopsies was not significantly associated with a shorter RFS time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. K-ras mutations, rectal crypt cells proliferation, and meat consumption in patients with left-sided colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, H; Matthew, J A; Gee, J M; Watson, M; Rhodes, M; Speakman, C T; Stebbings, W S; Kennedy, H J; Johnson, I T

    2000-02-01

    It has been suggested that N-nitroso compounds derived from meat may increase the risk of K-ras mutations in the human colon. We sought evidence of associations between red meat consumption, frequency and type of K-ras mutations in resected tumours, and the rate of crypt cell proliferation (CCP) in the normal mucosa of patients with left-sided colorectal carcinoma. Meat consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and CCP was determined in rectal biopsies obtained prior to surgery. K-ras mutations in the resected tumours were determined using a PCR-based oligonucleotide hybridization assay. Fifteen K-ras mutations were detected in tumours from 43 patients; 13/15 in codon 12, 3/15 in codon 13, and 1/15 in both codons 12 and 13. All mutations were G-->A or G-->T transitions. There was no statistically significant difference between intakes of red meat in patients with a K-ras mutation (92.4 +/- 9.7 g/day) and those without (82.3 +/- 7.7 g/day). Rectal CCP was significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls, but there was no correlation with meat consumption or K-ras mutation. These data do not support the hypothesis that meat consumption is a risk factor for acquisition of K-ras mutations during colorectal carcinogenesis.

  6. Lung adenocarcinoma: Sustained subtyping with immunohistochemistry and EGFR, HER2 and KRAS mutational status.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vitor; Rodrigues, Carolina; Silva, Maria; Alarcão, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary adenocarcinomas are still in the process of achieving morphological, immunohistochemical and genetic standardization. The ATS/ERS/IASLC proposed classification for lung adenocarcinomas supports the value of the identification of histological patterns, specifically in biopsies. Thirty pulmonary adenocarcinomas were subjected to immunohistochemical study (CK7, CK5, 6, 18, CK20, TTF1, CD56, HER2, EGFR and Ki-67), FISH and PCR followed by sequencing and fragment analysis for EGFR, HER2 and KRAS. Solid pattern showed lower TTF1 and higher Ki-67 expression. TTF1 expression was higher in non-mucinous lepidic and micropapillary patterns when compared to acinar and solid and acinar, solid and mucinous respectively. Higher Ki67 expression was present in lepidic and solid patterns compared to mucinous. EGFR membranous staining had increasing expression from non-mucinous lepidic/BA pattern to solid pattern and micropapillary until acinar pattern. EGFR mutations, mainly in exon 19, were more frequent in females, together with non-smoking status, while KRAS exon 2 mutations were statistically more frequent in males, especially in solid pattern. FISH EGFR copy was correlated gross, with mutations. HER2 copy number was raised in female tumours without mutations, in all cases. Although EGFR and KRAS mutations are generally considered mutually exclusive, in rare cases they can coexist as it happened in one of this series, and was represented in acinar pattern with rates of 42.9% and 17.9%, respectively. EGFR mutations were more frequent in lepidic/BA and acinar patterns. Some cases showed different EGFR mutations. The differences identified between the adenocarcinoma patterns reinforce the need to carefully identify the patterns present, with implications in diagnosis and in pathogenic understanding. EGFR and KRAS mutational status can be determined in biopsies representing bronchial pulmonary carcinomas because when a mutation is present it is generally present in all the

  7. A novel mouse model of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma induced by liver-specific Kras activation and Pten deletion

    PubMed Central

    Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Terakado, Yumi; Nakagawa, Hayato; Hikiba, Yohko; Fujii, Tomoaki; Matsubara, Daisuke; Noguchi, Rei; Zhu, Chi; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Kudo, Yotaro; Asaoka, Yoshinari; Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Ijichi, Hideaki; Tateishi, Keisuke; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Maeda, Shin; Koike, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Recently, several types of cells have been considered as the origin of ICC, namely cholangiocytes, liver progenitor cells, and hepatocytes. Here, we have established a novel mouse model of ICC by liver-specific Kras activation and Pten deletion. An activating mutation of Kras in combination with deletion of Pten was introduced in embryonic hepatic bipotential progenitor cells (so-called hepatoblasts) and mature hepatocytes using the Cre-loxP system. As a result, liver-specific Kras activation and homozygous Pten deletion cooperated to induce ICCs exclusively. In contrast, Kras activation in combination with heterozygous Pten deletion induced both ICCs and HCCs, whereas Kras activation alone resulted in HCCs but not ICCs. Furthermore, a cell-lineage visualization system using tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP demonstrated that the ICCs did not originate from hepatocytes but from cholangiocytes. Our data suggest that mice carrying liver-specific Kras activation in combination with homozygous Pten deletion should be useful for the investigation of therapeutic strategies for human ICC. PMID:27032374

  8. Molecular pathological epidemiology of colorectal cancer in Chinese patients with KRAS and BRAF mutations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenbin; Qiu, Tian; Ling, Yun; Guo, Lei; Li, Lin; Ying, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of interactive effects of exogenous and endogenous factors and tumor molecular changes can lead to a better understanding of tumor molecular signatures in colorectal cancer. We here report a molecular pathological epidemiology study in a large cohort of 945 colorectal cancer patients. Mutations of KRAS (36.6%) and BRAF (3.46%) were nearly mutually exclusive. KRAS-mutated tumors were more common in female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68; P = 0.0001) and never smokers (OR = 1.60; P = 0.001). Whereas BRAF-mutated tumors demonstrated no discrepancy in aspects of gender and smoking status compared with wild-type tumors. In addition, tumors with BRAF or KRAS mutations were in correlation with elevated serum level of carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) and carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) and the combination of serum biomarkers and molecular mutation status may enhance the more precise risk stratification of CRC patients. Further studies are needed to define the mechanism brought about by the aforementioned epidemiologic and clinicopathologic characteristics that may help optimize cancer prevention and precision therapy. PMID:26530529

  9. KRAS G12V Mutation Detection by Droplet Digital PCR in Circulating Cell-Free DNA of Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas López, Susana; García-Olmo, Dolores C.; García-Arranz, Mariano; Guadalajara, Héctor; Pastor, Carlos; García-Olmo, Damián

    2016-01-01

    KRAS mutations are responsible for resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in colorectal cancer patients. These mutations sometimes appear once treatment has started. Detection of KRAS mutations in circulating cell-free DNA in plasma (“liquid biopsy”) by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has emerged as a very sensitive and promising alternative to serial biopsies for disease monitoring. In this study, KRAS G12V mutation was analyzed by ddPCR in plasma DNA from 10 colorectal cancer patients and compared to six healthy donors. The percentage of KRAS G12V mutation relative to wild-type sequences in tumor-derived DNA was also determined. KRAS G12V mutation circulating in plasma was detected in 9 of 10 colorectal cancer patients whose tumors were also mutated. Colorectal cancer patients had 35.62 copies of mutated KRAS/mL plasma, whereas in healthy controls only residual copies were found (0.62 copies/mL, p = 0.0066). Interestingly, patients with metastatic disease showed a significantly higher number of mutant copies than M0 patients (126.25 versus 9.37 copies/mL, p = 0.0286). Wild-type KRAS was also significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy controls (7718.8 versus 481.25 copies/mL, p = 0.0002). In conclusion, KRAS G12V mutation is detectable in plasma of colorectal cancer patients by ddPCR and could be used as a non-invasive biomarker. PMID:27043547

  10. KRAS and BRAF Mutations and PTEN Expression Do Not Predict Efficacy of Cetuximab-Based Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Erben, Philipp; Stroebel, Philipp; Horisberger, Karoline; Popa, Juliana; Bohn, Beatrice; Hanfstein, Benjamin; Kaehler, Georg; Kienle, Peter; Post, Stefan; Wenz, Frederik; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Mutations in KRAS and BRAF genes as well as the loss of expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (deleted on chromosome 10) are associated with impaired activity of antibodies directed against epidermal growth factor receptor in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The predictive and prognostic value of the KRAS and BRAF point mutations as well as PTEN expression in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with cetuximab-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is unknown. Methods and Materials: We have conducted phase I and II trials of the combination of weekly administration of cetuximab and irinotecan and daily doses of capecitabine in conjunction with radiotherapy (45 Gy plus 5.4 Gy) in patients with LARC (stage uT3/4 or uN+). The status of KRAS and BRAF mutations was determined with direct sequencing, and PTEN expression status was determined with immunohistochemistry testing of diagnostic tumor biopsies. Tumor regression was evaluated by using standardized regression grading, and disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 57 patients were available for analyses. A total of 31.6% of patients carried mutations in the KRAS genes. No BRAF mutations were found, while the loss of PTEN expression was observed in 9.6% of patients. Six patients achieved complete remission, and the 3-year DFS rate was 73%. No correlation was seen between tumor regression or DFS rate and a single marker or a combination of all markers. Conclusions: In the present series, no BRAF mutation was detected. The presence of KRAS mutations and loss of PTEN expression were not associated with impaired response to cetuximab-based chemoradiotherapy and 3-year DFS.

  11. K-ras genetic mutation and influencing factor analysis for Han and Uygur nationality colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Eli, Mayinur; Mollayup, Ablikim; Muattar; Liu, Chao; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the K-ras genetic mutation status in colorectal cancer patients, compare the difference of K-ras genetic mutation rate in Han and Uygur nationality and analyze the influencing factor. 91 cases (52 cases of Han nationality and 39 cases of Uygur nationality) of colorectal biopsy or surgical ablation pathology specimen from the first affiliated hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during January, 2010 to March, 2013 were collected to detect the 12th and 13th code mutation status of K-ras gene exon 2 with pyrosequencing method and compare the difference of K-ras gene mutation rate between Han and Uygur nationality patients. Single factor analysis and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were utilized to analyze the influencing factor for K-ras genetic mutation. 33 cases of patients with K-ras genetic mutation were found from the 91 cases colorectal cancer patients and the total mutation rate was 36.3%. Among them, 24 cases (72.7%) were found with mutation only in the 12th code, 9 cases (27.3%) were found with mutation only in the 13th code and no one case was found with mutation in both the two codes. Mutation rate of the 12th code in the Uygur nationality was significantly higher than that in the Han nationality (P<0.05), but there were no significant difference in the comparison of the total mutation rate and the 13th code mutation rate between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no associativity (P>0.05) between the K-ras genetic mutation and sex, age, smoking history, drinking history, tumor location, macropathology type, differentiation level, staging, invasive depth, lymph nodes transferring and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (P>0.05). K-ras genetic mutation rate is high in colorectal cancer patients. The mutation rate of 12th code in Uygur nationality is higher than that in Han nationality. There is no significant associativity between K-ras genetic mutation rate and patients’ clinical pathology characteristic. PMID:26309716

  12. K-ras genetic mutation and influencing factor analysis for Han and Uygur nationality colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Eli, Mayinur; Mollayup, Ablikim; Muattar; Liu, Chao; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the K-ras genetic mutation status in colorectal cancer patients, compare the difference of K-ras genetic mutation rate in Han and Uygur nationality and analyze the influencing factor. 91 cases (52 cases of Han nationality and 39 cases of Uygur nationality) of colorectal biopsy or surgical ablation pathology specimen from the first affiliated hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during January, 2010 to March, 2013 were collected to detect the 12th and 13th code mutation status of K-ras gene exon 2 with pyrosequencing method and compare the difference of K-ras gene mutation rate between Han and Uygur nationality patients. Single factor analysis and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were utilized to analyze the influencing factor for K-ras genetic mutation. 33 cases of patients with K-ras genetic mutation were found from the 91 cases colorectal cancer patients and the total mutation rate was 36.3%. Among them, 24 cases (72.7%) were found with mutation only in the 12th code, 9 cases (27.3%) were found with mutation only in the 13th code and no one case was found with mutation in both the two codes. Mutation rate of the 12th code in the Uygur nationality was significantly higher than that in the Han nationality (P<0.05), but there were no significant difference in the comparison of the total mutation rate and the 13th code mutation rate between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no associativity (P>0.05) between the K-ras genetic mutation and sex, age, smoking history, drinking history, tumor location, macropathology type, differentiation level, staging, invasive depth, lymph nodes transferring and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (P>0.05). K-ras genetic mutation rate is high in colorectal cancer patients. The mutation rate of 12th code in Uygur nationality is higher than that in Han nationality. There is no significant associativity between K-ras genetic mutation rate and patients' clinical pathology characteristic.

  13. Cytomorphologic features of advanced lung adenocarcinomas tested for EGFR and KRAS mutations: a retrospective review of 50 cases.

    PubMed

    Marotti, Jonathan D; Schwab, Mary C; McNulty, Nancy J; Rigas, James R; DeLong, Peter A; Memoli, Vincent A; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Padmanabhan, Vijayalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Associations between bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), mucinous differentiation, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations have been previously reported in studies of surgical specimens. We present the cytomorphology of lung adenocarcinomas, including metastases that were diagnosed by cytologic methods and the relationship to both EGFR and KRAS mutational status. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and cytomorphologic features of 50 lung adenocarcinomas that were tested for both EGFR and KRAS mutations. Cytomorphologic features evaluated included cell size, architectural pattern, nucleoli, intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions (INCI), mucin, necrosis, squamoid features, lymphocytic response, and histologic features of BAC differentiation. DNA was extracted from a paraffin-embedded cell block or frozen needle core fragments. Exon 19 deletions and the L858R mutation in exon 21 of EGFR were detected using PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis for fragment sizing. KRAS mutational analysis was performed by real-time PCR using a set of seven different Taqman(r) allelic discrimination assays to detect six mutations in codon 12 and one mutation in codon 13. Six cases (12%) showed EGFR mutations, 12 (24%) showed KRAS mutations, and 38 (62%) contained neither EGFR nor KRAS mutations. The majority of patients had stage IV disease (78%); 20 samples (40%) were from metastatic sites. The presence of prominent INCI (P = 0.036), papillary fragments (P = 0.041), and histologic features of BAC on paraffin block (P = 0.039) correlated with the presence of EGFR mutations. The presence of necrosis (P = 0.030), squamoid features (P = 0.048), and poorly differentiated tumors (P = 0.025) were more likely to be identified in the KRAS positive group.

  14. Conformational SERS Classification of K-Ras Point Mutations for Cancer Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Morla-Folch, Judit; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Masetti, Matteo; Garcia-Rico, Eduardo; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A; Guerrini, Luca

    2017-02-20

    Point mutations in Ras oncogenes are routinely screened for diagnostics and treatment of tumors (especially in colorectal cancer). Here, we develop an optical approach based on direct SERS coupled with chemometrics for the study of the specific conformations that single-point mutations impose on a relatively large fragment of the K-Ras gene (141 nucleobases). Results obtained offer the unambiguous classification of different mutations providing a potentially useful insight for diagnostics and treatment of cancer in a sensitive, fast, direct and inexpensive manner.

  15. Activated Kras and Ink4a/Arf deficiency cooperate to produce metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Andrew J.; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Sinha, Manisha; Lopez, Lyle; Tuveson, David A.; Horner, James; Redston, Mark S.; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2003-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ranks among the most lethal of human malignancies. Here, we assess the cooperative interactions of two signature mutations in mice engineered to sustain pancreas-specific Cre-mediated activation of a mutant Kras allele (KrasG12D) and deletion of a conditional Ink4a/Arf tumor suppressor allele. The phenotypic impact of KrasG12D alone was limited primarily to the development of focal premalignant ductal lesions, termed pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), whereas the sole inactivation of Ink4a/Arf failed to produce any neoplastic lesions in the pancreas. In combination, KrasG12D expression and Ink4a/Arf deficiency resulted in an earlier appearance of PanIN lesions and these neoplasms progressed rapidly to highly invasive and metastatic cancers, resulting in death in all cases by 11 weeks. The evolution of these tumors bears striking resemblance to the human disease, possessing a proliferative stromal component and ductal lesions with a propensity to advance to a poorly differentiated state. These findings in the mouse provide experimental support for the widely accepted model of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma in which activated KRAS serves to initiate PanIN lesions, and the INK4A/ARF tumor suppressors function to constrain the malignant conversion of these PanIN lesions into lethal ductal adenocarcinoma. This faithful mouse model may permit the systematic analysis of genetic lesions implicated in the human disease and serve as a platform for the identification of early disease markers and for the efficient testing of novel therapies. PMID:14681207

  16. Low somatic K-ras mutation frequency in colorectal cancer diagnosed under the age of 45 years.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Kathryn; Mead, Leeanne; Smith, Letitia D; Royce, Simon G; Tesoriero, Andrea A; Young, Joanne P; Haydon, Andrew; Grubb, Garry; Giles, Graham G; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C

    2006-07-01

    Somatic mutation of K-ras is known to be a common event in colorectal cancer tumourigenesis however its association with age at onset has not been widely explored. In this study, we have analyzed tumours from a population-based study of colorectal cancer diagnosed before the age of 45 years, in which cases had been previously screened for germ-line mismatch repair gene mutations and for microsatellite instability. We used a micro-dissection and sequencing approach to search for somatic K-ras mutations in codons 12, 13 and 61 in 101 early-onset colorectal cancers. Six (6%) somatic K-ras mutations were detected; five in codon 12 (4 G>T transitions and 1 G>A) and one in codon 13 (G>A transition). All codon 12 mutations were identified in microsatellite stable tumours and the codon 13 mutation was identified in a MSI-high tumour. Four cases with K-ras mutations had no reported family history of colorectal cancer and two had some family history of colorectal cancer. None were known to carry a germ-line mutation in hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6 or hPMS2. The role of somatic K-ras mutations in early-onset colorectal cancer carcinogenesis appears to be minor, in contrast to its significant role in colorectal cancer of later age of onset.

  17. Variation in KRAS driver substitution distributions between tumor types is determined by both mutation and natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, Sheli L.; Simon, Einav; Prinz, Elad; Bick, Tova; Shentzer, Talia; Nagawkar, Sima S.; Sabo, Edmond; Ben-Izhak, Ofer; Hershberg, Ruth; Hershkovitz, Dov

    2016-01-01

    Different tumor types vary greatly in their distribution of driver substitutions. Here, we analyzed how mutation and natural selection contribute to differences in the distribution of KRAS driver substitutions between lung, colon and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. We were able to demonstrate that both differences in mutation and differences in selection drive variation in the distribution of KRAS driver substitutions between tumor types. By accounting for the effects of mutation on the distribution of KRAS driver substitutions, we could identify specific KRAS driver substitutions that are more favored by selection in specific tumor types. Such driver substitutions likely improve fitness most when they occur within the context of the tumor type in which they are preferentially favored. Fitting with this, we found that driver substitutions that are more favored by natural selection in a specific type of tumor tend to associate with worse clinical outcomes specifically in that type of tumor. PMID:26902163

  18. Variation in KRAS driver substitution distributions between tumor types is determined by both mutation and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, Sheli L; Simon, Einav; Prinz, Elad; Bick, Tova; Shentzer, Talia; Nagawkar, Sima S; Sabo, Edmond; Ben-Izhak, Ofer; Hershberg, Ruth; Hershkovitz, Dov

    2016-02-23

    Different tumor types vary greatly in their distribution of driver substitutions. Here, we analyzed how mutation and natural selection contribute to differences in the distribution of KRAS driver substitutions between lung, colon and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. We were able to demonstrate that both differences in mutation and differences in selection drive variation in the distribution of KRAS driver substitutions between tumor types. By accounting for the effects of mutation on the distribution of KRAS driver substitutions, we could identify specific KRAS driver substitutions that are more favored by selection in specific tumor types. Such driver substitutions likely improve fitness most when they occur within the context of the tumor type in which they are preferentially favored. Fitting with this, we found that driver substitutions that are more favored by natural selection in a specific type of tumor tend to associate with worse clinical outcomes specifically in that type of tumor.

  19. Pharmacological strategies to target oncogenic KRAS signaling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Po-Hsien; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2017-03-01

    The clear importance of mutated KRAS as a therapeutic target has driven the investigation of multiple approaches to inhibit oncogenic KRAS signaling at different molecular levels. However, no KRAS-targeted therapy has reached the clinic to date, which underlies the intrinsic difficulty in developing effective, direct inhibitors of KRAS. Thus, this article provides an overview of the history and recent progress in the development of pharmacological strategies to target oncogenic KRAS with small molecule agents. Mechanistically, these KRAS-targeted agents can be classified into the following four categories. (1) Small-molecule RAS-binding ligands that prevent RAS activation by binding within or outside the nucleotide-binding motif. (2) Inhibitors of KRAS membrane anchorage. (3) Inhibitors that bind to RAS-binding domains of RAS-effector proteins. (4) Inhibitors of KRAS expression. The advantage and limitation of each type of these anti-KRAS agents are discussed.

  20. Degradation of Activated K-Ras Orthologue via K-Ras-specific Lysine Residues Is Required for Cytokinesis*

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Mika; Majd, Nazanin; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Takahashi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Koh; Kuroda, Taruho; Lee, Susan; Charest, Pascale G.; Takeda, Kosuke; Asara, John M.; Firtel, Richard A.; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Sasaki, Atsuo T.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells encode three closely related Ras proteins, H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras. Oncogenic K-Ras mutations frequently occur in human cancers, which lead to dysregulated cell proliferation and genomic instability. However, mechanistic role of the Ras isoform regulation have remained largely unknown. Furthermore, the dynamics and function of negative regulation of GTP-loaded K-Ras have not been fully investigated. Here, we demonstrate RasG, the Dictyostelium orthologue of K-Ras, is targeted for degradation by polyubiquitination. Both ubiquitination and degradation of RasG were strictly associated with RasG activity. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis indicated that RasG ubiquitination occurs at C-terminal lysines equivalent to lysines found in human K-Ras but not in H-Ras and N-Ras homologues. Substitution of these lysine residues with arginines (4KR-RasG) diminished RasG ubiquitination and increased RasG protein stability. Cells expressing 4KR-RasG failed to undergo proper cytokinesis and resulted in multinucleated cells. Ectopically expressed human K-Ras undergoes polyubiquitin-mediated degradation in Dictyostelium, whereas human H-Ras and a Dictyostelium H-Ras homologue (RasC) are refractory to ubiquitination. Our results indicate the existence of GTP-loaded K-Ras orthologue-specific degradation system in Dictyostelium, and further identification of the responsible E3-ligase may provide a novel therapeutic approach against K-Ras-mutated cancers. PMID:24338482

  1. Autoimmunity Including Intestinal Behçet Disease Bearing the KRAS Mutation in Lymphocytes: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Moritake, Hiroshi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Kinoshita, Mariko; Ohara, Osamu; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Moriguchi, Sayaka; Nunoi, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    We experienced the case of a 3-year-old male with a very rare combination of autoimmunity, including immune thrombocytopenia, recurrent Henoch-Schönlein purpura and intestinal Behçet disease. Exome sequencing of the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells identified a KRAS G13C mutation. Interestingly, the KRAS G13C mutation was observed in T and B lymphocytes, as well as natural killer cells, but not granulocytes. Our case was completely phenotypically different from RASopathies and did not meet the criteria for Ras-associated lymphoproliferative disease or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. This is the first reported case in which the KRAS mutation existed only in the lymphoid lineage. Based on the findings of our case and the current literature, it is clear that the RAS mutation in lymphoid cells is tightly linked with various autoimmune symptoms. The presence of the RAS mutation in lymphocytes should be reconsidered as a pathogenesis in cases of autoimmunity.

  2. Pooled Analysis of the Prognostic and Predictive Effects of KRAS Mutation Status and KRAS Mutation Subtype in Early-Stage Resected Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Four Trials of Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Frances A.; Domerg, Caroline; Hainaut, Pierre; Jänne, Pasi A.; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Graziano, Stephen; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Brambilla, Elizabeth; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Seymour, Lesley; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Teuff, Gwénaël Le; Pirker, Robert; Filipits, Martin; Rosell, Rafael; Kratzke, Robert; Bandarchi, Bizhan; Ma, Xiaoli; Capelletti, Marzia; Soria, Jean-Charles; Tsao, Ming-Sound

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We undertook this analysis of KRAS mutation in four trials of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) versus observation (OBS) to clarify the prognostic/predictive roles of KRAS in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods KRAS mutation was determined in blinded fashion. Exploratory analyses were performed to characterize relationships between mutation status and subtype and survival outcomes using a multivariable Cox model. Results Among 1,543 patients (763 OBS, 780 ACT), 300 had KRAS mutations (codon 12, n = 275; codon 13, n = 24; codon 14, n = 1). In OBS patients, there was no prognostic difference for overall survival for codon-12 (mutation v wild type [WT] hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40) or codon-13 (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.47 to 2.17) mutations. No significant benefit from ACT was observed for WT-KRAS (ACT v OBS HR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.04; P = .15) or codon-12 mutations (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.35; P = .77); with codon-13 mutations, ACT was deleterious (HR = 5.78; 95% CI, 2.06 to 16.2; P < .001; interaction P = .002). There was no prognostic effect for specific codon-12 amino acid substitution. The effect of ACT was variable among patients with codon-12 mutations: G12A or G12R (HR = 0.66; P = .48), G12C or G12V (HR = 0.94; P = .77) and G12D or G12S (HR = 1.39; P = .48; comparison of four HRs, including WT, interaction P = .76). OBS patients with KRAS-mutated tumors were more likely to develop second primary cancers (HR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.34 to 5.70; P = .005) but not ACT patients (HR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.25 to 1.75; P = .40; interaction, P = .02). Conclusion KRAS mutation status is not significantly prognostic. The potential interaction in patients with codon-13 mutations requires validation. At this time, KRAS status cannot be recommended to select patients with NSCLC for ACT. PMID:23630215

  3. K-ras activation occurs frequently in mucinous adenocarcinomas and rarely in other common epithelial tumors of the human ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, T.; Weghorst, C. M.; Inoue, M.; Tanizawa, O.; Rice, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    To explore the role of mutational activation of members of the ras family of cellular protooncogenes in the development of human ovarian neoplasms, a series of 37 ovarian tumors from Japanese patients was studied. These included 30 common epithelial tumors (1 mucinous tumor of borderline malignancy, 7 mucinous adenocarcinomas, and 22 nonmucinous carcinomas: 10 serous, 3 clear cell, 8 endometrioid, and 1 undifferentiated), 5 tumors of germ cell origin, and 2 sex cord/stromal cell tumors. Polymerase chain reaction was performed from selected areas of deparaffinized sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and the presence of activating point mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 of the H-, N-, and K-ras genes was probed by dot-blot hybridization analysis with mutation specific oligonucleotides. Mutations in K-ras were also looked for by direct genomic sequencing. The overall frequency of ras gene mutations was 10/37 (27%). Mutations were detected only in K-ras, and were found in most of the mucinous tumors, including the one such tumor of borderline malignancy (6/8; 75%). In one mucinous adenocarcinoma, two mutations were detected in paraffin-embedded material that had not previously been found in high molecular weight DNA isolated from frozen tissue from the same case. K-ras mutations occurred significantly more frequently in mucinous tumors (6/8, 75%) than in serous carcinomas (2/10, 20%; P = 0.031) or in all nonmucinous types of epithelial ovarian tumors combined (3/22, 14%; P = 0.0031). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1656759

  4. KRAS and TP53 mutations in inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Lijun; Kim, John J; Shen, Jinhua; Chen, Binrui; Dai, Ning

    2017-01-07

    Although KRAS and TP53 mutations are common in both inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer (IBD-CRC) and sporadic colorectal cancer (S-CRC), molecular events leading to carcinogenesis may be different. Previous studies comparing the frequency of KRAS and TP53 mutations in IBD-CRC and S-CRC were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the presence of KRAS and TP53 mutations among patients with IBD-CRC, S-CRC, and IBD without dysplasia. A total of 19 publications (482 patients with IBD-CRC, 4,222 with S-CRC, 281 with IBD without dysplasia) met the study inclusion criteria. KRAS mutation was less frequent (RR=0.71, 95%CI 0.56-0.90; P=0.004) while TP53 mutation was more common (RR=1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.39; P<0.001) in patients with IBD-CRC compared to S-CRC. Both KRAS (RR=3.09, 95%CI 1.47-6.51; P=0.003) and TP53 (RR=2.15, 95%CI 1.07-4.31 P=0.03) mutations were more prevalent in patients with IBD-CRC compared to IBD without dysplasia. In conclusion, IBD-CRC and S-CRC appear to have biologically different molecular pathways. TP53 appears to be more important than KRAS in IBD-CRC compared to S-CRC. Our findings suggest possible roles of TP53 and KRAS as biomarkers for cancer and dysplasia screening among patients with IBD and may also provide targeted therapy in patients with IBD-CRC.

  5. Sequence-specific DNA alkylation targeting for Kras codon 13 mutation by pyrrole-imidazole polyamide seco-CBI conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Asamitsu, Sefan; Takenaka, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Makoto; Hashiya, Kaori; Kawamoto, Yusuke; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-27

    Hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide seco-CBI conjugates 2-6 were designed for synthesis by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis, and their DNA-alkylating activities against the Kras codon 13 mutation were compared by high-resolution denaturing gel electrophoresis with 225 base pair (bp) DNA fragments. Conjugate 5 had high reactivity towards the Kras codon 13 mutation site, with alkylation occurring at the A of the sequence 5'-ACGTCACCA-3' (site 2), including minor 1 bp-mismatch alkylation against wild type 5'-ACGCCACCA-3' (site 3). Conjugate 6, which differs from conjugate 5 by exchanging one Py unit with a β unit, showed high selectivity but only weakly alkylated the A of 5'-ACGTCACCA-3' (site 2). The hairpin polyamide seco-CBI conjugate 5 thus alkylates according to Dervan's pairing rule with the pairing recognition which β/β pair targets T-A and A-T pairs. SPR and a computer-minimized model suggest that 5 binds to the target sequence with high affinity in a hairpin conformation, allowing for efficient DNA alkylation.

  6. Detection of KRAS mutations using double-stranded toehold-exchange probes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenhua; Ma, Tianle; Coll, Jean-Luc; Liu, Fangming; Zhang, Honglian; Ma, Yunfei; Wang, Zhishuo; Jin, Qinghui; Mao, Hongju; Zhao, Jianlong

    2016-06-15

    Detection of KRAS mutations in cancer tissues is immensely valuable for the identification of personalized genotype-based therapy. Here, we employed a double-stranded toehold-exchange probe, which is labeled with fluorescent molecules (FAM) and quenchers (Dabcyl), to detect KRAS mutations in cancer tissues. This probe was able to differentiate the intended mutation in a sample containing as little as 5% mutant alleles in a background of wild-type DNA. This probe also performed robustly at a wide range of conditions, for examples, from 4 °C to 37 °C, from 200 mM Na(+) to 1M Na(+), and from 200 mM K(+) to 500 mM K(+). Furthermore, we validated the practicality of this probe in a clinical setting using 8 pairs of cancer tissue samples and their NT (corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissue) samples. All the results generated from the probe detection agreed with those from direct sequencing. Combining features of extreme high specificity and robustness, this probe is a valuable tool for reliable diagnosis of cancer-related mutations.

  7. NVP-BKM120, a novel PI3K inhibitor, shows synergism with a STAT3 inhibitor in human gastric cancer cells harboring KRAS mutations

    PubMed Central

    PARK, EUNJU; PARK, JINAH; HAN, SAE-WON; IM, SEOCK-AH; KIM, TAE-YOU; OH, DO-YOUN; BANG, YUNG-JUE

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are frequently observed in many types of cancer, promoting its emergence as a promising target for cancer treatment. PI3K can become activated by various pathways, one of which includes RAS. RAS can not only directly activate the PI3K/AKT pathway via binding to p110 of PI3K, but also regulates mTOR via ERK or RSK independently of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, actively mutated RAS can constitutively activate PI3K signaling. Additionally, in RAS tumorigenic transformation, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been known also to be required. In this study, we examined the efficacy of NVP-BKM120, a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor in human gastric cancer cells and hypothesized that the combined inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 would be synergistic in KRAS mutant gastric cancer cells. NVP-BKM120 demonstrated anti-proliferative activity in 11 human gastric cancer cell lines by decreasing mTOR downstream signaling. But NVP-BKM120 treatment increased p-AKT by subsequent abrogation of feedback inhibition by stabilizing insulin receptor substrate-1. In KRAS mutant gastric cancer cells, either p-ERK or p-STAT3 was also increased upon treatment of NVP-BKM120. The synergistic efficacy study demonstrated that dual PI3K and STAT3 blockade showed a synergism in cells harboring mutated KRAS by inducing apoptosis. The synergistic effect was not seen in KRAS wild-type cells. Together, these findings suggest for the first time that the dual inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 signaling may be an effective therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant gastric cancer patients. PMID:22159814

  8. Novel Methodology for Rapid Detection of KRAS Mutation Using PNA-LNA Mediated Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Warigaya, Kenji; Tamura, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yuki; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Ichinose, Masao; Murata, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Detecting point mutation of human cancer cells quickly and accurately is gaining in importance for pathological diagnosis and choice of therapeutic approach. In the present study, we present novel methodology, peptide nucleic acid—locked nucleic acid mediated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (PNA-LNA mediated LAMP), for rapid detection of KRAS mutation using advantages of both artificial DNA and LAMP. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP reactions occurred under isothermal temperature conditions of with 4 primary primers set for the target regions on the KRAS gene, clamping PNA probe that was complimentary to the wild type sequence and LNA primers complementary to the mutated sequences. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP was applied for cDNA from 4 kinds of pancreatic carcinoma cell lines with or without KRAS point mutation. The amplified DNA products were verified by naked-eye as well as a real-time PCR equipment. By PNA-LNA mediated LAMP, amplification of wild type KRAS DNA was blocked by clamping PNA probe, whereas, mutant type KRAS DNA was significantly amplified within 50 min. Mutant alleles could be detected in samples which diluted until 0.1% of mutant-to-wild type ratio. On the other hand, mutant alleles could be reproducibly with a mutant-to-wild type ratio of 30% by direct sequencing and of 1% by PNA-clamping PCR. The limit of detection (LOD) of PNA-LNA mediated LAMP was much lower than the other conventional methods. Competition of LNA clamping primers complementary to two different subtypes (G12D and G12V) of mutant KRAS gene indicated different amplification time depend on subtypes of mutant cDNA. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP is a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive methodology for the detection of KRAS mutation. PMID:26999437

  9. Novel Methodology for Rapid Detection of KRAS Mutation Using PNA-LNA Mediated Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.

    PubMed

    Itonaga, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Ibu; Warigaya, Kenji; Tamura, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yuki; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Ichinose, Masao; Murata, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Detecting point mutation of human cancer cells quickly and accurately is gaining in importance for pathological diagnosis and choice of therapeutic approach. In the present study, we present novel methodology, peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid mediated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (PNA-LNA mediated LAMP), for rapid detection of KRAS mutation using advantages of both artificial DNA and LAMP. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP reactions occurred under isothermal temperature conditions of with 4 primary primers set for the target regions on the KRAS gene, clamping PNA probe that was complimentary to the wild type sequence and LNA primers complementary to the mutated sequences. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP was applied for cDNA from 4 kinds of pancreatic carcinoma cell lines with or without KRAS point mutation. The amplified DNA products were verified by naked-eye as well as a real-time PCR equipment. By PNA-LNA mediated LAMP, amplification of wild type KRAS DNA was blocked by clamping PNA probe, whereas, mutant type KRAS DNA was significantly amplified within 50 min. Mutant alleles could be detected in samples which diluted until 0.1% of mutant-to-wild type ratio. On the other hand, mutant alleles could be reproducibly with a mutant-to-wild type ratio of 30% by direct sequencing and of 1% by PNA-clamping PCR. The limit of detection (LOD) of PNA-LNA mediated LAMP was much lower than the other conventional methods. Competition of LNA clamping primers complementary to two different subtypes (G12D and G12V) of mutant KRAS gene indicated different amplification time depend on subtypes of mutant cDNA. PNA-LNA mediated LAMP is a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive methodology for the detection of KRAS mutation.

  10. LUNG TUMOR KRAS AND TP53 MUTATIONS IN NON-SMOKERS REFLECT EXPOSURE TO PAH-RICH COAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Abstract

    We determined the TP53 and codon 12 KRAS mutations in lung tumors from 24 nonsmokers whose tumors were associated with exposure to smoky coal. Among any tumors studied previously, these showed the highest percentage of mutations that (a) were G -+ T transver...

  11. Lung Adenocarcinoma: Predictive Value of KRAS Mutation Status in Assessing Local Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Image-guided Ablation.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Etay; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Boas, F Edward; Petre, Elena N; Gao, Song; Shady, Waleed; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Jones, David R; Rudin, Charles M; Solomon, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To establish the relationship between KRAS mutation status and local recurrence after image-guided ablation of lung adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods This study consisted of a HIPAA-compliant institutional review board-approved retrospective review of 56 primary lung adenocarcinomas in 54 patients (24 men, 30 women; median age, 72 years; range, 54-87 years) treated with percutaneous image-guided ablation and with available genetic mutational analysis. KRAS mutation status and additional clinical and technical variables-Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, smoking history, stage at diagnosis, status (new primary or not), history of radiation, history of surgery, prior systemic treatment, modality of ablation, size of nodule, ablation margin, and presence of ground-glass appearance-were recorded and evaluated in relation to time to local recurrence, which was calculated from the time of ablation to the first radiographic evidence of recurrence. Predictors of outcome were identified by using a proportional hazards model for both univariate and multivariate analysis, with death as a competing risk. Results Technical success was 100%. Of the 56 ablated tumors, 37 (66%) were wild type for KRAS and 19 (34%) were KRAS mutants. The 1-year and 3-year cumulative incidences of recurrence were 20% and 35% for wild-type KRAS compared with 40% and 63% for KRAS mutant tumors. KRAS mutation status was a significant predictor of local recurrence at both univariate (P = .05; subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 2.32) and multivariate (P = .006; sHR, 3.75) analysis. At multivariate analysis, size (P = .026; sHR, 2.54) and ECOG status (P = .012; sHR, 2.23) were also independent significant predictors, whereas minimum margin (P = .066) was not. Conclusion The results of this study show that there is a relationship between KRAS mutation status and local recurrence after image-guided ablation of lung adenocarcinoma. Specifically, KRAS mutation status of the ablated

  12. Prevalence of KRAS, BRAF, PI3K and EGFR mutations among Asian patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    PHUA, LEE CHENG; NG, HUI WEN; YEO, ANGIE HUI LING; CHEN, ELYA; LO, MICHELLE SHU MEI; CHEAH, PEH YEAN; CHAN, ERIC CHUN YONG; KOH, POH KOON; HO, HAN KIAT

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in oncogenes along the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway have been implicated in the resistance to cetuximab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the relative significance of these mutations based on their frequencies of occurrence in the Singaporean population remains unclear. In the present study, the prevalence of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and EGFR somatic mutations were determined among Singaporean patients with mCRC. DNA extracted from 45 pairs of surgically resected tumor and normal mucosa samples was subjected to direct sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Associations of the genetic mutations with various clinicopathological parameters were further explored. Mutations in either codon 12 or 13 of KRAS were confirmed as prominent phenomena among the included Singaporean mCRC patients, at a prevalence comparable with that of Caucasian and patients of other Asian ethnicities [33.3% (90% confidence interval, 21.8–44.9%)]. KRAS mutation was not associated with clinicopathological features, including age, gender and ethnicity of patients, or the tumor site, differentiation and mucinous status. Conversely, the prevalence of BRAF (0%), PI3K (2.2%) and EGFR (0%) mutations were low. The results of the present study indicate that KRAS mutations are prevalent among the studied population, and confirm the low prevalence of BRAF, PI3K and EGFR mutations. KRAS should be prioritized as an investigational gene for future studies of predictive biomarkers of cetuximab response among Singaporean patients with mCRC. PMID:26622882

  13. Assessment of DDR2, BRAF, EGFR and KRAS mutations as therapeutic targets in non-adenocarcinoma lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yashima, Hideaki; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Araki, Takuya; Aomori, Tohru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Enokida, Yasuaki; Atsumi, Jun; Nakamura, Tomonori; Takeyoshi, Izumi; Yamamoto, Koujirou

    2014-09-01

    Molecular-targeted therapy has not been established in non-adenocarcinoma lung cancer (non-AdLC), as no targets that affect the clinical efficacy of molecular-targeted drugs have yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the frequency of genetic variations in discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) in non-AdLC patients, in order to evaluate the possibility of genetic mutations in these genes being used as therapeutic targets for the treatment of patients with non-AdLC. For this purpose, we enrolled 150 non-AdLC patients who had undergone surgery at the Gunma University Hospital between December, 2003 and December, 2012. Genetic mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, DDR2 and BRAF genes were detected by a sequencing method or probe assay using DNA derived from cancer tissues. No somatic mutations in DDR2 or BRAF were detected in non-AdLC patients. Conversely, genetic mutations in EGFR exon 19 were found in 3 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 3 adenosquamous carcinoma patients, whereas KRAS codon 12 mutations were also found in 3 SCC patients and 1 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma patient. EGFR and KRAS mutations were mutually exclusive. This study indicated that, although DDR2 and BRAF mutations may only rarely be used as therapeutic targets, EGFR and KRAS mutations may represent candidate therapeutic targets, at least in the non-AdLC patients investigated.

  14. Discordance of Mutation Statuses of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and K-ras between Primary Adenocarcinoma of Lung and Brain Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Rau, Kun-Ming; Chen, Han-Ku; Shiu, Li-Yen; Chao, Tsai-Ling; Lo, Yi-Ping; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Meng-Chih; Huang, Chao-Cheng

    2016-04-07

    Mutations on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of adenocarcinomas of lung have been found to be associated with increased sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and K-ras mutations may correlate with primary resistance. We aimed to explore the discordant mutation statuses of EGFR and K-ras between primary tumors and matched brain metastases in adenocarcinomas of lung. We used a sensitive Scorpion ARMS method to analyze EGFR mutation, and Sanger sequencing followed by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction to analyze K-ras mutation. Forty-nine paired tissues with both primary adenocarcinoma of lung and matched brain metastasis were collected. Thirteen patients (26.5%) were discordant for the status of EGFR between primary and metastatic sites. K-ras gene could be checked in paired specimens from 33 patients, thirteen patients (39.6%) were discordant for the status of K-ras. In primary lung adenocarcinoma, there were 14 patients of mutant EGFR had mutant K-ras synchronously. This study revealed that the status of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinomas is relatively consistent between primary and metastatic sites compared to K-ras mutation. However, there are still a few cases of adenocarcinoma of lung showing discordance for the status of EGFR mutation. Repeated analysis of EGFR mutation is highly recommended if tissue from metastatic or recurrent site is available for the evaluation of target therapy.

  15. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  16. MUTATION SPECTRA OF SMOKY COAL COMBUSTION EMMISSIONS IN SALMONELLA REFLECTS THE TP53 AND KRAS MUTATIONS IN LUNG TUMORS FROM SMOKY COAL EXPOSED INDIVIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Mutation Spectra of Smoky Coal Combustion Emissions in Salmonella Reflect the TP53
    and KRAS Mutations in Lung Tumors from Smoky Coal-Exposed Individuals

    Abstract
    Nonsmoking women in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China who use smoky coal for cooking and h...

  17. Prevalence of G-to-T transversions among K-ras oncogene mutations in human colorectal tumors in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Urosević, N; Krtolica, K; Skaro-Milić, A; Knezević-Usaj, S; Dujić, A

    1993-05-08

    Human colorectal carcinoma tissue sampled from 37 patients, routinely graded into Dukes' stages A, B and C and histologically examined for the level of differentiation, were analyzed for the presence of point mutations in the K-ras oncogene. Seventeen cases out of the 37 analyzed were found to have a mutation in either the 12th or the 13th codon of the K-ras gene, giving an overall frequency of mutation of 46%. The incidence of mutations in Dukes' stages A, B and C was 33, 46 and 58% respectively. Although the frequency of mutation appears to be similar to that reported for the USA population, the spectrum of point mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the K-ras gene in the Yugoslav population appears to differ significantly. G-to-T transversions make up 77% of all mutations present, with the distribution as follows: 18% at the first base and 59% at the second base of codons 12 and 13. G-to-A transitions at the second base is the only other mutation identified, occurring mainly in codon 13 in colorectal tumors of all 3 stages.

  18. KRAS detection on archival cytological smears by the novel fully automated polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla mutation test

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Caterina; Vigliar, Elena; d’Anna, Melania; Pisapia, Pasquale; Bellevicine, Claudio; Malapelle, Umberto; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Molecular techniques are relevant to modern cytopathology, but their implementation is difficult without molecular expertise and infrastructure. The assessment of KRAS mutational status on cytological preparations may be useful either to refine uncertain diagnoses on pancreatic aspirates or to yield predictive information to plan targeted treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The novel test Idylla™ enables fully automated KRAS genotyping in approximately 2 h, even in less experienced hands. Materials and Methods: This study aims to validate this methodology to detect KRAS mutations on archival cytological preparations of pancreatic cancer (n = 9) and mCRC (n = 9) by comparing the Idylla™ performance to that of standard real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The same 11 mutations (n = 4: p.G12D; n = 2: p.G12V; n = 2: p.A59E/G/T; n = 1: p.G12R; n = 1: p.G13D; n = 1: p.Q61H) were detected by both techniques. Conclusion: Even in less experienced laboratories, a cytopathologist may easily integrate morphological diagnostic report with accurate KRAS mutation detection, which is relevant for diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:28331530

  19. LUNG TUMOR KRAS AND TP53 MUTATIONS IN NONSMOKERS REFLECT EXPOSURE TO PAH-RICH COAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung Tumor KRAS and TP53 Mutations in Nonsmokers Reflect Exposure to PAH-Rich
    Coal Combustion Emissions

    Use of smoky coal in unvented homes in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, is associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking females. Such women have the highest...

  20. ALTERNATE PATHWAY TO LUNG CANCER INDICATED BY KRAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN NONSMOKERS EXPOSED TO INDOOR SMOKY COAL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternate Pathway to Lung Cancer Indicated by KRAS and P53 Mutations in Nonsmokers Exposed to Indoor Smoky Coal Emissions

    Use of smoky coal in unvented homes in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, is
    associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking females. Such wome...

  1. EGFR and KRAS Mutations Predict the Incidence and Outcome of Brain Metastases in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Pascale; Serdjebi, Cindy; Khobta, Nataliya; Metellus, Philippe; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Nanni, Isabelle; Greillier, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Fina, Frederic; Mascaux, Celine; Barlesi, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of brain metastases (BM). The identification of driver oncogenes and matched targeted therapies has improved outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; however, a better understanding of BM molecular biology is needed to further drive the process in this field. Methods: In this observational study, stage IV NSCLC patients tested for EGFR and KRAS mutations were selected, and BM incidence, recurrence and patients’ outcome were assessed. Results: A total of 144 patients (142 Caucasian and two Asian) were selected, including 11.27% with EGFR-mutant and 33.10% with KRAS-mutant tumors, and 57.04% patients had developed BM. BM incidence was more frequent in patients with EGFR mutation according to multivariate analyses (MVA) (Odds ratio OR = 8.745 [1.743–43.881], p = 0.008). Among patients with treated BM, recurrence after local treatment was less frequent in patients with KRAS mutation (OR = 0.234 [0.078–0.699], p = 0.009). Among patients with untreated BM, overall survival (OS) was shorter for patients with KRAS mutation according to univariate analysis (OR = 7.130 [1.240–41.012], p = 0.028), but not MVA. Conclusions: EGFR and KRAS mutations have a predictive role on BM incidence, recurrence and outcome in Caucasian NSCLC patients. These results may impact the routine management of disease in these patients. Further studies are required to assess the influence of other biomarkers on NSCLC BM. PMID:27999344

  2. Associations of anthropometric factors with KRAS and BRAF mutation status of primary colorectal cancer in men and women: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brändstedt, Jenny; Wangefjord, Sakarias; Nodin, Björn; Eberhard, Jakob; Sundström, Magnus; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), and accumulating evidence suggests a differential influence of sex and anthropometric factors on the molecular carcinogenesis of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between height, weight, bodyfat percentage, waist- and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and CRC risk according to KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours, with particular reference to potential sex differences. KRAS and BRAF mutations were analysed by pyrosequencing in tumours from 494 incident CRC cases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Hazard ratios of CRC risk according to anthropometric factors and mutation status were calculated using multivariate Cox regression models. While all anthropometric measures except height were associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated tumours, only BMI was associated with an increased risk of KRAS wild type tumours overall. High weight, hip, waist, WHR and BMI were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, but none of the anthropometric factors were associated with risk of BRAF-mutated CRC, neither in the overall nor in the sex-stratified analysis. In men, several anthropometric measures were associated with both KRAS-mutated and KRAS wild type tumours. In women, only a high WHR was significantly associated with an increased risk of KRAS-mutated CRC. A significant interaction was found between sex and BMI with respect to risk of KRAS-mutated tumours. In men, all anthropometric factors except height were associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours, whereas in women, only bodyfat percentage was associated with an increased risk of BRAF wild type tumours. The results from this prospective cohort study further support an influence of sex and lifestyle factors on different pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis, defined by KRAS and BRAF mutation status of the tumours.

  3. Targeting Mutant KRAS for Anticancer Therapeutics: A Review of Novel Small Molecule Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanxiang; Kaiser, Christine E.; Frett, Brendan; Li, Hong-yu

    2015-01-01

    The RAS proteins play a role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Aberrant RAS signaling has been found to play a role in 30% of all cancers. KRAS, a key member of the RAS protein family, is an attractive cancer target, as frequent point mutations in the KRAS gene render the protein constitutively active. A number of attempts have been made to target aberrant KRAS signaling by identifying small molecule compounds that (1) are synthetic lethal to mutant KRAS, (2) block KRAS/GEF interactions, (3) inhibit downstream KRAS effectors, or (4) inhibit the post-translational processing of RAS proteins. In addition, inhibition of novel targets outside the main KRAS signaling pathway, specifically the cell cycle related kinase PLK1, has been shown have an effect in cells that harbor mutant KRAS. Herein we review the use of various high-throughput screening assays utilized to identify new small-molecule compounds capable of targeting mutant KRAS-driven cancers. PMID:23566315

  4. Generation and analysis of mouse intestinal tumors and organoids harboring APC and K-Ras mutations.

    PubMed

    van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models of intestinal cancer are experimental systems in which mice are genetically manipulated to develop malignancies in the gastrointestinal tract. These models enable researchers to study the mechanisms of onset, progression, and metastasis of the disease. They also provide a valuable biological system which is suitable for testing (novel) drugs in vivo. Recently, an in vitro culture model has been established in which intestinal epithelial stem cells can grow into three-dimensional, ever-expanding epithelial organoids that retain their original organ identity and genetic stability. This culture system has been applied to diseased epithelia, such as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium. These organoids can be particularly useful for studying the mechanisms of intestinal tumors and to test (novel) drugs in vitro. Here, we describe our current laboratory protocols to generate and analyze intestinal tumors and organoids harboring APC and K-Ras double mutations.

  5. Alcohol and the risk of colon and rectal cancer with mutations in the K-ras gene.

    PubMed

    Bongaerts, Brenda W C; de Goeij, Anton F P M; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2006-04-01

    The first metabolite of alcohol, acetaldehyde, may trigger replication errors and mutations in DNA, which may predispose to developing colorectal cancer (CRC). In a prospective study on colon and rectal cancer, we investigated the following hypotheses: alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of mutations in the K-ras oncogene, and beer consumption is associated with an increased risk of G-->A mutations in this gene. Therefore, we studied the associations between consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages and the risk of CRC without and with specific K-ras gene mutations. In 1986, 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, completed a questionnaire on risk factors for cancer. The case-cohort approach was used for data processing and analyses. After 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, complete data from 4,076 subcohort members, 428 colon and 150 rectal cancer patients, were available for data analyses. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared to abstaining, a total alcohol consumption of 30.0 g/day and more was associated with the risk of colon and rectal cancer with and without a K-ras mutation in both men and women. Independent from alcohol intake, liquor consumption when compared to nonliquor consumption was associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer with a wild type K-ras in men (RR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.0-5.0). Beer consumption was not clearly associated with the risk of colon and rectal tumors harboring G-->A mutations in the K-ras gene in men. This association could not be assessed in women because of sparse beer consumption. In conclusion, alcohol does not seem to be involved in predisposing to CRC through mutations in the K-ras gene, and specifically beer consumption is not associated with colon and rectal tumors harboring a G-->A mutation.

  6. Mutant Kras copy number defines metabolic reprogramming and therapeutic susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Emma M; Gaude, Edoardo; Turrell, Frances K; Frezza, Christian; Martins, Carla P

    2016-03-03

    The RAS/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling pathway is frequently deregulated in non-small-cell lung cancer, often through KRAS activating mutations. A single endogenous mutant Kras allele is sufficient to promote lung tumour formation in mice but malignant progression requires additional genetic alterations. We recently showed that advanced lung tumours from Kras(G12D/+);p53-null mice frequently exhibit Kras(G12D) allelic enrichment (Kras(G12D)/Kras(wild-type) > 1) (ref. 7), implying that mutant Kras copy gains are positively selected during progression. Here we show, through a comprehensive analysis of mutant Kras homozygous and heterozygous mouse embryonic fibroblasts and lung cancer cells, that these genotypes are phenotypically distinct. In particular, Kras(G12D/G12D) cells exhibit a glycolytic switch coupled to increased channelling of glucose-derived metabolites into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, resulting in enhanced glutathione-mediated detoxification. This metabolic rewiring is recapitulated in mutant KRAS homozygous non-small-cell lung cancer cells and in vivo, in spontaneous advanced murine lung tumours (which display a high frequency of Kras(G12D) copy gain), but not in the corresponding early tumours (Kras(G12D) heterozygous). Finally, we demonstrate that mutant Kras copy gain creates unique metabolic dependences that can be exploited to selectively target these aggressive mutant Kras tumours. Our data demonstrate that mutant Kras lung tumours are not a single disease but rather a heterogeneous group comprising two classes of tumours with distinct metabolic profiles, prognosis and therapeutic susceptibility, which can be discriminated on the basis of their relative mutant allelic content. We also provide the first, to our knowledge, in vivo evidence of metabolic rewiring during lung cancer malignant progression.

  7. Driver mutations among never smoking female lung cancer tissues in China identify unique EGFR and KRAS mutation pattern associated with household coal burning.

    PubMed

    Hosgood, H Dean; Pao, William; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hu, Wei; Pan, Yumei Helen; Kuchinsky, Kyle; Jones, Kirk D; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; Simko, Jeff; Lan, Qing

    2013-11-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers, which has been partially attributed to household solid fuel use (i.e., coal), is etiologically and clinically different from lung cancer attributed to tobacco smoking. To explore the spectrum of driver mutations among lung cancer tissues from never smokers, specifically in a population where high lung cancer rates have been attributed to indoor air pollution from domestic coal use, multiplexed assays were used to detect >40 point mutations, insertions, and deletions (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, HER2, NRAS, PIK3CA, MEK1, AKT1, and PTEN) among the lung tumors of confirmed never smoking females from Xuanwei, China [32 adenocarcinomas (ADCs), 7 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 1 adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSC)]. EGFR mutations were detected in 35% of tumors. 46% of these involved EGFR exon 18 G719X, while 14% were exon 21 L858R mutations. KRAS mutations, all of which were G12C_34G>T, were observed in 15% of tumors. EGFR and KRAS mutations were mutually exclusive, and no mutations were observed in the other tested genes. Most point mutations were transversions and were also found in tumors from patients who used coal in their homes. Our high mutation frequencies in EGFR exon 18 and KRAS and low mutation frequency in EGFR exon 21 are strikingly divergent from those in other smoking and never smoking populations from Asia. Given that our subjects live in a region where coal is typically burned indoors, our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of lung cancer among never smoking females exposed to indoor air pollution from coal.

  8. The Influence of BRAF and KRAS Mutation Status on the Association between Aspirin Use and Survival after Colon Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Marlies S.; Swets, Marloes; Bastiaannet, Esther; Prinse, Bianca; van Eijk, Ronald; Lemmens, Valery E. P. P.; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P. P.; van Wezel, Tom; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Morreau, Hans; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Use of aspirin after diagnosis of colon cancer has been associated with improved survival. Identification of cancer subtypes that respond to aspirin treatment may help develop personalized treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of BRAF and KRAS mutation status on the association between aspirin use and overall survival after colon cancer diagnosis. Methods A random selection of 599 patients with colon cancer were analyzed, selected from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry, and BRAF and KRAS mutation status was determined. Data on aspirin use (80 mg) were obtained from the PHARMO Database Network. Parametric survival models with exponential (Poisson) distribution were used. Results Aspirin use after colon cancer diagnosis was associated with improved overall survival in wild-type BRAF tumors, adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 0.60 (95% CI 0.44–0.83). In contrast, aspirin use in BRAF mutated tumors was not associated with an improved survival (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.57–2.16). P-value for interaction was non-significant. KRAS mutational status did not differentiate in the association between aspirin use and survival. Conclusion Low-dose aspirin use after colon cancer diagnosis was associated with improved survival in BRAF wild-type tumors only. However, the large confidence interval of the rate ratio for the use of aspirin in patients with BRAF mutation does not rule out a possible benefit. These results preclude BRAF and KRAS mutation status to be used as a marker for individualized treatment with aspirin, if aspirin becomes regular adjuvant treatment for colon cancer patients in the future. PMID:28125730

  9. Dovitinib (TKI258), a multi-target angiokinase inhibitor, is effective regardless of KRAS or BRAF mutation status in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Kun; Lee, Myung Eun; Lee, Won Suk; Kim, Jeong Min; Park, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Tae Soo; Lee, Kang Young; Ahn, Joong Bae; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Rha, Sun Young

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to determine whether KRAS and BRAF mutant colorectal cancer (CRC) cells exhibit distinct sensitivities to the multi-target angiokinase inhibitor, TKI258 (dovitinib). Materials and methods: We screened 10 CRC cell lines by using receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) array to identify activated RTKs. MTT assays, anchorage-independent colony-formation assays, and immunoblotting assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro anti-tumor effects of TKI258. In vivo efficacy study followed by pharmacodynamic evaluation was done. Results: Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) and FGFR3 were among the most highly activated RTKs in CRC cell lines. In in vitro assays, the BRAF mutant HT-29 cells were more resistant to the TKI258 than the KRAS mutant LoVo cells. However, in xenograft assays, TKI258 equally delayed the growth of tumors induced by both cell lines. TUNEL assays showed that the apoptotic index was unchanged following TKI258 treatment, but staining for Ki-67 and CD31 was substantially reduced in both xenografts, implying an anti-angiogenic effect of the drug. TKI258 treatment was effective in delaying CRC tumor growth in vivo regardless of the KRAS and BRAF mutation status. Conclusions: Our results identify FGFRs as potential targets in CRC treatment and suggest that combined targeting of multiple RTKs with TKI258 might serve as a novel approach to improve outcome of patients with CRC. PMID:25628921

  10. KRAS and CREBBP mutations: a relapse-linked malicious liaison in childhood high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Ozdowy, K; Frech, C; Schönegger, A; Eckert, C; Cazzaniga, G; Stanulla, M; zur Stadt, U; Mecklenbräuker, A; Schuster, M; Kneidinger, D; von Stackelberg, A; Locatelli, F; Schrappe, M; Horstmann, M A; Attarbaschi, A; Bock, C; Mann, G; Haas, O A; Panzer-Grümayer, R

    2015-08-01

    High hyperdiploidy defines the largest genetic entity of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite its relatively low recurrence risk, this subgroup generates a high proportion of relapses. The cause and origin of these relapses remains obscure. We therefore explored the mutational landscape in high hyperdiploid (HD) ALL with whole-exome (n=19) and subsequent targeted deep sequencing of 60 genes in 100 relapsing and 51 non-relapsing cases. We identified multiple clones at diagnosis that were primarily defined by a variety of mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras pathway and chromatin-modifying genes. The relapse clones consisted of reappearing as well as new mutations, and overall contained more mutations. Although RTK/Ras pathway mutations were similarly frequent between diagnosis and relapse, both intergenic and intragenic heterogeneity was essentially lost at relapse. CREBBP mutations, however, increased from initially 18-30% at relapse, then commonly co-occurred with KRAS mutations (P<0.001) and these relapses appeared primarily early (P=0.012). Our results confirm the exceptional susceptibility of HD ALL to RTK/Ras pathway and CREBBP mutations, but, more importantly, suggest that mutant KRAS and CREBBP might cooperate and equip cells with the necessary capacity to evolve into a relapse-generating clone.

  11. K-Ras mutation detection in liquid biopsy and tumor tissue as prognostic biomarker in patients with pancreatic cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zheng, Yuanting; Sun, Hong; Zhuang, Rongyuan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Tianshu; Cai, Weimin

    2016-07-01

    K-Ras gene mutations have been found in most pancreatic cancers; however, conflicting data on the prognostic value of K-Ras mutations in pancreatic cancer have been published. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess its prognostic significance. Literature searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar were performed through December 2015 to identify publications exploring the association of K-Ras mutation with overall survival. Forty eligible studies involving 3427 patients with pancreatic cancer were included in the present meta-analysis. Our analysis showed a hazard ratio (HR) of negative association with survival of 1.61 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.36-1.90; p < 0.01] in K-Ras mutant pancreatic cancer patients. In subgroup analyses, K-Ras mutations detected in tumor tissues and in liquid biopsies had HRs of 1.37 (95 % CI 1.20-1.57; p < 0.01) and 3.16 (95 % CI 2.1-4.71; p < 0.01), respectively. In addition, the HR was higher when K-Ras mutations were detected in fresh frozen samples (HR = 2.01, 95 % CI 1.28-3.16, p = 0.002) than in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples (HR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.12-1.49, p < 0.01). Though K-Ras alterations are more frequent among non-East Asian individuals than East Asian individuals, there were no significant differences in HRs of survival between the two ethnic subgroups. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that K-Ras mutations are associated with a worse overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients, especially when mutations are detected in liquid biopsies or fresh frozen tumor tissue samples.

  12. APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations in colorectal cancer patients: correlation to clinicopathologic features and postoperative surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jan-Sing; Lin, Shiu-Ru; Chang, Mei-Yin; Chen, Fang-Ming; Lu, Chien-Yu; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Che-Jen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2005-04-01

    Current researches have proposed a genetic model for colorectal cancer (CRC), in which the sequential accumulation of mutations in specific cancer-related genes, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), K-ras, and p53, drives the transition from normal epithelium through increasing adenomatous dysplasia to colorectal cancer. To identify patients with an increased risk of tumor recurrence or metastasis and evaluate the prognostic values of APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations, we investigated the frequency of these three mutated genes in tumors and sera of CRC patients. APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations in primary tumor tissues and their paired preoperative serum samples of 118 CRC patients were detected by using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, followed by direct DNA sequencing of the PCR-amplified genomic DNA. Subsequently, serum molecular markers were analyzed for their correlation with patients' clinicopathologic features and presence of postoperative recurrence/metastasis. We did not observe any significant difference in the association of APC or K-ras or p53 gene mutations in primary tumors with patients' demographic data (all were P > 0.05). In contrast, both serum APC and p53 molecular markers were closely correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (both P < 0.05). Moreover, the serum overall molecular markers (at least one of the three markers) were prominently associated with depth of tumor invasion (P = 0.033), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and TNM stage (P < 0.001). In addition, a significantly higher postoperative metastasis/recurrence rate in patients positive for overall molecular markers compared to those negative for these molecular markers were also demonstrated (P < 0.001). APC and K-ras molecular markers were more frequently observed in patients with locoregional metastasis (both P < 0.05), while p53 molecular marker was usually detected in the cases of peritoneal metastasis (P

  13. DNA vaccine elicits an efficient antitumor response by targeting the mutant Kras in a transgenic mouse lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Weng, T-Y; Yen, M-C; Huang, C-T; Hung, J-J; Chen, Y-L; Chen, W-C; Wang, C-Y; Chang, J-Y; Lai, M-D

    2014-10-01

    Mutant Kras (V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) is observed in more than 20% of non-small-cell lung cancers; however, no effective Kras target therapy is available at present. The Kras DNA vaccine may represent as a novel immunotherapeutic agent in lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the antitumor efficacy of the Kras DNA vaccine in a genetically engineered inducible mouse lung tumor model driven by Kras(G12D). Lung tumors were induced by doxycycline, and the therapeutic effects of Kras DNA vaccine were evaluated with delivery of Kras(G12D) plasmids. Mutant Kras(G12D) DNA vaccine significantly decreased the tumor nodules. A dominant-negative mutant Kras(G12D)N17, devoid of oncogenic activity, achieved similar therapeutic effects. The T-helper 1 immune response was enhanced in mice treated with Kras DNA vaccine. Splenocytes from mice receiving Kras DNA vaccine presented an antigen-specific response by treatment with peptides of Kras but not Hras or OVA. The number of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells increased after Kras vaccination. In contrast, Kras DNA vaccine was not effective in the lung tumor in transgenic mice, which was induced by mutant L858R epidermal growth factor receptor. Overall, these results indicate that Kras DNA vaccine produces an effective antitumor response in transgenic mice, and may be useful in treating lung cancer-carrying Ras mutation.

  14. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  15. K-ras cancer gene mutations in lung tumors from female Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed transplacentally to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.

    PubMed

    Koujitani, Takatoshi; Ton, Tai-Vu T; Lahousse, Stephanie A; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Sills, Robert C

    2008-12-01

    A transplacental carcinogenicity study was conducted by exposing pregnant Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)/kg body weight (BW) daily for the duration of gestation (18-19 days) [National Toxicology Program,2006]. The incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in the 200 and 300 mg/kg groups was significantly higher (P = 0.027 and 0.007, respectively) in male offspring, but not in females (P = 0.338 and 0.315, respectively). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate K-ras mutation status in lung tumors from the female offspring in AZT exposed groups and to determine whether at the molecular level there were signature K-ras mutations in lung tumors that were different from spontaneous tumors. K-ras mutation was detected by cycle sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA, isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tumors. K-ras mutations were detected in 17 of 28 (61%) lung tumors from the female offspring in AZT exposed groups. No K-ras mutations were detected in the 8 tumors examined from the female control group. The predominant mutations were Codon 12 G-->T transversions in the 50, 100, and 300 mg/kg groups, and Codon 12 G-->C transversions in the 200 and 300 mg/kg groups. K-ras Codon 12 G-->T transversions (TGT mutations) may be induced by oxidative DNA damage and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), while K-ras Codon 12 G-->C transversions (CGT mutations) may be due to further oxidative lesions of guanine and 8-oxoG.

  16. Influence of anatomical subsite on the incidence of microsatellite instability, and KRAS and BRAF mutation rates in patients with colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Benedix, Frank; Meyer, Frank; Kube, Rainer; Kropf, Siegfried; Kuester, Doerthe; Lippert, Hans; Roessner, Albert; Krüger, Sabine

    2012-10-15

    There is a growing amount of data supporting the concept that cancers originating from the proximal and distal colon are distinct clinicopathological entities. The incidence of MSI and BRAF mutation is strongly associated with right sided tumor location, whereas there are conflicting results for KRAS mutation rates. However, to date, no data exist whether and to what extent defined colonic subsites influence MSI status, KRAS and BRAF mutation rates. We selected primary colon cancer from 171 patients operated on at our institution between 2007 and 2010. BRAF, KRAS mutation rates and microsatellite instability were determined and correlated with clinicopathological features and tumor location. MSI-h cancers were significantly associated with poor histological grade but a lower rate of distant metastases. KRAS-mutated tumors were linked to lower T-stage and better differentiation. Colon carcinomas with BRAF mutation were significantly associated with distant metastatic spread and poor histological grade. Furthermore, we found that MSI-h status, KRAS and BRAF mutation rates varied remarkably among the colonic subsites irrespective of right- and left-sided origin, respectively. The results of the current study provide further evidence that a simple classification into right- and left-sided colon carcinoma does not represent the complexity of this tumor entity.

  17. Treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME provides a survival advantage in a mouse model of Kras mutation-positive, non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, MengMeng; Counter, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the gene KRAS are commonly detected in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This disease is inherently difficult to treat, and combinations involving platinum-based drugs remain the therapeutic mainstay. In terms of novel, pharmacologically actionable targets, nitric oxide synthases (NOS) have been implicated in the etiology of KRAS-driven cancers, including lung cancer, and small molecular weight NOS inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of other diseases. Thus, we evaluated the anti-neoplastic activity of the oral NOS inhibitor L-NAME in a randomized preclinical trial using a genetically engineered mouse model of Kras and p53 mutation-positive NSCLC. We report here that L-NAME decreased lung tumor growth in vivo, as assessed by sequential radiological imaging, and provided a survival advantage, perhaps the most difficult clinical parameter to improve upon. Moreover, L-NAME enhanced the therapeutic benefit afforded by carboplatin chemotherapy, provided it was administered as maintenance therapy after carboplatin. Collectively, these results support the clinical evaluation of L-NAME for the treatment of KRAS mutation-positive NSCLC. PMID:27285753

  18. Deubiquitinase USP18 Loss Mislocalizes and Destabilizes KRAS in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mustachio, Lisa Maria; Lu, Yun; Tafe, Laura J; Memoli, Vincent; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Mino, Barbara; Villalobos, Pamela Andrea; Wistuba, Ignacio; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Hanash, Samir M; Roszik, Jason; Kawakami, Masanori; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Hancock, John F; Chinyengetere, Fadzai; Hu, Shanhu; Liu, Xi; Freemantle, Sarah J; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2017-02-27

    KRAS is frequently mutated in lung cancers and is associated with aggressive biology and chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed to treat these lung cancers. Prior work implicated the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) deubiquitinase (DUB) USP18 as having anti-neoplastic activity by regulating lung cancer growth and oncoprotein stability. This study demonstrates that USP18 affects the stability of the KRAS oncoprotein. Interestingly, loss of USP18 reduced KRAS expression and engineered gain of USP18 expression increased KRAS protein levels in lung cancer cells. Using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX), USP18 knockdown significantly reduced the half-life of KRAS, but gain of USP18 expression significantly increased its stability. Intriguingly, loss of USP18 altered KRAS subcellular localization by mislocalizing KRAS from the plasma membrane. To explore the biological consequences, immunohistochemical (IHC) expression profiles of USP18 were compared in lung cancers of KrasLA2/+ versus cyclin E engineered mouse models. USP18 expression was higher in Kras-driven murine lung cancers, indicating a link between KRAS and USP18 expression in vivo. To solidify this association, loss of Usp18 in KrasLA2/+/Usp18-/- mice was found to significantly reduce lung cancers as compared to parental KrasLA2/+ mice. Lastly, translational relevance was confirmed in a human lung cancer panel by showing USP18 IHC expression was significantly higher in KRAS mutant versus wild-type lung adenocarcinomas.

  19. Cutaneous metastasis as an initial presentation of lung adenocarcinoma with KRAS mutation: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenhong; Karbowitz, Stephen R.; Morgenstern, Nora; Rose, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis as an initial presentation occurs in 0.8% of patients with internal malignancies, and is poorly understood in its molecular pathogenesis. We reported a case in which a 61-year-old male patient initially presented with rapidly growing skin nodule on his left chest wall, then developed dyspnea and loss of weight. Echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion with right ventricular collapse. PET/CT revealed moderate pleural effusion and multiple lymphadenopathies with hypermetabolic concentration of radiotracer in the lymph nodes as well as in the chest wall skin mass. Biopsy of the skin mass and pericardial/pleural fluids revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma consistent with lung primary with KRAS mutation. Palliative chemotherapy was administered without resulting in any improvement. This is the first case report to show that KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma can be associated with cutaneous metastasis. PMID:27358853

  20. Association of K-ras codon 12 transversions with short survival in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vega, F; Iniesta, P; Caldes, T; Sanchez, A; Lopez, J; Dejuan, C; Diazrubio, E; Torres, A; Balibrea, J; Benito, M

    1996-12-01

    K-ras activating point mutations appear to have a role in human lung cancer, however, the prognostic significance of these abnormalities remains unclear. The aim of our work was to clarify the role of K-ras mutations as prognostic indicators in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We studied 94 resected primary NSCLCs for K-ras mutations by the PCR-RFLP technique, followed by sequencing. K-ras activating mutations were present in 34% of tumors, a higher incidence being detected in adenocarcinomas. Comparing the impact of K-ras mutation types, we found that K-ras transversions were associated with a shorter survival in NSCLC.

  1. The S492R EGFR ectodomain mutation is never detected in KRAS wild-type colorectal carcinoma before exposure to EGFR monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Claudia; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; La Porta, Maria Libera; Sacco, Alessandra; Roma, Cristin; Iannaccone, Alessia; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Forgione, Laura; Pasquale, Raffaella; Barbaro, Americo; Botti, Gerardo; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Normanno, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    The activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) is significantly limited by molecular mechanisms leading to intrinsic or acquired resistance. The S492R mutation of the EGFR, which is caused by either the 1476C>A or the 1474A>C substitution, interferes with binding to cetuximab but not to panitumumab, and has been detected in mCRC with acquired resistance to cetuximab. Since mechanisms of acquired and intrinsic resistance to EGFR monoclonal antibodies in CRC significantly overlap, we evaluated the frequency of the S492R mutation in a series of KRAS-exon 2 wild-type CRC patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues that were obtained from 505 systemic therapy-naïve CRC patients. A PCR/sequencing method for the detection of the S492R mutation was developed, by using as positive control a plasmid in which the 1474A>C mutation was generated by site directed mutagenesis. The lowest level of detection of this assay was approximately 10% mutant DNA in a background of wild-type DNA. PCR sequencing analysis revealed no S492R mutations in any of the analyzed 505 CRC specimens. Our findings suggest that the S492R mutation is not involved in primary resistance to cetuximab in CRC. Therefore, patients with mCRC should not be routinely screened for this mutation prior therapy with cetuximab.

  2. High-Throughput Mutation Profiling of Primary and Metastatic Endometrial Cancers Identifies KRAS, FGFR2 and PIK3CA to Be Frequently Mutated

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Danila; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Petersen, Kjell; Mjøs, Siv; Hoivik, Erling A.; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari Kyllesø; Øyan, Anne M.; Kalland, Karl-Henning; Werner, Henrica Maria Johanna; Trovik, Jone; Salvesen, Helga

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite being the most common pelvic gynecologic malignancy in industrialized countries, no targeted therapies are available for patients with metastatic endometrial carcinoma. In order to improve treatment, underlying molecular characteristics of primary and metastatic disease must be explored. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized the mass spectrometric-based mutation detection technology OncoMap to define the types and frequency of point somatic mutations in endometrial cancer. 67 primary tumors, 15 metastases corresponding to 7 of the included primary tumors and 11 endometrial cancer cell lines were screened for point mutations in 28 known oncogenes. We found that 27 (40.3%) of 67 primary tumors harbored one or more mutations with no increase in metastatic lesions. FGFR2, KRAS and PIK3CA were consistently the most frequently mutated genes in primary tumors, metastatic lesions and cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Our results emphasize the potential for targeting FGFR2, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations in endometrial cancer for development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23300780

  3. Prevalence and coexistence of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, TP53, and APC mutations in Indian colorectal cancer patients: Next-generation sequencing-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jauhri, Mayank; Bhatnagar, Akanksha; Gupta, Satish; Bp, Manasa; Minhas, Sachin; Shokeen, Yogender; Aggarwal, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal cancer incidences are on a rise in India. In this study, we have analyzed the mutation frequencies of six potential biomarkers, their coexistence, association with clinicopathological characteristics, and tumor location in Indian colorectal cancer patients. Next-generation sequencing was performed to identify mutations in the six potential biomarker genes using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 112 colorectal cancer patients. The mutation frequency observed in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, TP53, and APC was 35.7%, 7.1%, 16.1%, 6.3%, 39.3%, and 29.5%, respectively. The significant associations of mutations were KRAS with age less than 60 years (p = 0.041), PIK3CA with males (p = 0.032), tumor stage I-II (p = 0.013), lack of metastasis in lymph nodes (p = 0.040), NRAS with rectum (p = 0.002), and APC with T2 stage of tumor growth (p = 0.013). No single patient harbored mutations in these six genes or any five genes simultaneously. Significance was noted in coexistence of KRAS with APC (p = 0.024) and mutual exclusion of KRAS with BRAF (p = 0.029). PIK3CA exon 9 was observed to be more frequently associated with KRAS mutations than PIK3CA exon 20 (p = 0.072). NRAS mutations were mutually exclusive with BRAF and PIK3CA mutations. As per our knowledge, this is the first next-generation sequencing-based biomarker study in Indian colorectal cancer patients. Frequent coexistence of gene mutations in pairs and triplets suggests that synergistic effect of overlapping mutations might further trigger the disease. In addition, infrequent coexistence of multiple gene mutations hints toward different signaling pathways for colorectal cancer tumorigenesis.

  4. Oncogenic KRAS signalling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Eser, S; Schnieke, A; Schneider, G; Saur, D

    2014-08-26

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost universally fatal. The annual number of deaths equals the number of newly diagnosed cases, despite maximal treatment. The overall 5-year survival rate of <5% has remained stubbornly unchanged over the last 30 years, despite tremendous efforts in preclinical and clinical science. There is unquestionably an urgent need to further improve our understanding of pancreatic cancer biology, treatment response and relapse, and to identify novel therapeutic targets. Rigorous research in the field has uncovered genetic aberrations that occur during PDAC development and progression. In most cases, PDAC is initiated by oncogenic mutant KRAS, which has been shown to drive pancreatic neoplasia. However, all attempts to target KRAS directly have failed in the clinic and KRAS is widely assumed to be undruggable. This has led to intense efforts to identify druggable critical downstream targets and nodes orchestrated by mutationally activated KRAS. This includes context-specific KRAS effector pathways, synthetic lethal interaction partners and KRAS-driven metabolic changes. Here, we review recent advances in oncogenic KRAS signalling and discuss how these might benefit PDAC treatment in the future.

  5. Higher metastatic efficiency of KRas G12V than KRas G13D in a colorectal cancer model.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Patricia; Gallardo, Alberto; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Casanova, Isolda; Trias, Manuel; Mangues, María Antonia; Lopez-Pousa, Antonio; Villaverde, Antonio; Vázquez, Esther; Bardelli, Alberto; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Mangues, Ramón

    2015-02-01

    Although all KRas (protein that in humans is encoded by the KRas gene) point mutants are considered to have a similar prognostic capacity, their transformation and tumorigenic capacities vary widely. We compared the metastatic efficiency of KRas G12V (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog with valine mutation at codon 12) and KRas G13D (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog with aspartic mutation at codon 13) oncogenes in an orthotopic colorectal cancer (CRC) model. Following subcutaneous preconditioning, recombinant clones of the SW48 CRC cell line [Kras wild-type (Kras WT)] expressing the KRas G12V or KRas G13D allele were microinjected in the mouse cecum. The percentage of animals developing lymph node metastasis was higher in KRas G12V than in KRas G13D mice. Microscopic, macroscopic, and visible lymphatic foci were 1.5- to 3.0-fold larger in KRas G12V than in KRas G13D mice (P < 0.05). In the lung, only microfoci were developed in both groups. KRas G12V primary tumors had lower apoptosis (7.0 ± 1.2 vs. 7.4 ± 1.0 per field, P = 0.02), higher tumor budding at the invasion front (1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1, P = 0.04), and a higher percentage of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-overexpressing intravasated tumor emboli (49.8 ± 9.4% vs. 12.8 ± 4.4%, P < 0.001) than KRas G13D tumors. KRas G12V primary tumors showed Akt activation, and β5 integrin, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and Serpine-1 overexpression, whereas KRas G13D tumors showed integrin β1 and angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2) overexpression. The increased cell survival, invasion, intravasation, and specific molecular regulation observed in KRas G12V tumors is consistent with the higher aggressiveness observed in patients with CRC expressing this oncogene.

  6. A RAS renaissance: emerging targeted therapies for KRAS-mutated non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Neil; Boyer, Julie L; Herbst, Roy S

    2014-08-01

    Of the numerous oncogenes implicated in human cancer, the most common and perhaps the most elusive to target pharmacologically is RAS. Since the discovery of RAS in the 1960s, numerous studies have elucidated the mechanism of activity, regulation, and intracellular trafficking of the RAS gene products, and of its regulatory pathways. These pathways yielded druggable targets, such as farnesyltransferase, during the 1980s to 1990s. Unfortunately, early clinical trials investigating farnesyltransferase inhibitors yielded disappointing results, and subsequent interest by pharmaceutical companies in targeting RAS waned. However, recent advances including the identification of novel regulatory enzymes (e.g., Rce1, Icmt, Pdeδ), siRNA-based synthetic lethality screens, and fragment-based small-molecule screens, have resulted in a "Ras renaissance," signified by new Ras and Ras pathway-targeted therapies that have led to new clinical trials of patients with Ras-driven cancers. This review gives an overview of KRas signaling pathways with an emphasis on novel targets and targeted therapies, using non-small cell lung cancer as a case example.

  7. A RAS Renaissance: Emerging Targeted Therapies for KRAS-Mutated Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vasan, Neil; Boyer, Julie; Herbst, Roy S.

    2017-01-01

    Of the numerous oncogenes implicated in human cancer, the most common and perhaps the most elusive to target pharmacologically is RAS. Since the discovery of RAS in the 1960s, numerous studies have elucidated the mechanism of activity, regulation, and intracellular trafficking of the RAS gene products, and of its regulatory pathways. These pathways yielded druggable targets, such as farnesyltransferase during the 1980s–1990s. Unfortunately, early clinical trials investigating farnesyltransferase inhibitors yielded disappointing results, and subsequent interest by pharmaceutical companies in targeting RAS waned. However, recent advances including the identification of novel regulatory enzymes (e.g. Rce1, Icmt, Pdeδ), siRNA-based synthetic lethality screens, and fragment-based small molecule screens have resulted in a “Ras renaissance”, signified by new Ras and Ras-pathway targeted therapies that have led to new clinical trials of patients with Ras-driven cancers. This review gives an overview of KRas signaling pathways with an emphasis on novel targets and targeted therapies, using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a case example. PMID:24893629

  8. Optimization of melting analysis with TaqMan probes for detection of KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Irina V; Nechaeva, Irina O; Stroganova, Аnna М; Senderovich, Anastasia I; Kondratova, Valentina N; Shelepov, Valery P; Lichtenstein, Anatoly V

    2015-12-15

    The TaqMan probes that have been long and effectively used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may also be used in DNA melting analysis. We studied some factors affecting efficiency of the approach such as (i) number of asymmetric PCR cycles preceding DNA melting analysis, (ii) choice of fluorophores for the multiplex DNA melting analysis, and (iii) choice of sense or antisense TaqMan probes for optimal resolution of wild-type and mutant alleles. We also determined ΔTm (i.e., the temperature shift of a heteroduplex relative to the corresponding homoduplex) as a means of preliminary identification of mutation type. In experiments with serial dilution of mutant KRAS DNA with wild-type DNA, the limit of detection of mutant alleles was 1.5-3.0%. Using DNA from both tumor and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we demonstrated a high efficiency of TaqMan probes in mono- and multiplex mutation scanning of KRAS, NRAS (codons 12, 13, and 61), and BRAF (codon 600) genes. This cost-effective method, which can be applied to practically any mutation hot spot in the human genome, combines simplicity, ease of execution, and high sensitivity-all of the qualities required for clinical genotyping.

  9. Assessment of MAGE-A expression in resected non-small cell lung cancer in relation to clinicopathologic features and mutational status of EGFR and KRAS.

    PubMed

    Ayyoub, Maha; Memeo, Lorenzo; Alvarez-Fernández, Emilio; Colarossi, Cristina; Costanzo, Rosario; Aiello, Eleonora; Martinetti, Daniela; Valmori, Danila

    2014-10-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major public health problem, accounting for more cancer-related deaths than any other cancer. Both immunotherapy, based on the expression of tumor-specific antigens, and targeted therapy, based on the presence of oncogenic mutations, are under development for NSCLC. In this study, we analyzed the expression of MAGE-A, a cancer-testis antigen, in tumors from a cohort of patients with resected NSCLC with respect to their clinicopathologic characteristics and their mutational status for the EGFR and KRAS genes. We found MAGE-A expression by IHC in 43% of the tumors. MAGE-A expression was significantly more frequent in squamous tumors than in adenocarcinomas, did not correlate with disease stage, but was correlated significantly with high tumor grade and worse survival. EGFR and KRAS mutations were present in adenocarcinomas, but not in squamous tumors. Whereas the presence of EGFR mutations did not seem to affect survival, the presence of KRAS mutations was associated with early-stage disease and better survival. MAGE-A expression was absent from adenocarcinomas with KRAS mutations, but not significantly different in tumors with or without EGFR mutations. Together, the reported results provide guidance for the design of combination therapies in patients with NSCLC.

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration plus KRAS and GNAS mutation in malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Bournet, Barbara; Vignolle-Vidoni, Alix; Grand, David; Roques, Céline; Breibach, Florence; Cros, Jérome; Muscari, Fabrice; Carrère, Nicolas; Selves, Janick; Cordelier, Pierre; Buscail, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background: KRAS and GNAS mutations are common in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia of the pancreas (IPMN). The aims of this study were to assess the role of pre-therapeutic cytopathology combined with KRAS and GNAS mutation assays within cystic fluid sampled by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) to predict malignancy of IPMN. Patients and methods: We prospectively included 37 IPMN patients with clinical and/or imaging predictors of malignancy (men: 24; mean age: 69.5 years). Cytopathology (performed on cystic fluid and/or IPMN nodules), KRAS (Exon 2, codon 12) and GNAS (Exon 8, codon 201) mutations assays (using TaqMan® allelic discrimination) were performed on EUS-FNA material. The final diagnosis was obtained from IPMN resections (n = 18); surgical biopsies, EUS-FNA analyses, and follow-up (n = 19): 10 and 27 IPMN were benign and malignant, respectively. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of cytopathology alone to diagnose IPMN malignancy were 55 %, 100 %, 100 %, 45 %, and 66 %, respectively. When KRAS-mutation analysis was combined with cytopathology these values were 92 %, 50 %, 83 %, 71 %, and 81 %, respectively. GNAS assays did not improve the performances of cytopathology alone or those of cytopathology plus a KRAS assay. Conclusions: In patients with a likelihood of malignant IPMN at pre-therapeutic investigation, testing for KRAS mutations in cystic fluid sampling by EUS-FNA improved the results of cytopathology for the diagnosis of malignancy whereas GNAS mutation assay did not. PMID:27995180

  11. Imaging Characteristics of Driver Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and ALK among Treatment-Naïve Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jangchul; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Urayama, Kevin Y.; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hida, Toyoaki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the computed tomography characteristics of treatment-naïve patients with lung adenocarcinoma and known driver mutations in EGFR, KRAS, or ALK. Patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIB–IV) and known mutations in EGFR, KRAS, or ALK were assessed. The radiological findings for the main tumor and intra-thoracic status were retrospectively analyzed in each group, and the groups’ characteristics were compared. We identified 265 treatment-naïve patients with non-small-cell carcinoma, who had EGFR mutations (n = 159), KRAS mutations (n = 55), or ALK rearrangements (n = 51). Among the three groups, we evaluated only patients with stage IIIB–IV lung adenocarcinoma who had EGFR mutations (n = 126), KRAS mutations (n = 35), or ALK rearrangements (n = 47). We found that ground-glass opacity at the main tumor was significantly more common among EGFR-positive patients, compared to ALK-positive patients (p = 0.009). Lymphadenopathy was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients (p = 0.003). Extranodal invasion was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients and KRAS-positive patients (p = 0.001 and p = 0.049, respectively). Lymphangitis was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients (p = 0.049). Pleural effusion was significantly less common among KRAS-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients and ALK-positive patients (p = 0.046 and p = 0.026, respectively). Lung metastases were significantly more common among EGFR-positive patients, compared to KRAS-positive patients and ALK-positive patients (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). In conclusion, EGFR mutations were associated with ground-glass opacity, KRAS-positive tumors were generally solid and less likely to metastasize to the lung and pleura, and ALK-positive tumors tended to present with lymphadenopathy, extranodal

  12. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy Te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-10-04

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations.

  13. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations. PMID:27698462

  14. Comparison of COBAS 4800 KRAS, TaqMan PCR and high resolution melting PCR assays for the detection of KRAS somatic mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Harlé, Alexandre; Busser, Benoit; Rouyer, Marie; Harter, Valentin; Genin, Pascal; Leroux, Agnès; Merlin, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-01

    Many studies documented the influence of KRAS mutation status on the response of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. The COBAS 4800 KRAS is an assay using real time PCR and TaqMelt technology, CE-IVD validated, for the detection of 19 KRAS somatic mutations in exons 2 and 3. We compared COBAS with previously validated PCR TaqMan and High Resolution Melting (HRM) assays on 156 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens of colorectal carcinoma. DNA extraction procedures, using the Qiagen QiAMP kit and the Roche COBAS DNA kit, were also compared. Of the 156 samples, 132 were interpretable using COBAS and TaqMan and 92 using COBAS and HRM. No statistically significant difference was found between COBAS/TaqMan and COBAS/HRM (k = 0.937; p < 0.001 - four discordant cases were found, mostly concerning codon 61 mutations and k = 0.891; p < 0.001 - five discordant cases were found, three regarding codon 61 and two on codon 12/13, respectively). No difference was found between the two DNA extraction methods (t = 1.7185; dol = 39; α = 5 %). The three assays were found suitable to detect accurately KRAS mutations in colon FFPE specimens. COBAS and TaqMan were found to be more robust than HRM, as they yielded fewer non-interpretable results. DNA extraction kits were found to provide equivalent results. The present study shows that pre-screening using COBAS with further TaqMan mutation characterization constitutes an easy and reliable approach for routine diagnostic purposes.

  15. Higher quality of molecular testing, an unfulfilled priority: Results from external quality assessment for KRAS mutation testing in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tembuyser, Lien; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Normanno, Nicola; Delen, Sofie; van Krieken, J Han; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C

    2014-05-01

    Precision medicine is now a key element in clinical oncology. RAS mutational status is a crucial predictor of responsiveness to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents in metastatic colorectal cancer. In an effort to guarantee high-quality testing services in molecular pathology, the European Society of Pathology has been organizing an annual KRAS external quality assessment program since 2009. In 2012, 10 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, of which 8 from invasive metastatic colorectal cancer tissue and 2 artificial samples of cell line material, were sent to more than 100 laboratories from 26 countries with a request for routine KRAS testing. Both genotyping and clinical reports were assessed independently. Twenty-seven percent of the participants genotyped at least 1 of 10 samples incorrectly. In total, less than 5% of the distributed specimens were genotyped incorrectly. Genotyping errors consisted of false negatives, false positives, and incorrectly genotyped mutations. Twenty percent of the laboratories reported a technical error for one or more samples. A review of the written reports showed that several essential elements were missing, most notably a clinical interpretation of the test result, the method sensitivity, and the use of a reference sequence. External quality assessment serves as a valuable educational tool in assessing and improving molecular testing quality and is an important asset for monitoring quality assurance upon incorporation of new biomarkers in diagnostic services.

  16. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    PubMed

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  17. KRAS — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The KRAS gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region.

  18. Endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-08-15

    K-ras is one of the most frequently mutated genes in virtually all types of human cancers. Using mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitors as a model system, we studied the role of endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation. When oncogenic K-ras is expressed from its endogenous promoter, it hyperactivates cytokine-dependent signaling pathways and results in a partial block in erythroid differentiation. In erythroid progenitors deficient in K-ras, cytokine-dependent Akt activation is greatly reduced, leading to delays in erythroid differentiation. Thus, both loss- and gain-of-Kras functions affect erythroid differentiation through modulation of cytokine signaling. These results support the notion that in human cancer patients oncogenic Ras signaling might be controlled by antagonizing essential cytokines.

  19. Analysis of EGFR, KRAS and P53 mutations in lung cancer using cells in the curette lavage fluid obtained by bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Fumihiro; Kugawa, Satoshi; Tateno, Hidetsugu; Kokubu, Fumio; Fukuchi, Kunihiko

    2012-12-01

    Histopathological samples are commonly used for molecular testing to detect both oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using curette lavage fluid for molecular testing to detect EGFR, KRAS and P53 mutations in lung cancer patients. Samples were obtained from 77 lung cancer patients by bronchoscopy at the time of diagnosis, collected by scraping the site of the primary tumor lesion with a curette. DNA was extracted from cells in the curette lavage fluid, and PCRs were performed to amplify mutation hot spot regions in the EGFR, KRAS and P53 genes. The PCR products were direct-sequenced to detect mutations of each gene. The reference sequence of each gene was obtained from GenBank. Overall, 27% (21 of 77) were found with EGFR mutations, 1% (1 of 77) with KRAS mutations, and 36% (28 of 77) with P53 mutations. KRAS mutations were not detected in patients harboring mutations in either EGFR or P53. P53 mutations were identified in 38% (8 of 21) of the patients with EGFR mutations, all of who had advanced lung cancer. Of these patients, a 62-year-old female current smoker was given EGFR-TKI as third-line therapy, with no improvement in clinical symptoms or results of radiographic examination. Multivariate analysis indicated that P53 mutation rates in advanced-stage lung cancer were significantly higher than those in early-stage lung cancer (P=.017). In contrast, EGFR mutation rates were not significantly associated with staging. L747S in EGFR, described as a mutation associated with secondary resistance to EGFR-TKI, was detected in three patients who had never received EGFR-TKI, including one SCLC patient. It is possible to analyze EGFR, KRAS and P53 mutations using curette lavage fluid collected from lung cancer patients. This is useful when sufficient amounts of tumor samples cannot be obtained. Data from the current study suggest that EGFR mutations in concert with P53 mutations accelerate cancer

  20. Molecular spectrum of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, and APC somatic gene mutations in Arab patients with colorectal cancer: determination of frequency and distribution pattern

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shamsi, Humaid O.; Jones, Jeremy; Fahmawi, Yazan; Dahbour, Ibrahim; Tabash, Aziz; Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Abousamra, Ahmed O. S.; Shaw, Kenna R.; Xiao, Lianchun; Hassan, Manal M.; Kipp, Benjamin R.; Kopetz, Scott; Soliman, Amr S.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Wolff, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The frequency rates of mutations such as KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA in colorectal cancer (CRC) differ among populations. The aim of this study was to assess mutation frequencies in the Arab population and determine their correlations with certain clinicopathological features. Methods Arab patients from the Arab Gulf region and a population of age- and sex-matched Western patients with CRC whose tumors were evaluated with next-generation sequencing (NGS) were identified and retrospectively reviewed. The mutation rates of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, and APC were recorded, along with clinicopathological features. Other somatic mutation and their rates were also identified. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine the association between mutation status and clinical features. Results A total of 198 cases were identified; 99 Arab patients and 99 Western patients. Fifty-two point seven percent of Arab patients had stage IV disease at initial presentation, 74.2% had left-sided tumors. Eighty-nine point two percent had tubular adenocarcinoma and 10.8% had mucinous adenocarcinoma. The prevalence rates of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, APC, SMAD, FBXW7 mutations in Arab population were 44.4%, 4%, 4%, 13.1%, 52.5%, 27.3%, 2% and 3% respectively. Compared to 48.4%, 4%, 4%, 12.1%, 47.5%, 24.2%, 11.1% and 0% respectively in matched Western population. Associations between these mutations and patient clinicopathological features were not statistically significant. Conclusions This is the first study to report comprehensive hotspot mutations using NGS in Arab patients with CRC. The frequency of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, TP53, APC and PIK3CA mutations were similar to reported frequencies in Western population except SMAD4 that had a lower frequency and higher frequency of FBXW7 mutation. PMID:28078112

  1. Akt mediated ROS-dependent selective targeting of mutant KRAS tumors.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Kartini; Rezlan, Majidah; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in a variety of cellular processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to cell death. Previously, we reported the ability of a small molecule compound, C1, to induce ROS dependent autophagy associated apoptosis in human cancer cell lines and primary tumor cells (Wong C. et al. 2010). Our ongoing investigations have unraveled a hitherto undefined novel signaling network involving hyper-phosphorylation of Akt and Akt-mediated ROS production in cancer cell lines. Interestingly, drug-induced Akt activation is selectively seen in cell lines that carry mutant KRAS; HCT116 cells that carry the V13D KRAS mutation respond favorably to C1 while HT29 cells expressing wild type KRAS are relatively resistant. Of note, not only does the compound target mutant KRAS expressing cells but also induces RAS activation as evidenced by the PAK pull down assay. Corroborating this, pharmacological inhibition as well as siRNA mediated silencing of KRAS or Akt, blocked C1-induced ROS production and rescued tumor colony forming ability in HCT116 cells. To further confirm the involvement of KRAS, we made use of mutant KRAS transformed RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells. Notably, drug-induced ROS generation and death sensitivity was significantly higher in RWPE-1-KRAS cells than the RWPE-1-vector cells, thus confirming the results obtained with mutant KRAS colorectal carcinoma cell line. Lastly, we made use of HCT116 mutant KRAS knockout cells (KO) where the mutant KRAS allele had been deleted, thus expressing a single wild-type KRAS allele. Exposure of the KO cells to C1 failed to induce Akt activation and mitochondrial ROS production. Taken together, results show the involvement of activated Akt in ROS-mediated selective targeting of mutant KRAS expressing tumors, which could have therapeutic implications given the paucity of chemotherapeutic strategies specifically targeting KRAS mutant cancers.

  2. Somatic mutation analysis of KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN in EGFR mutation-negative non-small cell lung carcinoma: determination of frequency, distribution pattern and identification of novel deletion in HER2 gene from Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Sangeet; Ahmad, Firoz; Das, Bibhu Ranjan

    2016-10-01

    Somatic mutations of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN genes are the most important molecular markers after the EGFR gene mutation. The current study evaluated the frequency and distribution pattern of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN mutation in Indian non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. The frequency of KRAS, BRAF, HER2, PTEN mutations was 6.4 % (14/204), 1.5 % (3/204), 1.5 % (3/204), 0 % (0/204), respectively. KRAS, BRAF, HER2 mutations were more prevalent in males than in females. KRAS and HER2 showed a trend of a higher frequency of mutation in the age group of <60 years, whereas BRAF mutations were more frequent in the age group of ≥60 years. Sequencing analysis of KRAS gene revealed c.34G>T (G12C) (n = 8), c.35G>A (G12D) (n = 3), c.35G>T (G12 V) (n = 1) and c.34G>T (G12C)/c.41T>C (V14A) (n = 2) mutations. Three different BRAF mutations (L584P: n = 1, V600E: n = 1, K601E: n = 1) were detected. Two cases harboured c.2324_2325ins12 (ATACGTGATGGC duplication) in HER2 gene, and one case was positive for NG_007503.2 (NM_001005862.2):c.2218-4del. It is less certain, but still quite possible that this mutation will affect splicing as the deletion of one C actually brings in one additional purine into the region. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates an instance of diverse nature of KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN gene in Indian patients and confirms that the frequency of these gene mutations varies globally. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Indian study to evaluate KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN gene mutations.

  3. K-ras mutations and mucin profile in preneoplastic lesions and colon tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Tarquini, Elena; Salvadori, Maddalena; Ferri, Stefania; Giannini, Augusto; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    K-ras and mucin profile variations, associated with intestinal carcinogenesis, were studied in the preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and in colonic tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The frequency of lesions with K-ras mutations was 23% (3/13), 5.5% (1/18) and 100% (14/14) in MDF, tumors and ACF, respectively. Two of three MDF mutated in K-ras also carried a missense mutation in Apc. We also tested the expression of MUC2, a mucin abundantly expressed in normal colon and M1/MUCA5C, up-regulated in colon carcinogenesis, using immunohistochemistry. MDF and tumors showed a dramatic reduction in the expression of MUC2, whereas ACF showed only a slight reduction. The expression of M1/MUC5AC was almost absent in normal mucosa, but was increased in all the lesions (MDF, tumors and ACF). The expression of the intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), a marker of goblet cell lineage, was reduced in MDF and tumors compared to normal mucosa but not in ACF. In conclusion, although K-ras mutations are present in all ACF, they are less frequent in MDF and tumors; M1/MUC5AC is a marker associated with all preneoplastic events while the reduction of MUC2 and ITF expression is selectively associated with more advanced lesions such as MDF and tumors.

  4. SIRT2 deletion enhances KRAS-induced tumorigenesis in vivo by regulating K147 acetylation status

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Yong; Biancucci, Marco; Kang, Hong-Jun; O'Callaghan, Carol; Park, Seong-Hoon; Principe, Daniel R.; Jiang, Haiyan; Yan, Yufan; Satchell, Karla Fullner; Raparia, Kirtee; Gius, David; Vassilopoulos, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    The observation that cellular transformation depends on breaching a crucial KRAS activity threshold, along with the finding that only a small percentage of cellsharboring KRAS mutations are transformed, support the idea that additional, not fully uncovered, regulatory mechanisms may contribute to KRAS activation. Here we report that KrasG12D mice lacking Sirt2 show an aggressive tumorigenic phenotype as compared to KrasG12D mice. This phenotype includes increased proliferation, KRAS acetylation, and activation of RAS downstream signaling markers. Mechanistically, KRAS K147 is identified as a novel SIRT2-specific deacetylation target by mass spectrometry, whereas its acetylation status directly regulates KRAS activity, ultimately exerting an impact on cellular behavior as revealed by cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor growth. Given the significance of KRAS activity as a driver in tumorigenesis, identification of K147 acetylation as a novel post-translational modification directed by SIRT2 in vivo may provide a better understanding of the mechanistic link regarding the crosstalk between non-genetic and genetic factors in KRAS driven tumors. PMID:27637077

  5. Effectiveness of circulating tumor DNA for detection of KRAS gene mutations in colorectal cancer patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yi-Xin; Fu, Qiang; Guo, Yan-Yan; Ye, Ming; Zhao, Hui-Xia; Wang, Qi; Peng, Xiu-Mei; Li, Qiu-Wen; Wang, Ru-Liang; Xiao, Wen-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can be identified in the peripheral blood of patients and harbors the genomic alterations found in tumor tissues, which provides a noninvasive approach for detection of gene mutations. We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate whether ctDNA can be used for monitoring KRAS gene mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched for the included eligible studies in English, and data were extracted for statistical analysis according to the numbers of true-positive (TP), true-negative (TN), false-positive (FP) and false-negative (FN) cases. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. After independent searching and reviewing, 21 studies involving 1,812 cancer patients were analyzed. The overall sensitivity, specificity and DOR were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.55–0.78), 0.96 (95% CI =0.93–0.98) and 53.95 (95% CI =26.24–110.92), respectively. The AUROC was 0.95 (95% CI =0.92–0.96), which indicated the high diagnostic accuracy of ctDNA. After stratified analysis, we found the higher diagnostic accuracy in subgroup of patients detected in blood sample of plasma. The ctDNA may be an ideal source for detection of KRAS gene mutations in CRC patients with high specificity and diagnostic value. PMID:28243130

  6. The expression of SALL4 is significantly associated with EGFR, but not KRAS or EML4-ALK mutations in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiangbo; Qian, Rulin; Zhang, Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide; unfortunately, its prognosis is still very poor. Therefore, developing the target molecular is very important for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, especially in the early stage. With this in view, spalt-like transcription factor 4 (SALL4) is considered a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in cancers, including lung cancer. Methods In order to better investigate the association between the expression of SALL4 and driver genes mutation, 450 histopathologically diagnosed patients with lung cancer and 11 non-cancer patients were enrolled to test the expression of SALL4 and the status of driver genes mutation. This investigation included epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), and a fusion gene of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Results The results of the study showed that females harbored more EGFR mutation in adenocarcinoma (ADC). The mutation rate of KRAS and EML4-ALK was about 5%, and the double mutations of EGFR/EML4-ALK were higher than EGFR/KRAS. In the expression analysis, the expression of SALL4 was much higher in cancer tissues than normally expected, especially in tissues that carried EGFR mutation (P<0.05), however, there were no significant differences between different mutation types. Likewise, there were no significant differences between expression of SALL4 and KRAS and EML4-ALK mutations. Conclusions SALL4 is up regulated in lung cancer specimens and harbors EGFR mutation; this finding indicates that SALL4 expression may be relevant with EGFR, which could provide a new insight to lung cancer therapy. The mechanism needs further investigation and analysis. PMID:27867542

  7. Correlation of immunohistochemical staining p63 and TTF-1 with EGFR and K-ras mutational spectrum and diagnostic reproducibility in non small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thunnissen, Erik; Boers, Evan; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Grünberg, Katrien; Kuik, Dirk J; Noorduin, Arnold; van Oosterhout, Matthijs; Pronk, Divera; Seldenrijk, Cees; Sietsma, Hannie; Smit, Egbert F; van Suylen, Robertjan; von der Thusen, Jan; Vrugt, Bart; Wiersma, Anne; Witte, Birgit I; den Bakker, Michael

    2012-12-01

    For treatment purposes, distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma is important. The aim of this study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy on lung cancer small biopsies for the distinction between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and relate these to immunohistochemical and KRAS and EGFR mutation analysis. An interobserver study was performed on 110 prospectively collected biopsies obtained by bronchoscopy or transthoracic needle biopsy of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The diagnosis was correlated with immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for markers of adeno- (TTF1 and/or mucin positivity) and squamous cell differentiation (P63 and CK5/6) as well as KRAS and EGFR mutation analysis. Eleven observers independently read H&E-stained slides of 110 cases, resulting in a kappa value of 0.55 ± 0.10. The diagnosis non-small cell lung cancer not otherwise specified was given on average on 29.5 % of the biopsies. A high concordance was observed between hematoxylin-eosin-based consensus diagnosis (≥8/11 readings concordant) and IHC markers. In all cases with EGFR (n = 1) and KRAS (n = 20) mutations, adenodifferentiation as determined by IHC was present and p63 staining was absent. In 2 of 25 cases with a consensus diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, additional stainings favored adenodifferentation, and a KRAS mutation was present. P63 is most useful for distinction between EGFR/KRAS mutation positive and negative patients. In the diagnostic work-up of non-small cell lung carcinoma the limited reproducibility on small biopsies is optimized with immunohistochemical analysis, resulting in reliable delineation for predictive analysis.

  8. Different metabolic responses to PI3K inhibition in NSCLC cells harboring wild-type and G12C mutant KRAS

    PubMed Central

    Marabese, Mirko; Broggini, Massimo; Lupi, Monica; Pastorelli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    KRAS mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are considered a negative predictive factor and indicate poor response to anticancer treatments. KRAS mutations lead to activation of the PI3K/akt/mTOR pathway, whose inhibition remains a challenging clinical target. Since the PI3K/akt/mTOR pathway and KRAS oncogene mutations all have roles in cancer cell metabolism, we investigated whether the activity of PI3K/akt/mTOR inhibitors (BEZ235 and BKM120) in cells harboring different KRAS status is related to their metabolic effect. Isogenic NSCLC cell clones expressing wild-type (WT) and mutated (G12C) KRAS were used to determine the response to BEZ235 and BKM120. Metabolomics analysis indicated the impairment of glutamine in KRAS-G12C and serine metabolism in KRAS-WT, after pharmacological blockade of the PI3K signaling, although the net effect on cell growth, cell cycle distribution and caspase activation was similar. PI3K inhibitors caused autophagy in KRAS-WT, but not in KRAS-G12C, where there was a striking decrease in ammonia production, probably a consequence of glutamine metabolism impairment. These findings lay the grounds for more effective therapeutic combinations possibly distinguishing wild-type and mutated KRAS cancer cells in NSCLC, exploiting their different metabolic responses to PI3K/akt/mTOR inhibitors. PMID:27283493

  9. Roles of EGFR and KRAS Mutations in the Treatment Of Patients With Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Corey J.

    2011-01-01

    After decades of empirical treatment, molecular subtypes of non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are now emerging that may enable us to target treatment for patients and increase the likelihood of response. Of the biomarkers under evaluation, gene mutations are gaining recognition as predictive markers for anti–epidermal-growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. To date, unlike the situation in colorectal cancer, mutation of the v-Ki-Ras-2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) has an inconclusive role in NSCLC and should not be used to exclude patients from anti-EGFR therapy. For first-line NSCLC therapy, EGFR mutation status constitutes a prudent test to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from EGFR–tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy rather than from chemotherapy. In first-line maintenance and relapsed (second-line or third-line) settings, clinical data support the use of erlotinib (Tarceva), as currently indicated, without regard to evaluation of EGFR mutation status. All patient subsets have been shown to benefit with prolonged progression-free and overall survival. PMID:21785539

  10. [Scanning for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations by DNA melting analysis with TaqMan probes].

    PubMed

    Botezatu, I V; Panchuk, I O; Stroganova, A M; Senderovich, A I; Kondratova, V N; Shelepov, V P; Lichtenstein, A V

    2017-01-01

    Scanning for mutations by DNA melting analysis (DMA) is based on asymmetric PCR followed by the melting of duplexes formed by single-stranded amplicons with TaqMan probes. The method is optimally suited for clinical genetic testing; it is easy to perform, high-throughput, and sensitive. The detection limit of mutant alleles by the DMA method is about 3%, which is much higher than the sensitivity of Sanger sequencing. In addition, the DMA method is realized in a closed-tube format, while 2-h assay is carried out in a single tube without any intermediate or additional procedures thereby minimizing the risk of cross contamination of the samples. The validation of the DMA method was performed by scanning for mutations of clinically significant genes KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and   PIK3CA in 324 DNA samples from tumors of patients with melanoma, colorectal and lung cancer. DNA was isolated either directly from tumor tissues, or from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. The detected mutations were verified by Sanger sequencing. The spectra of mutations identified in each tumor type correspond to the literature data and, thus, validate the use of DMA.

  11. Suppression of KRas-mutant cancer through the combined inhibition of KRAS with PLK1 and ROCK

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieqiong; Hu, Kewen; Guo, Jiawei; Cheng, Feixiong; Lv, Jing; Jiang, Wenhao; Lu, Weiqiang; Liu, Jinsong; Pang, Xiufeng; Liu, Mingyao

    2016-01-01

    No effective targeted therapies exist for cancers with somatic KRAS mutations. Here we develop a synthetic lethal chemical screen in isogenic KRAS-mutant and wild-type cells to identify clinical drug pairs. Our results show that dual inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) leads to the synergistic effects in KRAS-mutant cancers. Microarray analysis reveals that this combinatory inhibition significantly increases transcription and activity of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1, leading to specific G2/M phase blockade in KRAS-mutant cells. Overexpression of p21WAF1/CIP1, either by cDNA transfection or clinical drugs, preferentially impairs the growth of KRAS-mutant cells, suggesting a druggable synthetic lethal interaction between KRAS and p21WAF1/CIP1. Co-administration of BI-2536 and fasudil either in the LSL-KRASG12D mouse model or in a patient tumour explant mouse model of KRAS-mutant lung cancer suppresses tumour growth and significantly prolongs mouse survival, suggesting a strong synergy in vivo and a potential avenue for therapeutic treatment of KRAS-mutant cancers. PMID:27193833

  12. KRAS mutation is a weak, but valid predictor for poor prognosis and treatment outcomes in NSCLC: A meta-analysis of 41 studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Yang, Yan; Zhu, Hongcheng; Zhang, Youcheng; Zhou, Rongping; Sun, Xinchen

    2016-02-16

    Mutation of oncogene KRAS is common in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, its clinical significance is still controversial. Independent studies evaluating its prognostic and predictive value usually drew inconsistent conclusions. Hence, We performed a meta-analysis with 41 relative publications, retrieved from multi-databases, to reconcile these controversial results and to give an overall impression of KRAS mutation in NSCLC. According to our findings, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in early stage resected NSCLC (hazard ratio or HR=1.56 and 1.57, 95% CI 1.39-1.76 and 1.17-2.09 respectively), and with inferior outcomes of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) treatment and chemotherapy (relative risk or RR=0.21 and 0.66 for objective response rate or ORR, 95% CI 0.12-0.39 and 0.54-0.81 respectively; HR=1.46 and 1.30 for progression-free survival or PFS, 95%CI 1.23-1.74 and 1.14-1.50 respectively) in advanced NSCLC. When EGFR mutant patients were excluded, KRAS mutation was still significantly associated with worse OS and PFS of EGFR-TKIs (HR=1.40 and 1.35, 95 % CI 1.21-1.61 and 1.11-1.64). Although KRAS mutant patients presented worse DFS and PFS of chemotherapy (HR=1.33 and 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.84 and 0.95-1.30), and lower response rate to EGFR-TKIs or chemotherapy (RR=0.55 and 0.88, 95 % CI 0.27-1.11 and 0.76-1.02), statistical differences were not met. In conclusion, KRAS mutation is a weak, but valid predictor for poor prognosis and treatment outcomes in NSCLC. There's a need for developing target therapies for KRAS mutant lung cancer and other tumors.

  13. Single-Tubed Wild-Type Blocking Quantitative PCR Detection Assay for the Sensitive Detection of Codon 12 and 13 KRAS Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Guang-Jie; Shi, Yan; Deng, Guo-Hong; Xia, Han; Xu, Han-Qing; Zhao, Na; Fu, Wei-Ling; Huang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The high degree of intra-tumor heterogeneity has meant that it is important to develop sensitive and selective assays to detect low-abundance KRAS mutations in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) patients. As a major potential source of tumor DNA in the aforementioned genotyping assays, it was necessary to conduct an analysis on both the quality and quantity of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE). Therefore, four commercial FFPE DNA extraction kits were initially compared with respect to their ability to facilitate extraction of amplifiable DNA. The results showed that TrimGen kits showed the greatest performance in relation to the quality and quantity of extracted FFPE DNA solutions. Using DNA extracted by TrimGen kits as a template for tumor genotyping, a real-time wild-type blocking PCR (WTB-PCR) assay was subsequently developed to detect the aforementioned KRAS mutations in mCRC patients. The results showed that WTB-PCR facilitated the detection of mutated alleles at a ratio of 1:10,000 (i.e. 0.01%) wild-type alleles. When the assay was subsequently used to test 49 mCRC patients, the results showed that the mutation detection levels of the WTB-PCR assay (61.8%; 30/49) were significantly higher than that of traditional PCR (38.8%; 19/49). Following the use of the real-time WTB-PCR assay, the ΔCq method was used to quantitatively analyze the mutation levels associated with KRAS in each FFPE sample. The results showed that the mutant levels ranged from 53.74 to 0.12% in the patients analyzed. In conclusion, the current real-time WTB-PCR is a rapid, simple, and low-cost method that permits the detection of trace amounts of the mutated KRAS gene. PMID:26701781

  14. Hyperplastic (serrated) polyps of the colorectum: relationship of CpG island methylator phenotype and K-ras mutation to location and histologic subtype.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J; Yang, Shi; Clebanoff, Jennifer L; Mulcahy, Elizabeth; Farraye, Francis A; Amorosino, Mark; Swan, Niall

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the frequency of promoter region CpG island methylation (CIM) of hMLH1, MGMT, MINT1, MINT2, and p16 and K-ras mutations in a total of 79 hyperplastic (serrated) polyps (HPs) from 75 patients and correlated the molecular profiles to polyp location in the colorectum, histologic variation, and other factors. Methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) was used to assay CIM status. HPs that showed CIM of one or more or two or more of the genes assayed were classified as CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and CIMP-high (CIMP-H), respectively. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to assay K-ras codon 12 and 13 mutations. Logistic regression indicated a statistically significant trend for increasing odds for CIMP (P = 0.002) and CIMP-H (P < 0.001) according to proximity to the cecum or distance from the rectum. Conversely, K-ras codon 12 mutation was present in 13 of 40 (32.5%) distally located HPs compared with 2 of 39 (5.1%) proximal HPs (P = 0.006). Histologic subtype distribution varied by proximal and distal locations. Frequency of CIMP in serrated polyps with abnormal proliferation (SPAPs), differed significantly from goblet cell serrated polyps (GCSPs) (24 of 26, 92.3% vs. 6 of 13, 46.2%) (P = 0.003) and microvesicular serrated polyps (MVSPs) (26 of 38, 68.4%) (P = 0.03). Frequency of K-ras mutation in GCSPs (7 of 13, 54%) differed from that of MVSPs (6 of 38, 16%) (P = 0.01) and SPAPs (2 of 26, 8%) (P = 0.003). Location in the colorectum and histologic subtype were major determinants of the molecular profile of HPs. The molecular findings of CIMP and K-ras mutations appear to encompass most if not all HPs; CIMP profiles suggest that SPAP is the most advanced morphologic variant. We postulate that MVSP and GCSP may be precursor lesions that, if proximally located or larger, can progress to SPAP. Frequent K-ras mutations and infrequent CIMP distinguish the distal GCSP variant.

  15. K-ras oncogene DNA sequences in pink salmon in streams impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill: no evidence of oil-induced heritable mutations.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Dunina, Yelena; Baker, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    It was hypothesized in previous studies that the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, induced heritable mutations and resulted in mortality of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) embryos. In one of these studies, laboratory exposure of pink salmon embryos to crude oil resulted in apparent mutation-induction in exon 1 and exon 2 of the K-ras oncogene, but no fish from the area impacted by the oil spill were analyzed. We assessed K-ras exon 1 and exon 2 DNA sequences in pink salmon from five streams that were oiled and five streams that were not oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, and two streams with natural oil seeps and one stream without seeps on the Alaska Peninsula. Of the 79 fish analyzed for exon 1 and the 89 fish analyzed for exon 2, none had the nucleotide substitutions representing the mutations induced in the laboratory study. Other variable nucleotides occurred in similar proportions in oiled and non-oiled streams and probably represent natural allelic variation. These data do not support the hypothesis that heritable mutations in the K-ras gene were induced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill or oil seeps.

  16. Oncogenic Kras is required for both the initiation and maintenance of pancreatic cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Meredith A.; Bednar, Filip; Zhang, Yaqing; Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Galbán, Stefanie; Galbán, Craig J.; Rakshit, Sabita; Flannagan, Karen S.; Adsay, N. Volkan; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is almost invariably associated with mutations in the KRAS gene, most commonly KRASG12D, that result in a dominant-active form of the KRAS GTPase. However, how KRAS mutations promote pancreatic carcinogenesis is not fully understood, and whether oncogenic KRAS is required for the maintenance of pancreatic cancer has not been established. To address these questions, we generated two mouse models of pancreatic tumorigenesis: mice transgenic for inducible KrasG12D, which allows for inducible, pancreas-specific, and reversible expression of the oncogenic KrasG12D, with or without inactivation of one allele of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Here, we report that, early in tumorigenesis, induction of oncogenic KrasG12D reversibly altered normal epithelial differentiation following tissue damage, leading to precancerous lesions. Inactivation of KrasG12D in established precursor lesions and during progression to cancer led to regression of the lesions, indicating that KrasG12D was required for tumor cell survival. Strikingly, during all stages of carcinogenesis, KrasG12D upregulated Hedgehog signaling, inflammatory pathways, and several pathways known to mediate paracrine interactions between epithelial cells and their surrounding microenvironment, thus promoting formation and maintenance of the fibroinflammatory stroma that plays a pivotal role in pancreatic cancer. Our data establish that epithelial KrasG12D influences multiple cell types to drive pancreatic tumorigenesis and is essential for tumor maintenance. They also strongly support the notion that inhibiting KrasG12D, or its downstream effectors, could provide a new approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22232209

  17. Amplification-free In Situ KRAS Point Mutation Detection at 60 copies/mL in Urine in a Background of 1000-fold Wild Type

    PubMed Central

    KirimLi, Ceyhun E.; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined in situ detection of single-nucleotide KRAS mutation in urine using a (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65(PbTiO3)0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) coated with a 17-nucleotide (nt) locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe DNA complementary to the KRAS mutation. To enhance in situ mutant (MT) DNA detection specificity against the wild type (WT), the detection was carried out in a flow with a flow rate of 4 mL/min and at 63°C with the PEPS vertically situated at the center of the flow in which both the temperature and the flow impingement force discriminated the wild type. Under such conditions, PEPS was shown to specifically detect KRAS MT in situ with 60 copies/mL analytical sensitivity in a background of clinically-relevant 1000-fold more WT in 30 min without DNA isolation, amplification, or labeling. For validation, the detection was followed with detection in a mixture of blue MT fluorescent reporter microspheres (FRMs) (MT FRMs) that bound to only the captured MT and orange WT FRMs that bound to only the captured WT. Microscopic examinations showed that the captured blue MT FRMs still outnumbered the orange WT FRMs by a factor of 4 to 1 even though WT was 1000-fold of MT in urine. Finally, multiplexed specific mutation detection was demonstrated using a 6-PEPS array each with a probe DNA targeting one of the 6 codon-12 KRAS mutations. PMID:26783561

  18. Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid Quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR): An Accurate and Cost-Effective Assay to Diagnose and Quantify KRAS and BRAF Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Luca; de Biase, Dario; Visani, Michela; Cesari, Valentina; De Maglio, Giovanna; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) requires the testing for hot spot mutations of the molecular effectors downstream the membrane-bound tyrosine kinases since their wild type status is expected for response to TKI therapy. We report a novel assay that we have called Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR). The assay uses LNA-modified allele specific primers and LNA-modified beacon probes to increase sensitivity, specificity and to accurately quantify mutations. We designed primers specific for codon 12/13 KRAS mutations and BRAF V600E, and validated the assay with 300 routine samples from a variety of sources, including cytology specimens. All were analyzed by ASLNAqPCR and Sanger sequencing. Discordant cases were pyrosequenced. ASLNAqPCR correctly identified BRAF and KRAS mutations in all discordant cases and all had a mutated/wild type DNA ratio below the analytical sensitivity of the Sanger method. ASLNAqPCR was 100% specific with greater accuracy, positive and negative predictive values compared with Sanger sequencing. The analytical sensitivity of ASLNAqPCR is 0.1%, allowing quantification of mutated DNA in small neoplastic cell clones. ASLNAqPCR can be performed in any laboratory with real-time PCR equipment, is very cost-effective and can easily be adapted to detect hot spot mutations in other oncogenes. PMID:22558339

  19. KRAS-mutation status dependent effect of zoledronic acid in human non-small cell cancer preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Kenessey, István; Kói, Krisztina; Horváth, Orsolya; Cserepes, Mihály; Molnár, Dávid; Izsák, Vera; Dobos, Judit; Hegedűs, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Background In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) KRAS-mutant status is a negative prognostic and predictive factor. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates inhibit prenylation of small G-proteins (e.g. Ras, Rac, Rho) and thus may affect proliferation and migration. In our preclinical work, we investigated the effect of an aminobisphosphonate compound (zoledronic acid) on mutant and wild type KRAS-expressing human NSCLC cell lines. Results We confirmed that zoledronic acid was unable to inhibit the prenylation of mutant K-Ras unlike in the case of wild type K-Ras. In case of in vitro proliferation, the KRAS-mutant human NSCLC cell lines showed resistance to zoledronic acid wild-type KRAS-cells proved to be sensitive. Combinatory application of zoledronic acid enhanced the cytostatic effect of cisplatin. Zoledronic acid did not induce significant apoptosis. In xenograft model, zoledronic acid significantly reduced the weight of wild type KRAS-EGFR-expressing xenograft tumor by decreasing the proliferative capacity. Futhermore, zoledronic acid induced VEGF expression and improved in vivo tumor vascularization. Materials and methods Membrane association of K-Ras was examined by Western-blot. In vitro cell viability, apoptotic cell death and migration were measured in NSCLC lines with different molecular background. The in vivo effect of zoledronic acid was investigated in a SCID mouse subcutaneous xenograft model. Conclusions The in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect of zoledronic acid was based on the blockade of cell cycle in wild type KRAS-expressing human NSCLC cells. The zoledronic acid induced vascularization supported in vivo cytostatic effect. Our preclinical investigation suggests that patients with wild type KRAS-expressing NSCLC could potentially benefit from aminobisphosphonate therapy. PMID:27780929

  20. TIMP-1 is under regulation of the EGF signaling axis and promotes an aggressive phenotype in KRAS-mutated colorectal cancer cells: A potential novel approach to the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Ib J.; Nordgaard, Cathrine; Noer, Julie; Guren, Tormod K.; Glimelius, Bengt; Sorbye, Halfdan; Ikdahl, Tone; Kure, Elin H.; Tveit, Kjell M.; Nielsen, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that therapeutic antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can have efficacy in KRAS wild-type advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. What remains to be ascertained is whether a subgroup of KRAS-mutated CRC patients might not also derive benefit from EGFR inhibitors. Metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1) is a pleiotropic factor predictive of survival outcome of CRC patients. Levels of TIMP-1 were measured in pre-treatment plasma samples (n = 426) of metastatic CRC patients randomized to Nordic FLOX (5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin) +/− cetuximab (NORDIC VII study). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between plasma TIMP-1 protein levels, KRAS status and treatment with patients bearing KRAS mutated tumors and high TIMP-1 plasma level (> 3rd quartile) showing a significantly longer overall survival if treated with cetuximab (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.93). To gain mechanistic insights into this association we analyzed a set of five different CRC cell lines. We show here that EGFR signaling induces TIMP-1 expression in CRC cells, and that TIMP-1 promotes a more aggressive behavior, specifically in KRAS mutated cells. The two sets of data, clinical and in vitro, are complementary and support each other, lending strength to our contention that TIMP- 1 plasma levels can identify a subset of patients with KRAS-mutated metastatic CRC that will have benefit from EGFR-inhibition therapy. PMID:27509063

  1. KRAS oncogene repression in colon cancer cell lines by G-quadruplex binding indolo[3,2-c]quinolines

    PubMed Central

    Lavrado, João; Brito, Hugo; Borralho, Pedro M.; Ohnmacht, Stephan A.; Kim, Nam-Soon; Leitão, Clara; Pisco, Sílvia; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.; Moreira, Rui; Neidle, Stephen; Paulo, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human cancer, yet remaining undruggable. To explore a new therapeutic strategy, a library of 5-methyl-indolo[3,2-c]quinoline derivatives (IQc) with a range of alkyldiamine side chains was designed to target DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes (G4) in the promoter and 5′-UTR mRNA of the KRAS gene. Biophysical experiments showed that di-substituted IQc compounds are potent and selective KRAS G4 stabilizers. They preferentially inhibit the proliferation of KRAS mutant cancer cell lines (0.22 < IC50 < 4.80 μM), down-regulate KRAS promoter activity in a luciferase reporter assay, and reduce both KRAS mRNA and p21KRAS steady-state levels in mutant KRAS colon cancer cell lines. Additionally, IQcs induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, explained in part by their capacity to repress KRAS expression. Overall, the results suggest that targeting mutant KRAS at the gene level with G4 binding small molecules is a promising anticancer strategy. PMID:25853628

  2. Downstream of Mutant KRAS, the Transcription Regulator YAP Is Essential for Neoplastic Progression to Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiying; Nandakumar, Nivedita; Shi, Yuhao; Manzano, Mark; Smith, Alias; Graham, Garrett; Gupta, Swati; Vietsch, Eveline E.; Laughlin, Sean Z.; Wadhwa, Mandheer; Chetram, Mahandranauth; Joshi, Mrinmayi; Wang, Fen; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Wellstein, Anton; Yi, Chunling

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor survival rates and frequently carries oncogenic KRAS mutation. However, KRAS has thus far not been a viable therapeutic target. We found that the abundance of YAP mRNA, which encodes Yes-associated protein (YAP), a protein regulated by the Hippo pathway during tissue development and homeostasis, was increased in human PDAC tissue compared with that in normal pancreatic epithelia. In genetically engineered KrasG12D and KrasG12D: Trp53R172H mouse models, pancreas-specific deletion of Yap halted the progression of early neoplastic lesions to PDAC without affecting normal pancreatic development and endocrine function. Although Yap was dispensable for acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initial step in the progression to PDAC, Yap was critically required for the proliferation of mutant Kras or Kras:Trp53 neoplastic pancreatic ductal cells in culture and for their growth and progression to invasive PDAC in mice. Yap functioned as a critical transcriptional switch downstream of the oncogenic KRAS–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, promoting the expression of genes encoding secretory factors that cumulatively sustained neoplastic proliferation, a tumorigenic stromal response in the tumor microenvironment, and PDAC progression in Kras and Kras: Trp53 mutant pancreas tissue. Together, our findings identified Yap as a critical oncogenic KRAS effector and a promising therapeutic target for PDAC and possibly other types of KRAS-mutant cancers. PMID:24803537

  3. KRAS Mutation Status and Clinical Outcome of Preoperative Chemoradiation With Cetuximab in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Phase II Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Shim, Eun Kyung; Yeo, Hyun Yang; Baek, Ji Yeon; Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Jee Hyun; Im, Seock-Ah; Jung, Kyung Hae; Chang, Hee Jin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cetuximab-containing chemotherapy is known to be effective for KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; however, it is not clear whether cetuximab-based preoperative chemoradiation confers an additional benefit compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status with direct sequencing and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression status with immunohistochemistry in tumor samples of 82 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were enrolled in the IRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine; n=44) or the ERBIRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine plus cetuximab; n=38). Both trials were similarly designed except for the administration of cetuximab; radiation therapy was administered at a dose of 50.4 Gy/28 fractions and irinotecan and capecitabine were given at doses of 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly and 1650 mg/m{sup 2}/day, respectively, for 5 days per week. In the ERBIRIX trial, cetuximab was additionally given with a loading dose of 400 mg/m{sup 2} on 1 week before radiation, and 250 mg/m{sup 2} weekly thereafter. Results: Baseline characteristics before chemoradiation were similar between the 2 trial cohorts. A KRAS mutation in codon 12, 13, and 61 was noted in 15 (34%) patients in the IRIX cohort and 5 (13%) in the ERBIRIX cohort (P=.028). Among 62 KRAS wild-type cancer patients, major pathologic response rate, disease-free survival and pathologic stage did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. No mutations were detected in BRAF exon 11 and 15, PIK3CA exon 9 and 20, or EGFR exon 18-24 in any of the 82 patients, and PTEN and EGFR expression were not predictive of clinical outcome. Conclusions: In patients with KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer, the addition of cetuximab to the chemoradiation with

  4. Mutant Kras- and p16-regulated NOX4 activation overcomes metabolic checkpoints in development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Huai-Qiang; Ying, Haoqiang; Tian, Tian; Ling, Jianhua; Fu, Jie; Lu, Yu; Wu, Min; Yang, Lifeng; Achreja, Abhinav; Chen, Gang; Zhuang, Zhuonan; Wang, Huamin; Nagrath, Deepak; Yao, Jun; Hung, Mien-Chie; DePinho, Ronald A.; Huang, Peng; Xu, Rui-Hua; Chiao, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Kras activation and p16 inactivation are required to develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying these double alterations remain unclear. Here we discover that NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (NOX4), an enzyme known to catalyse the oxidation of NAD(P)H, is upregulated when p16 is inactivated by looking at gene expression profiling studies. Activation of NOX4 requires catalytic subunit p22phox, which is upregulated following Kras activation. Both alterations are also detectable in PDAC cell lines and patient specimens. Furthermore, we show that elevated NOX4 activity accelerates oxidation of NADH and supports increased glycolysis by generating NAD+, a substrate for GAPDH-mediated glycolytic reaction, promoting PDAC cell growth. Mechanistically, NOX4 was induced through p16-Rb-regulated E2F and p22phox was induced by KrasG12V-activated NF-κB. In conclusion, we provide a biochemical explanation for the cooperation between p16 inactivation and Kras activation in PDAC development and suggest that NOX4 is a potential therapeutic target for PDAC. PMID:28232723

  5. Mutant Kras- and p16-regulated NOX4 activation overcomes metabolic checkpoints in development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ju, Huai-Qiang; Ying, Haoqiang; Tian, Tian; Ling, Jianhua; Fu, Jie; Lu, Yu; Wu, Min; Yang, Lifeng; Achreja, Abhinav; Chen, Gang; Zhuang, Zhuonan; Wang, Huamin; Nagrath, Deepak; Yao, Jun; Hung, Mien-Chie; DePinho, Ronald A; Huang, Peng; Xu, Rui-Hua; Chiao, Paul J

    2017-02-24

    Kras activation and p16 inactivation are required to develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying these double alterations remain unclear. Here we discover that NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (NOX4), an enzyme known to catalyse the oxidation of NAD(P)H, is upregulated when p16 is inactivated by looking at gene expression profiling studies. Activation of NOX4 requires catalytic subunit p22(phox), which is upregulated following Kras activation. Both alterations are also detectable in PDAC cell lines and patient specimens. Furthermore, we show that elevated NOX4 activity accelerates oxidation of NADH and supports increased glycolysis by generating NAD(+), a substrate for GAPDH-mediated glycolytic reaction, promoting PDAC cell growth. Mechanistically, NOX4 was induced through p16-Rb-regulated E2F and p22(phox) was induced by Kras(G12V)-activated NF-κB. In conclusion, we provide a biochemical explanation for the cooperation between p16 inactivation and Kras activation in PDAC development and suggest that NOX4 is a potential therapeutic target for PDAC.

  6. Comparison of the quantification of KRAS mutations by digital PCR and E-ice-COLD-PCR in circulating-cell-free DNA from metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sefrioui, David; Mauger, Florence; Leclere, Laurence; Beaussire, Ludivine; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Deleuze, Jean-François; Sarafan-Vasseur, Nasrin; Tost, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) bears great promise as biomarker for personalized medicine, but ccfDNA is present only at low levels in the plasma or serum of cancer patients. E-ice-COLD-PCR is a recently developed enrichment method to detect and identify mutations present at low-abundance in clinical samples. However, recent studies have shown the importance to accurately quantify low-abundance mutations as clinically important decisions will depend on certain mutation thresholds. The possibility for an enrichment method to accurately quantify the mutation levels remains a point of concern and might limit its clinical applicability. In the present study, we compared the quantification of KRAS mutations in ccfDNA from metastatic colorectal cancer patients by E-ice-COLD-PCR with two digital PCR approaches. For the quantification of mutations by E-ice-COLD-PCR, cell lines with known mutations diluted into WT genomic DNA were used for calibration. E-ice-COLD-PCR and the two digital PCR approaches showed the same range of the mutation level and were concordant for mutation levels below the clinical relevant threshold. E-ice-COLD-PCR can accurately detect and quantify low-abundant mutations in ccfDNA and has a shorter time to results making it compatible with the requirements of analyses in a clinical setting without the loss of quantitative accuracy.

  7. A vertically-stacked, polymer, microfluidic point mutation analyzer: Rapid, high accuracy detection of low-abundance K-ras mutations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyudong; Lee, Tae Yoon; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Soper, Steven A.; Murphy, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of point mutations in the K-ras gene can be used for the clinical management of several types of cancers. Unfortunately, several assay and hardware concerns must be addressed to allow users not well-trained in performing molecular analyses the opportunity to undertake these measurements. To provide for a larger user-base for these types of molecular assays, a vertically-stacked microfluidic analyzer with a modular architecture and process automation was developed. The analyzer employed a primary PCR coupled to an allele-specific ligase detection reaction (LDR). Each functional device, including continuous flow thermal reactors for the PCR and LDR, passive micromixers and ExoSAP-IT® purification, was designed and tested. Individual devices were fabricated in polycarbonate using hot embossing and assembled using adhesive bonding for system assembly. The system produced LDR products from a DNA sample in ~1 h, an 80% reduction in time compared to conventional bench-top instrumentation. Purifying the post-PCR products with the ExoSAP-IT® enzyme led to optimized LDR performance minimizing false positive signals and producing reliable results. Mutant alleles in genomic DNA were quantified to the level of 0.25 ng of mutant DNA in 50 ng of wild-type DNA for a 25 μL sample, equivalent to DNA from 42 mutant cells. PMID:21771577

  8. Specific inhibition of p110α subunit of PI3K: putative therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Maria Sofia; Melo, Soraia; Velho, Sérgia; Carneiro, Patrícia; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. It is often associated with activating mutations in KRAS leading to deregulation of major signaling pathways as the RAS-RAF-MAPK and PI3K-Akt. However, the therapeutic options for CRC patients harboring somatic KRAS mutations are still very limited. It is therefore urgent to unravel novel therapeutic approaches for those patients. In this study, we have awarded PI3K p110α a key role in CRC cells harboring KRAS/PIK3CA mutations or KRAS mutations alone. Specific silencing of PI3K p110α by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced viability and induced apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. In agreement with these cellular effects, PI3K p110α silencing led to alterations in the expression levels of proteins implicated in apoptosis and cell cycle, namely XIAP and pBad in KRAS/PIK3CA mutant cells and cyclin D1 in KRAS mutant cells. To further validate our data, a specific PI3K p110α inhibitor, BYL719, was evaluated. BYL719 mimicked the in vitro siRNA effects on cellular viability and on the alterations of apoptotic- and cell cycle-related proteins in CRC mutant cells. Overall, this study demonstrates that specific inhibition of PI3K p110α could provide an alternative therapeutic approach for CRC patients, particularly those harboring KRAS mutations. PMID:27602501

  9. K-Ras, H-Ras, N-Ras and B-Raf mutation and expression analysis in Wilms tumors: association with tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Dalpa, Efterpi; Gourvas, Victor; Soulitzis, Nikolaos; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-01-01

    Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor) is a kidney neoplasia, predominately occurring at very young age, resulting from the malignant transformation of renal stem cells. The Ras proto-oncogenes and B-Raf are members of an intracellular cascade pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation, and ultimately cancer development. Our objective was to determine the mutation rate and to measure the mRNA levels of the three Ras genes and of B-Raf in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 32 patients with nephroblastoma and 10 controls. No mutations were detected in the four studied genes among our Wilms tumors cases, while Ras and B-Raf expression was higher in malignant samples versus controls. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation of K-Ras (p < 0.001) and B-Raf (p = 0.006) with tumor size, a negative correlation of K-Ras (p = 0.041) and H-Ras (p = 0.033) with the percentage of tissue necrosis, and an association of N-Ras (p = 0.047) and B-Raf (p = 0.044) with tissue histology. From the above, we deduce that although Ras and B-Raf mutations are rare events in Wilms tumors, their expression pattern suggests that they play an important role in the development and progression of this malignancy.

  10. Simultaneous detection of 19 K-ras mutations by free-solution conjugate electrophoresis of ligase detection reaction products on glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer Coyne; Kotani, Akira; Lin, Jennifer S; Soper, Steven A; Barron, Annelise E

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate here the power and flexibility of free-solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE) as a method of separating DNA fragments by electrophoresis with no sieving polymer network. Previous work introduced the coupling of FSCE with ligase detection reaction (LDR) to detect point mutations, even at low abundance compared to the wild-type DNA. Here, four large drag-tags are used to achieve free-solution electrophoretic separation of 19 LDR products ranging in size from 42 to 66 nt that correspond to mutations in the K-ras oncogene. LDR-FSCE enabled electrophoretic resolution of these 19 LDR-FSCE products by CE in 13.5 min (E = 310 V/cm) and by microchip electrophoresis in 140 s (E = 350 V/cm). The power of FSCE is demonstrated in the unique characteristic of free-solution separations where the separation resolution is constant no matter the electric field strength. By microchip electrophoresis, the electric field was increased to the maximum of the power supply (E = 700 V/cm), and the 19 LDR-FSCE products were separated in less than 70 s with almost identical resolution to the separation at E = 350 V/cm. These results will aid the goal of screening K-ras mutations on integrated "sample-in/answer-out" devices with amplification, LDR, and detection all on one platform.

  11. Intrinsic K-Ras dynamics: A novel molecular dynamics data analysis method shows causality between residue pair motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatansever, Sezen; Gümüş, Zeynep H.; Erman, Burak

    2016-11-01

    K-Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers, but there are still no drugs that directly target it in the clinic. Recent studies utilizing dynamics information show promising results for selectively targeting mutant K-Ras. However, despite extensive characterization, the mechanisms by which K-Ras residue fluctuations transfer allosteric regulatory information remain unknown. Understanding the direction of information flow can provide new mechanistic insights for K-Ras targeting. Here, we present a novel approach –conditional time-delayed correlations (CTC) – using the motions of all residue pairs of a protein to predict directionality in the allosteric regulation of the protein fluctuations. Analyzing nucleotide-dependent intrinsic K-Ras motions with the new approach yields predictions that agree with the literature, showing that GTP-binding stabilizes K-Ras motions and leads to residue correlations with relatively long characteristic decay times. Furthermore, our study is the first to identify driver-follower relationships in correlated motions of K-Ras residue pairs, revealing the direction of information flow during allosteric modulation of its nucleotide-dependent intrinsic activity: active K-Ras Switch-II region motions drive Switch-I region motions, while α-helix-3L7 motions control both. Our results provide novel insights for strategies that directly target mutant K-Ras.

  12. Intrinsic K-Ras dynamics: A novel molecular dynamics data analysis method shows causality between residue pair motions

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Sezen; Gümüş, Zeynep H.; Erman, Burak

    2016-01-01

    K-Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers, but there are still no drugs that directly target it in the clinic. Recent studies utilizing dynamics information show promising results for selectively targeting mutant K-Ras. However, despite extensive characterization, the mechanisms by which K-Ras residue fluctuations transfer allosteric regulatory information remain unknown. Understanding the direction of information flow can provide new mechanistic insights for K-Ras targeting. Here, we present a novel approach –conditional time-delayed correlations (CTC) – using the motions of all residue pairs of a protein to predict directionality in the allosteric regulation of the protein fluctuations. Analyzing nucleotide-dependent intrinsic K-Ras motions with the new approach yields predictions that agree with the literature, showing that GTP-binding stabilizes K-Ras motions and leads to residue correlations with relatively long characteristic decay times. Furthermore, our study is the first to identify driver-follower relationships in correlated motions of K-Ras residue pairs, revealing the direction of information flow during allosteric modulation of its nucleotide-dependent intrinsic activity: active K-Ras Switch-II region motions drive Switch-I region motions, while α-helix-3L7 motions control both. Our results provide novel insights for strategies that directly target mutant K-Ras. PMID:27845397

  13. Oncogenic KRAS triggers MAPK-dependent errors in mitosis and MYC-dependent sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Perera, David; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS induces cell proliferation and transformation, but little is known about its effects on cell division. Functional genetic screens have recently revealed that cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic KRAS are sensitive to interference with mitosis, but neither the mechanism nor the uniformity of anti-mitotic drug sensitivity connected with mutant KRAS expression are yet clear. Here, we report that acute expression of oncogenic KRAS in HeLa cells induces mitotic delay and defects in chromosome segregation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation and de-regulated expression of several mitosis-related genes. These anomalies are accompanied by increased sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents, a phenotype dependent on the transcription factor MYC and its downstream target anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. Unexpectedly, we find no correlation between KRAS mutational status or MYC expression levels and anti-mitotic drug sensitivity when surveying a large database of anti-cancer drug responses. However, we report that the co-existence of KRAS mutations and high MYC expression predicts anti-mitotic drug sensitivity. Our findings reveal a novel function of oncogenic KRAS in regulating accurate mitotic progression and suggest new avenues to therapeutically target KRAS-mutant tumours and stratify patients in ongoing clinical trials of anti-mitotic drugs. PMID:27412232

  14. Dual targeting of PI3K and MEK enhances the radiation response of K-RAS mutated non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Iida, Mari; Keinath, Simone; Iyi, Firdevs F.; Mueck, Katharina; Fehrenbacher, Birgit; Mansour, Wael Y.; Schaller, Martin; Wheeler, Deric L.; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of radiotherapy to non-small lung cancer (NSCLC), radioresistance still occurs. One of the major radioresistance mechanisms is the hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in which Akt facilitates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through the stimulation of DNA-PKcs. We investigated if targeting PI3K would be a potential approach for enhancing the radiosensitivity of K-RAS mutated (K-RASmut) NSCLC cell lines A549 and H460. Short-term (1-2 h) pre-treatment of cells with the PI3K inhibitor PI-103 (1 μM) inhibited Akt/DNA-PKcs activity, blocked DSBs repair and induced radiosensitivity, while long-term (24 h) pre-treatment did not. Lack of an effect after 24 h of PI-103 pre-treatment was due to reactivation of K-Ras/MEK/ERK-dependent Akt. However, long-term treatment with the combination of PI-103 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 completely blocked reactivation of Akt and impaired DSBs repair through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) leading to radiosensitization. The effect of PI3K inhibition on Akt signaling was also tested in A549 mouse xenografts. P-Akt and P-DNA-PKcs were inhibited 30 min post-irradiation in xenografts, which were pretreated by PI-103 30 min before irradiation. However, Akt was reactivated 30 min post-irradiation in tumors, which were pre-treated for 3 h with PI-103 before irradiation. After a 24 h pretreatment with PI-103, a significant reactivation of Akt was achieved 24 h after irradiation. Thus, due to MEK/ERK-dependent reactivation of Akt, targeting PI3K alone is not a suitable approach for radiosensitizing K-RASmut NSCLC cells, indicating that dual targeting of PI3K and MEK is an efficient approach to improve radiotherapy outcome. PMID:27248324

  15. Coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction enables selective identification of K-Ras mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues without tumor-cell enrichment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaorong; Xie, Li; Hou, Zhibo; Qian, Xiaoping; Yu, Lixia; Wei, Jia; Ding, Yitao; Liu, Baorui

    2011-09-01

    Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing is the standard assay for the detection of K-Ras mutations. However, this method is deficient in identifying small numbers of mutation-bearing cells, and tumor-cell enrichment methods such as microdissection or macrodissection are labor intensive and not always achievable. We applied the recently described coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction, which amplifies minority alleles selectively, to detect K-Ras mutations directly in 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic specimens and compared the results with those of conventional polymerase chain reaction. To avoid a false-negative result from the coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction assay, we applied a more sensitive peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction method as the gold standard. Dilution experiments indicated an approximately 5-fold improvement in sensitivity with coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing. Conventional polymerase chain reaction detected K-Ras mutations in 11 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic specimens (37.9%), whereas coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction could identify all of those mutations as well as mutations in 10 additional samples, for a total of 21 (72.4%, P = .002) of 29. Unlike peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction, coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction identified all K-Ras mutations in specimens in which tumor cells accounted for at least 20% of the total. Adoption of coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction is straightforward and requires no additional reagents or instruments. The technique is a good strategy to detect K-Ras mutations selectively in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues without tumor-cell enrichment.

  16. KRAS protein stability is regulated through SMURF2: UBCH5 complex-mediated β-TrCP1 degradation.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shirish; Allam, Uday Sankar; Ahsan, Aarif; Chen, Guoan; Krishnamurthy, Pranathi Meda; Marsh, Katherine; Rumschlag, Matthew; Shankar, Sunita; Whitehead, Christopher; Schipper, Matthew; Basrur, Venkatesha; Southworth, Daniel R; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Beer, David G; Lawrence, Theodore S; Nyati, Mukesh K; Ray, Dipankar

    2014-02-01

    Attempts to target mutant KRAS have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the identification of Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (SMURF2) and UBCH5 as a critical E3:E2 complex maintaining KRAS protein stability. Loss of SMURF2 either by small interfering RNA/short hairpin RNA (siRNA/shRNA) or by overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutant causes KRAS degradation, whereas overexpression of wild-type SMURF2 enhances KRAS stability. Importantly, mutant KRAS is more susceptible to SMURF2 loss where protein half-life decreases from >12 hours in control siRNA-treated cells to <3 hours on Smurf2 silencing, whereas only marginal differences were noted for wild-type protein. This loss of mutant KRAS could be rescued by overexpressing a siRNA-resistant wild-type SMURF2. Our data further show that SMURF2 monoubiquitinates UBCH5 at lysine 144 to form an active complex required for efficient degradation of a RAS-family E3, β-transducing repeat containing protein 1 (β-TrCP1). Conversely, β-TrCP1 is accumulated on SMURF2 loss, leading to increased KRAS degradation. Therefore, as expected, β-TrCP1 knockdown following Smurf2 siRNA treatment rescues mutant KRAS loss. Further, we identify two conserved proline (P) residues in UBCH5 critical for SMURF2 interaction; mutation of either of these P to alanine also destabilizes KRAS. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that Smurf2 silencing reduces the clonogenic survival in vitro and prolongs tumor latency in vivo in cancer cells including mutant KRAS-driven tumors. Taken together, we show that SMURF2:UBCH5 complex is critical in maintaining KRAS protein stability and propose that targeting such complex may be a unique strategy to degrade mutant KRAS to kill cancer cells.

  17. Enhanced MET translation and signaling sustains K-Ras driven proliferation under anchorage-independent growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fujita-Sato, Saori; Galeas, Jacqueline; Truitt, Morgan; Pitt, Cameron; Urisman, Anatoly; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ruggero, Davide; McCormick, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic K-Ras mutation occurs frequently in several types of cancers including pancreatic and lung cancers. Tumors with K-Ras mutation are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs as well as molecular targeting agents. Although numerous approaches are ongoing to find effective ways to treat these tumors, there are still no effective therapies for K-Ras mutant cancer patients. Here we report that K-Ras mutant cancers are more dependent on K-Ras in anchorage independent culture conditions than in monolayer culture conditions. In seeking to determine mechanisms that contribute to the K-Ras dependency in anchorage independent culture conditions, we discovered the involvement of Met in K-Ras-dependent, anchorage independent cell growth. The Met signaling pathway is enhanced and plays an indispensable role in anchorage independent growth even in cells in which Met is not amplified. Indeed, Met expression is elevated under anchorage-independent growth conditions and is regulated by K-Ras in a MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent manner. Remarkably, in spite of a global down-regulation of mRNA translation during anchorage independent growth, we find that Met mRNA translation is specifically enhanced under these conditions. Importantly, ectopic expression of an active Met mutant rescues K-Ras ablation-derived growth suppression, indicating that K-Ras mediated Met expression drives “K-Ras addiction” in anchorage independent conditions. Our results indicate that enhanced Met expression and signaling is essential for anchorage independent growth of K-Ras mutant cancer cells and suggests that pharmacological inhibitors of Met could be effective for K-Ras mutant tumor patients. PMID:25977330

  18. Mutational Hotspot of TET2, IDH1, IDH2, SRSF2, SF3B1, KRAS, and NRAS from Human Systemic Mastocytosis Are Not Conserved in Canine Mast Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zorzan, Eleonora; Hanssens, Katia; Giantin, Mery; Dacasto, Mauro; Dubreuil, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Both canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT) and human systemic mastocytosis (SM) are characterized by abnormal proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in tissues and, frequently, by the presence of activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase V-Kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 Feline Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog (c-KIT), albeit at different incidence (>80% in SM and 10–30% in MCT). In the last few years, it has been discovered that additional mutations in other genes belonging to the methylation system, the splicing machinery and cell signaling, contribute, with c-KIT, to SM pathogenesis and/or phenotype. In the present study, the mutational profile of the Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2), the isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2), the serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2), the splicing factor 3b subunit 1 (SF3B1), the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), commonly mutated in human myeloid malignancies and mastocytosis, was investigated in canine MCTs. Methods Using the Sanger sequencing method, a cohort of 75 DNA samples extracted from MCT biopsies already investigated for c-KIT mutations were screened for the “human-like” hot spot mutations of listed genes. Results No mutations were ever identified except for TET2 even if with low frequency (2.7%). In contrast to what is observed in human TET2 no frame-shift mutations were found in MCT samples. Conclusion Results obtained in this preliminary study are suggestive of a substantial difference between human SM and canine MCT if we consider some target genes known to be involved in the pathogenesis of human SM. PMID:26562302

  19. Direct inhibition of oncogenic KRAS by hydrocarbon-stapled SOS1 helices.

    PubMed

    Leshchiner, Elizaveta S; Parkhitko, Andrey; Bird, Gregory H; Luccarelli, James; Bellairs, Joseph A; Escudero, Silvia; Opoku-Nsiah, Kwadwo; Godes, Marina; Perrimon, Norbert; Walensky, Loren D

    2015-02-10

    Activating mutations in the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) underlie the pathogenesis and chemoresistance of ∼ 30% of all human tumors, yet the development of high-affinity inhibitors that target the broad range of KRAS mutants remains a formidable challenge. Here, we report the development and validation of stabilized alpha helices of son of sevenless 1 (SAH-SOS1) as prototype therapeutics that directly inhibit wild-type and mutant forms of KRAS. SAH-SOS1 peptides bound in a sequence-specific manner to KRAS and its mutants, and dose-responsively blocked nucleotide association. Importantly, this functional binding activity correlated with SAH-SOS1 cytotoxicity in cancer cells expressing wild-type or mutant forms of KRAS. The mechanism of action of SAH-SOS1 peptides was demonstrated by sequence-specific down-regulation of the ERK-MAP kinase phosphosignaling cascade in KRAS-driven cancer cells and in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Ras85D(V12) activation. These studies provide evidence for the potential utility of SAH-SOS1 peptides in neutralizing oncogenic KRAS in human cancer.

  20. LY3009120, a panRAF inhibitor, has significant anti-tumor activity in BRAF and KRAS mutant preclinical models of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vakana, Eliza; Pratt, Susan; Blosser, Wayne; Dowless, Michele; Simpson, Nicholas; Yuan, Xiu-Juan; Jaken, Susan; Manro, Jason; Stephens, Jennifer; Zhang, Youyan; Huber, Lysiane; Peng, Sheng-Bin; Stancato, Louis F

    2017-02-07

    Activating mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes, leading to hyperactivation of the RAS/RAF/MAPK oncogenic signaling cascade, are common in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). While selective BRAF inhibitors are efficacious in BRAFmut melanoma, they have limited efficacy in BRAFmut CRC patients. In a RASmut background, selective BRAF inhibitors are contraindicated due to paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway through potentiation of CRAF kinase activity. A way to overcome such paradoxical activation is through concurrent inhibition of the kinase activity of both RAF isoforms. Here, we further examined the effects of LY3009120, a panRAF and RAF dimer inhibitor, in human models of CRC with various mutational backgrounds. We demonstrate that LY3009120 induced anti-proliferative effects in BRAFmut and KRASmut CRC cell lines through G1-cell cycle arrest. The anti-proliferative effects of LY3009120 in KRASmut CRC cell lines phenocopied molecular inhibition of RAF isoforms by simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of ARAF, BRAF and CRAF. Additionally, LY3009120 displayed significant activity in in vivo BRAFmut and KRASmut CRC xenograft models. Examination of potential resistance to LY3009120 demonstrated RAF-independent ERK and AKT activation in the KRASmut CRC cell line HCT 116. These findings describe the preclinical activity of a panRAF inhibitor in a BRAFmut and KRASmut CRC setting.

  1. Enhanced dependency of KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer cells on RAD51-dependent homologous recombination repair identified from genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kalimutho, Murugan; Bain, Amanda L; Mukherjee, Bipasha; Nag, Purba; Nanayakkara, Devathri M; Harten, Sarah K; Harris, Janelle L; Subramanian, Goutham N; Sinha, Debottam; Shirasawa, Senji; Srihari, Sriganesh; Burma, Sandeep; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2017-02-07

    Activating KRAS mutations drive colorectal cancer tumorigenesis and influence response to anti-EGFR-targeted therapy. Despite recent advances in understanding Ras signaling biology and the revolution in therapies for melanoma using BRAF inhibitors, no targeted agents have been effective in KRAS-mutant cancers, mainly due to activation of compensatory pathways. Here, by leveraging the largest synthetic lethal genetic interactome in yeast, we identify that KRAS-mutated colorectal cancer cells have augmented homologous recombination repair (HRR) signaling. We found that KRAS mutation resulted in slowing and stalling of the replication fork and accumulation of DNA damage. Moreover, we found that KRAS-mutant HCT116 cells have an increase in MYC-mediated RAD51 expression with a corresponding increase in RAD51 recruitment to irradiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) compared to genetically complemented isogenic cells. MYC depletion using RNA interference significantly reduced IR-induced RAD51 foci formation and HRR. On the contrary, overexpression of either HA-tagged wild-type (WT) MYC or phospho-mutant S62A increased RAD51 protein levels and hence IR-induced RAD51 foci. Likewise, depletion of RAD51 selectively induced apoptosis in HCT116-mutant cells by increasing DSBs. Pharmacological inhibition targeting HRR signaling combined with PARP inhibition selectivity killed KRAS-mutant cells. Interestingly, these differences were not seen in a second isogenic pair of KRAS WT and mutant cells (DLD-1), likely due to their nondependency on the KRAS mutation for survival. Our data thus highlight a possible mechanism by which KRAS-mutant-dependent cells drive HRR in vitro by upregulating MYC-RAD51 expression. These data may offer a promising therapeutic vulnerability in colorectal cancer cells harboring otherwise nondruggable KRAS mutations, which warrants further investigation in vivo.

  2. Targeting oncogenic KRAS in non-small cell lung cancer cells by phenformin inhibits growth and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi Dong; Wei, Sheng Quan; Wang, Qin Yi

    2015-01-01

    Tumors require a vascular supply to grow and can achieve this via the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors. Many potential oncogenic mutations have been identified in tumor angiogenesis. Somatic mutations in the small GTPase KRAS are the most common activating lesions found in human cancer, and are generally associated with poor response to standard therapies. Biguanides, such as the diabetes therapeutics metformin and phenformin, have demonstrated anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. The extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling is known to be a major cellular target of biguanides. Based on KRAS activates several down-stream effectors leading to the stimulation of the RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (RAF/MEK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of biguanides on the proliferation of KRAS-mutated tumor cells in vitro and on KRAS-driven tumor growth in vivo. In cancer cells harboring oncogenic KRAS, phenformin switches off the ERK pathway and inhibit the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules. In tumor xenografts harboring the KRAS mutation, phenformin extensively modifies the tumor growth causing abrogation of angiogenesis. These results strongly suggest that significant therapeutic advantage may be achieved by phenformin anti-angiogenesis for the treatment of tumor. PMID:26807315

  3. The effect of forced expression of mutated K-RAS gene on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines and the IGF-1R targeting therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yasutaka; Adachi, Yasushi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Koide, Hideyuki; Motoya, Masayo; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Takagi, Hideyasu; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Tokino, Takashi; Carbone, David P; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2017-02-01

    Mutation in K-RAS (K-RAS-MT) plays important roles in both cancer progression and resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in gastrointestinal tumors. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is required for carcinogenicity and progression of many tumors as well. We have previously shown successful therapy for gastrointestinal cancer cell lines bearing a K-RAS mutation using an anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody. In this study, we sought to evaluate effects of forced K-RAS-MT expression on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines representing a possible second resistance mechanism for anti-EGFR therapy and IGF-1R-targeted therapy for these transfectants. We made stable transfectants of K-RAS-MT in two gastrointestinal cancer cell lines, colorectal RKO and pancreatic BxPC-3. We assessed the effect of forced expression of K-RAS-MT on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Then we assessed anti-tumor effects of dominant negative IGF-1R (IGF-1R/dn) and an IGF-1R inhibitor, picropodophyllin, on the K-RAS-MT transfectants. Overexpression of K-RAS-MT in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines led to more aggressive phenotypes, with increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and increased motility and invasion. IGF-1R blockade suppressed cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion, and up-regulated chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of gastrointestinal cancer cells, even when K-RAS-MT was over-expressed. IGF-1R blockade inhibited the Akt pathway more than the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in the K-RAS-MT transfectants. IGF-1R/dn, moreover, inhibited the growth of murine xenografts expressing K-RAS-MT. Thus, K-RAS-MT might be important for progressive phonotype observed in gastrointestinal cancers. IGF-1R decoy is a candidate molecular therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal cancers even if K-RAS is mutated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prognostic relevance of KRAS genotype in metastatic colorectal cancer patients unfit for FIr-B/FOx intensive regimen

    PubMed Central

    BRUERA, GEMMA; CANNITA, KATIA; GIORDANO, ALDO VICTOR; VICENTINI, ROBERTO; FICORELLA, CORRADO; RICEVUTO, ENRICO

    2014-01-01

    First-line triplet chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (FIr-B/FOx) can improve efficacy of metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC), KRAS wild-type and mutant. Prognostic relevance of KRAS genotype was evaluated in patients unfit for FIr-B/FOx, treated with conventional medical treatments. Consecutive MCRC patients not eligible for FIr-B/FOx regimen due to age (≥75 years) and/or comorbidities were treated with tailored conventional first-line treatments. KRAS codon 12/13 mutations were screened by direct sequencing. Activity and efficacy were evaluated and compared according to medical treatments, age (non-elderly and elderly ≥65 years), comorbidity stage (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale), metastatic extension (liver-limited and other/multiple metastatic), and KRAS genotype, using log-rank. Selected first line treatments were medical in 37 patients (92.5%), and surgical in 3 patients (7.5%). Medical treatment regimens: triplet, 18 (45%); doublet, 15 (37.5%); mono-therapy, 4 (10%). At median follow-up of 8 months, objective response rate (ORR) was 37%, median progression-free survival (PFS) 7 months, liver metastasectomies 8% (liver-limited disease 37.5%), median overall survival (OS) 13 months. Triplet regimens failed to significantly affect clinical outcome, compared to doublet. According to KRAS genotype, ORR, PFS and OS were, respectively: wild-type 50%, 8 months, 13 months; mutant 25%, 6 months, 9 months. KRAS genotype wild-type compared to mutant significantly affected PFS, while not OS. KRAS c.35 G>A mutation (G12D) significantly affected worse PFS and OS compared to wild-type and/or other mutations. KRAS genotype, specifically the c.35 G>A KRAS mutation, may indicate poor prognosis in MCRC patients unfit for intensive medical treatments. PMID:24715238

  5. Oncogenic K-Ras and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Prevent FAS-Mediated Apoptosis in Fibroblasts through Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Hirotaka; Yonehara, Shin

    2000-01-01

    By an expression cloning method using Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells, we tried to obtain inhibitory genes against Fas-mediated apoptosis and identified proto-oncogene c-K-ras. Transient expression of K-Ras mutants revealed that oncogenic mutant K-Ras (RasV12) strongly inhibited, whereas dominant-inhibitory mutant K-Ras (RasN17) enhanced, Fas-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting Fas-triggered activation of caspases without affecting an expression level of Fas. Among the target molecules of Ras, including Raf (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase [MAPKKK]), phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RalGDS), only the constitutively active form of Raf (Raf-CAAX) could inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the constitutively active form of MAPKK (SDSE-MAPKK) suppressed Fas-mediated apoptosis, and MKP-1, a phosphatase specific for classical MAPK, canceled the protective activity of oncogenic K-Ras (K-RasV12), Raf-CAAX, and SDSE-MAPKK. Furthermore, physiological activation of Ras by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) protected Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells from Fas-mediated apoptosis. bFGF protection was also dependent on the activation of the MAPK pathway through Ras. All the results indicate that the activation of MAPK through Ras inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in Balb3T3 cells, which may play a role in oncogenesis. PMID:10662780

  6. Protein kinase Cα suppresses Kras-mediated lung tumor formation through activation of a p38 MAPK-TGFβ signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, KS; Erdogan, E; Khoor, A; Walsh, MP; Leitges, M; Murray, NR; Fields, AP

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) can activate both pro- and anti-tumorigenic signaling depending upon cellular context. Here, we investigated the role of PKCα in lung tumorigenesis in vivo. Gene expression data sets revealed that primary human non-small lung cancers (NSCLC) express significantly decreased PKCα levels, indicating that loss of PKCα expression is a recurrent event in NSCLC. We evaluated the functional relevance of PKCα loss during lung tumorigenesis in three murine lung adenocarcinoma models (LSL-Kras, LA2-Kras and urethane exposure). Genetic deletion of PKCα resulted in a significant increase in lung tumor number, size, burden and grade, bypass of oncogene-induced senescence, progression from adenoma to carcinoma and a significant decrease in survival in vivo. The tumor promoting effect of PKCα loss was reflected in enhanced Kras-mediated expansion of bronchio-alveolar stem cells (BASCs), putative tumor-initiating cells, both in vitro and in vivo. LSL-Kras/Prkca−/− mice exhibited a decrease in phospho-p38 MAPK in BASCs in vitro and in tumors in vivo, and treatment of LSL-Kras BASCs with a p38 inhibitor resulted in increased colony size indistinguishable from that observed in LSL-Kras/Prkca−/− BASCs. In addition, LSL-Kras/Prkca−/− BASCs exhibited a modest but reproducible increase in TGFβ1 mRNA, and addition of exogenous TGFβ1 to LSL-Kras BASCs results in enhanced growth similar to untreated BASCs from LSL-Kras/Prkca−/− mice. Conversely, a TGFβR1 inhibitor reversed the effects of PKCα loss in LSL-Kras/Prkca−/−BASCs. Finally, we identified the inhibitors of DNA binding (Id) Id1–3 and the Wilm’s Tumor 1 as potential downstream targets of PKCα-dependent tumor suppressor activity in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that PKCα suppresses tumor initiation and progression, at least in part, through a PKCα-p38MAPK-TGFβ signaling axis that regulates tumor cell proliferation and Kras-induced senescence. Our results provide the

  7. [Method validation according to ISO 15189 and SH GTA 04: application for the detection of KRAS mutations using PCR TaqMan assay].

    PubMed

    Harlé, Alexandre; Dubois, Cindy; Rouyer, Marie; Merlin, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Since January 16(th) 2010, the French legislation requires that the medical laboratories must be accredited according to ISO 15189 standards. Thus, all medical laboratories in France must be accredited for at least part of their biological tests before the end of October 2013. Molecular biology tests are also concerned by the accreditation. Validation of molecular biology methods is made difficult, for reasons related to the methods, but also by the type of analytes that are basically rare. This article describes the validation of the qualitative detection of KRAS mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer using TaqMan PCR according to ISO 15189 and to the technical guide for accreditation in Human Health, SH-GTA-04, edited by the COFRAC.

  8. Oncolytic Reovirus in Combination With Chemotherapy in Metastatic or Recurrent Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients With KRAS-Activated Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Lam, Elaine; Otterson, Gregory A.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Timmons, Matthew; Subramaniam, Deepa; Hade, Erinn M.; Gill, George M.; Coffey, Matthew; Selvaggi, Giovanni; Bertino, Erin; Chao, Bo; Knopp, Michael V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The type 3 Dearing reovirus (Reolysin) is a naturally occurring virus that preferentially infects and causes oncolysis in tumor cells with a Ras-activated pathway. It induces host immunity and cell cycle arrest and acts synergistically with cytotoxic agents. METHODS This study evaluated Reolysin combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with metastatic/recurrent KRAS-mutated or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mutated/amplified non–small cell lung cancer. RESULTS Thirty-seven patients were treated. Molecular alterations included 20 KRAS mutations, 10 EGFR amplifications, 3 EGFR mutations, and 4 BRAF-V600E mutations. In total, 242 cycles (median, 4; range, 1-47) were completed. The initial doses were area under the curve (AUC) 6 mg/mL/min for carboplatin, 200 mg/m2 for paclitaxel on day 1, and 3×1010 50% tissue culture infective dose for Reolysin on days 1 to 5 of each 21-day cycle. Because of diarrhea and febrile neutropenia (in the first 2 patients), subsequent doses were reduced to 175 mg/m2 for paclitaxel and AUC 5 mg/mL/min for carboplatin. Toxicities included fatigue, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, neutropenia, arthralgia/myalgia, anorexia, and electrolyte abnormalities. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0 responses included the following: partial response for 11 patients, stable disease (SD) for 20 patients, progressive disease for 4 patients, and not evaluable for 2 patients (objective response rate, 31%; 90% 1-sided lower confidence interval, 21%). Four SD patients had >40% positron emission tomography standardized uptake value reductions. The median progression-free survival, median overall survival, and 12-month overall survival rate were 4 months, 13.1 months, and 57%, respectively. Seven patients were alive after a median follow-up of 34.2 months; they included 2 patients without disease progression at 37 and 50 months. CONCLUSIONS Reolysin in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin was well tolerated. The

  9. Mutated K-ras(Asp12) promotes tumourigenesis in Apc(Min) mice more in the large than the small intestines, with synergistic effects between K-ras and Wnt pathways.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feijun; Brooks, David G; Ye, Hongtao; Hamoudi, Rifat; Poulogiannis, George; Patek, Charles E; Winton, Douglas J; Arends, Mark J

    2009-10-01

    Summary K-ras mutations are found in 40-50% of human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, but their functional contribution remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that a conditional mutant K-ras mouse model (K-ras(Asp12)/Cre), with transient intestinal Cre activation by beta-Naphthoflavone (beta-NF) treatment, displayed transgene recombination and K-ras(Asp12) expression in the murine intestines, but developed few intestinal adenomas over 2 years. However, when crossed with Apc(Min/+) mice, the K-ras(Asp12)/Cre/Apc(Min/+) offspring showed acceleration of intestinal tumourigenesis with significantly changed average lifespan (P < 0.05) decreased to 18.4 +/- 5.4 weeks from 20.9 +/- 4.7 weeks (control Apc(Min/+) mice). The numbers of adenomas in the small intestine and large intestine were significantly (P < 0.01) increased by 1.5-fold and 5.7-fold, respectively, in K-ras(Asp12)/Cre/Apc(Min/+) mice compared with Apc(Min/+) mice, with the more marked increase in adenoma prevalence in the large intestine. To explore possible mechanisms for K-ras(Asp12) and Apc(Min) co-operation, the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mapk), Akt and Wnt signalling pathways, including selected target gene expression levels, were evaluated in normal large intestine and large intestinal tumours. K-ras(Asp12) increased activation of Mapk and Akt signalling pathway targets phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pErk) and pAkt, and increased relative expression levels of Wnt pathway targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), gastrin, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (Cox2) and T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) in K-ras(Asp12)/Cre/Apc(Min/+) adenomas compared with that of Apc(Min/+) adenomas, although other Wnt signalling pathway target genes such as Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARd), matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), protein phosphatase 1 alpha (PP1A) and c-myc remained unchanged. In conclusion, intestinal expression of K-ras(Asp12) promotes mutant

  10. Applicability of a System for fully automated nucleic acid extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections for routine KRAS mutation testing.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Annika; Schewe, Christiane; Hennig, Guido; Denkert, Carsten; Weichert, Wilko; Budczies, Jan; Dietel, Manfred

    2012-06-01

    Due to the approval of various new targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer, molecular pathology laboratories with a diagnostic focus have to meet new challenges: simultaneous handling of a large number of samples, small amounts of input material, and fragmentation of nucleic acids because of formalin fixation. As a consequence, fully automated systems for a fast and standardized extraction of high-quality DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are urgently needed. In this study, we tested the performance of a fully automated, high-throughput method for the extraction of nucleic acids from FFPE tissues. We investigated the extraction performance in sections of 5 different tissue types often analyzed in routine pathology laboratories (cervix, colon, liver, lymph node, and lung; n=340). Furthermore, we compared the quality, labor input, and applicability of the method for diagnostic purposes with those of a laboratory-validated manual method in a clinical setting by screening a set of 45 colorectal adenocarcinoma for the KRAS mutation. Automated extraction of both DNA and RNA was successful in 339 of 340 FFPE samples representing 5 different tissue types. In comparison with a conventional manual extraction protocol, the method showed an overall agreement of 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 88.2%-99.9%) for the subsequent mutational analysis of the KRAS gene in colorectal cancer samples. The fully automated system is a promising tool for a simple, robust, and rapid extraction of DNA and RNA from formalin-fixed tissue. It ensures a standardization of sample processing and can be applied to clinical FFPE samples in routine pathology.

  11. Establishment and characterization of a novel uterine carcinosarcoma cell line, TU-ECS-1, with mutations of TP53 and KRAS.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yohei; Sato, Seiya; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Suga, Yasuko; Fukagawa, Tomoyuki; Oumi, Nao; Oishi, Tetsuro; Harada, Tasuku; Sugai, Tamotsu; Sugiyama, Toru

    2017-04-01

    A new human uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) cell line, TU-ECS-1, was established and characterized. The morphological appearance of the cultured cells was an insular of epithelial-like cells arranged in the form of a jigsaw puzzle and mesenchymal-like cells with a spindle-shaped or fibroblast-like morphology. A relatively high proliferation rate was observed with a doubling time of 18.2 h. The chromosome number ranged from 44 to 49 and had an extra chromosome 12 (trisomy 12). The respective half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of cisplatin, paclitaxel, and doxorubicin were 2.9 µM, 154 nM, and 219 ng/mL, respectively. Mutational analysis revealed that TU-ECS-1 cells have mutations of TP53 in exons 4, 6, and 8 and of KRAS at codon 12 (G12D) in exon 2, which is a mutation hot spot on this gene. Western blot analysis showed that p53 protein was overexpressed in TU-ECS-1 cells. Immunostaining of the cultured cells and in vivo tumors showed that the TU-ECS-1 cells and xenografts were positive for epithelial marker cytokeratin AE1/3 and mesenchymal marker vimentin. These results suggested that TU-ECS-1 cells might have both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. This cell line may be useful to study the carcinogenesis of UCS and contribute to the development of novel treatment strategies.

  12. The noncoding RNAs SNORD50A and SNORD50B bind K-Ras and are recurrently deleted in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siprashvili, Zurab; Webster, Dan E; Johnston, Danielle; Shenoy, Rajani M; Ungewickell, Alexander J; Bhaduri, Aparna; Flockhart, Ross; Zarnegar, Brian J; Che, Yonglu; Meschi, Francesca; Puglisi, Joseph D; Khavari, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are conserved noncoding RNAs best studied as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) guides in RNA modification1,2. To explore their role in cancer, we compared 5,473 tumor-normal genome pairs to identify snoRNAs with frequent copy number loss. The SNORD50A-SNORD50B snoRNA locus was deleted in 10–40% of 12 common cancers, where its loss was associated with reduced survival. A human protein microarray screen identified direct SNORD50A and SNORD50B RNA binding to K-Ras. Loss of SNORD50A and SNORD50B increased the amount of GTP-bound, active K-Ras and hyperactivated Ras-ERK1/ERK2 signaling. Loss of these snoRNAs also increased binding by farnesyltransferase to K-Ras and increased K-Ras prenylation, suggesting that KRAS mutation might synergize with SNORD50A and SNORD50B loss in cancer. In agreement with this hypothesis, CRISPR-mediated deletion of SNORD50A and SNORD50B in KRAS-mutant tumor cells enhanced tumorigenesis, and SNORD50A and SNORD50B deletion and oncogenic KRAS mutation co-occurred significantly in multiple human tumor types. SNORD50A and SNORD50B snoRNAs thus directly bind and inhibit K-Ras and are recurrently deleted in human cancer. PMID:26595770

  13. Miniaturized Real-Time PCR on a Q3 System for Rapid KRAS Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Maria; Iemmolo, Rosario; Petralia, Salvatore; Conoci, Sabrina; Cavallaro, Sebastiano

    2017-04-11

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an aggressive human malignancy with a complex genomic landscape harboring KRAS mutations. In 40%-60% of patients with CRC, constantly active KRAS proteins affect the prognosis, surgical strategy, and clinical benefit from therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agents. For this reason, there is a greater demand for minimally-invasive diagnostic devices to characterize the genetic pattern and prevent the acquired mechanism to drug resistance. The rapid developments in cutting-edge diagnostic techniques are expected to play a growing role in medicine and represent an attractive promise to identify potential responders to personalized medicine. Here we propose a new method to simultaneously detect the main KRAS mutations on the portable real-time PCR Q3 platform. This platform is based on hybrid silicon-plastic technology implemented in a miniaturized chip able to achieve a sample-in answer-out rapid analysis, allowing a new approach to genetic counseling and testing.

  14. Farnesylated and methylated KRAS4b: high yield production of protein suitable for biophysical studies of prenylated protein-lipid interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gillette, William K.; Esposito, Dominic; Abreu Blanco, Maria; Alexander, Patrick; Bindu, Lakshman; Bittner, Cammi; Chertov, Oleg; Frank, Peter H.; Grose, Carissa; Jones, Jane E.; Meng, Zhaojing; Perkins, Shelley; Van, Que; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Fivash, Matthew; Nissley, Dwight V.; McCormick, Frank; Holderfield, Matthew; Stephen, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Prenylated proteins play key roles in several human diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. KRAS4b, which is frequently mutated in pancreatic, colon and lung cancers, is processed by farnesylation, proteolytic cleavage and carboxymethylation at the C-terminus. Plasma membrane localization of KRAS4b requires this processing as does KRAS4b-dependent RAF kinase activation. Previous attempts to produce modified KRAS have relied on protein engineering approaches or in vitro farnesylation of bacterially expressed KRAS protein. The proteins produced by these methods do not accurately replicate the mature KRAS protein found in mammalian cells and the protein yield is typically low. We describe a protocol that yields 5–10 mg/L highly purified, farnesylated, and methylated KRAS4b from insect cells. Farnesylated and methylated KRAS4b is fully active in hydrolyzing GTP, binds RAF-RBD on lipid Nanodiscs and interacts with the known farnesyl-binding protein PDEδ. PMID:26522388

  15. Glycoproteomic Approach Identifies KRAS as a Positive Regulator of CREG1 in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David J.; Mei, Yuping; Sun, Shisheng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Austin J.; Mao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation plays a fundamental role in a multitude of biological processes, and the associated aberrant expression of glycoproteins in cancer has made them attractive biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this study, we examined differentially expressed glycoproteins in cell lines derived from three different states of lung tumorigenesis: an immortalized bronchial epithelial cell (HBE) line, a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line harboring a Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) activation mutation and a NSCLC cell line harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation deletion. Using a Triple SILAC proteomic quantification strategy paired with hydrazide chemistry N-linked glycopeptide enrichment, we quantified 118 glycopeptides in the three cell lines derived from 82 glycoproteins. Proteomic profiling revealed 27 glycopeptides overexpressed in both NSCLC cell lines, 6 glycopeptides overexpressed only in the EGFR mutant cells and 19 glycopeptides overexpressed only in the KRAS mutant cells. Further investigation of a panel of NSCLC cell lines found that Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG1) overexpression was closely correlated with KRAS mutation status in NSCLC cells and could be down-regulated by inhibition of KRAS expression. Our results indicate that CREG1 is a down-stream effector of KRAS in a sub-type of NSCLC cells and a novel candidate biomarker or therapeutic target for KRAS mutant NSCLC. PMID:26722374

  16. Altered detoxification status and increased resistance to oxidative stress by K-ras transformation.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, Christian V; Kellner, Roland; Lichtenfels, Rudolf; Seliger, Barbara

    2008-12-15

    Mutated K-ras is frequently found in human malignancies and plays a key role in many signal transduction processes resulting in an altered gene and/or protein expression pattern. Proteins controlled by a constitutive activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway are primarily related to alterations in the mitochondrial and nuclear compartments. Therefore, different K-Ras mutants and respective control cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using basic pH gradients. This approach led to the identification of differentially expressed proteins, such as members of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein family, and enzymes involved in cellular detoxification as well as in oxidative stress. Increased expression of these enzymes was paralleled by an elevated tolerance of K-ras mutants against the cytotoxic potential of hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde as well as an altered redox status based on enhanced intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels indicating an improved detoxification potential of defined K-ras transfectants, whereas down-regulation by RNA interference of candidate proteins reversed the tolerance against these compounds. This hypothesis is supported by an up-regulated expression of a key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway resulting in an increased production of NADPH required for anabolic processes as well as the rebuilding of oxidized GSH. Both the enhanced resistance against xenobiotic compounds as well as an altered oxidative pathway might confer growth advantages for tumor cells carrying dominant-positive K-ras mutations such as in lung or pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  17. Genetic disruption of oncogenic Kras sensitizes lung cancer cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mou, Haiwei; Moore, Jill; Malonia, Sunil K; Li, Yingxiang; Ozata, Deniz M; Hough, Soren; Song, Chun-Qing; Smith, Jordan L; Fischer, Andrew; Weng, Zhiping; Green, Michael R; Xue, Wen

    2017-04-04

    Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras-independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form tumors in mice. Comparing the transcriptomes of oncogenic Kras cells and Kras knockout cells, we identified 603 genes that were specifically up-regulated in Kras knockout cells, including the Fas gene, which encodes a cell surface death receptor involved in physiological regulation of apoptosis. Antibodies recognizing Fas receptor efficiently induced apoptosis of Kras knockout cells but not oncogenic Kras-expressing cells. Increased Fas expression in Kras knockout cells was attributed to decreased association of repressive epigenetic marks at the Fas promoter. Concordant with this observation, treating oncogenic Kras cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor and Fas-activating antibody efficiently induced apoptosis, thus bypassing the need to inhibit Kras. Our results suggest that activation of Fas could be exploited as an Achilles' heel in tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras.

  18. Kras, Egfr, and Tp53 Mutations in B6C3F1/N Mouse and F344/NTac Rat Alveolar/Bronchiolar Carcinomas Resulting from Chronic Inhalation Exposure to Cobalt Metal.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hue-Hua L; Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Ton, Thai-Vu; Herbert, Ronald A; Kissling, Grace E; Hooth, Michelle J; Behl, Mamta; Witt, Kristine L; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L; Sills, Robert C; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-08-01

    Rodent lung tumors are morphologically similar to a subtype of human lung adenocarcinomas. The objective of this study was to evaluate Kirsten rat sarcoma oncogene homolog (Kras), epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr), and tumor protein 53 (Tp53) mutations, which are relevant to human lung cancer, in cobalt metal dust (CMD)-induced alveolar/bronchiolar tumors of B6C3F1/N mice and F344/NTac rats. Kras mutations were detected in 67% (mice) and 31% (rats) of CMD-induced lung tumors and were predominantly exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions (80% in mice and 57% in rats). Egfr mutations were detected in 17% (both mice and rats) of CMD-induced lung tumors and were predominantly in exon 20 with 50% G to A transitions (mice and rats). Tp53 mutations were detected in 19% (mice) and 23% (rats) of CMD-induced lung tumors and were predominant in exon 5 (mice, 69% transversions) and exon 6 (rats, all transitions). No mutations were observed for these genes in spontaneous lung tumors or normal lungs from untreated controls. Ames assay indicated that CMD is mutagenic in the absence but not in the presence of S9 mix. Thus, the mutation data (G to T transversions) and Ames assay results suggest that oxidative damage to DNA may be a contributing factor in CMD-induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in rodents.

  19. Kras, Egfr, and Tp53 Mutations in B6C3F1/N Mouse and F344/NTac Rat Alveolar/Bronchiolar Carcinomas Resulting from Chronic Inhalation Exposure to Cobalt Metal

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Ton, Thai-Vu; Herbert, Ronald A.; Kissling, Grace E.; Hooth, Michelle J.; Behl, Mamta; Witt, Kristine L.; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L.; Sills, Robert C.; Pandiri, Arun R.

    2015-01-01

    Rodent lung tumors are morphologically similar to a subtype of human lung adenocarcinomas. The objective of this study was to evaluate Kras, Egfr and Tp53 mutations, which are relevant to human lung cancer, in cobalt metal dust (CMD) induced alveolar/bronchiolar tumors of B6C3F1/N mice and F344/NTac rats. Kras mutations were detected in 67% (mice) and 31% (rats) of CMD-induced lung tumors, and were predominantly exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions (80% in mice and 57% in rats). Egfr mutations were detected in 17% (both mice and rats) of CMD-induced lung tumors, and were predominantly in exon 20 with 50% G to A transitions (mice and rats). Tp53 mutations were detected in 19% (mice) and 23% (rats) of CMD-induced lung tumors and were predominantly in exon 5 (mice, 69% transversions) and exon 6 (rats, all transitions). No mutations were observed for these genes in spontaneous lung tumors or normal lungs from untreated controls. Ames assays indicated that CMD is mutagenic in the absence but not in the presence of S9 mix. Thus, the mutation data (G to T transversions) and Ames assay results suggest that oxidative damage to DNA may be a contributing factor in CMD-induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in rodents. PMID:26059825

  20. [Clinical Research of EGFR and KRAS Mutation in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Specimens of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihui; Wu, Xilan; Ying, Jianming; Li, Junling; Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Shan, Ling; Ling, Yun

    2015-04-01

    背景与目的 肺癌患者靶向药物治疗前,需要检测表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR)和KRAS基因是否突变。本研究旨在探讨细针吸取悬浮液标本检测非小细胞肺癌EGFR、KRAS基因突变的意义。方法 细胞学悬浮液标本,Real-time PCR法检测EGFR 18-21号外显子,KRAS 2号外显子12、13密码子突变。结果 检测85例肺癌转移淋巴结针吸标本,EGFR突变率37.3%,KRAS突变率7.2%。19例组织切片标本,与细胞学结果一致(kappa=1.0)。13例有EGFR突变,临床分期IV期患者, 使用酪氨酸激酶抑制剂治疗,2例完全缓解(complete remission, CR)(16.7%);8例部分缓解(partial remission, PR)(66.7%);3例最佳稳定疾病(stable disease, SD)(25.0%)。结论 细针吸取标本检测EGFR、KRAS基因突变,标本取材容易、简单、方便,具有较高的临床实用性。.

  1. Alterations in the K-ras and p53 genes in rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Swafford, D.S.; Finch, G.L.; Mitchell, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    Activation of the K-ras protooncogene and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are events common to many types of human cancers. Molecular epidemiology studies have associated mutational profiles in these genes with specific exposures. The purpose of this paper is to review investigations that have examined the role of the K-ras and p53 genes in lung tumors induced in the F344 rat by mutagenic and nonmutagenic exposures. Mutation profiles within the K-ras and p53 genes, if present in rat lung tumors, would help to define some of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer induction by various environmental agents. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas were induced by tetranitromethane (TNM), 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), beryllium metal, plutonium-239, X-ray, diesel exhaust, or carbon black. These agents were chosen because the tumors they produced could arise via different types of DNA damage. Mutation of the K-ras gene was determined by approaches that included DNA transfection, direct sequencing, mismatch hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequency for mutation of the K-ras gene was exposure dependent. The transition mutations formed could have been derived from deamination of cytosine. Alteration in the p53 gene was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis for p53 protein and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of exons 4 to 9. None of the 93 adenocarinomas examined was immunoreactive toward the anti-p53 antibody CM1. In contrast, 14 of 71 squamous cell carcinomas exhibited nuclear p53 immunoreactivity with no correlation to type of exposure. However, SSCP analysis only detected mutations in 2 of 14 squamous cell tumors that were immunoreactive, suggesting that protein stabilization did not stem from mutations within the p53 gene. Thus, the p53 gene does not appear to be involved in the genesis of most rat lung tumors. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 48 refs.

  2. An integrative approach unveils FOSL1 as an oncogene vulnerability in KRAS-driven lung and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Adrian; Perurena, Naiara; Guruceaga, Elisabet; Mazur, Pawel K.; Martinez-Canarias, Susana; Zandueta, Carolina; Valencia, Karmele; Arricibita, Andrea; Gwinn, Dana; Sayles, Leanne C.; Chuang, Chen-Hua; Guembe, Laura; Bailey, Peter; Chang, David K.; Biankin, Andrew; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Andersen, Jesper B.; Khatri, Purvesh; Bozec, Aline; Sweet-Cordero, E. Alejandro; Sage, Julien; Lecanda, Fernando; Vicent, Silve

    2017-01-01

    KRAS mutated tumours represent a large fraction of human cancers, but the vast majority remains refractory to current clinical therapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by KRAS oncogene may yield alternative therapeutic strategies. Here we report the identification of a common transcriptional signature across mutant KRAS cancers of distinct tissue origin that includes the transcription factor FOSL1. High FOSL1 expression identifies mutant KRAS lung and pancreatic cancer patients with the worst survival outcome. Furthermore, FOSL1 genetic inhibition is detrimental to both KRAS-driven tumour types. Mechanistically, FOSL1 links the KRAS oncogene to components of the mitotic machinery, a pathway previously postulated to function orthogonally to oncogenic KRAS. FOSL1 targets include AURKA, whose inhibition impairs viability of mutant KRAS cells. Lastly, combination of AURKA and MEK inhibitors induces a deleterious effect on mutant KRAS cells. Our findings unveil KRAS downstream effectors that provide opportunities to treat KRAS-driven cancers. PMID:28220783

  3. Genetic Evidence for XPC-KRAS Interactions During Lung Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; He, Nonggao; Gu, Dongsheng; Wickliffe, Jeff; Salazar, James; Boldogh, Istavan; Xie, Jingwu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer causes more deaths than breast, colorectal and prostate cancers combined. Despite major advances in targeted therapy in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas, the overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer worldwide has not significantly changed for the last few decades. DNA repair deficiency is known to contribute to lung cancer development. In fact, human polymorphisms in DNA repair genes such as xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) are highly associated with lung cancer incidence. However, the direct genetic evidence for the role of XPC for lung cancer development is still lacking. Mutations of the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras) or its downstream effector genes occur in almost all lung cancer cells, and there are a number of mouse models for lung cancer using these mutations. Using activated Kras, KrasLA1, as a driver for lung cancer development in mice, we showed for the first time that mice with KrasLA1 and Xpc knockout had worst outcomes in lung cancer development, and this phenotype was associated with accumulated DNA damage. Using cultured cells, we demonstrated that induced expression of oncogenic KRASG12V led to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as DNA damage, and both can be suppressed by anti-oxidants. Thus, it appears that XPC may help repair DNA damage caused by KRAS-mediated production of ROS. PMID:26554912

  4. Selective 'stencil'-aided pre-PCR cleavage of wild-type sequences as a novel approach to detection of mutant K-RAS.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, A V; Serdjuk, O I; Sukhova, T I; Melkonyan, H S; Umansky, S R

    2001-09-01

    The enriched PCR widely used for detection of mutant K-RAS in either tumor tissues or circulating DNA was modified so that abundant wild-type K-RAS alleles are cleaved prior to PCR. We took advantage of an AluI recognition site located immediately upstream of the K-RAS codon 12. The site was reconstituted upon DNA denaturation followed by annealing with a 'stencil', a 16-bp synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to the wild-type sequence. As opposed to normal K-RAS, the mutant allele forms, upon annealing with the stencil, a mismatch at the codon 12 which lies within the AluI enzyme binding site and partially inhibits its activity. The mismatch also lowers the melting temperature of the stencil-mutant K-RAS double helix as compared to stencil-wild-type duplex, so that only the latter is double stranded and selectively digested by AluI at elevated temperatures. The proposed method of stencil-aided mutation analysis (SAMA) based on selective pre-PCR elimination of wild-type sequences can be highly advantageous for detection of mutant K-RAS due to: (i) an enhanced sensitivity because of reduced competition with a great excess of normal K-RAS, and (ii) a decrease in a number of false-positive results from Taq polymerase errors. Application of SAMA for generalized detection of DNA mutations is discussed.

  5. Mutant K-RAS Promotes Invasion and Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Through GTPase Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Padavano, Julianna; Henkhaus, Rebecca S; Chen, Hwudaurw; Skovan, Bethany A; Cui, Haiyan; Ignatenko, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, characterized by the local invasion into surrounding tissues and early metastasis to distant organs. Oncogenic mutations of the K-RAS gene occur in more than 90% of human pancreatic cancers. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional significance and downstream effectors of mutant K-RAS oncogene in the pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. We applied the homologous recombination technique to stably disrupt K-RAS oncogene in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2, which carries the mutant K-RASG12C oncogene in both alleles. Using in vitro assays, we found that clones with disrupted mutant K-RAS gene exhibited low RAS activity, reduced growth rates, increased sensitivity to the apoptosis inducing agents, and suppressed motility and invasiveness. In vivo assays showed that clones with decreased RAS activity had reduced tumor formation ability in mouse xenograft model and increased survival rates in the mouse orthotopic pancreatic cancer model. We further examined molecular pathways downstream of mutant K-RAS and identified RhoA GTP activating protein 5, caveolin-1, and RAS-like small GTPase A (RalA) as key effector molecules, which control mutant K-RAS-dependent migration and invasion in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Our study provides rational for targeting RhoA and RalA GTPase signaling pathways for inhibition of pancreatic cancer metastasis. PMID:26512205

  6. The mystery of oncogenic KRAS: Lessons from studying its wild-type counter part.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-I; Damnernsawad, Alisa; Kong, Guangyao; You, Xiaona; Wang, Demin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-22

    Using conditional knock-in mouse models, we and others have shown that despite the very high sequence identity between Nras and Kras proteins, oncogenic Kras displays a much stronger leukemogenic activity than oncogenic Nras in vivo. In this manuscript, we will summarize our recent work of characterizing wild-type Kras function in adult hematopoiesis and in oncogenic Kras-induced leukemogenesis. We attribute the strong leukemogenic activity of oncogenic Kras to 2 unique aspects of Kras signaling. First, Kras is required in mediating cell type- and cytokine-specific ERK1/2 signaling. Second, oncogenic Kras, but not oncogenic Nras, induces hyperactivation of wild-type Ras, which significantly enhances Ras signaling in vivo. We will also discuss a possible mechanism that mediates oncogenic Kras-evoked hyperactivation of wild-type Ras and a potential approach to down-regulate oncogenic Kras signaling.

  7. A combination therapy for KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinomas using lipophilic bisphosphonates and rapamycin

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yifeng; Liu, Yi -Liang; Xie, Yonghua; Zhu, Wei; Guerra, Francisco; Shen, Shen; Yeddula, Narayana; Fischer, Wolfgang; Low, William; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yonghui; Oldfield, Eric; Verma, Inder M.

    2014-11-19

    Lung cancer is the most common human malignancy and leads to about one-third of all cancer-related deaths. Lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations, in contrast to those with EGFR and EML4-ALK mutations, have not yet been successfully targeted. Here in this paper, we describe a combination therapy for treating these malignancies using two agents: a lipophilic bisphosphonate and rapamycin. This drug combination is much more effective than either agent acting alone in the KRAS G12D induced mouse lung model. Lipophilic bisphosphonates inhibit both farnesyl and geranylgeranyldiphosphate synthases, effectively blocking prenylation of the KRAS and other small G-proteins critical for tumor growth and cell survival. Bisphosphonate treatment of cells initiated autophagy but was ultimately unsuccessful and led to p62 accumulation and concomitant NF-κB activation, resulting in dampened efficacy in vivo. However, we found that rapamycin, in addition to inhibiting the mTOR pathway, facilitated autophagy and prevented p62 accumulation-induced NF-κB activation and tumor cell proliferation. Lastly, these results suggest that using lipophilic bisphosphonates in combination with rapamycin may provide an effective strategy for targeting lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations.

  8. A combination therapy for KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinomas using lipophilic bisphosphonates and rapamycin

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Yifeng; Liu, Yi -Liang; Xie, Yonghua; ...

    2014-11-19

    Lung cancer is the most common human malignancy and leads to about one-third of all cancer-related deaths. Lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations, in contrast to those with EGFR and EML4-ALK mutations, have not yet been successfully targeted. Here in this paper, we describe a combination therapy for treating these malignancies using two agents: a lipophilic bisphosphonate and rapamycin. This drug combination is much more effective than either agent acting alone in the KRAS G12D induced mouse lung model. Lipophilic bisphosphonates inhibit both farnesyl and geranylgeranyldiphosphate synthases, effectively blocking prenylation of the KRAS and other small G-proteins critical for tumor growthmore » and cell survival. Bisphosphonate treatment of cells initiated autophagy but was ultimately unsuccessful and led to p62 accumulation and concomitant NF-κB activation, resulting in dampened efficacy in vivo. However, we found that rapamycin, in addition to inhibiting the mTOR pathway, facilitated autophagy and prevented p62 accumulation-induced NF-κB activation and tumor cell proliferation. Lastly, these results suggest that using lipophilic bisphosphonates in combination with rapamycin may provide an effective strategy for targeting lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations.« less

  9. Dnmt3a haploinsufficiency cooperates with oncogenic Kras to promote an early-onset T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuan-I; Kong, Guangyao; Ranheim, Erik A; Tu, Po-Shu; Yu, Yi-Shan; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) are prevalent in various myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. The most common DNMT3A R882 mutations inhibit methyltransferase activity of the remaining wild-type DNMT3A proteins at a heterozygous state due to their dominant-negative activity. Reports and COSMIC database analysis reveal significantly different frequencies of R882 mutations in myeloid versus T-cell malignancies, inspiring us to investigate whether downregulation of DNMT3A regulates malignancies of different lineages in a dose-dependent manner. In a competitive transplant setting, the survival of recipients with KrasG12D/+; Dnmt3a+/- bone marrow (BM) cells was significantly shortened than that of recipients with KrasG12D/+ cells. Moreover, all of the recipients with KrasG12D/+; Dnmt3a+/- cells developed a lethal T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) without significant myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) phenotypes, while ~20% of recipients with KrasG12D/+ cells developed MPN with or without T-ALL. This is in sharp contrast to the recipients with KrasG12D/+; Dnmt3a-/- cells, in which ~60% developed a lethal myeloid malignancy (MPN or acute myeloid leukemia [AML]). Our data suggest that in the context of oncogenic Kras, loss of Dnmt3a promotes myeloid malignancies, while Dnmt3a haploinsufficiency induces T-ALL. This dose-dependent phenotype is highly consistent with the prevalence of DNMT3A R882 mutations in AML versus T-ALL in human. PMID:28386358

  10. Sensitivity of KRAS-Mutant Colorectal Cancers to Combination Therapy that Co-Targets MEK and CDK4/6

    PubMed Central

    Ziemke, Elizabeth K.; Dosch, Joseph S.; Maust, Joel D.; Shettigar, Amrith; Sen, Ananda; Welling, Theodore H.; Hardiman, Karin M.; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The emerging need for rational combination treatment approaches led us to test the concept that co-targeting MEK and CDK4/6 would prove efficacious in KRAS mutant (KRASmt) colorectal cancers, where upregulated CDK4 and hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma (RB) typify the vast majority of tumors. Experimental Design Initial testing was carried out in the HCT-116 tumor model, which is known to harbor a KRAS mutation. Efficacy studies were then performed with five RB+ patient-derived colorectal xenograft models, genomically diverse with respect to KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutational status. Tolerance, efficacy, and pharmacodynamic evaluation of target modulation were evaluated in response to daily dosing with either agent alone or concurrent co-administration. Results Synergy was observed in vitro when HCT-116 cells were treated over a broad range of doses of trametinib and palbociclib. Subsequent in vivo evaluation of this model showed a higher degree of antitumor activity resulting from the combination compared to that achievable with single agent treatment. Testing of colorectal patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models further showed that combination of trametinib and palbociclib was well tolerated and resulted in objective responses in all KRASmt models tested. Stasis was observed in a KRAS/BRAF wild type and a BRAFmt model. Conclusions Combination of trametinib and palbociclib was well tolerated and highly efficacious in all three KRAS mutant CRC PDX models tested. Promising preclinical activity seen here supports clinical evaluation of this treatment approach to improve therapeutic outcome for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26369631

  11. The Mutant KRAS Gene Up-regulates BCL-XL Protein via STAT3 to Confer Apoptosis Resistance That Is Reversed by BIM Protein Induction and BCL-XL Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Zaanan, Aziz; Okamoto, Koichi; Kawakami, Hisato; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Huang, Shengbing; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2015-09-25

    In colorectal cancers with oncogenic GTPase Kras (KRAS) mutations, inhibition of downstream MEK/ERK signaling has shown limited efficacy, in part because of failure to induce a robust apoptotic response. We studied the mechanism of apoptosis resistance in mutant KRAS cells and sought to enhance the efficacy of a KRAS-specific MEK/ERK inhibitor, GDC-0623. GDC-0623 was shown to potently up-regulate BIM expression to a greater extent versus other MEK inhibitors in isogenic KRAS HCT116 and mutant KRAS SW620 colon cancer cells. ERK silencing enhanced BIM up-regulation by GDC-0623 that was due to its loss of phosphorylation at Ser(69), confirmed by a BIM-EL phosphorylation-defective mutant (S69G) that increased protein stability and blocked BIM induction. Despite BIM and BIK induction, the isogenic KRAS mutant versus wild-type cells remained resistant to GDC-0623-induced apoptosis, in part because of up-regulation of BCL-XL. KRAS knockdown by a doxycycline-inducible shRNA attenuated BCL-XL expression. BCL-XL knockdown sensitized KRAS mutant cells to GDC-0623-mediated apoptosis, as did the BH3 mimetic ABT-263. GDC-0623 plus ABT-263 induced a synergistic apoptosis by a mechanism that includes release of BIM from its sequestration by BCL-XL. Furthermore, mutant KRAS activated p-STAT3 (Tyr(705)) in the absence of IL-6 secretion, and STAT3 knockdown reduced BCL-XL mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that BCL-XL up-regulation by STAT3 contributes to mutant KRAS-mediated apoptosis resistance. Such resistance can be overcome by potent BIM induction and concurrent BCL-XL antagonism to enable a synergistic apoptotic response.

  12. Clonal analysis of NRAS activating mutations in KIT-D816V systemic mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Todd M.; Maric, Irina; Simakova, Olga; Bai, Yun; Ching Chan, Eunice; Olivares, Nicolas; Carter, Melody; Maric, Dragan; Robyn, Jamie; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperating genetic events are likely to contribute to the phenotypic diversity of KIT-D816V systemic mastocytosis. In this study, 44 patients with KIT-D816V systemic mastocytosis were evaluated for coexisting NRAS, KRAS, HRAS or MRAS mutations. Activating NRAS mutations were identified in 2 of 8 patients with advanced disease. NRAS mutations were not found in patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis. To better understand the clonal evolution of mastocytosis, we evaluated the cell compartments impacted by the NRAS and KIT mutations. Clonal mast cells harbored both mutations. KIT-D816V was not detected in bone marrow CD34+ progenitors, whereas the NRAS mutation was present. These findings suggest that NRAS mutations may have the potential to precede KIT-D816V in clonal development. Unlike other mature lineages, mast cell survival is dependent on KIT and the presence of these two activating mutations may have a greater impact on the expansion of this cell compartment and in resultant disease severity. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00044122, NCT00001756) PMID:21134978

  13. KRAS mutation-positive bronchial surface epithelium (BSE)-type lung adenocarcinoma with strong expression of TTF-1: a case providing a further insight as for the role of TTF-1 in the oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Yusuke; Tajima, Shogo; Hayakawa, Takamitsu; Neyatani, Hiroshi; Funai, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial surface epithelium (BSE)-type lung adenocarcinoma is a subtype of non-terminal respiratory unit (TRU)-type lung adenocarcinoma originating in the bronchial surface epithelium. However, there are few known cases of BSE-type adenocarcinoma with marked expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). This paper describes a very rare case of KRAS mutation-positive BSE-type adenocarcinoma that exhibited strong expression of TTF-1 that was putatively involved in oncogenesis. An 84-year-old woman, a never smoker, was referred to our hospital because of an abnormal chest radiograph. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a solid mass lesion, 15 mm × 10 mm, with a relatively smooth margin in the left upper lobe. The patient underwent partial resection of the left upper lobe for strongly suspected lung cancer with a clinical stage of cT1aN0M0. Histopathological findings showed continuous migration of papillary, hyperplastic, atypical columnar tumor cells originating from normal bronchial surface epithelium, leading to a diagnosis of BSE-type adenocarcinoma. TTF-1 was strongly expressed in almost 100% of the tumor cells, which tested positive for the KRAS mutation. TTF-1 has recently attracted attention as an oncogene, and it is purportedly involved in the carcinogenesis and survival of lung adenocarcinoma cells. There is typically an inverse correlation between the respective expressions of KRAS and TTF-1, but in the present study, they appeared simultaneously and were both putatively involved as oncogenic driver alterations. This case is important in that it sheds some light on the largely unknown pathogenic mechanism of BSE-type adenocarcinoma.

  14. Somatic mutations in PIK3CA and activation of AKT in intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kuboki, Yuko; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Shiratori, Keiko; Kawamura, Shunji; Kobayashi, Makio; Shimizu, Michio; Ban, Shinichi; Koyama, Isamu; Higashi, Morihiro; Shin, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Morikawa, Takanori; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Unno, Michiaki; Kanno, Atsushi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Orikasa, Hideki; Watanabe, Tomoo; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Harada, Youji; Furukawa, Toru

    2011-12-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a recently recognized rare variant of intraductal neoplasms of the pancreas. Molecular aberrations underlying the neoplasm remain unknown. We investigated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, KRAS, and BRAF. We also investigated aberrant expressions of phosphorylated AKT, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), tumor protein 53 (TP53), SMAD4, and CTNNB1 in 11 cases of ITPNs and compared these data with those of 50 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), another distinct variant of pancreatic intraductal neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA were found in 3 of 11 ITPNs but not in IPMNs (P = 0.005; Fisher exact test). In contrast, mutations in KRAS were found in none of the ITPNs but were found in 26 of the 50 IPMNs (P = 0.001; Fisher exact test). PIK3CA mutations were associated with strong expression of phosphorylated AKT (P < 0.001; the Mann-Whitney U test). Moreover, the expression of phosphorylated AKT was apparent in most ITPNs but only in a few IPMNs (P < 0.001; the Mann-Whitney U test). Aberrant expressions of TP53, SMAD4, and CTNNB1 were not statistically different between these neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA and the expression of phosphorylated AKT were not associated with age, sex, tissue invasion, and patients' prognosis in ITPNs. These results indicate that activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may play a crucial role in ITPNs but not in IPMNs. In contrast, the mutation in KRAS seems to play a major role in IPMNs but not in ITPNs. The activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may be a potential target for molecular diagnosis and therapy of ITPNs.

  15. Growth Regulation via Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-4 and -2 in Association with Mutant K-ras in Lung Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hanako; Yazawa, Takuya; Suzuki, Takehisa; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Okudela, Koji; Ikeda, Masaichi; Hamada, Kenji; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi; Yao, Masayuki; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Takashi; Kamma, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Gain-of-function point mutations in K-ras affect early events in pulmonary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. We investigated altered mRNA expression on K-Ras activation in human peripheral lung epithelial cells (HPL1A) using oligonucleotide microarrays. Mutated K-Ras stably expressed in HPL1A accelerated cell growth and induced the expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein (IGFBP)-4 and IGFBP-2, which modulate cell growth via IGF. Other lung epithelial cell lines (NHBE and HPL1D) revealed the same phenomena as HPL1A by mutated K-ras transgene. Lung cancer cell growth was also accelerated by mutated K-ras gene transduction, whereas IGFBP-4/2 induction was weaker compared with mutated K-Ras-expressing lung epithelial cells. To understand the differences in IGFBP-4/2 inducibility via K-Ras-activated signaling between nonneoplastic lung epithelia and lung carcinoma, we addressed the mechanisms of IGFBP-4/2 transcriptional activation. Our results revealed that Egr-1, which is induced on activation of Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, is crucial for transactivation of IGFBP-4/2. Furthermore, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-2 promoters were often hypermethylated in lung carcinoma, yielding low basal expression/weak induction of IGFBP-4/2. These findings suggest that continuous K-Ras activation accelerates cell growth and evokes a feedback system through IGFBP-4/2 to prevent excessive growth. Moreover, this growth regulation is disrupted in lung cancers because of promoter hypermethylation of IGFBP-4/2 genes. PMID:17071580

  16. BRAF mutations and phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the development of flat and depressed-type colorectal neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Konishi, K; Takimoto, M; Kaneko, K; Makino, R; Hirayama, Y; Nozawa, H; Kurahashi, T; Kumekawa, Y; Yamamoto, T; Ito, H; Yoshikawa, N; Kusano, M; Nakayama, K; Rembacken, B J; Ota, H; Imawari, M

    2006-01-30

    Although some molecular differences between flat-depressed neoplasias (FDNs) and protruding neoplasias (PNs) have been reported, it is uncertain if the BRAF mutations or the status of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK) are different between theses two groups. We evaluated the incidence of BRAF and KRAS mutations, high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H), and the immunohistochemical status of p-MAPK in the nonserrated neoplasias (46 FDNs and 57 PNs). BRAF mutations were detected in four FDNs (9%) and none of PNs (P=0.0369 by Fisher's exact test). KRAS mutations were observed in none of FDNs and in 14 PNs (25%; P=0.0002 by Fisher's exact test). MSI-H was detected in seven out of 44 FDNs (16%) and in one out of 52 of PNs (2%) (P=0.022 by Fisher's exact test). Type B and C immunostaining for p-MAPK was observed in 34 out of 46 FDNs (72%), compared with 24 out of 55 PNs (44%; P=0.0022 by chi(2) test). There was no significant difference in the type B and C immunostaining of p-MAPK between FDNs with and without BRAF mutations. BRAF and KRAS mutations are mutually exclusive in the morphological characteristics of colorectal nonserrated neoplasia. Abnormal accumulation of p-MAPK protein is more likely to be implicated in the tumorigenesis of FDNs than of PNs. However, this abnormality in FDNs might occur via the genetic alteration other than BRAF or KRAS mutation.

  17. Foxm1 transcription factor is required for the initiation of lung tumorigenesis by oncogenic Kras(G12D.).

    PubMed

    Wang, I-C; Ustiyan, V; Zhang, Y; Cai, Y; Kalin, T V; Kalinichenko, V V

    2014-11-13

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths in cancer patients in the United States. Identification of new molecular targets is clearly needed to improve therapeutic outcomes of this devastating human disease. Activating mutations in K-Ras oncogene and increased expression of FOXM1 protein are associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Transgenic expression of activated Kras(G12D) in mouse respiratory epithelium is sufficient to induce lung adenocarcinomas; however, transcriptional mechanisms regulated by K-Ras during the initiation of lung cancer remain poorly understood. Foxm1 transcription factor, a downstream target of K-Ras, stimulates cellular proliferation during embryogenesis, organ repair and tumor growth, but its role in tumor initiation is unknown. In the present study, we used transgenic mice expressing Kras(G12D) under control of Sftpc promoter to demonstrate that Foxm1 was induced in type II epithelial cells before the formation of lung tumors. Conditional deletion of Foxm1 from Kras(G12D)-expressing respiratory epithelium prevented the initiation of lung tumors in vivo. The loss of Foxm1 inhibited expression of K-Ras target genes critical for the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, including Ikbkb, Nfkb1, Nfkb2, Rela, Jnk1, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a. Transgenic overexpression of activated FOXM1 mutant was sufficient to induce expression of these genes in alveolar type II cells. FOXM1 directly bound to promoter regions of Ikbkb, Nfkb2, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a, indicating that these genes are direct FOXM1 targets. FOXM1 is required for K-Ras-mediated lung tumorigenesis by activating genes critical for the NF-κB and JNK pathways.

  18. Kras is required for adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Damnernsawad, Alisa; Kong, Guangyao; Wen, Zhi; Liu, Yangang; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; You, Xiaona; Wang, Jinyong; Zhou, Yun; Ranheim, Erik A.; Luo, Hongbo R.; Chang, Qiang; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that Kras is dispensable for fetal liver hematopoiesis, but its rolein adult hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here, we generated a Kras conditional knockout allele to address this question. Deletion of Kras in adult bone marrow is mediated by Vav-Cre or inducible Mx1-Cre. We find that loss of Kras leads to greatly reduced TPO signaling in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors (MPPs), while SCF-evoked ERK1/2 activation is not affected. The compromised TPO signaling is associated with reduced long term- and intermediate-term HSC compartments and a bias towards myeloid differentiation in MPPs. Although GM-CSF-evoked ERK1/2 activation is only moderately decreased in Kras−/− myeloid progenitors, it is blunted in neutrophils and neutrophil survival is significantly reduced in vitro. At 9–12 months old, Kras conditional knockout mice develop profound hematopoietic defects, including splenomegaly, an expanded neutrophil compartment, and reduced B cell number. In a serial transplantation assay, the reconstitution potential of Kras−/− bone marrow cells is greatly compromised, which is attributable to defects in the self-renewal of Kras−/− HSCs and defects in differentiated hematopietic cells. Our results demonstrate that Kras is a major regulator of TPO and GM-CSF signaling in specific populations of hematopoietic cells and its function is required for adult hematopoiesis. PMID:26972179

  19. A combinatorial strategy for treating KRAS-mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Manchado, Eusebio; Weissmueller, Susann; Morris, John P; Chen, Chi-Chao; Wullenkord, Ramona; Lujambio, Amaia; de Stanchina, Elisa; Poirier, John T; Gainor, Justin F; Corcoran, Ryan B; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Rudin, Charles M; Rosen, Neal; Lowe, Scott W

    2016-06-30

    Therapeutic targeting of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma represents a major goal of clinical oncology. KRAS itself has proved difficult to inhibit, and the effectiveness of agents that target key KRAS effectors has been thwarted by activation of compensatory or parallel pathways that limit their efficacy as single agents. Here we take a systematic approach towards identifying combination targets for trametinib, a MEK inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, which acts downstream of KRAS to suppress signalling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Informed by a short-hairpin RNA screen, we show that trametinib provokes a compensatory response involving the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) that leads to signalling rebound and adaptive drug resistance. As a consequence, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of FGFR1 in combination with trametinib enhances tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo. This compensatory response shows distinct specificities: it is dominated by FGFR1 in KRAS-mutant lung and pancreatic cancer cells, but is not activated or involves other mechanisms in KRAS wild-type lung and KRAS-mutant colon cancer cells. Importantly, KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells and patients’ tumours treated with trametinib show an increase in FRS2 phosphorylation, a biomarker of FGFR activation; this increase is abolished by FGFR1 inhibition and correlates with sensitivity to trametinib and FGFR inhibitor combinations. These results demonstrate that FGFR1 can mediate adaptive resistance to trametinib and validate a combinatorial approach for treating KRAS-mutant lung cancer.

  20. A combinatorial strategy for treating KRAS mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manchado, Eusebio; Weissmueller, Susann; Morris, John P.; Chen, Chi-Chao; Wullenkord, Ramona; Lujambio, Amaia; de Stanchina, Elisa; Poirier, John T.; Gainor, Justin F.; Corcoran, Ryan B.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Rudin, Charles M.; Rosen, Neal; Lowe, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma represents a major goal of clinical oncology. KRAS itself has proven difficult to inhibit, and the effectiveness of agents that target key KRAS effectors has been thwarted by activation of compensatory or parallel pathways that limit their efficacy as single agents. Here we take a systematic approach towards identifying combination targets for trametinib, an FDA-approved MEK inhibitor that acts downstream of KRAS to suppress signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Informed by a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen, we show that trametinib provokes a compensatory response involving the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) that leads to signaling rebound and adaptive drug resistance. As a consequence, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 in combination with trametinib enhances tumor cell death in vitro and in vivo. This compensatory response shows distinct specificities – it is dominated by FGFR1 in KRAS mutant lung and pancreatic cancer cells, but is not activated or involves other mechanisms in KRAS wild-type lung and KRAS-mutant colon cancer cells. Importantly, KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells and patient tumors treated with trametinib show an increase in FRS2 phosphorylation, a biomarker of FGFR activation; this increase is abolished by FGFR1 inhibition and correlates with sensitivity to trametinib and FGFR inhibitor combinations. These results demonstrate that FGFR1 can mediate adaptive resistance to trametinib and validate a combinatorial approach for treating KRAS-mutant lung cancer. PMID:27338794

  1. Comparison of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) and real-time PCR in the detection of EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material of non-small cell lung carcinoma-superiority of NGS.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Katja; Mäki-Nevala, Satu; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Wirtanen, Aino; Rönty, Mikko; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Andrews, Jenny M; Telaranta-Keerie, Aino I; Hannula, Sari; Lagström, Sonja; Ellonen, Pekka; Knuuttila, Aija; Knuutila, Sakari

    2013-05-01

    The development of tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments has made it important to test cancer patients for clinically significant gene mutations that influence the benefit of treatment. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a promising method for diagnostic purposes by enabling the simultaneous detection of multiple mutations in various genes in a single test. The aim of our study was to screen EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations by targeted NGS and commonly used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to evaluate the feasibility of targeted NGS for the detection of the mutations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify potential novel mutations by targeted NGS. We analyzed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue specimens from 81 non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. We observed a significant concordance (from 96.3 to 100%) of the EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutation detection results between targeted NGS and real-time PCR. Moreover, targeted NGS revealed seven nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations and one insertion-deletion variation in EGFR not detectable by the real-time PCR methods. The potential clinical significance of these variants requires elucidation in future studies. Our results support the use of targeted NGS in the screening of EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations in FFPE tissue material.

  2. An activating Pik3ca mutation coupled with Pten loss is sufficient to initiate ovarian tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kinross, Kathryn M; Montgomery, Karen G; Kleinschmidt, Margarete; Waring, Paul; Ivetac, Ivan; Tikoo, Anjali; Saad, Mirette; Hare, Lauren; Roh, Vincent; Mantamadiotis, Theo; Sheppard, Karen E; Ryland, Georgina L; Campbell, Ian G; Gorringe, Kylie L; Christensen, James G; Cullinane, Carleen; Hicks, Rodney J; Pearson, Richard B; Johnstone, Ricky W; McArthur, Grant A; Phillips, Wayne A

    2012-02-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the p110α subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) that result in enhanced PI3K activity are frequently observed in human cancers. To better understand the role of mutant PIK3CA in the initiation or progression of tumorigenesis, we generated mice in which a PIK3CA mutation commonly detected in human cancers (the H1047R mutation) could be conditionally knocked into the endogenous Pik3ca locus. Activation of this mutation in the mouse ovary revealed that alone, Pik3caH1047R induced premalignant hyperplasia of the ovarian surface epithelium but no tumors. Concomitantly, we analyzed several human ovarian cancers and found PIK3CA mutations coexistent with KRAS and/or PTEN mutations, raising the possibility that a secondary defect in a co-regulator of PI3K activity may be required for mutant PIK3CA to promote transformation. Consistent with this notion, we found that Pik3caH1047R mutation plus Pten deletion in the mouse ovary led to the development of ovarian serous adenocarcinomas and granulosa cell tumors. Both mutational events were required for early, robust Akt activation. Pharmacological inhibition of PI3K/mTOR in these mice delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival. These results demonstrate that the Pik3caH1047R mutation with loss of Pten is enough to promote ovarian cell transformation and that we have developed a model system for studying possible therapies.

  3. ATDC induces an invasive switch in KRAS-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lidong; Yang, Huibin; Abel, Ethan V.; Ney, Gina M.; Palmbos, Phillip L.; Bednar, Filip; Zhang, Yaqing; Leflein, Jacob; Waghray, Meghna; Owens, Scott; Wilkinson, John E.; Prasad, Jayendra; Ljungman, Mats; Rhim, Andrew D.; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is linked to activating mutations in KRAS. However, in PDA mouse models, expression of oncogenic mutant KRAS during development gives rise to tumors only after a prolonged latency or following induction of pancreatitis. Here we describe a novel mouse model expressing ataxia telangiectasia group D complementing gene (ATDC, also known as TRIM29 [tripartite motif 29]) that, in the presence of oncogenic KRAS, accelerates pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) formation and the development of invasive and metastatic cancers. We found that ATDC up-regulates CD44 in mouse and human PanIN lesions via activation of β-catenin signaling, leading to the induction of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype characterized by expression of Zeb1 and Snail1. We show that ATDC is up-regulated by oncogenic Kras in a subset of PanIN cells that are capable of invading the surrounding stroma. These results delineate a novel molecular pathway for EMT in pancreatic tumorigenesis, showing that ATDC is a proximal regulator of EMT. PMID:25593307

  4. Mutations affecting enzymatic activity in liver arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Vockley, J.G.; Tabor, D.E.; Goodman, B.K.

    1994-09-01

    The hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea is catalyzed by arginase in the last step of the urea cycle. We examined a group of arginase deficient patients by PCR-SSCP analysis to characterize the molecular basis of this disorder. A heterogeneous population of nonsense mutations, microdeletions, and missense mutations has been identified in our cohort. Microdeletions which introduce premature stop codons downstream of the deletion and nonsense mutations result in no arginase activity. These mutations occur randomly along the gene. The majority of missense mutations identified appear to occur in regions of high cross-species homology. To test the effect of these missense mutations on arginase activity, site-directed mutagenesis was used to re-create the patient mutations for in vivo expression studies in a prokaryotic fusion-protein expression system. Of 4 different missense mutations identified in 6 individuals, only one was located outside of a conserved region. The three substitution mutations within the conserved regions had a significant effect on enzymatic activity (0-3.1 nmole/30min, normal is 1300-1400 nmoles/30min, as determined by in vitro arginase assay), while the fourth mutation, a T to S substitution, did not. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to create mutations not in residues postulated to play a significant role in the enzymatic function or active site formation in manganese-binding proteins such as arginase. We have determined that the substitution of glycine for a histidine residue, located in a very highly conserved region of exon 3, and the substitution of a histidine and an aspartic acid residue within a similarly conserved region in exon 4, totally abolishes enzymatic activity. Mutations substituting glycine for an additional histidine and aspartic acid residue in exon 4 and two aspartic acid residues in exon 7 have also been created. We are currently in the process of characterizing these mutations.

  5. Oncogenic K-Ras Binds to an Anionic Membrane in Two Distinct Orientations: A Molecular Dynamics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Priyanka; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Hancock, John F; Gorfe, Alemayehu A

    2016-03-08

    K-Ras is a membrane-associated GTPase that cycles between active and inactive conformational states to regulate a variety of cell signaling pathways. Somatic mutations in K-Ras are linked to 15-20% of all human tumors. K-Ras attaches to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane via a farnesylated polybasic domain; however, the structural details of the complex remain poorly understood. Based on extensive (7.5 μs total) atomistic molecular dynamics simulations here we show that oncogenic mutant K-Ras interacts with a negatively charged lipid bilayer membrane in multiple orientations. Of these, two highly populated orientations account for ∼54% of the conformers whose catalytic domain directly interacts with the bilayer. In one of these orientation states, membrane binding involves helices 3 and 4 of the catalytic domain in addition to the farnesyl and polybasic motifs. In the other orientation, β-strands 1-3 and helix 2 on the opposite face of the catalytic domain contribute to membrane binding. Flexibility of the linker region was found to be important for the reorientation. The biological significance of these observations was evaluated by initial experiments in cells overexpressing mutant K-Ras as well as by an analysis of Ras-effector complex structures. The results suggest that only one of the two major orientation states is capable of effector binding. We propose that the different modes of membrane binding may be exploited in structure-based drug design efforts for cancer therapy.

  6. Study Illuminates K-Ras4B Activation, Which May Help Predict Drug Resistance | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Until recently, researchers studying RAS, a family of proteins involved in transmitting signals within cells, believed that the exchange of guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP) by guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was sufficient to activate the protein. Once activated, RAS can cause unintended and overactive signaling in cells, which can lead to cell division and, ultimately, cancer.

  7. Synergistic activity of vorinostat combined with gefitinib but not with sorafenib in mutant KRAS human non-small cell lung cancers and hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeannot, Victor; Busser, Benoit; Vanwonterghem, Laetitia; Michallet, Sophie; Ferroudj, Sana; Cokol, Murat; Coll, Jean-Luc; Ozturk, Mehmet; Hurbin, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    Development of drug resistance limits the efficacy of targeted therapies. Alternative approaches using different combinations of therapeutic agents to inhibit several pathways could be a more effective strategy for treating cancer. The effects of the approved epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib) or a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor (sorafenib) in combination with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (vorinostat) on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and signaling pathway activation in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells with wild-type EGFR and mutant KRAS were investigated. The effects of the synergistic drug combinations were also studied in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells in vivo. The combination of gefitinib and vorinostat synergistically reduced cell growth and strongly induced apoptosis through inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/protein kinase B (IGF-1R/AKT)-dependent signaling pathway. Moreover, the gefitinib and vorinostat combination strongly inhibited tumor growth in mice with lung adenocarcinoma or hepatocarcinoma tumor xenografts. In contrast, the combination of sorafenib and vorinostat did not inhibit cell proliferation compared to a single treatment and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest without apoptosis. The sorafenib and vorinostat combination sustained the IGF-1R-, AKT-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways. These results showed that there was synergistic cytotoxicity when vorinostat was combined with gefitinib for both lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma with mutant KRAS in vitro and in vivo but that the combination of vorinostat with sorafenib did not show any benefit. These findings highlight the important role of the IGF-1R/AKT pathway in the resistance to targeted therapies and support the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, especially for treating

  8. USP39 Deubiquitinase Is Essential for KRAS Oncogene-driven Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Julia M; Manchado, Eusebio; Lujambio, Amaia; Quesada, Víctor; Campos-Iglesias, Diana; Webb, Thomas R; Lowe, Scott W; López-Otín, Carlos; Freije, José M P

    2017-03-10

    KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancer, but its therapeutic targeting remains challenging. Here, we report a synthetic lethal screen with a library of deubiquitinases and identify USP39, which encodes an essential splicing factor, as a critical gene for the viability of KRAS-dependent cells. We show that splicing fidelity inhibitors decrease preferentially the proliferation rate of KRAS-active cells. Moreover, depletion of DHX38, encoding an USP39-interacting splicing factor, also reduces the viability of these cells. In agreement with these results, USP39 depletion caused a significant reduction in pre-mRNA splicing efficiency, as demonstrated through RNA-seq experiments. Furthermore, we show that USP39 is up-regulated in lung and colon carcinomas and its expression correlates with KRAS levels and poor clinical outcome. Accordingly, our work provides critical information for the development of splicing-directed antitumor treatments and supports the potential of USP39-targeting strategies as the basis of new anticancer therapies.

  9. SPRED1 Interferes with K-ras but Not H-ras Membrane Anchorage and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Siljamäki, Elina; Abankwa, Daniel

    2016-10-15

    The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is tightly controlled by negative feedback regulators, such as the tumor suppressor SPRED1. The SPRED1 gene also carries loss-of-function mutations in the RASopathy Legius syndrome. Growth factor stimulation translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane, triggering its inhibitory activity. However, it remains unclear whether SPRED1 there acts at the level of Ras or Raf. We show that pharmacological or galectin-1 (Gal-1)-mediated induction of B- and C-Raf-containing dimers translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane. This is facilitated in particular by SPRED1 interaction with B-Raf and, via its N terminus, with Gal-1. The physiological significance of these novel interactions is supported by two Legius syndrome-associated mutations that show diminished binding to both Gal-1 and B-Raf. On the plasma membrane, SPRED1 becomes enriched in acidic membrane domains to specifically perturb membrane organization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling of active K-ras4B (here, K-ras) but not H-ras. However, SPRED1 also blocks on the nanoscale the positive effects of Gal-1 on H-ras. Therefore, a combinatorial expression of SPRED1 and Gal-1 potentially regulates specific patterns of K-ras- and H-ras-dependent signaling output. More broadly, our results open up the possibility that related SPRED and Sprouty proteins act in a similar Ras and Raf isoform-specific manner.

  10. SPRED1 Interferes with K-ras but Not H-ras Membrane Anchorage and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Siljamäki, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is tightly controlled by negative feedback regulators, such as the tumor suppressor SPRED1. The SPRED1 gene also carries loss-of-function mutations in the RASopathy Legius syndrome. Growth factor stimulation translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane, triggering its inhibitory activity. However, it remains unclear whether SPRED1 there acts at the level of Ras or Raf. We show that pharmacological or galectin-1 (Gal-1)-mediated induction of B- and C-Raf-containing dimers translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane. This is facilitated in particular by SPRED1 interaction with B-Raf and, via its N terminus, with Gal-1. The physiological significance of these novel interactions is supported by two Legius syndrome-associated mutations that show diminished binding to both Gal-1 and B-Raf. On the plasma membrane, SPRED1 becomes enriched in acidic membrane domains to specifically perturb membrane organization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling of active K-ras4B (here, K-ras) but not H-ras. However, SPRED1 also blocks on the nanoscale the positive effects of Gal-1 on H-ras. Therefore, a combinatorial expression of SPRED1 and Gal-1 potentially regulates specific patterns of K-ras- and H-ras-dependent signaling output. More broadly, our results open up the possibility that related SPRED and Sprouty proteins act in a similar Ras and Raf isoform-specific manner. PMID:27503857

  11. Selective killing of K-ras mutant cancer cells by small molecule inducers of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Winslow, Monte M.; Magendantz, Margaret; Ouyang, Chensi; Dowdle, James; Subramanian, Aravind; Lewis, Timothy A.; Maglathin, Rebecca L.; Tolliday, Nicola; Jacks, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Activating K-RAS mutations are the most frequent oncogenic mutations in human cancer. Numerous downstream signaling pathways have been shown to be deregulated by oncogenic K-ras. However, to date there are still no effective targeted therapies for this genetically defined subset of patients. Here we report the results of a small molecule, synthetic lethal screen using mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from a mouse model harboring a conditional oncogenic K-rasG12D allele. Among the >50,000 compounds screened, we identified a class of drugs with selective activity against oncogenic K-ras–expressing cells. The most potent member of this class, lanperisone, acts by inducing nonapoptotic cell death in a cell cycle- and translation-independent manner. The mechanism of cell killing involves the induction of reactive oxygen species that are inefficiently scavenged in K-ras mutant cells, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. In mice, treatment with lanperisone suppresses the growth of K-ras–driven tumors without overt toxicity. Our findings establish the specific antitumor activity of lanperisone and reveal oxidative stress pathways as potential targets in Ras-mediated malignancies. PMID:21555567

  12. Activating GNAS mutations in parosteal osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jodi M; Inwards, Carrie Y; Jin, Long; Evers, Barbara; Wenger, Doris E; Oliveira, Andre M; Fritchie, Karen J

    2014-03-01

    Parosteal osteosarcoma is a surface-based osteosarcoma that often exhibits deceptively bland cytologic features, hindering diagnosis in small biopsies or when correlative radiologic imaging is not readily available. A number of benign and malignant fibro-osseous lesions, including fibrous dysplasia (FD) and low-grade central osteosarcoma, fall within the morphologic differential diagnosis of parosteal osteosarcoma. Somatic mutations in GNAS, encoding the α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex (Gsα), occur in FD and McCune-Albright syndrome but have not been reported in parosteal osteosarcoma. We evaluated GNAS mutational status in parosteal osteosarcoma and several of its histologic mimics to determine its utility in differentiating these entities. Eleven of 14 (79%) FD cases had GNAS mutations within codon 201 (5 R201C and 6 R201H mutations). GNAS mutations were not detected in any cases of adamantinoma or osteofibrous dysplasia. Direct sequencing of 9 parosteal osteosarcomas, including 3 of low grade and 6 with dedifferentiation, revealed activating GNAS mutations in 5 cases (55%), distributed as 4 R201C-mutated tumors and 1 tumor with an R201H mutation. GNAS codon 227 mutations were not detected in any of the cases. There was no association between GNAS mutational status and patient demographics, histologic dedifferentiation, or clinical outcome. To our knowledge, we report the first series of parosteal osteosarcomas harboring activating GNAS mutations. Our data suggest that GNAS mutational status may have limited utility as an ancillary technique in differentiating benign and malignant fibro-osseous lesions of the bone.

  13. Prognostic value of KRAS genotype in metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) patients treated with intensive triplet chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (FIr-B/FOx) according to extension of metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bevacizumab (BEV) plus triplet chemotherapy can increase efficacy of first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC), particularly integrated with secondary liver surgery in liver-limited (L-L) patients. The prognostic value of the KRAS genotype in L-L and other or multiple metastatic (O/MM) MCRC patients treated with the FIr-B/FOx regimen was retrospectively evaluated. Methods Tumoral and metastatic samples were screened for KRAS codon 12 and 13 and BRAF mutations by SNaPshot and/or direct sequencing. Fit MCRC patients <75 years were consecutively treated with FIr-B/FOx regimen: weekly 12-h timed flat-infusion/5-fluorouracil (TFI 5-FU) 900 mg/m2, days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22 and 23; irinotecan (CPT-11) 160 mg/m2 plus BEV 5 mg/kg, days 1, 15; oxaliplatin (OXP) 80 mg/m2, days 8, 22; every 4 weeks. MCRC patients were classified as L-L and O/MM. Activity and efficacy were evaluated and compared using log-rank test. Results In all, 59 patients were evaluated: 31 KRAS wild-type (53%), 28 KRAS mutant (47%). At 21.5 months median follow-up, objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were, respectively: KRAS wild-type 90%, 14 months, 38 months; KRAS mutant 67%, 11 months, 20 months. PFS and OS were not significantly different. PFS and OS were significantly different in L-L compared to O/MM evaluable patients. In KRAS wild-type patients, clinical outcome of 12 L-L compared to 18 O/MM was significantly different: PFS 21 versus 12 months and OS 47 versus 28 months, respectively. In KRAS mutant patients, the clinical outcome of 13 L-L compared to 14 O/MM was not significantly different: PFS 11 months equivalently and OS 39 versus 19 months, respectively. Conclusions The KRAS genotype wild-type and mutant does not significantly affect different clinical outcomes for MCRC patients treated with the first-line FIr-B/FOx intensive regimen. KRAS wild-type patients with L-L disease may achieve a significantly

  14. Estrogen withdrawal, increased breast cancer risk and the KRAS-variant

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Terri P; Jung, Song-Yi; Kerin, Michael J; Salzman, David W; Nallur, Sunitha; Nemec, Antonio A; Dookwah, Michelle; Sadofsky, Jackie; Paranjape, Trupti; Kelly, Olivia; Chan, Elcie; Miller, Nicola; Sweeney, Karl J; Zelterman, Daniel; Sweasy, Joann; Pilarski, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2015-01-01

    The KRAS-variant is a biologically functional, microRNA binding site variant, which predicts increased cancer risk especially for women. Because external exposures, such as chemotherapy, differentially impact the effect of this mutation, we evaluated the association of estrogen exposures, breast cancer (BC) risk and tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant. Women with BC (n = 1712), the subset with the KRAS-variant (n = 286) and KRAS-variant unaffected controls (n = 80) were evaluated, and hormonal exposures, KRAS-variant status, and pathology were compared. The impact of estrogen withdrawal on transformation of isogenic normal breast cell lines with or without the KRAS-variant was studied. Finally, the association and presentation characteristics of the KRAS-variant and multiple primary breast cancer (MPBC) were evaluated. KRAS-variant BC patients were more likely to have ovarian removal pre-BC diagnosis than non-variant BC patients (p = 0.033). In addition, KRAS-variant BC patients also appeared to have a lower estrogen state than KRAS-variant unaffected controls, with a lower BMI (P < 0.001). Finally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) discontinuation in KRAS-variant patients was associated with a diagnosis of triple negative BC (P < 0.001). Biologically confirming our clinical findings, acute estrogen withdrawal led to oncogenic transformation in KRAS-variant positive isogenic cell lines. Finally, KRAS-variant BC patients had greater than an 11-fold increased risk of presenting with MPBC compared to non-variant patients (45.39% vs 6.78%, OR 11.44 [3.42–37.87], P < 0.001). Thus, estrogen withdrawal and a low estrogen state appear to increase BC risk and to predict aggressive tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant, who are also significantly more likely to present with multiple primary breast cancer. PMID:25961464

  15. EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING IS ESSENTIAL FOR K-RAS ONCOGENE-DRIVEN PANCREATIC DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Carolina; Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Sibilia, Maria; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Clinical evidence indicates that mutation/activation of EGF receptors (EGFRs) is mutually exclusive with the presence of K-RAS oncogenes in lung and colon tumors. We have validated these observations using genetically engineered mouse models. However, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas driven by K-Ras oncogenes are totally dependent on EGFR signaling. Similar results were obtained using human pancreatic tumor cell lines. EGFRs were also essential even in the context of pancreatic injury and absence of p16Ink4a/p19Arf. Only loss of p53 made pancreatic tumors independent of EGFR signaling. Additional inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 effectively prevented proliferation of explants derived from these p53–defective pancreatic tumors. These findings may provide the bases for more rational approaches to treat pancreatic tumors in the clinic. PMID:22975375

  16. CXCR2 signaling regulates KRAS(G12D)-induced autocrine growth of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Abhilasha; Varney, Michelle; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Ouellette, Michel M.; Batra, Surinder K.; Singh, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of RAS, the master regulator of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), continues to be a challenge. Mutations in various isoforms of RAS gene, including KRAS are known to upregulate CXC chemokines; however, their precise role in KRAS-driven pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In this report, we reveal a previously unidentified tumor cell-autonomous role of KRAS(G12D)-induced CXCR2 signaling in mediating growth of neoplastic PDAC cells. Progressively increasing expression of mCXCR2 and its ligands was detected in the malignant ductal cells of Pdx1-cre;LSL-Kras(G12D) mice. Knocking-down CXCR2 in KRAS(G12D)-bearing human pancreatic duct-derived cells demonstrated a significant decrease in the in vitro and in vivo tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, CXCR2 antagonists showed selective growth inhibition of KRAS(G12D)-bearing cells in vitro. Intriguingly, both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 signaling in KRAS(G12D)-bearing pancreatic ductal cells reduced the levels of KRAS protein, strongly implying the presence of a KRAS-CXCR2 feed-forward loop. Together, these data demonstrate the role of CXCR2 signaling in KRAS(G12D)-induced growth transformation and progression in PDAC. PMID:26771140

  17. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization. PMID:26572827

  18. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei; Fairn, Gregory D; Hancock, John F

    2015-11-16

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization.

  19. Loopback rolling circle amplification for ultrasensitive detection of Kras gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huo; Wu, Dong; Jiang, Yifan; Zhang, Rongbo; Wu, Qingzheng; Liu, Yiyun; Li, Feng; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in Kras gene may be used as a diagnostic marker and a target for treatment of the broad spectrum of human cancers. In this study, we developed a new class of amplification assay, double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB)-based cascade rolling circle amplification (RCA), for ultrasensitive and selective detection of Kras gene in a homogenous solution. Specifically, target DNA can hybridize with DHMB and activate cyclical target strand-displacement polymerization (CTDP) and nicking-mediated strand-displacement polymerization (NMDP). The resulting nicked/displaced fragments substantially outnumber target DNA and cause the cascade rolling circle amplification (C-RCA) and nicked fragment-induced strand-displacement polymerization (NFDP). Even if four amplification processes are designed, only DHMB, padlock probe and polymerization primer are involved. Under optimized conditions, this screening system exhibits a linear range of 5 orders of magnitude (from 100fM to 20nM), and the detection limit is down to 16fM. Moreover, the developed biosensing system offers a high assay specificity for perfectly matched target DNA, and the measured data from practical samples demonstrated the potential application in the cancer diagnoses. As a proof-of-concept genetic assay, the novel signaling strategy, as well as desirable analytical capability, would significantly benefit the development of versatile amplification gene profiling platforms, revealing great promise in biological studies and medical diagnostics.

  20. Master Regulators of Oncogenic KRAS Response in Pancreatic Cancer: An Integrative Network Biology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background KRAS is the most frequently mutated gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional response to oncogenic KRAS are still not fully understood. We aimed to uncover transcription factors that regulate the transcriptional response of oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer and to understand their clinical relevance. Methods and Findings We applied a well-established network biology approach (master regulator analysis) to combine a transcriptional signature for oncogenic KRAS derived from a murine isogenic cell line with a coexpression network derived by integrating 560 human pancreatic cancer cases across seven studies. The datasets included the ICGC cohort (n = 242), the TCGA cohort (n = 178), and five smaller studies (n = 17, 25, 26, 36, and 36). 55 transcription factors were coexpressed with a significant number of genes in the transcriptional signature (gene set enrichment analysis [GSEA] p < 0.01). Community detection in the coexpression network identified 27 of the 55 transcription factors contributing to three major biological processes: Notch pathway, down-regulated Hedgehog/Wnt pathway, and cell cycle. The activities of these processes define three distinct subtypes of PDAC, which demonstrate differences in survival and mutational load as well as stromal and immune cell composition. The Hedgehog subgroup showed worst survival (hazard ratio 1.73, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.72, coxPH test p = 0.018) and the Notch subgroup the best (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.93, coxPH test p = 0.019). The cell cycle subtype showed highest mutational burden (ANOVA p < 0.01) and the smallest amount of stromal admixture (ANOVA p < 2.2e–16). This study is limited by the information provided in published datasets, not all of which provide mutational profiles, survival data, or the specifics of treatment history. Conclusions Our results characterize the regulatory mechanisms underlying the transcriptional response to oncogenic

  1. Impact of oncogenic K-RAS on YB-1 phosphorylation induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is associated with tumor progression and drug resistance. Phosphorylation of YB-1 at serine residue 102 (S102) in response to growth factors is required for its transcriptional activity and is thought to be regulated by cytoplasmic signaling phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways. These pathways can be activated by growth factors and by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). So far, however, no studies have been conducted on IR-induced YB-1 phosphorylation. Methods IR-induced YB-1 phosphorylation in K-RAS wild-type (K-RASwt) and K-RAS-mutated (K-RASmt) breast cancer cell lines was investigated. Using pharmacological inhibitors, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and plasmid-based overexpression approaches, we analyzed pathways involved in YB-1 phosphorylation by IR. Using γ-H2AX foci and standard colony formation assays, we investigated the function of YB-1 in repair of IR-induced DNA double-stranded breaks (DNA-DSB) and postirradiation survival was investigated. Results The average level of phosphorylation of YB-1 in the breast cancer cell lines SKBr3, MCF-7, HBL100 and MDA-MB-231 was significantly higher than that in normal cells. Exposure to IR and stimulation with erbB1 ligands resulted in phosphorylation of YB-1 in K-RASwt SKBr3, MCF-7 and HBL100 cells, which was shown to be K-Ras-independent. In contrast, lack of YB-1 phosphorylation after stimulation with either IR or erbB1 ligands was observed in K-RASmt MDA-MB-231 cells. Similarly to MDA-MB-231 cells, YB-1 became constitutively phosphorylated in K-RASwt cells following the overexpression of mutated K-RAS, and its phosphorylation was not further enhanced by IR. Phosphorylation of YB-1 as a result of irradiation or K-RAS mutation was dependent on erbB1 and its downstream pathways, PI3K and MAPK/ERK. In K-RASmt cells K-RAS siRNA as well as YB-1 siRNA blocked

  2. XPO1-dependent nuclear export is a druggable vulnerability in KRAS-mutant lung cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The common participation of oncogenic KRAS proteins in many of the most lethal human cancers, together with the ease of detecting somatic KRAS mutant alleles in patient samples, has spurred persistent and intensive efforts to develop drugs that inhibit KRAS activity.

  3. An activating Pik3ca mutation coupled with Pten loss is sufficient to initiate ovarian tumorigenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kinross, Kathryn M.; Montgomery, Karen G.; Kleinschmidt, Margarete; Waring, Paul; Ivetac, Ivan; Tikoo, Anjali; Saad, Mirette; Hare, Lauren; Roh, Vincent; Mantamadiotis, Theo; Sheppard, Karen E.; Ryland, Georgina L.; Campbell, Ian G.; Gorringe, Kylie L.; Christensen, James G.; Cullinane, Carleen; Hicks, Rodney J.; Pearson, Richard B.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; McArthur, Grant A.; Phillips, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the p110α subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) that result in enhanced PI3K activity are frequently observed in human cancers. To better understand the role of mutant PIK3CA in the initiation or progression of tumorigenesis, we generated mice in which a PIK3CA mutation commonly detected in human cancers (the H1047R mutation) could be conditionally knocked into the endogenous Pik3ca locus. Activation of this mutation in the mouse ovary revealed that alone, Pik3caH1047R induced premalignant hyperplasia of the ovarian surface epithelium but no tumors. Concomitantly, we analyzed several human ovarian cancers and found PIK3CA mutations coexistent with KRAS and/or PTEN mutations, raising the possibility that a secondary defect in a co-regulator of PI3K activity may be required for mutant PIK3CA to promote transformation. Consistent with this notion, we found that Pik3caH1047R mutation plus Pten deletion in the mouse ovary led to the development of ovarian serous adenocarcinomas and granulosa cell tumors. Both mutational events were required for early, robust Akt activation. Pharmacological inhibition of PI3K/mTOR in these mice delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival. These results demonstrate that the Pik3caH1047R mutation with loss of Pten is enough to promote ovarian cell transformation and that we have developed a model system for studying possible therapies. PMID:22214849

  4. [miR-143 inhibits cell proliferation through targeted regulating the expression of K-ras gene in HeLa cells].

    PubMed

    Qin, H X; Cui, H K; Pan, Y; Hu, R L; Zhu, L H; Wang, S J

    2016-12-23

    Objective: To explore the effect of microRNA miR-143 on the proliferation of cervical cancer HeLa cells through targeted regulating the expression of K-ras gene. Methods: The luciferase report carrier containing wild type 3'-UTR of K-ras gene (K-ras-wt) or mutated 3'-UTR of the K-ras (K-ras-mut) were co-transfected with iR-143 mimic into the HeLa cells respectively, and the targeting effect of miR-143 in the transfectants was verified by the dual luciferase report system. HeLa cells were also transfected with miR-143 mimic (miR-143 mimic group), mimic control (negative control group), and miR-143 mimic plus K-ras gene (miR-143 mimic+ K-ras group), respectively. The expression of miR-143 in the transfected HeLa cells was detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression of K-ras protein was detected by Western blot. The cell proliferation activity of each group was examined by MTT assay. In addition, human cervical cancer tissue samples (n=5) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue samples (n=5) were also examined for the expression of miR-143 and K-ras protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: The luciferase report assay showed that co-transfection with miR-143 mimic decreased the luciferase activity of the K-ras-wt significantly, but did not inhibit the luciferase activity of the K-ras-mut. The expression of miR-143 in the HeLa cells transfected with miR-143 mimic was significantly higher than that in the HeLa cells transfected with the mimic control (3.31±0.45 vs 0.97±0.22, P<0.05). The MTT assay revealed that the cell proliferative activity of the miR-143 mimic group was significantly lower than that of the negative control group (P<0.05), and the cell proliferative activity of the miR-143 mimic+ K-ras group was also significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05) but higher than the miR-143 mimic group significantly (P<0.05). The expression levels of K-ras protein in the miR-143 mimic group, the negative control group and the

  5. ACB-PCR MEASUREMENT OF K-RAS CODON 12 MUTATION IN A/J MOUSE LUNG EXPOSED TO BENZO[A]PYRENE: A DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a known human carcinogen and environmental contaminant. The direct measurement of K-Ras mutant fraction (MF) was developed as a metric with which to examine the default assumption of low dose linearity in the mutational response to B...

  6. MUC1 Positive, Kras and Pten Driven Mouse Gynecologic Tumors Replicate Human Tumors and Vary in Survival and Nuclear Grade Based on Anatomical Location

    PubMed Central

    Elishaev, Esther; Zhang, Lixin; Mony, Jyothi T.; Brozick, Joan; Edwards, Robert P.; Vlad, Anda M.

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations of Kras oncogene and deletions of Pten tumor suppressor gene play important roles in cancers of the female genital tract. We developed here new preclinical models for gynecologic cancers, using conditional (Cre-loxP) mice with floxed genetic alterations in Kras and Pten. The triple transgenic mice, briefly called MUC1KrasPten, express human MUC1 antigen as self and carry a silent oncogenic KrasG12D and Pten deletion mutation. Injection of Cre-encoding adenovirus (AdCre) in the ovarian bursa, oviduct or uterus activates the floxed mutations and initiates ovarian, oviductal, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Anatomical site-specific Cre-loxP recombination throughout the genital tract of MUC1KrasPten mice leads to MUC1 positive genital tract tumors, and the development of these tumors is influenced by the anatomical environment. Endometrioid histology was consistently displayed in all tumors of the murine genital tract (ovaries, oviducts, and uterus). Tumors showed increased expression of MUC1 glycoprotein and triggered de novo antibodies in tumor bearing hosts, mimicking the immunobiology seen in patients. In contrast to the ovarian and endometrial tumors, oviductal tumors showed higher nuclear grade. Survival for oviduct tumors was significantly lower than for endometrial tumors (p = 0.0015), yet similar to survival for ovarian cancer. Oviducts seem to favor the development of high grade tumors, providing preclinical evidence in support of the postulated role of fallopian tubes as the originating site for high grade human ovarian tumors. PMID:25078979

  7. KRAS/BRAF Analysis in Ovarian Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma Having Synchronous All Pathological Precursor Regions.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kohei; Nakayama, Kentaro; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Minamoto, Toshiko; Sato, Emi; Sanuki, Kaori; Yamashita, Hitomi; Iida, Kouji; Sultana, Razia; Kyo, Satoru

    2016-04-26

    Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma is thought to begin as a serous cystadenoma or adenofibroma that progresses in a slow stepwise fashion. Among the low-grade serous carcinomas, there is a high frequency of activating mutations in the KRAS or BRAF genes; however, it remains unclear as to how these mutations contribute to tumor progression. This is the first report to track the histopathological progression of serous adenofibroma to low-grade serous carcinoma. Each stage was individually analyzed by pathological and molecular genetic methods to determine what differences occur between the distinct stages of progression.

  8. Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Is Dependent on Oncogenic Kras in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Meredith A.; Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Zhang, Yaqing; Bednar, Filip; Pierre, Josette; Heist, Kevin A.; Galbán, Craig J.; Galbán, Stefanie; di Magliano, Marina Pasca

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies, and its prognosis has not improved over the past 40 years. Mouse models that spontaneously develop pancreatic adenocarcinoma and mimic the progression of the human disease are emerging as a new tool to investigate the basic biology of this disease and identify potential therapeutic targets. Here, we describe a new model of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma based on pancreas-specific, inducible and reversible expression of an oncogenic form of Kras, together with pancreas-specific expression of a mutant form of the tumor suppressor p53. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to follow individual animals in longitudinal studies, we show that both primary and metastatic lesions depend on continuous Kras activity for their maintenance. However, re-activation of Kras* following prolonged inactivation leads to rapid tumor relapse, raising the concern that Kras*-resistance might eventually be acquired. Thus, our data identifies Kras* as a key oncogene in pancreatic cancer maintenance, but raises the possibility of acquired resistance should Kras inhibitors become available for use in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23226501

  9. Oncogenic K-Ras Binds to an Anionic Membrane in Two Distinct Orientations: A Molecular Dynamics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Priyanka; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2016-01-01

    K-Ras is a membrane-associated GTPase that cycles between active and inactive conformational states to regulate a variety of cell signaling pathways. Somatic mutations in K-Ras are linked to 15–20% of all human tumors. K-Ras attaches to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane via a farnesylated polybasic domain; however, the structural details of the complex remain poorly understood. Based on extensive (7.5 μs total) atomistic molecular dynamics simulations here we show that oncogenic mutant K-Ras interacts with a negatively charged lipid bilayer membrane in multiple orientations. Of these, two highly populated orientations account for ∼54% of the conformers whose catalytic domain directly interacts with the bilayer. In one of these orientation states, membrane binding involves helices 3 and 4 of the catalytic domain in addition to the farnesyl and polybasic motifs. In the other orientation, β-strands 1–3 and helix 2 on the opposite face of the catalytic domain contribute to membrane binding. Flexibility of the linker region was found to be important for the reorientation. The biological significance of these observations was evaluated by initial experiments in cells overexpressing mutant K-Ras as well as by an analysis of Ras-effector complex structures. The results suggest that only one of the two major orientation states is capable of effector binding. We propose that the different modes of membrane binding may be exploited in structure-based drug design efforts for cancer therapy. PMID:26958889

  10. Inhibition of KRAS codon 12 mutants using a novel DNA-alkylating pyrrole-imidazole polyamide conjugate.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kiriko; Inoue, Takahiro; Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Ken-ichi; Takatori, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Hirokazu; Maru, Yoshiaki; Denda, Tadamichi; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Balmain, Allan; Ozaki, Toshinori; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki

    2015-04-27

    Despite extensive efforts to target mutated RAS proteins, anticancer agents capable of selectively killing tumour cells harbouring KRAS mutations have remained unavailable. Here we demonstrate the direct targeting of KRAS mutant DNA using a synthetic alkylating agent (pyrrole-imidazole polyamide indole-seco-CBI conjugate; KR12) that selectively recognizes oncogenic codon 12 KRAS mutations. KR12 alkylates adenine N3 at the target sequence, causing strand cleavage and growth suppression in human colon cancer cells with G12D or G12V mutations, thus inducing senescence and apoptosis. In xenograft models, KR12 infusions induce significant tumour growth suppression, with low host toxicity in KRAS-mutated but not wild-type tumours. This newly developed approach may be applicable to the targeting of other mutant driver oncogenes in human tumours.

  11. Deguelin Potentiates Apoptotic Activity of an EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (AG1478) in PIK3CA-Mutated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Yuh; Maeda, Toyonobu; Suzuki, Atsuko; Takada, Satoshi; Fujii, Masato; Kato, Yasumasa

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is known to be intrinsically resistant to inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Until now, clinical outcomes for HNSCC using EGFR inhibitors as single agents have yielded disappointing results. Here, we aimed to study whether combinatorial treatment using AG1478 (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and deguelin, which is a rotenoid isolated from the African plant Mundulea sericea, could enhance the anti-tumor effects of AG1478 in HNSCC. For Ca9-22 cells with EGFR, KRAS, and PIK3CA wild types, AG1478 alone suppressed both phosphorylated levels of ERK and AKT and induced apoptosis. On the contrary, for HSC-4 cells with EGFR and KRAS wild types, and a PIK3CA mutant, AG1478 alone did not suppress the phosphorylated level of AKT nor induce apoptosis, while it suppressed ERK phosphorylation. Forced expression of constitutively active PIK3CA (G1633A mutation) significantly reduced the apoptotic effect of AG1478 on the PIK3CA wild-type Ca9-22 cells. When HSC-4 cells with the PIK3CA G1633A mutation were treated with a combination of AG1478 and deguelin, combination effects on apoptosis induction were observed through the inhibition of the AKT pathway. These results suggest that the combination of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor with deguelin is a potential therapeutic approach to treat PIK3CA-mutated HNSCC. PMID:28134774

  12. Mutational profiling reveals PIK3CA mutations in gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetics of advanced biliary tract cancers (BTC), which encompass intra- and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas as well as gallbladder carcinomas, are heterogeneous and remain to be fully defined. Methods To better characterize mutations in established known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes we tested a mass spectrometric based platform to interrogate common cancer associated mutations across a panel of 77 formalin fixed paraffin embedded archived BTC cases. Results Mutations among three genes, KRAS, NRAS and PIK3CA were confirmed in this cohort. Activating mutations in PIK3CA were identified exclusively in GBC (4/32, 12.5%). KRAS mutations were identified in 3 (13%) intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 1 (33%) perihillar cholangiocarcinoma but were not identified in gallbladder carcinomas and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusions The presence of activating mutations in PIK3CA specifically in GBC has clinical implications in both the diagnosis of this cancer type, as well as the potential utility of targeted therapies such as PI3 kinase inhibitors. PMID:21303542

  13. miR-450b-5p induced by oncogenic KRAS is required for colorectal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Dan-ling; Jiao, Hong-Li; Li, Ting-Ting; Wang, Shu-Yang; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Zhi-Yuan; Wei, Wen-ting; Chen, Yan-Ru; Qiu, Jun-Feng; Yang, Run-Wei; Lin, Jie; Liang, Li; Liao, Wen-Ting; Ding, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of CRC are regarded as a complicated network and progressive event including genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. Recent researches revealed that MicroRNAs are biomarkers and regulators of CRC progression. Analyses of published microarray datasets revealed that miR-450b-5p was highly up-regulated in CRC tissues. In addition, high expression of miR-450b-5p was significantly associated with KRAS mutation. However, the role of miR-450b-5p in the progression of CRC remains unknown. Here, we sought to validate the expression of miR-450b-5p in CRC tissues and investigate the role and underlying mechanism of miR-450b-5p in the progression of CRC. The results revealed that miR-450b-5p was up-regulated in CRC tissues, high expression level of miR-450b-5p was positively associated with poor differentiation, advanced TNM classification and poor prognosis. Moreover, miR-450b-5p was especially high in KRAS-mutated cell lines and could be up-regulated by KRAS/AP-1 signaling. Functional validation revealed that overexpression of miR-450b-5p promoted cell proliferation and tumor growth while inhibited apoptosis of CRC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-450b-5p directly bound the 3′-UTRs of SFRP2 and SIAH1, and activated Wnt/β-Catenin signaling. In conclusion, miR-450b-5p induced by oncogenic KRAS is required for colorectal cancer progression. Collectively, our work helped to understand the precise role of miR-450b-5p in the progression of CRC, and might promote the development of new therapeutic strategies against CRC. PMID:27494869

  14. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; ...

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referredmore » to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.« less

  15. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; Lin, Li -Jung; Pitt, Cameron; Galeas, Jacqueline; Lewis, Sophia; Gray, Joe W.; McCormick, Frank; Chu, Steven

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referred to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.

  16. Interaction of a novel fluorescent GTP analogue with the small G-protein K-Ras.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Seigo; Masuhara, Kaori; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Sako, Yasushi; Maruta, Shinsaku

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescent guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) analogue, 2'(3')-O-{6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-l,3-diazol-4-yl)amino) hexanoic}-GTP (NBD-GTP), was synthesized and utilized to monitor the effect of mutations in the functional region of mouse K-Ras. The effects of the G12S, A59T and G12S/A59T mutations on GTPase activity, nucleotide exchange rates were compared with normal Ras. Mutation at A59T resulted in reduction of the GTPase activity by 0.6-fold and enhancement of the nucleotide exchange rate by 2-fold compared with normal Ras. On the other hand, mutation at G12S only slightly affected the nucleotide exchange rate and did not affect the GTPase activity. We also used NBD-GTP to study the effect of these mutations on the interaction between Ras and SOS1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The mutation at A59T abolished the interaction with SOS1. The results suggest that the fluorescent GTP analogue, NBD-GTP, is applicable to the kinetic studies for small G-proteins.

  17. Mechanisms of Membrane Binding of Small GTPase K-Ras4B Farnesylated Hypervariable Region*

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Abraham, Sherwin J.; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Hitchinson, Ben; Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Tarasova, Nadya I.; Nussinov, Ruth; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras4B belongs to a family of small GTPases that regulates cell growth, differentiation and survival. K-ras is frequently mutated in cancer. K-Ras4B association with the plasma membrane through its farnesylated and positively charged C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) is critical to its oncogenic function. However, the structural mechanisms of membrane association are not fully understood. Here, using confocal microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, and molecular dynamics simulations, we observed that K-Ras4B can be distributed in rigid and loosely packed membrane domains. Its membrane binding domain interaction with phospholipids is driven by membrane fluidity. The farnesyl group spontaneously inserts into the disordered lipid microdomains, whereas the rigid microdomains restrict the farnesyl group penetration. We speculate that the resulting farnesyl protrusion toward the cell interior allows oligomerization of the K-Ras4B membrane binding domain in rigid microdomains. Unlike other Ras isoforms, K-Ras4B HVR contains a single farnesyl modification and positively charged polylysine sequence. The high positive charge not only modulates specific HVR binding to anionic phospholipids but farnesyl membrane orientation. Phosphorylation of Ser-181 prohibits spontaneous farnesyl membrane insertion. The mechanism illuminates the roles of HVR modifications in K-Ras4B targeting microdomains of the plasma membrane and suggests an additional function for HVR in regulation of Ras signaling. PMID:25713064

  18. Oxidative DNA damage drives carcinogenesis in MUTYH-associated-polyposis by specific mutations of mitochondrial and MAPK genes.

    PubMed

    Venesio, Tiziana; Balsamo, Antonella; Errichiello, Edoardo; Ranzani, Guglielmina N; Risio, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    MUTYH is a DNA-base-excision-repair gene implicated in the activation of nuclear and mitochondrial cell-death pathways. MUTYH germline mutations cause an inherited polyposis, MUTYH-associated-polyposis, characterized by multiple adenomas and increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Since this carcinogenesis remains partially unknown, we searched for nuclear and mitochondrial gene alterations that may drive the tumorigenic process. Ninety-six adenomas and 7 carcinomas from 12 MUTYH-associated-polyposis and 13 classical/attenuated adenomatous polyposis patients were investigated by sequencing and pyrosequencing for the presence of mutations in KRAS, BRAF, MT-CO1/MT-CO2 and MT-TD genes. KRAS mutations were identified in 24% MUTYH-associated-polyposis vs 15% classical/attenuated familial polyposis adenomas; mutated MUTYH-associated-polyposis adenomas exhibited only c.34G>T transversions in codon 12, an alteration typically associated with oxidative DNA damage, or mutations in codon 13; neither of these mutations was found in classical/attenuated familial polyposis adenomas (P<0.001). Mutated MUTYH-associated-polyposis carcinomas showed KRAS c.34G>T transversions, prevalently occurring with BRAFV600E; none of the classical/attenuated familial polyposis carcinomas displayed these alterations. Comparing mitochondrial DNA from lymphocytes and adenomas of the same individuals, we detected variants in 82% MUTYH-associated-polyposis vs 38% classical/attenuated familial polyposis patients (P=0.040). MT-CO1/MT-CO2 missense mutations, which cause aminoacid changes, were only found in MUTYH-associated-polyposis lesions and were significantly associated with KRAS mutations (P=0.0085). We provide evidence that MUTYH-associated-polyposis carcinogenesis is characterized by the occurrence of specific mutations in both KRAS and phylogenetically conserved genes of mitochondrial DNA which are involved in controlling oxidative phosphorylation; this implies the existence of a

  19. Alterations in K-ras, APC and p53-multiple genetic pathway in colorectal cancer among Indians.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Pooja; Anwar, Mumtaz; Nanda, Neha; Kochhar, Rakesh; Wig, Jai Dev; Vaiphei, Kim; Mahmood, Safrun

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing rapidly in Asian countries during the past few decades, but no comprehensive analysis has been done to find out the exact cause of this disease. In this study, we investigated the frequencies of mutations and expression pattern of K-ras, APC (adenomatosis polyposis coli) and p53 in tumor, adjoining and distant normal mucosa and to correlate these alterations with patients clinicopathological parameters as well as with the survival. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction digestion was used to detect mutations in K-ras and PCR-SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism) followed by DNA sequencing was used to detect mutations in APC and p53 genes. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression pattern of K-ras, APC and p53 proteins. The frequencies of mutations of K-ras, APC and p53 in 30 tumor tissues samples were 26.7 %, 46.7 % and 20 %, respectively. Only 3.3 % of tumors contained mutations in all the three genes. The most common combination of mutation was APC and p53 whereas mutation in both p53 and K-ras were extremely rare. There was no association between the mutations and expression pattern of K-ras, APC and p53 (p>0.05). In Indians, the frequency of alterations of K-ras and APC is similar as in Westerns, whereas the frequency of p53 mutation is slightly lower. The lack of multiple mutations in tumor specimens suggests that these genetic alterations might have independent influences on CRC development and there could be multiple alternative genetic pathways to CRC in our present study cohort.

  20. Absence of K-Ras Reduces Proliferation and Migration But Increases Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Félix, José M; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Cuesta, Cristina; Eleno, Nélida; Crespo, Piero; López-Novoa, José M; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The involvement of Ras-GTPases in the development of renal fibrosis has been addressed in the last decade. We have previously shown that H- and N-Ras isoforms participate in the regulation of fibrosis. Herein, we assessed the role of K-Ras in cellular processes involved in the development of fibrosis: proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins synthesis. K-Ras knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (K-ras(-/-) ) stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibited reduced proliferation and impaired mobility than wild-type fibroblasts. Moreover, an increase on ECM production was observed in K-Ras KO fibroblasts in basal conditions. The absence of K-Ras was accompanied by reduced Ras activation and ERK phosphorylation, and increased AKT phosphorylation, but no differences were observed in TGF-β1-induced Smad signaling. The MEK inhibitor U0126 decreased cell proliferation independently of the presence of K-ras but reduced migration and ECM proteins expression only in wild-type fibroblasts, while the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis in both types of fibroblasts. Thus, our data unveil that K-Ras and its downstream effector pathways distinctively regulate key biological processes in the development of fibrosis. Moreover, we show that K-Ras may be a crucial mediator in TGF-β1-mediated effects in this cell type. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2224-2235, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vitamin C uncouples the Warburg metabolic switch in KRAS mutant colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Oscar; Muñoz-Sagastibelza, María; Torrejón, Blanca; Borrero-Palacios, Aurea; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Martínez-Useros, Javier; Rodriguez-Remirez, María; Zazo, Sandra; García, Estela; Fraga, Mario; Rojo, Federico; García-Foncillas, Jesús

    2016-07-26

    KRAS mutation is often present in many hard-to-treat tumors such as colon and pancreatic cancer and it is tightly linked to serious alterations in the normal cell metabolism and clinical resistance to chemotherapy.In 1931, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Otto Warburg, stated that cancer was primarily caused by altered metabolism interfering with energy processing in the normal cell. Increased cell glycolytic rates even in the presence of oxygen is fully recognized as a hallmark in cancer and known as the Warburg effect.In the late 1970's, Linus Pauling and Ewan Cameron reported that vitamin C may have positive effects in cancer treatment, although deep mechanistic knowledge about this activity is still scarce.We describe a novel antitumoral mechanism of vitamin C in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer that involves the Warburg metabolic disruption through downregulation of key metabolic checkpoints in KRAS mutant cancer cells and tumors without killing human immortalized colonocytes.Vitamin C induces RAS detachment from the cell membrane inhibiting ERK 1/2 and PKM2 phosphorylation. As a consequence of this activity, strong downregulation of the glucose transporter (GLUT-1) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)-PTB dependent protein expression are observed causing a major blockage of the Warburg effect and therefore energetic stress.We propose a combination of conventional chemotherapy with metabolic strategies, including vitamin C and/or other molecules targeting pivotal key players involved in the Warburg effect which may constitute a new horizon in anti-cancer therapies.

  2. Vitamin C uncouples the Warburg metabolic switch in KRAS mutant colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Oscar; Muñoz-Sagastibelza, María; Torrejón, Blanca; Borrero-Palacios, Aurea; del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Martínez-Useros, Javier; Rodriguez-Remirez, María; Zazo, Sandra; García, Estela; Fraga, Mario; Rojo, Federico; García-Foncillas, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    KRAS mutation is often present in many hard-to-treat tumors such as colon and pancreatic cancer and it is tightly linked to serious alterations in the normal cell metabolism and clinical resistance to chemotherapy. In 1931, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Otto Warburg, stated that cancer was primarily caused by altered metabolism interfering with energy processing in the normal cell. Increased cell glycolytic rates even in the presence of oxygen is fully recognized as a hallmark in cancer and known as the Warburg effect. In the late 1970′s, Linus Pauling and Ewan Cameron reported that vitamin C may have positive effects in cancer treatment, although deep mechanistic knowledge about this activity is still scarce. We describe a novel antitumoral mechanism of vitamin C in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer that involves the Warburg metabolic disruption through downregulation of key metabolic checkpoints in KRAS mutant cancer cells and tumors without killing human immortalized colonocytes. Vitamin C induces RAS detachment from the cell membrane inhibiting ERK 1/2 and PKM2 phosphorylation. As a consequence of this activity, strong downregulation of the glucose transporter (GLUT-1) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)-PTB dependent protein expression are observed causing a major blockage of the Warburg effect and therefore energetic stress. We propose a combination of conventional chemotherapy with metabolic strategies, including vitamin C and/or other molecules targeting pivotal key players involved in the Warburg effect which may constitute a new horizon in anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27323830

  3. Silencing KRAS Overexpression in Cadmium-Transformed Prostate Epithelial Cells Mitigates Malignant Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ngalame, Ntube N O; Waalkes, Michael P; Tokar, Erik J

    2016-09-19

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potential human prostate carcinogen. Chronic Cd exposure malignantly transforms RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cells into CTPE cells by an unclear mechanism. Previous studies show that RWPE-1 can also be malignantly transformed by arsenic, and KRAS activation is key to causation and maintenance of this phenotype. Although Cd and arsenic can both transform prostate epithelial cells, it is uncertain whether their mechanisms are similar. Thus, here we determined whether KRAS activation is critical in causing and maintaining Cd-induced malignant transformation in CTPE cells. Expression of KRAS, miRNAs, and other genes of interest was analyzed by Western blot and RT-PCR. Following stable KRAS knockdown (KD) by RNA interference using shRNAmir, the malignant phenotype was assessed by various physical and genetic parameters. CTPE cells greatly overexpressed KRAS by 20-fold, indicating a likely role in Cd transformation. Thus, we attempted to reverse the malignant phenotype via KRAS KD. Two weeks after shRNAmir transduction, KRAS protein was undetectable in CTPE KD cells, confirming stable KD. KRAS KD reduced stimulated RAS/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and markedly mitigated multiple physical and molecular malignant cell characteristics including: hypersecretion of MMP-2, colony formation, cell survival, and expression of cancer-relevant genes (reduced proliferation and cell cycle-related genes; activated tumor suppressor PTEN). However, KRAS KD did not reverse miRNA expression originally down-regulated by Cd transformation. These data strongly suggest KRAS is a key gene in development and maintenance of the Cd-induced malignant phenotype, at least in the prostate. It is not, however, the only genetic factor sustaining this phenotype.

  4. KRAS(G12D)-mediated oncogenic transformation of thyroid follicular cells requires long-term TSH stimulation and is regulated by SPRY1.

    PubMed

    Zou, Minjing; Baitei, Essa Y; Al-Rijjal, Roua A; Parhar, Ranjit S; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A; Kimura, Shioko; Pritchard, Catrin; BinEssa, Huda; Alanazi, Azizah A; Alzahrani, Ali S; Akhtar, Mohammed; Assiri, Abdullah M; Meyer, Brian F; Shi, Yufei

    2015-11-01

    KRAS(G12D) can cause lung cancer rapidly, but is not sufficient to induce thyroid cancer. It is not clear whether long-term serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation can promote KRAS(G12D)-mediated thyroid follicular cell transformation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-term TSH stimulation in KRAS(G12D) knock-in mice and the role of Sprouty1 (SPRY1) in KRAS(G12D)-mediated signaling. We used TPO-KRAS(G12D) mice for thyroid-specific expression of KRAS(G12D) under the endogenous KRAS promoter. Twenty TPO-KRAS(G12D) mice were given anti-thyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU, 0.1% w/v) in drinking water to induce serum TSH and 20 mice were without PTU treatment. Equal number of wild-type littermates (TPO-KRAS(WT)) was given the same treatment. The expression of SPRY1, a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, was analyzed in both KRAS(G12D)-and BRAF(V600E)-induced thyroid cancers. Without PTU treatment, only mild thyroid enlargement and hyperplasia were observed in TPO-KRAS(G12D) mice. With PTU treatment, significant thyroid enlargement and hyperplasia occurred in both TPO-KRAS(G12D) and TPO-KRAS(WT) littermates. Thyroids from TPO-KRAS(G12D) mice were six times larger than TPO-KRAS(WT) littermates. Distinct thyroid histology was found between TPO-KRAS(G12D) and TPO-KRAS(WT) mice: thyroid from TPO-KRAS(G12D) mice showed hyperplasia with well-maintained follicular architecture whereas in TPO-KRAS(WT) mice this structure was replaced by papillary hyperplasia. Among 10 TPO-KRAS(G12D) mice monitored for 14 months, two developed follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), one with pulmonary metastasis. Differential SPRY1 expression was demonstrated: increased in FTC and reduced in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The increased SPRY1 expression in FTC promoted TSH-RAS signaling through PI3K/AKT pathway whereas downregulation of SPRY1 by BRAF(V600E) in PTC resulted in both MAPK and PI3K/AKT activation. We conclude that chronic TSH

  5. Targeted nanoconjugate co-delivering siRNA and tyrosine kinase inhibitor to KRAS mutant NSCLC dissociates GAB1-SHP2 post oncogene knockdown

    PubMed Central

    Srikar, R.; Suresh, Dhananjay; Zambre, Ajit; Taylor, Kristen; Chapman, Sarah; Leevy, Matthew; Upendran, Anandhi; Kannan, Raghuraman

    2016-01-01

    A tri-block nanoparticle (TBN) comprising of an enzymatically cleavable porous gelatin nanocore encapsulated with gefitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)) and surface functionalized with cetuximab-siRNA conjugate has been synthesized. Targeted delivery of siRNA to undruggable KRAS mutated non-small cell lung cancer cells would sensitize the cells to TKI drugs and offers an efficient therapy for treating cancer; however, efficient delivery of siRNA and releasing it in cytoplasm remains a major challenge. We have shown TBN can efficiently deliver siRNA to cytoplasm of KRAS mutant H23 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) cells for oncogene knockdown; subsequently, sensitizing it to TKI. In the absence of TKI, the nanoparticle showed minimal toxicity suggesting that the cells adapt a parallel GAB1 mediated survival pathway. In H23 cells, activated ERK results in phosphorylation of GAB1 on serine and threonine residues to form GAB1-p85 PI3K complex. In the absence of TKI, knocking down the oncogene dephosphorylated ERK, and negated the complex formation. This event led to tyrosine phosphorylation at Tyr627 domain of GAB1 that regulated EGFR signaling by recruiting SHP2. In the presence of TKI, GAB1-SHP2 dissociation occurs, leading to cell death. The outcome of this study provides a promising platform for treating NSCLC patients harboring KRAS mutation. PMID:27530552

  6. Targeted nanoconjugate co-delivering siRNA and tyrosine kinase inhibitor to KRAS mutant NSCLC dissociates GAB1-SHP2 post oncogene knockdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikar, R.; Suresh, Dhananjay; Zambre, Ajit; Taylor, Kristen; Chapman, Sarah; Leevy, Matthew; Upendran, Anandhi; Kannan, Raghuraman

    2016-08-01

    A tri-block nanoparticle (TBN) comprising of an enzymatically cleavable porous gelatin nanocore encapsulated with gefitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)) and surface functionalized with cetuximab-siRNA conjugate has been synthesized. Targeted delivery of siRNA to undruggable KRAS mutated non-small cell lung cancer cells would sensitize the cells to TKI drugs and offers an efficient therapy for treating cancer; however, efficient delivery of siRNA and releasing it in cytoplasm remains a major challenge. We have shown TBN can efficiently deliver siRNA to cytoplasm of KRAS mutant H23 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) cells for oncogene knockdown; subsequently, sensitizing it to TKI. In the absence of TKI, the nanoparticle showed minimal toxicity suggesting that the cells adapt a parallel GAB1 mediated survival pathway. In H23 cells, activated ERK results in phosphorylation of GAB1 on serine and threonine residues to form GAB1-p85 PI3K complex. In the absence of TKI, knocking down the oncogene dephosphorylated ERK, and negated the complex formation. This event led to tyrosine phosphorylation at Tyr627 domain of GAB1 that regulated EGFR signaling by recruiting SHP2. In the presence of TKI, GAB1-SHP2 dissociation occurs, leading to cell death. The outcome of this study provides a promising platform for treating NSCLC patients harboring KRAS mutation.

  7. Lifetime alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS+ and BRAF-/KRAS- but not BRAF+ colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Harindra; MacInnis, Robert J; Williamson, Elizabeth J; Hodge, Allison M; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Walters, Rhiannon; Room, Robin; Southey, Melissa C; Jenkins, Mark A; Milne, Roger L; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Buchanan, Daniel D; English, Dallas R

    2017-04-01

    Ethanol in alcoholic beverages is a causative agent for colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease, and molecular subtypes defined by the presence of somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS are known to exist. We examined associations between lifetime alcohol intake and molecular and anatomic subtypes of colorectal cancer. We calculated usual alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 38,149 participants aged 40-69 years from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Cox regression was performed to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between lifetime alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk. Heterogeneity in the HRs across subtypes of colorectal cancer was assessed. A positive dose-dependent association between lifetime alcohol intake and overall colorectal cancer risk (mean follow-up = 14.6 years; n = 596 colon and n = 326 rectal cancer) was observed (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.12 per 10 g/day increment). The risk was greater for rectal than colon cancer (phomogeneity  = 0.02). Alcohol intake was associated with increased risks of KRAS+ (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00-1.15) and BRAF-/KRAS- (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) but not BRAF+ tumors (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01; phomogeneity  = 0.01). Alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS+ and BRAF-/KRAS- tumors originating via specific molecular pathways including the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway but not with BRAF+ tumors originating via the serrated pathway. Therefore, limiting alcohol intake from a young age might reduce colorectal cancer originating via the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway.

  8. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, Inna; Kazanov, Dina; Lisiansky, Victoria; Starr, Alex; Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah; Arber, Nadir

    2012-01-15

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our 'gene therapy' approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce {approx} 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by {approx} 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  9. Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Nocella, Francesca; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-02-28

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties. In this study, we demonstrate that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRAS mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50-100 mM carnosine decreases ATP and ROS concentration and induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In HCT116 cells these effects are related to decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased p21waf1 protein. Our findings support the concept that carnosine could inhibit HCT116 cell growth via its antioxidant activity and its ability to affect glycolysis.

  10. A correction to the research article titled: "Amplification of the driving oncogene, KRAS or BRAF, underpins acquired resistance to MEK1/2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer cells" by A. S. Little, K. Balmanno, M. J. Sale, S. Newman, J. R. Dry, M. Hampson, P. A. W. Edwards, P. D. Smith, S. J. Cook.

    PubMed

    Little, Annette S; Balmanno, Kathryn; Sale, Matthew J; Newman, Scott; Dry, Jonathan R; Hampson, Mark; Edwards, Paul A W; Smith, Paul D; Cook, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of resistance to protein kinase inhibitors is a growing problem in cancer treatment. We modeled acquired resistance to the MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated or extracellular signal–regulated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2) inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) in colorectal cancer cell lines harboring mutations in BRAF (COLO205 and HT29 lines) or KRAS (HCT116 and LoVo lines). AZD6244-resistant derivatives were refractory to AZD6244-induced cell cycle arrest and death and exhibited a marked increase in ERK1/2 (extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1 and 2) pathway signaling and cyclin D1 abundance when assessed in the absence of inhibitor. Genomic sequencing revealed no acquired mutations in MEK1 or MEK2, the primary target of AZD6244. Rather, resistant lines showed a marked up-regulation of their respective driving oncogenes, BRAF600E or KRAS13D, due to intrachromosomal amplification. Inhibition of BRAF reversed resistance to AZD6244 in COLO205 cells, which suggested that combined inhibition of MEK1/2 and BRAF may reduce the likelihood of acquired resistance in tumors with BRAF600E. Knockdown of KRAS reversed AZD6244 resistance in HCT116 cells as well as reduced the activation of ERK1/2 and protein kinase B; however, the combined inhibition of ERK1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling had little effect on AZD6244 resistance, suggesting that additional KRAS effector pathways contribute to this process. Microarray analysis identified increased expression of an 18-gene signature previously identified as reflecting MEK1/2 pathway output in resistant cells. Thus, amplification of the driving oncogene (BRAF600E or KRAS13D) can drive acquired resistance to MEK1/2 inhibitors by increasing signaling through the ERK1/2 pathway. However, up-regulation of KRAS13D leads to activation of multiple KRAS effector pathways, underlining the therapeutic challenge posed by KRAS mutations. These results may have implications for the use of combination therapies.

  11. AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; Casteel, Darren E; Prakash, Priyanka; Tan, Lingxiao; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Salim, Angela A; Kim, Choel; Capon, Robert J; Lacey, Ernest; Cunha, Shane R; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Hancock, John F

    2016-12-15

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane and be arrayed in nanoclusters for biological activity. We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). In intact cells, activated PKG2 selectively colocalizes with K-Ras on the plasma membrane and phosphorylates K-Ras at Ser181 in the C-terminal polybasic domain. K-Ras phosphorylation by PKG2 is triggered by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and requires endothelial nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase. Phosphorylated K-Ras reorganizes into distinct nanoclusters that retune the signal output. Phosphorylation acutely enhances K-Ras plasma membrane affinity, but phosphorylated K-Ras is progressively lost from the plasma membrane via endocytic recycling. Concordantly, chronic pharmacological activation of AMPK → PKG2 signaling with mitochondrial inhibitors, nitric oxide, or sildenafil inhibits proliferation of K-Ras-positive non-small cell lung cancer cells. The study shows that K-Ras is a target of a metabolic stress-signaling pathway that can be leveraged to inhibit oncogenic K-Ras function.

  12. Gain-of-function SOS1 mutations cause a distinctive form of noonansyndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tartaglia, Marco; Pennacchio, Len A.; Zhao, Chen; Yadav, KamleshK.; Fodale, Valentina; Sarkozy, Anna; Pandit, Bhaswati; Oishi, Kimihiko; Martinelli, Simone; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewska, Anna; Martin, Joes; Bristow, James; Carta, Claudio; Lepri, Francesca; Neri, Cinzia; Vasta,Isabella; Gibson, Kate; Curry, Cynthia J.; Lopez Siguero, Juan Pedro; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Zampino, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Gelb, Brude D.

    2006-09-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disordercharacterized by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heartdefects and skeletal anomalies1. Increased RAS-mitogenactivated proteinkinase (MAPK) signaling due to PTPN11 and KRAS mutations cause 50 percentof NS2-6. Here, we report that 22 of 129 NS patients without PTPN11 orKRAS mutation (17 percent) have missense mutations in SOS1, which encodesa RAS-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). SOS1 mutationscluster at residues implicated in the maintenance of SOS1 in itsautoinhibited form and ectopic expression of two NS-associated mutantsinduced enhanced RAS activation. The phenotype associated with SOS1defects is distinctive, although within NS spectrum, with a highprevalence of ectodermal abnormalities but generally normal developmentand linear growth. Our findings implicate for the first timegain-of-function mutations in a RAS GEF in inherited disease and define anew mechanism by which upregulation of the RAS pathway can profoundlychange human development.

  13. Deconstruction of Oncogenic K-RAS Signaling Reveals Focal Adhesion Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in NSCLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT About 25% of lung adenocarcinomas express mutant KRAS (KM) often is association with co-occurring mutations that...There are no therapies that target cancers that express mutant KRAS. Thus, it is notable that inhibition of FAK causes cell death specifically in KM...lung cancer cells (KMLC) that are either CDKN2A mutant or p53 mutant . Furthermore, we found that pharmacologic inhibition of FAK causes the

  14. Genetic Alterations in K-ras and p53 Cancer Genes in Lung Neoplasms From B6C3F1 Mice Exposed to Cumene

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Ton, Thai-Vu. T.; Kim, Yongbaek; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Clayton, Natasha P.; Chan, Po-Chuen; Sills, Robert C.; Lahousse, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in cumene-treated B6C3F1 mice were significantly greater than those of the controls. We evaluated these lung neoplasms for point mutations in the K-ras and p53 genes that are often mutated in humans. K-ras and p53 mutations were detected by cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 87 % cumene-induced lung neoplasms, and the predominant mutations were exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions and exon 2 codon 61 A to G transitions. P53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 56 % cumene-induced neoplasms and mutations were detected in 52 % neoplasms. The predominant mutations were exon 5, codon 155 G to A transitions and codon 133 C to T transitions. No p53 mutation and one of 7 (14 %) K-ras mutation was detected in spontaneous neoplasms. Cumene-induced lung carcinomas showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 4 near the p16 gene (13 %) and on chromosome 6 near the K-ras gene (12 %). No LOH was observed in spontaneous carcinomas or normal lung tissues examined. The pattern of mutations identified in the lung tumors suggests that DNA damage and genomic instability may be contributing factors to the mutation profile and development of lung cancer in mice exposed to cumene. PMID:18648094

  15. Genetic alterations in K-ras and p53 cancer genes in lung neoplasms from B6C3F1 mice exposed to cumene.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hue-Hua L; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Kim, Yongbaek; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Clayton, Natasha P; Chan, Po-Chuen; Sills, Robert C; Lahousse, Stephanie A

    2008-07-01

    The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in cumene-treated B6C3F1 mice were significantly greater than those of the control animals. We evaluated these lung neoplasms for point mutations in the K-ras and p53 genes that are often mutated in humans. K-ras and p53 mutations were detected by cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 87% of cumene-induced lung neoplasms, and the predominant mutations were exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions and exon 2 codon 61 A to G transitions. P53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 56% of cumene-induced neoplasms, and mutations were detected in 52% of neoplasms. The predominant mutations were exon 5, codon 155 G to A transitions, and codon 133 C to T transitions. No p53 mutations and one of seven (14%) K-ras mutations were detected in spontaneous neoplasms. Cumene-induced lung carcinomas showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 4 near the p16 gene (13%) and on chromosome 6 near the K-ras gene (12%). No LOH was observed in spontaneous carcinomas or normal lung tissues examined. The pattern of mutations identified in the lung tumors suggests that DNA damage and genomic instability may be contributing factors to the mutation profile and development of lung cancer in mice exposed to cumene.

  16. Activity-Based Proteomics Reveals Heterogeneous Kinome and ATP-Binding Proteome Responses to MEK Inhibition in KRAS Mutant Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Young; Stewart, Paul A; Borne, Adam L; Fang, Bin; Welsh, Eric A; Chen, Yian Ann; Eschrich, Steven A; Koomen, John M; Haura, Eric B

    2016-06-01

    One way cancer cells can escape from targeted agents is through their ability to evade drug effects by rapidly rewiring signaling networks. Many protein classes, such as kinases and metabolic enzymes, are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. We hypothesized that a system-level profiling of drug-induced alterations in ATP-binding proteomes could offer novel insights into adaptive responses. Here, we mapped global ATP-binding proteomes perturbed by two clinical MEK inhibitors, AZD6244 and MEK162, in KRAS mutant lung cancer cells as a model system harnessing a desthiobiotin-ATP probe coupled with LC-MS/MS. We observed strikingly unique ATP-binding proteome responses to MEK inhibition, which revealed heterogeneous drug-induced pathway signatures in each cell line. We also identified diverse kinome responses, indicating each cell adapts to MEK inhibition in unique ways. Despite the heterogeneity of kinome responses, decreased probe labeling of mitotic kinases and an increase of kinases linked to autophagy were identified to be common responses. Taken together, our study revealed a diversity of adaptive ATP-binding proteome and kinome responses to MEK inhibition in KRAS mutant lung cancer cells, and our study further demonstrated the utility of our approach to identify potential candidates of targetable ATP-binding enzymes involved in adaptive resistance and to develop rational drug combinations.

  17. [Technical considerations for KRAS testing in colorectal cancer. The pathologist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Bibeau, F; Frugier, H; Denouel, A; Sabourin, J-C; Boissiere-Michot, F

    2009-12-01

    The KRAS status is now a mandatory prerequisite in order to treat metastatic colorectal patients with anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) antibodies, such as cetuximab (Erbitux) or panitumumab (Vectibix). KRAS mutations are unambiguously linked to a lack of response to these targeted therapies and to a poor outcome. The optimal determination of the KRAS status should be based on coordination between pathologists and biologists. The pathologist must morphologically check the tumor to be analyzed and be sure that the fixatives used are valuable for molecular biology. The pathologist's involvement may also concern the DNA extraction and the KRAS mutations analyses. This involvement has to be included in a multidisciplinary setting in order to get rapid and robust tests for the clinical use. The imperative knowledge of the KRAS status in the management of metastatic disease represents a good example of this multidisciplinary coordination. In the future, the pathologist's role should be extended, considering the emergence of a more and more personalized medicine, integrating efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Thus, the pathologist may contribute to validate new molecular tests and to offer his specific techniques for translational research.

  18. Lead identification for the K-Ras protein: virtual screening and combinatorial fragment-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Akbar Ali Khan; Panthi, Bhavana; Khan, Zahid; Koppula, Purushotham Reddy; Alanazi, Mohammed Saud; Sachchidanand; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Chourasia, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kirsten rat sarcoma (K-Ras) protein is a member of Ras family belonging to the small guanosine triphosphatases superfamily. The members of this family share a conserved structure and biochemical properties, acting as binary molecular switches. The guanosine triphosphate-bound active K-Ras interacts with a range of effectors, resulting in the stimulation of downstream signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Efforts to target K-Ras have been unsuccessful until now, placing it among high-value molecules against which developing a therapy would have an enormous impact. K-Ras transduces signals when it binds to guanosine triphosphate by directly binding to downstream effector proteins, but in case of guanosine diphosphate-bound conformation, these interactions get disrupted. Methods In the present study, we targeted the nucleotide-binding site in the “on” and “off” state conformations of the K-Ras protein to find out suitable lead compounds. A structure-based virtual screening approach has been used to screen compounds from different databases, followed by a combinatorial fragment-based approach to design the apposite lead for the K-Ras protein. Results Interestingly, the designed compounds exhibit a binding preference for the “off” state over “on” state conformation of K-Ras protein. Moreover, the designed compounds’ interactions are similar to guanosine diphosphate and, thus, could presumably act as a potential lead for K-Ras. The predicted drug-likeness properties of these compounds suggest that these compounds follow the Lipinski’s rule of five and have tolerable absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity values. Conclusion Thus, through the current study, we propose targeting only “off” state conformations as a promising strategy for the design of reversible inhibitors to pharmacologically inhibit distinct conformations of K-Ras protein. PMID:27217775

  19. Activating mutations in CTNNB1 in aldosterone producing adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Åkerström, Tobias; Maharjan, Rajani; Sven Willenberg, Holger; Cupisti, Kenko; Ip, Julian; Moser, Ana; Stålberg, Peter; Robinson, Bruce; Alexander Iwen, K.; Dralle, Henning; Walz, Martin K.; Lehnert, Hendrik; Sidhu, Stan; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso; Hellman, Per; Björklund, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension with a prevalence of 5–10% in unreferred hypertensive patients. Aldosterone producing adenomas (APAs) constitute a large proportion of PA cases and represent a surgically correctable form of the disease. The WNT signaling pathway is activated in APAs. In other tumors, a frequent cause of aberrant WNT signaling is mutation in the CTNNB1 gene coding for β-catenin. Our objective was to screen for CTNNB1 mutations in a well-characterized cohort of 198 APAs. Somatic CTNNB1 mutations were detected in 5.1% of the tumors, occurring mutually exclusive from mutations in KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3 and CACNA1D. All of the observed mutations altered serine/threonine residues in the GSK3β binding domain in exon 3. The mutations were associated with stabilized β-catenin and increased AXIN2 expression, suggesting activation of WNT signaling. By CYP11B2 mRNA expression, CYP11B2 protein expression, and direct measurement of aldosterone in tumor tissue, we confirmed the ability for aldosterone production. This report provides compelling evidence that aberrant WNT signaling caused by mutations in CTNNB1 occur in APAs. This also suggests that other mechanisms that constitutively activate the WNT pathway may be important in APA formation. PMID:26815163

  20. KRAS mutant allele-specific imbalance is associated with worse prognosis in pancreatic cancer and progression to undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Moser, A James; Saka, Burcu; Adsay, N Volkan; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-10-01

    KRAS codon 12 mutations are present in about 90% of ductal adenocarcinomas and in undifferentiated carcinomas of the pancreas. The role of KRAS copy number changes and resulting KRAS mutant allele-specific imbalance (MASI) in ductal adenocarcinoma (n=94), and its progression into undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas (n=25) was studied by direct sequencing and KRAS fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Semi-quantitative evaluation of sequencing electropherograms showed KRAS MASI (ie, mutant allele peak higher than or equal to the wild-type allele peak) in 22 (18.4%) cases. KRAS FISH (performed on 45 cases) revealed a trend for more frequent KRAS amplification among cases with KRAS MASI (7/20, 35% vs 3/25, 12%, P=0.08). KRAS amplification by FISH was seen only in undifferentiated carcinomas (10/24, 42% vs 0/21 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, 0%, P=0.0007). In 6 of 11 cases with both undifferentiated and well-differentiated components, transition to undifferentiated carcinoma was associated with an increase in KRAS copy number, due to amplification and/or chromosome 12 hyperploidy. Pancreatic carcinomas with KRAS MASI (compared to those without MASI) were predominantly undifferentiated (16/22, 73% vs 9/97, 9%, P<0.001), more likely to present at clinical stage IV (5/22, 23% vs 7/97, 7%, P=0.009), and were associated with shorter overall survival (9 months, 95% confidence interval, 5-13, vs 22 months, 95% confidence interval, 17-27; P=0.015) and shorter disease-free survival (5 months, 95% confidence interval, 2-8 vs 13 months, 95% confidence interval, 10-16; P=0.02). Our findings suggest that in a subset of ductal adenocarcinomas, KRAS MASI correlates with the progression to undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas.

  1. K-Ras promotes growth transformation and invasion of immortalized human pancreatic cells by Raf and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Paul M; Groehler, Angela L; Lee, Kwang M; Ouellette, Michel M; Khazak, Vladimir; Der, Channing J

    2007-03-01

    Mutational activation of the K-Ras oncogene is well established as a key genetic step in the development and growth of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. However, the mechanism by which aberrant Ras signaling promotes uncontrolled pancreatic tumor cell growth remains to be fully elucidated. The recent use of primary human cells to study Ras-mediated oncogenesis provides important model cell systems to dissect this mechanism. We have used a model of telomerase-immortalized human pancreatic duct-derived cells (E6/E7/st) to study mechanisms of Ras growth transformation. First, we found that human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes, which block the function of the p53 and Rb tumor suppressors, respectively, and SV40 small t antigen were required to allow mutant K-Ras(12D) growth transformation. Second, K-Ras(12D) caused growth transformation in vitro, including enhanced growth rate and loss of density dependency for growth, anchorage independence, and invasion through reconstituted basement membrane proteins, and tumorigenic transformation in vivo. Third, we determined that the Raf, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor effector pathways were activated, although extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity was not up-regulated persistently. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK and PI3K signaling impaired K-Ras-induced anchorage-independent growth and invasion. In summary, our studies established, characterized, and validated E6/E7/st cells for the study of Ras-induced oncogenesis.

  2. Circular RNAs are down-regulated in KRAS mutant colon cancer cells and can be transferred to exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yongchao; Cha, Diana J.; Franklin, Jeffrey L.; Higginbotham, James N.; Jeppesen, Dennis K.; Weaver, Alissa M.; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn; Coffey, Robert J.; Patton, James G.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant, widely expressed in mammals, and can display cell-type specific expression. However, how production of circRNAs is regulated and their precise biological function remains largely unknown. To study how circRNAs might be regulated during colorectal cancer progression, we used three isogenic colon cancer cell lines that differ only in KRAS mutation status. Cellular RNAs from the parental DLD-1 cells that contain both wild-type and G13D mutant KRAS alleles and isogenically-matched derivative cell lines, DKO-1 (mutant KRAS allele only) and DKs-8 (wild-type KRAS allele only) were analyzed using RNA-Seq. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify and evaluate circRNA candidates from RNA-Seq data. Hundreds of high-quality circRNA candidates were identified in each cell line. Remarkably, circRNAs were significantly down-regulated at a global level in DLD-1 and DKO-1 cells compared to DKs-8 cells, indicating a widespread effect of mutant KRAS on circRNA abundance. This finding was confirmed in two independent colon cancer cell lines HCT116 (KRAS mutant) and HKe3 (KRAS WT). In all three cell lines, circRNAs were also found in secreted extracellular-vesicles, and circRNAs were more abundant in exosomes than cells. Our results suggest that circRNAs may serve as promising cancer biomarkers. PMID:27892494

  3. Fatty Acid Oxidation Mediated by Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain 3 Is Required for Mutant KRAS Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Padanad, Mahesh S; Konstantinidou, Georgia; Venkateswaran, Niranjan; Melegari, Margherita; Rindhe, Smita; Mitsche, Matthew; Yang, Chendong; Batten, Kimberly; Huffman, Kenneth E; Liu, Jingwen; Tang, Ximing; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Kalhor, Neda; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D; McDonald, Jeffrey; Wistuba, Ignacio I; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo

    2016-08-09

    KRAS is one of the most commonly mutated oncogenes in human cancer. Mutant KRAS aberrantly regulates metabolic networks. However, the contribution of cellular metabolism to mutant KRAS tumorigenesis is not completely understood. We report that mutant KRAS regulates intracellular fatty acid metabolism through Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3), which converts fatty acids into fatty Acyl-CoA esters, the substrates for lipid synthesis and β-oxidation. ACSL3 suppression is associated with depletion of cellular ATP and causes the death of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, mutant KRAS promotes the cellular uptake, retention, accumulation, and β-oxidation of fatty acids in lung cancer cells in an ACSL3-dependent manner. Finally, ACSL3 is essential for mutant KRAS lung cancer tumorigenesis in vivo and is highly expressed in human lung cancer. Our data demonstrate that mutant KRAS reprograms lipid homeostasis, establishing a metabolic requirement that could be exploited for therapeutic gain.

  4. Retraction: "Activated K-Ras and INK4a/Arf Deficiency Promote Aggressiveness of Pancreatic Cancer by Induction of EMT Consistent With Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype" by Wang et al.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The above article, published online on November 23, 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figure 4B and C to be inappropriately manipulated and re-labeled. Literature Cited Wang Z, Ali S, Banerjee S, Bao B, Li Y, Azmi AS, Korc M, Sarkar FH. 2013. Activated K-Ras and INK4a/Arf deficiency promote aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer by induction of EMT consistent with cancer stem cell phenotype. J Cell Physiol 228:556-562; doi: 10.1002/jcp.24162.

  5. TERT promoter mutations and monoallelic activation of TERT in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, F W; Bielski, C M; Rinne, M L; Hahn, W C; Sellers, W R; Stegmeier, F; Garraway, L A; Kryukov, G V

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that promoter mutations in telomerase (TERT), the most common noncoding mutations in cancer, give rise to monoallelic expression of TERT. Through deep RNA sequencing, we find that TERT activation in human cancer cell lines can occur in either mono- or biallelic manner. Without exception, hotspot TERT promoter mutations lead to the re-expression of only one allele, accounting for approximately half of the observed cases of monoallelic TERT expression. Furthermore, we show that monoallelic TERT expression is highly prevalent in certain tumor types and widespread across a broad spectrum of cancers. Taken together, these observations provide insights into the mechanisms of TERT activation and the ramifications of noncoding mutations in cancer. PMID:26657580

  6. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate-derived preclinical pancreatic cancer models reveal panitumumab sensitivity in KRAS wild-type tumors.

    PubMed

    Berry, William; Algar, Elizabeth; Kumar, Beena; Desmond, Christopher; Swan, Michael; Jenkins, Brendan J; Croagh, Daniel

    2017-05-15

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is largely refractory to existing therapies used in unselected patient trials, thus emphasizing the pressing need for new approaches for patient selection in personalized medicine. KRAS mutations occur in 90% of PC patients and confer resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (e.g., panitumumab), suggesting that KRAS wild-type PC patients may benefit from targeted panitumumab therapy. Here, we use tumor tissue procured by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) to compare the in vivo sensitivity in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of KRAS wild-type and mutant PC tumors to panitumumab, and to profile the molecular signature of these tumors in patients with metastatic or localized disease. Specifically, RNASeq of EUS-FNA-derived tumor RNA from localized (n = 20) and metastatic (n = 20) PC cases revealed a comparable transcriptome profile. Screening the KRAS mutation status of tumor genomic DNA obtained from EUS-FNAs stratified PC patients into either KRAS wild-type or mutant cohorts, and the engraftment of representative KRAS wild-type and mutant EUS-FNA tumor samples into NOD/SCID mice revealed that the growth of KRAS wild-type, but not mutant, PDXs was selectively suppressed with panitumumab. Furthermore, in silico transcriptome interrogation of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-derived KRAS wild-type (n = 38) and mutant (n = 132) PC tumors revealed 391 differentially expressed genes. Taken together, our study validates EUS-FNA for the application of a novel translational pipeline comprising KRAS mutation screening and PDXs, applicable to all PC patients, to evaluate personalized anti-EGFR therapy in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors.

  7. Oncogenic KRas-induced Increase in Fluid-phase Endocytosis is Dependent on N-WASP and is Required for the Formation of Pancreatic Preneoplastic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Lubeseder-Martellato, Clara; Alexandrow, Katharina; Hidalgo-Sastre, Ana; Heid, Irina; Boos, Sophie Luise; Briel, Thomas; Schmid, Roland M; Siveke, Jens T

    2017-02-01

    Fluid-phase endocytosis is a homeostatic process with an unknown role in tumor initiation. The driver mutation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is constitutively active KRas(G12D), which induces neoplastic transformation of acinar cells through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). We have previously shown that KRas(G12D)-induced ADM is dependent on RAC1 and EGF receptor (EGFR) by a not fully clarified mechanism. Using three-dimensional mouse and human acinar tissue cultures and genetically engineered mouse models, we provide evidence that (i) KRas(G12D) leads to EGFR-dependent sustained fluid-phase endocytosis (FPE) during acinar metaplasia; (ii) variations in plasma membrane tension increase FPE and lead to ADM in vitro independently of EGFR; and (iii) that RAC1 regulates ADM formation partially through actin-dependent regulation of FPE. In addition, mice with a pancreas-specific deletion of the Neural-Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), a regulator of F-actin, have reduced FPE and impaired ADM emphasizing the in vivo relevance of our findings. This work defines a new role of FPE as a tumor initiating mechanism.

  8. CNS germinomas are characterized by global demethylation, chromosomal instability and mutational activation of the Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt-pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Simone Laura; Waha, Andreas; Steiger, Barbara; Denkhaus, Dorota; Dörner, Evelyn; Calaminus, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pietsch, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    CNS germinomas represent a unique germ cell tumor entity characterized by undifferentiated tumor cells and a high response rate to current treatment protocols. Limited information is available on their underlying genomic, epigenetic and biological alterations. We performed a genome-wide analysis of genomic copy number alterations in 49 CNS germinomas by molecular inversion profiling. In addition, CpG dinucleotide methylation was studied by immunohistochemistry for methylated cytosine residues. Mutational analysis was performed by resequencing of candidate genes including KIT and RAS family members. Ras/Erk and Akt pathway activation was analyzed by immunostaining with antibodies against phospho-Erk, phosho-Akt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6. All germinomas coexpressed Oct4 and Kit but showed an extensive global DNA demethylation compared to other tumors and normal tissues. Molecular inversion profiling showed predominant genomic instability in all tumors with a high frequency of regional gains and losses including high level gene amplifications. Activating mutations of KIT exons 11, 13, and 17 as well as a case with genomic KIT amplification and activating mutations or amplifications of RAS gene family members including KRAS, NRAS and RRAS2 indicated mutational activation of crucial signaling pathways. Co-activation of Ras/Erk and Akt pathways was present in 83% of germinomas. These data suggest that CNS germinoma cells display a demethylated nuclear DNA similar to primordial germ cells in early development. This finding has a striking coincidence with extensive genomic instability. In addition, mutational activation of Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt- pathways indicate the biological importance of these pathways and their components as potential targets for therapy. PMID:27391150

  9. Membrane potential modulates plasma membrane phospholipid dynamics and K-Ras signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Wong, Ching-On; Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Liang, Hong; Thakur, Dhananiay P.; Luo, Jialie; Babic, Milos; Zinsmaier, Konrad E.; Zhu, Michael X.; Hu, Hongzhen; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Hancock, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane depolarization can trigger cell proliferation, but how membrane potential influences mitogenic signaling is uncertain. Here, we show that plasma membrane depolarization induces nanoscale reorganization of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate but not other anionic phospholipids. K-Ras, which is targeted to the plasma membrane by electrostatic interactions with phosphatidylserine, in turn undergoes enhanced nanoclustering. Depolarization-induced changes in phosphatidylserine and K-Ras plasma membrane organization occur in fibroblasts, excitable neuroblastoma cells, and Drosophila neurons in vivo and robustly amplify K-Ras–dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Conversely, plasma membrane repolarization disrupts K-Ras nanoclustering and inhibits MAPK signaling. By responding to voltage-induced changes in phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics, K-Ras nanoclusters set up the plasma membrane as a biological field-effect transistor, allowing membrane potential to control the gain in mitogenic signaling circuits. PMID:26293964

  10. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Membrane potential modulates plasma membrane phospholipid dynamics and K-Ras signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wong, Ching-On; Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Liang, Hong; Thakur, Dhananiay P; Luo, Jialie; Babic, Milos; Zinsmaier, Konrad E; Zhu, Michael X; Hu, Hongzhen; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Hancock, John F

    2015-08-21

    Plasma membrane depolarization can trigger cell proliferation, but how membrane potential influences mitogenic signaling is uncertain. Here, we show that plasma membrane depolarization induces nanoscale reorganization of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate but not other anionic phospholipids. K-Ras, which is targeted to the plasma membrane by electrostatic interactions with phosphatidylserine, in turn undergoes enhanced nanoclustering. Depolarization-induced changes in phosphatidylserine and K-Ras plasma membrane organization occur in fibroblasts, excitable neuroblastoma cells, and Drosophila neurons in vivo and robustly amplify K-Ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Conversely, plasma membrane repolarization disrupts K-Ras nanoclustering and inhibits MAPK signaling. By responding to voltage-induced changes in phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics, K-Ras nanoclusters set up the plasma membrane as a biological field-effect transistor, allowing membrane potential to control the gain in mitogenic signaling circuits.

  11. Glucocerebrosidase activity in Parkinson's disease with and without GBA mutations.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, Roy N; Levy, Oren A; Waters, Cheryl C; Fahn, Stanley; Ford, Blair; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Mazzoni, Pietro; Pauciulo, Michael W; Nichols, William C; Gan-Or, Ziv; Rouleau, Guy A; Chung, Wendy K; Wolf, Pavlina; Oliva, Petra; Keutzer, Joan; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Xiaokui

    2015-09-01

    Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutations have been associated with Parkinson's disease in numerous studies. However, it is unknown whether the increased risk of Parkinson's disease in GBA carriers is due to a loss of glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity. We measured glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity in dried blood spots in patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 517) and controls (n = 252) with and without GBA mutations. Participants were recruited from Columbia University, New York, and fully sequenced for GBA mutations and genotyped for the LRRK2 G2019S mutation, the most common autosomal dominant mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity in dried blood spots was measured by a mass spectrometry-based assay and compared among participants categorized by GBA mutation status and Parkinson's disease diagnosis. Parkinson's disease patients were more likely than controls to carry the LRRK2 G2019S mutation (n = 39, 7.5% versus n = 2, 0.8%, P < 0.001) and GBA mutations or variants (seven homozygotes and compound heterozygotes and 81 heterozygotes, 17.0% versus 17 heterozygotes, 6.7%, P < 0.001). GBA homozygotes/compound heterozygotes had lower enzymatic activity than GBA heterozygotes (0.85 µmol/l/h versus 7.88 µmol/l/h, P < 0.001), and GBA heterozygotes had lower enzymatic activity than GBA and LRRK2 non-carriers (7.88 µmol/l/h versus 11.93 µmol/l/h, P < 0.001). Glucocerebrosidase activity was reduced in heterozygotes compared to non-carriers when each mutation was compared independently (N370S, P < 0.001; L444P, P < 0.001; 84GG, P = 0.003; R496H, P = 0.018) and also reduced in GBA variants associated with Parkinson's risk but not with Gaucher disease (E326K, P = 0.009; T369M, P < 0.001). When all patients with Parkinson's disease were considered, they had lower mean glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity than controls (11.14 µmol/l/h versus 11.85 µmol/l/h, P = 0.011). Difference compared to controls persisted in patients with

  12. Activating Somatic FGFR2 Mutations in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reintjes, Nadine; Li, Yun; Becker, Alexandra; Rohmann, Edyta; Schmutzler, Rita; Wollnik, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    It is known that FGFR2 gene variations confer a risk for breast cancer. FGFR2 and FGF10, the main ligand of FGFR2, are both overexpressed in 5–10% of breast tumors. In our study, we sequenced the most important coding regions of FGFR2 in somatic tumor tissue of 140 sporadic breast cancer patients and performed MLPA analysis to detect copy number variations in FGFR2 and FGF10. We identified one somatic heterozygous missense mutation, p.K660N (c.1980G>C), within the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR2 in tumor tissue of a sporadic breast cancer patient, which is likely mediated by the FGFR2-IIIb isoform. The presence of wild type and mutated alleles in equal quantities suggests that the mutation has driven clonal amplification of mutant cells. We have analyzed the tyrosine kinase activity of p.K660N and another recently described somatic breast cancer mutation in FGFR2, p.R203C, after expression in HEK293 cells and demonstrated that the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of both mutant proteins is strongly increased resulting in elevated phosphorylation and activity of downstream effectors. To our knowledge, this is the first report of functional analysis of somatic breast cancer mutations in FGFR2 providing evidence for the activating nature of FGFR2-mediated signalling in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. PMID:23527311

  13. Multigene mutational profiling of cholangiocarcinomas identifies actionable molecular subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Wood, Laura D.; Corbo, Vincenzo; Melisi, Davide; Malleo, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Caterina; Malpeli, Giorgio; Antonello, Davide; Sperandio, Nicola; Capelli, Paola; Tomezzoli, Anna; Iacono, Calogero; Lawlor, Rita T.; Bassi, Claudio; Hruban, Ralph H.; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    One-hundred-fifty-three biliary cancers, including 70 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC), 57 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ECC) and 26 gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) were assessed for mutations in 56 genes using multigene next-generation sequencing. Expression of EGFR and mTOR pathway genes was investigated by immunohistochemistry. At least one mutated gene was observed in 118/153 (77%) cancers. The genes most frequently involved were KRAS (28%), TP53 (18%), ARID1A (12%), IDH1/2 (9%), PBRM1 (9%), BAP1 (7%), and PIK3CA (7%). IDH1/2 (p=0.0005) and BAP1 (p=0.0097) mutations were characteristic of ICC, while KRAS (p=0.0019) and TP53 (p=0.0019) were more frequent in ECC and GBC. Multivariate analysis identified tumour stage and TP53 mutations as independent predictors of survival. Alterations in chromatin remodeling genes (ARID1A, BAP1, PBRM1, SMARCB1) were seen in 31% of cases. Potentially actionable mutations were seen in 104/153 (68%) cancers: i) KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutations were found in 34% of cancers; ii) mTOR pathway activation was documented by immunohistochemistry in 51% of cases and by mutations in mTOR pathway genes in 19% of cancers; iii) TGF-ß/Smad signaling was altered in 10.5% cancers; iv) mutations in tyrosine kinase receptors were found in 9% cases. Our study identified molecular subgroups of cholangiocarcinomas that can be explored for specific drug targeting in clinical trials. PMID:24867389

  14. Factors associated with guideline-recommended KRAS testing in colorectal cancer patients: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Mary E.; Karlitz, Jordan J.; Schlichting, Jennifer A.; Chen, Vivien W.; Lynch, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Response to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors is poorer among Stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with KRAS mutations, thus KRAS testing is recommended prior to treatment. KRAS testing was collected by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries for 2010 CRC cases, and our goal was to provide the first population-based estimates of testing in the U.S. Methods SEER CRC cases diagnosed in 2010 were evaluated (n=30,351). Chi-square tests and logistic regression were conducted to determine patient characteristics associated with KRAS testing, stratified by Stages I-III vs. Stage IV. Log-rank tests were used to examine survival by testing status. Results KRAS testing among Stage IV cases ranged from 39% in New Mexico to 15% in Louisiana. In the model, younger age, being married, living in a metropolitan area, and having primary site surgery were associated with greater odds of receiving KRAS testing. Those who received testing had significantly better survival then those who did not (p<0.0001). Among those who received testing, there was no significant difference in survival by mutated vs. wild type KRAS. Five percent of Stage I-III cases received testing. Conclusions Wide variation in documented KRAS testing for Stage IV CRC patients exists among SEER registries. Age remained highly significant in multivariate models, suggesting it plays an independent role in the patient and/or provider decision to be tested. Further research is needed to determine drivers of variation in testing, as well as reasons for testing in Stage I-III cases where it is not recommended. PMID:25844824

  15. KRAS, BRAF, and TP53 deep sequencing for colorectal carcinoma patient diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rechsteiner, Markus; von Teichman, Adriana; Rüschoff, Jan H; Fankhauser, Niklaus; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Schraml, Peter; Weber, Achim; Wild, Peter; Zimmermann, Dieter; Moch, Holger

    2013-05-01

    In colorectal carcinoma, KRAS (alias Ki-ras) and BRAF mutations have emerged as predictors of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody treatment and worse patient outcome, respectively. In this study, we aimed to establish a high-throughput deep sequencing workflow according to 454 pyrosequencing technology to cope with the increasing demand for sequence information at medical institutions. A cohort of 81 patients with known KRAS mutation status detected by Sanger sequencing was chosen for deep sequencing. The workflow allowed us to analyze seven amplicons (one BRAF, two KRAS, and four TP53 exons) of nine patients in parallel in one deep sequencing run. Target amplification and variant calling showed reproducible results with input DNA derived from FFPE tissue that ranged from 0.4 to 50 ng with the use of different targets and multiplex identifiers. Equimolar pooling of each amplicon in a deep sequencing run was necessary to counterbalance differences in patient tissue quality. Five BRAF and 49 TP53 mutations with functional consequences were detected. The lowest mutation frequency detected in a patient tumor population was 5% in TP53 exon 5. This low-frequency mutation was successfully verified in a second PCR and deep sequencing run. In summary, our workflow allows us to process 315 targets a week and provides the quality, flexibility, and speed needed to be integrated as standard procedure for mutational analysis in diagnostics.

  16. Disruption of STAT3 signalling promotes KRAS-induced lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grabner, Beatrice; Schramek, Daniel; Mueller, Kristina M.; Moll, Herwig P.; Svinka, Jasmin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Blaas, Leander; Hruschka, Natascha; Zboray, Katalin; Stiedl, Patricia; Nivarthi, Harini; Bogner, Edith; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mohr, Thomas; Zwick, Ralf Harun; Kenner, Lukas; Poli, Valeria; Aberger, Fritz; Stoiber, Dagmar; Egger, Gerda; Esterbauer, Harald; Zuber, Johannes; Moriggl, Richard; Eferl, Robert; Győrffy, Balázs; Penninger, Josef M.; Popper, Helmut; Casanova, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is considered to play an oncogenic role in several malignancies including lung cancer; consequently, targeting STAT3 is currently proposed as therapeutic intervention. Here we demonstrate that STAT3 plays an unexpected tumour-suppressive role in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma (AC). Indeed, lung tissue-specific inactivation of Stat3 in mice results in increased KrasG12D-driven AC initiation and malignant progression leading to markedly reduced survival. Knockdown of STAT3 in xenografted human AC cells increases tumour growth. Clinically, low STAT3 expression levels correlate with poor survival and advanced malignancy in human lung AC patients with smoking history, which are prone to KRAS mutations. Consistently, KRAS mutant lung tumours exhibit reduced STAT3 levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that STAT3 controls NF-κB-induced IL-8 expression by sequestering NF-κB within the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting IL-8-mediated myeloid tumour infiltration and tumour vascularization and hence tumour progression. These results elucidate a novel STAT3–NF-κB–IL-8 axis in KRAS mutant AC with therapeutic and prognostic relevance. PMID:25734337

  17. Different susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis in mice with an identical Kras 2 intron 2

    SciTech Connect

    Manenti, G.; Falvella, F.S.; Gariboldi, M.; Dragani, T.A.; Pierotti, M.A.

    1995-09-20

    The A/J mouse strain is genetically susceptible to pulmonary tumorigenesis. We have performed a genetic linkage analysis to map pulmonary adenoma susceptibility (Pas) loci in an urethane-treated (A/J X Mus spretus) x C57BL/6J (ASB) interspecific testcross. In this interspecific cross we have confirmed our previous results in AC3F2 mice on the mapping of the Pas1 locus to the digital region of chromosome 6, near Kras2. The A/J and M. spretus strains differed as the Pas1 locus, with the M. spretus providing the resistant allele. In the latter strain, we studied the nucleotide sequence of a portion of the second intron of Kras2 that contains polymorphisms associated with lung tumor susceptibility in several inbred strains. The lung tumor-resistant M. spretus strain had the same specific nucleotide sequence of susceptible strains. Mutations in codon 61 of Kras2 in urethane-induced lung tumors from ASF1 hybrids involved the A/J allele in all cases, while the M. spretus allele was never affected. Our results indicate that the M. spretus and A/J mice have an identical structure of the second intron of the Kras2 gene, but they differ in genetic susceptibility to pulmonary tumorigenesis and in mutability of their Kras2 allele. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Targeting pathways downstream of KRAS in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zehua; Golay, Hadrien G; Barbie, David A

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS activation is responsible for the most common genetic subtype of lung cancer. Although many of the major downstream signaling pathways that KRAS engages have been defined, these discoveries have yet to translate into effective targeted therapy. Much of the current focus has been directed at inhibiting the activation of RAF/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling, but clinical trials combining multiple different agents that target these pathways have failed to show significant activity. In this article, we will discuss the evidence for RAF and PI3K as key downstream RAS effectors, as well as the RAL guanine exchange factor, which is equally essential for transformation. Furthermore, we will delineate alternative pathways, including cytokine activation and autophagy, which are co-opted by oncogenic RAS signaling and also represent attractive targets for therapy. Finally, we will present strategies for combining inhibitors of these downstream KRAS signaling pathways in a rational fashion, as multitargeted therapy will be required to achieve a cure. PMID:25303301

  19. Oncogenic K-Ras signals through epidermal growth factor receptor and wild-type H-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cengel, Keith A; Voong, K Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D; McKenna, W Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J

    2007-04-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor alpha was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers.

  20. Oncogenic K-Ras Signals through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Wild-Type H-Ras to Promote Radiation Survival in Pancreatic and Colorectal Carcinoma Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, Keith A.; Voong, K. Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B.; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor α was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. PMID:17460778

  1. Targeting adhesion signaling in KRAS, LKB1 mutant lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Ross, Melissa; Konen, Jessica; Koo, Junghui; Shupe, John; Robinson, Brian S; Wiles, Walter Guy; Huang, Chunzi; Martin, W David; Behera, Madhusmita; Smith, Geoffrey H; Hill, Charles E; Rossi, Michael R; Sica, Gabriel L; Rupji, Manali; Chen, Zhengjia; Kowalski, Jeanne; Kasinski, Andrea L; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Fu, Haian; Khuri, Fadlo R; Zhou, Wei; Marcus, Adam I

    2017-03-09

    Loss of LKB1 activity is prevalent in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma and promotes aggressive and treatment-resistant tumors. Previous studies have shown that LKB1 is a negative regulator of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but in vivo studies testing the efficacy of FAK inhibition in LKB1 mutant cancers are lacking. Here, we took a pharmacologic approach to show that FAK inhibition is an effective early-treatment strategy for this high-risk molecular subtype. We established a lenti-Cre-induced Kras and Lkb1 mutant genetically engineered mouse model (KLLenti) that develops 100% lung adenocarcinoma and showed that high spatiotemporal FAK activation occurs in collective invasive cells that are surrounded by high levels of collagen. Modeling invasion in 3D, loss of Lkb1, but not p53, was sufficient to drive collective invasion and collagen alignment that was highly sensitive to FAK inhibition. Treatment of early, stage-matched KLLenti tumors with FAK inhibitor monotherapy resulted in a striking effect on tumor progression, invasion, and tumor-associated collagen. Chronic treatment extended survival and impeded local lymph node spread. Lastly, we identified focally upregulated FAK and collagen-associated collective invasion in KRAS and LKB1 comutated human lung adenocarcinoma patients. Our results suggest that patients with LKB1 mutant tumors should be stratified for early treatment with FAK inhibitors.

  2. Targeting adhesion signaling in KRAS, LKB1 mutant lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Konen, Jessica; Koo, Junghui; Robinson, Brian S.; Wiles, Walter Guy; Huang, Chunzi; Martin, W. David; Behera, Madhusmita; Smith, Geoffrey H.; Hill, Charles E.; Rossi, Michael R.; Sica, Gabriel L.; Rupji, Manali; Chen, Zhengjia; Kowalski, Jeanne; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Marcus, Adam I.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of LKB1 activity is prevalent in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma and promotes aggressive and treatment-resistant tumors. Previous studies have shown that LKB1 is a negative regulator of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but in vivo studies testing the efficacy of FAK inhibition in LKB1 mutant cancers are lacking. Here, we took a pharmacologic approach to show that FAK inhibition is an effective early-treatment strategy for this high-risk molecular subtype. We established a lenti-Cre–induced Kras and Lkb1 mutant genetically engineered mouse model (KLLenti) that develops 100% lung adenocarcinoma and showed that high spatiotemporal FAK activation occurs in collective invasive cells that are surrounded by high levels of collagen. Modeling invasion in 3D, loss of Lkb1, but not p53, was sufficient to drive collective invasion and collagen alignment that was highly sensitive to FAK inhibition. Treatment of early, stage-matched KLLenti tumors with FAK inhibitor monotherapy resulted in a striking effect on tumor progression, invasion, and tumor-associated collagen. Chronic treatment extended survival and impeded local lymph node spread. Lastly, we identified focally upregulated FAK and collagen-associated collective invasion in KRAS and LKB1 comutated human lung adenocarcinoma patients. Our results suggest that patients with LKB1 mutant tumors should be stratified for early treatment with FAK inhibitors. PMID:28289710

  3. Macroautophagy is dispensable for growth of KRAS mutant tumors and chloroquine efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Christina H.; Wang, Zuncai; Tkach, Diane; Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Ugwonali, Savuth; Liu, Shanming; Fitzgerald, Stephanie L.; George, Elizabeth; Frias, Elizabeth; Cochran, Nadire; De Jesus, Rowena; McAllister, Gregory; Hoffman, Gregory R.; Bray, Kevin; Lemon, LuAnna; Lucas, Judy; Fantin, Valeria R.; Abraham, Robert T.; Murphy, Leon O.; Nyfeler, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a key stress-response pathway that can suppress or promote tumorigenesis depending on the cellular context. Notably, Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS)-driven tumors have been reported to rely on macroautophagy for growth and survival, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach of using autophagy inhibitors based on genetic stratification. In this study, we evaluated whether KRAS mutation status can predict the efficacy to macroautophagy inhibition. By profiling 47 cell lines with pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function tools, we were unable to confirm that KRAS-driven tumor lines require macroautophagy for growth. Deletion of autophagy-related 7 (ATG7) by genome editing completely blocked macroautophagy in several tumor lines with oncogenic mutations in KRAS but did not inhibit cell proliferation in vitro or tumorigenesis in vivo. Furthermore, ATG7 knockout did not sensitize cells to irradiation or to several anticancer agents tested. Interestingly, ATG7-deficient and -proficient cells were equally sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent often used as a pharmacological tool to evaluate the response to macroautophagy inhibition. Moreover, both cell types manifested synergistic growth inhibition when treated with chloroquine plus the tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib or sunitinib, suggesting that the antiproliferative effects of chloroquine are independent of its suppressive actions on autophagy. PMID:26677873

  4. The Thrombopoietin Receptor: Structural Basis of Traffic and Activation by Ligand, Mutations, Agonists, and Mutated Calreticulin

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Leila N.; Defour, Jean-Philippe; Pecquet, Christian; Constantinescu, Stefan N.

    2017-01-01

    A well-functioning hematopoietic system requires a certain robustness and flexibility to maintain appropriate quantities of functional mature blood cells, such as red blood cells and platelets. This review focuses on the cytokine receptor that plays a significant role in thrombopoiesis: the receptor for thrombopoietin (TPO-R; also known as MPL). Here, we survey the work to date to understand how this receptor functions at a molecular level throughout its lifecycle, from traffic to the cell surface, dimerization and binding cognate cytokine via its extracellular domain, through to its subsequent activation of associated Janus kinases and initiation of downstream signaling pathways, as well as the regulation of these processes. Atomic level resolution structures of TPO-R have remained elusive. The identification of disease-causing mutations in the receptor has, however, offered some insight into structure and function relationships, as has artificial means of receptor activation, through TPO mimetics, transmembrane-targeting receptor agonists, and engineering in dimerization domains. More recently, a novel activation mechanism was identified whereby mutated forms of calreticulin form complexes with TPO-R via its extracellular N-glycosylated domain. Such complexes traffic pathologically in the cell and persistently activate JAK2, downstream signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), and other pathways. This pathologic TPO-R activation is associated with a large fraction of human myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of the interaction between G-quadruplex of KRAS promoter sequence and three isoquinoline alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Li-Na; Xie, Meng-Xia

    2017-01-01

    KRAS promoter can form G-quadruplex structure and regulate gene transcription. The drugs which can bind with G-quadruplex of KRAS promoter may be potential remedy for treatment of cancers associated with KRAS mutation. The interaction mechanism between the G-quadruplex of KRAS promoter and three isoquinoline alkaloids (jatrorrhizine, berberine and sanguinarine) has been investigated by UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. The results showed that the three alkaloids can form complexes with G-quadruplex KRAS promoter with the molecular ratio of 1:1, and the binding constants were (0.90 ± 0.16) × 106 L mol- 1, (0.93 ± 0.21) × 106 L mol- 1 and (1.16 ± 0.45) × 106 L mol- 1 for jatrorrhizine, berberine and sanguinarine. The absorption spectra, KI quenching and fluorescence anisotropy and polarization studies suggested jatrorrhizine and berberine interacted with G-quadruplex by not only end-stacking binding mode but also grooves or loops binding mode, while sanguinarine by end-stacking binding mode. Sanguinarine was more beneficial to maintain the stability and parallel conformation of KRAS promoter G-quadruplex. MTT assay was performed to evaluate antiproliferation effects of the three isoquinoline alkaloids on SW620 cells, and the antiproliferation effects of the three alkaloids were sanguinarine > berberine > jatrorrhizine. All the three alkaloids can bind with KRAS promoter G-quadruplex, and sanguinarine had the better binding property and antiproliferation effects on SW620 cells. The results obtained are meaningful to explore potential reagents targeting the parallel G-quadruplex structure of KRAS promoter for gene theraphy of colorectal carcinomas.

  6. Recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn R; Mackay, Alan; Truffaux, Nathalène; Butterfield, Yaron S; Morozova, Olena; Philippe, Cathy; Castel, David; Grasso, Catherine S; Vinci, Maria; Carvalho, Diana; Carcaboso, Angel M; de Torres, Carmen; Cruz, Ofelia; Mora, Jaume; Entz-Werle, Natacha; Ingram, Wendy J; Monje, Michelle; Hargrave, Darren; Bullock, Alex N; Puget, Stéphanie; Yip, Stephen; Jones, Chris; Grill, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are highly infiltrative malignant glial neoplasms of the ventral pons that, due to their location within the brain, are unsuitable for surgical resection and consequently have a universally dismal clinical outcome. The median survival time is 9-12 months, with neither chemotherapeutic nor targeted agents showing substantial survival benefit in clinical trials in children with these tumors. We report the identification of recurrent activating mutations in the ACVR1 gene, which encodes a type I activin receptor serine/threonine kinase, in 21% of DIPG samples. Strikingly, these somatic mutations (encoding p.Arg206His, p.Arg258Gly, p.Gly328Glu, p.Gly328Val, p.Gly328Trp and p.Gly356Asp substitutions) have not been reported previously in cancer but are identical to mutations found in the germ line of individuals with the congenital childhood developmental disorder fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and have been shown to constitutively activate the BMP-TGF-β signaling pathway. These mutations represent new targets for therapeutic intervention in this otherwise incurable disease.

  7. ras mutations and expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, W G; Shores, C; Witsell, D L; Weissler, M C; Fidler, M E; Gilmer, T M

    1994-11-01

    Mutational activation and overexpression of the family of ras proto-oncogenes have been associated with many human tumors. The role of mutations of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras, as well as expression of the respective protein products (p21s) in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck has not been fully described. In our study, 51 tumors (40 paraffin embedded and 11 fresh frozen) were examined to determine if mutational activation of ras is an important molecular event in head and neck SCC. Analyses of codons 12, 13, and 61 of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras revealed no mutations, suggesting that mutational activation of ras is not important in the majority of head and neck SCCs. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) was used to define the expression of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and SCC of the head and neck and to determine if expression of ras family members correlated with early or late events in the development of SCC. Expression of p21N-ras in nine samples of histologically normal head and neck mucosa revealed moderate staining in the basal proliferative layers with progressively less staining as cells matured. The most superficial layers of normal mucosa failed to express p21N-ras. A low level of p21H-ras was expressed in all layers of normal mucosa while K-ras was not expressed. ICC of SCC tumor sections revealed cytoplasmic expression of N-ras in nine of nine tumors, H-ras in five of nine tumors, and K-ras in one of nine tumors. Expression of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras in head and neck SCC was not related to histologic differentiation or TNM staging; however, p21N-ras was overexpressed in seven of nine tumors. Furthermore, the pattern of N-ras expression in dysplastic lesions revealed expression in all layers of the mucosa in contrast to normal mucosa, which expresses p21N-ras primarily in the basal proliferative layer. The change in p21N-ras expression pattern in dysplastic mucosa and its

  8. Tissue-of-origin Dictates Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in Mutant Kras-driven Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mayers, Jared R.; Torrence, Margaret E.; Danai, Laura V.; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Davidson, Shawn M.; Bauer, Matthew R.; Lau, Allison N.; Ji, Brian W.; Dixit, Purushottam D.; Hosios, Aaron M.; Muir, Alexander; Chin, Christopher R.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Jacks, Tyler; Wolpin, Brian M.; Vitkup, Dennis; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2017-01-01

    Tumor genetics guides patient selection for many new therapies, and cell culture studies have demonstrated that specific mutations can promote metabolic phenotypes. However, whether tissue context defines cancer dependence on specific metabolic pathways is unknown. Kras activation and Trp53 deletion in the pancreas or the lung result in pancreatic ductal adenocarinoma (PDAC) or non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) respectively, but despite the same initiating events, these tumors utilize branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) differently. NSCLC tumors incorporate free BCAAs into tissue protein and use BCAAs as a nitrogen source while PDAC tumors have decreased BCAA uptake. These differences are reflected in expression levels of BCAA catabolic enzymes in both mice and humans. Loss of Bcat1 and Bcat2, the enzymes responsible for BCAA utilization, impairs NSCLC tumor formation, but these enzymes are not required for PDAC tumor formation, arguing that tissue-of-origin is an important determinant of how cancers satisfy their metabolic requirements. PMID:27609895

  9. Comparison of HER2 gene amplification and KRAS alteration in eyelid sebaceous carcinomas with that in other eyelid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi Jung; Shin, Hyung Sik; Nam, Eun Sook; Cho, Seong Jin; Lee, Min Joung; Lee, Samuel; Park, Hye-Rim

    2015-05-01

    Eyelid sebaceous carcinoma (SC) represents a highly aggressive malignancy. Despite the poor prognosis, genetic alterations as potential molecular targets are not available. KRAS mutation and HER2 gene amplification may be candidates related to their genetic alterations. We examined the HER2 and KRAS alteration status in eyelid SCs and compared it with that in other eyelid tumors. The controversial topics of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and p16 expression were also investigated. HER2 amplification was determined by silver in situ hybridization, while immunohistochemistry was performed to study protein expressions in 14 SCs and controls, including 23 other eyelid malignancies and 14 benign tumors. Peptide nucleic acid-mediated PCR clamping and direct sequencing were used to detect KRAS mutations. HER2 protein overexpression was observed in 85.7% (12/14) of the SCs, of which two-thirds showed HER2 gene amplification. HER2 protein overexpression and HER2 amplification were found more frequently in eyelid SCs than in other eyelid tumors. All SCs harbored wild type KRAS genes. No HPV infections were identified in the SCs. Nevertheless, p16 overexpression was found in 71.4% (10/14) of SCs, irrespective of the status of HPV infection. Furthermore, p16 overexpression in eyelid SCs was also significantly higher than that in other eyelid tumors. HER2 protein overexpression, HER2 gene amplifications, and wild type KRAS genes are common in eyelid SCs. HER2 gene amplification may represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of eyelid SCs.

  10. Specific repression of mutant K-RAS by 10-23 DNAzyme: Sensitizing cancer cell to anti-cancer therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.-H.; Wang, T.-H.; Au, L.-C.

    2009-01-09

    Point mutations of the Ras family are frequently found in human cancers at a prevalence rate of 30%. The most common mutation K-Ras(G12V), required for tumor proliferation, survival, and metastasis due to its constitutively active GTPase activity, has provided an ideal target for cancer therapy. 10-23 DNAzyme, an oligodeoxyribonucleotide-based ribonuclease consisting of a 15-nucleotide catalytical domain flanked by two target-specific complementary arms, has been shown to effectively cleave the target mRNA at purine-pyrimidine dinucleotide. Taking advantage of this specific property, 10-23 DNAzyme was designed to cleave mRNA of K-Ras(G12V)(GGU {yields} GUU) at the GU dinucleotide while left the wild-type (WT) K-Ras mRNA intact. The K-Ras(G12V)-specific 10-23 DNAzyme was able to reduce K-Ras(G12V) at both mRNA and protein levels in SW480 cell carrying homozygous K-Ras(G12V). No effect was observed on the WT K-Ras in HEK cells. Although K-Ras(G12V)-specific DNAzymes alone did not inhibit proliferation of SW480 or HEK cells, pre-treatment of this DNAzyme sensitized the K-Ras(G12V) mutant cells to anti-cancer agents such as doxorubicin and radiation. These results offer a potential of using allele-specific 10-23 DNAzyme in combination with other cancer therapies to achieve better effectiveness on cancer treatment.

  11. Defining New Treatment Approaches for KRAS-Mutant Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0225 TITLE: Defining New Treatment Approaches for KRAS- Mutant Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Eric Collisson...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defining New Treatment Approaches for KRAS- Mutant Lung Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0225 5c...one RAS-dependent. This Aim is underway and has verified that KRAS is indeed essential in the KRAS mutant mouse cell lines. Specific Aim 2. To

  12. Mosaic Activating Mutations in FGFR1 Cause Encephalocraniocutaneous Lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James T.; Tan, Tiong Yang; Alcantara, Diana; Tétrault, Martine; Timms, Andrew E.; Jensen, Dana; Collins, Sarah; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J.M.; Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Christensen, Katherine M.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Brandling-Bennett, Heather; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; Chung, Brian; Lehman, Anna; Su, John; Ng, SuYuen; Amor, David J.; Majewski, Jacek; Biesecker, Les G.; Boycott, Kym M.; Dobyns, William B.; O’Driscoll, Mark; Moog, Ute; McDonell, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) is a sporadic condition characterized by ocular, cutaneous, and central nervous system anomalies. Key clinical features include a well-demarcated hairless fatty nevus on the scalp, benign ocular tumors, and central nervous system lipomas. Seizures, spasticity, and intellectual disability can be present, although affected individuals without seizures and with normal intellect have also been reported. Given the patchy and asymmetric nature of the malformations, ECCL has been hypothesized to be due to a post-zygotic, mosaic mutation. Despite phenotypic overlap with several other disorders associated with mutations in the RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways, the molecular etiology of ECCL remains unknown. Using exome sequencing of DNA from multiple affected tissues from five unrelated individuals with ECCL, we identified two mosaic mutations, c.1638C>A (p.Asn546Lys) and c.1966A>G (p.Lys656Glu) within the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR1, in two affected individuals each. These two residues are the most commonly mutated residues in FGFR1 in human cancers and are associated primarily with CNS tumors. Targeted resequencing of FGFR1 in multiple tissues from an independent cohort of individuals with ECCL identified one additional individual with a c.1638C>A (p.Asn546Lys) mutation in FGFR1. Functional studies of ECCL fibroblast cell lines show increased levels of phosphorylated FGFRs and phosphorylated FRS2, a direct substrate of FGFR1, as well as constitutive activation of RAS-MAPK signaling. In addition to identifying the molecular etiology of ECCL, our results support the emerging overlap between mosaic developmental disorders and tumorigenesis. PMID:26942290

  13. MicroRNA-143 replenishment re-sensitizes colorectal cancer cells harboring mutant, but not wild-type, KRAS to paclitaxel treatment.

    PubMed

    Fei, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Fang, Xue-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) global incidence is one of the highest among cancers. The KRAS gene has been shown as a robust biomarker for poor prognosis and drug resistance. MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) and let-7 are families of tumor suppressor microRNAs that are often downregulated in CRC, especially with coexistent KRAS mutations. In order to evaluate if miR-143 and/or let-7b replenishment would re-sensitize CRC cells to paclitaxel treatment, we investigated in effect of miR-143 and let-7b replenishments on sensitivity to paclitaxel treatment in KRAS mutant LoVo and wild-type SW48 CRC cell lines. Our results showed that miR-143, but not let-7b, increased sensitization of KRAS mutant tumor cells to paclitaxel. Furthermore, transfection of miR-143, but not let-7b, mimic negatively regulated the expression of mutant but not wild-type KRAS. Combination of miR-143 mimic and paclitaxel induced the onset of apoptosis, and reverted in vitro metastatic properties (migration and invasion) in KRAS mutant tumor cells. MiR-143 thus can be used as a chemosensitizer for the treatment of KRAS mutant tumors and warrants further investigations in in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo models.

  14. Frederick National Lab and the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Award Fellowships for KRAS Research | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) recently formed a partnership with the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) to award a one-year fellowship to two scientists whose research will help lead to new therapies for pancreatic cancer. The scientists will focus on KRAS, a gene in the RAS family that is mutated in 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  15. microRNA classifiers are powerful diagnostic/prognostic tools in ALK-, EGFR-, and KRAS-driven lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Pierluigi; Cascione, Luciano; Landi, Lorenza; Carasi, Stefania; Lovat, Francesca; Tibaldi, Carmelo; Alì, Greta; D'Incecco, Armida; Minuti, Gabriele; Chella, Antonio; Fontanini, Gabriella; Fassan, Matteo; Cappuzzo, Federico; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-12-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) can act as oncosuppressors or oncogenes, induce chemoresistance or chemosensitivity, and are major posttranscriptional gene regulators. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), EGF receptor (EGFR), and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) are major drivers of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the miRNA profiles of NSCLCs driven by translocated ALK, mutant EGFR, or mutant KRAS to find driver-specific diagnostic and prognostic miRNA signatures. A total of 85 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were considered: 67 primary NSCLCs and 18 matched normal lung tissues. Of the 67 primary NSCLCs, 17 were echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-ALK translocated (ALK(+)) lung cancers; the remaining 50 were not (ALK(-)). Of the 50 ALK(-) primary NSCLCs, 24 were EGFR and KRAS mutation-negative (i.e., WT; triple negative); 11 were mutant EGFR (EGFR(+)), and 15 were mutant KRAS (KRAS(+)). We developed a diagnostic classifier that shows how miR-1253, miR-504, and miR-26a-5p expression levels can classify NSCLCs as ALK-translocated, mutant EGFR, or mutant KRAS versus mutation-free. We also generated a prognostic classifier based on miR-769-5p and Let-7d-5p expression levels that can predict overall survival. This classifier showed better performance than the commonly used classifiers based on mutational status. Although it has several limitations, this study shows that miRNA signatures and classifiers have great potential as powerful, cost-effective next-generation tools to improve and complement current genetic tests. Further studies of these miRNAs can help define their roles in NSCLC biology and in identifying best-performing chemotherapy regimens.

  16. Three faces of recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutations.

    PubMed

    Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Van Der Burg, Mirjam

    2015-12-01

    Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is a group of genetic disorder associated with development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. Recombination-activating genes (RAG1/2) play a critical role on VDJ recombination process that leads to the production of a broad T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in the development of T and B cells. RAG1/2 genes mutations result in various forms of primary immunodeficiency, ranging from classic SCID to Omenn syndrome (OS) to atypical SCID with such as granuloma formation and autoimmunity. Herein, we reported 4 patients with RAG1 deficiency: classic SCID was seen in two patients who presented with recurrent pneumonia and chronic diarrhoea, and failure to thrive. OS was observed in one patient who presented with chronic diarrhoea, skin rash, recurrent lower respiratory infections, and atypical SCID was seen in one patient who presented with Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) and had novel RAG1 mutation.

  17. Activation of proto-oncogenes in human and mouse lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Anderson, M.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in several nations. Epidemiological studies have indicated that 85% of all lung cancer deaths and 30% of all cancer deaths in the US are associated with tobacco smoking. Various chemicals in tobacco smoke are thought to react with DNA and to ultimately yield heritable mutations. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung tumorigenesis, the authors have analyzed proto-oncogene activation in a series of human lung tumors from smokers and spontaneously occurring and chemically induced lung tumors in mice. Approximately 86% of the human lung tumors and > 90% of the mouse lung tumors were found to contain activated oncogenes. ras Oncogenes activated by point mutations were detected in many of the human lung adenocarcinomas and virtually all of the mouse lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The mutation profiles of the activated K-ras genes detected in the chemically induced mouse lung tumors suggest that the observed mutations result from genotoxic effects of the chemicals. Comparison of the K-ras mutations observed in the human lung adenocarcinomas with mutation profiles observed in the mouse lung tumors suggest that bulky hydrophobic DNA adducts may be responsible for the majority of the mutations observed in the activated human K-ras genes. Other data indicate that approximately 20% of human lung tumors contain potentially novel transforming genes that may also be targets for mutagens in cigarette smoke.

  18. The PRKD1 promoter is a target of the KRas-NF-κB pathway in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Döppler, Heike; Panayiotou, Richard; Reid, Elizabeth M.; Maimo, Willibroad; Bastea, Ligia; Storz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of PRKD1 and its gene product protein kinase D1 (PKD1) are linked to oncogenic signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but a direct functional relationship to oncogenic KRas has not been established so far. We here describe the PRKD1 gene promoter as a target for oncogenic KRas signaling. We demonstrate that KRas-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway is one mechanism of how PRKD1 expression is increased and identify the binding sites for NF-κB in the PRKD1 promoter. Altogether, these results describe a novel mechanism governing PRKD1 gene expression in PDA and provide a functional link between oncogenic KRas, NF-κB and expression of PRKD1. PMID:27649783

  19. Gene mutation analysis in EGFR wild type NSCLC responsive to erlotinib: are there features to guide patient selection?

    PubMed

    Ulivi, Paola; Delmonte, Angelo; Chiadini, Elisa; Calistri, Daniele; Papi, Maximilian; Mariotti, Marita; Verlicchi, Alberto; Ragazzini, Angela; Capelli, Laura; Gamboni, Alessandro; Puccetti, Maurizio; Dubini, Alessandra; Burgio, Marco Angelo; Casanova, Claudia; Crinò, Lucio; Amadori, Dino; Dazzi, Claudio

    2014-12-31

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are very efficacious in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring activating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations. However, about 10% of EGFR wild type (wt) patients respond to TKI, with unknown molecular mechanisms of sensitivity. We considered a case series of 34 EGFR wt NSCLC patients responsive to erlotinib after at least one line of therapy. Responsive patients were matched with an equal number of non-responsive EGFR wt patients. A panel of 26 genes, for a total of 214 somatic mutations, was analyzed by MassARRAY® System (Sequenom, San Diego, CA, USA). A 15% KRAS mutation was observed in both groups, with a prevalence of G12C in non-responders (80% vs. 40% in responders). NOTCH1, p53 and EGFR-resistance-related mutations were found more frequently in non-responders, whereas EGFR-sensitizing mutations and alterations in genes involved in proliferation pathways were more frequent in responders. In conclusion, our findings indicate that p53, NOTCH1 and exon 20 EGFR mutations seem to be related to TKI resistance. KRAS mutations do not appear to influence the TKI response, although G12C mutation is more frequent in non-responders. Finally, the use of highly sensitive methodologies could lead to the identification of under-represented EGFR mutations potentially associated with TKI sensitivity.

  20. Comparative proteomics of a model MCF10A-KRasG12V cell line reveals a distinct molecular signature of the KRasG12V cell surface.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoying; Chan, King C; Waters, Andrew M; Bess, Matthew; Harned, Adam; Wei, Bih-Rong; Loncarek, Jadranka; Luke, Brian T; Orsburn, Benjamin C; Hollinger, Bradley D; Stephens, Robert M; Bagni, Rachel; Martinko, Alex; Wells, James A; Nissley, Dwight V; McCormick, Frank; Whiteley, Gordon; Blonder, Josip

    2016-12-27

    Oncogenic Ras mutants play a major role in the etiology of most aggressive and deadly carcinomas in humans. In spite of continuous efforts, effective pharmacological treatments targeting oncogenic Ras isoforms have not been developed. Cell-surface proteins represent top therapeutic targets primarily due to their accessibility and susceptibility to different modes of cancer therapy. To expand the treatment options of cancers driven by oncogenic Ras, new targets need to be identified and characterized at the surface of cancer cells expressing oncogenic Ras mutants. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry-based method for molecular profiling of the cell surface using KRasG12V transfected MCF10A (MCF10A-KRasG12V) as a model cell line of constitutively activated KRas and native MCF10A cells transduced with an empty vector (EV) as control. An extensive molecular map of the KRas surface was achieved by applying, in parallel, targeted hydrazide-based cell-surface capturing technology and global shotgun membrane proteomics to identify the proteins on the KRasG12V surface. This method allowed for integrated proteomic analysis that identified more than 500 cell-surface proteins found unique or upregulated on the surface of MCF10A-KRasG12V cells. Multistep bioinformatic processing was employed to elucidate and prioritize targets for cross-validation. Scanning electron microscopy and phenotypic cancer cell assays revealed changes at the cell surface consistent with malignant epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation secondary to KRasG12V activation. Taken together, this dataset significantly expands the map of the KRasG12V surface and uncovers potential targets involved primarily in cell motility, cellular protrusion formation, and metastasis.

  1. Comparative proteomics of a model MCF10A-KRasG12V cell line reveals a distinct molecular signature of the KRasG12V cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoying; Chan, King C.; Waters, Andrew M.; Bess, Matthew; Harned, Adam; Wei, Bih-Rong; Loncarek, Jadranka; Luke, Brian T.; Orsburn, Benjamin C.; Hollinger, Bradley D.; Stephens, Robert M.; Bagni, Rachel; Martinko, Alex; Wells, James A.; Nissley, Dwight V.; McCormick, Frank; Whiteley, Gordon; Blonder, Josip

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic Ras mutants play a major role in the etiology of most aggressive and deadly carcinomas in humans. In spite of continuous efforts, effective pharmacological treatments targeting oncogenic Ras isoforms have not been developed. Cell-surface proteins represent top therapeutic targets primarily due to their accessibility and susceptibility to different modes of cancer therapy. To expand the treatment options of cancers driven by oncogenic Ras, new targets need to be identified and characterized at the surface of cancer cells expressing oncogenic Ras mutants. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry–based method for molecular profiling of the cell surface using KRasG12V transfected MCF10A (MCF10A-KRasG12V) as a model cell line of constitutively activated KRas and native MCF10A cells transduced with an empty vector (EV) as control. An extensive molecular map of the KRas surface was achieved by applying, in parallel, targeted hydrazide-based cell-surface capturing technology and global shotgun membrane proteomics to identify the proteins on the KRasG12V surface. This method allowed for integrated proteomic analysis that identified more than 500 cell-surface proteins found unique or upregulated on the surface of MCF10A-KRasG12V cells. Multistep bioinformatic processing was employed to elucidate and prioritize targets for cross-validation. Scanning electron microscopy and phenotypic cancer cell assays revealed changes at the cell surface consistent with malignant epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation secondary to KRasG12V activation. Taken together, this dataset significantly expands the map of the KRasG12V surface and uncovers potential targets involved primarily in cell motility, cellular protrusion formation, and metastasis. PMID:27894102

  2. Clonal and microclonal mutational heterogeneity in high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    de Smith, Adam J.; Ojha, Juhi; Francis, Stephen S.; Sanders, Erica; Endicott, Alyson A.; Hansen, Helen M.; Smirnov, Ivan; Termuhlen, Amanda M.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    High hyperdiploidy (HD), the most common cytogenetic subtype of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), is largely curable but significant treatment-related morbidity warrants investigating the biology and identifying novel drug targets. Targeted deep-sequencing of 538 cancer-relevant genes was performed in 57 HD-ALL patients lacking overt KRAS and NRAS hotspot mutations and lacking common B-ALL deletions to enrich for discovery of novel driver genes. One-third of patients harbored damaging mutations in epigenetic regulatory genes, including the putative novel driver DOT1L (n=4). Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras/MAPK signaling pathway mutations were found in two-thirds of patients, including novel mutations in ROS1, which mediates phosphorylation of the PTPN11-encoded protein SHP2. Mutations in FLT3 significantly co-occurred with DOT1L (p=0.04), suggesting functional cooperation in leukemogenesis. We detected an extraordinary level of tumor heterogeneity, with microclonal (mutant allele fraction <0.10) KRAS, NRAS, FLT3, and/or PTPN11 hotspot mutations evident in 31/57 (54.4%) patients. Multiple KRAS and NRAS codon 12 and 13 microclonal mutations significantly co-occurred within tumor samples (p=4.8×10−4), suggesting ongoing formation of and selection for Ras-activating mutations. Future work is required to investigate whether tumor microheterogeneity impacts clinical outcome and to elucidate the functional consequences of epigenetic dysregulation in HD-ALL, potentially leading to novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27683039

  3. Worse prognosis of KRAS c.35 G > A mutant metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) patients treated with intensive triplet chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (FIr-B/FOx)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prognosis of KRAS wild-type and mutant metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) patients (pts) treated with bevacizumab (BEV)-containing chemotherapy is not significantly different. Since specific KRAS mutations confer different aggressive behaviors, the prognostic role of prevalent KRAS mutations was retrospectively evaluated in MCRC pts treated with first line FIr-B/FOx, associating BEV to triplet chemotherapy. Methods Tumor samples were screened for KRAS codon 12, 13 and BRAF V600E mutations by SNaPshot and/or direct sequencing. MCRC pts <75-years-old were consecutively treated with FIr-B/FOx: weekly 12 hour-timed-flat-infusion/5-fluorouracil (900 mg/m2 on days 1,2, 8, 9, 15, 16,22, 23), irinotecan plus BEV (160 mg/m2 and 5 mg/kg, respectively, on days 1,15); and oxaliplatin (80 mg/m2, on days 8,22). Pts were classified as liver-limited (L-L) and other/multiple metastatic (O/MM). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared using the log-rank test. Results Fifty-nine pts were evaluated at a median follow-up of 21.5 months. KRAS mutant pts: c.35 G > A, 15 (25.4%); c.35 G > T, 7 (11.8%); c.38 G > A, 3 (5%); other, 3 (5%). KRAS wild-type, 31 pts (52.7%). The objective response rate (ORR), PFS and OS were, respectively: c.35 G > A mutant, 71%, 9 months, 14 months; other than c.35 G > A mutants, 61%, 12 months, 39 months. OS was significantly worse in c.35 G > A pts compared to KRAS wild-type (P = 0.002), KRAS/BRAF wild-type (P = 0.03), other MCRC patients (P = 0.002), other than c.35 G > A (P = 0.05), other codon 12 (P = 0.03) mutant pts. OS was not significantly different compared to c.35 G > T KRAS mutant (P = 0.142). Conclusions KRAS c.35 G > A mutant status may be significantly associated with a worse prognosis of MCRC pts treated with first line FIr-B/FOx intensive regimen compared to KRAS/BRAF wild type and other than c.35 G > A mutant pts. PMID:23497191

  4. Extreme Outlier Analysis Identifies Occult Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Mutations in Patients With Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Rachel N.; Sylvester, Brooke E.; Won, Helen; McDermott, Gregory; DeLair, Deborah; Ramirez, Ricardo; Yao, Zhan; Shen, Ronglai; Dao, Fanny; Bogomolniy, Faina; Makker, Vicky; Sala, Evis; Soumerai, Tara E.; Hyman, David M.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Viale, Agnes; Gershenson, David M.; Farley, John; Levine, Douglas A.; Rosen, Neal; Berger, Michael F.; Spriggs, David R.; Aghajanian, Carol A.; Solit, David B.; Iyer, Gopa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose No effective systemic therapy exists for patients with metastatic low-grade serous (LGS) ovarian cancers. BRAF and KRAS mutations are common in serous borderline (SB) and LGS ovarian cancers, and MEK inhibition has been shown to induce tumor regression in a minority of patients; however, no correlation has been observed between mutation status and clinical response. With the goal of identifying biomarkers of sensitivity to MEK inhibitor treatment, we performed an outlier analysis of a patient who experienced a complete, durable, and ongoing (> 5 years) response to selumetinib, a non-ATP competitive MEK inhibitor. Patients and Methods Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze this patient's tumor as well as an additional 28 SB/LGS tumors. Functional characterization of an identified novel alteration of interest was performed. Results Analysis of the extraordinary responder's tumor identified a 15-nucleotide deletion in the negative regulatory helix of the MAP2K1 gene encoding for MEK1. Functional characterization demonstrated that this mutant induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activation, promoted anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in mice, and retained sensitivity to selumetinib. Analysis of additional LGS/SB tumors identified mutations predicted to induce extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activation in 82% (23 of 28), including two patients with BRAF fusions, one of whom achieved an ongoing complete response to MEK inhibitor–based combination therapy. Conclusion Alterations affecting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway are present in the majority of patients with LGS ovarian cancer. Next-generation sequencing analysis revealed deletions and fusions that are not detected by older sequencing approaches. These findings, coupled with the observation that a subset of patients with recurrent LGS ovarian cancer experienced dramatic and durable responses to MEK inhibitor therapy, support additional

  5. A New Microarray Substrate for Ultra-Sensitive Genotyping of KRAS and BRAF Gene Variants in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pinzani, Pamela; Mancini, Irene; Vinci, Serena; Chiari, Marcella; Orlando, Claudio; Cremonesi, Laura; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics of human cancers may increase accuracy in prognosis, facilitate the selection of the optimal therapeutic regimen, improve patient outcome, reduce costs of treatment and favour development of personalized approaches to patient care. Moreover sensitivity and specificity are fundamental characteristics of any diagnostic method. We developed a highly sensitive microarray for the detection of common KRAS and BRAF oncogenic mutations. In colorectal cancer, KRAS and BRAF mutations have been shown to identify a cluster of patients that does not respond to anti-EGFR therapies; the identification of these mutations is therefore clinically extremely important. To verify the technical characteristics of the microarray system for the correct identification of the KRAS mutational status at the two hotspot codons 12 and 13 and of the BRAFV600E mutation in colorectal tumor, we selected 75 samples previously characterized by conventional and CO-amplification at Lower Denaturation temperature-PCR (COLD-PCR) followed by High Resolution Melting analysis and direct sequencing. Among these samples, 60 were collected during surgery and immediately steeped in RNAlater while the 15 remainders were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The detection limit of the proposed method was different for the 7 KRAS mutations tested and for the V600E BRAF mutation. In particular, the microarray system has been able to detect a minimum of about 0.01% of mutated alleles in a background of wild-type DNA. A blind validation displayed complete concordance of results. The excellent agreement of the results showed that the new microarray substrate is highly specific in assigning the correct genotype without any enrichment strategy. PMID:23536897

  6. Radiosensitization of EGFR/HER2 positive pancreatic cancer is mediated by inhibition of Akt independent of Ras mutational status

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Randall J.; Vaseva, Angelina V.; Cox, Adrienne D.; Baerman, Kathryn M.; Calvo, Benjamin F.; Tepper, Joel E.; Shields, Janiel M.; Sartor, Carolyn I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Epidermal growth factor receptor family members (e.g., EGFR, HER2, HER3, and HER4) are commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. We investigated the effects of inhibition of EGFR/HER2 signaling on pancreatic cancer to elucidate the role(s) of EGFR/HER2 in radiosensitization and to provide evidence in support of further clinical investigations. Experimental Design Expression of EGFR family members in pancreatic cancer lines was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cell growth inhibition was determined by MTS assay. The effects of inhibition of EGFR family receptors and downstream signaling pathways on in vitro radiosensitivity were evaluated using clonogenic assays. Growth delay was used to evaluate the effects of nelfinavir on in vivo tumor radiosensitivity. Results Lapatinib inhibited cell growth in four pancreatic cancer cell lines, but radiosensitized only wild-type K-ras-expressing T3M4 cells. Akt activation was blocked in a wild-type K-ras cell line, whereas constitutive phosphorylation of Akt and ERK was seen in lines expressing mutant K-ras. Overexpression of constitutively-active K-ras(G12V) abrogated lapatinib-mediated inhibition of both Akt phosphorylation and radiosensitization. Inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling with U0126 had no effect on radiosensitization, whereas inhibition of activated Akt with LY294002 (enhancement ratio 1.2–1.8) or nelfinavir (enhancement ratio 1.2–1.4) radiosensitized cells regardless of K-ras mutation status. Oral nelfinavir administration to mice bearing mutant K-ras-containing Capan-2 xenografts resulted in a greater than additive increase in radiation-mediated tumor growth delay (synergy assessment ratio of 1.5). Conclusions Inhibition of EGFR/HER2 enhances radiosensitivity in wild-type K-ras pancreatic cancer. Nelfinavir, and other PI3K/Akt inhibitors, are effective pancreatic radiosensitizers regardless of K-ras mutation status. PMID:20103665

  7. The Significance of Ras Activity in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Craig D.; Lu, Weiqin

    2016-01-01

    The genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer shows nearly ubiquitous mutations of K-RAS. However, oncogenic K-Rasmt alone is not sufficient to lead to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in either human or in genetically modified adult mouse models. Many stimulants, such as high fat diet, CCK, LPS, PGE2 and others, have physiological effects at low concentrations that are mediated in part through modest increases in K-Ras activity. However, at high concentrations, they induce inflammation that, in the presence of oncogenic K-Ras expression, substantially accelerates PDAC formation. The mechanism involves increased activity of oncogenic K-Rasmt. Unlike what has been proposed in the standard paradigm for the role of Ras in oncogenesis, oncogenic K-Rasmt is now known to not be constitutively active. Rather, it can be activated by standard mechanisms similar to wild-type K-Ras, but its activity is sustained for a prolonged period. Furthermore, if the level of K-Ras activity exceeds a threshold at which it begins to generate its own activators, then a feed-forward loop is formed between K-Ras activity and inflammation and pathological processes including oncogenesis are initiated. Oncogenic K-Rasmt activation, a key event in PDAC initiation and development, is subject to complex regulatory mechanisms. Reagents which inhibit inflammation, such as the Cox2 inhibitor celecoxib, block the feed-forward loop and prevent induction of PDAC in models with endogenous oncogenic K-Rasmt. Increased understanding of the role of activating and inhibitory mechanisms on oncogenic K-Rasmt activity is of paramount importance for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies to fight against this lethal disease. PMID:26929740

  8. Computational and biochemical characterization of two partially overlapping interfaces and multiple weak-affinity K-Ras dimers

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Priyanka; Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Dolino, Drew M.; Chen, Wei; Li, Hongyang; Grant, Barry J.; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies found that membrane-bound K-Ras dimers are important for biological function. However, the structure and thermodynamic stability of these complexes remained unknown because they are hard to probe by conventional approaches. Combining data from a wide range of computational and experimental approaches, here we describe the structure, dynamics, energetics and mechanism of assembly of multiple K-Ras dimers. Utilizing a range of techniques for the detection of reactive surfaces, protein-protein docking and molecular simulations, we found that two largely polar and partially overlapping surfaces underlie the formation of multiple K-Ras dimers. For validation we used mutagenesis, electron microscopy and biochemical assays under non-denaturing conditions. We show that partial disruption of a predicted interface through charge reversal mutation of apposed residues reduces oligomerization while introduction of cysteines at these positions enhanced dimerization likely through the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond. Free energy calculations indicated that K-Ras dimerization involves direct but weak protein-protein interactions in solution, consistent with the notion that dimerization is facilitated by membrane binding. Taken together, our atomically detailed analyses provide unique mechanistic insights into K-Ras dimer formation and membrane organization as well as the conformational fluctuations and equilibrium thermodynamics underlying these processes. PMID:28067274

  9. Computational and biochemical characterization of two partially overlapping interfaces and multiple weak-affinity K-Ras dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Priyanka; Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Dolino, Drew M.; Chen, Wei; Li, Hongyang; Grant, Barry J.; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies found that membrane-bound K-Ras dimers are important for biological function. However, the structure and thermodynamic stability of these complexes remained unknown because they are hard to probe by conventional approaches. Combining data from a wide range of computational and experimental approaches, here we describe the structure, dynamics, energetics and mechanism of assembly of multiple K-Ras dimers. Utilizing a range of techniques for the detection of reactive surfaces, protein-protein docking and molecular simulations, we found that two largely polar and partially overlapping surfaces underlie the formation of multiple K-Ras dimers. For validation we used mutagenesis, electron microscopy and biochemical assays under non-denaturing conditions. We show that partial disruption of a predicted interface through charge reversal mutation of apposed residues reduces oligomerization while introduction of cysteines at these positions enhanced dimerization likely through the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond. Free energy calculations indicated that K-Ras dimerization involves direct but weak protein-protein interactions in solution, consistent with the notion that dimerization is facilitated by membrane binding. Taken together, our atomically detailed analyses provide unique mechanistic insights into K-Ras dimer formation and membrane organization as well as the conformational fluctuations and equilibrium thermodynamics underlying these processes.

  10. An extra copy of p53 suppresses development of spontaneous Kras-driven but not radiation-induced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moding, Everett J.; Min, Hooney D.; Castle, Katherine D.; Ali, Moiez; Woodlief, Loretta; Williams, Nerissa; Ma, Yan; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, Chang-Lung

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 blocks tumor progression in multiple tumor types. Radiation-induced cancer following exposure to radiation therapy or space travel may also be regulated by p53 because p53 has been proposed to respond to DNA damage to suppress tumorigenesis. Here, we investigate the role of p53 in lung carcinogenesis and lymphomagenesis in LA-1 KrasG12D mice with wild-type p53 or an extra copy of p53 (super p53) exposed to fractionated total body irradiation with low linear energy transfer (low-LET) X-rays or high-LET iron ions and compared tumor formation in these mice with unirradiated controls. We found that an additional copy of p53 suppressed both Kras-driven lung tumor and lymphoma development in the absence of radiation. However, an additional copy of p53 did not affect lymphoma development following low- or high-LET radiation exposure and was unable to suppress radiation-induced expansion of thymocytes with mutated Kras. Moreover, radiation exposure increased lung tumor size in super p53 but not wild-type p53 mice. These results demonstrate that although p53 suppresses the development of spontaneous tumors expressing KrasG12D, in the context of exposure to ionizing radiation, an extra copy of p53 does not protect against radiation-induced lymphoma and may promote KrasG12D mutant lung cancer. PMID:27453951

  11. Liquid biopsy for detection of actionable oncogenic mutations in human cancers and electric field induced release and measurement liquid biopsy (eLB).

    PubMed

    Tu, Michael; Chia, David; Wei, Fang; Wong, David

    2016-01-21

    Oncogenic activations by mutations in key cancer genes such as EGFR and KRAS are frequently associated with human cancers. Molecular targeting of specific oncogenic mutations in human cancer is a major therapeutic inroad for anti-cancer drug therapy. In addition, progressive developments of oncogene mutations lead to drug resistance. Therefore, the ability to detect and continuously monitor key actionable oncogenic mutations is important to guide the use of targeted molecular therapies to improve long-term clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Current oncogenic mutation detection is based on direct sampling of cancer tissue by surgical resection or biopsy. Oncogenic mutations were recently shown to be detectable in circulating bodily fluids of cancer patients. This field of investigation, termed liquid biopsy, permits a less invasive means of assessing the oncogenic mutation profile of a patient. This paper will review the analytical strategies used to assess oncogenic mutations from biofluid samples. Clinical applications will also be discussed.

  12. Liquid Biopsy for Detection of Actionable Oncogenic Mutations in Human Cancers and Electric Field Induced Release and Measurement Liquid Biopsy (eLB)

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Michael; Chia, David; Wei, Fang; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic activations by mutations in key cancer genes such as EGFR and KRAS are frequently associated with human cancers. Molecular targeting of specific oncogenic mutations in human cancer is a major therapeutic inroad for anti-cancer drug therapy. In addition, progressive developments of oncogene mutations lead to drug resistance. Therefore, the ability to detect and continuously monitor key actionable oncogenic mutations is important to guide the use of targeted molecular therapies to improve long-term clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Current oncogenic mutation detection is based on direct sampling of cancer tissue by surgical resection or biopsy. Oncogenic mutations were recently shown to be detectable in circulating bodily fluids of cancer patients. This field of investigation, termed liquid biopsy, permits a less invasive means of assessing the oncogenic mutation profile of a patient. This paper will review the analytical strategies used to assess oncogenic mutations from biofluid samples. Clinical applications will also be discussed. PMID:26645892

  13. Novel FOXC2 Mutation in Hereditary Distichiasis Impairs DNA-Binding Activity and Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Leilei; He, Jie; Han, Bing; Lu, Linna; Fan, Jiayan; Zhang, He; Ge, Shengfang; Zhou, Yixiong; Jia, Renbing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-01-01

    Distichiasis presents as double rows of eyelashes arising from aberrant differentiation of the meibomian glands of the eyelids, and it may be sporadic or hereditary. FOXC2 gene mutations in hereditary distichiasis are rarely reported. Here, we examined two generations of a Chinese family with hereditary distichiasis but without lymphedema or other features of LD syndrome. The FOXC2 gene was amplified and sequenced in all family members. Subcellular localization and luciferase assays were performed to assess the activity of the mutant FOXC2 protein. Clinical examinations showed distichiasis, lower eyelid ectropion, congenital ptosis and photophobia in all affected individuals. Sequence analysis revealed a novel frameshift mutation, c.964_965insG, in the coding region of the FOXC2 gene. This mutation caused protein truncation due to the presence of a premature stop codon. A fluorescence assay showed that this mutation did not change the nuclear localization of the protein. However, it impaired DNA-binding activity and decreased transcriptional activation. This is the first report of a FOXC2 mutation in hereditary distichiasis in the Chinese population. The findings of our study expand the FOXC2 mutation spectrum and contribute to the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation of this disease. PMID:27570485

  14. Inhibition of TWIST1 leads to activation of oncogene-induced senescence in oncogene-driven non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Burns, Timothy F; Dobromilskaya, Irina; Murphy, Sara C; Gajula, Rajendra P; Thiyagarajan, Saravanan; Chatley, Sarah N H; Aziz, Khaled; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tran, Phuoc T; Rudin, Charles M

    2013-04-01

    A large fraction of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are dependent on defined oncogenic driver mutations. Although targeted agents exist for EGFR- and EML4-ALK-driven NSCLCs, no therapies target the most frequently found driver mutation, KRAS. Furthermore, acquired resistance to the currently targetable driver mutations is nearly universally observed. Clearly a novel therapeutic approach is needed to target oncogene-driven NSCLCs. We recently showed that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 cooperates with mutant Kras to induce lung adenocarcinoma in transgenic mouse models and that inhibition of Twist1 in these models led to Kras-induced senescence. In the current study, we examine the role of TWIST1 in oncogene-driven human NSCLCs. Silencing of TWIST1 in KRAS-mutant human NSCLC cell lines resulted in dramatic growth inhibition and either activation of a latent oncogene-induced senescence program or, in some cases, apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in EGFR mutation-driven and c-Met-amplified NSCLC cell lines. Growth inhibition by silencing of TWIST1 was independent of p53 or p16 mutational status and did not require previously defined mediators of senescence, p21 and p27, nor could this phenotype be rescued by overexpression of SKP2. In xenograft models, silencing of TWIST1 resulted in significant growth inhibition of KRAS-mutant, EGFR-mutant, and c-Met-amplified NSCLCs. Remarkably, inducible silencing of TWIST1 resulted in significant growth inhibition of established KRAS-mutant tumors. Together these findings suggest that silencing of TWIST1 in oncogene driver-dependent NSCLCs represents a novel and promising therapeutic strategy.

  15. Frequent PTPRK-RSPO3 fusions and RNF43 mutations in colorectal traditional serrated adenoma.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shigeki; Yamashita, Satoshi; Tanabe, Taro; Hashimoto, Taiki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Kojima, Motohiro; Shinmura, Kazuya; Saito, Yutaka; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the serrated pathway of colorectal tumourigenesis, particularly those related to traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), are still poorly understood. In this study, we analysed genetic alterations in 188 colorectal polyps, including hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), TSAs, tubular adenomas, and tubulovillous adenomas by using targeted next-generation sequencing and reverse transcription-PCR. Our analyses showed that most TSAs (71%) contained genetic alterations in WNT pathway components. In particular, PTPRK-RSPO3 fusions (31%) and RNF43 mutations (24%) were frequently and almost exclusively observed in TSAs. Consistent with the WNT pathway activation, immunohistochemical analysis showed diffuse and focal nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in 53% and 30% of TSAs, respectively. APC mutations were observed in tubular and tubulovillous adenomas and in a subset of TSAs. BRAF mutations were exclusively and frequently encountered in serrated lesions. KRAS mutations were observed in all types of polyps, but were most commonly encountered in tubulovillous adenomas and TSAs. This study has demonstrated that TSAs frequently harbour genetic alterations that lead to WNT pathway activation, in addition to BRAF and KRAS mutations. In particular, PTPRK-RSPO3 fusions and RNF43 mutations were found to be characteristic genetic features of TSAs. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Genotype-driven therapies for non-small cell lung cancer: focus on EGFR, KRAS and ALK gene abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Elizabeth M; Costa, Daniel B

    2011-05-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are heterogeneous cancers. In 2004, the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) somatic mutations provided the first glimpse of a clinically relevant NSCLC oncogene. Approximately 70% of NSCLCs with EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletions or the exon 21 L858R) attain responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib and erlotinib, with improved response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and in some reports overall survival (OS) when compared with EGFR wildtype (WT) cases. Three randomized trials of gefitinib versus chemotherapy (IPASS, WJTOG3405, NEJ002) in stage IV NSCLC have consistently demonstrated better RR and PFS (hazard ratios of 0.48 [IPASS], 0.49 [WJTOG3405] and 0.30 [NEJ002]) for EGFR-mutated NSCLCs treated with gefitinib. Novel irreversible EGFR TKIs (afatinib, XL647, PF00299804) show similar activity in EGFR-mutated patients. A translocation involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene with EML4, identified in 2007, is the most recent oncogene found in NSCLC. Crizotinib (PF02341066), an ALK TKI, has shown impressive activity against ALK translocated NSCLC in an expanded cohort of a phase I trial (NCT00585195). Over 80 patients have been treated and the RR is ∼60% with the 6-month PFS rate exceeding 70%. A registration phase III trial of crizotinib versus second-line chemotherapy (pemetrexed/docetaxel) is underway (PROFILE 1007, NCT00932893). KRAS, EGFR mutations and ALK translocations are mutually exclusive and few EGFR WT NSCLCs respond to EGFR TKIs. The promising results of EGFR and ALK TKIs in molecular subgroups of NSCLCs herald a new age of drug and clinical trial development for patients with NSCLC.

  17. KRAS Mutant Pancreatic Cancer: No Lone Path to an Effective Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouni, Daniel; Pylayeva-Gupta, Yuliya; Der, Channing J.; Bryant, Kirsten L.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the deadliest cancers with a dismal 7% 5-year survival rate and is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths by 2020. KRAS is mutated in 95% of PDACs and is a well-validated driver of PDAC growth and maintenance. However, despite comprehensive efforts, an effective anti-RAS drug has yet to reach the clinic. Different paths to inhibiting RAS signaling are currently under investigation in the hope of finding a successful treatment. Recently, direct RAS binding molecules have been discovered, challenging the perception that RAS is an “undruggable” protein. Other strategies currently being pursued take an indirect approach, targeting proteins that facilitate RAS membrane association or downstream effector signaling. Unbiased genetic screens have identified synthetic lethal interactors of mutant RAS. Most recently, metabolic targets in pathways related to glycolytic signaling, glutamine utilization, autophagy, and macropinocytosis are also being explored. Harnessing the patient’s immune system to fight their cancer is an additional exciting route that is being considered. The “best” path to inhibiting KRAS has yet to be determined, with each having promise as well as potential pitfalls. We will summarize the state-of-the-art for each direction, focusing on efforts directed toward the development of therapeutics for pancreatic cancer patients with mutated KRAS. PMID:27096871

  18. K-RAS(V12) Induces Autocrine Production of EGFR Ligands and Mediates Radioresistance Through EGFR-Dependent Akt Signaling and Activation of DNA-PKcs

    SciTech Connect

    Minjgee, Minjmaa; Toulany, Mahmoud; Kehlbach, Rainer; Giehl, Klaudia; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: It is known that postirradiation survival of tumor cells presenting mutated K-RAS is mediated through autocrine activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study the molecular mechanism of radioresistance of cells overexpressing mutated K-RAS(V12) was investigated. Methods and Materials: Head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu) presenting wild-type K-RAS were transfected with empty vector or vector expressing mutated K-RAS(V12). The effect of K-RAS(V12) on autocrine production of EGFR ligands, activation of EGFR downstream pathways, DNA damage repair, and postirradiation survival was analyzed. Results: Conditioned medium collected from K-RAS(V12)-transfected cells enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt pathway and increased postirradiation survival of wild-type K-RAS parental cells when compared with controls. These effects were reversed by amphiregulin (AREG)-neutralizing antibody. In addition, secretion of the EGFR ligands AREG and transforming growth factor {alpha} was significantly increased upon overexpression of K-RAS(V12). Expression of mutated K-RAS(V12) resulted in an increase in radiation-induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation at S2056. This increase was accompanied by increased repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Abrogation of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation by serum depletion or AREG-neutralizing antibody underscored the role of autocrine production of EGFR ligands, namely, AREG, in regulating DNA-PKcs activation in K-RAS mutated cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that radioresistance of K-RAS mutated tumor cells is at least in part due to constitutive production of EGFR ligands, which mediate enhanced repair of DNA double-strand breaks through the EGFR-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt cascade.

  19. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen induces autophagic death through K-Ras degradation.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Latika; Kaza, Niroop; Coric, Tatjana; Byer, Stephanie J; Brossier, Nicole M; Klocke, Barbara J; Bjornsti, Mary-Ann; Carroll, Steven L; Roth, Kevin A

    2013-07-15

    Tamoxifen is widely used to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Recent findings that tamoxifen and its derivative 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) can exert estrogen receptor-independent cytotoxic effects have prompted the initiation of clinical trials to evaluate its use in estrogen receptor-negative malignancies. For example, tamoxifen and OHT exert cytotoxic effects in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) where estrogen is not involved. In this study, we gained insights into the estrogen receptor-independent cytotoxic effects of OHT by studying how it kills MPNST cells. Although caspases were activated following OHT treatment, caspase inhibition provided no protection from OHT-induced death. Rather, OHT-induced death in MPNST cells was associated with autophagic induction and attenuated by genetic inhibition of autophagic vacuole formation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that OHT stimulated autophagic degradation of K-Ras, which is critical for survival of MPNST cells. Similarly, we found that OHT induced K-Ras degradation in breast, colon, glioma, and pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of autophagic death triggered by OHT in tumor cells that may be more broadly useful clinically in cancer treatment.

  20. Predictive and Prognostic Analysis of PIK3CA Mutation in Stage III Colon Cancer Intergroup Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaoyun; Imamura, Yu; Yamauchi, Mai; McCleary, Nadine J.; Ng, Kimmie; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al B.; Mowat, Rex B.; Spiegelman, Donna; Goldberg, Richard M.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic mutations in PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase [PI3K], catalytic subunit alpha gene) activate the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway and contribute to pathogenesis of various malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Methods We examined associations of PIK3CA oncogene mutation with relapse, survival, and treatment efficacy in 627 stage III colon carcinoma case subjects within a randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial (5-fluorouracil and leucovorin [FU/LV] vs irinotecan [CPT11], fluorouracil and leucovorin [IFL]; Cancer and Leukemia Group B 89803 [Alliance]). We detected PIK3CA mutation in exons 9 and 20 by polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess prognostic and predictive role of PIK3CA mutation, adjusting for clinical features and status of routine standard molecular pathology features, including KRAS and BRAF mutations and microsatellite instability (mismatch repair deficiency). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Compared with PIK3CA wild-type cases, overall status of PIK3CA mutation positivity or the presence of PIK3CA mutation in either exon 9 or 20 alone was not statistically significantly associated with recurrence-free, disease-free, or overall survival (log-rank P > .70; P > .40 in multivariable regression models). There was no statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA and KRAS (or BRAF) mutation status in survival analysis (P interaction > .18). PIK3CA mutation status did not appear to predict better or worse response to IFL therapy compared with FU/LV therapy (P interaction > .16). Conclusions Overall tumor PIK3CA mutation status is not associated with stage III colon cancer prognosis. PIK3CA mutation does not appear to serve as a predictive tumor molecular biomarker for response to irinotecan-based adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:24231454

  1. Altered intrinsic brain activity in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia by PRRT2 mutation: altered brain activity by PRRT2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Luo, ChunYan; Chen, Yongping; Song, Wei; Chen, Qin; Gong, QiYong; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2013-11-01

    The proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene has been recently identified as a causative gene of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), with an insertion mutation c.649_650insC (p.P217fsX7) reported as the most common mutation. However, the pathogenic mechanism of the mutation of PRRT2 remains largely unknown. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a promising approach to assess cerebral function and reveals underlying functional changes. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 4 Chinese PKD patients with p.P217fsX7 mutation, 6 Chinese PKD patients without the mutation, and 10 healthy control subjects. Voxel-based analysis was used to characterize alterations in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). When compared with the healthy control subjects, both groups of PKD patients showed alterations in spontaneous brain activities within cortical-basal ganglia circuitry. Besides, the group of patients with p.P217fsX7 mutation also exhibited increased ALFF in the right postcenral gyrus and right rolandic operculum area, while the alteration of ALFF in group of patients without the mutation additionally involved the middle orbitofrontal cortex. Direct comparative analysis between these two patient groups revealed significantly increased ALFF in the right postcentral gyrus in the group with p.P217fsX7 mutation. Increased spontaneous brain activity in the cortical-basal ganglia circuitry, especially in the motor preparation areas, is a common pathophysiology in PKD. Differences in the spatial patterns of increased ALFF between patients with and those without the mutation might reflect the distinct pathological mechanism resulting from PRRT2 mutation.

  2. Enhancing human spermine synthase activity by engineered mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Yueli; Petukh, Margo; Pegg, Anthony; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Alexov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Spermine synthase (SMS) is an enzyme which function is to convert spermidine into spermine. It was shown that gene defects resulting in amino acid changes of the wild type SMS cause Snyder-Robinson syndrome, which is a mild-to-moderate mental disability associated with osteoporosis, facial asymmetry, thin habitus, hypotonia, and a nonspecific movement disorder. These disease-causing missense mutations were demonstrated, both in silico and in vitro, to affect the wild type function of SMS by either destabilizing the SMS dimer/monomer or directly affecting the hydrogen bond network of the active site of SMS. In contrast to these studies, here we report an artificial engineering of a more efficient SMS variant by transferring sequence information from another organism. It is confirmed experimentally that the variant, bearing four amino acid substitutions, is catalytically more active than the wild type. The increased functionality is attributed to enhanced monomer stability, lowering the pKa of proton donor catalytic residue, optimized spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential around the SMS with respect to substrates, and increase of the frequency of mechanical vibration of the clefts presumed to be the gates toward the active sites. The study demonstrates that wild type SMS is not particularly evolutionarily optimized with respect to the reaction spermidine → spermine. Having in mind that currently there are no variations (non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, nsSNP) detected in healthy individuals, it can be speculated that the human SMS function is precisely tuned toward its wild type and any deviation is unwanted and disease-causing.

  3. Combination PI3K/MEK inhibition promotes tumor apoptosis and regression in PIK3CA wild-type, KRAS mutant colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Jatin; Sinnamon, Mark J.; Coffee, Erin M.; Belmont, Peter; Keung, Lily; Georgeon-Richard, Larissa; Wang, Wei Vivian; Faber, Anthony C.; Yun, Jihye; Yilmaz, Omer H.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Martin, Eric S.; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Hung, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    PI3K inhibition in combination with other agents has not been studied in the context of PIK3CA wild-type, KRAS mutant cancer. In a screen of phospho-kinases, PI3K inhibition of KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells activated the MAPK pathway. Combination PI3K/MEK inhibition with NVP-BKM120 and PD-0325901 induced tumor regression in a mouse model of PIK3CA wild-type, KRAS mutant colorectal cancer, which was mediated by inhibition of mTORC1, inhibition of MCL-1, and activation of BIM. These findings implicate mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic mechanisms as determinants for the efficacy of PI3K/MEK inhibition in the treatment of PIK3CA wild-type, KRAS mutant cancer. PMID:24576621

  4. Differential response to 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) in non-small cell lung cancer cells with distinct oncogene mutations1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuhong; Kanterewicz, Beatriz; Shoemaker, Suzanne; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Atwood, Kristopher; Hershberger, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and primary human lung tumors aberrantly express the vitamin D3-catabolizing enzyme, CYP24, and that CYP24 restricts transcriptional regulation and growth control by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in NSCLC cells. To ascertain the basis for CYP24 dysregulation, we assembled a panel of cell lines that represent distinct molecular classes of lung cancer: Cell lines were selected which harbored mutually exclusive mutations in either the K-ras or the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) genes. We observed that K-ras mutant lines displayed a basal vitamin D receptor (VDR)lowCYP24high phenotype, whereas EGFR mutant lines had a VDRhighCYP24low phenotype. A mutation-associated difference in CYP24 expression was also observed in clinical specimens. Specifically, K-ras mutation was associated with a median 4.2-fold increase in CYP24 mRNA expression (p = 4.8 × 10−7) compared to EGFR mutation in a series of 147 primary lung adenocarcinoma cases. Because of their differential basal expression of VDR and CYP24, we hypothesized that NSCLC cells with an EGFR mutation would be more responsive to 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment than those with a K-ras mutation. To test this, we measured the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to increase reporter gene activity, induce transcription of endogenous target genes, and suppress colony formation. In each assay, the extent of 1,25(OH)2D3 response was greater in EGFR mutation-positive HCC827 and H1975 cells than in K-ras mutation-positive A549 and 128.88T cells. We subsequently examined the effect of combining 1,25(OH)2D3 with erlotinib, which is used clinically in the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. 1,25(OH)2D3/erlotinib combination resulted in significantly greater growth inhibition than either single agent in both the erlotinib-sensitive HCC827 cell line and the erlotinib-resistant H1975 cell line. These data are the first to suggest that EGFR mutations may

  5. Activating mutations and senescence secretome: new insights into HER2 activation, drug sensitivity and metastatic progression.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Swarnali

    2013-04-23

    HER2 amplification and overexpression is observed in approximately 20% of breast cancers and is strongly associated with poor prognosis and therapeutic responsiveness to HER2 targeted agents. A recent study by Bose and colleagues suggests that another subset of breast cancer patients without HER2 amplification but with activating HER2 mutation might also benefit from existing HER2-targeted agents and the authors functionally characterize these somatic mutations in experimental models. In a second study on HER2-driven breast cancer, Angelini and colleagues investigate how the constitutively active, truncated carboxy-terminal fragment of HER2, p95HER2, promotes metastatic progression through non-cellautonomous secretion of factors from senescent cells. These new findings advance our understanding of HER2 biology in the context of HER2 activation as well as offer new insights into our understanding of drug sensitivity and metastatic progression.

  6. Panitumumab as a radiosensitizing agent in KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mardjuadi, Feby Ingriani; Carrasco, Javier; Coche, Jean-Charles; Sempoux, Christine; Jouret-Mourin, Anne; Scalliet, Pierre; Goeminne, Jean-Charles; Daisne, Jean-François; Delaunoit, Thierry; Vuylsteke, Peter; Humblet, Yves; Meert, Nicolas; van den Eynde, Marc; Moxhon, Anne; Haustermans, Karin; Canon, Jean-Luc; Machiels, Jean-Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Our goal was to optimize the radiosensitizing potential of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies, when given concomitantly with preoperative radiotherapy in KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Based on pre-clinical studies conducted by our group, we designed a phase II trial in which panitumumab (6 mg/kg/q2 weeks) was combined with preoperative radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) to treat cT3-4/N + KRAS wild-type LARC. The primary endpoint was complete pathologic response (pCR) (H0 = 5%, H1 = 17%, α = 0.05, β = 0.2). From 19 enrolled patients, 17 (89%) were evaluable for pathology assessment. Although no pCR was observed, seven patients (41%) had grade 3 Dworak pathological tumor regression. The regimen was safe and was associated with 95% of sphincter-preservation rate. No NRAS, BRAF, or PI3KCA mutation was found in this study, but one patient (5%) showed loss of PTEN expression. The quantification of plasma EGFR ligands during treatment showed significant upregulation of plasma TGF-α and EGF following panitumumab administration (p < 0.05). At surgery, patients with important pathological regression (grade 3 Dworak) had higher plasma TGF-α (p = 0.03) but lower plasma EGF (p = 0.003) compared to those with grade 0-2 Dworak. Our study suggests that concomitant panitumumab and preoperative radiotherapy in KRAS wild-type LARC is feasible and results in some tumor regression. However, pCR rate remained modest. Given that the primary endpoint of our study was not reached, we remain unable to recommend the use of panitumumab as a radiosensitizer in KRAS wild-type LARC outside a research setting.

  7. K-Ras and cyclooxygenase-2 coactivation augments intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and Notch1 mimicking human pancreas lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chiblak, Sara; Steinbauer, Brigitte; Pohl-Arnold, Andrea; Kucher, Dagmar; Abdollahi, Amir; Schwager, Christian; Höft, Birgit; Esposito, Irene; Müller-Decker, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Mutational activation of K-Ras is an initiating event of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) that may develop either from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is causally related to pancreatic carcinogenesis. Here, we deciphered the impact of COX-2, a key modulator of inflammation, in concert with active mutant K-RasG12D on tumor burden and gene expression signature using compound mutant mouse lines. Concomitant activation of COX-2 and K-RasG12D accelerated the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial lesions predominantly with a cystic papillary phenotype resembling human IPMN. Transcriptomes derived from laser capture microdissected preneoplastic lesions of single and compound mutants revealed a signature that was significantly enriched in Notch1 signaling components. In vitro, Notch1 signaling was COX-2-dependent. In line with these findings, human IPMN stratified into intestinal, gastric and pancreatobillary types displayed Notch1 immunosignals with high prevalence, especially in the gastric lesions. In conclusion, a yet unknown link between activated Ras, protumorigenic COX-2 and Notch1 in IPMN onset was unraveled. PMID:27381829

  8. Somatic mutations of the HER2 in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xue; Gao, Yinqi; Wang, Jing

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) in lung cancers predict for sensitivity to EGFR kinase inhibitors. HER2 (also known as NEU, EGFR2, or ERBB2) is a member of the EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases and plays important roles in the pathogenesis of certain human cancers, and mutations have recently been reported in lung cancers. We sequenced the full length of HER2 in 198 metastatic breast cancers (MBC) as well as 34 other epithelial cancers (bladder, prostate, and colorectal cancers) and compared the mutational status with clinic pathologic features and the presence of EGFR or KRAS mutations. HER2 mutations were present in 11.6 % (23 of 198) of MBC and were absent in other types of cancers. HER2 mutations were located in exon 15 and the in-frame insertions in exon 20 with corresponding region as did EGFR insertions. HER2 mutations were significantly more frequent in patient after the administration of trastuzumab (34.8 %, 8 of 23; P = 0.02). Mutations in exon 15 and 20 were more potent than wild-type HER2 in associating with activating signal transducers and inducing survival, invasiveness, and tumorigenicity.

  9. Dominance and interloci interactions in transcriptional activation cascades: models explaining compensatory mutations and inheritance patterns.

    PubMed

    Bost, Bruno; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in human genes encoding transcription factors are often dominant because one active allele cannot ensure a normal phenotype (haploinsufficiency). In other instances, heterozygous mutations of two genes are required for a phenotype to appear (combined haploinsufficiency). Here, we explore with models (i) the basis of haploinsufficiency and combined haploinsufficiency owing to mutations in transcription activators, and (ii) how the effects of such mutations can be amplified or buffered by subsequent steps in a transcription cascade. We propose that the non-linear (sigmoidal) response of transcription to the concentration of activators can explain haploinsufficiency. We further show that the sigmoidal character of the output of a cascade increases with the number of steps involved, the settings of which will determine the buffering or enhancement of the effects of a decreased concentration of an upstream activator. This exploration provides insights into the bases of compensatory mutations and on interloci interactions underlying oligogenic inheritance patterns.

  10. Activating HER2 mutations in HER2 gene amplification negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Ron; Kavuri, Shyam M.; Searleman, Adam C.; Shen, Wei; Shen, Dong; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Monsey, John; Goel, Nicholas; Aronson, Adam B.; Li, Shunqiang; Ma, Cynthia X.; Ding, Li; Mardis, Elaine R.; Ellis, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Data from eight breast cancer genome sequencing projects identified 25 patients with HER2 somatic mutations in cancers lacking HER2 gene amplification. To determine the phenotype of these mutations, we functionally characterized thirteen HER2 mutations using in vitro kinase assays, protein structure analysis, cell culture and xenograft experiments. Seven of these mutations are activating mutations, including G309A, D769H, D769Y, V777L, P780ins, V842I, and R896C. HER2 in-frame deletion 755-759, which is homologous to EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletions, had a neomorphic phenotype with increased phosphorylation of EGFR or HER3. L755S produced lapatinib resistance, but was not an activating mutation in our experimental systems. All of these mutations were sensitive to the irreversible kinase inhibitor, neratinib. These findings demonstrate that HER2 somatic mutation is an alternative mechanism to activate HER2 in breast cancer and they validate HER2 somatic mutations as drug targets for breast cancer treatment. PMID:23220880

  11. Suppressor Mutations for Presenilin 1 Familial Alzheimer Disease Mutants Modulate γ-Secretase Activities.

    PubMed

    Futai, Eugene; Osawa, Satoko; Cai, Tetsuo; Fujisawa, Tomoya; Ishiura, Shoichi; Tomita, Taisuke

    2016-01-01

    γ-Secretase is a multisubunit membrane protein complex containing presenilin (PS1) as a catalytic subunit. Familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) mutations within PS1 were analyzed in yeast cells artificially expressing membrane-bound substrate, amyloid precursor protein, or Notch fused to Gal4 transcriptional activator. The FAD mutations, L166P and G384A (Leu-166 to Pro and Gly-384 to Ala substitution, respectively), were loss-of-function in yeast. We identified five amino acid substitutions that suppress the FAD mutations. The cleavage of amyloid precursor protein or Notch was recovered by the secondary mutations. We also found that secondary mutations alone activated the γ-secretase activity. FAD mutants with suppressor mutations, L432M or S438P within TMD9 together with a missense mutation in the second or sixth loops, regained γ-secretase activity when introduced into presenilin null mouse fibroblasts. Notably, the cells with suppressor mutants produced a decreased amount of Aβ42, which is responsible for Alzheimer disease. These results indicate that the yeast system is useful to screen for mutations and chemicals that modulate γ-secretase activity.

  12. An active site mutation increases the polymerase activity of the guinea pig-lethal Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Alexander; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Becker, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) causes severe, often fatal, disease in humans and transient illness in rodents. Sequential passaging of MARV in guinea pigs resulted in selection of a lethal virus containing 4 aa changes. A D184N mutation in VP40 (VP40D184N), which leads to a species-specific gain of viral fitness, and three mutations in the active site of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L, which were investigated in the present study for functional significance in human and guinea pig cells. The transcription/replication activity of L mutants was strongly enhanced by a substitution at position 741 (S741C), and inhibited by other substitutions (D758A and A759D) in both species. The polymerase activity of L carrying the S741C substitution was eightfold higher in guinea pig cells than in human cells upon co-expression with VP40D184N, suggesting that the additive effect of the two mutations provides MARV a replicative advantage in the new host.

  13. Clinical activity of regorafenib in PDGFRA-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Grellety, Thomas; Kind, Michèle; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Italiano, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most frequent mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract and one of the most frequent sarcoma. Mutually exclusive KIT and PDGFRA mutations are central events in GIST pathogenesis, and their understanding is crucial because specific treatment targeting oncogenic KIT and PDGFRA activation (especially imatinib) has become available. The most frequent PDGFRA mutation (D842V) is associated with primary resistance to imatinib. Data related to regorafenib efficacy in PDGFRA-mutated GIST are lacking. We report here a case report of a prolonged response with regorafenib in a patient with a PDGFRA-mutated GIST.

  14. Alanine-Scanning Mutational Analysis of Durancin GL Reveals Residues Important for Its Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xingrong; Chen, Xinquan; Du, Lihui; Wu, Xueyou; Liu, Fang; Yuan, Jian

    2015-07-22

    Durancin GL is a novel class IIa bacteriocin with 43 residues produced by Enterococcus durans 41D. This bacteriocin demonstrates narrow inhibition spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against several Listeria monocytogenes strains, including nisin-resistant L. monocytogenes NR30. A systematic alanine-scanning mutational analysis with site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze durancin GL residues important for antimicrobial activity and specificity. Results showed that three mutations lost their antimicrobial activity, ten mutations demonstrated a decreased effect on the activity, and seven mutations exhibited relatively high activity. With regard to inhibitory spectrum, four mutants demonstrated a narrower antimicrobial spectrum than wild-type durancin GL. Another four mutants displayed a broader target cell spectrum and increased potency relative to wild-type durancin GL. These findings broaden our understanding of durancin GL residues important for its antimicrobial activity and contribute to future rational design of variants with increased potency.

  15. Oncogenic KRAS Regulates Tumor Cell Signaling via Stromal Reciprocation

    PubMed Central

    Tape, Christopher J.; Ling, Stephanie; Dimitriadi, Maria; McMahon, Kelly M.; Worboys, Jonathan D.; Leong, Hui Sun; Norrie, Ida C.; Miller, Crispin J.; Poulogiannis, George; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oncogenic mutations regulate signaling within both tumor cells and adjacent stromal cells. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS (KRASG12D) also regulates tumor cell signaling via stromal cells. By combining cell-specific proteome labeling with multivariate phosphoproteomics, we analyzed heterocellular KRASG12D signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Tumor cell KRASG12D engages heterotypic fibroblasts, which subsequently instigate reciprocal signaling in the tumor cells. Reciprocal signaling employs additional kinases and doubles the number of regulated signaling nodes from cell-autonomous KRASG12D. Consequently, reciprocal KRASG12D produces a tumor cell phosphoproteome and total proteome that is distinct from cell-autonomous KRASG12D alone. Reciprocal signaling regulates tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and increases mitochondrial capacity via an IGF1R/AXL-AKT axis. These results demonstrate that oncogene signaling should be viewed as a heterocellular process and that our existing cell-autonomous perspective underrepresents the extent of oncogene signaling in cancer. Video Abstract PMID:27087446

  16. Mutational profiling of second primary lung cancers in patients who have received radiation for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Bond, David Alan; Dunavin, Neil; Otterson, Gregory Alan

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer (LC) represents the most common solid tumor in survivors of Hodgkin's disease (HD), and the assessment of the mutational status of oncogenic driver mutations in LC is now standard. We compiled clinical and mutation data (EGFR, KRAS, and ALK) from the medical records of patients with LC and a remote history of HD. 13 cases of LC following HD were seen, including seven with mutational data. Two had EGFR mutations, none had KRAS mutations or ALK translocations. Our conclusions are limited by the small sample size, however this report reinforces the need to identify driver mutations in lung cancers.

  17. Randomized study of FOLFIRI plus either panitumumab or bevacizumab for wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer-WJOG 6210G.

    PubMed

    Shitara, Kohei; Yonesaka, Kimio; Denda, Tadamichi; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Moriwaki, Toshikazu; Tsuda, Masahiro; Takano, Toshimi; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Nishina, Tomohiro; Sakai, Kazuko; Nishio, Kazuto; Tokunaga, Shoji; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Boku, Narikazu; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Muro, Kei

    2016-12-01

    This randomized phase II trial compared panitumumab plus fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI as second-line chemotherapy for wild-type (WT) KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and to explore the values of oncogenes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and serum proteins as predictive biomarkers. Patients with WT KRAS exon 2 mCRC refractory to first-line chemotherapy containing oxaliplatin and bevacizumab were randomly assigned to panitumumab plus FOLFIRI or bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI. Of 121 randomly assigned patients, 117 were eligible. Median overall survival (OS) for panitumumab plus FOLFIRI and bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI were 16.2 and 13.4 months [hazard ratio (HR), 1.16; 95% CI, 0.76-1.77], respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) was also similar (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.78-1.66). KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF status using ctDNA was successfully examined in 109 patients, and mutations were identified in 19 patients (17.4%). Panitumumab plus FOLFIRI showed favorable survival compared with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI in WT patients and unfavorable survival in those with mutations (P for interaction = 0.026 in OS and 0.054 in PFS). OS with bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI was better than panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with high serum vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) levels and worse in those with low levels (P for interaction = 0.016). Second-line FOLFIRI plus panitumumab and FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab showed a similar efficacy in patients with WT KRAS exon 2 mCRC. RAS and BRAF mutation in ctDNA could be a negative predictive marker for panitumumab.

  18. Down-regulation of let-7 microRNA increased K-ras expression in lung damage induced by radon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihai; Wang, Dapeng; Gu, Chao; Liu, Xing; Pei, Weiwei; Li, Jianxiang; Cao, Yi; Jiao, Yang; Tong, Jian; Nie, Jihua

    2015-09-01

    Radon has long been recognized as a human carcinogen leading to lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent studies have shown that the let-7 microRNA and K-ras play an important role in the development of various cancers. However, the exact role between let-7 and K-ras in radon induced lung damage has not been explored so far. In the present study, wistar rats and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were long-term exposed to radon, and then alterations in histological pathology of rat lung tissue, ROS, antioxidant enzymes activities and clonogenic formation in HBE cells, as well as changes in let-7 and K-ras expression were determined to observe the adverse effects induced by radon. The results showed that long-term exposure to radon produced severe lung damage in rats, significantly increased ROS production and clonogenic formation ratios and decreased SOD activities in HBE cells. In addition, an obvious down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of K-ras were also revealed both in mRNA and in protein level in lung tissue of rats and HBE cells exposed to radon. Furthermore, a significant down-regulation of K-ras was then confirmed in both let-7b-3p and let-7a-2-3p transfected HBE cells. Taken together, the present results propose an involvement of let-7 microRNA and K-ras in radon induced lung damage both in vivo and in vitro, which may thus be of potential value in early diagnosis and therapy of radon-induced lung tumorgenesis.

  19. Inactivation of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 e3 ubiquitin ligase triggers senescence and inhibits kras-induced immortalization.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mingjia; Li, Hua; Sun, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study showed that SAG/RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates apoptosis and vasculogenesis by promoting degradation of NOXA and NF1, and co-operates with Kras to promote lung tumorigenesis by activating NFκB and mTOR pathways via targeted degradation of tumor suppressive substrates including IκB, DEPTOR, p21 and p27. Here we investigated the role of Sag/Rbx2 E3 ligase in cellular senescence and immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and report that Sag is required for proper cell proliferation and Kras(G12D)-induced immortalization. Sag inactivation by genetic deletion remarkably suppresses cell proliferation by inducing senescence, which is associated with accumulation of p16, but not p53. Mechanistically, Sag deletion caused accumulation of Jun-B, a substrate of Sag-Fbxw7 E3 ligase and a transcription factor that drives p16 transcription. Importantly, senescence triggered by Sag deletion can be largely rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a, the p16 encoding gene, indicating its causal role. Furthermore, Kras(G12D)-induced immortalization can also be abrogated by Sag deletion via senescence induction, which is again rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a. Finally, we found that Sag deletion inactivates Kras(G12D) activity and block the MAPK signaling pathway, together with accumulated p16, to induce senescence. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Sag is a Kras(G12D)-cooperating oncogene required for Kras(G12D)-induced immortalization and transformation, and targeting SAG-SCF E3 ligase may, therefore, have therapeutic value for senescence-based cancer treatment.

  20. Inactivation of Sag/Rbx2/Roc2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Triggers Senescence and Inhibits Kras-Induced Immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Mingjia; Li, Hua; Sun, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study showed that SAG/RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates apoptosis and vasculogenesis by promoting degradation of NOXA and NF1, and co-operates with Kras to promote lung tumorigenesis by activating NFκB and mTOR pathways via targeted degradation of tumor suppressive substrates including IκB, DEPTOR, p21 and p27. Here we investigated the role of Sag/Rbx2 E3 ligase in cellular senescence and immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and report that Sag is required for proper cell proliferation and KrasG12D-induced immortalization. Sag inactivation by genetic deletion remarkably suppresses cell proliferation by inducing senescence, which is associated with accumulation of p16, but not p53. Mechanistically, Sag deletion caused accumulation of Jun-B, a substrate of Sag-Fbxw7 E3 ligase and a transcription factor that drives p16 transcription. Importantly, senescence triggered by Sag deletion can be largely rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a, the p16 encoding gene, indicating its causal role. Furthermore, KrasG12D-induced immortalization can also be abrogated by Sag deletion via senescence induction, which is again rescued by simultaneous deletion of Cdkn2a. Finally, we found that Sag deletion inactivates KrasG12D activity and block the MAPK signaling pathway, together with accumulated p16, to induce senescence. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Sag is a KrasG12D-cooperating oncogene required for KrasG12D-induced immortalization and transformation, and targeting SAG-SCF E3 ligase may, therefore, have therapeutic value for senescence-based cancer treatment. PMID:25622904

  1. The pancreatitis-associated protein VMP1, a key regulator of inducible autophagy, promotes KrasG12D-mediated pancreatic cancer initiation

    PubMed Central

    Loncle, C; Molejon, M I; Lac, S; Tellechea, J I; Lomberk, G; Gramatica, L; Fernandez Zapico, M F; Dusetti, N; Urrutia, R; Iovanna, J L

    2016-01-01

    Both clinical and experimental evidence have firmly established that chronic pancreatitis, in particular in the context of Kras oncogenic mutations, predisposes to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the repertoire of molecular mediators of pancreatitis involved in Kras-mediated initiation of pancreatic carcinogenesis remains to be fully defined. In this study we demonstrate a novel role for vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1), a pancreatitis-associated protein critical for inducible autophagy, in the regulation of Kras-induced PDAC initiation. Using a newly developed genetically engineered model, we demonstrate that VMP1 increases the ability of Kras to give rise to preneoplastic lesions, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs). This promoting effect of VMP1 on PanIN formation is due, at least in part, by an increase in cell proliferation combined with a decrease in apoptosis. Using chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy, we show that this drug antagonizes the effect of VMP1 on PanIN formation. Thus, we conclude that VMP1-mediated autophagy cooperate with Kras to promote PDAC initiation. These findings are of significant medical relevance, molecules targeting autophagy are currently being tested along chemotherapeutic agents to treat PDAC and other tumors in human trials. PMID:27415425

  2. Mutations inducing an active-site aperture in Rhizobium sp. sucrose isomerase confer hydrolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Alexandra; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Robert, Xavier; Rhimi, Moez; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2013-02-01

    Sucrose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of sucrose isomers of high biotechnological and pharmaceutical interest. Owing to the complexity of the chemical synthesis of these isomers, isomaltulose and trehalulose, enzymatic conversion remains the preferred method for obtaining these products. Depending on the microbial source, the ratio of the sucrose-isomer products varies significantly. In studies aimed at understanding and explaining the underlying molecular mechanisms of these reactions, mutations obtained using a random-mutagenesis approach displayed a major hydrolytic activity. Two of these variants, R284C and F164L, of sucrose isomerase from Rhizobium sp. were therefore crystallized and their crystal structures were determined. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants allowed the identification of the molecular determinants that favour hydrolytic activity compared with transferase activity. Substantial conformational changes resulting in an active-site opening were observed, as were changes in the pattern of water molecules bordering the active-site region.

  3. Early recognition of lung cancer by integrin targeted imaging in K-ras mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ermolayev, Vladimir; Mohajerani, Pouyan; Ale, Angelique; Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Aichler, Michaela; Kayser, Gian; Walch, Axel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-09-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer is characterized by slow progression and high heterogeneity of tumors. Integrins play an important role in lung cancer development and metastasis and were suggested as a tumor marker; however their role in anticancer therapy remains controversial. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of integrin-targeted imaging to recognize early lesions in transgenic mouse model of lung cancer based on spontaneous introduction of mutated human gene bearing K-ras mutation. We conducted ex vivo and fluorescence molecular tomography-X-ray computed tomography (FMT-XCT) in vivo imaging and analysis for specific targeting of early lung lesions and tumors in rodent preclinical model for lung cancer. The lesions and tumors were characterized by histology, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using a panel of cancer markers. Ex vivo, the integrin-targeted fluorescent signal significantly differed between wild type lung tissue and K-ras pulmonary lesions (PL) at all ages studied. The panel of immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that PL, which only partially show cancer cell features were detected by αvβ3-integrin targeted imaging. Human patient material analysis confirmed the specificity of target localization in different lung cancer types. Most importantly, small tumors in the lungs of 4-week-old animals could be noninvasively detected in vivo on the fluorescence channel of FMT-XCT. Our findings demonstrated αvβ3-integrin targeted fluorescent imaging to specifically detect premalignant pleural lesions in K-ras mice. Integrin targeted imaging may find application areas in preclinical research and clinical practice, such as early lung cancer diagnostics, intraoperative assistance or therapy monitoring.

  4. A phase 3 trial evaluating panitumumab plus best supportive care vs best supportive care in chemorefractory wild-type KRAS or RAS metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Won; Elme, Anneli; Kusic, Zvonko; Park, Joon Oh; Udrea, Anghel Adrian; Kim, Sun Young; Ahn, Joong Bae; Valencia, Ricardo Villalobos; Krishnan, Srinivasan; Bilic, Ante; Manojlovic, Nebojsa; Dong, Jun; Guan, Xuesong; Lofton-Day, Catherine; Jung, A Scott; Vrdoljak, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed the treatment effect of panitumumab plus best supportive care (BSC) vs BSC on overall survival (OS) in patients with chemorefractory wild-type KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and report the first prospective extended RAS analysis in a phase 3 trial. Methods: Patients with wild-type KRAS exon 2 mCRC were randomised 1 : 1 to panitumumab (6 mg kg−1 Q2W) plus BSC or BSC. On-study crossover was prohibited. RAS mutation status was determined by central laboratory testing. The primary endpoint was OS in wild-type KRAS exon 2 mCRC; OS in wild-type RAS mCRC (KRAS and NRAS exons 2, 3, and 4) was a secondary endpoint. Results: Three hundred seventy seven patients with wild-type KRAS exon 2 mCRC were randomised. Median OS was 10.0 months with panitumumab plus BSC vs 7.4 months with BSC (HR=0.73; 95% CI=0.57–0.93; P=0.0096). RAS ascertainment was 86%. In wild-type RAS mCRC, median OS for panitumumab plus BSC was 10.0 vs 6.9 months for BSC (HR=0.70; 95% CI=0.53–0.93; P=0.0135). Patients with RAS mutations did not benefit from panitumumab (OS HR=0.99; 95% CI=0.49–2.00). No new safety signals were observed. Conclusions: Panitumumab significantly improved OS in wild-type KRAS exon 2 mCRC. The effect was more pronounced in wild-type RAS mCRC, validating previous retrospective analyses. PMID:27736842

  5. SHP-2 phosphatase contributes to KRAS-driven intestinal oncogenesis but prevents colitis-associated cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Gagné-Sansfaçon, Jessica; Coulombe, Geneviève; Langlois, Marie-Josée; Langlois, Ariane; Paquet, Marilene; Carrier, Julie; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Qu, Cheng-Kui; Rivard, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A major risk factor of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) is the presence of chronic inflammation in the colon. In order to understand how inflammation contributes to CRC development, the present study focused on SHP-2, a tyrosine phosphatase encoded by PTPN11 gene in which polymorphisms have been shown to be markers of colitis susceptibility. Conversely, gain-of-function mutations in PTPN11 gene (E76 residue) have been found in certain sporadic CRC. Results shown herein demonstrate that SHP-2 expression was markedly increased in sporadic human adenomas but not in advanced colorectal tumors. SHP-2 silencing inhibited proliferative, invasive and tumoral properties of both intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) transformed by oncogenic KRAS and of human CRC cells. IEC-specific expression of a SHP-2E76K activated mutant in mice was not sufficient to induce tumorigenesis but markedly promoted tumor growth under the ApcMin/+ background. Conversely, mice with a conditional deletion of SHP-2 in IECs developed colitis-associated adenocarcinomas with age, associated with sustained activation of Wnt/β-catenin, NFκB and STAT3 signalings in the colonic mucosae. Moreover, SHP-2 epithelial deficiency considerably increased tumor load in ApcMin/+ mice, shifting tumor incidence toward the colon. Overall, these results reveal that SHP-2 can exert opposing functions in the large intestine: it can promote or inhibit tumorigenesis depending of the inflammatory context. PMID:27582544

  6. Inhibition of Chronic Pancreatitis and Murine Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by a Dual Inhibitor of c-RAF and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx-1-Cre Mice

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, JIE; HWANG, SUNG HEE; LI, HAONAN; LIU, JUN-YAN; HAMMOCK, BRUCE D.; YANG, GUANG-YU

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the process of long-standing chronic inflammation, aberrant metabolites of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in promoting carcinogenesis, in which the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we determined the effect of our newly-synthesized novel compound trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM), a dual inhibitor of sEH and RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (c-RAF), on inhibiting the development of pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx1-Cre mice. The results showed that t-CUPM significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis, as measured by the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The progression of low-grade mPanIN I to high-grade mPanIN II/III was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase’s kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases was demonstrated in pancreatic tissues by western blots. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that t-CUPM treatment significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis facor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the levels of Sonic hedgehog and Gli transcription factor (Hedgehog pathway). Analysis of the eicosanoid profile revealed a significant increase of the EETs/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio, which further confirmed sEH inhibition by t-CUPM. These results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of sEH and c-RAF by t-CUPM is important in preventing chronic pancreatitis and carcinogenesis

  7. Cancer stem cell drugs target K-ras signaling in a stemness context

    PubMed Central

    Najumudeen, A K; Jaiswal, A; Lectez, B; Oetken-Lindholm, C; Guzmán, C; Siljamäki, E; Posada, I M D; Lacey, E; Aittokallio, T; Abankwa, D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be responsible for treatment relapse and have therefore become a major target in cancer research. Salinomycin is the most established CSC inhibitor. However, its primary mechanistic target is still unclear, impeding the discovery of compounds with similar anti-CSC activity. Here, we show that salinomycin very specifically interferes with the activity of K-ras4B, but not H-ras, by disrupting its nanoscale membrane organization. We found that caveolae negatively regulate the sensitivity to this drug. On the basis of this novel mechanistic insight, we defined a K-ras-associated and stem cell-derived gene expression signature that predicts the drug response of cancer cells to salinomycin. Consistent with therapy resistance of CSC, 8% of tumor samples in the TCGA-database displayed our signature and were associated with a significantly higher mortality. Using our K-ras-specific screening platform, we identified several new candidate CSC drugs. Two of these, ophiobolin A and conglobatin A, possessed a similar or higher potency than salinomycin. Finally, we established that the most potent compound, ophiobolin A, exerts its K-ras4B-specific activity through inactivation of calmodulin. Our data suggest that specific interference with the K-ras4B/calmodulin interaction selectively inhibits CSC. PMID:26973241

  8. Gain-Of-Function Mutational Activation of Human TRNA Synthetase Procytokine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.L.; Kapoor, M.; Otero, F.J.; Slike, B.M.; Tsuruta, H.; Frausto, R.; Bates, A.; Ewalt, K.L.; Cheresh, D.A.; Schimmel, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Disease-causing mutations occur in genes for aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. That some mutations are dominant suggests a gain of function. Native tRNA synthetases, such as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, catalyze aminoacylation and are also procytokines that are activated by natural fragmentation. In principle, however, gain-of-function phenotypes could arise from mutational activation of synthetase procytokines. From crystal structure analysis, we hypothesized that a steric block of a critical Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif in full-length TyrRS suppresses the cytokine activity of a natural fragment. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to uncover ELR in the procytokine by mutating a conserved tyrosine (Y341) that tethers ELR. Site-specific proteolytic cleavage and small-angle X-ray scattering established subtle opening of the structure by the mutation. Strikingly, four different assays demonstrated mutational activation of cytokine functions. The results prove the possibilities for constitutive gain-of-function mutations in tRNA synthetases.

  9. Balancing protein stability and activity in cancer: a new approach for identifying driver mutations affecting CBL ubiquitin ligase activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghui; Kales, Stephen C.; Ma, Ke; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Crespo-Barreto, Juan; Cangelosi, Andrew L.; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the monomeric Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) gene have been found in many tumors, but their significance remains largely unknown. Several human c-Cbl (CBL) structures have recently been solved depicting the protein at different stages of its activation cycle and thus provide mechanistic insight underlying how stability-activity tradeoffs in cancer-related proteins may influence disease onset and progression. In this study, we computationally modeled the effects of missense cancer mutations on structures representing four stages of the CBL activation cycle to identify driver mutations that affect CBL stability, binding, and activity. We found that recurrent, homozygous, and leukemia-specific mutations had greater destabilizing effects on CBL states than did random non-cancer mutations. We further tested the ability of these computational models assessing the changes in CBL stability and its binding to ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2, by performing blind CBL-mediated EGFR ubiquitination assays in cells. Experimental CBL ubiquitin ligase activity was in agreement with the predicted changes in CBL stability and, to a lesser extent, with CBL-E2 binding affinity. Two-thirds of all experimentally tested mutations affected the ubiquitin ligase activity by either destabilizing CBL or disrupting CBL-E2 binding, whereas about one-third of tested mutations were found to be neutral. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that computational methods incorporating multiple protein conformations and stability and binding affinity evaluations can successfully predict the functional consequences of cancer mutations on protein activity, and provide a proof of concept for mutations in CBL. PMID:26676746

  10. Effect of the G375C and G346E achondroplasia mutations on FGFR3 activation.

    PubMed

    He, Lijuan; Serrano, Christopher; Niphadkar, Nitish; Shobnam, Nadia; Hristova, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    Two mutations in FGFR3, G380R and G375C are known to cause achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism. The G380R mutation accounts for 98% of the achondroplasia cases, and thus has been studied extensively. Here we study the effect of the G375C mutation on the phosphorylation and the cross-linking propensity of full-length FGFR3 in HEK 293 cells, and we compare the results to previously published results for the G380R mutant. We observe identical behavior of the two achondroplasia mutants in these experiments, a finding which supports a direct link between the severity of dwarfism phenotypes and the level and mechanism of FGFR3 over-activation. The mutations do not increase the cross-linking propensity of FGFR3, contrary to previous expectations that the achondroplasia mutations stabilize the FGFR3 dimers. Instead, the phosphorylation efficiency within un-liganded FGFR3 dimers is increased, and this increase is likely the underlying cause for pathogenesis in achondroplasia. We further investigate the G346E mutation, which has been reported to cause achondroplasia in one case. We find that this mutation does not increase FGFR3 phosphorylation and decreases FGFR3 cross-linking propensity, a finding which raises questions whether this mutation is indeed a genetic cause for human dwarfism.

  11. Blocking anaplerotic entry of glutamine into the TCA cycle sensitizes K-Ras mutant cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Saqcena, M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Hosny, C; Alhamed, A; Chatterjee, A; Foster, D A

    2015-05-14

    Cancer cells undergo a metabolic transformation that allows for increased anabolic demands, wherein glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates are shunted away for the synthesis of biological molecules required for cell growth and division. One of the key shunts is the exit of citrate from the mitochondria and the TCA cycle for the generation of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A that can be used for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. With the loss of mitochondrial citrate, cancer cells rely on the 'conditionally essential' amino acid glutamine (Q) as an anaplerotic carbon source for TCA cycle intermediates. Although Q deprivation causes G1 cell cycle arrest in non-transformed cells, its impact on the cancer cell cycle is not well characterized. We report here a correlation between bypass of the Q-dependent G1 checkpoint and cancer cells harboring K-Ras mutations. Instead of arresting in G1 in response to Q-deprivation, K-Ras-driven cancer cells arrest in either S- or G2/M-phase. Inhibition of K-Ras effector pathways was able to revert cells to G1 arrest upon Q deprivation. Blocking anaplerotic utilization of Q mimicked Q deprivation--causing S- and G2/M-phase arrest in K-Ras mutant cancer cells. Significantly, Q deprivation or suppression of anaplerotic Q utilization created synthetic lethality to the cell cycle phase-specific cytotoxic drugs, capecitabine and paclitaxel. These data suggest that disabling of the G1 Q checkpoint could represent a novel vulnerability of cancer cells harboring K-Ras and possibly other mutations that disable the Q-dependent checkpoint.

  12. Utilizing protein structure to identify non-random somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human cancer is caused by the accumulation of somatic mutations in tumor suppressors and oncogenes within the genome. In the case of oncogenes, recent theory suggests that there are only a few key “driver” mutations responsible for tumorigenesis. As there have been significant pharmacological successes in developing drugs that treat cancers that carry these driver mutations, several methods that rely on mutational clustering have been developed to identify them. However, these methods consider proteins as a single strand without taking their spatial structures into account. We propose an extension to current methodology that incorporates protein tertiary structure in order to increase our power when identifying mutation clustering. Results We have developed iPAC (identification of Protein Amino acid Clustering), an algorithm that identifies non-random somatic mutations in proteins while taking into account the three dimensional protein structure. By using the tertiary information, we are able to detect both novel clusters in proteins that are known to exhibit mutation clustering as well as identify clusters in proteins without evidence of clustering based on existing methods. For example, by combining the data in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer, our algorithm identifies new mutational clusters in well known cancer proteins such as KRAS and PI3KC α. Further, by utilizing the tertiary structure, our algorithm also identifies clusters in EGFR, EIF2AK2, and other proteins that are not identified by current methodology. The R package is available at: http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/2.12/bioc/html/iPAC.html. Conclusion Our algorithm extends the current methodology to identify oncogenic activating driver mutations by utilizing tertiary protein structure when identifying nonrandom somatic residue mutation clusters. PMID:23758891

  13. Targeting KRAS Oncogene in Colon Cancer Cells with 7-Carboxylate Indolo[3,2-b]quinoline Tri-Alkylamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Hugo; Martins, Ana Cláudia; Lavrado, João; Mendes, Eduarda; Francisco, Ana Paula; Santos, Sofia A.; Ohnmacht, Stephan A.; Kim, Nam-Soon; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.; Moreira, Rui; Neidle, Stephen; Borralho, Pedro M.; Paulo, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background A guanine-rich strand within the promoter of the KRAS gene can fold into an intra-molecular G-quadruplex structure (G4), which has an important role in the regulation of KRAS transcription. We have previously identified indolo[3,2-b]quinolines with a 7-carboxylate group and three alkylamine side chains (IQ3A) as effective G4 stabilizers and promising selective anticancer leads. Herein we investigated the anticancer mechanism of action of these compounds, which we hypothesized due to stabilization of the G4 sequence in the KRAS promoter and subsequent down-regulation of gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings IQ3A compounds showed greater stabilization of G4 compared to duplex DNA structures and reduced KRAS promoter activity in a dual luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, IQ3A compounds showed high anti-proliferative activity in HCT116 and SW620 colon cancer cells (IC50 < 2.69 μM), without eliciting cell death in non-malignant HEK293T human embryonic kidney, and human colon fibroblasts CCD18co. IQ3A compounds significantly reduced KRAS mRNA and protein steady-state levels at IC50 concentrations, and increased p53 protein steady-state levels and cell death by apoptosis in HCT116 cells (mut KRAS, wt p53). Furthermore, KRAS silencing in HCT116 p53 wild-type (p53(+/+)) and null (p53(-/-)) isogenic cell lines induced a higher level of cell death, and a higher IQ3A-induced cell death in HCT116 p53(+/+) compared to HCT116 p53(-/-). Conclusions Herein we provide evidence that G4 ligands such as IQ3A compounds can target G4 motifs present in KRAS promoter, down-regulate the expression of the mutant KRAS gene through inhibition of transcription and translation, and induce cell death by apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines. Thus, targeting KRAS at the genomic level with G4 ligands may be a new anticancer therapy strategy for colon cancer. PMID:26024321

  14. Recurrent mTORC1-activating RRAGC mutations in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Araf, Shamzah; Wilkins, Lucy; Castellano, Brian M.; Escudero-Ibarz, Leire; Al Seraihi, Ahad Fahad; Richter, Julia; Bernhart, Stephan H.; Efeyan, Alejo; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Clear, Andrew; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Bödör, Csaba; Quentmeier, Hilmar; Mansbridge, Christopher; Johnson, Peter; Davies, Andrew; Strefford, Jonathan C.; Packham, Graham; Barrans, Sharon; Jack, Andrew; Du, Ming-Qing; Calaminici, Maria; Lister, T. Andrew; Auer, Rebecca; Montoto, Silvia; Gribben, John G.; Siebert, Reiner; Chelala, Claude; Zoncu, Roberto; Sabatini, David M.; Fitzgibbon, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma is an incurable B-cell malignancy1 characterized by the t(14;18) and mutations in one or more components of the epigenome2,3. Whilst frequent gene mutations in signaling pathways, including JAK-STAT, NOTCH and NF-κB, have also been defined2-7, the spectrum of these mutations typically overlap with the closely-related diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL)6-13. A combination of discovery exome and extended targeted sequencing revealed recurrent somatic mutations in RRAGC uniquely enriched in FL patients (17%). More than half of the mutations preferentially co-occurred with ATP6V1B2 and ATP6AP1 mutations, components of the vacuolar H+-adenosine triphosphate ATPase (v-ATPase) known to be necessary for amino acid-induced mTORC1 activation. The RagC mutants increased raptor binding whilst rendering mTORC1 signaling resistant to amino acid deprivation. Collectively, the activating nature of the RRAGC mutations, their existence within the dominant clone and stability during disease progression supports their potential as an excellent candidate to be therapeutically exploited. PMID:26691987

  15. Perturbed Length–Dependent Activation in Human Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy With Missense Sarcomeric Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Vasco; Wijnker, Paul J.M.; Nijenkamp, Louise L.A.M.; Kuster, Diederik W.D.; Najafi, Aref; Witjas-Paalberends, E. Rosalie; Regan, Jessica A.; Boontje, Nicky; ten Cate, Folkert J.; Germans, Tjeerd; Carrier, Lucie; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon A.; Zaremba, Ruud; Foster, D. Brian; Murphy, Anne M.; Poggesi, Corrado; dos Remedios, Cris; Stienen, Ger J.M.; Ho, Carolyn Y.; Michels, Michelle; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2013-01-01

    Rationale High-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity has been proposed as trigger of disease pathogenesis in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) based on in vitro and transgenic mice studies. However, myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity depends on protein phosphorylation and muscle length, and at present, data in human are scarce. Objective To investigate whether high-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity and perturbed length-dependent activation are characteristics for human HCM with mutations in thick- and thin-filament proteins. Methods and Results Cardiac samples from patients with HCM harboring mutations in genes encoding thick (MYH7, MYBPC3) and thin (TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1) filament proteins were compared with sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and nonfailing donors. Cardiomyocyte force measurements showed higher myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity in all HCM samples and low phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA)-targets compared with donors. After exogenous PKA treatment, myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity was either similar (MYBPC3mut, TPM1mut, sarcomere mutation-negative HCM), higher (MYH7mut, TNNT2mut), or even significantly lower (TNNI3mut) compared with donors. Length-dependent activation was significantly smaller in all HCM than in donor samples. PKA treatment increased phosphorylation of PKA-targets in HCM myocardium and normalized length-dependent activation to donor values in sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and HCM with truncating MYBPC3 mutations, but not in HCM with missense mutations. Replacement of mutant by wild-type troponin in TNNT2mut and TNNI3mut corrected length-dependent activation to donor values. Conclusions High-myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity is a common characteristic of human HCM and partly reflects hypophosphorylation of PKA-targets compared with donors. Length-dependent sarcomere activation is perturbed by missense mutations, possibly via post-translational modifications other than PKA-hypophosphorylation or altered protein–protein interactions, and represents a

  16. An Activating Mutation in STAT3 Results in Neonatal Diabetes Through Reduced Insulin Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Velayos, Teresa; Martínez, Rosa; Alonso, Milagros; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Aguayo, Anibal; Camarero, Cristina; Urrutia, Inés; Martínez de LaPiscina, Idoia; Barrio, Raquel; Santin, Izortze; Castaño, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of diabetes diagnosed within the first 6 months of life. Genetic studies have allowed the identification of several genes linked to the development of NDM; however, genetic causes for ∼20% of the cases remain to be clarified. Most cases of NDM involve isolated diabetes, but sometimes NDM appears in association with other pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases. Recent reports have linked activating mutations in STAT3 with early-onset autoimmune disorders that include diabetes of autoimmune origin, but the functional impact of STAT3-activating mutations have not been characterized at the pancreatic β-cell level. By using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel missense mutation in the binding domain of the STAT3 protein in a patient with NDM. The functional analyses showed that the mutation results in an aberrant activation of STAT3, leading to deleterious downstream effects in pancreatic β-cells. The identified mutation leads to hyperinhibition of the transcription factor Isl-1 and, consequently, to a decrease in insulin expression. These findings represent the first functional indication of a direct link between an NDM-linked activating mutation in STAT3 and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction.

  17. Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations.

    PubMed

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Adams, Amy E; Robbins, Paul B; Lin, Qun; Khavari, Paul A

    2005-07-01

    Multiple genetic alterations occur in melanoma, a lethal skin malignancy of increasing incidence. These include mutations that activate Ras and two of its effector cascades, Raf and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Induction of Ras and Raf can be caused by active N-Ras and B-Raf mutants as well as by gene amplification. Activation of PI3K pathway components occurs by PTEN loss and by AKT3 amplification. Melanomas also commonly show impairment of the p16(INK4A)-CDK4-Rb and ARF-HDM2-p53 tumor suppressor pathways. CDKN2A mutations can produce p16(INK4A) and ARF protein loss. Rb bypass can also occur through activating CDK4 mutations as well as by CDK4 amplification. In addition to ARF deletion, p53 pathway disruption can result from dominant negative TP53 mutations. TERT amplification also occurs in melanoma. The extent to which these mutations can induce human melanocytic neoplasia is unknown. Here we characterize pathways sufficient to generate human melanocytic neoplasia and show that genetically altered human tissue facilitates functional analysis of mutations observed in human tumors.

  18. RelA regulates CXCL1/CXCR2-dependent oncogene-induced senescence in murine Kras-driven pancreatic carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lesina, Marina; Wörmann, Sonja Maria; Diakopoulos, Kalliope Nina; Korneeva, Olga; Wimmer, Margit; Sperveslage, Jan; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Kehl, Timo; Saur, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Steiner, Jörg Manfred; Wang, Timothy Cragin; Sansom, Owen J.; Schmid, Roland Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppression that is mediated by oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is considered to function as a safeguard during development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the mechanisms that regulate OIS in PDAC are poorly understood. Here, we have determined that nuclear RelA reinforces OIS to inhibit carcinogenesis in the Kras mouse model of PDAC. Inactivation of RelA accelerated pancreatic lesion formation in Kras mice by abrogating the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) gene transcription signature. Using genetic and pharmacological tools, we determined that RelA activation promotes OIS via elevation of the SASP factor CXCL1 (also known as KC), which activates CXCR2, during pancreatic carcinogenesis. In Kras mice, pancreas-specific inactivation of CXCR2 prevented OIS and was correlated with increased tumor proliferation and decreased survival. Moreover, reductions in CXCR2 levels were associated with advanced neoplastic lesions in tissue from human pancreatic specimens. Genetically disabling OIS in Kras mice caused RelA to promote tumor proliferation, suggesting a dual role for RelA signaling in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest a pivotal role for RelA in regulating OIS in preneoplastic lesions and implicate the RelA/CXCL1/CXCR2 axis as an essential mechanism of tumor surveillance in PDAC. PMID:27454298

  19. Genetic aberrations in primary esophageal melanomas: molecular analysis of c-KIT, PDGFR, KRAS, NRAS and BRAF in a series of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Langer, Rupert; Becker, Karen; Feith, Marcus; Friess, Helmut; Höfler, Heinz; Keller, Gisela

    2011-04-01

    We present a series of 10 primary esophageal melanomas of Caucasian patients characterized clinicopathologically and on the molecular level. Mutation analysis for c-Kit (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17), PDGFR (exons 12, 14 and 18), NRAS and KRAS were determined using PCR and direct sequencing. Analysis of the V600E mutation of BRAF was performed using mutation-specific PCR. Expression of c-Kit and PDGFR-A was additionally determined using immunohistochemistry. One tumor harbored a missense mutation in the c-Kit (p.F504L) and in the KRAS gene (p.G12S). A different c-Kit mutation (c.1507_1508 ins TTGCCT) was detected in another case. A third case had a V600E BRAF mutation. Using immunohistochemistry, c-Kit expression could be detected in all cases. The two cases with c-Kit mutations showed high c-Kit expression. None of the tumors showed a PDGFR mutation or expression or a NRAS mutation. We conclude that molecular analysis can identify targets for a specific therapy such as tyrosin kinase inhibitors as additional treatment option in these highly malignant tumors.

  20. Effects of RAF inhibitors on PI3K/AKT signalling depend on mutational status of the RAS/RAF signalling axis

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche-Guenther, Raphaela; Witzel, Franziska; Kempa, Stefan; Brummer, Tilman; Sers, Christine; Blüthgen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies within the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signalling axis become increasingly popular, yet cross-talk and feedbacks in the signalling network lead to unexpected effects. Here we look systematically into how inhibiting RAF and MEK with clinically relevant inhibitors result in changes in PI3K/AKT activation. We measure the signalling response using a bead-based ELISA, and use a panel of three cell lines, and isogenic cell lines that express mutant forms of the oncogenes KRAS and BRAF to interrogate the effects of the MEK and RAF inhibitors on signalling. We find that treatment with the RAF inhibitors have opposing effects on AKT phosphorylation depending on the mutational status of two important oncogenes, KRAS and BRAF. If these two genes are in wildtype configuration, RAF inhibitors reduce AKT phosphorylation. In contrast, if BRAF or KRAS are mutant, RAF inhibitors will leave AKT phosphorylation unaffected or lead to an increase of AKT phosphorylation. Down-regulation of phospho-AKT by RAF inhibitors also extends to downstream transcription factors, and correlates with apoptosis induction. Our results show that oncogenes rewire signalling such that targeted therapies can have opposing effects on parallel pathways, which depend on the mutational status of the cell. PMID:26799289

  1. miR-181a shows tumor suppressive effect against oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by downregulating K-ras

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Bae, Susan D.; Hong, Hannah S.; Kim, Reuben H.; Kang, Mo K.; Park, No-Hee

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} MicroRNA-181a (miR-181a) was frequently downregulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). {yields} Overexpression of miR-181a suppressed OSCC growth. {yields} K-ras is a novel target of miR-181a. {yields} Decreased miR-181a expression is attributed to its lower promoter activity in OSCC. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetic regulators of gene expression, and their deregulation plays an important role in human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recently, we found that miRNA-181a (miR-181a) was upregulated during replicative senescence of normal human oral keratinocytes. Since senescence is considered as a tumor suppressive mechanism, we thus investigated the expression and biological role of miR-181a in OSCC. We found that miR-181a was frequently downregulated in OSCC. Ectopic expression of miR-181a suppressed proliferation and anchorage independent growth ability of OSCC. Moreover, miR-181a dramatically reduces the growth of OSCC on three dimensional organotypic raft culture. We also identified K-ras as a novel target of miR-181a. miR-181a decreased K-ras protein level as well as the luciferase activity of reporter vectors containing the 3'-untranslated region of K-ras gene. Finally, we defined a minimal regulatory region of miR-181a and found a positive correlation between its promoter activity and the level of miR-181a expression. In conclusion, miR-181a may function as an OSCC suppressor by targeting on K-ras oncogene. Thus, miR-181a should be considered for therapeutic application for OSCC.

  2. Promoter-dependent activity on androgen receptor N-terminal domain mutations in androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Davies, John; Mongan, Nigel P; Bunch, Trevor; Brown, Rosalind S; Audi, Laura; Watt, Kate; McEwan, Iain J; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mutations are associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Missense mutations identified in the AR-N-terminal domain (AR-NTD) are rare, and clinical phenotypes are typically mild. We investigated 7 missense mutations and 2 insertion/deletions located in the AR-NTD. This study aimed to elucidate the pathogenic role of AR-NTD mutants in AIS and to use this knowledge to further define AR-NTD function. AR-NTD mutations (Q120E, A159T, G216R, N235K, G248V, L272F, and P380R) were introduced into AR-expression plasmids. Stably expressing cell lines were established for del57L and ins58L. Transactivation was measured using luciferase reporter constructs under the control of GRE and Pem promoters. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and partial proteolysis studies were performed for mutations which showed reduced activities by using a purified AR-AF1 protein. Pem-luciferase reporter activation was reduced for A159T, N235K, and G248V but not the GRE-luciferase reporter. Protein structure analysis detected no significant change in the AR-AF1 region for these mutations. Reduced cellular expression and transactivation activity were observed for ins58L. The mutations Q120E, G216R, L272F, P380R, and del57L showed small or no detectable changes in function. Thus, clinical and experimental analyses have identified novel AR-signalling defects associated with mutations in the structurally disordered AR-NTD domain in patients with AIS.

  3. Mutation of the TERT promoter, switch to active chromatin, and monoallelic TERT expression in multiple cancers

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Theodorescu, Dan; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Cech, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the promoter of the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are the most common noncoding mutations in cancer. They are thought to activate telomerase, contributing to proliferative immortality, but the molecular events driving TERT activation are largely unknown. We observed in multiple cancer cell lines that mutant TERT promoters exhibit the H3K4me2/3 mark of active chromatin and recruit the GABPA/B1 transcription factor, while the wild-type allele retains the H3K27me3 mark of epigenetic silencing; only the mutant promoters are transcriptionally active. These results suggest how a single-base-pair mutation can cause a dramatic epigenetic switch and monoallelic expression. PMID:26515115

  4. Lethal Factor Active-Site Mutations Affect Catalytic Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S. E.; Hanna, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    The lethal factor (LF) protein of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin contains the thermolysin-like active-site and zinc-binding consensus motif HEXXH (K. R. Klimpel, N. Arora, and S. H. Leppla, Mol. Microbiol. 13:1093–1100, 1994). LF is hypothesized to act as a Zn2+ metalloprotease in the cytoplasm of macrophages, but no proteolytic activities have been previously shown on any target substrate. Here, synthetic peptides are hydrolyzed by LF in vitro. Mass spectroscopy and peptide sequencing of isolated cleavage products separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography indicate that LF seems to prefer proline-containing substrates. Substitution mutations within the consensus active-site residues completely abolish all in vitro catalytic functions, as does addition of 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, and certain amino acid hydroxamates, including the novel zinc metalloprotease inhibitor ZINCOV. In contrast, the protease inhibitors bestatin and lysine CMK, previously shown to block LF activity on macrophages, did not block LF activity in vitro. These data provide the first direct evidence that LF may act as an endopeptidase. PMID:9573135

  5. Activating mutations for the Met tyrosine kinase receptor in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, Michael; Schmidt, Laura; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Webb, Craig P.; Weirich, Gregor; Kishida, Takeshi; Zbar, Berton; Vande Woude, George F.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, mutations in the Met tyrosine kinase receptor have been identified in both hereditary and sporadic forms of papillary renal carcinoma. We have introduced the corresponding mutations into the met cDNA and examined the effect of each mutation in biochemical and biological assays. We find that the Met mutants exhibit increased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced kinase activity toward an exogenous substrate when compared with wild-type Met. Moreover, NIH 3T3 cells expressing mutant Met molecules form foci in vitro and are tumorigenic in nude mice. Enzymatic and biological differences were evident among the various mutants examined, and the somatic mutations were generally more active than those of germ-line origin. A strong correlation between the enzymatic and biological activity of the mutants was observed, indicating that tumorigenesis by Met is quantitatively related to its level of activation. These results demonstrate that the Met mutants originally identified in human papillary renal carcinoma are oncogenic and thus are likely to play a determinant role in this disease, and these results raise the possibility that activating Met mutations also may contribute to other human malignancies. PMID:9326629

  6. Familial Mediterranean fever mutations lift the obligatory requirement for microtubules in Pyrin inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Van Gorp, Hanne; Saavedra, Pedro H. V.; de Vasconcelos, Nathalia M.; Van Opdenbosch, Nina; Vande Walle, Lieselotte; Matusiak, Magdalena; Prencipe, Giusi; Insalaco, Antonella; Van Hauwermeiren, Filip; Demon, Dieter; Bogaert, Delfien J.; Dullaers, Melissa; De Baere, Elfride; Hochepied, Tino; Dehoorne, Joke; Vermaelen, Karim Y.; Haerynck, Filomeen; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Lamkanfi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common monogenic autoinflammatory disease worldwide. It is caused by mutations in the inflammasome adaptor Pyrin, but how FMF mutations alter signaling in FMF patients is unknown. Herein, we establish Clostridium difficile and its enterotoxin A (TcdA) as Pyrin-activating agents and show that wild-type and FMF Pyrin are differentially controlled by microtubules. Diverse microtubule assembly inhibitors prevented Pyrin-mediated caspase-1 activation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 from mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Remarkably, Pyrin inflammasome activation persisted upon microtubule disassembly in PBMCs of FMF patients but not in cells of patients afflicted with other autoinflammatory diseases. We further demonstrate that microtubules control Pyrin activation downstream of Pyrin dephosphorylation and that FMF mutations enable microtubule-independent assembly of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) micrometer-sized perinuclear structures (specks). The discovery that Pyrin mutations remove the obligatory requirement for microtubules in inflammasome activation provides a conceptual framework for understanding FMF and enables immunological screening of FMF mutations. PMID:27911804

  7. Recurrent mutations of MAPK pathway genes in multiple myeloma but not in amyloid light-chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nayoung K.D.; Yun, Jae Won; Hwang, Jee Hyang; Kim, Kihyun; Park, Woong-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Clinically applicable platforms revealing actionable genomic alterations may improve the treatment efficacy of myeloma patients. In this pilot study, we used a high depth targeted sequencing panel containing 83 anti-cancer drug target genes to sequence genomic DNAs extracted from bone marrow aspirates of 23 patients with myeloma and 12 patients with amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. Mutation analysis revealed NRAS as the most commonly mutated gene (30%, 7/23) in myeloma patients followed by KRAS (26%, 6/23) and BRAF (22%, 5/23). However, no significant mutations were found in the 12 patients with AL amyloidosis. Notably, 6 of the 23 myeloma patients showed multi-site and/or multi-gene mutations in NRAS, KRAS, or BRAF, indicating compound aberrations in the Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Gene panel sequencing also revealed cytogenetic abnormalities associated with prognosis in myeloma patients. In conclusion, our pilot study suggests that targeted gene sequencing may have an important prognostic value for myeloma patients for the identification of actionable genomic alterations and cytogenetic aberrations. PMID:27634910

  8. Frequencies, Laboratory Features, and Granulocyte Activation in Chinese Patients with CALR-Mutated Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ruiyuan; Chang, Jianmei; Li, Jianlan; Tan, Yanhong; Xu, Zhifang; Ren, Fanggang; Zhao, Junxia; Pan, Jie; Zhang, Na; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Jianxia; Yang, Wanfang; Wang, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the CALR gene have been recently identified as acquired alterations in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In this study, we evaluated mutation frequencies, laboratory features, and granulocyte activation in Chinese patients with MPNs. A combination of qualitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing was used to detect three driver mutations (i.e., CALR, JAK2V617F, and MPL). CALR mutations were identified in 8.4% of cases with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 5.3% of cases with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Moreover, 25% of polycythemia vera, 29.5% of ET, and 48.1% of PMF were negative for all three mutations (JAK2V617F, MPL, and CALR). Compared with those patients with JAK2V617F mutation, CALR-mutated ET patients displayed unique hematological phenotypes, including higher platelet counts, and lower leukocyte counts and hemoglobin levels. Significant differences were not found between Chinese PMF patients with mutants CALR and JAK2V617F in terms of laboratory features. Interestingly, patients with CALR mutations showed markedly decreased levels of leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP) expression, whereas those with JAK2V617F mutation presented with elevated levels. Overall, a lower mutant rate of CALR gene and a higher triple-negative rate were identified in the cohort of Chinese patients with MPNs. This result indicates that an undiscovered mutant gene may have a significant role in these patients. Moreover, these pathological features further imply that the disease biology varies considerably between mutants CALR and JAK2V617F. PMID:26375990

  9. BRAF Kinase Domain Mutations are Common in RASwt Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Singh, Rajesh R.; Patel, Keyur P.; Stingo, Francesco; Routbort, Mark; You, M. James; Miranda, Roberto N.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Luthra, Raja; Khoury, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The frequency of RAS mutations in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) suggests that activation of the MAPK pathway is important in CMML pathogenesis. Accordingly, we hypothesized that mutations in other members of the MAPK pathway might be overrepresented in RASwt CMML. Methods We performed next generation sequencing analysis on 70 CMML patients with known RAS mutation status using the TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel kit (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Results The study group included 37 men and 33 women with a median age of 67.8 years (range, 28–86 years). Forty patients were RASwt and 30 were RASmut; the latter included KRAS=17; NRAS=12; KRAS+NRAS=1. Next-generation sequencing showed 5 patients (7.1% of total group; 12.5% of RASwt group) with RASwt who had BRAF mutations. All BRAFmut patients had CMML-1; 2 (40%) with MPN-CMML and 3 with MDS-CMML. The BRAF mutations were of missense type and involved exon 11 in 1 patient and exon 15 in 4 patients. All BRAFmut patients had CMML-1 with low-risk cytogenetic findings, and none of the BRAFmut CMML cases were therapy-related. Two (40%) of the 5 patients with BRAFmut patients transformed to acute myeloid leukemia during follow up. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression modeling suggests that BRAFmut status is associated with overall survival (p=0.04). Additionally, the RASmut group tended to have worse OS compared to the RASwt group. Conclusion In summary, we demonstrate that a subset of patients with RASwt CMML harbors BRAF kinase domain mutations that are potentially capable of activating the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:24446311

  10. Activation of Antibiotic Production in Bacillus spp. by Cumulative Drug Resistance Mutations.

    PubMed

    Tojo, Shigeo; Tanaka, Yukinori; Ochi, Kozo

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains produce a wide range of antibiotics, including ribosomal and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics, as well as bacilysocin and neotrehalosadiamine. Mutations in B. subtilis strain 168 that conferred resistance to drugs such as streptomycin and rifampin resulted in overproduction of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin. Cumulative drug resistance mutations, such as mutations in the mthA and rpsL genes, which confer low- and high-level resistance, respectively, to streptomycin, and mutations in rpoB, which confer resistance to rifampin, resulted in cells that overproduced bacilysin. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the enhanced transcription of biosynthesis genes was responsible for the overproduction of bacilysin. This approach was effective also in activating the cryptic genes of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, leading to actual production of antibiotic(s).

  11. Activation of Antibiotic Production in Bacillus spp. by Cumulative Drug Resistance Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Shigeo; Tanaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains produce a wide range of antibiotics, including ribosomal and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics, as well as bacilysocin and neotrehalosadiamine. Mutations in B. subtilis strain 168 that conferred resistance to drugs such as streptomycin and rifampin resulted in overproduction of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin. Cumulative drug resistance mutations, such as mutations in the mthA and rpsL genes, which confer low- and high-level resistance, respectively, to streptomycin, and mutations in rpoB, which confer resistance to rifampin, resulted in cells that overproduced bacilysin. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the enhanced transcription of biosynthesis genes was responsible for the overproduction of bacilysin. This approach was effective also in activating the cryptic genes of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, leading to actual production of antibiotic(s). PMID:26369962

  12. Mutational landscape, clonal evolution patterns, and role of RAS mutations in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Koichi; Khiabanian, Hossein; da Silva-Almeida, Ana C.; Tzoneva, Gannie; Abate, Francesco; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Carpenter, Zachary; Penson, Alex; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Eckert, Cornelia; Nicolas, Concepción; Balbin, Milagros; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Kato, Motohiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Paganin, Maddalena; Basso, Giuseppe; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Loh, Mignon L.; Kirschner-Schwabe, Renate; Palomero, Teresa; Rabadan, Raul; Ferrando, Adolfo A.

    2016-01-01

    Although multiagent combination chemotherapy is curative in a significant fraction of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, 20% of cases relapse and most die because of chemorefractory disease. Here we used whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing to analyze the mutational landscape at relapse in pediatric ALL cases. These analyses identified numerous relapse-associated mutated genes intertwined in chemotherapy resistance-related protein complexes. In this context, RAS-MAPK pathway-activating mutations in the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), and protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11 (PTPN11) genes were present in 24 of 55 (44%) cases in our series. Interestingly, some leukemias showed retention or emergence of RAS mutant clones at relapse, whereas in others RAS mutant clones present at diagnosis were replaced by RAS wild-type populations, supporting a role for both positive and negative selection evolutionary pressures in clonal evolution of RAS-mutant leukemia. Consistently, functional dissection of mouse and human wild-type and mutant RAS isogenic leukemia cells demonstrated induction of methotrexate resistance but also improved the response to vincristine in mutant RAS-expressing lymphoblasts. These results highlight the central role of chemotherapy-driven selection as a central mechanism of leukemia clonal evolution in relapsed ALL, and demonstrate a previously unrecognized dual role of RAS mutations as drivers of both sensitivity and resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:27655895

  13. Antitumor effects and molecular mechanisms of ponatinib on endometrial cancer cells harboring activating FGFR2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Hee; Kwak, Yeonui; Kim, Nam Doo; Sim, Taebo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aberrant mutational activation of FGFR2 is associated with endometrial cancers (ECs). AP24534 (ponatinib) currently undergoing clinical trials has been known to be an orally available multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Our biochemical kinase assay showed that AP24534 is potent against wild-type FGFR1-4 and 5 mutant FGFRs (V561M-FGFR1, N549H-FGFR2, K650E-FGFR3, G697C-FGFR3, N535K-FGFR4) and possesses the strongest kinase-inhibitory activity on N549H-FGFR2 (IC50 of 0.5 nM) among all FGFRs tested. We therefore investigated the effects of AP24534 on endometrial cancer cells harboring activating FGFR2 mutations and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. AP24534 significantly inhibited the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells bearing activating FGFR2 mutations (N549K, K310R/N549K, S252W) and mainly induced G1/S cell cycle arrest leading to apoptosis. AP24534 also diminished the kinase activity of immunoprecipitated FGFR2 derived from MFE-296 and MFE-280 cells and reduced the phosphorylation of FGFR2 and FRS2 on MFE-296 and AN3CA cells. AP24534 caused substantial reductions in ERK phosphorylation, PLCγ signaling and STAT5 signal transduction on ECs bearing FGFR2 activating mutations. Akt signaling pathway was also deactivated by AP24534. AP24534 causes the chemotherapeutic effect through mainly the blockade of ERK, PLCγ and STAT5 signal transduction on ECs. Moreover, AP24534 inhibited migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells with FGFR2 mutations. In addition, AP24534 significantly blocked anchorage-independent growth of endometrial cancer cells. We, for the first time, report the molecular mechanisms by which AP24534 exerts antitumor effects on ECs with FGFR2 activating mutations, which would provide mechanistic insight into ongoing clinical investigations of AP24534 for ECs. PMID:26574622

  14. mTORC1 upregulation via ERK-dependent gene expression change confers intrinsic resistance to MEK inhibitors in oncogenic KRas-mutant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, N; Fujita, Y; Matsuda, M; Aoki, K

    2015-11-05

    Cancer cells harboring oncogenic BRaf mutants, but not oncogenic KRas mutants, are sensitive to MEK inhibitors (MEKi). The mechanism underlying the intrinsic resistance to MEKi in KRas-mutant cells is under intensive investigation. Here, we pursued this mechanism by live imaging of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activities in oncogenic KRas or BRaf-mutant cancer cells. We established eight cancer cell lines expressing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors for ERK activity and S6K activity, which was used as a surrogate marker for mTORC1 activity. Under increasing concentrations of MEKi, ERK activity correlated linearly with the cell growth rate in BRaf-mutant cancer cells, but not KRas-mutant cancer cells. The administration of PI3K inhibitors resulted in a linear correlation between ERK activity and cell growth rate in KRas-mutant cancer cells. Intriguingly, mTORC1 activity was correlated linearly with the cell growth rate in both BRaf-mutant cancer cells and KRas-mutant cancer cells. These observations suggested that mTORC1 activity had a pivotal role in cell growth and that the mTORC1 activity was maintained primarily by the ERK pathway in BRaf-mutant cancer cells and by both the ERK and PI3K pathways in KRas-mutant cancer cells. FRET imaging revealed that MEKi inhibited mTORC1 activity with slow kinetics, implying transcriptional control of mTORC1 activity by ERK. In agreement with this observation, MEKi induced the expression of negative regulators of mTORC1, including TSC1, TSC2 and Deptor, which occurred more significantly in BRaf-mutant cells than in KRas-mutant cells. These findings suggested that the suppression of mTORC1 activity and induction of negative regulators of mTORC1 in cancer cells treated for at least 1 day could be used as surrogate markers for the MEKi sensitivity of cancer cells.

  15. EGFR-activating mutations, DNA copy number abundance of ErbB family, and prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Chang, Ya-Hsuan; Yu, Sung-Liang; Ho, Bing-Ching; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tseng, Jeng-Sen; Hsia, Jiun-Yi; Chuang, Cheng-Yen; Chang, Chi-Sheng; Li, Yu-Cheng; Li, Ker-Chau; Chang, Gee-Chen; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2016-02-23

    In this study, EGFR-activating mutation status and DNA copy number abundances of members of ErbB family were measured in 261 lung adenocarcinomas. The associations between DNA copy number abundances of ErbB family, EGFR-activating mutation status, and prognosis were explored. Results showed that DNA copy number abundances of EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, and ERBB4 had associations with overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR-activating mutations. In the stratification analysis, only ERBB2 showed significant discrepancy in patients carrying wild type EGFR and other members of ErbB family in patients carrying EGFR-activating mutation. This indicated that CNAs of ErbB family had effect modifications of EGFR-activating mutation status. Findings of this study demonstrate potential molecular guidance of patient management of lung adenocarcinoma with or without EGFR-activating mutations.

  16. Potential Role of TRAIL in Metastasis of Mutant KRAS Expressing Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shyama; Amin, Prayag J; Sainis, K B; Shankar, Bhavani S

    2016-12-01

    Apo2L/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, TNFSF10) is an important cytokine in the tumor microenvironment and plays a major role in the balance of cell survival/death pathways. Bioinformatic analyses of 839 adenocarcinoma (AC) and 356 squamous cell lung carcinoma patient data (SCC) by cBioPortal (genomic analyses) shows that TRAIL expression leads to differential outcomes of disease free survival in AC and SCC. Oncomine datamining (transcript analyses) reveal that TRAIL is upregulated in 167 SCC as compared to 350 AC patients from six data sets. Genomic analyses using cBioPortal revealed high rates of KRAS mutation in AC accompanied by higher incidence of metastasis and increased amplifications of TRAIL gene in SCC. Bioinformatic analyses of an additional lung cancer patient database also showed that risk of disease progression was significantly increased with high TRAIL expression in AC (461 samples). In vitro studies demonstrated that TRAIL increased phosphorylation of ERK only in adenocarcinoma cell lines with mutant KRAS. This was associated with increased migration that was abrogated by MEK inhibitor PD98059. Effects of increased migration induced by TRAIL persisted even after exposure to ionizing radiation with suppression of DNA damage response. These results help understand the role of TRAIL signaling in metastasis which is essential to develop strategies to revert these signals into pro-apoptotic pathways.

  17. A mutational analysis of the active site of human type II inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Futer, Olga; Sintchak, Michael D; Caron, Paul R; Nimmesgern, Elmar; DeCenzo, Maureen T; Livingston, David J; Raybuck, Scott A

    2002-01-31

    The oxidation of IMP to XMP is the rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine ribonucleotides. This NAD-dependent reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Based upon the recent structural determination of IMPDH complexed to oxidized IMP (XMP*) and the potent uncompetitive inhibitor mycophenolic acid (MPA), we have selected active site residues and prepared mutants of human type II IMPDH. The catalytic parameters of these mutants were determined. Mutations G326A, D364A, and the active site nucleophile C331A all abolish enzyme activity to less than 0.1% of wild type. These residues line the IMP binding pocket and are necessary for correct positioning of the substrate, Asp364 serving to anchor the ribose ring of the nucleotide. In the MPA/NAD binding site, significant loss of activity was seen by mutation of any residue of the triad Arg322, Asn303, Asp274 which form a hydrogen bonding network lining one side of this pocket. From a model of NAD bound to the active site consistent with the mutational data, we propose that these resides are important in binding the ribose ring of the nicotinamide substrate. Additionally, mutations in the pair Thr333, Gln441, which lies close to the xanthine ring, cause a significant drop in the catalytic activity of IMPDH. It is proposed that these residues serve to deliver the catalytic water molecule required for hydrolysis of the cysteine-bound XMP* intermediate formed after oxidation by NAD.

  18. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase deficiency. A missense mutation near the active site of an anti-inflammatory phospholipase.

    PubMed Central

    Stafforini, D M; Satoh, K; Atkinson, D L; Tjoelker, L W; Eberhardt, C; Yoshida, H; Imaizumi, T; Takamatsu, S; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M; Gray, P W; Prescott, S M

    1996-01-01

    Deficiency of plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase is an autosomal recessive syndrome that has been associated with severe asthma in Japanese children. Acquired deficiency has been described in several human diseases usually associated with severe inflammation. PAF acetylhydrolase catalyzes the degradation of PAF and related phospholipids, which have proinflammatory, allergic, and prothrombotic properties. Thus, a deficiency in the degradation of these lipids should increase the susceptibility to inflammatory and allergic disorders. Miwa et al. reported that PAF acetylhydrolase activity is absent in 4% of the Japanese population, which suggests that it could be a common factor in such disorders, but the molecular basis of the defect is unknown. We show that inherited deficiency of PAF acetylhydrolase is the result of a point mutation in exon 9 and that this mutation completely abolishes enzymatic activity. This mutation is the cause of the lack of enzymatic activity as expression in E. coli of a construct harboring the mutation results in an inactive protein. This mutation as a heterozygous trait is present in 27% in the Japanese population. This finding will allow rapid identification of subjects predisposed to severe asthma and other PAF-mediated disorders. PMID:8675689

  19. Modelling cave flow hydraulics in the Notranjski Kras, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Gabrovsek, Franci

    2015-04-01

    The Notranjski Kras region is a karst region in western Slovenia, developed in Cretaceous limestone. The region is characterised by hilly relief, with peaks reaching 1300 m elevation. Several well-developed cave systems drain the karst aquifer, providing preferential flow pathes along two sections: The Pivka River, which sinks into Postojnska Jama and reappears in Planinska Jama, and the Stržen and Cerkniščica rivers, which sink into Karlovica Jama, flow through Zelške Jama and Tkalca Jama and also reappear in Planinska Jama. Both sub-surface flow pathes merge in Planinska Jama, providing water for the Unica river. The Unica river leaves Planinska Jama via a large karst srping and passes through Planinsko Polje, disappearing again through two