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Sample records for activating neuropeptide pban

  1. The pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) receptor of Heliothis virescens: Identification, functional expression, and structure-activity relationships of ligand analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) promotes synthesis and release of sex pheromones in moths. We have identified and functionally expressed a PBAN receptor from Heliothis virescens (HevPBANR) and elucidated structure-activity relationships of PBAN analogs. Screening of a larval C...

  2. Identification and expression analysis of diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jian-Cheng; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides play essential roles in a variety of physiological responses that contribute to the development and reproduction of insects. Both the diapause hormone (DH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) belong to the PBAN/pyrokinin neuropeptide family, which has a conserved pentapeptide motif FXPRL at the C-terminus. We identified the full-length cDNA encoding DH-PBAN in Maruca vitrata, a major lepidopteran pest of leguminous crops. The open reading frame of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 591 bp in length, encoding 197 amino acids, from which five putative neuropeptides [DH, PBAN, α-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptide (SGNP), β-SGNP and γ-SGNP] are derived. Marvi-DH-PBAN was highly similar (83%) to DH-PBAN of Omphisa fuscidentalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), but possesses a unique C-terminal FNPRL motif, where asparagine has replaced a serine residue present in other lepidopteran PBAN peptides. The genomic DNA sequence of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 6,231 bp in size and is composed of six exons. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the Marvi-DH-PBAN protein sequence is closest to its homolog in Crambidae, but distant from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera DH-PBAN, which agrees with the current taxonomy. DH-PBAN transcripts were present in the head and thoracic complex, but absent in the abdomen of M. vitrata. Real-time quantitative PCR assays have demonstrated a relatively higher expression of Marvi-DH-PBAN mRNA in the latter half of the pupal stages and in adults. These findings represent a significant step forward in our understanding of the DH-PBAN gene architecture and phylogeny, and raise the possibility of using Marvi-DH-PBAN to manage M. vitrata populations through molecular techniques.

  3. Identification and Expression Analysis of Diapause Hormone and Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) in the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jian-Cheng; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides play essential roles in a variety of physiological responses that contribute to the development and reproduction of insects. Both the diapause hormone (DH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) belong to the PBAN/pyrokinin neuropeptide family, which has a conserved pentapeptide motif FXPRL at the C-terminus. We identified the full-length cDNA encoding DH-PBAN in Maruca vitrata, a major lepidopteran pest of leguminous crops. The open reading frame of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 591 bp in length, encoding 197 amino acids, from which five putative neuropeptides [DH, PBAN, α-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptide (SGNP), β-SGNP and γ-SGNP] are derived. Marvi-DH-PBAN was highly similar (83%) to DH-PBAN of Omphisa fuscidentalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), but possesses a unique C-terminal FNPRL motif, where asparagine has replaced a serine residue present in other lepidopteran PBAN peptides. The genomic DNA sequence of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 6,231 bp in size and is composed of six exons. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the Marvi-DH-PBAN protein sequence is closest to its homolog in Crambidae, but distant from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera DH-PBAN, which agrees with the current taxonomy. DH-PBAN transcripts were present in the head and thoracic complex, but absent in the abdomen of M. vitrata. Real-time quantitative PCR assays have demonstrated a relatively higher expression of Marvi-DH-PBAN mRNA in the latter half of the pupal stages and in adults. These findings represent a significant step forward in our understanding of the DH-PBAN gene architecture and phylogeny, and raise the possibility of using Marvi-DH-PBAN to manage M. vitrata populations through molecular techniques. PMID:24409312

  4. Identification of a new member of PBAN family of neuropeptides from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells in the central or peripheral nervous systems regulate various physiological and behavioral events during insect development and reproduction. Pyrokinin/Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) is a major neuropeptide family, chara...

  5. Identification of a new member of the PBAN family of neuropeptides from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Choi, M-Y; Vander Meer, R K

    2009-04-01

    Neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells in the central or peripheral nervous systems regulate various physiological and behavioral events during insect development and reproduction. PBAN/Pyrokinin is a major neuropeptide family, characterized by a 5-amino-acid C-terminal sequence, FXPRLamide. This family of peptides has been implicated in regulating various physiological functions including, pheromone biosynthesis, muscle contraction, diapause induction or termination, melanization, and puparium formation in different insect species. In the present study, we report a new member of the PBAN family from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, Soi-PBAN, composed of 26-AA (GSGEDLSYGDAYEVDEDDHPLFVPRL). Three additional peptides were deduced from Soi-PBAN cDNA: 15-AA (TSQDIASGMWFGPRL), 8-AA (QPQFTPRL) and 9-AA (LPWIPSPRL), that correspond to diapause hormone (DH), beta-neuropeptide (NP), and gamma-NP, which are found in many lepidopteran moths. Five peptides, DH, alpha, beta, gamma NPs, and PBAN are encoded from PBAN genes of lepidopteran moths, but in the fire ant the alpha-NP is missing. Each of the four synthetic peptides from the fire ant Soi-PBAN cDNA showed significant pheromonotropic activity in a moth model, indicating that these peptides are cross-reactive. Soi-beta-NP induced the highest amount of pheromone production of the four peptides evaluated. The Soi-DH homologue had the lowest pheromonotropic activity, but was still significantly greater than control values. When the deduced amino acid sequences (entire ORF domains) from Soi-PBAN cDNA were compared with other known sequences, the fire ant was most similar to the honey bee, but phylogenetically distant from moth and beetle species. Soi-PBAN (26-AA) unlike the other three peptides shows a low degree of sequence identity with honeybee PBAN (33-AA). Based on the amino acid sequences encoded from insect PBAN genes identified to date, neuropeptide diversity is correlated with the

  6. Evaluation of a PK/PBAN analog with an (E)-alkene, trans-Pro isostere identifies the Pro orientation for activity in four diverse PK/PBAN bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PK/PBAN) family plays a multifunctional role in an array of important physiological processes in a variety of insects. An active core analog containing an (E)-alkene, transPro isosteric component was evaluated in four disparate PK/PBAN b...

  7. Potent activity of a PK/PBAN analog with an (E)-alkene, trans-Pro mimic identifies the Pro orientation and core conformation during interaction with HevPBANR-C receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PK/PBAN) family plays a multifunctional role in an array of important physiological processes in insects, including regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. A cyclic PK/PBAN analog (cyclo[NTSFTPRL]) retains significant activity...

  8. Molecular characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Boo, Kyung Saeng

    2005-12-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) produced in the subesophageal ganglion stimulates pheromone production in the pheromone gland. A cDNA isolated from female adult heads of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) encodes 193 amino acids including PBAN, designated as Plx-PBAN, and four other neuropeptides (NPs): diapause hormone (DH) homologue, alpha-NP, beta-NP and gamma-NP. All of the peptides are amidated in their C-termini and shared a conserved motif, FXPR(or K)L structure, as reported from other PBAN cDNAs. Plx-PBAN consists of 30 amino acids, the shortest PBAN so far reported. Plx-PBAN exhibited below 50% homology, compared with other known PBANs. The Plx-DH homologue is structurally different from DH of Bombyx mori. The length of Plx-beta-NP (16 amino acids) was the shortest and showed relatively low similarity, whereas gamma-NP (10 amino acids in length) was the longest among examined gamma-NPs. When female adults were injected with synthetic Plx-PBAN, pheromone production showed a maximal increase 1h post-injection. RT-PCR screening revealed that Plx-PBAN cDNA was expressed in all examined body parts, with the highest expression level in the head of female adults. Analysis of RT-PCR products indicated the Plx-PBAN sequence was identical in all examined body parts of both sexes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Plx-PBAN gene is distantly related to other PBANs, demonstrated by the relatively low similarity. PMID:16005110

  9. The Arginine Residue within the C-Terminal Active Core of Bombyx mori Pheromone Biosynthesis-Activating Neuropeptide is Essential for Receptor Binding and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Takeshi; Lee, Jae Min; Nagata, Koji; Matsumoto, Shogo; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    In most lepidopteran insects, the biosynthesis of sex pheromones is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN). Bombyx mori PBAN (BomPBAN) consists of 33 amino acid residues and contains a C-terminus FSPRLamide motif as the active core. Among neuropeptides containing the FXPRLamide motif, the arginine (Arg, R) residue at the second position from the C-terminus is highly conserved across several neuropeptides, which can be designated as RXamide peptides. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of the Arg residue in the BomPBAN active core. We synthesized 10-residue peptides corresponding to the C-terminal part of BomPBAN with a series of replacements at the second position from the C-terminus, termed the C2 position, and measured their efficacy in stimulating Ca2+ influx in insect cells expressing a fluorescent PBAN receptor chimera (PBANR–EGFP) using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, Fura Red–AM. The PBAN analogs with the C2 position replaced with alanine (Ala, A), aspartic acid (Asp, D), serine (Ser, S), or l-2-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) decreased PBAN-like activity. RC2A (SKTRYFSPALamide) and RC2D (SKTRYFSPDLamide) had the lowest activity and could not inhibit the activity of PBAN C10 (SKTRYFSPRLamide). We also prepared Rhodamine Red-labeled peptides of the PBAN analogs and examined their ability to bind PBANR. In contrast to Rhodamine Red-PBAN C10 at 100 nM, none of the synthetic analogs exhibited PBANR binding at the same concentration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the C2 Arg residue in BomPBAN is essential for PBANR binding and activation. PMID:22654866

  10. Identification of functionally important residues in the silkmoth pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor, an insect ortholog of the vertebrate Neuromedin U Receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biosynthesis of sex pheromone components in many lepidopteran insects is regulated by interactions between pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the PBAN receptor (PBANR), a class-A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). To identify functionally important amino acid residues in t...

  11. Identification and expression of PBAN/diapause hormone and receptors from Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides control various physiological functions and constitute more than 90% of insect hormones. The pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN)/pyrokinin family is a major group of insect neuropeptides and is well conserved in Insecta. This family of peptides has at least two closel...

  12. Identification and characterization of the pyrokinin/PBAN family of GPCRs from Ostrinia nubilalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides regulate a variety of physiological functions in most animals. A major groups of insect neuropeptide hormones is the pyrokinin (PK) /PBAN (Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide) family. Insects have at least two closely related G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) for the family...

  13. Pheromonotropic and melanotropic PK/PBAN receptors: differential ligand-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Aliza Hariton; Altstein, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to further characterize the PK/PBAN receptors and their interaction with various PK/PBAN peptides in order to get a better understanding of their ubiquitous and multifunctional nature. Two cloned receptors stably expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were used in this study: a Heliothis peltigera pheromone gland receptor (Hep-PK/PBAN-R) (which stimulates sex pheromone biosynthesis) and Spodoptera littoralis larval receptor (Spl-PK/PBAN-R) (which mediates cuticular melanization in moth larvae) and their ability to respond to several native PK/PBAN peptides: β-subesophageal neuropeptide (β-SGNP), myotropin (MT) and Leucophaea maderae pyrokinin (LPK), as well as linear and cyclic analogs was tested by monitoring their ability to stimulate Ca(2+) release. The receptors exhibited a differential response to β-SGNP, which activated the Hep-PK/PBAN-R but not the Spl-PK/PBAN-R - a response opposite to that previously demonstrated with diapause hormone (DH). MT was somewhat more active on Spl-PK/PBAN-R than on Hep-PK/PBAN-R. LPK elicited similar positive responses in both receptors (like that with PBAN). A differential response toward both receptors was also noticed with the PBAN-derived backbone cyclic (BBC) conformationally constrained peptide BBC-5. The peptides BBC-7 and BBC-8 activated both receptors. The results correlate between two PK/PBAN mediated function (cuticular melanization and sex pheromone biosynthesis) and the peptides that activate them and thus advance our understanding of the mode of action of the PK/PBAN family, and might help in exploring novel high-affinity receptor-specific antagonists that could serve as a basis for development of new families of insect-control agents. PMID:25451335

  14. Molecular Structure and Diversity of PBAN/pyrokinin Family Peptides in Ants

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptides are the largest group of insect hormones. They are produced in the central and peripheral nervous systems and affect insect development, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. A variety of neuropeptide families have been identified in insects. One of these families is the PBAN/pyrokinin family defined by a common FXPRLamide or similar amino acid fragment at the C-terminal end. These peptides, found in all insects studied thus far, have been conserved throughout evolution. The most well studied physiological function is regulation of moth sex pheromone biosynthesis through the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), although several developmental functions have also been reported. Over the past years we have extended knowledge of the PBAN/pyrokinin family of peptides to ants, focusing mainly on the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. The fire ant is one of the most studied social insects and over the last 60 years a great deal has been learned about many aspects of this ant, including the behaviors and chemistry of pheromone communication. However, virtually nothing is known about the regulation of these pheromone systems. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of PBAN/pyrokinin immunoreactive neurons in the fire ant, and identified and characterized PBAN and additional neuropeptides. We have mapped the fire ant PBAN gene structure and determined the tissue expression level in the central nervous system of the ant. We review here our research to date on the molecular structure and diversity of ant PBAN/pyrokinin peptides in preparation for determining the function of the neuropeptides in ants and other social insects. PMID:22654860

  15. Inhibition of PK-PBAN-mediated functions in insects: Discovery of selective and non-selective inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antagonistic properties of a few linear and backbone cyclic (BBC) conformationally constraint peptide libraries and their analogs, were tested for the ability to inhibit pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PK/PBAN) mediated functions: sex pheromone biosynthesis in Heliothis...

  16. An amphiphilic, PK-PBAN analog is a selective pheromonotropic antagonist that penetrates the cuticle of a heliothine insect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A linear pyrokinin(PK)/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) lead antagonist was structurally modified to impart amphiphilic properties to enhance its ability to transmigrate the hydrophobic cuticle of noctuid moth species and yet retain aqueous solubility in the hemolymph to reach t...

  17. Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  18. Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  19. PBAN/pyrokinin peptides in the central nervous system of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Raina, Ashok; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2009-02-01

    The pyrokinin/pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family of peptides found in insects is characterized by a 5-amino-acid C-terminal sequence, FXPRLamide. The pentapeptide is the active core required for diverse physiological functions, including the stimulation of pheromone biosynthesis in female moths, muscle contraction, induction of embryonic diapause, melanization, acceleration of puparium formation, and termination of pupal diapause. We have used immunocytochemical techniques to demonstrate the presence of pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides in the central nervous system of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Polyclonal antisera against the C-terminal end of PBAN have revealed the location of the peptide-producing cell bodies and axons in the central nervous system. Immunoreactive material is detectable in at least three groups of neurons in the subesophageal ganglion and corpora cardiaca of all adult sexual forms. The ventral nerve cord of adults consists of two segmented thoracic ganglia and four segmented abdominal ganglia. Two immunoreactive pairs of neurons are present in the thoracic ganglia, and three neuron pairs in each of the first three abdominal ganglia. The terminal abdominal ganglion has no immunoreactive neurons. PBAN immunoreactive material found in abdominal neurons appears to be projected to perisympathetic organs connected to the abdominal ganglia. These results indicate that the fire ant nervous system contains pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides, and that these peptides are released into the hemolymph. In support of our immunocytochemical results, significant pheromonotropic activity is found in fire ant brain-subesophageal ganglion extracts from all adult fire ant forms (queens, female and male alates, and workers) when extracts are injected into decapitated females of Helicoverpa zea. This is the first demonstration of the presence of pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides and pheromonotropic activity in an ant species.

  20. PBAN/pyrokinin peptides in the central nervous system of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Raina, Ashok; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2009-02-01

    The pyrokinin/pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family of peptides found in insects is characterized by a 5-amino-acid C-terminal sequence, FXPRLamide. The pentapeptide is the active core required for diverse physiological functions, including the stimulation of pheromone biosynthesis in female moths, muscle contraction, induction of embryonic diapause, melanization, acceleration of puparium formation, and termination of pupal diapause. We have used immunocytochemical techniques to demonstrate the presence of pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides in the central nervous system of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Polyclonal antisera against the C-terminal end of PBAN have revealed the location of the peptide-producing cell bodies and axons in the central nervous system. Immunoreactive material is detectable in at least three groups of neurons in the subesophageal ganglion and corpora cardiaca of all adult sexual forms. The ventral nerve cord of adults consists of two segmented thoracic ganglia and four segmented abdominal ganglia. Two immunoreactive pairs of neurons are present in the thoracic ganglia, and three neuron pairs in each of the first three abdominal ganglia. The terminal abdominal ganglion has no immunoreactive neurons. PBAN immunoreactive material found in abdominal neurons appears to be projected to perisympathetic organs connected to the abdominal ganglia. These results indicate that the fire ant nervous system contains pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides, and that these peptides are released into the hemolymph. In support of our immunocytochemical results, significant pheromonotropic activity is found in fire ant brain-subesophageal ganglion extracts from all adult fire ant forms (queens, female and male alates, and workers) when extracts are injected into decapitated females of Helicoverpa zea. This is the first demonstration of the presence of pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides and pheromonotropic activity in an ant species. PMID:19002499

  1. Phermone biosynthesis activation in fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), was identified to stimulate sex pheromone biosynthesis in a moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in mot...

  2. Pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides in the central nervous system of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, Erica; Nusawardani, Tyasning; Bartholomay, Lyric; Jurenka, Russell

    2014-04-01

    The pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family of peptides is characterized by a common C-terminal pentapeptide, FXPRLamide, which is required for diverse physiological functions in various insects. Polyclonal antisera against the C-terminus was utilized to determine the location of cell bodies and axons in the central nervous systems of larval and adult mosquitoes. Immunoreactive material was detected in three groups of neurons in the subesophageal ganglion of larvae and adults. The corpora cardiaca of both larvae and adults contained immunoreactivity indicating potential release into circulation. The adult and larval brains had at least one pair of immunoreactive neurons in the protocerebrum with the adult brain having additional immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal medial part of the protocerebrum. The ventral ganglia of both larvae and adults each contained one pair of neurons that sent their axons to a perisympathetic organ associated with each abdominal ganglion. These results indicate that the mosquito nervous system contains pyrokinin/PBAN-like peptides and that these peptides could be released into the hemolymph. The peptides in insects and mosquitoes are produced by two genes, capa and pk/pban. Utilizing PCR protocols, we demonstrate that products of the capa gene could be produced in the abdominal ventral ganglia and the products of the pk/pban gene could be produced in the subesophageal ganglion. Two receptors for pyrokinin peptides were differentially localized to various tissues.

  3. Molecular structure and diversity of PBAN/Pyrokinin family peptides in ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are the largest group of insect hormones. They are produced in the central and peripheral nervous systems and affect insect development, reproduction, feeding and behavior. A variety of neuropeptide families have been identified in insects. One of these families is the PBAN/Pyrokinin f...

  4. Phenotypic impacts of PBAN RNA interference in an ant, Solenopsis invicta, and a moth, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K; Coy, Monique; Scharf, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    Insect neuropeptide hormones represent more than 90% of all insect hormones. The PBAN/pyrokinin family is a major group of insect neuropeptides, and they are expected to be found from all insect groups. These species-specific neuropeptides have been shown to have a variety of functions from embryo to adult. PBAN is well understood in moth species relative to sex pheromone biosynthesis, but other potential functions are yet to be determined. Recently, we focused on defining the PBAN gene and peptides in fire ants in preparation for an investigation of their function(s). RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a convenient tool to investigate unknown physiological functions in insects, and it is now an emerging method for development of novel biologically-based control agents as alternatives to insecticides. This could be a paradigm shift that will avoid many problems associated with conventional chemical insecticides. In this study, we selected the PBAN gene and its neuropeptide products as an RNAi target from two insect groups; a social insect, the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) and a non-social insect, the corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). Both insects are economically important pests. We report negative impacts after PBAN dsRNA treatment to suppress PBAN gene transcription during developmental and adult stages of both species, e.g. increased adult and larval mortality, delayed pupal development and decreased sex pheromone production in the moth. This is an important first step in determining the multiple functions of the PBAN gene in these two insects. This work illustrates the variety of phenotypic effects observed after RNAi silencing of the PBAN gene and suggests the possibility of novel biologically-based insect pest control methods. PMID:22705256

  5. Identification of Functionally Important Residues of the Silkmoth Pheromone Biosynthesis-activating Neuropeptide Receptor, an Insect Ortholog of the Vertebrate Neuromedin U Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Takeshi; Katayama, Yukie; Guo, Linjun; Liu, Desheng; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Kou; Lee, Jae Min; Nagamine, Toshihiro; Hull, J. Joe; Matsumoto, Shogo; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagata, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis of sex pheromone components in many lepidopteran insects is regulated by the interaction between pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the PBAN receptor (PBANR), a class A G-protein-coupled receptor. To identify functionally important amino acid residues in the silkmoth PBANR, a series of 27 alanine substitutions was generated using a PBANR chimera C-terminally fused with enhanced GFP. The PBANR mutants were expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and their ability to bind and be activated by a core PBAN fragment (C10PBANR2K) was monitored. Among the 27 mutants, 23 localized to the cell surface of transfected Sf9 cells, whereas the other four remained intracellular. Reduced binding relative to wild type was observed with 17 mutants, and decreased Ca2+ mobilization responses were observed with 12 mutants. Ala substitution of Glu-95, Glu-120, Asn-124, Val-195, Phe-276, Trp-280, Phe-283, Arg-287, Tyr-307, Thr-311, and Phe-319 affected both binding and Ca2+ mobilization. The most pronounced effects were observed with the E120A mutation. A molecular model of PBANR indicated that the functionally important PBANR residues map to the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th transmembrane helices, implying that the same general region of class A G-protein-coupled receptors recognizes both peptidic and nonpeptidic ligands. Docking simulations suggest similar ligand-receptor recognition interactions for PBAN-PBANR and the orthologous vertebrate pair, neuromedin U (NMU) and NMU receptor (NMUR). The simulations highlight the importance of two glutamate residues, Glu-95 and Glu-120, in silkmoth PBANR and Glu-117 and Glu-142 in human NMUR1, in the recognition of the most functionally critical region of the ligands, the C-terminal residue and amide. PMID:24847080

  6. Unraveling the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade that regulates sex pheromone production in moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multi-component blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone component...

  7. [Galanin: a new biologically active gastrointestinal neuropeptide].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F E

    1990-03-01

    The 29 amino acid containing neuropeptide galanin is localized in the intrinsic nervous system of the entire gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas. It was found in man and several animal species. Molecular biology studies revealed different molecular forms of galanin in several mammalian species including man. The galanin precursor was also found. Galanin shows several potent pharmacological actions: it inhibits gastrointestinal motility in man. It also has an inhibitory effect on intestinal smooth muscle contractility of several animal species. These actions are mediated directly by opening of potassium channels and indirectly by inhibition of acetylcholine release. In addition galanin inhibits pancreatic hormone secretion (i.e. hypoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia) and partly the release of hormones localized in the gastrointestinal tract. On exocrine glands in man (salivary glands) galanin has hydrokinetic actions. The physiological role of galanin might be regulation of gastrointestinal motility, control of secretory function of intestine and a regulatory role in endocrine and exocrine gland secretion.

  8. [Galanin: a new biologically active gastrointestinal neuropeptide].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F E

    1990-03-01

    The 29 amino acid containing neuropeptide galanin is localized in the intrinsic nervous system of the entire gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas. It was found in man and several animal species. Molecular biology studies revealed different molecular forms of galanin in several mammalian species including man. The galanin precursor was also found. Galanin shows several potent pharmacological actions: it inhibits gastrointestinal motility in man. It also has an inhibitory effect on intestinal smooth muscle contractility of several animal species. These actions are mediated directly by opening of potassium channels and indirectly by inhibition of acetylcholine release. In addition galanin inhibits pancreatic hormone secretion (i.e. hypoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia) and partly the release of hormones localized in the gastrointestinal tract. On exocrine glands in man (salivary glands) galanin has hydrokinetic actions. The physiological role of galanin might be regulation of gastrointestinal motility, control of secretory function of intestine and a regulatory role in endocrine and exocrine gland secretion. PMID:1693024

  9. Activation of Neuropeptide FF Receptors by Kisspeptin Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shinya; Misu, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kenji; Setsuda, Shohei; Masuda, Ryo; Ohno, Hiroaki; Naniwa, Yousuke; Ieda, Nahoko; Inoue, Naoko; Ohkura, Satoshi; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2011-01-13

    Kisspeptin is a member of the RFamide neuropeptide family that is implicated in gonadotropin secretion. Because kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling is implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction, GPR54 ligands represent promising therapeutic agents against endocrine secretion disorders. In the present study, the selectivity profiles of GPR54 agonist peptides were investigated for several GPCRs, including RFamide receptors. Kisspeptin-10 exhibited potent binding and activation of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and NPFFR2). In contrast, short peptide agonists bound with much lower affinity to NPFFRs while showing relatively high selectivity toward GPR54. The possible localization of secondary kisspeptin targets was also demonstrated by variation in the levels of GnRH release from the median eminence and the type of GPR54 agonists used. Negligible affinity of the reported NPFFR ligands to GPR54 was observed and indicates the unidirectional cross-reactivity between both ligands.

  10. An FXPRLamide Neuropeptide Induces Seasonal Reproductive Polyphenism Underlying a Life-History Tradeoff in the Tussock Moth

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Hiroshi; Senoh, Yukiko; Yoneda, Kyohei; Kato, Yoshiomi; Shiomi, Kunihiro

    2011-01-01

    The white spotted tussock moth, Orgyia thyellina, is a typical insect that exhibits seasonal polyphenisms in morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits, including a life-history tradeoff known as oogenesis-flight syndrome. However, the developmental processes and molecular mechanisms that mediate developmental plasticity, including life-history tradeoff, remain largely unknown. To analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive polyphenism, including the diapause induction, we first cloned and characterized the diapause hormone-pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) cDNA encoding the five Phe-X-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH2 (FXPRLa) neuropeptides: DH, PBAN, and α-, β-, and γ-SGNPs (subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides). This gene is expressed in neurosecretory cells within the subesophageal ganglion whose axonal projections reach the neurohemal organ, the corpus cardiacum, suggesting that the DH neuroendocrine system is conserved in Lepidoptera. By injection of chemically synthetic DH and anti-FXPRLa antibody into female pupae, we revealed that not only does the Orgyia DH induce embryonic diapause, but also that this neuropeptide induces seasonal polyphenism, participating in the hypertrophy of follicles and ovaries. In addition, the other four FXPRLa also induced embryonic diapause in O. thyellina, but not in Bombyx mori. This is the first study showing that a neuropeptide has a pleiotropic effect in seasonal reproductive polyphenism to accomplish seasonal adaptation. We also show that a novel factor (i.e., the DH neuropeptide) acts as an important inducer of seasonal polyphenism underlying a life-history tradeoff. Furthermore, we speculate that there must be evolutionary conservation and diversification in the neuroendocrine systems of two lepidopteran genera, Orgyia and Bombyx, in order to facilitate the evolution of coregulated life-history traits and tradeoffs. PMID:21887383

  11. Heteronomous rhythmic activity of neurosecretory cells in the silkmoth.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Kamimoto, Satoshi

    2003-08-21

    Electrical action potentials of neurosecretory cells producing pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and electrocardiograms were recorded from female pupae of Bombyx mori and the correlation between firing activity of the cells and cardiac activity was analyzed. PBAN producing cells localized in the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) generated clusters of action potentials at an interval of 30-60 min. The firing activity rhythm at a middle pupal period was closely related to heartbeat reversal rhythm: an active phase of the cells was usually apparent during anterograde pulse phases. Electrocardiograms at a late pupal period often revealed brief oscillatory potentials (15-25 Hz in frequency) of unknown origin. The firing activity rhythm of PBAN cells closely correlated with the rhythmic appearance of clustered oscillatory potentials. Transection of connectives between the brain and SOG abolished rhythmic activity of the cells. These results suggest that a rhythmic firing activity of the PBAN cell system is heteronomously generated by a cerebral neuronal mechanism and the cerebral mechanism relates the cell system to other neuronal mechanisms controlling cardiac activity and oscillatory potential rhythms. PMID:12873731

  12. Neuropeptides stimulate human osteoblast activity and promote gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Shi, Shushan; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-06-01

    Neuropeptides released from the skeletal nerve fibers have neurotransmitter and immunoregulatory roles; they exert paracrine biological effects on bone cells present close to the nerve endings expressing these signaling molecules. The aims of this study were a systematic investigation of the effects of the neuropeptides substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) on the cell viability and function of the human osteoblasts, and comparing their difference in the role of regulating bone formation. Cultures of normal human osteoblasts were treated with SP, CGRP, VIP, NPY or TH at three concentrations. We found that each of the five neuropeptides induced increases in cell viability of human osteoblasts. The stimulatory action of NPY was the highest, followed by VIP, SP and TH, while CGRP had the lowest stimulatory effect. The viability index of osteoblasts was inversely associated with the concentration of neuropeptides, and positively with the time of exposure. Moreover, the five neuropeptides increased the ALP activity and osteocalcin to different extents in a dose-dependent manner. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly promoted by neuropeptides. The results demonstrated that neuropeptides released from skeletal nerve endings after a stimulus appeared to be able to induce the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts via enhancing GJIC between cells, and further influence the bone formation. These findings may contribute toward a better understanding of the neural influence on bone remodeling and improving treatments related to bone diseases.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Substance P and Neuropeptide Y against laboratory strains of bacteria and oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christopher J; Burnell, Kindra K; Brogden, Kim A

    2006-08-01

    Infection and inflammation of mucosal tissue may induce the production of neuropeptides, specifically Substance P and Neuropeptide Y. Since these neuropeptides are similar to antimicrobial peptides in their amino acid composition, amphipathic design, cationic charge, and size, we wanted to determine if they had antimicrobial activity against a panel of common bacteria and oral microorganisms using the radial diffusion assay. Neuropeptide Y and Substance P had antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MIC 20.6+/-5.5 microg/ml SEM and 71.5+/-15 SEM microg/ml, respectively), but did not have activity against laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (MIC>500 microg/ml) nor oral strains of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (MIC>500 microg/ml). While Substance P and Neuropeptide Y did not have direct antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested, they still may stimulate local epithelial cells to produce other innate immune factors like defensins and cathelicidins. However, this remains to be determined.

  14. Neuropeptide F peptides act through unique signaling pathways to affect cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Setzu, M; Biolchini, M; Lilliu, A; Manca, M; Muroni, P; Poddighe, S; Bass, C; Angioy, A M; Nichols, R

    2012-02-01

    Elucidating how neuropeptides affect physiology may result in delineating peptidergic mechanisms and identifying antagonists for application in basic and translational science. Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates cardiac activity; frequently invertebrates contain orthologs of vertebrate peptides. We report invertebrate NPY-like neuropeptide F (NPF) arrested the signal frequency of the slow phase of the cardiac cycle (EC50 = 1 pM); however, signal frequency of the fast phase was affected only minimally. Neuropeptide F decreased the duration of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 0.6 pM), but increased the duration of the fast phase by ~57% (EC50 = 10nM). Short NPF-1 (sNPF-1) decreased the signal frequency of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 9 nM); yet, signal frequency of the fast phase was unaffected. Short NPF-1 decreased the duration of the slow phase ~55% (EC50 ~50 nM), but increased the duration of the fast phase ~20% without dose dependency. Neuropeptide F and sNPF-1 increased isoelectric period duration. This novel report demonstrated NPY-like peptides are cardioactive but functionally unique. These data contribute to understanding how invertebrate orthologs affect cardiovascular activity. Dipteran fast and slow phases may be generated from separate pacemakers in the abdominal heart and in the anterior thoracocephalic aorta, respectively. Thus, our research suggests NPF and sNPF-1 act through different mechanisms to regulate cardiac activity. Invertebrate NPY-like peptides act in olfaction and feeding yet mechanisms which are associated with their cardioactive effects remain unknown; our work may provide evidence linking their roles in sensory response and cardiac activity.

  15. Neuropeptide F peptides act through unique signaling pathways to affect cardiac activity

    PubMed Central

    Setzu, M.; Biolchini, M.; Lilliu, A.; Manca, M.; Muroni, P.; Poddighe, S.; Bass, C.; Angioy, A.M.; Nichols, R.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating how neuropeptides affect physiology may result in delineating peptidergic mechanisms and identifying antagonists for application in basic and translational science. Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates cardiac activity; frequently invertebrates contain orthologs of vertebrate peptides. We report invertebrate NPY-like neuropeptide F (NPF) arrested the signal frequency of the slow phase of the cardiac cycle (EC50 = 1 pM); however, signal frequency of the fast phase was affected only minimally. Neuropeptide F decreased the duration of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 0.6 pM), but increased the duration of the fast phase by ~57% (EC50 = 10 nM). Short NPF-1 (sNPF-1) decreased the signal frequency of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 9 nM); yet, signal frequency of the fast phase was unaffected. Short NPF-1 decreased the duration of the slow phase ~55% (EC50 ~ 50 nM), but increased the duration of the fast phase ~20% without dose dependency. Neuropeptide F and sNPF-1 increased isoelectric period duration. This novel report demonstrated NPY-like peptides are cardioactive but functionally unique. These data contribute to understanding how invertebrate orthologs affect cardiovascular activity. Dipteran fast and slow phases may be generated from separate pacemakers in the abdominal heart and in the anterior thoracocephalic aorta, respectively. Thus, our research suggests NPF and sNPF-1 act through different mechanisms to regulate cardiac activity. Invertebrate NPY-like peptides act in olfaction and feeding yet mechanisms which are associated with their cardioactive effects remain unknown; our work may provide evidence linking their roles in sensory response and cardiac activity. PMID:22289500

  16. Neuropeptide S reduces mouse aggressiveness in the resident/intruder test through selective activation of the neuropeptide S receptor.

    PubMed

    Ruzza, Chiara; Asth, Laila; Guerrini, Remo; Trapella, Claudio; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2015-10-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptor (NPSR). In particular NPS evokes robust anxiolytic-like effects in rodents together with a stimulant and arousal promoting action. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of NPS on the aggressiveness of mice subjected to the resident/intruder test. Moreover the putative role played by the endogenous NPS/NPSR system in regulating mice aggressiveness was investigating using mice lacking the NPSR receptor (NPSR(-/-)) and the NPSR selective antagonists [(t)Bu-D-Gly(5)]NPS and SHA 68. NPS (0.01-1 nmol, icv) reduced, in a dose dependent manner, both the time that resident mice spent attacking the intruder mice and their number of attacks, producing pharmacological effects similar to those elicited by the standard anti-aggressive drug valproate (300 mg/kg, ip). This NPS effect was evident in NPSR wild type (NPSR(+/+)) mice but completely disappeared in NPSR(-/-) mice. Moreover, NPSR(-/-) mice displayed a significantly higher time spent attacking than NPSR(+/+) mice. [(t)Bu-D-Gly(5)]NPS (10 nmol, icv) did not change the behavior of mice in the resident/intruder test but completely counteracted NPS effects. SHA 68 (50 mg/kg, ip) was inactive per se and against NPS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that NPS produces anti-aggressive effects in mice through the selective activation of NPSR and that the endogenous NPS/NPSR system can exert a role in the control of aggressiveness levels under the present experimental conditions.

  17. Neuropeptide Y effects on murine natural killer activity: changes with ageing and cAMP involvement.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, M; Del Río, M; Víctor, V M; Medina, S

    2001-09-15

    Changes in the bidirectional interaction between the nervous and the immune systems have been proposed as a cause of ageing. Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), could show different effects on immune function with age. In the present work, we have studied the in vitro action of a wide range of NPY concentrations, i.e. from 10(-13) to 10(-7) M, on natural killer (NK) activity, a function which decreases with age. Spleen, axillary nodes, thymus and peritoneum leukocytes from mice of different ages: young (12+/-2 weeks), adult (24+/-2 weeks), mature (50+/-2 weeks) and old (72+/-2 weeks) were used. Stimulation by NPY of NK activity was observed in adult and mature animals in axillary nodes and thymus, and an inhibition in the spleen from young mice. The specificity of the NPY effect on cytotoxic activity was confirmed using a C-terminal fragment of NPY. Furthermore, cAMP levels in leukocytes were found to be decreased by NPY in adult mice, suggesting an involvement of this messenger system in the NK modulation by this neuropeptide.

  18. Identification of a Neuropeptide S Responsive Circuitry Shaping Amygdala Activity via the Endopiriform Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Meis, Susanne; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge Ricardo; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Stork, Oliver; Munsch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor are thought to define a set of specific brain circuits involved in fear and anxiety. Here we provide evidence for a novel, NPS-responsive circuit that shapes neural activity in the mouse basolateral amygdala (BLA) via the endopiriform nucleus (EPN). Using slice preparations, we demonstrate that NPS directly activates an inward current in 20% of EPN neurons and evokes an increase of glutamatergic excitation in this nucleus. Excitation of the EPN is responsible for a modulation of BLA activity through NPS, characterized by a general increase of GABAergic inhibition and enhancement of spike activity in a subset of BLA projection neurons. Finally, local injection of NPS to the EPN interferes with the expression of contextual, but not auditory cued fear memory. Together, these data suggest the existence of a specific NPS-responsive circuitry between EPN and BLA, likely involved in contextual aspects of fear memory. PMID:18628994

  19. Neuropeptides in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Stjepana; Walker, Matthew C

    2013-12-01

    Neuropeptides play an important role in modulating seizures and epilepsy. Unlike neurotransmitters which operate on a millisecond time-scale, neuropeptides have longer half lives; this leads to modulation of neuronal and network activity over prolonged periods, so contributing to setting the seizure threshold. Most neuropeptides are stored in large dense vesicles and co-localize with inhibitory interneurons. They are released upon high frequency stimulation making them attractive targets for modulation of seizures, during which high frequency discharges occur. Numerous neuropeptides have been implicated in epilepsy; one, ACTH, is already used in clinical practice to suppress seizures. Here, we concentrate on neuropeptides that have a direct effect on seizures, and for which therapeutic interventions are being developed. We have thus reviewed the abundant reports that support a role for neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin, ghrelin, somatostatin and dynorphin in suppressing seizures and epileptogenesis, and for tachykinins having pro-epileptic effects. Most in vitro and in vivo studies are performed in hippocampal tissue in which receptor expression is usually high, making translation to other brain areas less clear. We highlight recent therapeutic strategies to treat epilepsy with neuropeptides, which are based on viral vector technology, and outline how such interventions need to be refined in order to address human disease.

  20. Sleep-active neuron specification and sleep induction require FLP-11 neuropeptides to systemically induce sleep

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; König, Sabine; Bringmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an essential behavioral state. It is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons that express GABA. However, little is known about how sleep neuron function is determined and how sleep neurons change physiology and behavior systemically. Here, we investigated sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is induced by the single sleep-active neuron RIS. We found that the transcription factor LIM-6, which specifies GABAergic function, in parallel determines sleep neuron function through the expression of APTF-1, which specifies the expression of FLP-11 neuropeptides. Surprisingly FLP-11, and not GABA, is the major component that determines the sleep-promoting function of RIS. FLP-11 is constantly expressed in RIS. At sleep onset RIS depolarizes and releases FLP-11 to induce a systemic sleep state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12499.001 PMID:26949257

  1. Neuropeptides and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zaben, M J; Gray, W P

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is important for modulating the behavioural responses to stress and for certain forms of learning and memory. The mechanisms underlying the necessary coupling of neuronal activity to neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) function remain poorly understood. Within the dentate subgranular stem cell niche, local interneurons appear to play an important part in this excitation-neurogenesis coupling via GABAergic transmission, which promotes neuronal differentiation and integration. Neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and galanin have emerged as important mediators for signalling local and extrinsic interneuronal activity to subgranular zone precursors. Here we review the distribution of these neuropeptides and their receptors in the neurogenic area of the hippocampus and their precise effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. We also discuss neuropeptides' potential involvement in functional aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis particularly their involvement in the modulation of learning and memory and behavior responses.

  2. Physiological Activity of Neuropeptide F on the Hindgut of the Blood-Feeding Hemipteran, Rhodnius prolixus

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ronald; Orchard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Current hypotheses propose that, in the invertebrates, neuropeptide F (NPF), the vertebrate NPY homologue, may be capable of regulating responses to diverse cues related to nutritional status and feeding. An investigation into the effects of Drosophila melanogaster NPF (DrmNPF) and Anopheles gambiae NPF (AngNPF) on hindgut physiology of Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heimptera: Reduviidae) suggests a myoinhibitory role for these peptides and the R. prolixus native peptide. Extracts of the central nervous system of R. prolixus were processed and several HPLC-fractions revealed NPF-like activity within the nanomolar equivalent range when tested using the hindgut contraction assay. Although NPF has been shown to decrease epithelial membrane potential in Aedes aegypti larval midgut preparations, NPF does not appear to play a role in epithelial transport of potassium in the hindgut. While the function of NPF has yet to be established, NPF-like effects suggest multiple physiological roles for NPF among invertebrates. PMID:20050776

  3. Neuropeptide Y receptor mediates activation of ERK1/2 via transactivation of the IGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Sandra; Belemnaba, Lazare; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Bucher, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y binds to G-protein coupled receptors whose action results in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. Using HEK293 cells stably expressing the native neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors, we found that the NPY agonist elicits a transient phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). We first show that ERK1/2 activation following Y1 receptor stimulation is dependent on heterotrimeric Gi/o since it is completely inhibited by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin. In addition, ERK1/2 activation is internalization-independent since mutant Y1 receptors unable to recruit β-arrestins, can still activate ERK signaling to the same extent as wild-type receptors. We next show that this activation of the MAPK pathway is inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126, is not dependent on calcium signaling at the Y1 receptor (no effect upon inhibition of phospholipase C, protein kinase C or protein kinase D) but instead dependent on Gβ/γ and associated signaling pathways that activate PI3-kinase. Although inhibition of the epidermal-growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase did not influence NPY-induced ERK1/2 activation, we show that the inhibition of insulin growth factor receptor IGFR by AG1024 completely blocks activation of ERK1/2 by the Y1 receptor. This Gβ/γ-PI3K-AG1024-sensitive pathway does not involve activation of IGFR through the release of a soluble ligand by metalloproteinases since it is not affected by the metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat. Finally, we found that a similar pathway, sensitive to wortmannin-AG1024 but insensitive to marimastat, is implicated in activation of ERK signaling in HEK293 cells by endogenously expressed GPCRs coupled to Gq-protein (muscarinic M3 receptors) or coupled to Gs-protein (endothelin ETB receptors). Our analysis is the first to show that β-arrestin recruitment to the NPY Y1 receptor is not necessary for MAPK activation by this receptor but that transactivation of the IGFR receptor is required.

  4. The orexin neuropeptide system: physical activity and hypothalamic function throughout the aging process

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Anastasia N.; Perez-Leighton, Claudio Esteban; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a rising medical need for novel therapeutic targets of physical activity. Physical activity spans from spontaneous, low intensity movements to voluntary, high-intensity exercise. Regulation of spontaneous and voluntary movement is distributed over many brain areas and neural substrates, but the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for mediating overall activity levels are not well understood. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of physical activity, which is executed through coordination of multiple signaling systems, including the orexin neuropeptides. Orexin producing neurons integrate physiological and metabolic information to coordinate multiple behavioral states and modulate physical activity in response to the environment. This review is organized around three questions: (1) How do orexin peptides modulate physical activity? (2) What are the effects of aging and lifestyle choices on physical activity? (3) What are the effects of aging on hypothalamic function and the orexin peptides? Discussion of these questions will provide a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding hypothalamic orexin regulation of physical activity during aging and provide a platform on which to develop improved clinical outcomes in age-associated obesity and metabolic syndromes. PMID:25408639

  5. Penultimate proline in neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Glover, Matthew S; Bellinger, Earl P; Radivojac, Predrag; Clemmer, David E

    2015-08-18

    A recent ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) study revealed that tryptic peptide ions containing a proline residue at the second position from the N-terminus (i.e., penultimate proline) frequently adopt multiple conformations, owing to the cis-trans isomerization of Xaa(1)-Pro(2) peptide bonds [J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2015, 26, 444]. Here, we present a statistical analysis of a neuropeptide database that illustrates penultimate proline residues are frequently found in neuropeptides. In order to probe the effect of penultimate proline on neuropeptide conformations, IMS-MS experiments were performed on two model peptides in which penultimate proline residues were known to be important for biological activity: the N-terminal region of human neuropeptide Y (NPY1-9, Tyr(1)-Pro(2)-Ser(3)-Lys(4)-Pro(5)-Asp(6)-Asn(7)-Pro(8)-Gly(9)-NH2) and a tachykinin-related peptide (CabTRP Ia, Ala(1)-Pro(2)-Ser(3)-Gly(4)-Phe(5)-Leu(6)-Gly(7)-Met(8)-Arg(9)-NH2). From these studies, it appears that penultimate prolines allow neuropeptides to populate multiple conformations arising from the cis-trans isomerization of Xaa(1)-Pro(2) peptide bonds. Although it is commonly proposed that the role of penultimate proline residues is to protect peptides from enzymatic degradation, the present results indicate that penultimate proline residues also are an important means of increasing the conformational heterogeneity of neuropeptides.

  6. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    PubMed Central

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation. PMID:25714881

  7. Activation of Neuropeptide Y Receptors Modulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Physiology and Exerts Neuroprotective Actions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Elvas, Filipe; Brudzewsky, Dan; Martins, Tânia; Kolomiets, Bogdan; Tralhão, Pedro; Gøtzsche, Casper R.; Cavadas, Cláudia; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Woldbye, David P. D.; Picaud, Serge; Santiago, Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in mammalian retina but the location and potential modulatory effects of NPY receptor activation remain largely unknown. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a hallmark of several retinal degenerative diseases, particularly glaucoma. Using purified RGCs and ex vivo rat retinal preparations, we have measured RGC intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and RGC spiking activity, respectively. We found that NPY attenuated the increase in the [Ca2+]i triggered by glutamate mainly via Y1 receptor activation. Moreover, (Leu31, Pro34)−NPY, a Y1/Y5 receptor agonist, increased the initial burst response of OFF-type RGCs, although no effect was observed on RGC spontaneous spiking activity. The Y1 receptor activation was also able to directly modulate RGC responses by attenuating the NMDA-induced increase in RGC spiking activity. These results suggest that Y1 receptor activation, at the level of inner or outer plexiform layers, leads to modulation of RGC receptive field properties. Using in vitro cultures of rat retinal explants exposed to NMDA, we found that NPY pretreatment prevented NMDA-induced cell death. However, in an animal model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, pretreatment with NPY or (Leu31, Pro34)−NPY was not able to prevent apoptosis or rescue RGCs. In conclusion, we found modulatory effects of NPY application that for the first time were detected at the level of RGCs. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether NPY neuroprotective actions detected in retinal explants can be translated into animal models of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:26311075

  8. Activation of Neuropeptide Y Receptors Modulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Physiology and Exerts Neuroprotective Actions In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Martins, João; Elvas, Filipe; Brudzewsky, Dan; Martins, Tânia; Kolomiets, Bogdan; Tralhão, Pedro; Gøtzsche, Casper R; Cavadas, Cláudia; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Woldbye, David P D; Picaud, Serge; Santiago, Ana R; Ambrósio, António F

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in mammalian retina but the location and potential modulatory effects of NPY receptor activation remain largely unknown. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a hallmark of several retinal degenerative diseases, particularly glaucoma. Using purified RGCs and ex vivo rat retinal preparations, we have measured RGC intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and RGC spiking activity, respectively. We found that NPY attenuated the increase in the [Ca2+]i triggered by glutamate mainly via Y1 receptor activation. Moreover, (Leu31, Pro34)-NPY, a Y1/Y5 receptor agonist, increased the initial burst response of OFF-type RGCs, although no effect was observed on RGC spontaneous spiking activity. The Y1 receptor activation was also able to directly modulate RGC responses by attenuating the NMDA-induced increase in RGC spiking activity. These results suggest that Y1 receptor activation, at the level of inner or outer plexiform layers, leads to modulation of RGC receptive field properties. Using in vitro cultures of rat retinal explants exposed to NMDA, we found that NPY pretreatment prevented NMDA-induced cell death. However, in an animal model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, pretreatment with NPY or (Leu31, Pro34)-NPY was not able to prevent apoptosis or rescue RGCs. In conclusion, we found modulatory effects of NPY application that for the first time were detected at the level of RGCs. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether NPY neuroprotective actions detected in retinal explants can be translated into animal models of retinal degenerative diseases.

  9. Identification of neuropeptide S antagonists: structure-activity relationship studies, X-ray crystallography, and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Carla; Zhang, Yanan; Gilmour, Brian; Graf, Tyler; Fennell, Timothy; Snyder, Rodney; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Reinscheid, Rainer K; Garau, Celia; Runyon, Scott P

    2014-08-20

    Modulation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system has been linked to a variety of CNS disorders such as panic disorder, anxiety, sleeping disorders, asthma, obesity, PTSD, and substance abuse. In this study, a series of diphenyltetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-α]pyrazin-3(5H)-ones were synthesized and evaluated for antagonist activity at the neuropeptide S receptor. The absolute configuration was determined by chiral resolution of the key synthetic intermediate, followed by analysis of one of the individual enantiomers by X-ray crystallography. The R isomer was then converted to a biologically active compound (34) that had a Ke of 36 nM. The most potent compound displayed enhanced aqueous solubility compared with the prototypical antagonist SHA-68 and demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic properties for behavioral assessment. In vivo analysis in mice indicated a significant blockade of NPS induced locomotor activity at an ip dose of 50 mg/kg. This suggests that analogs having improved drug-like properties will facilitate more detailed studies of the neuropeptide S receptor system.

  10. Identification of Neuropeptide S Antagonists: Structure–Activity Relationship Studies, X-ray Crystallography, and in Vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system has been linked to a variety of CNS disorders such as panic disorder, anxiety, sleeping disorders, asthma, obesity, PTSD, and substance abuse. In this study, a series of diphenyltetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-α]pyrazin-3(5H)-ones were synthesized and evaluated for antagonist activity at the neuropeptide S receptor. The absolute configuration was determined by chiral resolution of the key synthetic intermediate, followed by analysis of one of the individual enantiomers by X-ray crystallography. The R isomer was then converted to a biologically active compound (34) that had a Ke of 36 nM. The most potent compound displayed enhanced aqueous solubility compared with the prototypical antagonist SHA-68 and demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic properties for behavioral assessment. In vivo analysis in mice indicated a significant blockade of NPS induced locomotor activity at an ip dose of 50 mg/kg. This suggests that analogs having improved drug-like properties will facilitate more detailed studies of the neuropeptide S receptor system. PMID:24964000

  11. Modulation of Vasomotive Activity in Rabbit External Ophthalmic Artery by Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Esmeralda Sofia Costa; Marques-Neves, Carlos; Rocha, Maria Isabel Sousa; Sales-Luís, José Paulo Pacheco; Silva-Carvalho, Luís Filipe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the vasomotive activity upon the external ophthalmic artery of vasointestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) using a previously developed model. Methods. Isolated rabbit eyes (n = 12) were perfused in situ with tyrode through the external ophthalmic artery. Effects of intra-arterial injections of NPY 200 μg/ml (Group A; n = 6) and VIP 200 μg/ml (Group B; n = 6) on the recorded pressure were obtained. For statistical analysis, Student's paired t-test and Fast Fourier Transform were used. Results. Spontaneous oscillations were observed before any drug administration in the 12 rabbit models. NPY produced an increase in total vascular resistance and a higher frequency and amplitude of oscillations, while VIP evoked the opposite effects. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of vasomotion in basal conditions in rabbit external ophthalmic artery. Concerning drug effects, NPY increased arterial resistance and enhanced vasomotion while VIP produced opposite effects which demonstrates their profound influence in arterial vasomotion. PMID:22496962

  12. The stress response neuropeptide CRF increases amyloid-β production by regulating γ-secretase activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Ran, Yong; Jung, Joo In; Holmes, Oliver; Price, Ashleigh R; Smithson, Lisa; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Han, Chul; Wolfe, Michael S; Daaka, Yehia; Ryabinin, Andrey E; Kim, Seong-Hun; Hauger, Richard L; Golde, Todd E; Felsenstein, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    The biological underpinnings linking stress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk are poorly understood. We investigated how corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), a critical stress response mediator, influences amyloid-β (Aβ) production. In cells, CRF treatment increases Aβ production and triggers CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) and γ-secretase internalization. Co-immunoprecipitation studies establish that γ-secretase associates with CRFR1; this is mediated by β-arrestin binding motifs. Additionally, CRFR1 and γ-secretase co-localize in lipid raft fractions, with increased γ-secretase accumulation upon CRF treatment. CRF treatment also increases γ-secretase activityin vitro, revealing a second, receptor-independent mechanism of action. CRF is the first endogenous neuropeptide that can be shown to directly modulate γ-secretase activity. Unexpectedly, CRFR1 antagonists also increased Aβ. These data collectively link CRF to increased Aβ through γ-secretase and provide mechanistic insight into how stress may increase AD risk. They also suggest that direct targeting of CRF might be necessary to effectively modulate this pathway for therapeutic benefit in AD, as CRFR1 antagonists increase Aβ and in some cases preferentially increase Aβ42 via complex effects on γ-secretase. PMID:25964433

  13. Neuropeptide Y acts in the paraventricular nucleus to suppress sympathetic nerve activity and its baroreflex regulation.

    PubMed

    Cassaglia, Priscila A; Shi, Zhigang; Li, Baoxin; Reis, Wagner L; Clute-Reinig, Nicholas M; Stern, Javier E; Brooks, Virginia L

    2014-04-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a brain neuromodulator that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of energy balance, also acts centrally to inhibit sympathetic nerve activity (SNA); however, the site and mechanism of action are unknown. In chloralose-anaesthetized female rats, nanoinjection of NPY into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) dose-dependently suppressed lumbar SNA (LSNA) and its baroreflex regulation, and these effects were blocked by prior inhibition of NPY Y1 or Y5 receptors. Moreover, PVN injection of Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists in otherwise untreated rats increased basal and baroreflex control of LSNA, indicating that endogenous NPY tonically inhibits PVN presympathetic neurons. The sympathoexcitation following blockade of PVN NPY inhibition was eliminated by prior PVN nanoinjection of the melanocortin 3/4 receptor inhibitor SHU9119. Moreover, presympathetic neurons, identified immunohistochemically using cholera toxin b neuronal tract tracing from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), express NPY Y1 receptor immunoreactivity, and patch-clamp recordings revealed that both NPY and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) inhibit and stimulate, respectively, PVN-RVLM neurons. Collectively, these data suggest that PVN NPY inputs converge with α-MSH to influence presympathetic neurons. Together these results identify endogenous NPY as a novel and potent inhibitory neuromodulator within the PVN that may contribute to changes in SNA that occur in states associated with altered energy balance, such as obesity and pregnancy. PMID:24535439

  14. Crustacean neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2010-12-01

    Crustaceans have long been used for peptide research. For example, the process of neurosecretion was first formally demonstrated in the crustacean X-organ-sinus gland system, and the first fully characterized invertebrate neuropeptide was from a shrimp. Moreover, the crustacean stomatogastric and cardiac nervous systems have long served as models for understanding the general principles governing neural circuit functioning, including modulation by peptides. Here, we review the basic biology of crustacean neuropeptides, discuss methodologies currently driving their discovery, provide an overview of the known families, and summarize recent data on their control of physiology and behavior.

  15. Migraine and neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Tajti, János; Szok, Délia; Majláth, Zsófia; Tuka, Bernadett; Csáti, Anett; Vécsei, László

    2015-08-01

    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder. The pathomechanism is not clear, but extensive preclinical and clinical studies are ongoing. The structural basis of the leading hypothesis is the trigeminovascular system, which includes the trigeminal ganglion, the meningeal vasculature, and the distinct nuclei of the brainstem, the thalamus and the somatosensory cortex. This review covers the effects of sensory (calcitonin gene-related peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and substance P), sympathetic (neuropeptide Y) and parasympathetic (vasoactive intestinal peptide) migraine-related neuropeptides and the functions of somatostatin, nociceptin and the orexins in the trigeminovascular system. These neuropeptides may take part in neurogenic inflammation (plasma protein extravasation and vasodilatation) of the intracranial vasculature and peripheral and central sensitization of the trigeminal system. The results of human clinical studies are discussed with regard to the alterations in these neuropeptides in the plasma, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid during or between migraine attacks, and the therapeutic possibilities involving migraine-related neuropeptides in the acute and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache are surveyed.

  16. Stimulation of the sympathetic perimesenteric arterial nerves releases neuropeptide Y potentiating the vasomotor activity of noradrenaline: involvement of neuropeptide Y-Y1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Donoso, M V; Brown, N; Carrasco, C; Cortes, V; Fournier, A; Huidobro-Toro, J P

    1997-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) appears to be involved in the sympathetic regulation of vascular tone. To assess the putative role of NPY in mesenteric circulation, the release and biological effect of NPY were examined after electrical stimulation of perimesenteric arterial nerves. Nerve stimulation with trains of 2-30 Hz increased the perfusion pressure of the arterially perfused rat mesenteric bed in a frequency- and time-dependent fashion. Trains of 15-30 Hz significantly displaced to the left, approximately threefold, the noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor concentration-response curve, in addition to increasing significantly its efficacy. Perfusion with 10 nM exogenous NPY mimicked the electrical stimulation effect, causing a threefold leftward shift of the NA concentration-response curve and increasing the maximal NA response. These effects were antagonized by 100 nM BIBP 3226, indicating the activity of NPY-Y1 receptors. Electrical stimulation of the perimesenteric nerves released immunoreactive NPY (ir-NPY) in a frequency-dependent fashion; the ir-NPY coelutes with synthetic NPY as confirmed by HPLC. Both the electrically induced pressor response and the calcium-dependent release of NPY were obliterated in preparations perfused with 1 microM guanethidine or in rats pretreated intravenously for 48 h with 6-hydroxydopamine, thus revealing the sympathetic origin of these phenomena. Only a small proportion of the total NPY content in the perimesenteric arterial nerves is released after electrical stimulation. Chromatographic studies of the physiological sources of the ir-NPY support that NPY fragments are generated via peptidase degradation. The present findings demonstrate that NPY is released from the perimesenteric arterial sympathetic nerves and acts, via the activation of NPY-Y1 receptors, as the mediator responsible for the potentiation of NA's effect on perfusion pressure in the isolated rat mesenteric bed.

  17. Neuropeptide S promotes wakefulness through activation of the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic and orexinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, P; Shao, Y F; Zhang, M; Fan, K; Kong, X P; Wang, R; Hou, Y P

    2012-04-01

    In spite of the initial and pivotal findings that the newly identified neuropeptide S (NPS) promotes arousal associated with locomotor and anxiolytic-like effects, the mechanisms through which NPS acts to modulate sleep-waking states remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate in the rat the effects of i.c.v. injection of NPS on the EEG, sleep-wake cycle, and brain c-Fos expression. NPS at 0.1 and 1 nmol increased significantly wakefulness (W) during the first 2 h (54.7 ± 3.2 and 64.9 ± 2.1 min, respectively, vs. 41.4 ± 2.5 min seen with saline injections, P<0.01 and P<0.001), accompanied by an increase in EEG high frequency activities (14.5-60 Hz). In the meanwhile, slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) decreased significantly. Ex-vivo Fos immunohistochemistry in the posterior hypothalamus revealed that, as compared with saline-treated rats, NPS enhanced c-Fos expression in histaminergic neurons by 76.0% in the ventral tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) and 57.8% in the dorsal TMN, and in orexinergic neurons by 28.2% in the perifornical nucleus (PeF), 24.3% in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), and 13.7% in the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) of the posterior hypothalamus. The NPS-induced c-Fos expression in histaminergic neurons and orexinergic neurons where NPS receptor (NPSR) mRNA is highly expressed, suggests that NPS activates histaminergic and orexinergic neurons to promote W.

  18. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  19. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XVI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the sixteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  20. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the fifteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  1. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  2. Disruption of diapause induction by TALEN-based gene mutagenesis in relation to a unique neuropeptide signaling pathway in Bombyx

    PubMed Central

    Shiomi, Kunihiro; Takasu, Yoko; Kunii, Masayo; Tsuchiya, Ryoma; Mukaida, Moeka; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Sezutsu, Hideki; Ichida Takahama, Masatoshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide family FXPRLa, which carries the Phe-Xaa-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH2 sequence at the C-terminus, is involved in many physiological processes. Although ligand–receptor interactions in FXPRLa signaling have been examined using in vitro assays, the correlation between these interactions and in vivo physiological function is unclear. Diapause in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is thought to be elicited by diapause hormone (DH, an FXPRLa) signaling, which consists of interactions between DH and DH receptor (DHR). Here, we performed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-based mutagenesis of the Bombyx DH-PBAN and DHR genes and isolated the null mutants of these genes in a bivoltine strain. All mutant silkworms were fully viable and showed no abnormalities in the developmental timing of ecdysis or metamorphosis. However, female adults oviposited non-diapause eggs despite diapause-inducing temperature and photoperiod conditions. Therefore, we conclude that DH signaling is essential for diapause induction and consists of highly sensitive and specific interactions between DH and DHR selected during ligand–receptor coevolution in Bombyx mori. PMID:26497859

  3. Effects of neuropeptide FF and related peptides on the antinociceptive activities of VD-hemopressin(α) in naive and cannabinoid-tolerant mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jia-Xin; Wang, Zi-Long; Li, Ning; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Pei; Tang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Ting; Yu, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Run; Zheng, Ting; Fang, Quan; Wang, Rui

    2015-11-15

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) system has recently been reported to modulate cannabinoid-induced antinociception. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the roles of NPFF system in the antinociceptive effects induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of mouse VD-hemopressin(α), a novel endogenous agonist of cannabinoid CB1 receptor, in naive and VD-hemopressin(α)-tolerant mice. The effects of NPFF system on the antinociception induced by VD-hemopressin(α) were investigated in the radiant heat tail-flick test in naive mice and VD-hemopressin(α)-tolerant mice. The cannabinoid-tolerant mice were produced by given daily injections of VD-hemopressin(α) (20 nmol, i.c.v.) for 5 days and the antinociception was measured on day 6. In naive mice, intracerebroventricular injection of NPFF dose-dependently attenuated central analgesia of VD-hemopressin(α). In contrast, neuropeptide VF (NPVF) and D.NP(N-Me)AFLFQPQRF-NH2 (dNPA), two highly selective agonists for Neuropeptide FF1 and Neuropeptide FF2 receptors, enhanced VD-hemopressin(α)-induced antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the VD-hemopressin(α)-modulating activities of NPFF and related peptides were antagonized by the Neuropeptide FF receptors selective antagonist 1-adamantanecarbonyl-RF-NH2 (RF9). In VD-hemopressin(α)-tolerant mice, NPFF failed to modify VD-hemopressin(α)-induced antinociception. However, both neuropeptide VF and dNPA dose-dependently potentiated the antinociception of VD-hemopressin(α) and these cannabinoid-potentiating effects were reduced by RF9. The present works support the cannabinoid-modulating character of NPFF system in naive and cannabinoid-tolerant mice. In addition, the data suggest that a chronic cannabinoid treatment modifies the pharmacological profiles of NPFF, but not the cannabinoid-potentiating effects of neuropeptide VF and dNPA.

  4. From a marine neuropeptide to antimicrobial pseudopeptides containing aza-β(3)-amino acids: structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Laurencin, Mathieu; Legrand, Baptiste; Duval, Emilie; Henry, Joël; Baudy-Floc'H, Michèle; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Bondon, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of aza-β3-amino acids into endogenous neuropeptide from mollusks (ALSGDAFLRF-NH2) with weak antimicrobial activities allows us to design new AMPs sequences. We find that, depending on the nature of the substitution, these could result either in inactive pseudopeptides or in a drastic enhancement of the antimicrobial activity without high cytotoxicity resulted. Structural studies perform by NMR and circular dichroism on the pseudopeptides show the impact of aza-β3-amino acids on the peptide structures. We obtain the first three-dimensional structures of pseudopeptides containing aza-β3-amino acids in aqueous micellar SDS and demonstrate that hydrazino turn can be formed in aqueous solution. Overall, these results demonstrate the ability to modulate AMPs activities through structural modifications induced by the nature and the position of these amino acid analogs in the peptide sequences. PMID:22320306

  5. The satiety signaling neuropeptide perisulfakinin inhibits the activity of central neurons promoting general activity.

    PubMed

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC(50)=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca(2+) current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPgamma channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPgamma channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  6. The Satiety Signaling Neuropeptide Perisulfakinin Inhibits the Activity of Central Neurons Promoting General Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  7. Neuropeptides and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gábriel, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, a common complication of diabetes, develops in 75% of patients with type 1 and 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes, progressing to legal blindness in about 5%. In the recent years, considerable efforts have been put into finding treatments for this condition. It has been discovered that peptidergic mechanisms (neuropeptides and their analogues, activating a diverse array of signal transduction pathways through their multiple receptors) are potentially important for consideration in drug development strategies. A considerable amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last three decades on human retinal neuropeptides and those elements in the pathomechanisms of diabetic retinopathy which might be related to peptidergic signal transduction. Here, human retinal neuropeptides and their receptors are reviewed, along with the theories relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy both in humans and in experimental models. By collating this information, the curative potential of certain neupeptides and their analogues/antagonists can also be discussed, along with the existing clinical treatments of diabetic retinopathy. The most promising peptidergic pathways for which treatment strategies may be developed at present are stimulation of the somatostatin-related pathway and the pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide-related pathway or inhibition of angiotensinergic mechanisms. These approaches may result in the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor production and neuronal apoptosis; therefore, both the optical quality of the image and the processing capability of the neural circuit in the retina may be saved. PMID:23043302

  8. Activation of Bombyx neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor A4 via a Gαi-dependent signaling pathway by direct interaction with neuropeptide F from silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoyan; Yang, Huipeng; He, Xiaobai; Liao, Yuan; Zheng, Congxia; Zhou, Qi; Zhu, Chenggang; Zhang, Guozheng; Gao, Jimin; Zhou, Naiming

    2014-02-01

    Members of the mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) family serve as neurotransmitters and contribute to a diversity of physiological functions. Although neuropeptide F (NPF), the NPY-like orthologs from insects, have been identified, the NPF receptors and their signaling and physiological functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we established the stable and transient functional expression of a Bombyx orphan G protein-coupled receptor, BNGR-A4, in both mammalian HEK293 and insect SF21 cells. We identified Bombyx mori NPFs as specific endogenous ligands for the Bombyx Neuropeptide GPCR A4 (BNGR-A4) and, accordingly, named the receptor BomNPFR. Our results demonstrated that BomNPFR was activated by synthetic BomNPF1a and BomNPF1b at a high efficacy and by BomNPF2 at a low efficacy. This activation led to a decrease of forskolin or adipokinetic hormone peptide-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, an increase of intracellular Ca(2+), the activation of ERK1/2 signaling and receptor internalization. Moreover, a Rhodamine-labeled BomNPF1a peptide was found to bind specifically to BomNPFR. The results derived from quantitative RT-PCR analysis and dsRNA-mediated knockdown experiments demonstrated the possible role of BomNPFR in the regulation of food intake and growth. Our results provide the first in-depth information on BomNPFR-mediated signaling for the further elucidation of the BomNPF/BomNPFR system in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes. PMID:24374022

  9. Increased neuropeptide Y pressor activity in Goldblatt hypertensive rats: in vivo studies with BIBP 3226.

    PubMed

    Mezzano, V; Donoso, V; Capurro, D; Huidobro-Toro, J P

    1998-01-01

    Nanomoles of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and noradrenaline (NA), administered i.v. to pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, caused nearly equipotent dose-dependent pressor responses in normotensive rats. However, in renovascular Goldblatt hypertensive rats, the dose-response curves for both NPY and NA were significantly displaced to the left, approximately threefold. Intravenous administration of BIBP 3226 (30-180 microg/kg) did not consistently lower blood pressure, per se, but did evoke competitive antagonism of the NPY pressor response in both rat populations. The magnitude of the NPY antagonism evoked by BIBP 3226 was comparable in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The absence of NA antagonism demonstrates the selectivity of the BIBP 3226 blockade.

  10. Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) activates cancer-related pathways and is widely expressed in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, V; Ezer, S; Sundman, L; Hagström, J; Remes, S; Söderhäll, C; Greco, D; Dario, G; Haglund, C; Kere, J; Arola, J

    2014-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from disseminated neuroendocrine cells and express general and specific neuroendocrine markers. Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) is expressed in neuroendocrine cells and its ligand neuropeptide S (NPS) affects cell proliferation. Our aim was to study whether NPS/NPSR1 could be used as a biomarker for neuroendocrine neoplasms and to identify the gene pathways affected by NPS/NPSR1. We collected a cohort of NETs comprised of 91 samples from endocrine glands, digestive tract, skin, and lung. Tumor type was validated by immunostaining of chromogranin-A and synaptophysin expression and tumor grade was analyzed by Ki-67 proliferation index. NPS and NPSR1 expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against NPS and monoclonal antibodies against the amino-terminus and carboxy-terminus of NPSR1 isoform A (NPSR1-A). The effects of NPS on downstream signaling were studied in a human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line which overexpresses NPSR1-A and is of neuroendocrine origin. NPSR1 and NPS were expressed in most NET tissues, with the exception of adrenal pheochromocytomas in which NPS/NPSR1 immunoreactivity was very low. Transcriptome analysis of NPSR1-A overexpressing cells revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, circadian activity, focal adhesion, transforming growth factor beta, and cytokine-cytokine interactions were the most altered gene pathways after NPS stimulation. Our results show that NETs are a source of NPS and NPSR1, and that NPS affects cancer-related pathways. PMID:24915894

  11. Caloric restriction stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons through neuropeptide Y and ghrelin receptors activation

    PubMed Central

    Carmo-Silva, Sara; Botelho, Mariana; de Almeida, Luís Pereira; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is an anti-aging intervention known to extend lifespan in several experimental models, at least in part, by stimulating autophagy. Caloric restriction increases neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and plasma ghrelin, a peripheral gut hormone that acts in hypothalamus to modulate energy homeostasis. NPY and ghrelin have been shown to be neuroprotective in different brain areas and to induce several physiological modifications similar to those induced by caloric restriction. However, the effect of NPY and ghrelin in autophagy in cortical neurons is currently not known. Using a cell culture of rat cortical neurons we investigate the involvement of NPY and ghrelin in caloric restriction-induced autophagy. We observed that a caloric restriction mimetic cell culture medium stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons and NPY or ghrelin receptor antagonists blocked this effect. On the other hand, exogenous NPY or ghrelin stimulate autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Moreover, NPY mediates the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Since autophagy impairment occurs in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, NPY and ghrelin synergistic effect on autophagy stimulation may suggest a new strategy to delay aging process. PMID:27441412

  12. Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

    2013-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma

  13. Neuropeptide FF activates ERK and NF kappa B signal pathways in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-long; Zhang, Xiao-yuan; He, Ning; Sun, Tao; Zhuang, Yan; Fang, Quan; Wang, Kai-rong; Wang, Rui

    2012-11-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) has been reported to play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes. However, little attention has been focused on the downstream signal transduction pathway of NPFF. Here, we used the differentiated neuroblastoma cell line, dSH-SY5Y, which endogenously expresses hNPFF2 receptor, to investigate the signal transduction downstream of NPFF. In particular we investigated the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways by NPFF in these cells. NPFF rapidly and transiently stimulated ERK. H89, a selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), inhibited the NPFF-activated ERK pathway, indicating the involvement of PKA in the NPFF-induced ERK activation. Down-regulation of nitric oxide synthases also attenuated NPFF-induced ERK activation, suggesting that a nitric oxide synthase-dependent pathway is involved. Moreover, the core upstream components of the NF-κB pathway were also significantly activated in response to NPFF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is involved in the signal transduction pathway of NPFF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that nitric oxide synthases are involved in the signal transduction pathway of NPFF, and provide the first evidence for the interaction between NPFF and the NF-κB pathway. These advances in our interpretation of the NPFF pathway mechanism will aid the comprehensive understanding of its function and provide novel molecular insight for further study of the NPFF system.

  14. Electrical kindling of the hippocampus is associated with functional activation of neuropeptide Y-containing neurons.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, M; Monno, A; Samanin, R; Sperk, G; Vezzani, A

    1993-11-01

    The release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was measured from hippocampal slices of rats at stage 2 (preconvulsive stage) and stage 5 (full seizure expression) of electrical kindling of the dorsal hippocampus (upper blade of the dentate gyrus). Spontaneous release in naive rats (9.0 +/- 0.8 fmol/ml every 10 min) was independent of external Ca2+ but was reduced by 38 +/- 3.6% (P < 0.05) during 20 min incubation with 5 microM tetrodotoxin. Spontaneous efflux in naive rats did not differ from that in shams (implanted with electrodes but not stimulated) or in rats kindled to stage 2 and stage 5. Twenty-five, 50 and 100 mM KCl induced a concentration-dependent release of NPY (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 at 25 and 50-100 mM respectively) from slices of shams. The effect of 100 mM KCl was reduced by 94 +/- 1% (P < 0.01) in the absence of Ca2+. Two days after the last stage 2 stimulation and 1 week after the last stage 5 seizure, NPY release was significantly larger than in shams at all KCl concentrations in the stimulated and contralateral hippocampus (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Forty-eight hours after one single after-discharge and 1 month after the last stage 5 seizure, 50 mM KCl induced a significantly larger release of NPY in the stimulated and contralateral hippocampus (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), although the effect was less than during kindling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. [Physiology of the neuropeptides].

    PubMed

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez- Expósito, M J

    In the present review, the characteristics of mammalian neuropeptides have been studied. Neuropeptides are widely distributed not only in the nervous system but also in the periphery. They are synthesised by neurons as large precursor molecules (pre propeptides) which have to be cleaved and modified in order to form the mature neuropeptides. Neuropeptides may exert actions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and/or neurohormones. In the neurons, they coexist with classic transmitters and often with other peptides. After their releasing, they bind to especific receptors to exert their action in the target cell. Most of these receptors belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors. Finally, peptidases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of neuropeptides. Conclusions. In the last years, the number of known neuropeptides and the understanding of their functions have been increased. With these data, present investigations are looking for the treatment of different pathologies associated with alterations in the physiology of neuropeptides.

  16. Possible role of serotonin and neuropeptide Y on the disruption of the reproductive axis activity by perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Fernández-Pérez, B; Lafuente, A

    2015-03-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an endocrine disruptor, whose exposure can induce several alterations on the reproductive axis activity in males during adulthood. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of serotonin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis induced by PFOS in adult male rats. For that, adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. After PFOS exposure, serotonin concentration increased in the anterior and mediobasal hypothalamus as well as in the median eminence. The metabolism of this amine (expressed as the ratio 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA)/serotonin) was diminished except in the anterior hypothalamus, with the doses of 3.0 and 6.0mg/kg/day, being this dose 0.5mg/kg/day in the median eminence. In general terms, PFOS-treated rats presented a decrease of the hypothalamic concentration of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and NPY. A diminution of the serum levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and estradiol were also shown. These results suggest that both serotonin and NPY could be involved in the inhibition induced by PFOS on the reproductive axis activity in adult male rats.

  17. Single Gene Deletions of Orexin, Leptin, Neuropeptide Y, and Ghrelin Do Not Appreciably Alter Food Anticipatory Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gunapala, Keith M.; Gallardo, Christian M.; Hsu, Cynthia T.; Steele, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Timing activity to match resource availability is a widely conserved ability in nature. Scheduled feeding of a limited amount of food induces increased activity prior to feeding time in animals as diverse as fish and rodents. Typically, food anticipatory activity (FAA) involves temporally restricting unlimited food access (RF) to several hours in the middle of the light cycle, which is a time of day when rodents are not normally active. We compared this model to calorie restriction (CR), giving the mice 60% of their normal daily calorie intake at the same time each day. Measurement of body temperature and home cage behaviors suggests that the RF and CR models are very similar but CR has the advantage of a clearly defined food intake and more stable mean body temperature. Using the CR model, we then attempted to verify the published result that orexin deletion diminishes food anticipatory activity (FAA) but observed little to no diminution in the response to CR and, surprisingly, that orexin KO mice are refractory to body weight loss on a CR diet. Next we tested the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormone, leptin, using mouse mutants. NPY deletion did not alter the behavior or physiological response to CR. Leptin deletion impaired FAA in terms of some activity measures, such as walking and rearing, but did not substantially diminish hanging behavior preceding feeding time, suggesting that leptin knockout mice do anticipate daily meal time but do not manifest the full spectrum of activities that typify FAA. Ghrelin knockout mice do not have impaired FAA on a CR diet. Collectively, these results suggest that the individual hormones and neuropepetides tested do not regulate FAA by acting individually but this does not rule out the possibility of their concerted action in mediating FAA. PMID:21464907

  18. Androgen inhibits, while oestrogen enhances, restraint-induced activation of neuropeptide neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Lund, T D; Munson, D J; Haldy, M E; Handa, R J

    2004-03-01

    The hormonal response to stress is enhanced by oestrogen but inhibited by androgens. To determine underlying changes in activity of neuropeptide neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), we examined the effect of oestrogen and androgen treatment on restraint-induced c-fos mRNA, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) heteronuclear RNA, and arginine vasopressin hnRNA expression in the PVN. Male rats were gonadectomized and injected with oestradiol benzoate (EB) or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP; s.c., daily for 4 days). Rats were stressed by restraint for 10 min or 30 min before killing. Other rats were stressed for 30 min and then returned to their home cage for 20 min before killing. Corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone responses to restraint stress were significantly greater in EB-treated rats and lower in DHTP-treated rats at the 30-min timepoint compared to controls. c-fos mRNA increases following stress were augmented by EB but inhibited by DHTP. CRH hnRNA expression increased significantly in the PVN in response to restraint stress, and this increase was augmented by EB treatment, but decreased by DHTP treatment. Vasopressin hnRNA expression was also increased in response to stress, and this increase was attenuated by DHTP. These findings indicate that gonadal hormones influence the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis to stress.

  19. Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES. PMID:24318733

  20. Behavioral effects of neuropeptide Y in F344 rat substrains with a reduced dipeptidyl-peptidase IV activity.

    PubMed

    Karl, Tim; Hoffmann, Torsten; Pabst, Reinhard; von Hörsten, Stephan

    2003-07-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) is involved in several physiological functions by cleavage of dipeptides with a Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequence of regulatory peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY). Cleavage of NPY by DPPIV results in NPY(3-36), which lacks affinity for the Y(1) but not for other NPY receptor subtypes. Among other effects, the NPY Y(1) receptor mediates anxiolytic-like effects of NPY. In previous studies with F344 rat substrains lacking endogenous DPPIV-like activity we found a reduced behavioral stress response, which might be due to a differential degradation of NPY. Here we tested this hypothesis and administered intracerebroventricularly two different doses of NPY (0.0, 0.2, 1.0 nmol) in mutant and wildtype-like F344 substrains. NPY dose-dependently stimulated food intake and feeding motivation, decreased motor activity in the plus maze and social interaction test, and exerted anxiolytic-like effects. More important for the present hypothesis, NPY administration was found to be more potent in the DPPIV-negative substrains in exerting anxiolytic-like effects (increased social interaction time in the social interaction test) and sedative-like effects (decreased motor activity in the elevated plus maze). These data demonstrate for the first time a differential potency of NPY in DPPIV-deficient rats and suggest a changed receptor-specificity of NPY, which may result from a differential degradation of NPY in this genetic model of DPPIV deficiency. Overall, these results provide direct evidence that NPY-mediated effects in the central nervous system are modulated by DPPIV-like enzymatic activity. PMID:12957230

  1. Neuropeptide S facilitates mice olfactory function through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the olfactory cortex.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Peng; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Wang, Hai-Liang; Dai, Li-Rong; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a newly identified neuromodulator located in the brainstem and regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptors (NPSR). High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the olfactory cortex suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPS or co-injection of NPSR antagonist on the olfactory behaviors, food intake, and c-Fos expression in olfactory cortex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. NPS (0.1-1 nmol) i.c.v. injection significantly reduced the latency to find the buried food, and increased olfactory differentiation of different odors and the total sniffing time spent in olfactory habituation/dishabituation tasks. NPS facilitated olfactory ability most at the dose of 0.5 nmol, which could be blocked by co-injection of 40 nmol NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS. NPS administration dose-dependently inhibited food intake in fasted mice. Ex-vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry in the olfactory cortex revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced c-Fos expression in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex (Pir), ventral tenia tecta (VTT), the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt). The percentage of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 88.5% and 98.1% in the AON and Pir, respectively. The present findings demonstrated that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function in mice.

  2. The neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor knockdown modulates activator protein 1-involved feeding behavior in amphetamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and two immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, have been found to be involved in regulating the appetite-suppressing effect of amphetamine (AMPH). The present study investigated whether cerebral catecholamine (CA) might regulate NPY and POMC expression and whether NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) participated in activator protein-1 (AP-1)–mediated feeding. Methods Rats were given AMPH daily for 4 days. Changes in the expression of NPY, Y1R, c-Fos, c-Jun, and AP-1 were assessed and compared. Results Decreased CA could modulate NPY and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) expressions. NPY and food intake decreased the most on Day 2, but Y1R, c-Fos, and c-Jun increased by approximately 350%, 280%, and 300%, respectively, on Day 2. Similarly, AP-1/DNA binding activity was increased by about 180% on Day 2. The expression patterns in Y1R, c-Fos, c-Jun, and AP-1/DNA binding were opposite to those in NPY during AMPH treatment. Y1R knockdown was found to modulate the opposite regulation between NPY and AP-1, revealing an involvement of Y1R in regulating NPY/AP-1–mediated feeding. Conclusions These results point to a molecular mechanism of CA/NPY/Y1R/AP-1 signaling in the control of AMPH-mediated anorexia and may advance the medical research of anorectic and anti-obesity drugs. PMID:24225225

  3. Identification of a platyhelminth neuropeptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hanan H; Humphries, Judith E; Larsen, Martha J; Kubiak, Teresa M; Geary, Timothy G; Maule, Aaron G; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2007-06-01

    We report the characterisation of the first neuropeptide receptor from the phylum Platyhelminthes, an early-diverging phylum which includes a number of important human and veterinary parasites. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) was identified from the model flatworm Girardia tigrina (Tricladida: Dugesiidae) based on the presence of motifs widely conserved amongst GPCRs. In two different assays utilising heterologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the Girardia GPCR was most potently activated by neuropeptides from the FMRFamide-like peptide class. The most potent platyhelminth neuropeptide in both assays was GYIRFamide, a FMRFamide-like peptide known to be present in G. tigrina. There was no activation by neuropeptide Fs, another class of flatworm neuropeptides. Also active were FMRFamide-like peptides derived from other phyla but not known to be present in any platyhelminth. Most potent among these were nematode neuropeptides encoded by the Caenorhabditis elegans flp-1 gene which share a PNFLRFamide carboxy terminal motif. The ability of nematode peptides to stimulate a platyhelminth receptor demonstrates a degree of structural conservation between FMRFamide-like peptide receptors from these two distinct, distant phyla which contain parasitic worms.

  4. The D. melanogaster capa-1 neuropeptide activates renal NF-kB signaling.

    PubMed

    Terhzaz, Selim; Overend, Gayle; Sebastian, Sujith; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A

    2014-03-01

    The capa peptide family exists in a very wide range of insects including species of medical, veterinary and agricultural importance. Capa peptides act via a cognate G-protein coupled receptor (capaR) and have a diuretic action on the Malpighian tubules of Dipteran and Lepidopteran species. Capa signaling is critical for fluid homeostasis and has been associated with desiccation tolerance in the fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The mode of capa signaling is highly complex, affecting calcium, nitric oxide and cyclic GMP pathways. Such complex physiological regulation by cell signaling pathways may occur ultimately for optimal organismal stress tolerance to multiple stressors. Here we show that D. melanogaster capa-1 (Drome-capa-1) acts via the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB) stress signaling network. Human PCR gene arrays of capaR-transfected Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293 cells showed that Drome-capa-1 increases expression of NF-kB, NF-kB regulated genes including IL8, TNF and PTGS2, and NF-kB pathway-associated transcription factors i.e. EGR1, FOS, cJUN. Furthermore, desiccated HEK293 cells show increased EGR1, EGR3 and PTGS2 - but not IL8, expression. CapaR-transfected NF-kB reporter cells showed that Drome-capa-1 increased NF-kB promoter activity via increased calcium. In Malpighian tubules, both Drome-capa-1 stimulation and desiccation result in increased gene expression of the D. melanogaster NF-kB orthologue, Relish; as well as EGR-like stripe and klumpfuss. Drome-capa-1 also induces Relish translocation in tubule principal cells. Targeted knockdown of Relish in only tubule principal cells reduces desiccation stress tolerance of adult flies. Together, these data suggest that Drome-capa-1 acts in desiccation stress tolerance, by activating NF-kB signaling.

  5. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    PubMed

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  6. Neuropeptides in cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1984-12-01

    Neuropeptides can affect cardiovascular function in various ways. They can serve as cotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system; for example, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is released with acetylcholine and neuropeptide Y with norepinephrine from postganglionic neurons. Substance P and, presumably, other peptides can can affect cardiovascular function when released near blood vessels by antidromically conducted impulses in branches of stimulated sensory neurons. In the central nervous system, many different neuropeptides appear to function as transmitters or contransmittes in the neural pathways that regulate the cardiovascular system. In addition neuropeptides such as vasopressin and angiotensin II also circulate as hormones that are involved in cardiovascular control. Large doses of exogenous vasopressin are required to increase blood pressure in normal animals because the increase in total peripheral resistance produced by the hormones is accompanied by a decrease in cardiac output. However, studies with synthetic peptides that selectively antagonize the vasopressor action of vasopressin indicate that circulating vasopressin is important in maintaining blood pressure when animals are hypovolemic due to dehydration, haemorrhage or adrenocortical insufficiency. VIP dilates blood vessels and stimulates renin secretion by a direct action on the juxtaglomerular cells. Renin secretion is stimulated when the concentration of VIP in plasma exceeds 75 pmol/litre, and higher values are seen in a number of conditions. Neostigmine, a drug which increases the secretion of endogenous VIP, also increases renin secretion, and this increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Thus, VIP may be a physiologically significant renin stimulating hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Orphan neuropeptides. Novel neuropeptides modulating sleep or feeding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shinjae; Civelli, Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Neuropeptides form the largest family of modulators of synaptic transmission. Until 1995 some 60 different neuropeptides had been found. With the recognition that all neuropeptides act by binding to G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a new approach relying on the use of orphan GPCRs as targets was designed to identify novel neuropeptides. Thirteen new neuropeptide families have since been discovered. In this review we will describe the orphan GPCR-based approach that led to these discoveries and present its impact on two specific physiological responses, feeding and sleep. In particular, we will discuss the modulatory roles of the hypocretins/orexins and of neuropeptide S in sleep and awakening and those of ghrelin and melanin concentrating hormone in food intake.

  8. Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Arcuate Nuclei Contribute to Elevated Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pregnant Rats: Roles of Neuropeptide Y and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Gotthardt, Laura C; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the contributions of the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei in α-chloralose-anesthetized pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Baseline arterial pressure (AP) was lower, and heart rate (HR), lumbar sympathetic activity, and splanchnic SNA were higher in pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus via bilateral muscimol nanoinjections decreased AP and HR more in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats and decreased lumbar SNA only in pregnant rats. Similarly, after arcuate muscimol nanoninjections, the decreases in AP, HR, and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activities were greater in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats. Major arcuate neuronal groups that project to the paraventricular nucleus express inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) and excitatory α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Inhibition of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 also decreased AP, HR, and lumbar SNA in pregnant rats but not in nonpregnant rats. Conversely, paraventricular nucleus NPY expression was reduced in pregnant animals, and although blockade of paraventricular NPY Y1 receptors increased AP, HR, and lumbar sympathetic activity in nonpregnant rats, it had no effects in pregnant rats. Yet, the sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic effects of paraventricular NPY nanoinjections were similar between groups. In conclusion, the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei contribute to increased basal SNA during pregnancy, likely due in part to decreased tonic NPY inhibition and increased tonic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone excitation of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus.

  9. Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Arcuate Nuclei Contribute to Elevated Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pregnant Rats: Roles of Neuropeptide Y and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Gotthardt, Laura C; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the contributions of the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei in α-chloralose-anesthetized pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Baseline arterial pressure (AP) was lower, and heart rate (HR), lumbar sympathetic activity, and splanchnic SNA were higher in pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus via bilateral muscimol nanoinjections decreased AP and HR more in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats and decreased lumbar SNA only in pregnant rats. Similarly, after arcuate muscimol nanoninjections, the decreases in AP, HR, and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activities were greater in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats. Major arcuate neuronal groups that project to the paraventricular nucleus express inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) and excitatory α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Inhibition of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 also decreased AP, HR, and lumbar SNA in pregnant rats but not in nonpregnant rats. Conversely, paraventricular nucleus NPY expression was reduced in pregnant animals, and although blockade of paraventricular NPY Y1 receptors increased AP, HR, and lumbar sympathetic activity in nonpregnant rats, it had no effects in pregnant rats. Yet, the sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic effects of paraventricular NPY nanoinjections were similar between groups. In conclusion, the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei contribute to increased basal SNA during pregnancy, likely due in part to decreased tonic NPY inhibition and increased tonic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone excitation of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus. PMID:26483343

  10. Role of neuropeptides in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Dvorakova, Magdalena Chottova; Kruzliak, Peter; Rabkin, Simon W

    2014-11-01

    The role of neuropeptides in cardiomyopathy-associated heart failure has been garnering more attention. Several neuropeptides--Neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and their receptors have been studied in the various types of cardiomyopathies. The data indicate associations with the strength of the association varying depending on the kind of neuropeptide and the nature of the cardiomyopathy--diabetic, ischemic, inflammatory, stress-induced or restrictive cardiomyopathy. Several neuropeptides appear to alter regulation of genes involved in heart failure. Demonstration of an association is an essential first step in proving causality or establishing a role for a factor in a disease. Understanding the complexity of neuropeptide function should be helpful in establishing new or optimal therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure in cardiomyopathies.

  11. Neuropeptides as targets for the development of anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Clynen, Elke; Swijsen, Ann; Raijmakers, Marjolein; Hoogland, Govert; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. These seizures are due to abnormal excessive and synchronous neuronal activity in the brain caused by a disruption of the delicate balance between excitation and inhibition. Neuropeptides can contribute to such misbalance by modulating the effect of classical excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. In this review, we discuss 21 different neuropeptides that have been linked to seizure disorders. These neuropeptides show an aberrant expression and/or release in animal seizure models and/or epilepsy patients. Many of these endogenous peptides, like adrenocorticotropic hormone, angiotensin, cholecystokinin, cortistatin, dynorphin, galanin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, neurotensin, somatostatin, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone, are able to suppress seizures in the brain. Other neuropeptides, such as arginine-vasopressine peptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone, enkephalin, β-endorphin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, and tachykinins have proconvulsive properties. For oxytocin and melanin-concentrating hormone both pro- and anticonvulsive effects have been reported, and this seems to be dose or time dependent. All these neuropeptides and their receptors are interesting targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs. Other neuropeptides such as nesfatin-1 and vasoactive intestinal peptide have been less studied in this field; however, as nesfatin-1 levels change over the course of epilepsy, this can be considered as an interesting marker to diagnose patients who have suffered a recent epileptic seizure.

  12. Neuromodulatory function of neuropeptides in the normal CNS.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Adalberto; Salio, Chiara; Ferrini, Francesco; Lossi, Laura

    2011-12-01

    Neuropeptides are small protein molecules produced and released by discrete cell populations of the central and peripheral nervous systems through the regulated secretory pathway and acting on neural substrates. Inside the nerve cells, neuropeptides are selectively stored within large granular vesicles (LGVs), and commonly coexist in neurons with low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, amino acids, and catecholamines). Storage in LGVs is responsible for a relatively slow response to secretion that requires enhanced or repeated stimulation. Coexistence (i.e. the concurrent presence of a neuropeptide with other messenger molecules in individual neurons), and co-storage (i.e. the localization of two or more neuropeptides within individual LGVs in neurons) give rise to a complicated series of pre- and post-synaptic functional interactions with low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters. The typically slow response and action of neuropeptides as compared to fast-neurotransmitters such as excitatory/inhibitory amino acids and catecholamines is also due to the type of receptors that trigger neuropeptide actions onto target cells. Almost all neuropeptides act on G-protein coupled receptors that, upon ligand binding, activate an intracellular cascade of molecular enzymatic events, eventually leading to cellular responses. The latter occur in a time span (seconds or more) considerably longer (milliseconds) than that of low-molecular-weight fast-neurotransmitters, directly operating through ion channel receptors. As reviewed here, combined immunocytochemical visualization of neuropeptides and their receptors at the ultrastructural level and electrophysiological studies, have been fundamental to better unravel the role of neuropeptides in neuron-to-neuron communication.

  13. Insulin increases sympathetic nerve activity in part by suppression of tonic inhibitory neuropeptide Y inputs into the paraventricular nucleus in female rats.

    PubMed

    Cassaglia, Priscila A; Shi, Zhigang; Brooks, Virginia L

    2016-07-01

    Following binding to receptors in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), insulin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and baroreflex control of SNA via a pathway that includes the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Previous studies in males indicate that the sympathoexcitatory response is mediated by α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which binds to PVN melanocortin type 3/4 receptors (MC3/4R). The present study was conducted in α-chloralose-anesthetized female rats to test the hypothesis that suppression of inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) inputs to the PVN is also involved. In support of this, blockade of PVN NPY Y1 receptors with BIBO 3304 (NPY1x), ArcN insulin nanoinjections, and PVN NPY1x followed by ArcN insulin each increased lumbar SNA (LSNA) and its baroreflex regulation similarly. Moreover, prior PVN injections of NPY blocked the sympathoexcitatory effects of ArcN insulin. Finally, PVN nanoinjections of the MC3/4R inhibitor SHU9119 prevented both the acute (15 min) and longer, more slowly developing (60 min), increases in LSNA in response to ArcN insulin. In conclusion, in females, ArcN insulin increases LSNA, in part, by suppressing tonic PVN NPY inhibition, which unmasks excitatory α-MSH drive of LSNA. Moreover, the steadily increasing rise in LSNA induced by ArcN insulin is also dependent on PVN MC3/4R. PMID:27122366

  14. Unique biological function of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for biosynthesis of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Funkelstein, Lydiane; Beinfeld, Margery; Minokadeh, Ardalan; Zadina, James; Hook, Vivian

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptides are essential for cell-cell communication in the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. Production of active neuropeptides requires proteolytic processing of proneuropeptide precursors in secretory vesicles that produce, store, and release neuropeptides that regulate physiological functions. This review describes recent findings indicating the prominent role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for production of neuropeptides from their protein precursors. The role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production was discovered using the strategy of activity-based probes for proenkephalin-cleaving activity for identification of the enzyme protein by mass spectrometry. The novel role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for neuropeptide production has been demonstrated in vivo by cathepsin L gene knockout studies, cathepsin L gene expression in neuroendocrine cells, and notably, cathepsin L localization in neuropeptide-containing secretory vesicles. Cathepsin L is involved in producing opioid neuropeptides consisting of enkephalin, β-endorphin, and dynorphin, as well as in generating the POMC-derived peptide hormones ACTH and α-MSH. In addition, NPY, CCK, and catestatin neuropeptides utilize cathepsin L for their biosynthesis. The neuropeptide-synthesizing functions of cathepsin L represent its unique activity in secretory vesicles, which contrasts with its role in lysosomes. Interesting evaluations of protease gene knockout studies in mice that lack cathepsin L compared to those lacking PC1/3 and PC2 (PC, prohormone convertase) indicate the key role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production. Therefore, dual cathepsin L and prohormone convertase protease pathways participate in neuropeptide production. Significantly, the recent new findings indicate cathepsin L as a novel 'proprotein convertase' for production of neuropeptides that mediate cell-cell communication in health and disease.

  15. Neuropeptide regulation of fear and anxiety: Implications of cholecystokinin, endogenous opioids, and neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mallory E; Choi, Dennis C; Ressler, Kerry J

    2012-12-01

    The neural circuitry of fear likely underlies anxiety and fear-related disorders such as specific and social phobia, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The primary pharmacological treatments currently utilized for these disorders include benzodiazepines, which act on the GABAergic receptor system, and antidepressants, which modulate the monamine systems. However, recent work on the regulation of fear neural circuitry suggests that specific neuropeptide modulation of this system is of critical importance. Recent reviews have examined the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis neuropeptides as well as the roles of neurotrophic factors in regulating fear. The present review, instead, will focus on three neuropeptide systems which have received less attention in recent years but which are clearly involved in regulating fear and its extinction. The endogenous opioid system, particularly activating the μ opioid receptors, has been demonstrated to regulate fear expression and extinction, possibly through functioning as an error signal within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray to mark unreinforced conditioned stimuli. The cholecystokinin (CCK) system initially led to much excitement through its potential role in panic disorder. More recent work in the CCK neuropeptide pathway suggests that it may act in concordance with the endogenous cannabinoid system in the modulation of fear inhibition and extinction. Finally, older as well as very recent data suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may play a very interesting role in counteracting stress effects, enhancing extinction, and enhancing resilience in fear and stress preclinical models. Future work in understanding the mechanisms of neuropeptide functioning, particularly within well-known behavioral circuits, are likely to provide fascinating new clues into the understanding of fear behavior as well as suggesting novel therapeutics for treating disorders of anxiety and fear dysregulation.

  16. Neuropeptides and nasal secretion.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, J N; Kaliner, M

    1991-10-01

    The nasal mucosa is innervated by the sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems. Nociceptive sensory nerves are stimulated by mucosal injury, inhalation of irritants, or mast cell degranulation and release of the calcitonin gene-related peptide, the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A, and other peptides by the axon response mechanism. Sensory nerve stimulation initiates systemic reflexes, such as the sneeze, and central parasympathetic reflexes which release acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and other peptides and lead to glandular secretion. In concert, these proinflammatory neural responses lead to vasodilation, vascular permeability, and glandular secretion. Sympathetic nerves release neuropeptide Y and norepinephrine, potent vasoconstrictors which act to decompress the nasal mucosa and produce nasal patency. The balance between the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic neurotransmitters may regulate nasal homeostasis, whereas the nociceptive sensory system may be held in reserve as a defense mechanism. Dysfunction of these systems may lead to pathological nasal syndromes. In the future, specific neuropeptide agonists and antagonists may be useful for the treatment of human rhinitic diseases. PMID:1928355

  17. Neuropeptides in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Eva; Scheich, Bálint; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2013-12-01

    Dementia conditions and memory deficits of different origins (vascular, metabolic and primary neurodegenerative such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) are getting more common and greater clinical problems recently in the aging population. Since the presently available cognitive enhancers have very limited therapeutical applications, there is an emerging need to elucidate the complex pathophysiological mechanisms, identify key mediators and novel targets for future drug development. Neuropeptides are widely distributed in brain regions responsible for learning and memory processes with special emphasis on the hippocampus, amygdala and the basal forebrain. They form networks with each other, and also have complex interactions with the cholinergic, glutamatergic, dopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways. This review summarizes the extensive experimental data in the well-established rat and mouse models, as well as the few clinical results regarding the expression and the roles of the tachykinin system, somatostatin and the closely related cortistatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioid peptides and galanin. Furthermore, the main receptorial targets, mechanisms and interactions are described in order to highlight the possible therapeutical potentials. Agents not only symptomatically improving the functional impairments, but also inhibiting the progression of the neurodegenerative processes would be breakthroughs in this area. The most promising mechanisms determined at the level of exploratory investigations in animal models of cognitive disfunctions are somatostatin sst4, NPY Y2, PACAP-VIP VPAC1, tachykinin NK3 and galanin GALR2 receptor agonisms, as well as delta opioid receptor antagonism. Potent and selective non-peptide ligands with good CNS penetration are needed for further characterization of these molecular pathways to

  18. Evaluation of insect CAP2b analogs with either an (E)-alkene, trans- or a (Z)-alkene, cis-Pro isostere identifies the Pro orientation for antidiuretic activity in the stink bug.

    PubMed

    Nachman, Ronald J; Wang, Xiaodong J; Etzkorn, Felicia A; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz; Lopez, Juan; Coast, Geoffrey M

    2013-03-01

    The CAP2b neuropeptide family plays an important role in the regulation of the processes of diuresis and/or antidiuresis in a variety of insects. While Manse-CAP2b (pELYAFPRV-NH2) and native CAP2bs elicit diuretic activity in a number of species of flies, native CAP2b sequences have been shown to elicit antidiuretic activity in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus and the green stink bug Acrosternum hilare, the latter being an important pest of cotton and soybean in the southern United States. Analogs of CAP2b containing either a (Z)-alkene, cis-Pro or an (E)-alkene, trans-Pro isosteric component were synthesized and evaluated in an in vitro stink bug diuretic assay, which involved measurement of fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules isolated from A. hilare. The conformationally constrained trans-Pro analog demonstrated statistically significant antidiuretic activity, whereas the cis-Pro analog failed to elicit activity. The results are consistent with the adoption of a trans orientation for the Pro in CAP2b neuropeptides during interaction with receptors associated with the antidiuretic process in the stink bug. In addition, the results are further consistent with a theory of ligand-receptor coevolution between the CAP2b and pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide classes, both members of the '-PRXamide' superfamily. This work further identifies a scaffold with which to design mimetic CAP2b analogs as potential leads in the development of environmentally favorable pest management agents capable of disrupting CAP2b-regulated diuretic/antidiuretic functions.

  19. Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and neuropeptide Y-ergic structures of the enteric nervous system in the carcinoma of the human large intestine.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, Janusz; Łakomy, Ireneusz Mirosław

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at immunohistochemical analysis of potential changes in the enteric nervous system caused by cancer of the large intestine. In this purpose, neurons and nerve fibers of intestinal plexuses containing neuropeptides: vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), in pathologically changed part of the large intestine were microscpically observed and compared. Samples were taken from patients operated due to cancer of the sigmoid colon and rectum. The number of neurons and density of nerve fibres containing neuropeptides found in sections with cancer tissues were compared to those observed in sections from the uninvolved intestinal wall. Changes relating to reductions in the number of NPY-ergic neurons and density of nerve fibres in submucous and myenteric plexuses in the sections with cancer tissues (pathological sections) were statistically significant. A statistically similar presence of VIP-ergic and PACAP-ergic neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses was observed in both the pathological and control sections. On the other hand, in the pathological sections, VIP-ergic nerve fibres in the myenteric plexuses and PACAP-ergic nerve fibres in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were found to be less dense. Analysis revealed changes in pathologically affected part of the large intestine may caused disruption of proper intestinal function. Observed changes in the neural elements which are responsible for relaxation of the intestine may suggest dysfunction in the innervation of this part of the colon.

  20. Neuropeptide S ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the subiculum complex.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Xin, Le; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Ren, Wen-Ting; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide S (NPS), via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPS receptor (NPSR) in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the subiculum complex of hippocampal formation suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory spatial memory. The present study was undertaken to investigate effects of NPS on the scopolamine- or MK801-induced impairment of olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board spatial memory test, and by monitoring Fos expression in the subiculum complex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos-immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPS (0.5 nmol) significantly increased the number of visits to switched odorants in recall trial in mice suffering from odor-discriminating inability induced by scopolamine, a selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, or MK801, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, after training trials. The improvement of olfactory spatial memory by NPS was abolished by the NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS (40 nmol). Ex vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced Fos expression in the subiculum complex encompassing the subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). The percentages of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 91.3, 86.5 and 90.0 % in the S, PrS and PaS, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the subiculum complex, ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 in mice.

  1. Capsaicin-Sensitive Sensory Nerves Mediate the Cellular and Microvascular Effects of H2S via TRPA1 Receptor Activation and Neuropeptide Release.

    PubMed

    Hajna, Zsófia; Sághy, Éva; Payrits, Maja; Aubdool, Aisah A; Szőke, Éva; Pozsgai, Gábor; Bátai, István Z; Nagy, Lívia; Filotás, Dániel; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Brain, Susan D; Pintér, Erika

    2016-10-01

    It is supposed that TRPA1 receptor can be activated by hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Here, we have investigated the role of TRPA1 receptor in H2S-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase in trigeminal ganglia (TRG) neurons, and the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in H2S-evoked cutaneous vasodilatation. [Ca(2+)]i was measured with ratiometric technique on TRG neurons of TRPA1(+/+) and TRPA1(-/-) mice after NaHS, Na2S, allylisothiocyanate (AITC) or KCl treatment. Microcirculatory changes in the ear were detected by laser Doppler imaging in response to topical NaHS, AITC, NaOH, NaSO3 or NaCl. Mice were either treated with resiniferatoxin (RTX), or CGRP antagonist BIBN4096, or NK1 receptor antagonist CP99994, or K(+) ATP channel blocker glibenclamide. Alpha-CGRP(-/-) and NK1 (-/-) mice were also investigated. NaHS and Na2S increased [Ca(2+)]i in TRG neurons derived from TRPA(+/+) but not from TRPA1(-/-) mice. NaHS increased cutaneous blood flow, while NaOH, NaSO3 and NaCl did not cause significant changes. NaHS-induced vasodilatation was reduced in RTX-treated animals, as well as by pre-treatment with BIBN4096 or CP99994 alone or in combination. NaHS-induced vasodilatation was significantly smaller in alpha-CGRP(-/-) or NK1 (-/-) mice compared to wild-types. H2S activates capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves through TRPA1 receptors and the resultant vasodilatation is mediated by the release of vasoactive sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P. PMID:27525636

  2. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of neuropeptide-mediated neurite outgrowth: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Lestanova, Z; Bacova, Z; Bakos, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The present knowledge, regarding the neuronal growth and neurite extension, includes neuropeptide action in the central nervous system. Research reports have brought much information about the multiple intracellular signaling pathways of neuropeptides. However, regardless of the differences in the local responses elicited by neuropeptides, there exist certain functional similarities in the effects of neuropeptides, mediated by their receptors. In the present review, data of the relevant studies, focused on G protein-coupled receptors activated by neuropeptides, are summarized. Particularly, receptors that activate phosphatidylinositol-calcium system and protein kinase C pathways, resulting in the reorganization of the neuronal cytoskeleton and changes in the neuronal morphology, are discussed. Based on our data received, we are showing that oxytocin increases the gene expression of GTPase cell division cycle protein 42 (Cdc42), implicated in many aspects of the neuronal growth and morphology. We are also paying a special attention to neurite extension and retraction in the context of neuropeptide regulation. PMID:27560639

  3. Modulation of Locomotion and Reproduction by FLP Neuropeptides in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Jung; Burton, Tina; Ha, Lawrence; Huang, Zi; Olajubelo, Adewale; Li, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides function in animals to modulate most, if not all, complex behaviors. In invertebrates, neuropeptides can function as the primary neurotransmitter of a neuron, but more generally they co-localize with a small molecule neurotransmitter, as is commonly seen in vertebrates. Because a single neuron can express multiple neuropeptides and because neuropeptides can bind to multiple G protein-coupled receptors, neuropeptide actions increase the complexity by which the neural connectome can be activated or inhibited. Humans are estimated to have 90 plus neuropeptide genes; by contrast, nematodes, a relatively simple organism, have a slightly larger complement of neuropeptide genes. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has over 100 neuropeptide-encoding genes, of which at least 31 genes encode peptides of the FMRFamide family. To understand the function of this large FMRFamide peptide family, we isolated knockouts of different FMRFamide-encoding genes and generated transgenic animals in which the peptides are overexpressed. We assayed these animals on two basic behaviors: locomotion and reproduction. Modulating levels of different neuropeptides have strong as well as subtle effects on these behaviors. These data suggest that neuropeptides play critical roles in C. elegans to fine tune neural circuits controlling locomotion and reproduction.

  4. Modulation of Locomotion and Reproduction by FLP Neuropeptides in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Jung; Burton, Tina; Ha, Lawrence; Huang, Zi; Olajubelo, Adewale; Li, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides function in animals to modulate most, if not all, complex behaviors. In invertebrates, neuropeptides can function as the primary neurotransmitter of a neuron, but more generally they co-localize with a small molecule neurotransmitter, as is commonly seen in vertebrates. Because a single neuron can express multiple neuropeptides and because neuropeptides can bind to multiple G protein-coupled receptors, neuropeptide actions increase the complexity by which the neural connectome can be activated or inhibited. Humans are estimated to have 90 plus neuropeptide genes; by contrast, nematodes, a relatively simple organism, have a slightly larger complement of neuropeptide genes. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has over 100 neuropeptide-encoding genes, of which at least 31 genes encode peptides of the FMRFamide family. To understand the function of this large FMRFamide peptide family, we isolated knockouts of different FMRFamide-encoding genes and generated transgenic animals in which the peptides are overexpressed. We assayed these animals on two basic behaviors: locomotion and reproduction. Modulating levels of different neuropeptides have strong as well as subtle effects on these behaviors. These data suggest that neuropeptides play critical roles in C. elegans to fine tune neural circuits controlling locomotion and reproduction. PMID:26406995

  5. Spinal astrocytes produce and secrete dynorphin neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Andrew; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Fitzsimmons, Bethany; Yaksh, Tony; Hook, Vivian

    2013-04-01

    Dynorphin peptide neurotransmitters (neuropeptides) have been implicated in spinal pain processing based on the observations that intrathecal delivery of dynorphin results in proalgesic effects and disruption of extracellular dynorphin activity (by antisera) prevents injury evoked hyperalgesia. However, the cellular source of secreted spinal dynorphin has been unknown. For this reason, this study investigated the expression and secretion of dynorphin-related neuropeptides from spinal astrocytes (rat) in primary culture. Dynorphin A (1-17), dynorphin B, and α-neoendorphin were found to be present in the astrocytes, illustrated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, in a discrete punctate pattern of cellular localization. Measurement of astrocyte cellular levels of these dynorphins by radioimmunoassays confirmed the expression of these three dynorphin-related neuropeptides. Notably, BzATP (3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate) and KLA (di[3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonyl]-lipid A) activation of purinergic and toll-like receptors, respectively, resulted in stimulated secretion of dynorphins A and B. However, α-neoendorphin secretion was not affected by BzATP or KLA. These findings suggest that dynorphins A and B undergo regulated secretion from spinal astrocytes. These findings also suggest that spinal astrocytes may provide secreted dynorphins that participate in spinal pain processing.

  6. Levodopa replacement therapy alters enzyme activities in striatum and neuropeptide content in striatal output regions of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Engber, T M; Susel, Z; Kuo, S; Gerfen, C R; Chase, T N

    1991-06-21

    The effects of striatal dopamine denervation and levodopa replacement therapy on neuronal populations in the rat striatum were assessed by measurement of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activities in the striatum, dynorphin and substance P concentrations in the substantia nigra, and enkephalin concentration in the globus pallidus. Rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway were treated for 21 days with levodopa (100 mg/kg/day, i.p., with 25 mg/kg benserazide) on either an intermittent (b.i.d.) or continuous (osmotic pump infusion) regimen and sacrificed following a three day drug washout. In saline-treated control rats, striatal GAD activity and globus pallidus enkephalin content were elevated and nigral substance P content was reduced ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA lesion. Intermittent levodopa treatment further increased GAD activity, decreased CAT activity, restored substance P to control levels, markedly increased dynorphin content, and had no effect on enkephalin. In contrast, continuous levodopa elevated globus pallidus enkephalin beyond the levels occurring with denervation, but had no effect on any of the other neurochemical measures. These results indicate that striatal neuronal populations are differentially affected by chronic levodopa therapy and by the continuous or intermittent nature of the treatment regimen. With the exception of substance P, levodopa did not reverse the effects of the 6-OHDA lesion but, rather, either exacerbated the lesion-induced changes (e.g. GAD and enkephalin) or altered neurochemical markers which had been unaffected by the lesion (e.g. CAT and dynorphin).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1717109

  7. Intracellular Na+, K+ and Cl- activities in Acheta domesticus Malpighian tubules and the response to a diuretic kinin neuropeptide.

    PubMed

    Coast, Geoffrey M

    2012-08-15

    The mechanism of primary urine production and the activity of a diuretic kinin, Achdo-KII, were investigated in malpighian tubules of Acheta domesticus by measuring intracellular Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) activities, basolateral membrane voltage (V(b)), fluid secretion and transepithelial ion transport. Calculated electrochemical gradients for K(+) and Cl(-) across the basolateral membrane show they are actively transported into principal cells, and basolateral Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels do not contribute to net transepithelial K(+) transport and fluid secretion. A basolateral Cl(-) conductance was revealed after the blockade of K(+) channels with Ba(2+), and a current carried by the passive outward movement of Cl(-) accounts for the hyperpolarization of V(b) in response to Ba(2+). Ion uptake via Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransport, driven by the inwardly directed Na(+) electrochemical gradient, is thermodynamically feasible, and is consistent with the actions of bumetanide, which reduces fluid secretion and both Na(+) and K(+) transport. The Na(+) gradient is maintained by its extrusion across the apical membrane and by a basolateral ouabain-sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Achdo-KII has no significant effect on the intracellular ion activities or V(b). Electrochemical gradients across the apical membrane were estimated from previously published values for the levels of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) in the secreted fluid. The electrochemical gradient for Cl(-) favours passive movement into the lumen, but falls towards zero after stimulation by Achdo-KII. This coincides with a twofold increase in Cl(-) transport, which is attributed to the opening of an apical Cl(-) conductance, which depolarises the apical membrane voltage.

  8. Neuropeptides and steroid hormones in arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cerinic, M M; Konttinen, Y; Generini, S; Cutolo, M

    1998-05-01

    Primary afferent nociceptive and peptidergic efferent nerves are sensitized in arthritis and thus easily stimulated by mechanical and chemical stimuli. This leads to increased or disturbed release of neuropeptides from nerve terminals. This local (at the site of stimulation), expanded (expanded and additional receptive fields), and remote (cross-spinal reflexes) neuropeptide release leads to disturbed tissue homeostasis and neurogenic inflammation. In arthritis, raised levels of neuropeptides were detected in the synovial fluid, whereas nerve fibers were lacking in the synovial tissue. It has been hypothesized that cycles of nerve fiber destruction and degeneration follow the cycles of joint inflammation. This evidence suggests that the peripheral nervous system, through its neuropeptides, may contribute to the generation of inflammation, i.e., "neurogenic inflammation." Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function and sex hormone status have been suggested to contribute to the development and persistence of arthritis. In particular, current evidence indicates that glucocorticoid secretion is closely and reciprocally interrelated with inflammation, and that an adrenal insufficiency is present in many forms of immune-mediated arthritis. Conversely, gonadal steroids seem to play a central role as predisposing factors in many forms of arthritis, with estrogens involved as immuno-enhancing hormones and androgens as natural immunosuppressors. Functional receptors for sex hormones have been described in cells involved in the immune response and, after activation, the hormone-receptor complex might modulate the expression of selected cytokines. The possibility of targeting the efferent nerves with specific peptides and replacement therapies with selected steroid hormones may represent a new and potentially efficient and natural system of modulation of the arthritis.

  9. The role of neuropeptides in sleep modulation.

    PubMed

    Prospéro-García, Oscar; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica

    2004-10-01

    Several neuropeptides affect the sleep-wake cycle, for example, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin octapeptide, orexin, somatostatin, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y and cortistatin, which regulate food ingestion. There are also proteins from the immunological system: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, as well as trophic molecules, such as growth hormone-releasing hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin-4. Based on this information, we believe that some functions of sleep can be suggested. One of these functions could be the regulation of energy, since many, if not all, of the neuropeptides that regulate feeding affect the level of alertness. Likewise, the immunological system and the trophic molecules establish a dialog with the brain during sleep in order to reestablish neuronal structure. These proteins are the expression of genes that accomplish the function of regulating our waking and our sleep, suggesting the important control the genome is exerting on this activity.

  10. Monoaminergic activity in subregions of raphé nuclei elicited by prior stress and the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor.

    PubMed

    Summers, C H; Kampshoff, J L; Ronan, P J; Lowry, C A; Prestbo, A A; Korzan, W J; Renner, K J

    2003-12-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates neuroendocrine responses to stressful stimuli; one mechanism through which CRF may modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is via actions on neuromodulatory systems such as serotonergic systems. Recent electrophysiological studies and the distribution of CRF receptors within midbrain and pontine raphé nuclei suggest that stress and CRF may have actions on topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurones. We compared the effects of vehicle or intracerebroventricular r/hCRF injections (0, 0.1, 1 or 10 micro g) in rats previously maintained in home cages or restrained for 1 h, 24 h before injection, on monoamine and monoamine metabolite tissue concentrations in the dorsal (lateral wings, rostral midline, caudal midline), median (rostral, caudal) and interfascicular raphé subdivisions of the midbrain and pontine raphé nuclei, using brain microdissection and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. At the lowest dose studied (0.1 micro g), CRF infusions in previously stressed rats decreased 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations only within the rostral median raphé nucleus. At higher doses, CRF infusions in previously stressed rats increased tissue concentrations of 5-HTP, serotonin (5-HT), or the serotonin metabolite, 5-HIAA, within rostral (but not caudal) regions of the median and dorsal raphé nuclei. By contrast, restraint stress alone had no effect on tissue concentrations of 5-HTP, 5-HT or 5-HIAA measured 24 h later in any subdivision, while CRF injections in rats not previously exposed to restraint stress, with few exceptions, also had no effect. These results suggest that the effects of CRF on serotonergic function are context-dependent, dose-dependent, and regionally specific within subdivisions of the brainstem raphé nuclei. PMID:14636174

  11. Neuropeptides as therapeutic targets in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Lin, En-Ju D

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the classical neurotransmitters, neuropeptides represent an important class of modulators for affective behaviors and associated disorders, such as anxiety disorders. Many neuropeptides are abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in emotional processing and anxiety behaviors. Moreover, risk factors for anxiety disorders such as stress modulate the expression of various neuropeptides in the brain. Due to the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and yet limited treatment options, there is a clear need for more effective therapeutics. In this regard, the various neuropeptides represent exciting candidates for new therapeutic designs. In this review, I will provide an up-to-date summary on the evidences for the involvement of seven neuropeptides in anxiety: corticotropin-releasing factor, urocortins, vasopressin, oxytocin, substance P, neuropeptide Y and galanin. This review will cover the behavioral effects of these neuropeptides in animal models of anxiety by both genetic and pharmacological manipulations. Human studies indicating a role for these neuropeptides in anxiety disorders will also be discussed.

  12. Neuropeptides, via specific receptors, regulate T cell adhesion to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Levite, M; Cahalon, L; Hershkoviz, R; Steinman, L; Lider, O

    1998-01-15

    The ability of T cells to adhere to and interact with components of the blood vessel walls and the extracellular matrix is essential for their extravasation and migration into inflamed sites. We have found that the beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion of resting human T cells to fibronectin, a major glycoprotein component of the extracellular matrix, is induced by physiologic concentrations of three neuropeptides: calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin; each acts via its own specific receptor on the T cell membrane. In contrast, substance P (SP), which coexists with CGRP in the majority of peripheral endings of sensory nerves, including those innervating the lymphoid organs, blocks T cell adhesion to fibronectin when induced by CGRP, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, and PMA. Inhibition of T cell adhesion was obtained both by the intact SP peptide and by its 1-4 N-terminal and its 4-11, 5-11, and 6-11 C-terminal fragments, used at similar nanomolar concentrations. The inhibitory effects of the parent SP peptide and its fragments were abrogated by an SP NK-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting they all act through the same SP NK-1 receptor. These findings suggest that neuropeptides, by activating their specific T cell-expressed receptors, can provide the T cells with both positive (proadhesive) and negative (antiadhesive) signals and thereby regulate their function. Thus, neuropeptides may influence diverse physiologic processes involving integrins, including leukocyte-mediated migration and inflammation. PMID:9551939

  13. Neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors: drug targets, and peptide and non-peptide ligands: a tribute to Prof. Dieter Seebach.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Daniel; Bartfai, Tamas

    2012-11-01

    The number of neuropeptides and their corresponding receptors has increased steadily over the last fourty years: initially, peptides were isolated from gut or brain (e.g., Substance P, somatostatin), then by targeted mining in specific regions (e.g., cortistatin, orexin in the brain), or by deorphanization of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; orexin, ghrelin receptors) and through the completion the Human Genome Project. Neuropeptides (and their receptors) have regionally restricted distributions in the central and peripheral nervous system. The neuropeptide signaling is somewhat more distinct spatially than signaling with classical, low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters that are more widely expressed, and, therefore, one assumes that drugs acting at neuropeptide receptors may have more selective pharmacological actions with possibly fewer side effects than drugs acting on glutamatergic, GABAergic, monoaminergic, or cholinergic systems. Neuropeptide receptors, which may have a few or multiple subtypes and splice variants, belong almost exclusively to the GPCR family also known as seven-transmembrane receptors (7TM), a favorite class of drug targets in the pharmaceutical industry. Most neuropeptides are co-stored and co-released with classic neurotransmitters, albeit often only at higher frequencies of stimulation or at bursting activity, thus restricting the neuropeptide signaling to specific circumstances, another reason to assume that neuropeptide drug mimics may have less side effects. Neuropeptides possess a wide spectrum of functions from neurohormone, neurotransmitter to growth factor, but also as key inflammatory mediators. Neuropeptides become 'active' when the nervous system is challenged, e.g., by stress, injury, drug abuse, or neuropsychiatric disorders with genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental components. The unsuspected number of true neuropeptides and their cognate receptors provides opportunities to identify novel targets for the treatment of

  14. Neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors: drug targets, and peptide and non-peptide ligands: a tribute to Prof. Dieter Seebach.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Daniel; Bartfai, Tamas

    2012-11-01

    The number of neuropeptides and their corresponding receptors has increased steadily over the last fourty years: initially, peptides were isolated from gut or brain (e.g., Substance P, somatostatin), then by targeted mining in specific regions (e.g., cortistatin, orexin in the brain), or by deorphanization of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; orexin, ghrelin receptors) and through the completion the Human Genome Project. Neuropeptides (and their receptors) have regionally restricted distributions in the central and peripheral nervous system. The neuropeptide signaling is somewhat more distinct spatially than signaling with classical, low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters that are more widely expressed, and, therefore, one assumes that drugs acting at neuropeptide receptors may have more selective pharmacological actions with possibly fewer side effects than drugs acting on glutamatergic, GABAergic, monoaminergic, or cholinergic systems. Neuropeptide receptors, which may have a few or multiple subtypes and splice variants, belong almost exclusively to the GPCR family also known as seven-transmembrane receptors (7TM), a favorite class of drug targets in the pharmaceutical industry. Most neuropeptides are co-stored and co-released with classic neurotransmitters, albeit often only at higher frequencies of stimulation or at bursting activity, thus restricting the neuropeptide signaling to specific circumstances, another reason to assume that neuropeptide drug mimics may have less side effects. Neuropeptides possess a wide spectrum of functions from neurohormone, neurotransmitter to growth factor, but also as key inflammatory mediators. Neuropeptides become 'active' when the nervous system is challenged, e.g., by stress, injury, drug abuse, or neuropsychiatric disorders with genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental components. The unsuspected number of true neuropeptides and their cognate receptors provides opportunities to identify novel targets for the treatment of

  15. Neuropeptide Y: A stressful review

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Holzer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stress is defined as an adverse condition that disturbs the homeostasis of the body and activates adaptation responses. Among the many pathways and mediators involved, neuropeptide Y (NPY) stands out due to its unique stress-relieving, anxiolytic and neuroprotective properties. Stress exposure alters the biosynthesis of NPY in distinct brain regions, the magnitude and direction of this effect varying with the duration and type of stress. NPY is expressed in particular neurons of the brainstem, hypothalamus and limbic system, which explains why NPY has an impact on stress-related changes in emotional-affective behaviour and feeding as well as on stress coping. The biological actions of NPY in mammals are mediated by the Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptor, Y1 receptor stimulation being anxiolytic whereas Y2 receptor activation is anxiogenic. Emerging evidence attributes NPY a role in stress resilience, the ability to cope with stress. Thus there is a negative correlation between stress-induced behavioural disruption and cerebral NPY expression in animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder. Exogenous NPY prevents the negative consequences of stress, and polymorphisms of the NPY gene are predictive of impaired stress processing and increased risk of neuropsychiatric diseases. Stress is also a factor contributing to, and resulting from, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, in which NPY appears to play an important neuroprotective role. This review summarizes the evidence for an implication of NPY in stress-related and neurodegenerative pathologies and addresses the cerebral NPY system as a therapeutic target. PMID:26441327

  16. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  17. Effect of total or partial uterus extirpation on sympathetic uterus-projecting neurons in porcine inferior mesenteric ganglion. B. Changes in expression of neuropeptide Y, galanin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating peptide, somatostatin and substance P.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, K

    2003-01-01

    The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM) and substance P (SP) was studied in the neurons of the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) projecting to the uterine horn and uterine cervix after uterus extirpation-induced axotomy in sexually immature gilts. The expression was studied with immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. Uterus-projecting neurons were identified by retrograde tracing with Fast Blue (FB). Immunohistochemistry revealed that FB-positive (FB+) uterus-projecting neurons in control animals contained only immunoreactivities to NPY (ca. 50%) and GAL (single neurons). Uterus extirpation increased the occurrence of NPY and GAL in FB+ neurons. No other studied neuropeptides were found in axotomized uterus-projecting neurons. Hybridization in situ revealed the reduction of NPY expression and induction of GAL expression in FB+ neurons. RT-PCR detected induction of GAL expression in the IMG after uterus extirpation. The expression level of NPY and SOM was significant and was not affected by axotomy. The expression level of PACAP was very low and did not differ between IMG of control, partially and totally hysterectomized animals. No VIP and SP expression was detected in all ganglia. The presented data show clear axotomy-related changes in the expression of GAL and NPY in the uterus-projecting neurons of the porcine IMG. PMID:12817785

  18. Neuropeptide Y stimulates autophagy in hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Aveleira, Célia A; Botelho, Mariana; Carmo-Silva, Sara; Pascoal, Jorge F; Ferreira-Marques, Marisa; Nóbrega, Clévio; Cortes, Luísa; Valero, Jorge; Sousa-Ferreira, Lígia; Álvaro, Ana R; Santana, Magda; Kügler, Sebastian; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-03-31

    Aging is characterized by autophagy impairment that contributes to age-related disease aggravation. Moreover, it was described that the hypothalamus is a critical brain area for whole-body aging development and has impact on lifespan. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the major neuropeptides present in the hypothalamus, and it has been shown that, in aged animals, the hypothalamic NPY levels decrease. Because caloric restriction (CR) delays aging, at least in part, by stimulating autophagy, and also increases hypothalamic NPY levels, we hypothesized that NPY could have a relevant role on autophagy modulation in the hypothalamus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of NPY on autophagy in the hypothalamus. Using both hypothalamic neuronal in vitro models and mice overexpressing NPY in the hypothalamus, we observed that NPY stimulates autophagy in the hypothalamus. Mechanistically, in rodent hypothalamic neurons, NPY increases autophagy through the activation of NPY Y1 and Y5 receptors, and this effect is tightly associated with the concerted activation of PI3K, MEK/ERK, and PKA signaling pathways. Modulation of hypothalamic NPY levels may be considered a potential strategy to produce protective effects against hypothalamic impairments associated with age and to delay aging. PMID:25775546

  19. The immune effects of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Berczi, I; Chalmers, I M; Nagy, E; Warrington, R J

    1996-05-01

    Current evidence indicates that the neuroendocrine system is the highest regulator of immune/inflammatory reactions. Prolactin and growth hormone stimulate the production of leukocytes, including lymphocytes, and maintain immunocompetence. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis constitutes the most powerful circuit regulating the immune system. The neuropeptides constituting this axis, namely corticotrophin releasing factor, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, and beta-endorphin are powerful immunoregulators, which have a direct regulatory effect on lymphoid cells, regulating immune reactions by the stimulation of immunoregulatory hormones (glucocorticoids) and also by acting on the central nervous system which in turn generates immunoregulatory nerve impulses. Peptidergic nerves are major regulators of the inflammatory response. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide are pro-inflammatory mediators and somatostatin is anti-inflammatory. The neuroendocrine regulation of the inflammatory response is of major significance from the point of view of immune homeostasis. Malfunction of this circuit leads to disease and often is life-threatening. The immune system emits signals towards the neuroendocrine system by cytokine mediators which reach significant blood levels (cytokine-hormones) during systemic immune/inflammatory reactions. Interleukin-1, -6, and TNF-alpha are the major cytokine hormones mediating the acute phase response. These cytokines induce profound neuroendocrine and metabolic changes by interacting with the central nervous system and with many other organs and tissues in the body. Corticotrophin releasing factor functions under these conditions as a major co-ordinator of the response and is responsible for activating the ACTH-adrenal axis for regulating fever and for other CNS effects leading to a sympathetic outflow. Increased ACTH secretion leads to glucocorticoid production. alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone

  20. Neuropeptide Y functions as a neuroproliferative factor.

    PubMed

    Hansel, D E; Eipper, B A; Ronnett, G V

    2001-04-19

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a number of functions in mammalian physiology. Here we identify a role for NPY in promoting proliferation of postnatal neuronal precursor cells. NPY is synthesized in the postnatal olfactory epithelium by sustentacular cells, previously proposed to function only in structural support. Mice with a targeted deletion of NPY contain half as many dividing olfactory neuronal precursor cells as do controls. Furthermore, NPY-deficient mice develop significantly fewer olfactory neurons by adulthood. NPY acts on multipotent neuronal precursor or basal cells to activate rapidly and transiently the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases. The NPY Y1 receptor subtype appears to mediate this effect. The ability of NPY to induce neuronal precursor proliferation is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), indicating an upstream PKC-dependent activation of ERK1/2. These results indicate that NPY may regulate neuronal precursor proliferation in the adult mammal.

  1. Effect of beta-adrenoceptors on the behaviour induced by the neuropeptide glutamic acid isoleucine amide.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Attademo, Andrés; Baiardi, Gustavo; Celis, María Ester

    2007-07-30

    Excessive grooming behaviour is induced by intracerebroventricular injections of the neuropeptide glutamic acid isoleucine amide (neuropeptide-EI), via the activation of A-10 dopaminergic neurons and the noradrenergic system. Our object was to study the latter system involved in these behaviours, using male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g with i.c.v. implants. The results show that all the adrenoceptor antagonists "per se" do not affect excessive grooming behaviour or motor activity. Intracerebroventricular administration of propranolol, a general beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, before neuropeptide-EI, inhibited the induced excessive grooming behaviour in a dose dependent manner. Metoprolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, also blocked this behaviour. However, intracerebroventricular injections of phentolamine, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, and ((+/-)-1-[2,3-(Dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol), a beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, had no effect on the behaviour induced by neuropeptide-EI induced behaviour for any of the doses tested. On the other hand, isoproterenol, a general beta-adrenoceptor agonist and dobutamine, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist, both elicited similar behaviours as those induced by neuropeptide-EI. These results support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between neuropeptide-EI and beta-adrenoceptors, more specifically the beta(1)-adrenoceptor, as found with other similar endogenous peptides such as neurotensin, cholecystin, substance P and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Hence, neuropeptide-EI could probably be exerting a neuromodulating effect on the central nervous system.

  2. Neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to combat stress-associated behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Stress has become an integral part of human life and organisms are being constantly subjected to stress and the ability to cope with such stress is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Neuropeptides (bioactive peptides) play a crucial role in mediating different effects of acute and chronic stress. Some of these neuropeptides including oxytocin, urocortins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuropeptide S, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, endorphins, enkephalins, ghrelin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone primarily attenuate stress and act as anxiolytic. On the other hand, neuropeptides including corticotropin releasing hormone, vasopressin, dynorphin, angiotensin, nesfatin-1, orexin and cholecystokinin primarily tend to promote stress related anxiety behavior. However, these neuropeptide tend to produce different actions depending on the type of receptors, the nature and intensity of the stressor. For example, NPY may exhibit anxiolytic effects by activating NPY1 and Y5 receptors, while pro-depressive effects are produced through NPY2 and Y4 receptors. Galanin may produce 'prodepressive' effects by activating its Gal 1 receptors and exert 'antidepressant' effects through Gal 2 receptors. The present review describes different neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to attenuate stress-induced behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects.

  3. Neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to combat stress-associated behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Stress has become an integral part of human life and organisms are being constantly subjected to stress and the ability to cope with such stress is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Neuropeptides (bioactive peptides) play a crucial role in mediating different effects of acute and chronic stress. Some of these neuropeptides including oxytocin, urocortins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuropeptide S, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, endorphins, enkephalins, ghrelin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone primarily attenuate stress and act as anxiolytic. On the other hand, neuropeptides including corticotropin releasing hormone, vasopressin, dynorphin, angiotensin, nesfatin-1, orexin and cholecystokinin primarily tend to promote stress related anxiety behavior. However, these neuropeptide tend to produce different actions depending on the type of receptors, the nature and intensity of the stressor. For example, NPY may exhibit anxiolytic effects by activating NPY1 and Y5 receptors, while pro-depressive effects are produced through NPY2 and Y4 receptors. Galanin may produce 'prodepressive' effects by activating its Gal 1 receptors and exert 'antidepressant' effects through Gal 2 receptors. The present review describes different neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to attenuate stress-induced behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects. PMID:24625277

  4. RFamide neuropeptide actions on the molluscan ventricle: Interactions with primary neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Moulis, A; Huddart, H

    2006-01-01

    Different RFamide neuropeptides, some of non-molluscan origin, were examined for their effect on the ventricles of Buccinum undatum and Busycon canaliculatum. None of the peptides tested were inhibitory on these ventricles. All the peptides were extremely active, causing excitation of the preparations at low concentrations. The neuropeptides were then tested with the primary neurotransmitters. In the case of serotonin, the excitatory primary neurotransmitter, the RFamide neuropeptides induced a response, which was greatly enhanced by serotonin. Acetylcholine, the inhibitory neurotransmitter, induced relaxation whenever added, following a neuropeptide. The neuropeptides seemed to be independent of external Ca(2+), since in Ca(2+)-free media tension was induced. On the contrary, serotonin was dependent on external Ca(2+). These findings indicate that the neuropeptides generated tension via a different receptor to that of the primary neurotransmitters, using a different 2nd messenger and activating different Ca(2+) sources. Finally, the parent neuropeptide Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2), when added following a different RFamide peptide, excited the preparation further, thus indicating the presence of a receptor that has higher affinity for some structures than others. When Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2) followed Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2), no such response was recorded since the latter is of higher potency than the former.

  5. Specific Activation of the G Protein-coupled Receptor BNGR-A21 by the Neuropeptide Corazonin from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Dually Couples to the Gq and Gs Signaling Cascades*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingwen; Huang, Haishan; Yang, Huipeng; He, Xiaobai; Jiang, Xue; Shi, Ying; Alatangaole, Damirin; Shi, Liangen; Zhou, Naiming

    2013-01-01

    Corazonin, an undecapeptide neurohormone sharing a highly conserved amino acid sequence across Insecta, plays different physiological roles in the regulation of heart contraction rates, silk spinning rates, the induction of dark color and morphometric phase changes, and ecdysis. Corazonin receptors have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, Manduca sexta, and Musca domestica. However, detailed information on the signaling and major physiological functions of corazonin and its receptor is largely unknown. In the current study, using both the mammalian cell line HEK293 and insect cell lines BmN and Sf21, we paired the Bombyx corazonin neuropeptide as a specific endogenous ligand for the Bombyx neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor A21 (BNGR-A21), and we therefore designated this receptor as BmCrzR. Further characterization indicated that synthetic BmCrz demonstrated a high affinity for and activated BmCrzR, resulting in intracellular cAMP accumulation, Ca2+ mobilization, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation via the Gq- and Gs-coupled signaling pathways. The direct interaction of BmCrzR with BmCrz was confirmed by a rhodamine-labeled BmCrz peptide. Moreover, experiments with double-stranded RNA and synthetic peptide injection suggested a possible role of BmCrz/BmCrzR in the regulation of larval growth and spinning rate. Our present results provide the first in-depth information on BmCrzR-mediated signaling for further elucidation of the BmCrz/BmCrzR system in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes. PMID:23457297

  6. Neuropeptides amplify and focus the monoaminergic inhibition of nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hapiak, Vera; Summers, Philip; Ortega, Amanda; Law, Wen Jing; Stein, Andrew; Komuniecki, Richard

    2013-08-28

    Monoamines and neuropeptides interact to modulate most behaviors. To better understand these interactions, we have defined the roles of tyramine (TA), octopamine, and neuropeptides in the inhibition of aversive behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. TA abolishes the serotonergic sensitization of aversive behavior mediated by the two nociceptive ASH sensory neurons and requires the expression of the adrenergic-like, Gαq-coupled, TA receptor TYRA-3 on inhibitory monoaminergic and peptidergic neurons. For example, TA inhibition requires Gαq and Gαs signaling in the peptidergic ASI sensory neurons, with an array of ASI neuropeptides activating neuropeptide receptors on additional neurons involved in locomotory decision-making. The ASI neuropeptides required for tyraminergic inhibition are distinct from those required for octopaminergic inhibition, suggesting that individual monoamines stimulate the release of different subsets of ASI neuropeptides. Together, these results demonstrate that a complex humoral mix of monoamines is focused by more local, synaptic, neuropeptide release to modulate nociception and highlight the similarities between the tyraminergic/octopaminergic inhibition of nociception in C. elegans and the noradrenergic inhibition of nociception in mammals that also involves inhibitory peptidergic signaling.

  7. C. elegans Stress-Induced Sleep Emerges from the Collective Action of Multiple Neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Nath, Ravi D; Chow, Elly S; Wang, Han; Schwarz, Erich M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-09-26

    The genetic basis of sleep regulation remains poorly understood. In C. elegans, cellular stress induces sleep through epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent activation of the EGF receptor in the ALA neuron. The downstream mechanism by which this neuron promotes sleep is unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing of ALA reveals that the most highly expressed, ALA-enriched genes encode neuropeptides. Here we have systematically investigated the four most highly enriched neuropeptides: flp-7, nlp-8, flp-24, and flp-13. When individually removed by null mutation, these peptides had little or no effect on stress-induced sleep. However, stress-induced sleep was abolished in nlp-8; flp-24; flp-13 triple-mutant animals, indicating that these neuropeptides work collectively in controlling stress-induced sleep. We tested the effect of overexpression of these neuropeptide genes on five behaviors modulated during sleep-pharyngeal pumping, defecation, locomotion, head movement, and avoidance response to an aversive stimulus-and we found that, if individually overexpressed, each of three neuropeptides (nlp-8, flp-24, or flp-13) induced a different suite of sleep-associated behaviors. These overexpression results raise the possibility that individual components of sleep might be specified by individual neuropeptides or combinations of neuropeptides.

  8. C. elegans Stress-Induced Sleep Emerges from the Collective Action of Multiple Neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Nath, Ravi D; Chow, Elly S; Wang, Han; Schwarz, Erich M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-09-26

    The genetic basis of sleep regulation remains poorly understood. In C. elegans, cellular stress induces sleep through epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent activation of the EGF receptor in the ALA neuron. The downstream mechanism by which this neuron promotes sleep is unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing of ALA reveals that the most highly expressed, ALA-enriched genes encode neuropeptides. Here we have systematically investigated the four most highly enriched neuropeptides: flp-7, nlp-8, flp-24, and flp-13. When individually removed by null mutation, these peptides had little or no effect on stress-induced sleep. However, stress-induced sleep was abolished in nlp-8; flp-24; flp-13 triple-mutant animals, indicating that these neuropeptides work collectively in controlling stress-induced sleep. We tested the effect of overexpression of these neuropeptide genes on five behaviors modulated during sleep-pharyngeal pumping, defecation, locomotion, head movement, and avoidance response to an aversive stimulus-and we found that, if individually overexpressed, each of three neuropeptides (nlp-8, flp-24, or flp-13) induced a different suite of sleep-associated behaviors. These overexpression results raise the possibility that individual components of sleep might be specified by individual neuropeptides or combinations of neuropeptides. PMID:27546573

  9. Regulation of endogenous human NPFF2 receptor by neuropeptide FF in SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ankö, Minna-Liisa; Panula, Pertti

    2006-01-01

    Neuropeptide FF has many functions both in the CNS and periphery. Two G protein-coupled receptors (NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors) have been identified for neuropeptide FF. The expression analysis of the peptide and receptors, together with pharmacological and physiological data, imply that NPFF2 receptor would be the primary receptor for neuropeptide FF. Here, we report for the first time a cell line endogenously expressing hNPFF2 receptor. These SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells also express neuropeptide FF. We used the cells to investigate the hNPFF2 receptor function. The pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity upon receptor activation indicated coupling to Gi/o proteins. Upon agonist exposure, the receptors were internalized and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade was activated. Upon neuropeptide FF treatment, the actin cytoskeleton was reorganized in the cells. The expression of hNPFF2 receptor mRNA was up-regulated by neuropeptide FF. Concomitant with the receptor mRNA, the receptor protein expression was increased. The homologous regulation of hNPFF2 receptor correlates with our previous results in vivo showing that during inflammation, the up-regulation of neuropeptide FF mRNA precedes that of NPFF2 receptor. The regulation of hNPFF2 receptor by NPFF could also be important in the periphery where neuropeptide FF has been suggested to function as a hormone.

  10. High-affinity neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, A J; Matthews, J E; Slepetis, R J; Jansen, M; Viveros, O H; Tadepalli, A; Harrington, W; Heyer, D; Landavazo, A; Leban, J J

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptide transmitters in the mammalian brain. In the periphery it is costored and coreleased with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals. However, the physiological functions of this peptide remain unclear because of the absence of specific high-affinity receptor antagonists. Three potent NPY receptor antagonists were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo functional assays. We describe here the effects of these antagonists inhibiting specific radiolabeled NPY binding at Y1 and Y2 receptors and antagonizing the effects of NPY in human erythroleukemia cell intracellular calcium mobilization perfusion pressure in the isolated rat kidney, and mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. PMID:7568074

  11. Pharmacological characterization of EN-9, a novel chimeric peptide of endomorphin-2 and neuropeptide FF that produces potent antinociceptive activity and limited tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Long; Li, Ning; Wang, Pei; Tang, Hong-Hai; Han, Zheng-Lan; Song, Jing-Jing; Li, Xu-Hui; Yu, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Run; Xu, Biao; Zhang, Meng-Na; Fang, Quan; Wang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Mounting evidences indicate the functional interactions between neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and opioids, including the endogenous opioids. In the present work, EN-9, a chimeric peptide containing the functional domains of the endogenous opioid endomorphin-2 (EM-2) and NPFF, was synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. In vitro cAMP assay demonstrated that EN-9 was a multifunctional agonist of κ-opioid, NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors. In the mouse tail-flick test, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of EN-9 produced significant antinociception with an ED50 value of 13.44 nmol, which lasted longer than that of EM-2. In addition, EN-9 induced potent antinociception after both intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Furthermore, the experiments using the antagonists of opioid and NPFF receptors indicated that the central antinociception of EN-9 was mainly mediated by κ-opioid receptor, independently on NPFF receptors. Notably, the central antinociception of EN-9 was not reduced over a period of 6 days repeated i.c.v. injection. Repeated i.c.v. administration of EN-9 with the NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors antagonist RF9 resulted in a progressive loss of analgesic potency, consistent with the development of tolerance. Moreover, central administration of EN-9 induced the place conditioning aversion only at a high dose of 60 nmol, but not at low doses. At supraspinal level, only high dose of EN-9 (60 nmol, i.c.v.) inhibited gastrointestinal transit via NPFF receptors. Similarly, systemic administration of EN-9 also inhibited gastrointestinal transit at high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v.). Taken together, the multifunctional agonist of κ-opioid and NPFF receptors EN-9 produced a potent, non-tolerance forming antinociception with limited side effects. PMID:26970017

  12. Pharmacological characterization of EN-9, a novel chimeric peptide of endomorphin-2 and neuropeptide FF that produces potent antinociceptive activity and limited tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Long; Li, Ning; Wang, Pei; Tang, Hong-Hai; Han, Zheng-Lan; Song, Jing-Jing; Li, Xu-Hui; Yu, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Run; Xu, Biao; Zhang, Meng-Na; Fang, Quan; Wang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Mounting evidences indicate the functional interactions between neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and opioids, including the endogenous opioids. In the present work, EN-9, a chimeric peptide containing the functional domains of the endogenous opioid endomorphin-2 (EM-2) and NPFF, was synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. In vitro cAMP assay demonstrated that EN-9 was a multifunctional agonist of κ-opioid, NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors. In the mouse tail-flick test, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of EN-9 produced significant antinociception with an ED50 value of 13.44 nmol, which lasted longer than that of EM-2. In addition, EN-9 induced potent antinociception after both intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Furthermore, the experiments using the antagonists of opioid and NPFF receptors indicated that the central antinociception of EN-9 was mainly mediated by κ-opioid receptor, independently on NPFF receptors. Notably, the central antinociception of EN-9 was not reduced over a period of 6 days repeated i.c.v. injection. Repeated i.c.v. administration of EN-9 with the NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors antagonist RF9 resulted in a progressive loss of analgesic potency, consistent with the development of tolerance. Moreover, central administration of EN-9 induced the place conditioning aversion only at a high dose of 60 nmol, but not at low doses. At supraspinal level, only high dose of EN-9 (60 nmol, i.c.v.) inhibited gastrointestinal transit via NPFF receptors. Similarly, systemic administration of EN-9 also inhibited gastrointestinal transit at high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v.). Taken together, the multifunctional agonist of κ-opioid and NPFF receptors EN-9 produced a potent, non-tolerance forming antinociception with limited side effects.

  13. The action of RFamide neuropeptides on molluscs, with special reference to the gastropods Buccinum undatum and Busycon canaliculatum.

    PubMed

    Moulis, Alexander

    2006-05-01

    The ever-growing RFamide neuropeptide superfamily has members in all animal phyla. Their effects in molluscs, on both smooth and cardiac muscle as well as on neurons, has been studied in detail. These neuropeptides exert a variety of functions: excitatory, inhibitory or even biphasic. Firstly, the literature on the excitatory effect of the RFamide neuropeptides on molluscan muscle and neurons has been reviewed, with greater emphasis and examples from the gastropods Buccinum undatum and Busycon canaliculatum. The peptides seem to be potent activators of contraction, sometimes generating slow tonic force and other times twitch activity. Secondly, the literature on the inhibitory effect of the superfamily has been reviewed. These peptides can exert an inhibitory effect, hyperpolarizing the cells rather than depolarizing them. Thirdly, the neuropeptides may play a variety of other roles, such as contributing to the regulation or maturation process of the animals. There have been cases recorded of RFamide neuropeptides acting as potent venoms in members of the Conus sp. The pathway of action of these multiple roles, their interaction with the parent neurotransmitters acetylcholine and serotonin, as well as the calcium dependency of the RFamide neuropeptides has been discussed, again with special reference to the above mentioned gastropods. A better understanding of the mode of action, the effects, and the importance of the RFamide neuropeptides on molluscan physiology and pharmacology has been attempted by reviewing the existing literature, recognizing the importance of the RFamide neuropeptide actions on molluscs.

  14. Intron-Specific Neuropeptide Probes

    PubMed Central

    Gainer, Harold; Ponzio, Todd A.; Yue, Chunmei; Kawasaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of changes in pre-mRNA levels by intron-specific probes are generally accepted as more closely reflecting changes in gene transcription rates than are measurements of mRNA levels by exonic probes. This is, in part, because the pre-mRNAs, which include the primary transcript and various splicing intermediates located in the nucleus (also referred to as heteronuclear RNAs, or hnRNAs), are processed rapidly (with half-lives <60 min) as compared to neuropeptide mRNAs, which are then transferred to the cytoplasm and which have much longer half-lives (often over days). In this chapter, we describe the use of exon-and intron-specific probes to evaluate oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neuropeptide gene expression by analyses of their mRNAs and hnRNAs by quantitative in situ hybridization (qISH) and also by using specific PCR primers in quantitative, real-time PCR (qPCR) procedures. PMID:21922402

  15. Neuropeptide receptors as potential drug targets in the treatment of inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Erika; Pozsgai, Gábor; Hajna, Zsófia; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Szolcsányi, János

    2014-01-01

    Cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems exists via regulator molecules, such as neuropeptides, hormones and cytokines. A number of neuropeptides have been implicated in the genesis of inflammation, such as tachykinins and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Development of their receptor antagonists could be a promising approach to anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. Anti-inflammatory neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, urocortin, adrenomedullin, somatostatin, cortistatin, ghrelin, galanin and opioid peptides, are also released and act on their own receptors on the neurons as well as on different inflammatory and immune cells. The aim of the present review is to summarize the most prominent data of preclinical animal studies concerning the main pharmacological effects of ligands acting on the neuropeptide receptors. Promising therapeutic impacts of these compounds as potential candidates for the development of novel types of anti-inflammatory drugs are also discussed. PMID:23432438

  16. Hypothalamic neuropeptides and the regulation of appetite.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jennifer A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2012-07-01

    Neuropeptides released by hypothalamic neurons play a major role in the regulation of feeding, acting both within the hypothalamus, and at other appetite regulating centres throughout the brain. Where classical neurotransmitters signal only within synapses, neuropeptides diffuse over greater distances affecting both nearby and distant neurons expressing the relevant receptors, which are often extrasynaptic. As well as triggering a behavioural output, neuropeptides also act as neuromodulators: altering the response of neurons to both neurotransmitters and circulating signals of nutrient status. The mechanisms of action of hypothalamic neuropeptides with established roles in feeding, including melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the orexins, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), agouti-gene related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y, and oxytocin, are reviewed in this article, with emphasis laid on both their effects on appetite regulating centres throughout the brain, and on examining the evidence for their physiological roles. In addition, evidence for the involvement of several putative appetite regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides is assessed including, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide W and the galanin-like peptides. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central control of Food Intake'.

  17. "Neuropeptides in the brain defense against distant organ damage".

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Mike Yoshio; Barbeiro, Hermes Vieira; Barbeiro, Denise Frediani; Cunha, Débora Maria Gomes; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira César; Pinheiro da Silva, Fabiano

    2016-01-15

    Delirium, or acute confusional state, is a common manifestation in diseases that originate outside the central nervous system, affecting 30-40% of elderly hospitalized patients and up to 80% of the critically ill, even though it remains unclear if severe systemic inflammation is able or not to induce cellular disturbances and immune activation in the brain. Neuropeptides are pleotropic molecules heterogeneously distributed throughout the brain and possess a wide spectrum of functions, including regulation of the inflammatory response, so we hypothesized that they would be the major alarm system in the brain before overt microglia activation. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we induced acute pancreatitis in 8-10week old rats and collected brain tissue, 12 and 24h following pancreatic injury, to measure neuropeptide and cytokine tissue levels. We found significantly higher levels of β-endorphin, orexin and oxytocin in the brain of rats submitted to pancreatic injury, when compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, these differences were not associated with increased local cytokine levels, putting in evidence that neuropeptide release occurred independently of microglia activation and may be a pivotal alarm system to initiate neurologic reactions to distant inflammatory non-infectious aggression.

  18. Brain neuropeptides in gastric mucosal protection.

    PubMed

    Gyires, Klára; Zádori, Zoltán S

    2014-12-01

    The centrally induced gastroprotective effect of neuropeptides has been intensively studied. Besides many similarities, however, differences can also be observed in their gastroprotective actions. The gastroprotective dose-response curve proved to be either sigmoid, or bell-shaped. Additional gastrointestinal effects of neuropeptides can contribute to their mucosal protective effect. Part of the neuropeptides induces gastroprotection by peripheral administration as well. Besides vagal nerve the sympathetic nervous system may also be involved in conveying the central effect to the periphery. Better understanding of the complex mechanism of the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity may result in the development of new strategy to enhance gastric mucosal resistance against injury.

  19. The intriguing mission of neuropeptide Y in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava

    2013-07-01

    For many years, the central nervous system and the immune system were considered two autonomous entities. However, extensive research in the field of neuroimmunomodulation during the past decades has demonstrated the presence of different neuropeptides and their respective receptors in the immune cells. More importantly, it has provided evidence for the direct effects of neuropeptides on the immune cell functions. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is generally considered the most abundant peptide in the central and peripheral nervous system. However, it is also distinguished by exhibiting pleiotropic functions in many other physiological systems, including the immune system. NPY affects the functions of the cells of the adaptive and innate immunity. In this respect, NPY is known to modulate immune cell trafficking, T helper cell differentiation, cytokine secretion, natural killer cell activity, phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species. The specific Y receptors have been found in immune cells, and their expression is amplified upon immune stimulation. Different Y receptor subtypes may mediate an opposite effect of NPY on the particular function, thus underlining its regulatory role. Since the immune cells are capable of producing NPY upon appropriate stimulation, this peptide can regulate immune cell functions in an autocrine/paracrine manner. NPY also has important implications in several immune-mediated disorders, which affirms the clear need for further investigation of its role in either the mechanisms of the disease development or its possible therapeutic capacity. This review summarises the key points of NPY's mission throughout the immune system.

  20. Sensory neurobiological analysis of neuropeptide modulation of meal size.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary J; Azzara, Anthony V

    2004-08-01

    Gerry Smith's emphasis on the meal as the functional unit of ingestion spurred experiments designed to (1) identify oral and postoral stimuli that affect meal size, and (2) identify peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in the processing of sensory signals generated by these stimuli. His observations that gut-brain peptides can limit meal size were important in formulating the idea that neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake modulate the peripheral and central neural processing of meal-stimulated sensory signals. This focus on meal size continues to foster the development of hypotheses and the design of experiments that characterize the sites and modes of action of feeding modulatory neuropeptides. These investigations have focused attention on the gut-brain neuraxis as a critical sensory pathway in the control of ingestive behavior, and have revealed important integrative properties of peripheral and central neurons along this axis. The neuromodulatory function of peptides that alter food intake is supported by their ability to recruit the activation of neurons at multiple central nodes of the gut-brain axis and to affect the neural processing and behavioral potency of meal-related gastrointestinal signals important in the negative feedback control of meal size. This sensory neurobiological perspective may also be applied to determine whether feeding modulatory neuropeptides affect the neural and behavioral potency of oral positive feedback signals that promote ingestion.

  1. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Anxiety by Differentially Activating Serotonergic and Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Ergic System in Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga): An Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a predator elicits an innate fear response and mimics several behavioral disorders related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The protective role of an enriched condition (EC) against psychogenic stressors in various animal models has been well documented. However, this condition has not been tested in field mice in the context of PTSD. In this study, we show that field mice (Mus booduga) housed under EC exhibit predominantly proactive and less reactive behavior compared with mice housed under standard conditions (SC) during exposure to their natural predator (field rat Rattus rattus). Furthermore, we observed that EC mice displayed less anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark-box after exposure to the predator (7 hrs/7 days). In EC mice, predator exposure elevated the level of serotonin (5-Hydroxytrypamine, [5-HT]) in the amygdala as part of the coping response. Subsequently, the serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1A receptor were up-regulated significantly, but the same did not occur in the 5-HT2C receptor, which is associated with the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) and a transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Our results show that predator exposure induced the activation of CaMKII/CREB, which is accompanied with increased levels of histone acetylation (H3, H4) and decreased histone deacetylases (HDAC1, 2). Subsequently, in the amygdala, the transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y1 receptor were up-regulated, whereas the Y2 receptor was down-regulated. Therefore, EC facilitated a coping response against a fear associated cue in a PTSD animal model and reduced anxiety by differentially activating serotonergic and NPY-ergic systems. PMID:26016844

  2. The neuropeptide oxytocin modulates consumer brand relationships.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Andreas; Thron, Jesko; Scheele, Dirk; Marsh, Nina; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Each year, companies invest billions of dollars into marketing activities to embellish brands as valuable relationship partners assuming that consumer brand relationships (CBRs) and interpersonal relationships rest upon the same neurobiological underpinnings. Given the crucial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in social bonding, this study tests whether OXT-based mechanisms also determine the bond between consumers and brands. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 101 subjects and analyzed the effect of intranasal OXT on consumers' attribution of relationship qualities to brands, brands paired with human celebrity endorsers, and familiar persons. OXT indeed promoted the attribution of relationship qualities not only in the case of social and semi-social stimuli, but also brands. Intriguingly, for subjects scoring high on autistic-like traits, the effect of OXT was completely reversed, evident in even lower relationship qualities across all stimulus categories. The importance of OXT in a CBR context is further corroborated by a three-fold increase in endogenous release of OXT following exposure to one's favorite brand and positive associations between baseline peripheral OXT concentrations and brand relationship qualities. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT not only plays a fundamental role in developing interpersonal relationships, but also enables relationship formation with objects such as brands. PMID:26449882

  3. The neuropeptide oxytocin modulates consumer brand relationships

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Andreas; Thron, Jesko; Scheele, Dirk; Marsh, Nina; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Each year, companies invest billions of dollars into marketing activities to embellish brands as valuable relationship partners assuming that consumer brand relationships (CBRs) and interpersonal relationships rest upon the same neurobiological underpinnings. Given the crucial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in social bonding, this study tests whether OXT-based mechanisms also determine the bond between consumers and brands. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 101 subjects and analyzed the effect of intranasal OXT on consumers’ attribution of relationship qualities to brands, brands paired with human celebrity endorsers, and familiar persons. OXT indeed promoted the attribution of relationship qualities not only in the case of social and semi-social stimuli, but also brands. Intriguingly, for subjects scoring high on autistic-like traits, the effect of OXT was completely reversed, evident in even lower relationship qualities across all stimulus categories. The importance of OXT in a CBR context is further corroborated by a three-fold increase in endogenous release of OXT following exposure to one’s favorite brand and positive associations between baseline peripheral OXT concentrations and brand relationship qualities. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT not only plays a fundamental role in developing interpersonal relationships, but also enables relationship formation with objects such as brands. PMID:26449882

  4. Neuropeptidomics: Mass Spectrometry-Based Identification and Quantitation of Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides produced from prohormones by selective action of endopeptidases are vital signaling molecules, playing a critical role in a variety of physiological processes, such as addiction, depression, pain, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides bind to post-synaptic receptors and elicit cellular effects like classical neurotransmitters. While each neuropeptide could have its own biological function, mass spectrometry (MS) allows for the identification of the precise molecular forms of each peptide without a priori knowledge of the peptide identity and for the quantitation of neuropeptides in different conditions of the samples. MS-based neuropeptidomics approaches have been applied to various animal models and conditions to characterize and quantify novel neuropeptides, as well as known neuropeptides, advancing our understanding of nervous system function over the past decade. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides and MS-based neuropeptidomic strategies for the identification and quantitation of neuropeptides. PMID:27103886

  5. Settlement induction of Acropora palmata planulae by a GLW-amide neuropeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, P. M.; Szmant, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Complex environmental cues dictate the settlement of coral planulae in situ; however, simple artificial cues may be all that is required to induce settlement of ex situ larval cultures for reef re-seeding and restoration projects. Neuropeptides that transmit settlement signals and initiate the metamorphic cascade have been isolated from hydrozoan taxa and shown to induce metamorphosis of reef-building Acropora spp. in the Indo-Pacific, providing a reliable and efficient settlement cue. Here, the metamorphic activity of six GLW-amide cnidarian neuropeptides was tested on larvae of the Caribbean corals Acropora palmata, Montastraea faveolata and Favia fragum. A. palmata planulae were induced to settle by the exogenous application of the neuropeptide Hym-248 (concentrations ≥1 × 10-6 M), achieving 40-80% attachment and 100% metamorphosis of competent planulae (≥6 days post-fertilization) during two spawning seasons; the remaining neuropeptides exhibited no activity. Hym-248 exposure rapidly altered larval swimming behavior (<1 h) and resulted in >96% metamorphosis after 6 h. In contrast , M. faveolata and F. fragum planulae did not respond to any GLW-amides tested, suggesting a high specificity of neuropeptide activators on lower taxonomic scales in corals. Subsequent experiments for A. palmata revealed that (1) the presence of a biofilm did not enhance attachment efficiency when coupled with Hym-248 treatment, (2) neuropeptide-induced settlement had no negative effects on early life-history developmental processes: zooxanthellae acquisition and skeletal secretion occurred within 12 days, colonial growth occurred within 36 days, and (3) Hym-248 solutions maintained metamorphic activity following storage at room temperature (10 days), indicating its utility in remote field settings. These results corroborate previous studies on Indo-Pacific Acropora spp. and extend the known metamorphic activity of Hym-248 to Caribbean acroporids. Hym-248 allows for directed and

  6. Alterations in acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase activities and neuropeptide levels in the ventral spinal cord of the Wobbler mouse during inherited motoneuron disease.

    PubMed

    Yung, K K; Tang, F; Vacca-Galloway, L L

    1994-02-28

    Enzymatic assays for acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were applied to dorsal and ventral cervical spinal cord regions taken from the Wobbler mouse, a model for inherited motoneuron disease. Early in the disease, ChAT (but not AChE) activity is significantly greater compared with the control littermate specimens. The high ChAT activity correlates with the high thyrotropin releasing hormone (also leucine-enkephalin) concentrations measured in the Wobbler ventral horn early in the disease. Late in the motoneuron disease, both AChE and ChAT activities are significantly lower than in the control littermate specimens. These data correlate with the high substance P, methionine and leucine enkephalin concentrations measured in the Wobbler ventral horn late in the motoneuron disease.

  7. Coordinated regulation of foraging and metabolism in C. elegans by RFamide neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Merav; Reale, Vincenzina; Olofsson, Birgitta; Knights, Andrew; Evans, Peter; de Bono, Mario

    2009-04-01

    Animals modify food-seeking behavior and metabolism according to perceived food availability. Here we show that, in the roundworm C. elegans, release of neuropeptides from interneurons that are directly postsynaptic to olfactory, gustatory, and thermosensory neurons coordinately regulates behavior and metabolism. Animals lacking these neuropeptides, encoded by the flp-18 gene, are defective in chemosensation and foraging, accumulate excess fat, and exhibit reduced oxygen consumption. Two G protein-coupled receptors of the NPY/RFamide family, NPR-4 and NPR-5, are activated by FLP-18 peptides in vitro and exhibit mutant phenotypes that recapitulate those of flp-18 mutants. Our data suggest that sensory input can coordinately regulate behavior and metabolism via NPY/RFamide-like receptors. They suggest that peptidergic feedback from interneurons regulates sensory neuron activity, and that at least some of this communication occurs extrasynaptically. Extrasynaptic neuropeptide signaling may greatly increase the computational capacity of neural circuits. PMID:19356718

  8. Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor effects on pulpal nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, J L; Hargreaves, K M

    2008-10-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important modulatory neuropeptide that regulates several physiological systems, including the activity of sensory neurons. We evaluated whether activation of the NPY Y1 receptor could modulate the activity of capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in trigeminal ganglia and dental pulp. We tested this hypothesis by measuring capsaicin-stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide release (CGRP) as a measure of nociceptor activity. Capsaicin-evoked CGRP release was inhibited by 50% (p < 0.05) in trigeminal ganglia and by 26% (p < 0.05) in dental pulp when tissues were pre-treated with [Leu(31),Pro(34)]NPY. The Y1 receptor was found to co-localize with the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in trigeminal ganglia. These results demonstrate that activation of the Y1 receptor results in the inhibition of the activity of capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the trigeminal ganglia and dental pulp. These findings are relevant to the physiological modulation of dental nociceptors by endogenous NPY and demonstrate an important novel analgesic target for the treatment of dental pain.

  9. Regional distribution of neuropeptide processing endopeptidases in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Berman, Y L; Rattan, A K; Carr, K; Devi, L

    1994-01-01

    Many peptide hormone and neuropeptide precursors undergo post-translational processing at mono- and/or dibasic residues. An enzymatic activity capable of processing prodynorphin at a monobasic processing site designated 'dynorphin converting enzyme' has been previously reported in rat rain and bovine pituitary. In this study the distribution of dynorphin converting enzyme activity in ten regions of rat brain has been compared with the distribution of subtilisin-like processing enzymes and with the immuno-reactive dynorphin peptides. The distribution of dynorphin converting enzyme activity generally matches the distribution of immuno-reactive dynorphin B-13 in most but not all brain regions. The regions that are known to have a relatively large number of immuno-reactive dynorphin-neurons also contain high levels of dynorphin converting enzyme activity. The distribution of dynorphin converting enzyme activity does not match the distribution of subtilisin-like processing enzyme or carboxypeptidase E activities. Taken together the data support the possibility that the dynorphin converting enzyme is involved in the maturation of dynorphin, as well as other neuropeptides, and peptide hormones.

  10. Role of the neuropeptide, bombesin, in bile secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, W. K.

    1997-01-01

    Since ancient times, bile secretion has been considered vital for maintaining health. One of the main functions of bile secretion is gastric acid neutralization with biliary bicarbonate during a meal or Pavlovian response. Although the liver has many extrinsic and intrinsic nerve innervations, the functional role of these nerves in biliary physiology is poorly understood. To understand the role of neural regulation in bile secretion, our recent studies on the effect of bombesin, a neuropeptide, on bile secretion and its underlying mechanisms will be reviewed. Using isolated perfused rat livers (IPRL) from both normal and 2 week bile duct ligated rats, as well as hepatocyte couplets and isolated bile duct units (IBDU) from normal rat livers, bombesin was shown to stimulate biliary bicarbonate and fluid secretion from bile ducts. Detailed pH studies indicated that bombesin stimulated the activity of Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, which was counterbalanced by a secondary activation of electrogenic Na+/HCO3- symport. Quantitative videomicroscopic studies showed that bombesin-stimulated fluid secretion in IBDU was dependent on Cl- and HCO3- in the media, anion exchanger(s), Cl- and K+ channels, and carbonic anhydrase, but not on the microtubular system. Furthermore, this bombesin response is inhibited by somatostatin but not substance P. Finally, studies of secondary messengers in isolated cholangiocytes and IBDU indicated that bombesin had no effect on intracellular cAMP, cGMP, or Ca++ levels in cholangiocytes. These results provide evidence that neuropeptides such as bombesin can directly stimulate fluid and bicarbonate secretion from cholangiocytes by activating luminal Cl-/HCO3- exchange, but by different mechanisms from those established for secretin. These findings, in turn, suggest that neuropeptides may play an important regulatory role in biliary transport and secretion. Thus, this neuropeptidergic regulation of bile secretion may provide a plausible mechanism for the

  11. Glycine-extended anglerfish peptide YG (aPY) a neuropeptide Y (NPY) homologue may be a precursor of a biologically active peptide.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, A; Andrews, P C; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Rigel, D F

    1989-01-01

    The 37 residue peptide YG (aPY), isolated from anglerfish endocrine pancreas, bears distinct sequence homology to the pancreatic polypeptide family of hormones. However, instead of a carboxyl-terminal tyrosine-amide, aPY has a free carboxyl-terminus ending with glycine. Towards studying the structure-activity relationship of this hormone, we have synthesized aPY by solid phase methodology using Boc-amino acid derivatives and phenylacetamidomethyl resin. The crude peptide was purified to homogeneity in 20% yield by reversed phase chromatography. The purified peptide had the expected amino acid composition and sequence, and was found to be identical with the natural aPY by analytical HPLC and peptide mapping of proteolytic digests. Neither the snythetic nor the natural aPY exhibited the characteristic vasoconstrictor activity of the related pancreatic polypeptide family of hormones. However, [Des37-Gly]-aPY, isolated from the anglerfish pancreas, caused vasoconstriction in rats. Based on these results and by analogy to the glycine-extended gastrin peptides, it may be suggested that aPY is a precursor of a biologically active peptide, namely [Des37-Gly]-aPY-amide. PMID:2780417

  12. Glycine-extended anglerfish peptide YG (aPY) a neuropeptide Y (NPY) homologue may be a precursor of a biologically active peptide.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, A; Andrews, P C; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Rigel, D F

    1989-01-01

    The 37 residue peptide YG (aPY), isolated from anglerfish endocrine pancreas, bears distinct sequence homology to the pancreatic polypeptide family of hormones. However, instead of a carboxyl-terminal tyrosine-amide, aPY has a free carboxyl-terminus ending with glycine. Towards studying the structure-activity relationship of this hormone, we have synthesized aPY by solid phase methodology using Boc-amino acid derivatives and phenylacetamidomethyl resin. The crude peptide was purified to homogeneity in 20% yield by reversed phase chromatography. The purified peptide had the expected amino acid composition and sequence, and was found to be identical with the natural aPY by analytical HPLC and peptide mapping of proteolytic digests. Neither the snythetic nor the natural aPY exhibited the characteristic vasoconstrictor activity of the related pancreatic polypeptide family of hormones. However, [Des37-Gly]-aPY, isolated from the anglerfish pancreas, caused vasoconstriction in rats. Based on these results and by analogy to the glycine-extended gastrin peptides, it may be suggested that aPY is a precursor of a biologically active peptide, namely [Des37-Gly]-aPY-amide.

  13. Neuropeptide Trefoil Factor 3 Reverses Depressive-Like Behaviors by Activation of BDNF-ERK-CREB Signaling in Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiali; Luo, Yixiao; Zhang, Ruoxi; Shi, Haishui; Zhu, Weili; Shi, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The trefoil factors (TFFs) are a family of three polypeptides, among which TFF1 and TFF3 are widely distributed in the central nervous system. Our previous study indicated that TFF3 was a potential rapid-onset antidepressant as it reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by acute or chronic mild stress. In order to further identify the antidepressant-like effect of TFF3, we applied an olfactory bulbectomy (OB), a classic animal model of depression, in the present study. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like activity of TFF3, we tested the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) signaling in the hippocampus in the process. Chronic systemic administration of TFF3 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) for seven days not only produced a significant antidepressant-like efficacy in the OB paradigm, but also restored the expression of BDNF, pERK, and pCREB in the hippocampal CA3. Inhibition of BDNF or extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling in CA3 blocked the antidepressant-like activity of TFF3 in OB rats. Our findings further confirmed the therapeutic effect of TFF3 against depression and suggested that the normalization of the BDNF-ERK-CREB pathway was involved in the behavioral response of TFF3 for the treatment of depression. PMID:26633367

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ controls ingestive behavior, agouti-related protein, and neuropeptide Y mRNA in the arcuate hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Garretson, John T; Teubner, Brett J W; Grove, Kevin L; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-03-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ controls ingestive behavior, agouti-related protein, and neuropeptide Y mRNA in the arcuate hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Garretson, John T; Teubner, Brett J W; Grove, Kevin L; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-03-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors. PMID:25788674

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Controls Ingestive Behavior, Agouti-Related Protein, and Neuropeptide Y mRNA in the Arcuate Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Garretson, John T.; Teubner, Brett J.W.; Grove, Kevin L.; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors. PMID:25788674

  17. Neuropeptides: Keeping The Balance Between Pathogen Immunity and Immune Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rey, Elena; Ganea, Doina; Delgado, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Various neuropeptides have emerged recently as potent immunomodulatory factors with potential for their therapeutic use on immune disorders. Here we highlight the most recent data relevant in the field and we offer our opinion how neuropeptide therapy might impact clinical immune diseases, and the challenges in this field that must be overcome before achieving medical progress. We also review recent reports describing the antimicrobial effects showed by some neuropeptides and the therapeutic, physiological and evolutionary consequences of this new finding. Finally, we discuss how a physiologically functional neuropeptide system contributes to general health and how neuropeptides educate our immune system to be tolerant. PMID:20399708

  18. Neuropeptides: conductors of the immune orchestra.

    PubMed

    Morley, J E; Kay, N E; Solomon, G F; Plotnikoff, N P

    1987-08-01

    There is increasing evidence for a bidirectional communications system between the immune system and the brain. Many of the substances involved in this communication appear to be neuropeptides. These findings have given biochemical validity to the clinical and epidemiological studies that have suggested that psychosocial factors can modulate the response to infections and neoplasms. PMID:3298913

  19. The neuropeptide bursicon acts in cuticle metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bursicon is a heterodimeric neuropeptide formed of bursicon a (burs a) and bursicon B (burs B) that controls cuticle tanning and wing expansion in insects. Burs a-a and burs B-B homodimers are also formed; they act via an unknown receptor to induce expression of prophylactic immune and stress genes ...

  20. Neuropeptides: metabolism to bioactive fragments and the pharmacology of their receptors.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    The proteolytic processing of neuropeptides has an important regulatory function and the peptide fragments resulting from the enzymatic degradation often exert essential physiological roles. The proteolytic processing generates, not only biologically inactive fragments, but also bioactive fragments that modulate or even counteract the response of their parent peptides. Frequently, these peptide fragments interact with receptors that are not recognized by the parent peptides. This review discusses tachykinins, opioid peptides, angiotensins, bradykinins, and neuropeptide Y that are present in the central nervous system and their processing to bioactive degradation products. These well-known neuropeptide systems have been selected since they provide illustrative examples that proteolytic degradation of parent peptides can lead to bioactive metabolites with different biological activities as compared to their parent peptides. For example, substance P, dynorphin A, angiotensin I and II, bradykinin, and neuropeptide Y are all degraded to bioactive fragments with pharmacological profiles that differ considerably from those of the parent peptides. The review discusses a selection of the large number of drug-like molecules that act as agonists or antagonists at receptors of neuropeptides. It focuses in particular on the efforts to identify selective drug-like agonists and antagonists mimicking the effects of the endogenous peptide fragments formed. As exemplified in this review, many common neuropeptides are degraded to a variety of smaller fragments but many of the fragments generated have not yet been examined in detail with regard to their potential biological activities. Since these bioactive fragments contain a small number of amino acid residues, they provide an ideal starting point for the development of drug-like substances with ability to mimic the effects of the degradation products. Thus, these substances could provide a rich source of new pharmaceuticals

  1. Short neuropeptide F is a sleep-promoting inhibitory modulator

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuhua; Donelson, Nathan C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.; Guo, Fang; Rosbash, Michael; Griffith, Leslie C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY To advance the understanding of sleep regulation, we screened for sleep-promoting cells and identified neurons expressing neuropeptide Y-like short neuropeptide F (sNPF). Sleep-induction by sNPF meets all relevant criteria. Rebound sleep following sleep deprivation is reduced by activation of sNPF neurons and flies even experience negative sleep rebound upon cessation of sNPF neuronal stimulation, indicating that sNPF provides an important signal to the sleep homeostat. Only a subset of sNPF-expressing neurons, which includes the small ventrolateral clock neurons, is sleep-promoting. Their release of sNPF increases sleep consolidation in part by suppressing the activity of wake-promoting large ventrolateral clock neurons, and suppression of neuronal firing may be the general response to sNPF receptor activation. sNPF acutely increases sleep without altering feeding behavior, which it affects only on a much longer time scale. The profound effect of sNPF on sleep indicates that it is an important sleep-promoting molecule. PMID:24094110

  2. The evolution and diversity of SALMFamide neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Elphick, Maurice R; Achhala, Sufyan; Martynyuk, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in echinoderms. Two types of SALMFamides have been identified: L-type (e.g. the starfish neuropeptides S1 and S2) with the C-terminal motif LxFamide (x is variable) and F-type with the C-terminal motif FxFamide. In the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (class Echinoidea) there are two SALMFamide genes, one encoding L-type SALMFamides and a second encoding F-type SALMFamides, but hitherto it was not known if this applies to other echinoderms. Here we report the identification of SALMFamide genes in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (class Holothuroidea) and the starfish Patiria miniata (class Asteroidea). In both species there are two SALMFamide genes: one gene encoding L-type SALMFamides (e.g. S1 in P. miniata) and a second gene encoding F-type SALMFamides plus one or more L-type SALMFamides (e.g. S2-like peptide in P. miniata). Thus, the ancestry of the two SALMFamide gene types traces back to the common ancestor of echinoids, holothurians and asteroids, although it is not clear if the occurrence of L-type peptides in F-type SALMFamide precursors is an ancestral or derived character. The gene sequences also reveal a remarkable diversity of SALMFamide neuropeptides. Originally just two peptides (S1 and S2) were isolated from starfish but now we find that in P. miniata, for example, there are sixteen putative SALMFamide neuropeptides. Thus, the SALMFamides would be a good model system for experimental analysis of the physiological significance of neuropeptide "cocktails" derived from the same precursor protein.

  3. Comparison of synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors and their gene expression in response to feeding in Ixodes scapularis (Ixodidae) vs. Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Egekwu, N; Sonenshine, D E; Garman, H; Barshis, D J; Cox, N; Bissinger, B W; Zhu, J; M Roe, R

    2016-02-01

    Illumina GAII high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors of the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata with the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Gene ontology molecular level three mapping revealed no significant differences amongst the same categories represented in O. turicata and I. scapularis. Transcripts predicting 22 neuropeptides or their receptors in the O. turicata synganglion were similar to annotations for 23 neuropeptides or receptors previously identified from I scapularis, with minor exceptions. A transcript predicting ecdysis triggering hormone receptor was identified in O. turicata; transcripts encoding for proprotein convertase and glycoprotein B were identified in both species. Transcripts predicting the same neurotransmitter receptors were found in the synganglion of both species. Gene expression of the transcripts showed numerous differences in response to feeding. Major differences were observed in expression of genes believed important in regulating slow vs. rapid feeding, blood water elimination, cuticle synthesis plasticity and in signalling reproductive activity. Although the glutamate receptor was strongly upregulated in both species, the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor, which inhibits glutamate, was upregulated significantly only in I. scapularis. These differences are consistent with the slow vs. rapid action of the pharyngeal pump in the two species.

  4. Comparison of synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors and their gene expression in response to feeding in Ixodes scapularis (Ixodidae) vs. Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Egekwu, N; Sonenshine, D E; Garman, H; Barshis, D J; Cox, N; Bissinger, B W; Zhu, J; M Roe, R

    2016-02-01

    Illumina GAII high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors of the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata with the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Gene ontology molecular level three mapping revealed no significant differences amongst the same categories represented in O. turicata and I. scapularis. Transcripts predicting 22 neuropeptides or their receptors in the O. turicata synganglion were similar to annotations for 23 neuropeptides or receptors previously identified from I scapularis, with minor exceptions. A transcript predicting ecdysis triggering hormone receptor was identified in O. turicata; transcripts encoding for proprotein convertase and glycoprotein B were identified in both species. Transcripts predicting the same neurotransmitter receptors were found in the synganglion of both species. Gene expression of the transcripts showed numerous differences in response to feeding. Major differences were observed in expression of genes believed important in regulating slow vs. rapid feeding, blood water elimination, cuticle synthesis plasticity and in signalling reproductive activity. Although the glutamate receptor was strongly upregulated in both species, the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor, which inhibits glutamate, was upregulated significantly only in I. scapularis. These differences are consistent with the slow vs. rapid action of the pharyngeal pump in the two species. PMID:26783017

  5. An indirect action contributes to c-fos induction in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus by neuropeptide Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively...

  6. Allatotropin: An Ancestral Myotropic Neuropeptide Involved in Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Alzugaray, María Eugenia; Adami, Mariana Laura; Diambra, Luis Anibal; Hernandez-Martinez, Salvador; Damborenea, Cristina; Noriega, Fernando Gabriel; Ronderos, Jorge Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell-cell interactions are a basic principle for the organization of tissues and organs allowing them to perform integrated functions and to organize themselves spatially and temporally. Peptidic molecules secreted by neurons and epithelial cells play fundamental roles in cell-cell interactions, acting as local neuromodulators, neurohormones, as well as endocrine and paracrine messengers. Allatotropin (AT) is a neuropeptide originally described as a regulator of Juvenile Hormone synthesis, which plays multiple neural, endocrine and myoactive roles in insects and other organisms. Methods A combination of immunohistochemistry using AT-antibodies and AT-Qdot nanocrystal conjugates was used to identify immunoreactive nerve cells containing the peptide and epithelial-muscular cells targeted by AT in Hydra plagiodesmica. Physiological assays using AT and AT- antibodies revealed that while AT stimulated the extrusion of the hypostome in a dose-response fashion in starved hydroids, the activity of hypostome in hydroids challenged with food was blocked by treatments with different doses of AT-antibodies. Conclusions AT antibodies immunolabeled nerve cells in the stalk, pedal disc, tentacles and hypostome. AT-Qdot conjugates recognized epithelial-muscular cell in the same tissues, suggesting the existence of anatomical and functional relationships between these two cell populations. Physiological assays indicated that the AT-like peptide is facilitating food ingestion. Significance Immunochemical, physiological and bioinformatics evidence advocates that AT is an ancestral neuropeptide involved in myoregulatory activities associated with meal ingestion and digestion. PMID:24143240

  7. ProSAAS-derived peptides are colocalized with neuropeptide Y and function as neuropeptides in the regulation of food intake.

    PubMed

    Wardman, Jonathan H; Berezniuk, Iryna; Di, Shi; Tasker, Jeffrey G; Fricker, Lloyd D

    2011-01-01

    ProSAAS is the precursor of a number of peptides that have been proposed to function as neuropeptides. Because proSAAS mRNA is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, we examined the cellular localization of several proSAAS-derived peptides in the mouse hypothalamus and found that they generally colocalized with neuropeptide Y (NPY), but not α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. However, unlike proNPY mRNA, which is upregulated by food deprivation in the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither proSAAS mRNA nor proSAAS-derived peptides were significantly altered by 1-2 days of food deprivation in wild-type mice. Furthermore, while proSAAS mRNA levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus were significantly lower in Cpe(fat/fat) mice as compared to wild-type littermates, proNPY mRNA levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus and in other subregions of the hypothalamus were not significantly different between wild-type and Cpe(fat/fat) mice. Intracerebroventricular injections of antibodies to two proSAAS-derived peptides (big LEN and PEN) significantly reduced food intake in fasted mice, while injections of antibodies to two other proSAAS-derived peptides (little LEN and little SAAS) did not. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of parvocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, a target of arcuate NPY projections, showed that big LEN produced a rapid and reversible inhibition of synaptic glutamate release that was spike independent and abolished by blocking postsynaptic G protein activity, suggesting the involvement of a postsynaptic G protein-coupled receptor and the release of a retrograde synaptic messenger. Taken together with previous studies, these findings support a role for proSAAS-derived peptides such as big LEN as neuropeptides regulating food intake.

  8. Deficiency of prohormone convertase dPC2 (AMONTILLADO) results in impaired production of bioactive neuropeptide hormones in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Christian; Herbert, Henrik; Kahnt, Jörg; Bender, Michael; Rhea, Jeanne M

    2011-08-01

    Peptide hormones synthesized by secretory neurons in the CNS are important regulators of physiology, behavior, and development. Like other neuropeptides, they are synthesized from larger precursor molecules by a specific set of enzymes. Using a combination of neurogenetics, immunostainings, and direct mass spectrometric profiling, we show that the presence of Drosophila prohormone convertase 2 encoded by the gene amontillado (amon) is a prerequisite for the proper processing of neuropeptide hormones from the major neurohemal organs of the CNS. A loss of amon correlates with a loss of neuropeptide hormone signals from the larval ring gland and perisympathetic organs. Neuropeptide hormone signals were still detectable in the adult corpora cardiaca of older amon-deficient flies which were amon heat-shock-rescued until eclosion. A semiquantification by direct peptide profiling using stable isotopic standards showed, however, that their neuropeptide hormone levels are strongly reduced. Targeted expression of GFP under the control of amon regulatory regions revealed a co-localization with the investigated peptide hormones in secretory neurons of the brain and ventral nerve cord. The lack of AMON activity resulted in a deficiency of L3 larva to enter the wandering phase. In conclusion, our findings provide the first direct evidence that AMON is a key enzyme in the production of neuropeptides in the fruitfly. PMID:21138435

  9. Microglia-Induced Maladaptive Plasticity Can Be Modulated by Neuropeptides In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Morara, Stefano; Colangelo, Anna Maria; Provini, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Microglia-induced maladaptive plasticity is being recognized as a major cause of deleterious self-sustaining pathological processes that occur in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. Microglia, the primary homeostatic guardian of the central nervous system, exert critical functions both during development, in neural circuit reshaping, and during adult life, in the brain physiological and pathological surveillance. This delicate critical role can be disrupted by neural, but also peripheral, noxious stimuli that can prime microglia to become overreactive to a second noxious stimulus or worsen underlying pathological processes. Among regulators of microglia, neuropeptides can play a major role. Their receptors are widely expressed in microglial cells and neuropeptide challenge can potently influence microglial activity in vitro. More relevantly, this regulator activity has been assessed also in vivo, in experimental models of brain diseases. Neuropeptide action in the central nervous system has been associated with beneficial effects in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathological experimental models. This review describes some of the mechanisms of the microglia maladaptive plasticity in vivo and how neuropeptide activity can represent a useful therapeutical target in a variety of human brain pathologies. PMID:26273481

  10. Neuropeptide FF receptors as novel targets for limbic seizure attenuation.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Meurs, Alfred; Bihel, Frederic; Hammoud, Hassan; Schmitt, Martine; De Kock, Joery; Utard, Valerie; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Buffel, Ine; Coppens, Jessica; Tourwe, Dirk; Maes, Veronique; De Prins, An; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Massie, Ann; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan; Boon, Paul; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frederic; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well established anticonvulsant and first-in-class antiepileptic neuropeptide. In this study, the controversial role of NPY1 receptors in epilepsy was reassessed by testing two highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands and a mixed NPY1/NPFF receptor antagonist BIBP3226 in a rat model for limbic seizures. While BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the pilocarpine-induced seizures, neither of the highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands altered the seizure severity. Administration of the NPFF1/NPFF2 receptor antagonist RF9 also significantly attenuated limbic seizure activity. To further prove the involvement of NPFF receptors in these seizure-modulating effects, low and high affinity antagonists for the NPFF receptors were tested. We observed that the low affinity ligand failed to exhibit anticonvulsant properties while the two high affinity ligands significantly attenuated the seizures. Continuous NPFF1 receptor agonist administration also inhibited limbic seizures whereas bolus administration of the NPFF1 receptor agonist was without effect. This suggests that continuous agonist perfusion could result in NPFF1 receptor desensitization and mimic NPFF1 receptor antagonist administration. Our data unveil for the first time the involvement of the NPFF system in the management of limbic seizures. PMID:25963417

  11. NeuroPID: a classifier of neuropeptide precursors.

    PubMed

    Karsenty, Solange; Rappoport, Nadav; Ofer, Dan; Zair, Adva; Linial, Michal

    2014-07-01

    Neuropeptides (NPs) are short secreted peptides produced in neurons. NPs act by activating signaling cascades governing broad functions such as metabolism, sensation and behavior throughout the animal kingdom. NPs are the products of multistep processing of longer proteins, the NP precursors (NPPs). We present NeuroPID (Neuropeptide Precursor Identifier), an online machine-learning tool that identifies metazoan NPPs. NeuroPID was trained on 1418 NPPs annotated as such by UniProtKB. A large number of sequence-based features were extracted for each sequence with the goal of capturing the biophysical and informational-statistical properties that distinguish NPPs from other proteins. Training several machine-learning models, including support vector machines and ensemble decision trees, led to high accuracy (89-94%) and precision (90-93%) in cross-validation tests. For inputs of thousands of unseen sequences, the tool provides a ranked list of high quality predictions based on the results of four machine-learning classifiers. The output reveals many uncharacterized NPPs and secreted cell modulators that are rich in potential cleavage sites. NeuroPID is a discovery and a prediction tool that can be used to identify NPPs from unannotated transcriptomes and mass spectrometry experiments. NeuroPID predicted sequences are attractive targets for investigating behavior, physiology and cell modulation. The NeuroPID web tool is available at http:// neuropid.cs.huji.ac.il.

  12. Neuropeptide FF receptors as novel targets for limbic seizure attenuation.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Meurs, Alfred; Bihel, Frederic; Hammoud, Hassan; Schmitt, Martine; De Kock, Joery; Utard, Valerie; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Buffel, Ine; Coppens, Jessica; Tourwe, Dirk; Maes, Veronique; De Prins, An; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Massie, Ann; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan; Boon, Paul; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frederic; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well established anticonvulsant and first-in-class antiepileptic neuropeptide. In this study, the controversial role of NPY1 receptors in epilepsy was reassessed by testing two highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands and a mixed NPY1/NPFF receptor antagonist BIBP3226 in a rat model for limbic seizures. While BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the pilocarpine-induced seizures, neither of the highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands altered the seizure severity. Administration of the NPFF1/NPFF2 receptor antagonist RF9 also significantly attenuated limbic seizure activity. To further prove the involvement of NPFF receptors in these seizure-modulating effects, low and high affinity antagonists for the NPFF receptors were tested. We observed that the low affinity ligand failed to exhibit anticonvulsant properties while the two high affinity ligands significantly attenuated the seizures. Continuous NPFF1 receptor agonist administration also inhibited limbic seizures whereas bolus administration of the NPFF1 receptor agonist was without effect. This suggests that continuous agonist perfusion could result in NPFF1 receptor desensitization and mimic NPFF1 receptor antagonist administration. Our data unveil for the first time the involvement of the NPFF system in the management of limbic seizures.

  13. Salusin-β as a powerful endogenous antidipsogenic neuropeptide

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Kemuriyama, Noriko; Nakano-Tateno, Tae; Tani, Yuji; Hirata, Yukio; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Salusin-β is an endogenous parasympathomimetic peptide, predominantly localized to the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary. Subcutaneously administered salusin-β (50 nmol/mouse) significantly increased water intake but did not affect locomotor activity or food intake. The salusin-β-induced increase in water intake was completely abrogated by pretreatment with muscarinic antagonist, atropine sulphate. In contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of salusin-β, at lower doses (10–100 fmol/mouse) caused a long-lasting decrease in water intake and locomotor activity throughout the entire dark phase of the diurnal cycle. Pre-injection of intracerebroventricular anti-salusin-β IgG completely abrogated the central salusin-β mediated suppression of water intake and locomotor activity. These results demonstrate contrasting actions of salusin-β in the control of water intake via the central and peripheral systems and highlight it as a potent endogenous antidipsogenic neuropeptide. PMID:26869388

  14. The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper. PMID:23986909

  15. The role of neuropeptides in suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Lindqvist, Daniel; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper.

  16. A proteomic approach to neuropeptide function elucidation.

    PubMed

    Temmerman, L; Bogaerts, A; Meelkop, E; Cardoen, D; Boerjan, B; Janssen, T; Schoofs, L

    2012-03-01

    Many of the diverse functions of neuropeptides are still elusive. As they are ideally suited to modulate traditional signaling, their added actions are not always detectable under standard laboratory conditions. The search for function assignment to peptide encoding genes can therefore greatly benefit from molecular information. Specific molecular changes resulting from neuropeptide signaling may direct researchers to yet unknown processes or conditions, for which studying these signaling systems may eventually lead to phenotypic confirmation. Here, we applied gel-based proteomics after pdf-1 neuropeptide gene knockout in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. It has previously been described that pdf-1 null mutants display a locomotion defect, being slower and making more turns and reversals than wild type worms. The vertebrate functional homolog of PDF-1, vasocative intestinal peptide (VIP), is known to influence a plethora of processes, which have so far not been investigated for pdf-1. Because proteins represent the actual effectors inside an organism, proteomic analysis can guide our view to novel pdf-1 actions in the nematode worm. Our data show that knocking out pdf-1 results in alteration of levels of proteins involved in fat metabolism, stress resistance and development. This indicates a possible conservation of VIP-like actions for pdf-1 in C. elegans.

  17. Comparison of Caenorhabditis elegans NLP peptides with arthropod neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Husson, Steven J; Lindemans, Marleen; Janssen, Tom; Schoofs, Liliane

    2009-04-01

    Neuropeptides are small messenger molecules that can be found in all metazoans, where they govern a diverse array of physiological processes. Because neuropeptides seem to be conserved among pest species, selected peptides can be considered as attractive targets for drug discovery. Much can be learned from the model system Caenorhabditis elegans because of the availability of a sequenced genome and state-of-the-art postgenomic technologies that enable characterization of endogenous peptides derived from neuropeptide-like protein (NLP) precursors. Here, we provide an overview of the NLP peptide family in C. elegans and discuss their resemblance with arthropod neuropeptides and their relevance for anthelmintic discovery.

  18. Neuropeptides in the Gonads: From Evolution to Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Nicolette L.; Bentley, George E.

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. These gonadal neuropeptide systems are neither well understood in isolation, nor in their interactions with other neuropeptide systems. Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which themselves are under regulation by true neuropeptide systems from the hypothalamus, is relatively meager. This review discusses the existence of a variety of neuropeptides and their receptors which have been discovered in vertebrate gonads, and the possible way in which such systems could have evolved. We then focus on two key neuropeptides for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Comparative studies have provided us with a degree of understanding as to how a gonadal GnRH system might have evolved, and they have been responsible for the discovery of GnIH and its gonadal counterpart. We attempt to highlight what is known about these two key gonadal neuropeptides, how their actions differ from their hypothalamic counterparts, and how we might learn from comparative studies of them and other gonadal neuropeptides in terms of pharmacology, reproductive physiology and evolutionary biology. PMID:21607065

  19. Role of neuropeptides in anxiety, stress, and depression: from animals to humans.

    PubMed

    Kormos, Viktória; Gaszner, Balázs

    2013-12-01

    Major depression, with its strikingly high prevalence, is the most common cause of disability in communities of Western type, according to data of the World Health Organization. Stress-related mood disorders, besides their deleterious effects on the patient itself, also challenge the healthcare systems with their great social and economic impact. Our knowledge on the neurobiology of these conditions is less than sufficient as exemplified by the high proportion of patients who do not respond to currently available medications targeting monoaminergic systems. The search for new therapeutical strategies became therefore a "hot topic" in neuroscience, and there is a large body of evidence suggesting that brain neuropeptides not only participate is stress physiology, but they may also have clinical relevance. Based on data obtained in animal studies, neuropeptides and their receptors might be targeted by new candidate neuropharmacons with the hope that they will become important and effective tools in the management of stress related mood disorders. In this review, we attempt to summarize the latest evidence obtained using animal models for mood disorders, genetically modified rodent models for anxiety and depression, and we will pay some attention to previously published clinical data on corticotropin releasing factor, urocortin 1, urocortin 2, urocortin 3, arginine-vasopressin, neuropeptide Y, pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide, neuropeptide S, oxytocin, substance P and galanin fields of stress research.

  20. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough.

  1. RFamide neuropeptide actions on molluscan proboscis smooth muscle: interactions with primary neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Moulis, A; Huddart, H

    2004-07-01

    The potency (muscle force-generated) of a number of long-chain RFamide neuropeptides was examined in mechanical experiments with the radular-retractor and radular-sac muscles of gastropods Buccinum undatum and Neptunea antiqua. Many of the heptapeptides, octapeptides and the decapeptide LMS were found to induce greater contraction than FMRFamide in both smooth muscles and in both species. RFamide neuropeptides interacted with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in an additive way and RFamide-induced contractions were inhibited by the neuromodulator serotonin. Pre-treatment with a calcium-free saline completely abolished acetylcholine-induced responses but only partially inhibited RFamide responses in the muscles, suggesting that acetylcholine acts to cause influx of extracellular calcium for contraction. In contrast, RFamide neuropeptides may mobilise intracellular calcium to maintain sustained tonic force in calcium-free conditions. This suggests that an additional involvement of a fast calcium channel may be present in the RFamide responses, since loss of the usual superimposed twitch activity is observed. Force regulation in these muscles appears to result from a complex interaction of RFamide neuropeptides with the primary transmitter acetylcholine and the neuromodulator serotonin.

  2. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough. PMID:1611233

  3. Mimetic analogs of three insect neuropeptide classes for pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are potent regulators of critical life processes in insects, but are subjected to rapid degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph (blood), tissues and gut. This limitation can be overcome via replacement of peptidase susceptible portions of the insect neuropeptides to create analogs w...

  4. Mimetic analogs of pyrokinin neuropeptides for pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are potent regulators of critical life processes in insects, but are subjected to rapid degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph (blood), tissues and gut. This limitation can be overcome via replacement of peptidase susceptible portions of the insect neuropeptides to create analogs ...

  5. Microwave irradiation increases recovery of neuropeptides from brain tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Theodorsson, E.; Stenfors, C.; Mathe, A.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of focused high energy microwave treatment (MW) on brain concentrations and molecular forms of substance P, neurokinin A, neuropeptide Y, neurotensin, galanin and calcitonin gene-related peptide was investigated. Groups of rats were treated as follows: (1) MW, storage for 60 min at 22 degrees C, (2) Decapitation, storage for 60 min at 22 degrees C, (3) Decapitation, storage for 60 min at 22 degrees C, MW treatment, (4) MW, decapitation, storage for 2 min at 22 degrees C and 5. Decapitation, storage for 2 min at 22 degrees C. Peptide concentrations were in all instances highest in the MW sacrificed groups. MW increased the concentration of intact peptides by rapid inhibition of peptidase activity and increase in peptide solubility/extractability.

  6. Neuropeptides function in a homeostatic manner to modulate excitation-inhibition imbalance in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Stawicki, Tamara M; Takayanagi-Kiya, Seika; Zhou, Keming; Jin, Yishi

    2013-05-01

    Neuropeptides play crucial roles in modulating neuronal networks, including changing intrinsic properties of neurons and synaptic efficacy. We previously reported a Caenorhabditis elegans mutant, acr-2(gf), that displays spontaneous convulsions as the result of a gain-of-function mutation in a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. The ACR-2 channel is expressed in the cholinergic motor neurons, and acr-2(gf) causes cholinergic overexcitation accompanied by reduced GABAergic inhibition in the locomotor circuit. Here we show that neuropeptides play a homeostatic role that compensates for this excitation-inhibition imbalance in the locomotor circuit. Loss of function in genes required for neuropeptide processing or release of dense core vesicles specifically modulate the convulsion frequency of acr-2(gf). The proprotein convertase EGL-3 is required in the cholinergic motor neurons to restrain convulsions. Electrophysiological recordings of neuromuscular junctions show that loss of egl-3 in acr-2(gf) causes a further reduction of GABAergic inhibition. We identify two neuropeptide encoding genes, flp-1 and flp-18, that together counteract the excitation-inhibition imbalance in acr-2(gf) mutants. We further find that acr-2(gf) causes an increased expression of flp-18 in the ventral cord cholinergic motor neurons and that overexpression of flp-18 reduces the convulsion of acr-2(gf) mutants. The effects of these peptides are in part mediated by two G-protein coupled receptors, NPR-1 and NPR-5. Our data suggest that the chronic overexcitation of the cholinergic motor neurons imposed by acr-2(gf) leads to an increased production of FMRFamide neuropeptides, which act to decrease the activity level of the locomotor circuit, thereby homeostatically modulating the excitation and inhibition imbalance.

  7. Hypothalamic neuropeptide expression following chronic food restriction in sedentary and wheel-running rats.

    PubMed

    de Rijke, C E; Hillebrand, J J G; Verhagen, L A W; Roeling, T A P; Adan, R A H

    2005-10-01

    When rats are given access to a running-wheel in combination with food restriction, they will become hyperactive and decrease their food intake, a paradoxical phenomenon known as activity-based anorexia (ABA). Little is known about the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance during the development of ABA. Therefore, rats were killed during the development of ABA, before they entered a state of severe starvation. Neuropeptide mRNA expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR on punches of separate hypothalamic nuclei. As is expected in a state of negative energy balance, expression levels of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were increased 5-fold in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of food-restricted running ABA rats vs 2-fold in sedentary food-restricted controls. The co-regulated expression of AgRP and NPY strongly correlated with relative body weight and white adipose tissue mass. Arcuate expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was reduced 2-fold in the ABA group. In second-order neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) mRNA expression was upregulated 2-fold in food-restricted running rats, but not in food-restricted sedentary controls. Prepro-orexin, CART and corticotropin-releasing hormone expression levels in the LHA and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were unchanged in both food-restricted groups. From this study it was concluded that during the development of ABA, neuropeptides in first-order neurons in the ARC and MCH in the LHA are regulated in an adequate response to negative energy balance, whereas expression levels of the other studied neuropeptides in secondary neurons of the LHA and PVN are unchanged and are probably regulated by factors other than energy status alone.

  8. Transcriptomic identification of starfish neuropeptide precursors yields new insights into neuropeptide evolution

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Dean C.; Mirabeau, Olivier; Moghul, Ismail; Pancholi, Mahesh R.; Wurm, Yannick; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling in nervous systems. With recent advances in genomics/transcriptomics, an increasingly wide range of species has become accessible for molecular analysis. The deuterostomian invertebrates are of particular interest in this regard because they occupy an ‘intermediate' position in animal phylogeny, bridging the gap between the well-studied model protostomian invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans) and the vertebrates. Here we have identified 40 neuropeptide precursors in the starfish Asterias rubens, a deuterostomian invertebrate from the phylum Echinodermata. Importantly, these include kisspeptin-type and melanin-concentrating hormone-type precursors, which are the first to be discovered in a non-chordate species. Starfish tachykinin-type, somatostatin-type, pigment-dispersing factor-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type precursors are the first to be discovered in the echinoderm/ambulacrarian clade of the animal kingdom. Other precursors identified include vasopressin/oxytocin-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type, cholecystokinin/gastrin-type, orexin-type, luqin-type, pedal peptide/orcokinin-type, glycoprotein hormone-type, bursicon-type, relaxin-type and insulin-like growth factor-type precursors. This is the most comprehensive identification of neuropeptide precursor proteins in an echinoderm to date, yielding new insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling systems. Furthermore, these data provide a basis for experimental analysis of neuropeptide function in the unique context of the decentralized, pentaradial echinoderm bauplan. PMID:26865025

  9. Transcriptomic identification of starfish neuropeptide precursors yields new insights into neuropeptide evolution.

    PubMed

    Semmens, Dean C; Mirabeau, Olivier; Moghul, Ismail; Pancholi, Mahesh R; Wurm, Yannick; Elphick, Maurice R

    2016-02-01

    Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling in nervous systems. With recent advances in genomics/transcriptomics, an increasingly wide range of species has become accessible for molecular analysis. The deuterostomian invertebrates are of particular interest in this regard because they occupy an 'intermediate' position in animal phylogeny, bridging the gap between the well-studied model protostomian invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans) and the vertebrates. Here we have identified 40 neuropeptide precursors in the starfish Asterias rubens, a deuterostomian invertebrate from the phylum Echinodermata. Importantly, these include kisspeptin-type and melanin-concentrating hormone-type precursors, which are the first to be discovered in a non-chordate species. Starfish tachykinin-type, somatostatin-type, pigment-dispersing factor-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type precursors are the first to be discovered in the echinoderm/ambulacrarian clade of the animal kingdom. Other precursors identified include vasopressin/oxytocin-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type, cholecystokinin/gastrin-type, orexin-type, luqin-type, pedal peptide/orcokinin-type, glycoprotein hormone-type, bursicon-type, relaxin-type and insulin-like growth factor-type precursors. This is the most comprehensive identification of neuropeptide precursor proteins in an echinoderm to date, yielding new insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling systems. Furthermore, these data provide a basis for experimental analysis of neuropeptide function in the unique context of the decentralized, pentaradial echinoderm bauplan.

  10. Transcriptomic identification of starfish neuropeptide precursors yields new insights into neuropeptide evolution.

    PubMed

    Semmens, Dean C; Mirabeau, Olivier; Moghul, Ismail; Pancholi, Mahesh R; Wurm, Yannick; Elphick, Maurice R

    2016-02-01

    Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling in nervous systems. With recent advances in genomics/transcriptomics, an increasingly wide range of species has become accessible for molecular analysis. The deuterostomian invertebrates are of particular interest in this regard because they occupy an 'intermediate' position in animal phylogeny, bridging the gap between the well-studied model protostomian invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans) and the vertebrates. Here we have identified 40 neuropeptide precursors in the starfish Asterias rubens, a deuterostomian invertebrate from the phylum Echinodermata. Importantly, these include kisspeptin-type and melanin-concentrating hormone-type precursors, which are the first to be discovered in a non-chordate species. Starfish tachykinin-type, somatostatin-type, pigment-dispersing factor-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type precursors are the first to be discovered in the echinoderm/ambulacrarian clade of the animal kingdom. Other precursors identified include vasopressin/oxytocin-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type, cholecystokinin/gastrin-type, orexin-type, luqin-type, pedal peptide/orcokinin-type, glycoprotein hormone-type, bursicon-type, relaxin-type and insulin-like growth factor-type precursors. This is the most comprehensive identification of neuropeptide precursor proteins in an echinoderm to date, yielding new insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling systems. Furthermore, these data provide a basis for experimental analysis of neuropeptide function in the unique context of the decentralized, pentaradial echinoderm bauplan. PMID:26865025

  11. Platelet neuropeptide Y is critical for ischemic revascularization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tilan, Jason U.; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Abe, Ken; Kuo-Bonde, Lydia; Chalothorn, Dan; Kitlinska, Joanna; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.; Faber, James E.; Zukowska, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the sympathetic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) is potently angiogenic, primarily through its Y2 receptor, and that endogenous NPY is crucial for capillary angiogenesis in rodent hindlimb ischemia. Here we sought to identify the source of NPY responsible for revascularization and its mechanisms of action. At d 3, NPY−/− mice demonstrated delayed recovery of blood flow and limb function, consistent with impaired collateral conductance, while ischemic capillary angiogenesis was reduced (∼70%) at d 14. This biphasic temporal response was confirmed by 2 peaks of NPY activation in rats: a transient early increase in neuronally derived plasma NPY and increase in platelet NPY during late-phase recovery. Compared to NPY-null platelets, collagen-activated NPY-rich platelets were more mitogenic (∼2-fold vs. ∼1.6-fold increase) for human microvascular endothelial cells, and Y2/Y5 receptor antagonists ablated this difference in proliferation. In NPY+/+ mice, ischemic angiogenesis was prevented by platelet depletion and then restored by transfusion of platelets from NPY+/+ mice, but not NPY−/− mice. In thrombocytopenic NPY−/− mice, transfusion of wild-type platelets fully restored ischemia-induced angiogenesis. These findings suggest that neuronally derived NPY accelerates the early response to femoral artery ligation by promoting collateral conductance, while platelet-derived NPY is critical for sustained capillary angiogenesis.—Tilan, J. U., Everhart, L. M., Abe, K., Kuo-Bonde, L., Chalothorn, D., Kitlinska, J., Burnett, M. S., Epstein, S. E., Faber, J. E., Zukowska, Z. Platelet neuropeptide Y is critical for ischemic revascularization in mice. PMID:23457218

  12. Mini-review: the evolution of neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank

    2012-08-10

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in basal animals with primitive nervous systems such as cnidarians (Hydra, jellyfishes, corals, and sea anemones). Most animals emerging after the Cnidaria belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Protostomia (to which the majority of invertebrates belong) and Deuterostomia (to which some minor groups of invertebrates, and all vertebrates belong). These two lineages split about 700 million years (Myr) ago. Many mammalian neuropeptide GPCRs have orthologues in the Protostomia and this is also true for some of the mammalian neuropeptides. Examples are oxytocin/vasopressin, GnRH, gastrin/CCK, and neuropeptide Y and their GPCRs. These results implicate that protostomes (for example insects and nematodes) can be used as models to study the biology of neuropeptide signaling.

  13. Neuropeptides in Alzheimer's disease: from pathophysiological mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, Debby; Van Dijck, Annemie; Janssen, Leen; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2013-06-01

    Neuropeptides are found throughout the entire nervous system where they can act as neurotransmitter, neuromodulator or neurohormone. In those functions, they play important roles in the regulation of cognition and behavior. In brain disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD), where abnormal cognition and behavior are observed, the study of neuropeptides is particularly interesting since altered neuropeptides can function as biomarkers or as targets for new medication. In this article neuropeptides with relevance to AD are listed and their influence on cognitive and behavioral disturbances is discussed. Findings from human cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue, and AD mouse models are described and related to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of the disease. In the past, clinical trials with neuropeptides have often failed due to insufficient delivery to the brain. Therefore, new strategies to target the brain with peptide drugs are also covered.

  14. Mini-review: the evolution of neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank

    2012-08-10

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in basal animals with primitive nervous systems such as cnidarians (Hydra, jellyfishes, corals, and sea anemones). Most animals emerging after the Cnidaria belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Protostomia (to which the majority of invertebrates belong) and Deuterostomia (to which some minor groups of invertebrates, and all vertebrates belong). These two lineages split about 700 million years (Myr) ago. Many mammalian neuropeptide GPCRs have orthologues in the Protostomia and this is also true for some of the mammalian neuropeptides. Examples are oxytocin/vasopressin, GnRH, gastrin/CCK, and neuropeptide Y and their GPCRs. These results implicate that protostomes (for example insects and nematodes) can be used as models to study the biology of neuropeptide signaling. PMID:22726357

  15. Neuropeptide Y and posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sah, R; Geracioti, TD

    2016-01-01

    Resiliency to the adverse effects of extraordinary emotional trauma on the brain varies within the human population. Accordingly, some people cope better than others with traumatic stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino-acid peptide transmitter abundantly expressed in forebrain limbic and brain stem areas that regulate stress and emotional behaviors. Studies largely in rodents demonstrate a role for NPY in promoting coping with stress. Moreover, accruing data from the genetic to the physiological implicate NPY as a potential ‘resilience-to-stress’ factor in humans. Here, we consolidate findings from preclinical and clinical studies of NPY that are of relevance to stress-associated syndromes, most prototypically posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Collectively, these data suggest that reduced central nervous system (CNS) NPY concentrations or function may be associated with PTSD. We also link specific symptoms of human PTSD with extant findings in the NPY field to reveal potential physiological contributions of the neuropeptide to the disorder. In pursuit of understanding the physiological basis and treatment of PTSD, the NPY system is an attractive target. PMID:22801411

  16. GABA excitation in mouse hilar neuropeptide Y neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li-Ying; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2007-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the dentate hilar area play an important role in inhibiting the activity of hippocampal circuitry. Hilar cells are often among the first lost in hippocampal epilepsy. As many types of neurons are found in the hilus, we used a new transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of neurons that colocalized neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SST), and GABA for whole-cell, perforated, and cell-attached recording in 240 neurons. As these neurons have not previously been identifiable in live slices, they have not been the focus of physiological analysis. Hilar NPY neurons showed modest spike frequency adaptation, a large 15.6 ± 1.0 mV afterhyperpolarization, a mean input resistance of 335 ± 26 mΩ, and were capable of fast-firing. Muscimol-mediated excitatory actions were found in a nominally Ca2+-free/high-Mg2+ bath solution using cell-attached recording. GABAA receptor antagonists inhibited half the recorded neurons and blocked burst firing. Gramicidin perforated-patch recording revealed a GABA reversal potential positive to both the resting membrane potential and spike threshold. Together, these data suggest GABA is excitatory to many NPY cells. NPY and SST consistently hyperpolarized and reduced spike frequency in these neurons. No hyperpolarization of NPY on membrane potential was detected in the presence of tetrodotoxin, AP5, CNQX and bicuculline, supporting an indirect effect. Under similar conditions, SST hyperpolarized the cells, suggesting a direct postsynaptic action. Depolarizing actions of GABA and GABA-dependent burst-firing may synchronize a rapid release of GABA, NPY, and SST, leading to pre- and postsynaptic inhibition of excitatory hippocampal circuits. PMID:17204505

  17. Neuropeptide Signaling in Crustaceans Probed by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhidan

    Neuropeptides are one of the most diverse classes of signaling molecules whose identities and functions are not yet fully understood. They have been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes, including feeding-related and motivated behaviors, and also environmental adaptations. In this work, improved mass spectrometry-based analytical platforms were developed and applied to the crustacean systems to characterize signaling molecules. This dissertation begins with a review of mass spectrometry-based neuropeptide studies from both temporal- and spatial-domains. This review is then followed by several chapters detailing a few research projects related to the crustacean neuropeptidomic characterization and comparative analysis. The neuropeptidome of crayfish, Orconectes rusticus is characterized for the first time using mass spectrometry-based tools. In vivo microdialysis sampling technique offers the capability of direct sampling from extracellular space in a time-resolved manner. It is used to investigate the secreted neuropeptide and neurotransmitter content in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, in this work. A new quantitation strategy using alternative mass spectrometry data acquisition approach is developed and applied for the first time to quantify neuropeptides. Coupling of this method with microdialysis enables the study of neuropeptide dynamics concurrent with different behaviors. Proof-of-principle experiments validating this approach have been carried out in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis to study feeding- and circadian rhythm-related neuropeptide changes using micoridialysis in a time-resolved manner. This permits a close correlation between behavioral and neurochemical changes, providing potential candidates for future validation of regulatory roles. In addition to providing spatial information, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technique enables the characterization of signaling molecules while preserving the temporal resolution. A

  18. A PDF/NPF neuropeptide signaling circuitry of male Drosophila melanogaster controls rival-induced prolonged mating.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Jae; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2013-12-01

    A primary function of males for many species involves mating with females for reproduction. Drosophila melanogaster males respond to the presence of other males by prolonging mating duration to increase the chance of passing on their genes. To understand the basis of such complex behaviors, we examine the genetic network and neural circuits that regulate rival-induced Longer-Mating-Duration (LMD). Here, we identify a small subset of clock neurons in the male brain that regulate LMD via neuropeptide signaling. LMD requires the function of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in four s-LNv neurons and its receptor PDFR in two LNd neurons per hemisphere, as well as the function of neuropeptide F (NPF) in two neurons within the sexually dimorphic LNd region and its receptor NPFR1 in four s-LNv neurons per hemisphere. Moreover, rival exposure modifies the neuronal activities of a subset of clock neurons involved in neuropeptide signaling for LMD. PMID:24314729

  19. MALDI imaging analysis of neuropeptides in the Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain: effect of ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Pratavieira, Marcel; da Silva Menegasso, Anally Ribeiro; Garcia, Ana Maria Caviquioli; Dos Santos, Diego Simões; Gomes, Paulo Cesar; Malaspina, Osmar; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2014-06-01

    The occurrence and spatial distribution of the neuropeptides AmTRP-5 and AST-1 in the honeybee brain were monitored via MALDI spectral imaging according to the ontogeny of Africanized Apis mellifera. The levels of these peptides increased in the brains of 0-15 day old honeybees, and this increase was accompanied by an increase in the number of in-hive activities performed by the nurse bees, followed by a decrease in the period from 15 to 25 days of age, in which the workers began to perform activities outside the nest (guarding and foraging). The results obtained in the present investigation suggest that AmTRP-5 acts in the upper region of both pedunculi of young workers, possibly regulating the cell cleaning and brood capping activities. Meanwhile, the localized occurrence of AmTRP-5 and AST-1 in the antennal lobes, subesophageal ganglion, upper region of the medulla, both lobula, and α- and β-lobes of both brain hemispheres in 20 to 25 day old workers suggest that the action of both neuropeptides in these regions may be related to their localized actions in these regions, regulating foraging and guarding activities. Thus, these neuropeptides appear to have some functions in the honeybee brain that are specifically related to the age-related division of labor.

  20. Neuropeptides: metabolism to bioactive fragments and the pharmacology of their receptors.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    The proteolytic processing of neuropeptides has an important regulatory function and the peptide fragments resulting from the enzymatic degradation often exert essential physiological roles. The proteolytic processing generates, not only biologically inactive fragments, but also bioactive fragments that modulate or even counteract the response of their parent peptides. Frequently, these peptide fragments interact with receptors that are not recognized by the parent peptides. This review discusses tachykinins, opioid peptides, angiotensins, bradykinins, and neuropeptide Y that are present in the central nervous system and their processing to bioactive degradation products. These well-known neuropeptide systems have been selected since they provide illustrative examples that proteolytic degradation of parent peptides can lead to bioactive metabolites with different biological activities as compared to their parent peptides. For example, substance P, dynorphin A, angiotensin I and II, bradykinin, and neuropeptide Y are all degraded to bioactive fragments with pharmacological profiles that differ considerably from those of the parent peptides. The review discusses a selection of the large number of drug-like molecules that act as agonists or antagonists at receptors of neuropeptides. It focuses in particular on the efforts to identify selective drug-like agonists and antagonists mimicking the effects of the endogenous peptide fragments formed. As exemplified in this review, many common neuropeptides are degraded to a variety of smaller fragments but many of the fragments generated have not yet been examined in detail with regard to their potential biological activities. Since these bioactive fragments contain a small number of amino acid residues, they provide an ideal starting point for the development of drug-like substances with ability to mimic the effects of the degradation products. Thus, these substances could provide a rich source of new pharmaceuticals

  1. From gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone to SIFamides: are echinoderm SALMFamides the "missing link" in a bilaterian family of neuropeptides that regulate reproductive processes?

    PubMed

    Elphick, Maurice R

    2013-11-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) belongs to a family of vertebrate neuropeptides with a C-terminal PxRFamide motif, which exert effects by activating the G-protein coupled receptors NPFF1 and/or NPFF2. Comparative analysis of genome sequence data has revealed that orthologs of NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptors occur throughout the Bilateria and the neuropeptide ligand that activates the Drosophila NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptor has been identified as AYRKPPFNGSIFamide ("SIFamide"). Therefore, SIFamide-type neuropeptides, which occur throughout protostomian invertebrates, probably share a common evolutionary origin with vertebrate PxRFamide-type neuropeptides. Based on structural similarities, here SALMFamide neuropeptides are identified as candidate ligand components of this ancient bilaterian peptide-receptor signaling system in a deuterostomian invertebrate phylum, the echinoderms (e.g., starfish, sea urchins). Furthermore, functional studies provide evidence that PxRFamide/SALMFamide/SIFamide-type neuropeptides have evolutionarily conserved roles in regulation (typically inhibitory) of reproductive processes.

  2. NeuroPep: a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Mingxia; Yin, Sanwen; Jang, Richard; Wang, Jian; Xue, Zhidong; Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides play a variety of roles in many physiological processes and serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of some nervous-system disorders. In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified neuropeptides. Therefore, we have developed NeuroPep, a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides, which holds 5949 non-redundant neuropeptide entries originating from 493 organisms belonging to 65 neuropeptide families. In NeuroPep, the number of neuropeptides in invertebrates and vertebrates is 3455 and 2406, respectively. It is currently the most complete neuropeptide database. We extracted entries deposited in UniProt, the database (www.neuropeptides.nl) and NeuroPedia, and used text mining methods to retrieve entries from the MEDLINE abstracts and full text articles. All the entries in NeuroPep have been manually checked. 2069 of the 5949 (35%) neuropeptide sequences were collected from the scientific literature. Moreover, NeuroPep contains detailed annotations for each entry, including source organisms, tissue specificity, families, names, post-translational modifications, 3D structures (if available) and literature references. Information derived from these peptide sequences such as amino acid compositions, isoelectric points, molecular weight and other physicochemical properties of peptides are also provided. A quick search feature allows users to search the database with keywords such as sequence, name, family, etc., and an advanced search page helps users to combine queries with logical operators like AND/OR. In addition, user-friendly web tools like browsing, sequence alignment and mapping are also integrated into the NeuroPep database. Database URL: http://isyslab.info/NeuroPep

  3. NeuroPep: a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Mingxia; Yin, Sanwen; Jang, Richard; Wang, Jian; Xue, Zhidong; Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides play a variety of roles in many physiological processes and serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of some nervous-system disorders. In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified neuropeptides. Therefore, we have developed NeuroPep, a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides, which holds 5949 non-redundant neuropeptide entries originating from 493 organisms belonging to 65 neuropeptide families. In NeuroPep, the number of neuropeptides in invertebrates and vertebrates is 3455 and 2406, respectively. It is currently the most complete neuropeptide database. We extracted entries deposited in UniProt, the database (www.neuropeptides.nl) and NeuroPedia, and used text mining methods to retrieve entries from the MEDLINE abstracts and full text articles. All the entries in NeuroPep have been manually checked. 2069 of the 5949 (35%) neuropeptide sequences were collected from the scientific literature. Moreover, NeuroPep contains detailed annotations for each entry, including source organisms, tissue specificity, families, names, post-translational modifications, 3D structures (if available) and literature references. Information derived from these peptide sequences such as amino acid compositions, isoelectric points, molecular weight and other physicochemical properties of peptides are also provided. A quick search feature allows users to search the database with keywords such as sequence, name, family, etc., and an advanced search page helps users to combine queries with logical operators like AND/OR. In addition, user-friendly web tools like browsing, sequence alignment and mapping are also integrated into the NeuroPep database. Database URL: http://isyslab.info/NeuroPep PMID:25931458

  4. Transcriptome analysis of neuropeptides and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) for neuropeptides in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Noda, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2014-03-01

    The genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors were identified in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Forty-eight candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or peptide hormones. These include all known insect neuropeptides and neurohormones, with the exception of neuropeptide-like precursor 2 (NPLP2) and trissin. The gene coding for prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was first identified from hemimetabolous insect. A total of 57 putative neuropeptide GPCR genes were identified and phylogenetic analysis showed most of them to be closely related to insect GPCRs. A notable finding was the occurrence of vertebrate hormone receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR)-like GPCR and parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR)-like GPCRs. These results suggest that N. lugens possesses the most comprehensive neuropeptide system yet found in insects. Moreover, our findings demonstrate the power of RNA-seq as a tool for analyzing the neuropeptide-related genes in the absence of whole genome sequence information.

  5. Activations of c-fos/c-jun signaling are involved in the modulation of hypothalamic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in amphetamine-mediated appetite suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-F.; Chiou, H.-L.; Kuo, D.-Y. . E-mail: dykuo@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-04-15

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is known as an anorectic agent. The mechanism underlying the anorectic action of AMPH has been attributed to its inhibitory action on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), an appetite stimulant in the brain. This study was aimed to examine the molecular mechanisms behind the anorectic effect of AMPH. Results showed that AMPH treatment decreased food intake, which was correlated with changes of NPY mRNA level, but increased c-fos, c-jun and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA levels in hypothalamus. To determine if c-fos or c-jun was involved in the anorectic response of AMPH, infusions of antisense oligonucleotide into the brain were performed at 1 h before daily AMPH treatment in freely moving rats, and the results showed that c-fos or c-jun knockdown could block this anorectic response and restore NPY mRNA level. Moreover, c-fos or c-jun knockdown could partially block SOD mRNA level that might involve in the modulation of NPY gene expression. It was suggested that c-fos/c-jun signaling might involve in the central regulation of AMPH-mediated feeding suppression via the modulation of NPY gene expression.

  6. De novo discovery of neuropeptides in the genomes of parasitic flatworms using a novel comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Uriel; Koziol, Miguel; Preza, Matías; Costábile, Alicia; Brehm, Klaus; Castillo, Estela

    2016-10-01

    Neuropeptide mediated signalling is an ancient mechanism found in almost all animals and has been proposed as a promising target for the development of novel drugs against helminths. However, identification of neuropeptides from genomic data is challenging, and knowledge of the neuropeptide complement of parasitic flatworms is still fragmentary. In this work, we have developed an evolution-based strategy for the de novo discovery of neuropeptide precursors, based on the detection of localised sequence conservation between possible prohormone convertase cleavage sites. The method detected known neuropeptide precursors with good precision and specificity in the models Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, it identified novel putative neuropeptide precursors in nematodes, including the first description of allatotropin homologues in this phylum. Our search for neuropeptide precursors in the genomes of parasitic flatworms resulted in the description of 34 conserved neuropeptide precursor families, including 13 new ones, and of hundreds of new homologues of known neuropeptide precursor families. Most neuropeptide precursor families show a wide phylogenetic distribution among parasitic flatworms and show little similarity to neuropeptide precursors of other bilaterian animals. However, we could also find orthologs of some conserved bilaterian neuropeptides including pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, myomodulin, neuropeptide-Y, neuropeptide KY and SIF-amide. Finally, we determined the expression patterns of seven putative neuropeptide precursor genes in the protoscolex of Echinococcus multilocularis. All genes were expressed in the nervous system with different patterns, indicating a hidden complexity of peptidergic signalling in cestodes.

  7. De novo discovery of neuropeptides in the genomes of parasitic flatworms using a novel comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Uriel; Koziol, Miguel; Preza, Matías; Costábile, Alicia; Brehm, Klaus; Castillo, Estela

    2016-10-01

    Neuropeptide mediated signalling is an ancient mechanism found in almost all animals and has been proposed as a promising target for the development of novel drugs against helminths. However, identification of neuropeptides from genomic data is challenging, and knowledge of the neuropeptide complement of parasitic flatworms is still fragmentary. In this work, we have developed an evolution-based strategy for the de novo discovery of neuropeptide precursors, based on the detection of localised sequence conservation between possible prohormone convertase cleavage sites. The method detected known neuropeptide precursors with good precision and specificity in the models Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, it identified novel putative neuropeptide precursors in nematodes, including the first description of allatotropin homologues in this phylum. Our search for neuropeptide precursors in the genomes of parasitic flatworms resulted in the description of 34 conserved neuropeptide precursor families, including 13 new ones, and of hundreds of new homologues of known neuropeptide precursor families. Most neuropeptide precursor families show a wide phylogenetic distribution among parasitic flatworms and show little similarity to neuropeptide precursors of other bilaterian animals. However, we could also find orthologs of some conserved bilaterian neuropeptides including pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, myomodulin, neuropeptide-Y, neuropeptide KY and SIF-amide. Finally, we determined the expression patterns of seven putative neuropeptide precursor genes in the protoscolex of Echinococcus multilocularis. All genes were expressed in the nervous system with different patterns, indicating a hidden complexity of peptidergic signalling in cestodes. PMID:27388856

  8. CD and 31P NMR studies of tachykinin and MSH neuropeptides in SDS and DPC micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Sydney C.; Brown, Taylor C.; Gonzalez, Javier D.; Levonyak, Nicholas S.; Rush, Lydia A.; Cremeens, Matthew E.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary structural characteristics of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide (α-MSH), γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH, and melittin were evaluated with circular dichroism in phosphite buffer, DPC micelles, and SDS micelles. CD spectral properties of γ1-MSH and γ2-MSH as well as 31P NMR of DPC micelles with all the peptides are reported for the first time. Although, a trend in the neuropeptide/micelle CD data appears to show increased α-helix content for the tachykinin peptides (SP, NKA, NKB) and increased β-sheet content for the MSH peptides (α-MSH, γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH) with increasing peptide charge, the lack of perturbed 31P NMR signals for all neuropeptides could suggest that the reported antimicrobial activity of SP and α-MSH might not be related to a membrane disruption mode of action.

  9. Relationship between levels of neuropeptide Substance P in periodontal disease and chronic pain: a literature review.

    PubMed

    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; de Godoi Gonçalves, Daniela Aparecida; Camparis, Cinara Maria

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the current review was to investigate the relationship between levels of neuropeptide Substance P in periodontal disease and chronic pain. Substance P is a neuropeptide that is directly related with pain. In periodontal disease, it is expressed during the inflammatory process, and is one of the factors responsible for bone resorption. Studies have shown that Substance P levels are highest in the gingival crevicular fluid from sites with active periodontal disease and bone loss. The persistence of these substances could be sufficient to stimulate neurogenic inflammation in susceptible tissues, and cause pain. The scientific literature shows that Substance P expressed during periodontal disease can be a risk factor for patients with systemic inflammatory pathologies, such as chronic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Additional research is needed to confirm the participation of this substance in the origin of some types of chronic pain. PMID:24574025

  10. Sensory Neurons Arouse C. elegans Locomotion via Both Glutamate and Neuropeptide Release

    PubMed Central

    Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Hu, Zhitao; Schafer, William R.; Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans undergoes periods of behavioral quiescence during larval molts (termed lethargus) and as adults. Little is known about the circuit mechanisms that establish these quiescent states. Lethargus and adult locomotion quiescence is dramatically reduced in mutants lacking the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1. Here, we show that the aroused locomotion of npr-1 mutants results from the exaggerated activity in multiple classes of sensory neurons, including nociceptive (ASH), touch sensitive (ALM and PLM), and stretch sensing (DVA) neurons. These sensory neurons accelerate locomotion via both neuropeptide and glutamate release. The relative contribution of these sensory neurons to arousal differs between larval molts and adults. Our results suggest that a broad network of sensory neurons dictates transitions between aroused and quiescent behavioral states. PMID:26154367

  11. [Neuropeptides, Cytokines and Thymus Peptides as Effectors of Interactions Between Thymus and Neuroendocrine System].

    PubMed

    Torkhovskaya, T I; Belova, O V; Zimina, I V; Kryuchkova, A V; Moskvina, S N; Bystrova, O V; Arion, V Ya; Sergienko, V I

    2015-01-01

    The review presents data on mutual influence of nervous system and thymus, realized through the neuroendocrine-immune interactions. The pres- ence of adrenergic and peptidergic nerves in thymus creates conditions for implementation of the effect of neuropeptides secreted by them. These neuropeptides induce activation of thymus cells receptors and influence on the main processes in thymus, including T-lymphocyte maturation, cytokine and hormones production. In turn, thymuspeptides and/or cytokines, controlled by them, enter the brain and exert influence on neuro- nalfunction, which creates the basis for changes of behavior and homeostasis maintenance in response to infection. Ageing and some infectious, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and cancer diseases are accompanied by distortion of interactions between thymus and central nervous system. Mechanisms of signaling pathways, which determine these interactions, are not revealed yet, and their understanding will promote the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  12. Oxytocin and vasopressin: linking pituitary neuropeptides and their receptors to social neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Baribeau, Danielle A.; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26441508

  13. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E; Scrivens, James H; Elphick, Maurice R

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates-for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome-the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  14. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E.; Scrivens, James H.; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates–for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome–the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  15. Control of sleep-to-wake transitions via fast aminoacid and slow neuropeptide transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mosqueiro, Thiago; de Lecea, Luis; Huerta, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The Locus Coeruleus (LC) modulates cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, brainstem and spinal cord circuits and it expresses receptors for neuromodulators that operate in a time scale of several seconds. Evidences from anatomical, electrophysiological and optogenetic experiments have shown that LC neurons receive input from a group of neurons called Hypocretins (HCRTs) that release a neuropeptide called hypocretin. It is less known how these two groups of neurons can be coregulated using GABAergic neurons. Since the time scales of GABAA inhibition is several orders of magnitude faster than the hypocretin neuropeptide effect, we investigate the limits of circuit activity regulation using a realistic model of neurons. Our investigation shows that GABAA inhibition is insufficient to control the activity levels of the LCs. Despite slower forms of GABAA can in principle work, there is not much plausibility due to the low probability of the presence of slow GABAA and lack of robust stability at the maximum firing frequencies. The best possible control mechanism predicted by our modeling analysis is the presence of inhibitory neuropeptides that exert effects in a similar time scale as the hypocretin/orexin. Although the nature of these inhibitory neuropeptides has not been identified yet, it provides the most efficient mechanism in the modeling analysis. Finally, we present a reduced mean-field model that perfectly captures the dynamics and the phenomena generated by this circuit. This investigation shows that brain communication involving multiple time scales can be better controlled by employing orthogonal mechanisms of neural transmission to decrease interference between cognitive processes and hypothalamic functions. PMID:25598695

  16. Advances in Mass Spectrometric Tools for Probing Neuropeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchberger, Amanda; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators in the functionality of the brain and other neurological organs. Because neuropeptides exist in a wide range of concentrations, appropriate characterization methods are needed to provide dynamic, chemical, and spatial information. Mass spectrometry and compatible tools have been a popular choice in analyzing neuropeptides. There have been several advances and challenges, both of which are the focus of this review. Discussions range from sample collection to bioinformatic tools, although avenues such as quantitation and imaging are included. Further development of the presented methods for neuropeptidomic mass spectrometric analysis is inevitable, which will lead to a further understanding of the complex interplay of neuropeptides and other signaling molecules in the nervous system.

  17. The Role of Hypothalamic Neuropeptides in Neurogenesis and Neuritogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bakos, Jan; Zatkova, Martina; Bacova, Zuzana; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a source of neural progenitor cells which give rise to different populations of specialized and differentiated cells during brain development. Newly formed neurons in the hypothalamus can synthesize and release various neuropeptides. Although term neuropeptide recently undergoes redefinition, small-size hypothalamic neuropeptides remain major signaling molecules mediating short- and long-term effects on brain development. They represent important factors in neurite growth and formation of neural circuits. There is evidence suggesting that the newly generated hypothalamic neurons may be involved in regulation of metabolism, energy balance, body weight, and social behavior as well. Here we review recent data on the role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in adult neurogenesis and neuritogenesis with special emphasis on the development of food intake and social behavior related brain circuits. PMID:26881105

  18. [Effects of neuropeptides on interferon production in vitro].

    PubMed

    Kul'chikov, A E; Makarenko, A N

    2008-01-01

    The study of an interferon-inducing action of neuropeptides (a cerebrolysin model) on production of interferons by human blood leukocytes has shown that neuropeptides induce gamma-interferon production in the titer 267 IU/ml that determines one of the mechanisms of a neuroimmunocorrecting effect of cerebrolysin (Ebewe, Austria) in many neurological diseases (acute stroke, brain traumas and different neuroinfectious diseases). PMID:18720720

  19. Neuropeptides control the dynamic behavior of airway mucosal dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Voedisch, Sabrina; Rochlitzer, Sabine; Veres, Tibor Z; Spies, Emma; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The airway mucosal epithelium is permanently exposed to airborne particles. A network of immune cells patrols at this interface to the environment. The interplay of immune cells is orchestrated by different mediators. In the current study we investigated the impact of neuronal signals on key functions of dendritic cells (DC). Using two-photon microscopic time-lapse analysis of living lung sections from CD11c-EYFP transgenic mice we studied the influence of neuropeptides on airway DC motility. Additionally, using a confocal microscopic approach, the phagocytotic capacity of CD11c(+) cells after neuropeptide stimulation was determined. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) leads to an unspecific release of neuropeptides from nerves. After EFS and treatment with the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), airway DC in living lung slices showed an altered motility. Furthermore, the EFS-mediated effect could partially be blocked by pre-treatment with the receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). Additionally, the phagocytotic capacity of bone marrow-derived and whole lung CD11c(+) cells could be inhibited by neuropeptides CGRP, VIP, and Substance P. We then cross-linked these data with the in vivo situation by analyzing DC motility in two different OVA asthma models. Both in the acute and prolonged OVA asthma model altered neuropeptide amounts and DC motility in the airways could be measured. In summary, our data suggest that neuropeptides modulate key features motility and phagocytosis of mouse airway DC. Therefore altered neuropeptide levels in airways during allergic inflammation have impact on regulation of airway immune mechanisms and therefore might contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma.

  20. Phylogenetic appearance of Neuropeptide S precursor proteins in tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Reinscheid, Rainer K.

    2007-01-01

    Sleep and emotional behavior are two hallmarks of vertebrate animal behavior, implying that specialized neuronal circuits and dedicated neurochemical messengers may have been developed during evolution to regulate such complex behaviors. Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a newly identified peptide transmitter that activates a typical G protein-coupled receptor. Central administration of NPS produces profound arousal, enhances wakefulness and suppresses all stages of sleep. In addition, NPS can alleviate behavioral responses to stress by producing anxiolytic-like effects. A bioinformatic analysis of current genome databases revealed that the NPS peptide precursor gene is present in all vertebrates with the exception of fish. A high level of sequence conservation, especially of aminoterminal structures was detected, indicating stringent requirements for agonist-induced receptor activation. Duplication of the NPS precursor gene was only found in one out of two marsupial species with sufficient genome coverage (Monodelphis domestica; opossum), indicating that the duplicated opossum NPS sequence might have arisen as an isolated event. Pharmacological analysis of both Monodelphis NPS peptides revealed that only the closely related NPS peptide retained agonistic activity at NPS receptors. The duplicated precursor might be either a pseudogene or could have evolved different receptor selectivity. Together, these data show that NPS is a relatively recent gene in vertebrate evolution whose appearance might coincide with its specialized physiological functions in terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:17293003

  1. Discovery of multiple neuropeptide families in the phylum Platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Paul; Mair, Gunnar R; Atkinson, Louise; Ladurner, Peter; Zamanian, Mostafa; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Marks, Nikki J; Day, Tim A; Maule, Aaron G

    2009-09-01

    Available evidence shows that short amidated neuropeptides are widespread and have important functions within the nervous systems of all flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes) examined, and could therefore represent a starting point for new lead drug compounds with which to combat parasitic helminth infections. However, only a handful of these peptides have been characterised, the rigorous exploration of the flatworm peptide signalling repertoire having been hindered by the dearth of flatworm genomic data. Through searches of both expressed sequence tags and genomic resources using the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), we describe 96 neuropeptides on 60 precursors from 10 flatworm species. Most of these (51 predicted peptides on 14 precursors) are novel and are apparently restricted to flatworms; the remainder comprise nine recognised peptide families including FMRFamide-like (FLPs), neuropeptide F (NPF)-like, myomodulin-like, buccalin-like and neuropeptide FF (NPFF)-like peptides; notably, the latter have only previously been reported in vertebrates. Selected peptides were localised immunocytochemically to the Schistosoma mansoni nervous system. We also describe several novel flatworm NPFs with structural features characteristic of the vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY) superfamily, previously unreported characteristics which support the common ancestry of flatworm NPFs with the NPY-superfamily. Our dataset provides a springboard for investigation of the functional biology and therapeutic potential of neuropeptides in flatworms, simultaneously launching flatworm neurobiology into the post-genomic era. PMID:19361512

  2. Neuropeptides of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter).

    PubMed

    Predel, Reinhard; Russell, William K; Russell, David H; Suh, Charles P-C; Nachman, Ronald J

    2012-03-01

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an economically important pest of cotton, and increasing concerns over resistance, detrimental effects on beneficial insects and safety issues associated with traditional insecticide applications have led to an interest in research on novel, alternative strategies for control. One such approach requires a more basic understanding of the neurohormonal system that regulates important physiological properties of the fleahopper; e.g. the expression of specific messenger molecules such as neuropeptides. Therefore we performed a peptidomic study of neural tissues from the fleahopper which led to the first identification of the sequences of native peptide hormones. These peptide hormones include the following neuropeptides: corazonin, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), myosuppressin, CAPA-pyrokinin and CAPA-PVK peptides. The CAPA-pyrokinin, sNPF, and CAPA-PVK peptides represent novel sequences. A comparison of fleahopper neuropeptides with those of related heteropteran species indicates that they are quite different. The sNPF of P. seriatus shows, among others, a novel substitution of Leu with Phe within the C-terminal region; a modification that sets it apart from the known sNPFs of not only other Heteroptera but of other arthropod species as well. The identity of the neuropeptides native to the fleahopper can aid in the potential development of biostable, bioavailable mimetic agonists and antagonists capable of disrupting the physiological functions that these neuropeptides regulate.

  3. Discovery of multiple neuropeptide families in the phylum Platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Paul; Mair, Gunnar R; Atkinson, Louise; Ladurner, Peter; Zamanian, Mostafa; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Marks, Nikki J; Day, Tim A; Maule, Aaron G

    2009-09-01

    Available evidence shows that short amidated neuropeptides are widespread and have important functions within the nervous systems of all flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes) examined, and could therefore represent a starting point for new lead drug compounds with which to combat parasitic helminth infections. However, only a handful of these peptides have been characterised, the rigorous exploration of the flatworm peptide signalling repertoire having been hindered by the dearth of flatworm genomic data. Through searches of both expressed sequence tags and genomic resources using the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), we describe 96 neuropeptides on 60 precursors from 10 flatworm species. Most of these (51 predicted peptides on 14 precursors) are novel and are apparently restricted to flatworms; the remainder comprise nine recognised peptide families including FMRFamide-like (FLPs), neuropeptide F (NPF)-like, myomodulin-like, buccalin-like and neuropeptide FF (NPFF)-like peptides; notably, the latter have only previously been reported in vertebrates. Selected peptides were localised immunocytochemically to the Schistosoma mansoni nervous system. We also describe several novel flatworm NPFs with structural features characteristic of the vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY) superfamily, previously unreported characteristics which support the common ancestry of flatworm NPFs with the NPY-superfamily. Our dataset provides a springboard for investigation of the functional biology and therapeutic potential of neuropeptides in flatworms, simultaneously launching flatworm neurobiology into the post-genomic era.

  4. Amygdalar neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors mediate the anxiolytic-like actions of neuropeptide Y in the social interaction test.

    PubMed

    Sajdyk, T J; Vandergriff, M G; Gehlert, D R

    1999-03-01

    The effects of intra-amygdalar neuropeptide Y infusions were assessed in rats using the social interaction test. Neuropeptide Y administered into the central nucleus of the amygdala did not alter behavior, while injections into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala produced an increased social interaction time. Furthermore, the anxiolytic-like effect was antagonized by co-administration of the potent neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor antagonist ((R)-N-[[4-(aminocarbonylaminomethyl)-phenyl]methyl]-N2-(diphen ylacetyl)-argininamide trifluoroacetate) 3304, but not with the inactive enantiomer ((R)-N-[[4-(aminocarbonylaminomethyl)-phenyl]methyl]-N2-(diphen ylacetyl)-argininamide trifluoroacetate) 3457. Therefore, neuropeptide Y produces an anxiolytic-like effect in the social interaction test through neuropetide Y Y1 receptors located in the basolateral amygdala.

  5. Neuropeptide and sigma receptors as novel therapeutic targets for the pharmacotherapy of depression.

    PubMed

    Paschos, Konstantinos A; Veletza, Stavroula; Chatzaki, Ekaterini

    2009-09-01

    Among the most prevalent of mental illnesses, depression is increasing in incidence in the Western world. It presents with a wide variety of symptoms that involve both the CNS and the periphery. Multiple pharmacological observations led to the development of the monoamine theory as a biological basis for depression, according to which diminished neurotransmission within the CNS, including that of the dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and serotonin systems, is the leading cause of the disorder. Current conventional pharmacological antidepressant therapies, using selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, aim to enhance monoaminergic neurotransmission. However, the use of these agents presents severe disadvantages, including a delay in the alleviation of depressive symptoms, significant adverse effects and high frequencies of non-responding patients. Neuroendocrinological data of recent decades reveal that depression and anxiety disorders may occur simultaneously due to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity. As a result, the stress-diathesis model was developed, which attempts to associate genetic and environmental influences in the aetiology of depression. The amygdala and the hippocampus control the activity of the HPA axis in a counter-balancing way, and a plethora of regulatory neuropeptide signalling pathways are involved. Intervention at these molecular targets may lead to alternative antidepressant therapeutic solutions that are expected to overcome the limitations of existing antidepressants. This prospect is based on preclinical evidence from pharmacological and genetic modifications of the action of neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor, substance P, galanin, vasopressin and neuropeptide Y. The recent synthesis of orally potent non-peptide micromolecules that can selectively bind to various neuropeptide receptors permits the onset of clinical trials to evaluate

  6. Molecular characterization of a short neuropeptide F signaling system in the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans.

    PubMed

    Caers, Jelle; Peymen, Katleen; Van Hiel, Matthias B; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptides of the short neuropeptide F (sNPF) family are widespread among arthropods and found in every sequenced insect genome so far. Functional studies have mainly focused on the regulatory role of sNPF in feeding behavior, although this neuropeptide family has pleiotropic effects including in the control of locomotion, osmotic homeostasis, sleep, learning and memory. Here, we set out to characterize and determine possible roles of sNPF signaling in the haematophagous tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans, a vector of African Trypanosoma parasites causing human and animal African trypanosomiasis. We cloned the G. m. morsitans cDNA sequences of an sNPF-like receptor (Glomo-sNPFR) and precursor protein encoding four Glomo-sNPF neuropeptides. All four Glomo-sNPF peptides concentration-dependently activated Glomo-sNPFR in a cell-based calcium mobilization assay, with EC50 values in the nanomolar range. Gene expression profiles in adult female tsetse flies indicate that the Glomo-sNPF system is mainly restricted to the nervous system. Glomo-snpfr transcripts were also detected in the hindgut of adult females. In contrast to the Drosophila sNPF system, tsetse larvae lack expression of Glomo-snpf and Glomo-snpfr genes. While Glomo-snpf transcript levels are upregulated in pupae, the onset of Glomo-snpfr expression is delayed to adulthood. Expression profiles in adult tissues are similar to those in other insects suggesting that the tsetse sNPF system may have similar functions such as a regulatory role in feeding behavior, together with a possible involvement of sNPFR signaling in osmotic homeostasis. Our molecular data will enable further investigations into the functions of sNPF signaling in tsetse flies. PMID:27288635

  7. Neuropeptide Y fragments derived from neprilysin processing are neuroprotective in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rose, John B; Crews, Leslie; Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Mante, Michael; Hersh, Louis B; Gage, Fred H; Spencer, Brian; Potkar, Rewati; Marr, Robert A; Masliah, Eliezer

    2009-01-28

    The endopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) is a major amyloid-beta (Abeta) degrading enzyme and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Because NEP cleaves substrates other than Abeta, we investigated the potential role of NEP-mediated processing of neuropeptides in the mechanisms of neuroprotection in vivo. Overexpression of NEP at low levels in transgenic (tg) mice affected primarily the levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) compared with other neuropeptides. Ex vivo and in vivo studies in tg mice and in mice that received lentiviral vector injections showed that NEP cleaved NPY into C-terminal fragments (CTFs), whereas silencing NEP reduced NPY processing. Immunoblot and mass spectrometry analysis showed that NPY 21-36 and 31-36 were the most abundant fragments generated by NEP activity in vivo. Infusion of these NPY CTFs into the brains of APP (amyloid precursor protein) tg mice ameliorated the neurodegenerative pathology in this model. Moreover, the amidated NPY CTFs protected human neuronal cultures from the neurotoxic effects of Abeta. This study supports the possibility that the NPY CTFs generated during NEP-mediated proteolysis might exert neuroprotective effects in vivo. This function of NEP represents a unique example of a proteolytic enzyme with dual action, namely, degradation of Abeta as well as processing of NPY.

  8. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  9. NPY/neuropeptide Y enhances autophagy in the hypothalamus: a mechanism to delay aging?

    PubMed

    Aveleira, Célia A; Botelho, Mariana; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Aging was recently described as a life event programmed by the hypothalamus, a key brain region that is crucial for the neuroendocrine interaction between the central nervous system and the periphery. Autophagy impairment is a hallmark of aging, contributing to the aging phenotype and to the aggravation of age-related diseases. Since hypothalamic autophagy decreases with age, strategies to promote autophagy in the hypothalamus may be relevant for control of the aging process. NPY (neuropeptide Y) is an endogenous neuropeptide mainly produced by the hypothalamus. We recently reported, for the first time, that NPY stimulates autophagy in rodent hypothalamus and mediates caloric restriction-induced autophagy in hypothalamic neurons. Moreover, we observed that NPY acts through NPY1R (neuropeptide Y receptor Y1) or NPY5R activation involving a concerted action of different signaling pathways. Since both hypothalamic autophagy and NPY levels decrease with age, modulation of NPY levels could provide new putative therapeutic tools to ameliorate age-related deteriorations and extend longevity.

  10. NPY/neuropeptide Y enhances autophagy in the hypothalamus: a mechanism to delay aging?

    PubMed

    Aveleira, Célia A; Botelho, Mariana; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Aging was recently described as a life event programmed by the hypothalamus, a key brain region that is crucial for the neuroendocrine interaction between the central nervous system and the periphery. Autophagy impairment is a hallmark of aging, contributing to the aging phenotype and to the aggravation of age-related diseases. Since hypothalamic autophagy decreases with age, strategies to promote autophagy in the hypothalamus may be relevant for control of the aging process. NPY (neuropeptide Y) is an endogenous neuropeptide mainly produced by the hypothalamus. We recently reported, for the first time, that NPY stimulates autophagy in rodent hypothalamus and mediates caloric restriction-induced autophagy in hypothalamic neurons. Moreover, we observed that NPY acts through NPY1R (neuropeptide Y receptor Y1) or NPY5R activation involving a concerted action of different signaling pathways. Since both hypothalamic autophagy and NPY levels decrease with age, modulation of NPY levels could provide new putative therapeutic tools to ameliorate age-related deteriorations and extend longevity. PMID:26086271

  11. Aberrant changes of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in brain of a genetic rat model for epilepsy: tremor rat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoxue; Guo, Feng; Cai, Xinze; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Jiuhan; Min, Dongyu; Wang, Qianhui; Hao, Liying; Cai, Jiqun

    2016-01-01

    Excessive excitation or loss of inhibitory neurotransmission has been closely related to epileptic activity. Somatostatin (SST) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are members of endogenous neuropeptides which are recognized as important modulator of classical neurotransmitter, distributed abundantly in mammalian central nervous system. Abnormal expression of these two neuropeptides evidenced in some epileptic models highlights the relevance of SST or NPY in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The tremor rat (TRM) is a genetic epileptic animal model which can manifest tonic convulsions without any external stimuli. The present study aimed to investigate the distribution and expression of SST and NPY in TRM brains, including hippocampus, temporal lobe cortex and cerebellum. Our RT‑PCR data showed that up-regulated mRNA expression of SST and NPY was discovered in TRM hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex compared with control (Wistar) rats. The peptide levels of these neuropeptides in brain areas mentioned above were both apparently higher than that in normal Wistar rats as well. However, in cerebellums, neither SST nor NPY was significantly changed compared with control group. The immunohistochemical data showed that SST and NPY were widely present throughout CA1, CA3 and the hilus of hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex of temporal lobe cortex, as well as cerebellar Purkinje layer. In conclusion, our results discovered the aberrant changes of SST and NPY in several TRM brain regions, suggesting that the peptidergic system might be involved in TRM epileptiform activity. PMID:27685769

  12. Olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain associate with orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling without concomitant AMPK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fernø, Johan; Varela, Luis; Skrede, Silje; Vázquez, María Jesús; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Steen, Vidar M; López, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The success of antipsychotic drug treatment in patients with schizophrenia is limited by the propensity of these drugs to induce hyperphagia, weight gain and other metabolic disturbances, particularly evident for olanzapine and clozapine. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of olanzapine administration on the regulation of hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake, namely neuropeptide expression and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in rats. Our results show that subchronic exposure to olanzapine upregulates neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related protein (AgRP) and downregulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). This effect was evident both in rats fed ad libitum and in pair-fed rats. Of note, despite weight gain and increased expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, subchronic administration of olanzapine decreased AMPK phosphorylation levels. This reduction in AMPK was not observed after acute administration of either olanzapine or clozapine. Overall, our data suggest that olanzapine-induced hyperphagia is mediated through appropriate changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides, and that this effect does not require concomitant AMPK activation. Our data shed new light on the hypothalamic mechanism underlying antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia and weight gain, and provide the basis for alternative targets to control energy balance.

  13. Sensory neuropeptide effects in human skin.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W; Conradson, T B; Dixon, C M; Crossman, D C; Barnes, P J

    1987-12-01

    1 Neuropeptides released from sensory nerves may account for cutaneous flare and wheal following local trauma. In 28 normal subjects we have studied the effects of four sensory neuropeptides given by intradermal injection on the forearm or back. 2 All peptides caused a flare distant from the site of injection, presumably due to an axon reflex. Substance P (SP) was the most potent (geometric mean dose causing 50% of maximum flare, 4.2 pmol). Neurokinin A (NKA) was the next most potent with neurokinin B (NKB) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) the least. The distant flare response to SP, NKA and NKB was maximal at 5 min and disappeared within 2 h. 3 CGRP caused a local erythema over the site of injection at doses above 0.5 pmol which at higher doses lasted for up to 12 h. 4 SP, NKA and NKB caused wheals at doses above 5 pmol with SP and NKB being the most potent. CGRP (up to 250 pmol) did not consistently cause wheal formation. There was no significant effect of coinjection of CGRP upon the response to SP although there was a tendency for an enhancement of the wheal response. 5 The H1-histamine antagonist terfenadine (60 mg orally) significantly inhibited the wheal and distant flare response to histamine (5 nmol) and NKA, but not that caused by NKB. The distant flare of CGRP was also reduced but the local erythema was unaltered. 6. Aspirin (600 mg orally) significantly inhibited the distant flare response to SP, NKA and CGRP, but not that caused by NKB or histamine; the local erythema induced by CGRP was unaffected by aspirin. Aspirin also inhibited the wheal formed by NKA but not the wheal induced by the other substances. 7. These results suggest that tachykinins cause a distant flare response partially via the release of histamine and cyclo-oxygenase products, but cause a wheal by a direct effect on the skin microvasculature. The order of potency SP > NKB > NKA suggests that an SPp or NK, receptor is involved in the wheal response. CGRP by contrast has a

  14. The adipokinetic neuropeptide of Mantodea. Sequence elucidation and evolutionary relationships.

    PubMed

    Gäde, G

    1991-03-01

    A neuropeptide with adipokinetic activity in Locusta migratoria and the mantid Empusa pennata, and hypertrehalosaemic activity in Periplaneta americana, was isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography from corpora cardiaca of the mantids E. pennata and Sphodromantis sp. After brief enzymatic digestion by 5-oxoprolylpeptidase the primary structure of the peptide of each species was determined by pulsed-liquid phase sequencing employing Edman degradation. The C-terminus of both peptides was blocked, as indicated by the lack of digestion with carboxypeptidase A. The peptides of both species were identical: a blocked, uncharged octapeptide with the sequence L-Glu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2. The peptide is now called mantid adipokinetic hormone (Emp-AKH). The synthetic peptide was chromatographically indistinguishable from the natural compound and increased blood lipids in locusts and blood carbohydrates in cockroaches when administered in low doses. The structural features clearly define the peptide as a novel member of the large AKH/RPCH-family of peptides. Seven amino-acid residues are at identical positions in Emp-AKH when compared with the adipokinetic hormone of a dragonfly (Lia-AKH) and the hypertrehalosaemic hormone I from the American cockroach (Pea-CAH-I). Evolutionary relationships to other insect orders are discussed.

  15. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons.

    PubMed

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Pírez, Nicolás; Griffith, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Neuropeptides have widespread effects on behavior, but how these molecules alter the activity of their target cells is poorly understood. We employed a new model system in Drosophila melanogaster to assess the electrophysiological and molecular effects of neuropeptides, recording in situ from larval motor neurons, which transgenically express a receptor of choice. We focused on two neuropeptides, pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and small neuropeptide F (sNPF), which play important roles in sleep/rhythms and feeding/metabolism. PDF treatment depolarized motor neurons expressing the PDF receptor (PDFR), increasing excitability. sNPF treatment had the opposite effect, hyperpolarizing neurons expressing the sNPF receptor (sNPFR). Live optical imaging using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor for cyclic AMP (cAMP) showed that PDF induced a large increase in cAMP, whereas sNPF caused a small but significant decrease in cAMP. Coexpression of pertussis toxin or RNAi interference to disrupt the G-protein Gαo blocked the electrophysiological responses to sNPF, showing that sNPFR acts via Gαo signaling. Using a fluorescent sensor for intracellular calcium, we observed that sNPF-induced hyperpolarization blocked spontaneous waves of activity propagating along the ventral nerve cord, demonstrating that the electrical effects of sNPF can cause profound changes in natural network activity in the brain. This new model system provides a platform for mechanistic analysis of how neuropeptides can affect target cells at the electrical and molecular level, allowing for predictions of how they regulate brain circuits that control behaviors such as sleep and feeding.

  16. Steroidal regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y release and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sahu, A; Phelps, C P; White, J D; Crowley, W R; Kalra, S P; Kalra, P S

    1992-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) readily stimulates the release of hypothalamic LHRH and pituitary LH release in intact and gonadal steroid-primed gonadectomized rats. We have now tested the hypothesis that the release and synthesis of hypothalamic NPY may be regulated by gonadal steroids. To measure the effects of gonadal hormones on NPY release, a permanent push-pull cannula was implanted in the anterior pituitary (AP) of sham castrated (controls) or castrated (CAST) male rats, and 1 week later, the AP was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid over a 3-4 h period. NPY concentrations in the perfusates collected at 10-min intervals were measured by RIAs. The NPY release pattern in the AP was episodic in both intact and CAST rats, and the frequency of NPY episodes was similar in two groups. However, the amount of NPY detected in the AP of CAST rats was significantly less than that of intact rats because the mean rate of release and the amplitude of NPY episodes in the perfusates of CAST rats were significantly reduced. This observation of attenuated hypothalamic NPY output in vivo and previous evidence of decreased hypothalamic NPY contents after CAST implied that the synthesis of hypothalamic NPY may be regulated by testicular secretions. Therefore, the effects of testosterone (T)-replacement on preproNPY messenger RNA (mRNA) in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) was evaluated. Rats were CAST and received either empty or T-filled Silastic capsules sc. Two weeks later, the level of perproNPY mRNA in the MBH was determined by solution hybridization/ribonuclease protection assay using a complementary RNA probe complementary to the rat NPY precursor mRNA. We observed that the levels of preproNPY mRNA were 2-fold higher in the MBH of T-replaced CAST as compared to control CAST rats. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that gonadal steroids enhance the neurosecretory activity of hypothalamic NPYergic neurons, and for the first time reveal a coupling between the

  17. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters in human placental villi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C L; Cheng, L R; Wang, H; Zhuang, L Z; Huang, W Q

    1991-01-01

    The human placenta contains many kinds of bioactive substances which are more or less similar to those from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Most of the studies were carried out mainly with term placenta. The present study, therefore, was attempted to identify, quantify and characterize these substances in the human placenta at the early pregnancy. Using the RIA, immunohistochemistry, HPLC, tissue culture and intrauterine injection methods, we have found that: (1) many kinds of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are present in the placental villi; (2) LH-RH, NT and SRIF positive immunoreactive granules are localized in the cytotrophoblast and those of beta-EP, 5-HT positive granules in the syncytiotrophoblast; (3) synthetic LH-RH and dynorphin (Dyn) stimulate the hCG secretion of the early placental villi in vitro, and (4) the antisera of LH-RH, NT, Dyn and NE antagonist-alpha-MPT significantly reduced the number of blastocyst implantations in the early pregnant rat. These results indicate that in the human placenta there possibly exists a self-regulation mechanism for the synthesis and secretion of placental hormones and neurotransmitters. Therefore, the human placenta can be regarded as a neuroendocrine organ.

  18. Gut Lymphocyte Phenotype Changes after Parenteral Nutrition and Neuropeptide Administration

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Mark A; Heneghan, Aaron F; Fechner, John H; Pierre, Joseph F; Sano, Yoshifumi; Lan, Jinggang; Kudsk, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objective Define gut associated lymphocyte phenotype (GALT) changes with parenteral nutrition (PN) and PN with bombesin (BBS). Summary Background Data PN reduces respiratory tract (RT) & GALT Peyer’s patch and lamina propria (LP) lymphocytes, lowers gut and RT IgA levels and destroys established RT antiviral & antibacterial immunity. BBS, an enteric nervous system (ENS) neuropeptide, reverses PN-induced IgA and RT immune defects. Methods Exp 1: IV-cannulated ICR mice received Chow, PN or PN + BBS injections for 5 days. LSR-II flow cytometer analyzed PP and LP isolated lymphocytes for homing phenotypes (L-selectin+ & LPAM-1+) and state of activation (CD25+, CD44+) in T (CD3+) cell subsets (CD4+ & CD8+) along with homing phenotype (L-selectin+ & LPAM-1+) in naive B (IgD+) and antigen-activated (IgD− or IgM+) B (CD45R/B220+) cells. Exp 2: Following initial experiment 1 protocol, LP T regulatory (Treg) cell phenotype was evaluated by Foxp3 expression. Results Exp 1: PN significantly reduced LP 1) CD4+CD25+ (activated) and 2) CD4+CD25+LPAM-1+ (activated cells homed to LP) T cells while PN-BBS assimilated Chow levels. PN significantly reduced LP 1) IgD+ (naïve), 2) IgD-LPAM+ (antigen-activated homed to LP) and CD44+ memory B cells while PN-BBS assimilated Chow levels. Exp 2: PN significantly reduced LP CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells compared to Chow mice while PN+BBS assimilated Chow levels. Conclusions PN reduces LP activated and regulatory T cells as well as naïve and memory B cells. BBS addition to PN maintains these cell phenotypes, demonstrating the intimate involvement of the ENS in mucosal immunity. PMID:25563877

  19. FRPR-4 Is a G-Protein Coupled Neuropeptide Receptor That Regulates Behavioral Quiescence and Posture in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew D; Janssen, Tom; York, Neil; Lee, Kun He; Schoofs, Liliane; Raizen, David M

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to regulate a broad array of animal behaviors and physiological processes. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes approximately 100 predicted neuropeptide receptor GPCRs, but in vivo roles for only a few have been identified. We describe here a role for the GPCR FRPR-4 in the regulation of behavioral quiescence and locomotive posture. FRPR-4 is activated in cell culture by several neuropeptides with an amidated isoleucine-arginine-phenylalanine (IRF) motif or an amidated valine-arginine-phenylalanine (VRF) motif at their carboxy termini, including those encoded by the gene flp-13. Loss of frpr-4 function results in a minor feeding quiescence defect after heat-induced cellular stress. Overexpression of frpr-4 induces quiescence of locomotion and feeding as well as an exaggerated body bend posture. The exaggerated body bend posture requires the gene flp-13. While frpr-4 is expressed broadly, selective overexpression of frpr-4 in the proprioceptive DVA neurons results in exaggerated body bends that require flp-13 in the ALA neuron. Our results suggest that FLP-13 and other neuropeptides signal through FRPR-4 and other receptors to regulate locomotion posture and behavioral quiescence. PMID:26571132

  20. Expression of prohormone convertase 2 and the generation of neuropeptides in the developing nervous system of the gastropod Haliotis.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Scott F; York, Patrick S; Hanna, Peter H; Degnan, Bernard M; Croll, Roger P

    2009-01-01

    Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) belongs to a family of enzymes involved in the proteolytic maturation of neuropeptide precursors into mature peptides that act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators or neurohormones. Here we show that a gene encoding a PC2-like enzyme (HasPC2) is expressed during larval development and in the adult ganglia of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina. HasPC2 exhibits high sequence identity to other gastropod PC2s and thus is likely to function in peptide processing. Analysis of HasPC2 expression indicates that it is activated early in nervous system development. During trochophore and early veliger larval stages, HasPC2 is expressed in the vicinity of the forming ganglia of the central nervous system and parts of the putative peripheral nervous system. Later in larval development, at the time the veliger becomes competent to interact with the external environment and initiate metamorphosis, HasPC2 expression largely restricts to cells of the major ganglia and their commissures. Profiling of veliger larvae by bioinformatic approaches suggests the expression of a variety of peptides. Direct MALDI-MS-based peptide profiling of juvenile Haliotis cerebral ganglia (brain) reveals an abundance of neuropeptides, including FMRFamide-related peptides and APGWamide, compatible with PC2 functioning in neuropeptide processing in these regions. These results are consistent with PC2 regulating neuropeptide generation in the earliest functioning of the gastropod nervous system.

  1. FRPR-4 Is a G-Protein Coupled Neuropeptide Receptor That Regulates Behavioral Quiescence and Posture in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    York, Neil; Lee, Kun He; Schoofs, Liliane; Raizen, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to regulate a broad array of animal behaviors and physiological processes. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes approximately 100 predicted neuropeptide receptor GPCRs, but in vivo roles for only a few have been identified. We describe here a role for the GPCR FRPR-4 in the regulation of behavioral quiescence and locomotive posture. FRPR-4 is activated in cell culture by several neuropeptides with an amidated isoleucine-arginine-phenylalanine (IRF) motif or an amidated valine-arginine-phenylalanine (VRF) motif at their carboxy termini, including those encoded by the gene flp-13. Loss of frpr-4 function results in a minor feeding quiescence defect after heat-induced cellular stress. Overexpression of frpr-4 induces quiescence of locomotion and feeding as well as an exaggerated body bend posture. The exaggerated body bend posture requires the gene flp-13. While frpr-4 is expressed broadly, selective overexpression of frpr-4 in the proprioceptive DVA neurons results in exaggerated body bends that require flp-13 in the ALA neuron. Our results suggest that FLP-13 and other neuropeptides signal through FRPR-4 and other receptors to regulate locomotion posture and behavioral quiescence. PMID:26571132

  2. Role of neuropeptides in learning versus performance: focus on vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Koob, G F; Lebrun, C; Bluthé, R M; Dantzer, R; Le Moal, M

    1989-01-01

    Neuropeptides that have classical hormonal functions via the pituitary have been implicated in cognitive function. Systemically and centrally administered arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been well documented to prolong extinction and improve consolidation in avoidance tasks. However, major questions have centered on the physiological mechanism of action for these effects and whether these cognitive enhancing actions reflect learning or performance. Work with vasopressin antagonists has led to the hypothesis that the effects of systemically administered AVP may be mediated peripherally and may be secondary to increases in blood pressure and activating effects. Centrally administered AVP, however, can also facilitate memory and recent work using an olfactory social memory task suggests that these effects may be mediated, at least in part, by AVP systems in the lateral septum. These results suggest that the cognitive enhancing actions of AVP may involve two parallel, but ultimately homologous, systems at the functional level. Pituitary-derived AVP may facilitate memory actions through more nonspecific (performance) effects, whereas centrally derived AVP may facilitate memory actions through more direct effects on the neural substrates of memory processing in the limbic system.

  3. Neuropeptide Y induces torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthew J; Freeman, David A; Park, Jin Ho; Dark, John

    2005-09-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are known to decrease body temperature (Tb) of laboratory rats by 1-3 degrees C. Several NPY pathways in the brain terminate in hypothalamic structures involved in energy balance and thermoregulation. Laboratory rats are homeothermic, maintaining Tb within a narrow range. We examined the effect of ICV injected NPY on Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), a species that naturally undergoes daily torpor in which Tb decreases by as much as 15-20 degrees C. Minimum effective dose was determined in preliminary testing then various doses of NPY were tested in cold-acclimated Siberian hamsters while food was withheld. NPY markedly reduced Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster. In addition, the reduction in Tb in 63% of the observations was sufficient to reach the criterion for daily torpor (Tb < 32 degrees C for at least 30 min). Neither the incidence of torpor nor its depth or duration was related to NPY dose. Both likelihood and magnitude of response varied within animals on different test days. NPY decreased 24-h food intake and this was exaggerated in the animals reaching criterion for torpor; the decrease in food intake was positively correlated with the magnitude of the decrease in Tb. The mild hypothermia seen in homeothermic laboratory rats after NPY injected ICV is exaggerated, often greatly, in the heterothermic Siberian hamster. NPY treatment may be activating hypothalamic systems that normally integrate endogenous torpor-producing signals and initiate torpor.

  4. Multiple Neuropeptide-Coding Genes Involved in Planarian Pharynx Extension.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Seira; Inoue, Takeshi; Kashima, Makoto; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-06-01

    Planarian feeding behavior involves three steps: moving toward food, extending the pharynx from their planarian's ventral side after arriving at the food, and ingesting the food through the pharynx. Although pharynx extension is a remarkable behavior, it remains unknown what neuronal cell types are involved in its regulation. To identify neurons involved in regulating pharynx extension, we quantitatively analyzed pharynx extension and sought to identify these neurons by RNA interference (RNAi) and in situ hybridization. This assay, when performed using planarians with amputation of various body parts, clearly showed that the head portion is indispensable for inducing pharynx extension. We thus tested the effects of knockdown of brain neurons such as serotonergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons by RNAi, but did not observe any effects on pharynx extension behavior. However, animals with RNAi of the Prohormone Convertase 2 (PC2, a neuropeptide processing enzyme) gene did not perform the pharynx extension behavior, suggesting the possible involvement of neuropeptide(s in the regulation of pharynx extension. We screened 24 neuropeptide-coding genes, analyzed their functions by RNAi using the pharynx extension assay system, and identified at least five neuropeptide genes involved in pharynx extension. These was expressed in different cells or neurons, and some of them were expressed in the brain, suggesting complex regulation of planarian feeding behavior by the nervous system.

  5. Multiple Neuropeptide-Coding Genes Involved in Planarian Pharynx Extension.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Seira; Inoue, Takeshi; Kashima, Makoto; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-06-01

    Planarian feeding behavior involves three steps: moving toward food, extending the pharynx from their planarian's ventral side after arriving at the food, and ingesting the food through the pharynx. Although pharynx extension is a remarkable behavior, it remains unknown what neuronal cell types are involved in its regulation. To identify neurons involved in regulating pharynx extension, we quantitatively analyzed pharynx extension and sought to identify these neurons by RNA interference (RNAi) and in situ hybridization. This assay, when performed using planarians with amputation of various body parts, clearly showed that the head portion is indispensable for inducing pharynx extension. We thus tested the effects of knockdown of brain neurons such as serotonergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons by RNAi, but did not observe any effects on pharynx extension behavior. However, animals with RNAi of the Prohormone Convertase 2 (PC2, a neuropeptide processing enzyme) gene did not perform the pharynx extension behavior, suggesting the possible involvement of neuropeptide(s in the regulation of pharynx extension. We screened 24 neuropeptide-coding genes, analyzed their functions by RNAi using the pharynx extension assay system, and identified at least five neuropeptide genes involved in pharynx extension. These was expressed in different cells or neurons, and some of them were expressed in the brain, suggesting complex regulation of planarian feeding behavior by the nervous system. PMID:27268986

  6. Isolation of a neuropeptide-degrading endopeptidase from the leech Theromyzon tessulatum.

    PubMed

    Laurent, V; Salzet, M

    1995-10-01

    Extracts of head parts prepared from the leech Theromyzon tessulatum hydrolyse the Gly3-Phe4 bond of synthetic [D-Ala2, Leu5]enkephalin and the Gly-His bond of benzoyl-Gly-His-Leu. The metabolism of benzoyl-Gly-His-Leu was completely inhibited by captopril, consistent with an angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. Such an enzyme has recently been isolated from T. tessulatum. However, the enkephalin hydrolysis by captopril (100 microM) was inhibited to a maximum of 70%. The residual activity hydrolyzing enkephalin was inhibited by phosphoramidon, consistent with the presence of endopeptidase-24.11, a mammalian enzyme implicated in the metabolism of neuropeptides. This enzyme was isolated using four steps of purification including gel-permeation and anion-exchange chromatographies followed by reverse-phase HPLC. This neuropeptide endopeptidase (of approximate molecular mass 45 kDa) hydrolyses, at pH 7 and 37 degrees C, both the Gly3-Phe4 bond of synthetic [D-Ala2, Leu5]enkephalin and the Phe8-His9 bond of angiotensin I. Cleavage of [D-Ala2, Leu5]enkephalin yields, respectively, the Tyr-D-Ala-Gly and Phe-Leu peptides with a specific activity of 29 nmol Tyr-D-Ala-Gly.min-1.mg protein-1 (Km 95 microM). The hydrolysis of angiotensin I yields angiotensin II and the dipeptide His-Leu with a specific activity of 1.2 nmol angiotensin min-1.mg protein-1 (Km 330 microM). The metabolism of these peptides was totally inhibited by phosphoramidon. This study therefore provides biochemical evidence for neuropeptide-degrading endopeptidases in leeches.

  7. Changes in cyclic nucleotides, locomotory behavior, and body length produced by novel endogenous neuropeptides in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Catharine A; Pleva, Anthony E; Stretton, Antony O W

    2011-11-01

    Recent technical advances have rapidly advanced the discovery of novel peptides, as well as the transcripts that encode them, in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Here we report that many of these novel peptides produce profound and varied effects on locomotory behavior and levels of cyclic nucleotides in A. suum. We investigated the effects of 31 endogenous neuropeptides encoded by transcripts afp-1, afp-2, afp-4, afp-6, afp-7, and afp-9-14 (afp: Ascaris FMRFamide-like Precursor protein) on cyclic nucleotide levels, body length and locomotory behavior. Worms were induced to generate anteriorly propagating waveforms, peptides were injected into the pseudocoelomic cavity, and changes in the specific activity (nmol/mg protein) of second messengers cAMP (3'5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and cGMP (3'5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate) were determined. Many of these neuropeptides changed the levels of cAMP (both increases and decreases were found), whereas few neuropeptides changed the level of cGMP. A subset of the peptides that lowered cAMP was investigated for effects on the locomotory waveform and on body length. Injection of AF19, or AF34 (afp-13), AF9 (afp-14), AF26 or AF41 (afp-11) caused immediate paralysis and cessation of propagating body waveforms. These neuropeptides also significantly increased body length. In contrast, injection of AF15 (afp-9) reduced the body length, and decreased the amplitude of waves in the body waveform. AF30 (afp-10) produced worms with tight ventral coils. Although injection of neuropeptides encoded by afp-1 (AF3, AF4, AF10 or AF13) produced an increased number of exaggerated body waves, there were no effects on either cAMP or cGMP. By injecting peptides into behaving A. suum, we have provided an initial screen of the effects of novel peptides on several behavioral and biochemical parameters.

  8. Peptidomics for the discovery and characterization of neuropeptides and hormones.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2015-09-01

    The discovery of neuropeptides as signaling molecules with paracrine or hormonal regulatory functions has led to trailblazing advances in physiology and fostered the characterization of numerous neuropeptide-binding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as potential drug targets. The impact on human health has been tremendous: approximately 30% of commercial drugs act via the GPCR pathway. However, about 25% of the GPCRs encoded by the mammalian genome still lack their pharmacological identity. Searching for the orphan GPCR endogenous ligands that are likely to be neuropeptides has proved to be a formidable task. Here we describe the mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies and experimental strategies that have been successful in achieving high-throughput characterization of endogenous peptides in nervous and endocrine systems.

  9. Peptidomics for the discovery and characterization of neuropeptides and hormones

    PubMed Central

    Romanova, Elena V.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of neuropeptides as signaling molecules with paracrine or hormonal regulatory functions has led to trailblazing advances in physiology and fostered the characterization of numerous neuropeptide-binding G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as potential drug targets. The impact on human health has been tremendous: approximately 30% of commercial drugs act via the GPCR pathway. However, about 25% of the GPCRs encoded by the mammalian genome still lack their pharmacological identity. Searching for the orphan GPCR endogenous ligands that likely are neuropeptides has proved to be a formidable task. Here we describe the mass spectrometry-based technologies and experimental strategies that have been successful in achieving high throughput characterization of endogenous peptides in nervous and endocrine systems. PMID:26143240

  10. Pathogenic involvement of neuropeptides in anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Alldredge, Brett

    2010-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent disorders of mood posing significant challenges to individuals and society. Current evidence indicates no single neurobiological determinant underpins these conditions and an integrated approach in both research and treatment is expedient. Basic, behavioral, and clinical science indicates various stress-responsive neuropeptides in the neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral pathophysiology of stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression. This review draws on recent research to capture the consensus and implications of neuropeptide research concerning the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression.

  11. SALMFamide salmagundi: the biology of a neuropeptide family in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Elphick, Maurice R

    2014-09-01

    The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that occur in species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata. The prototypes for this neuropeptide family (S1 and S2) were discovered in starfish but subsequently SALMFamides were identified in other echinoderms. There are two types of SALMFamides: L-type, which have the C-terminal motif SxLxFamide, and F-type, which have the C-terminal motif SxFxFamide. They are derived from two types of precursor proteins: an L-type SALMFamide precursor, which comprises only L-type or L-type-like SALMFamides and an F-type SALMFamide precursor, which contains several F-type or F-type-like SALMFamides and, typically, one or more L-type SALMFamides. Thus, SALMFamides occur as heterogeneous mixtures of neuropeptides - a SALMFamide salmagundi. SALMFamides are produced by distinct populations of neurons in echinoderm larval and adult nervous systems and are present in the innervation of neuromuscular organs. Both L-type and F-type SALMFamides cause muscle relaxation in echinoderms and, for example, in starfish this effect of SALMFamides may mediate neural control of cardiac stomach eversion in species that feed extra-orally (e.g., Asterias rubens). The SALMFamide S1 also causes inhibition of neural release of a relaxin-like gonadotropin in the starfish Asterina pectinifera. An important issue that remains to be resolved are the relationships of SALMFamides with neuropeptides that have been identified in other phyla. However, it has been noted that the C-terminal SxLxFamide motif of L-type SALMFamides is a feature of some members of a bilaterian neuropeptide family that includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in vertebrates and SIFamide-type neuropeptides in protostomes. Similarly, the C-terminal FxFamide motif of F-type SALMFamides is a feature of vertebrate QRFP (26RFa)-type neuropeptides. These sequence similarities may provide a basis for molecular identification of receptors that mediate effects of SALMFamides. Furthermore

  12. Zinc regulation of food intake: new insights on the role of neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Cathy W

    2003-07-01

    The role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in feeding behavior and zinc deficiency-induced anorexia has been controversial because hypothalamic NPY levels are elevated in both zinc deficiency and food restriction. A recent report shows that while NPY is released from terminals in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of food-restricted animals, this release is significantly impaired in zinc-deficient animals. Zinc deficiency may therefore cause anorexia by inhibiting the release of NPY that is required for receptor activation. PMID:12918877

  13. Identification of a Receptor for Neuropeptide VGF and Its Role in Neuropathic Pain*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Chun; Pristerá, Alessandro; Ayub, Mahmood; Swanwick, Richard S.; Karu, Kersti; Hamada, Yosuke; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Okuse, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    VGF (nonacronymic) is a neuropeptide precursor that plays multiple roles in regulation of energy balance, reproduction, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and pain. Data from a number of pain models showed significant up-regulation of VGF in sensory neurons. TLQP-21, one of the VGF-derived neuropeptides, has been shown to induce a hyperalgesic response when injected subcutaneously into the hind paw of mice. However, the precise role of VGF-derived neuropeptides in neuropathic pain and the molecular identity of the receptor for VGF-derived peptides are yet to be investigated. Here we identified gC1qR, the globular heads of the C1q receptor, as the receptor for TLQP-21 using chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry analysis. TLQP-21 caused an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels in rat macrophages and microglia. Inoculation of TLQP-21-stimulated macrophages into rat hind paw caused mechanical hypersensitivity. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels in macrophages was attenuated by either siRNA or neutralizing antibodies against gC1qR. Furthermore, application of the gC1qR-neutralizing antibody to rats with partial sciatic nerve ligation resulted in a delayed onset of nerve injury-associated mechanical hypersensitivity. These results indicate that gC1qR is the receptor for TLQP-21 and plays an important role in chronic pain through activation of macrophages. Because direct association between TLQP-21 and gC1qR is required for activation of macrophages and causes hypersensitivity, disrupting this interaction may be a useful new approach to develop novel analgesics. PMID:24106277

  14. Neuropeptide-Driven Cross-Modal Plasticity following Sensory Loss in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitch, Ithai; Laurent, Patrick; Zhao, Buyun; Walker, Denise; Beets, Isabel; Schoofs, Liliane; Bai, Jihong; Schafer, William R.; Treinin, Millet

    2016-01-01

    Sensory loss induces cross-modal plasticity, often resulting in altered performance in remaining sensory modalities. Whereas much is known about the macroscopic mechanisms underlying cross-modal plasticity, only scant information exists about its cellular and molecular underpinnings. We found that Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes deprived of a sense of body touch exhibit various changes in behavior, associated with other unimpaired senses. We focused on one such behavioral alteration, enhanced odor sensation, and sought to reveal the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that translate mechanosensory loss into improved olfactory acuity. To this end, we analyzed in mechanosensory mutants food-dependent locomotion patterns that are associated with olfactory responses and found changes that are consistent with enhanced olfaction. The altered locomotion could be reversed in adults by optogenetic stimulation of the touch receptor (mechanosensory) neurons. Furthermore, we revealed that the enhanced odor response is related to a strengthening of inhibitory AWC→AIY synaptic transmission in the olfactory circuit. Consistently, inserting in this circuit an engineered electrical synapse that diminishes AWC inhibition of AIY counteracted the locomotion changes in touch-deficient mutants. We found that this cross-modal signaling between the mechanosensory and olfactory circuits is mediated by neuropeptides, one of which we identified as FLP-20. Our results indicate that under normal function, ongoing touch receptor neuron activation evokes FLP-20 release, suppressing synaptic communication and thus dampening odor sensation. In contrast, in the absence of mechanosensory input, FLP-20 signaling is reduced, synaptic suppression is released, and this enables enhanced olfactory acuity; these changes are long lasting and do not represent ongoing modulation, as revealed by optogenetic experiments. Our work adds to a growing literature on the roles of neuropeptides in cross

  15. Expression of neuropeptides and their receptors in the developing retina of mammals.

    PubMed

    Bagnoli, P; Dal Monte, M; Casini, G

    2003-10-01

    The present review examines various aspects of the developmental expression of neuropeptides and of their receptors in mammalian retinas, emphasizing their possible roles in retinal maturation. Different peptidergic systems have been investigated with some detail during retinal development, including substance P (SP), somatostatin (SRIF), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioid peptides and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Overall, the developmental expression of most peptides is characterized by early appearance, transient features and achievement of the mature pattern at the time of eye opening. Concerning possible developmental actions of neuropeptides, recent studies imply a role of SP in the modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission in early postnatal rabbit retinas, when cholinergic cells participate in the retinal spontaneous waves of activity. In addition, the presence of transient SRIF expressing ganglion cells and recent observations in SRIF receptor knock-out mice indicate variegated roles of this peptide in the development of the retina and of retinofugal projections. Furthermore, VIP and PACAP exert protective and growth-promoting actions that may sustain retinal neurons during their development, and opioid peptides may control cell proliferation in the developing retina. Finally, a peak in the expression of certain peptides, including VIP, NPY and CRF, is present around the time of eye opening, when the retina begins the analysis of structured visual information, suggesting important roles of these peptides during this delicate phase of retinal development. In summary, although the physiological actions of peptides during retinal development are far from being clarified, the data reviewed herein indicate promising perspectives in this field of study.

  16. Identification of a receptor for neuropeptide VGF and its role in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Chun; Pristerá, Alessandro; Ayub, Mahmood; Swanwick, Richard S; Karu, Kersti; Hamada, Yosuke; Rice, Andrew S C; Okuse, Kenji

    2013-11-29

    VGF (nonacronymic) is a neuropeptide precursor that plays multiple roles in regulation of energy balance, reproduction, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and pain. Data from a number of pain models showed significant up-regulation of VGF in sensory neurons. TLQP-21, one of the VGF-derived neuropeptides, has been shown to induce a hyperalgesic response when injected subcutaneously into the hind paw of mice. However, the precise role of VGF-derived neuropeptides in neuropathic pain and the molecular identity of the receptor for VGF-derived peptides are yet to be investigated. Here we identified gC1qR, the globular heads of the C1q receptor, as the receptor for TLQP-21 using chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry analysis. TLQP-21 caused an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels in rat macrophages and microglia. Inoculation of TLQP-21-stimulated macrophages into rat hind paw caused mechanical hypersensitivity. The increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels in macrophages was attenuated by either siRNA or neutralizing antibodies against gC1qR. Furthermore, application of the gC1qR-neutralizing antibody to rats with partial sciatic nerve ligation resulted in a delayed onset of nerve injury-associated mechanical hypersensitivity. These results indicate that gC1qR is the receptor for TLQP-21 and plays an important role in chronic pain through activation of macrophages. Because direct association between TLQP-21 and gC1qR is required for activation of macrophages and causes hypersensitivity, disrupting this interaction may be a useful new approach to develop novel analgesics.

  17. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  18. Insight into the molecular and functional diversity of cnidarian neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. PMID:25625515

  19. Functional roles of neuropeptides in the insect central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nässel, D. R.

    With the completion of the Drosophila genome sequencing project we can begin to appreciate the extent of the complexity in the components involved in signal transfer and modulation in the nervous system of an animal with reasonably complex behavior. Of all the different classes of signaling substances utilized by the nervous system, the neuropeptides are the most diverse structurally and functionally. Thus peptidergic mechanisms of action in the central nervous system need to be analyzed in the context of the neuronal circuits in which they act and generalized traits cannot be established. By taking advantage of Drosophila molecular genetics and the presence of identifiable neurons, it has been possible to interfere with peptidergic signaling in small populations of central neurons and monitor the consequences on behavior. These studies and experiments on other insects with large identifiable neurons, permitting cellular analysis of signaling mechanisms, have outlined important principles for temporal and spatial action of neuropeptides in outputs of the circadian clock and in orchestrating molting behavior. Considering the large number of neuropeptides available in each insect species and their diverse distribution patterns, it is to be expected that different neuropeptides play roles in most aspects of insect physiology and behavior.

  20. Insight into the molecular and functional diversity of cnidarian neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-23

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes.

  1. The insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Insects are so successful because of great resistance to environmental stress, yet little is known about how such responses may be mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Results: We provide evidence that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene and peptide are critical mediators of desic...

  2. Insight into the Molecular and Functional Diversity of Cnidarian Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. PMID:25625515

  3. Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Fouillen, Laetitia; Petruzziello, Filomena; Veit, Julia; Bhattacharyya, Anwesha; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor; Zhang, Xiaozhe

    2013-03-27

    Neuropeptides are critical signaling molecules, involved in the regulation of diverse physiological processes including energy metabolism, pain perception and brain cognitive state. Prolonged general anesthesia has an impact on many of these processes, but the regulation of peptides by general anesthetics is poorly understood. In this study, we present an in-depth characterization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides of the tree shrew during volatile isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia administered accompanying a neurosurgical procedure. Using a predicted-peptide database and hybrid spectral analysis, we first identified 85 peptides from the tree shrew hypothalamus. Differential analysis was then performed between control and experimental group animals. The levels of 12 hypothalamic peptides were up-regulated following prolonged general anesthesia. Our study revealed for the first time that several neuropeptides, including alpha-neoendorphin and somatostatin-14, were altered during general anesthesia. Our study broadens the scope for the involvement of neuropeptides in volatile anesthesia regulation, opening the possibility for investigating the associated regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23228960

  4. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Crustacean Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Chuanzi; Liang, Zhidan; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides represent one of the largest classes of signaling molecules used by nervous systems to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. Over the past several years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies have revolutionized the discovery of neuropeptides in numerous model organisms, especially in decapod crustaceans. Here, we focus our discussion on recent advances in the use of MS-based techniques to map neuropeptides in spatial domain and monitoring their dynamic changes in temporal domain. These MS-enabled investigations provide valuable information about the distribution, secretion and potential function of neuropeptides with high molecular specificity and sensitivity. In situ MS imaging and in vivo microdialysis are highlighted as key technologies for probing spatio-temporal dynamics of neuropeptides in the crustacean nervous system. This review summarizes the latest advancement in MS-based methodologies for neuropeptide analysis including typical workflow and sample preparation strategies as well as major neuropeptide families discovered in decapod crustaceans. PMID:25448012

  5. Photoperiod-dependent regulation of carboxypeptidase E affects the selective processing of neuropeptides in the seasonal Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Helwig, M; Herwig, A; Heldmaier, G; Barrett, P; Mercer, J G; Klingenspor, M

    2013-02-01

    The production of bioactive peptides from biologically inactive precursors involves extensive post-translational processing, including enzymatic cleavage by proteolytic peptidases. Endoproteolytic prohormone-convertases initially cleave the precursors of many neuropeptides at specific amino acid sequences to generate intermediates with basic amino acid extensions on their C-termini. Subsequently, the related exopeptidases, carboxypeptidases D and E (CPD and CPE), are responsible for removing these amino acids before the peptides achieve biological activity. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on the processing of the neuropeptide precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and its derived neuropeptides, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and β-endorphin (END), within the hypothalamus of the seasonal Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). We thus compared hypothalamic distribution of CPD, CPE, α-MSH and β-END using immunohistochemistry and measured the enzyme activity of CPE and concentrations of C-terminally cleaved α-MSH in short-day (SD; 8 : 16 h light/dark) and long-day (LD; 16 : 8 h light/dark) acclimatised hamsters. Increased immunoreactivity (-IR) of CPE, as well as higher CPE activity, was observed in SD. This increase was accompanied by more β-END-IR cells and substantially higher levels of C- terminally cleaved α-MSH, as determined by radioimmunoassay. Our results suggest that exoproteolytic cleavage of POMC-derived neuropeptides is tightly regulated by photoperiod in the Siberian hamster. Higher levels of biological active α-MSH- and β-END in SD are consistent with the hypothesis that post-translational processing is a key event in the regulation of seasonal energy balance.

  6. Effects of a Skin Neuropeptide (Substance P) on Cutaneous Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Ramdani, Yasmina; Jaouen, Thomas; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Lati, Elian; Yvergnaux, Florent; Driouich, Azzedine; Lefeuvre, Luc; Farmer, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP), a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10−6 M) and this effect was rapid (<5 min). Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu) was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose®) were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. Conclusions/Significance SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism. PMID:24250813

  7. Comparative potency of some extended peptide chain members of the RFamide neuropeptide family, assessed on the hearts of Busycon canaliculatum and Buccinum undatum.

    PubMed

    Moulis, A; Huddart, H; Hill, R B

    2003-11-01

    Twenty different RFamide neuropeptide analogues were examined for their relative potencies on the ventricles of Busycon canaliculatum and Buccinum undatum and on the atrium of Busycon to determine the essential requirements for activity at the RFamide receptor. None of the neuropeptide studies was inhibitory to natural cardiac rhythmicity or to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)) or FLRFamide (Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2)) responses. Two tripeptides studied were completely without effect, indicating that a minimum of four amino acids in the peptide chain length was essential for any activity. The original parent tetrapeptide FMRFamide was surprisingly less potent than many of the extended chain peptides such as the penta, hepta and decapeptides. These RFamide neuropeptides were strongly inotropic on both ventricles and the atrium, while on the latter they were strongly chronotropic despite several of these peptides being of a non-molluscan origin. Chain length seems to be of little importance for activity at the receptor. Surprisingly, SCP(B) (small cardioactive Peptide B) was not very effective in either Busycon or Buccinum ventricle. What was also clear was that the configuration of the carboxyl terminal was important for activity. Two neuropeptides in this study possessed an Arg-Met carboxyl terminal and were much less effective than FMRFamide, suggesting that an Arg-Phe terminal is most effective in receptor activation. PMID:12937940

  8. Comparative potency of some extended peptide chain members of the RFamide neuropeptide family, assessed on the hearts of Busycon canaliculatum and Buccinum undatum.

    PubMed

    Moulis, A; Huddart, H; Hill, R B

    2003-11-01

    Twenty different RFamide neuropeptide analogues were examined for their relative potencies on the ventricles of Busycon canaliculatum and Buccinum undatum and on the atrium of Busycon to determine the essential requirements for activity at the RFamide receptor. None of the neuropeptide studies was inhibitory to natural cardiac rhythmicity or to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)) or FLRFamide (Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2)) responses. Two tripeptides studied were completely without effect, indicating that a minimum of four amino acids in the peptide chain length was essential for any activity. The original parent tetrapeptide FMRFamide was surprisingly less potent than many of the extended chain peptides such as the penta, hepta and decapeptides. These RFamide neuropeptides were strongly inotropic on both ventricles and the atrium, while on the latter they were strongly chronotropic despite several of these peptides being of a non-molluscan origin. Chain length seems to be of little importance for activity at the receptor. Surprisingly, SCP(B) (small cardioactive Peptide B) was not very effective in either Busycon or Buccinum ventricle. What was also clear was that the configuration of the carboxyl terminal was important for activity. Two neuropeptides in this study possessed an Arg-Met carboxyl terminal and were much less effective than FMRFamide, suggesting that an Arg-Phe terminal is most effective in receptor activation.

  9. Identification of a neuropeptide modified with bromine as an endogenous ligand for GPR7.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Ryo; Yoshida, Hiromi; Fukusumi, Shoji; Habata, Yugo; Hosoya, Masaki; Kawamata, Yuji; Yano, Takahiko; Hinuma, Shuji; Kitada, Chieko; Asami, Taiji; Mori, Masaaki; Fujisawa, Yukio; Fujino, Masahiko

    2002-09-13

    We isolated a novel gene in a search of the Celera data base and found that it encoded a peptidic ligand for a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR7 (O'Dowd, B. F., Scheideler, M. A., Nguyen, T., Cheng, R., Rasmussen, J. S., Marchese, A., Zastawny, R., Heng, H. H., Tsui, L. C., Shi, X., Asa, S., Puy, L., and George, S. R. (1995) Genomics 28, 84-91; Lee, D. K., Nguyen, T., Porter, C. A., Cheng, R., George, S. R., and O'Dowd, B. F. (1999) Mol. Brain Res. 71, 96-103). The expression of this gene was detected in various tissues in rats, including the lymphoid organs, central nervous system, mammary glands, and uterus. GPR7 mRNA was mainly detected in the central nervous system and uterus. In situ hybridization showed that the gene encoding the GPR7 ligand was expressed in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats. To determine the molecular structure of the endogenous GPR7 ligand, we purified it from bovine hypothalamic tissue extracts on the basis of cAMP production-inhibitory activity to cells expressing GPR7. Through structural analyses, we found that the purified endogenous ligand was a peptide with 29 amino acid residues and that it was uniquely modified with bromine. We subsequently determined that the C-6 position of the indole moiety in the N-terminal Trp was brominated. We believe this is the first report on a neuropeptide modified with bromine and have hence named it neuropeptide B. In in vitro assays, bromination did not influence the binding of neuropeptide B to the receptor.

  10. Gustatory stimuli representing different perceptual qualities elicit distinct patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

    PubMed

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-04-24

    Taste stimuli that evoke different perceptual qualities (e.g., sweet, umami, bitter, sour, salty) are detected by dedicated subpopulations of taste bud cells that use distinct combinations of sensory receptors and transduction molecules. Here, we report that taste stimuli also elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds that are correlated with those perceptual qualities. We measured tastant-dependent secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) from circumvallate papillae of Tas1r3(+/+), Tas1r3(+/-) and Tas1r3 (-/-) mice. Isolated tongue epithelia were mounted in modified Ussing chambers, permitting apical stimulation of taste buds; secreted peptides were collected from the basal side and measured by specific ELISAs. Appetitive stimuli (sweet: glucose, sucralose; umami: monosodium glutamate; polysaccharide: Polycose) elicited GLP-1 and NPY secretion and inhibited basal glucagon secretion. Sweet and umami stimuli were ineffective in Tas1r3(-/-) mice, indicating an obligatory role for the T1R3 subunit common to the sweet and umami taste receptors. Polycose responses were unaffected by T1R3 deletion, consistent with the presence of a distinct polysaccharide taste receptor. The effects of sweet stimuli on peptide secretion also required the closing of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, as the KATP channel activator diazoxide inhibited the effects of glucose and sucralose on both GLP-1 and glucagon release. Both sour citric acid and salty NaCl increased NPY secretion but had no effects on GLP-1 or glucagon. Bitter denatonium showed no effects on these peptides. Together, these results suggest that taste stimuli of different perceptual qualities elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel neuropeptide (neuropeptide Y-HS) from leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hui; Chen, Yan; Bai, Xue-Wei; Yao, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xu-Guang; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H. sylvestris. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were observed using MTT assay. A novel neuropeptide Y (Neuropeptide Y-HS) from the leech salivary gland of H. sylvestris was purified and characterized. It was composed of 36 amino acid residues and the amino acid sequence was determined to be FLEPPERPAVFTSVEQMKSYIKALNDYYLLLGRPRF-NH2, containing an amidated C-terminus. It showed significant inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1. Neuropeptide Y was identified from leeches for the first time. The presence of neuropeptide Y-HS in leech salivary gland may help get blood meal from hosts and inhibit inflammation.

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel neuropeptide (neuropeptide Y-HS) from leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hui; Chen, Yan; Bai, Xue-Wei; Yao, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xu-Guang; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H. sylvestris. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were observed using MTT assay. A novel neuropeptide Y (Neuropeptide Y-HS) from the leech salivary gland of H. sylvestris was purified and characterized. It was composed of 36 amino acid residues and the amino acid sequence was determined to be FLEPPERPAVFTSVEQMKSYIKALNDYYLLLGRPRF-NH2, containing an amidated C-terminus. It showed significant inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1. Neuropeptide Y was identified from leeches for the first time. The presence of neuropeptide Y-HS in leech salivary gland may help get blood meal from hosts and inhibit inflammation. PMID:27667513

  13. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophage functions by neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Involvement of protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, M; Bernaez, I; Del Rio, M; Hernanz, A

    1993-01-01

    The peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) at concentrations from 10(-12) M to 10(-8) M have been shown in this study to stimulate significantly, in vitro, several functions of resting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis, ingestion of inert particles (latex beads) and foreign cells (Candida albicans), and production of superoxide anion measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. A dose-response relationship was observed, with a maximal stimulation of the macrophage functions studied at 10(-10) M. These effects seem to be produced by specific receptors for the neuropeptides studied in peritoneal macrophages. Whereas the two peptides induced no change of intracellular cyclic AMP, they caused a significant stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) in murine macrophages. These results suggest that NPY and PYY produce their effects on macrophage function through PKC activation. PMID:8262554

  14. The neuropeptide NLP-22 regulates a sleep-like state in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M D; Trojanowski, N F; George-Raizen, J B; Smith, C J; Yu, C-C; Fang-Yen, C; Raizen, D M

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptides have central roles in the regulation of homoeostatic behaviours such as sleep and feeding. Caenorhabditis elegans displays sleep-like quiescence of locomotion and feeding during a larval transition stage called lethargus and feeds during active larval and adult stages. Here we show that the neuropeptide NLP-22 is a regulator of Caenorhabditis elegans sleep-like quiescence observed during lethargus. nlp-22 shows cyclical mRNA expression in synchrony with lethargus; it is regulated by LIN-42, an orthologue of the core circadian protein PERIOD; and it is expressed solely in the two RIA interneurons. nlp-22 and the RIA interneurons are required for normal lethargus quiescence, and forced expression of nlp-22 during active stages causes anachronistic locomotion and feeding quiescence. Optogenetic stimulation of the RIA interneurons has a movement-promoting effect, demonstrating functional complexity in a single-neuron type. Our work defines a quiescence-regulating role for NLP-22 and expands our knowledge of the neural circuitry controlling Caenorhabditis elegans behavioural quiescence.

  15. Hypothalamus-adipose tissue crosstalk: neuropeptide Y and the regulation of energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic neuropeptide that plays a role in regulating adiposity by promoting energy storage in white adipose tissue and inhibiting brown adipose tissue activation in mammals. This review describes mechanisms underlying NPY's effects on adipose tissue energy metabolism, with an emphasis on cellular proliferation, adipogenesis, lipid deposition, and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, and brown fat activation and thermogenesis. In general, NPY promotes adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation, leading to energy storage in adipose tissue, with effects mediated mainly through NPY receptor sub-types 1 and 2. This review highlights hypothalamus-sympathetic nervous system-adipose tissue innervation and adipose tissue-hypothalamus feedback loops as pathways underlying these effects. Potential sources of NPY that mediate adipose effects include the bloodstream, sympathetic nerve terminals that innervate the adipose tissue, as well as adipose tissue-derived cells. Understanding the role of central vs. peripherally-derived NPY in whole-body energy balance could shed light on mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of obesity. This information may provide some insight into searching for alternative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases.

  16. Identification and Functional Characterization of the Phosphorylation Sites of the Neuropeptide FF2 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Lauriane; Froment, Carine; Pardo, Pierre; Candotto, Cédric; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine; Moulédous, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide FF2 (NPFF2) receptor belongs to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors and mediates the effects of several related RFamide neuropeptides. One of the main pharmacological interests of this system resides in its ability to regulate endogenous opioid systems, making it a potential target to reduce the negative effects of chronic opioid use. Phosphorylation of intracellular residues is the most extensively studied post-translational modification regulating G protein-coupled receptor activity. However, until now, no information concerning NPFF2 receptor phosphorylation is available. In this study, we combined mass spectrometric analysis and site-directed mutagenesis to analyze for the first time the phosphorylation pattern of the NPFF2 receptor and the role of the various phosphorylation sites in receptor signaling, desensitization, and trafficking in a SH-SY5Y model cell line. We identified the major, likely GRK-dependent, phosphorylation cluster responsible for acute desensitization, 412TNST415 at the end of the C terminus of the receptor, and additional sites involved in desensitization (372TS373) and internalization (Ser395). We thus demonstrate the key role played by phosphorylation in the regulation of NPFF2 receptor activity and trafficking. Our data also provide additional evidence supporting the concept that desensitization and internalization are partially independent processes relying on distinct phosphorylation patterns. PMID:25326382

  17. Regulation of aversion to noxious food by Drosophila neuropeptide Y- and insulin-like systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Zhao, Zhangwu; Shen, Ping

    2005-10-01

    Omnivores, including humans, have an inborn tendency to avoid noxious or unfamiliar foods. Such defensive foraging behaviors are modifiable, however, in response to physiological needs. Here we describe a method for assessing risk-sensitive food acquisition in Drosophila melanogaster. Food-deprived fly larvae become more likely to feed on noxious foods (adulterated with quinine) as the duration of deprivation increases. The neuropeptide F receptor NPFR1, a mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor homolog, centrally regulates the response to noxious food in D. melanogaster. Overexpression of NPFR1 was sufficient to cause nondeprived larvae to more readily take in noxious food, whereas loss of NPFR1 signaling led to the opposite phenotype. Moreover, NPFR1 neuronal activity may be directly regulated by the insulin-like signaling pathway. Upregulation of insulin-like receptor signaling in NPFR1 cells suppressed the feeding response to noxious food. Our results suggest that the coordinated activities of the conserved NPY- and insulin-like receptor signaling systems are essential for the dynamic regulation of noxious food intake according to the animal's energy state.

  18. Effects of Starvation on Brain Short Neuropeptide F-1, -2, and -3 Levels and Short Neuropeptide F Receptor Expression Levels of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Shinji; Matsumoto, Sumihiro; Nakane, Tomohiro; Ohara, Ayako; Morooka, Nobukatsu; Konuma, Takahiro; Nagai, Chiaki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    In our previous report, we demonstrated the possibility that various regulatory neuropeptides influence feeding behavior in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Among these feeding-related neuropeptides, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) exhibited feeding-accelerating activity when injected into B. mori larvae. Like other insect sNPFs, the deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA encoding the sNPF precursor appears to produce multiple sNPF and sNPF-related peptides in B. mori. The presence of three sNPFs, sNPF-1, sNPF-2, and sNPF-3, in the brain of B. mori larvae was confirmed by direct MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric profiling. In addition, all three sNPFs are present in other larval ganglia. The presence of sNPF mRNA in the central nervous system (CNS) was also confirmed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Semi-quantitative analyses of sNPFs in the larval brain using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry further revealed that brain sNPF levels decrease in response to starvation, and that they recover with the resumption of feeding. These data suggest that sNPFs were depleted by the starvation process. Furthermore, food deprivation decreased the transcriptional levels of the sNPF receptor (BNGR-A10) in the brain and CNS, suggesting that the sNPF system is dependent on the feeding state of the insect and that the sNPF system may be linked to locomotor activity associated with foraging behavior. Since the injection of sNPFs accelerated the onset of feeding in B. mori larvae, we concluded that sNPFs are strongly related to feeding behavior. In addition, semi-quantitative MS analyses revealed that allatostatin, which is present in the larval brain, is also reduced in response to starvation, whereas the peptide level of Bommyosuppressin was not affected by different feeding states. PMID:22649403

  19. Discovery of sea urchin NGFFFamide receptor unites a bilaterian neuropeptide family

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Dean C.; Beets, Isabel; Rowe, Matthew L.; Blowes, Liisa M.; Oliveri, Paola; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides are ancient regulators of physiology and behaviour, but reconstruction of neuropeptide evolution is often difficult owing to lack of sequence conservation. Here, we report that the receptor for the neuropeptide NGFFFamide in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (phylum Echinodermata) is an orthologue of vertebrate neuropeptide-S (NPS) receptors and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) receptors. Importantly, this has facilitated reconstruction of the evolution of two bilaterian neuropeptide signalling systems. Genes encoding the precursor of a vasopressin/oxytocin-type neuropeptide and its receptor duplicated in a common ancestor of the Bilateria. One copy of the precursor retained ancestral features, as seen in highly conserved vasopressin/oxytocin–neurophysin-type precursors. The other copy diverged, but this took different courses in protostomes and deuterostomes. In protostomes, the occurrence of a disulfide bridge in neuropeptide product(s) of the precursor was retained, as in CCAP, but with loss of the neurophysin domain. In deuterostomes, we see the opposite scenario—the neuropeptides lost the disulfide bridge, and neurophysin was retained (as in the NGFFFamide precursor) but was subsequently lost in vertebrate NPS precursors. Thus, the sea urchin NGFFFamide precursor and receptor are ‘missing links’ in the evolutionary history of neuropeptides that control ecdysis in arthropods (CCAP) and regulate anxiety in humans (NPS). PMID:25904544

  20. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of neuropeptide precursors in the migratory locust.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Pengcheng; Wang, Xianhui; Kang, Le

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptides serve as the most important regulatory signals in insects. Many neuropeptides and their precursors have been identified in terms of the contig sequences of whole genome information of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), which exhibits a typical phenotypic plasticity in morphology, behavior and physiology. However, functions of these locust neuropeptides are largely unknown. In this study, we first revised the 23 reported neuropeptide precursor genes and identified almost all the neuropeptide precursors and corresponding products in L. migratoria. We further revealed the significant expansion profiles (such as AKH) and alternative splicing of neuropeptide genes (Lom-ITP, Lom-OK and Lom-NPF1). Transcriptomic analysis indicated that several neuropeptides, such as Lom-ACP and Lom-OK, displayed development-specific expression patterns. qRT-PCR data confirmed that most neuropeptide precursors were strongly expressed in the central nervous system. Fifteen neuropeptide genes displayed different expression levels between solitarious and gregarious locusts. These findings provide valuable clues to understand neuropeptide evolution and their functional roles in basic biology and phase transition in locusts.

  1. Neuropeptide substance P upregulates chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in primary mouse neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Ramnath, Raina Devi; Bhatia, Madhav

    2007-08-01

    Neuropeptides play an important role in the active communication between the nervous and immune systems. Substance P (SP) is a prominent neuropeptide involved in neurogenic inflammation and has been reported to exert various proinflammatory actions on inflammatory leukocytes including neutrophils. The present study further investigated the modulatory effect of SP (1 muM) on chemokine production and chemokine receptor expression in primary mouse neutrophils. Our results showed that SP primed neutrophils for chemotactic responses not only to the CXC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2/CXCL2 but also to the CC chemokine MIP-1alpha/CCL3. The activating effect of SP on neutrophils was further evidenced by upregulation of the CD11b integrin, the activation marker of neutrophils. SP induced both the mRNA and protein expression of the chemokines MIP-1alpha/CCL3 and MIP-2/CXCL2 in neutrophils and upregulated the chemokine receptors CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-1 and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)-2. This stimulatory effect on chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in neutrophils was further found to be neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) specific. Pretreatment with selective NK-1R antagonists inhibited SP-triggered activation of neutrophils and chemokine and chemokine receptor upregulation. Moreover, SP-induced chemokine upregulation was NF-kappaB dependent. SP time dependently induced NF-kappaB p65 binding activity, IkappaBalpha degradation, and NF-kappaB p65 nuclear translocation in neutrophils. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation with its inhibitor Bay11-7082 (10 muM) abolished SP-induced NF-kappaB binding activity and upregulation of MIP-1alpha/CCL3 and MIP-2/CXCL2 in neutrophils. Together, these results suggest that SP exerts a direct stimulatory effect on the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in mouse neutrophils. The effect is NK-1R mediated, involving NF-kappaB activation.

  2. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Lombana-Sanchez, Nelson; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain. PMID:26538838

  3. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  4. Neuropeptide F neurons modulate sugar reward during associative olfactory learning of Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Rohwedder, Astrid; Selcho, Mareike; Chassot, Bérénice; Thum, Andreas S

    2015-12-15

    All organisms continuously have to adapt their behavior according to changes in the environment in order to survive. Experience-driven changes in behavior are usually mediated and maintained by modifications in signaling within defined brain circuits. Given the simplicity of the larval brain of Drosophila and its experimental accessibility on the genetic and behavioral level, we analyzed if Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF) neurons are involved in classical olfactory conditioning. dNPF is an ortholog of the mammalian neuropeptide Y, a highly conserved neuromodulator that stimulates food-seeking behavior. We provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the dNPF neurons on the single-cell level. We demonstrate that artificial activation of dNPF neurons inhibits appetitive olfactory learning by modulating the sugar reward signal during acquisition. No effect is detectable for the retrieval of an established appetitive olfactory memory. The modulatory effect is based on the joint action of three distinct cell types that, if tested on the single-cell level, inhibit and invert the conditioned behavior. Taken together, our work describes anatomically and functionally a new part of the sugar reinforcement signaling pathway for classical olfactory conditioning in Drosophila larvae.

  5. Expression of diverse neuropeptide cotransmitters by identified motor neurons in Aplysia

    SciTech Connect

    Church, P.J.; Lloyd, P.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuropeptide synthesis was determined for individual identified ventral-cluster neurons in the buccal ganglia of Aplysia. Each of these cells was shown to be a motor neuron that innervates buccal muscles that generate biting and swallowing movements during feeding. Individual neurons were identified by a battery of physiological criteria and stained with intracellular injection of a vital dye, and the ganglia were incubated in 35S-methionine. Peptide synthesis was determined by measuring labeled peptides in extracts from individually dissected neuronal cell bodies analyzed by HPLC. Previously characterized peptides found to be synthesized included buccalin, FMRFamide, myomodulin, and the 2 small cardioactive peptides (SCPs). Each of these neuropeptides has been shown to modulate buccal muscle responses to motor neuron stimulation. Two other peptides were found to be synthesized in individual motor neurons. One peptide, which was consistently observed in neurons that also synthesized myomodulin, is likely to be the recently sequenced myomodulin B. The other peptide was observed in a subset of the neurons that synthesize FMRFamide. While identified motor neurons consistently synthesized the same peptide(s), neurons that innervate the same muscle often express different peptides. Neurons that synthesized the SCPs also contained SCP-like activity, as determined by snail heart bioassay. Our results indicate that every identified motor neuron synthesizes a subset of these methionine-containing peptides, and that several neurons consistently synthesize peptides that are likely to be processed from multiple precursors.

  6. The role of neuropeptide Y in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Chenliang; Song, Zhiyuan; Lin, Shu

    2016-10-01

    With average life expectancy rising greatly, the incidence rate of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has significantly increased. The heart disease has now become the number one killer that threatens the global population health, the second is stroke. It will be of great significance to investigate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ASCVD in order to promote effective prevention and treatment. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) has now been discovered for more than thirty years and is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. By combining with certain receptors, NPY performs a variety of physiological functions, including the regulation of food intake, cardiovascular effects, development, hormonal secretion, sexual behavior, biological rhythms, temperature and emotion. In ASCVD, increased peripheral NPY was involved in the pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis through affecting the vascular endothelial dysfunction, the formation of foam cells, the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, the local inflammatory response of plaques and the activation and aggregation of platelets. Via central and/or the peripheral nervous system, increased NPY was associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and smoking which are all risk factors for ASCVD. In this review, we summarize the role of neuropeptide Y in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  7. MicroRNA's impact on neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems: small but mighty mediators of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Martinetz, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders rank among the most common severe diseases worldwide, with millions of people affected worldwide every year. The symptoms are manifold, and the outcome for the patients is often unclear. As a high and yearly rising cost burden for society, anxiety disorders, depression and their related mental disorders are currently a well-researched topic in order to develop new functional pharmacological therapies as alternatives to those that are in use and bear many unpleasant side effects. Brain circuitries, such as those underlying anxiety formations, are mainly driven by the interplay of various neurotransmitter systems and the interaction of different brain loci, as well as the modulating impact of neuropeptides. Targeting those networks is a complex but promising way to regulate mood. Alterations on molecular level of the neuronal cell in response to respective receptor activation, especially at post-transcriptional level via the highly regulatory function of non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) seem to hold a promising future in the development of novel therapeutic strategies and are therefore under intensified investigation. This review focusses on the impact of miRNAs on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems of the central nervous system relevant for the formation of anxiety disorders and discusses the potential of miRNAs for the development of new therapeutic strategies for anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:27138168

  8. The role of neuropeptide Y in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Chenliang; Song, Zhiyuan; Lin, Shu

    2016-10-01

    With average life expectancy rising greatly, the incidence rate of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has significantly increased. The heart disease has now become the number one killer that threatens the global population health, the second is stroke. It will be of great significance to investigate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ASCVD in order to promote effective prevention and treatment. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) has now been discovered for more than thirty years and is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. By combining with certain receptors, NPY performs a variety of physiological functions, including the regulation of food intake, cardiovascular effects, development, hormonal secretion, sexual behavior, biological rhythms, temperature and emotion. In ASCVD, increased peripheral NPY was involved in the pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis through affecting the vascular endothelial dysfunction, the formation of foam cells, the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, the local inflammatory response of plaques and the activation and aggregation of platelets. Via central and/or the peripheral nervous system, increased NPY was associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and smoking which are all risk factors for ASCVD. In this review, we summarize the role of neuropeptide Y in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27389447

  9. Brain clock driven by neuropeptides and second messengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miro-Bueno, Jesus; Sosík, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The master circadian pacemaker in mammals is localized in a small portion of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It is unclear how the SCN produces circadian rhythms. A common interpretation is that the SCN produces oscillations through the coupling of genetic oscillators in the neurons. The coupling is effected by a network of neuropeptides and second messengers. This network is crucial for the correct function of the SCN. However, models that study a possible oscillatory behavior of the network itself have received little attention. Here we propose and analyze a model to examine this oscillatory potential. We show that an intercellular oscillator emerges in the SCN as a result of the neuropeptide and second messenger dynamics. We find that this intercellular clock can produce circadian rhythms by itself with and without genetic clocks. We also found that the model is robust to perturbation of parameters and can be entrained by light-dark cycles.

  10. Brain clock driven by neuropeptides and second messengers.

    PubMed

    Miro-Bueno, Jesus; Sosík, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The master circadian pacemaker in mammals is localized in a small portion of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It is unclear how the SCN produces circadian rhythms. A common interpretation is that the SCN produces oscillations through the coupling of genetic oscillators in the neurons. The coupling is effected by a network of neuropeptides and second messengers. This network is crucial for the correct function of the SCN. However, models that study a possible oscillatory behavior of the network itself have received little attention. Here we propose and analyze a model to examine this oscillatory potential. We show that an intercellular oscillator emerges in the SCN as a result of the neuropeptide and second messenger dynamics. We find that this intercellular clock can produce circadian rhythms by itself with and without genetic clocks. We also found that the model is robust to perturbation of parameters and can be entrained by light-dark cycles.

  11. Neuropeptide signaling remodels chemosensory circuit composition in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Leinwand, Sarah G.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2013-01-01

    Neural circuits detect environmental changes and drive behavior. The routes of information flow through dense neural networks are dynamic; however, the mechanisms underlying this circuit flexibility are poorly understood. Here, we define a novel, sensory context-dependent and neuropeptide-regulated switch in the composition of a C. elegans salt sensory circuit. The primary salt detectors, ASE sensory neurons, use BLI-4 endoprotease-dependent cleavage to release the insulin-like peptide INS-6 in response to large but not small changes in external salt stimuli. Insulins, signaling through the insulin receptor DAF-2, functionally switch the AWC olfactory sensory neuron into an interneuron in the salt circuit. Animals with disrupted insulin signaling have deficits in salt attraction, suggesting that peptidergic signaling potentiates responses to high salt stimuli, which may promote ion homeostasis. Our results show that sensory context and neuropeptide signaling modify neural networks and suggest general mechanisms for generating flexible behavioral outputs by modulating neural circuit composition. PMID:24013594

  12. Brain clock driven by neuropeptides and second messengers.

    PubMed

    Miro-Bueno, Jesus; Sosík, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The master circadian pacemaker in mammals is localized in a small portion of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It is unclear how the SCN produces circadian rhythms. A common interpretation is that the SCN produces oscillations through the coupling of genetic oscillators in the neurons. The coupling is effected by a network of neuropeptides and second messengers. This network is crucial for the correct function of the SCN. However, models that study a possible oscillatory behavior of the network itself have received little attention. Here we propose and analyze a model to examine this oscillatory potential. We show that an intercellular oscillator emerges in the SCN as a result of the neuropeptide and second messenger dynamics. We find that this intercellular clock can produce circadian rhythms by itself with and without genetic clocks. We also found that the model is robust to perturbation of parameters and can be entrained by light-dark cycles. PMID:25314471

  13. Possible role of the histaminergic system in autonomic and cardiovascular responses to neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Nagai, Katsuya

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) affects blood pressure (BP) in anesthetized rats. Here, we examined the effects of the third cerebral ventricular (3CV) injection of various doses of NPY on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and BP in anesthetized rats. 3CV injection of NPY suppressed RSNA and BP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, suppressing effects of NPY on RSNA and BP were eliminated by lateral cerebral ventricular (LCV) preinjection of thioperamide, an antagonist of histaminergic H3-receptor, not diphenhydramine, an antagonist of histaminergic H1-receptor. In addition, 3CV injection of NPY accelerated gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) and inhibited brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) of anesthetized rats, and lowered brown adipose tissue temperature (BAT-T) of conscious rats. Thus, these evidences suggest that central NPY affects autonomic nerves containing RSNA, GVNA or BAT-SNA, and BP by mediating central histaminergic H3-receptors.

  14. A role for amontillado, the Drosophila homolog of the neuropeptide precursor processing protease PC2, in triggering hatching behavior.

    PubMed

    Siekhaus, D E; Fuller, R S

    1999-08-15

    Accurate proteolytic processing of neuropeptide and peptide hormone precursors by members of the kexin/furin family of proteases is key to determining both the identities and activities of signaling peptides. Here we identify amontillado (amon), the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the mammalian neuropeptide processing protease PC2, and show that in contrast to vertebrate PC2, amontillado expression undergoes extensive regulation in the nervous system during development. In situ hybridization reveals that expression of amontillado is restricted to the final stages of embryogenesis when it is found in anterior sensory structures and in only 168 cells in the brain and ventral nerve cord. After larvae hatch from their egg shells, the sensory structures and most cells in the CNS turn off or substantially reduce amontillado expression, suggesting that amontillado plays a specific role late in embryogenesis. Larvae lacking the chromosomal region containing amontillado show no gross anatomical defects and respond to touch. However, such larvae show a greatly reduced frequency of a hatching behavior of wild-type Drosophila in which larvae swing their heads, scraping through the eggshell with their mouth hooks. Ubiquitous expression of amontillado can restore near wild-type levels of this behavior, whereas expression of amontillado with an alanine substitution for the catalytic histidine cannot. These results suggest that amontillado expression is regulated as part of a programmed modulation of neural signaling that controls hatching behavior by producing specific neuropeptides in particular neurons at an appropriate developmental time. PMID:10436051

  15. Heat Avoidance Is Regulated by Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels and a Neuropeptide Signaling Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Dominique A.; Chen, Will C.; Agin, Rebecca; MacInnis, Bronwyn L.; Hellman, Andrew B.; Garrity, Paul A.; Tan, Man-Wah; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to avoid noxious extremes of hot and cold is critical for survival and depends on thermal nociception. The TRPV subset of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels is heat activated and proposed to be responsible for heat detection in vertebrates and fruit flies. To gain insight into the genetic and neural basis of thermal nociception, we developed assays that quantify noxious heat avoidance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and used them to investigate the genetic basis of this behavior. First, we screened mutants for 18 TRP channel genes (including all TRPV orthologs) and found only minor defects in heat avoidance in single and selected double and triple mutants, indicating that other genes are involved. Next, we compared two wild isolates of C. elegans that diverge in their threshold for heat avoidance and linked this phenotypic variation to a polymorphism in the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1. Further analysis revealed that loss of either the NPR-1 receptor or its ligand, FLP-21, increases the threshold for heat avoidance. Cell-specific rescue of npr-1 implicates the interneuron RMG in the circuit regulating heat avoidance. This neuropeptide signaling pathway operates independently of the TRPV genes, osm-9 and ocr-2, since mutants lacking npr-1 and both TRPV channels had more severe defects in heat avoidance than mutants lacking only npr-1 or both osm-9 and ocr-2. Our results show that TRPV channels and the FLP-21/NPR-1 neuropeptide signaling pathway determine the threshold for heat avoidance in C. elegans. PMID:21368276

  16. Endogenous anti-inflammatory neuropeptides and pro-resolving lipid mediators: a new therapeutic approach for immune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Per; Delgado, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Identification of the factors that regulate the immune tolerance and control the appearance of exacerbated inflammatory conditions is crucial for the development of new therapies of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Although much is known about the molecular basis of initiating signals and pro-inflammatory chemical mediators in inflammation, it has only recently become apparent that endogenous stop signals are critical at early checkpoints within the temporal events of inflammation. Some neuropeptides and lipid mediators that are produced during the ongoing inflammatory response have emerged as endogenous anti-inflammatory agents that participate in the regulation of the processes that ensure self-tolerance and/or inflammation resolution. Here we examine the latest research findings, which indicate that neuropeptides participate in maintaining immune tolerance in two distinct ways: by regulating the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, and by inducing the emergence of regulatory T cells with suppressive activity against autoreactive T-cell effectors. On the other hand, we also focus on lipid mediators biosynthesized from ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty-acids in inflammatory exudates that promote the resolution phase of acute inflammation by regulating leucocyte influx to and efflux from local inflamed sites. Both anti-inflammatory neuropeptides and pro-resolving lipid mediators have shown therapeutic potential for a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders and could be used as biotemplates for the development of novel pharmacologic agents. PMID:18554314

  17. Identification of the first neuropeptides from the Amphipoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-09-15

    Despite being used as models in the field of ecotoxicology, including use in studies of endocrine disruption, little is known about the hormonal systems of amphipods, particularly their peptidergic signaling systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences were used to predict the structures of the first neuropeptides from members of this crustacean order. Using a well-established workflow, BLAST searches of the extant amphipod TSA data were conducted for putative peptide-encoding transcripts. The pre/preprohormones deduced from the identified TSA sequences were then used to predict the mature structures of amphipod neuropeptides. In total, 43 putative peptide-encoding transcripts were identified from three amphipods, Echinogammarus veneris, Hyalella azteca and Melita plumulosa. Collectively, 139 distinct mature peptides (110 from E. veneris alone) were predicted from these TSA sequences. The identified peptides included members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon α, bursicon β, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, FLRFamide, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone (PDH), proctolin, RYamide, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. Of particular note were the identifications of orcokinins possessing SFDEIDR- rather than the typical NFDEIDR- amino-termini, e.g. SFDEINRSNFGFN, a carboxyl-terminally amidated orcokinin, i.e. SFDEINRSNFGFSamide, PDHs longer than the stereotypical 18 amino acids, e.g. NSELLNTLLGSKSLAALRAAamide, and a 13 rather than 12 amino acid long SIFamide, i.e. GPYRKPPFNGSIFamide. These data not only provide the first descriptions of native amphipod neuropeptides, but also represent a new resource for initiating investigations of peptidergic signaling in the Amphipoda.

  18. Neuropeptide feedback modifies odor-evoked dynamics in C. elegans olfactory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Sreekanth H.; Kato, Saul; Albrecht, Dirk R.; Nakagawa, Takao; Abbott, L. F.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2010-01-01

    Many neurons release classical transmitters together with neuropeptide cotransmitters whose functions are incompletely understood. Here we define the relationship between two transmitters in the olfactory system of Caenorhabditis elegans, showing that a neuropeptide-to-neuropeptide feedback loop alters sensory dynamics in primary olfactory neurons. The AWC olfactory neuron is glutamatergic and also expresses the peptide NLP-1. nlp-1 mutants have increased AWC-dependent behaviors, suggesting that NLP-1 limits the normal response. The receptor for NLP-1 is the G protein-coupled receptor NPR-11, which acts in postsynaptic AIA interneurons. Feedback from AIA interneurons modulates odor-evoked calcium dynamics in AWC olfactory neurons and requires INS-1, a neuropeptide released from AIA. The neuropeptide feedback loop dampens behavioral responses to odors on short and long timescales. Our results point to neuronal dynamics as a site of behavioral regulation and reveal the ability of neuropeptide feedback to remodel sensory networks on multiple timescales. PMID:20364145

  19. [Changes in neuropeptide Y and substance P immunoreactive nerve fibres and immunocompetent cells in hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Fehér, Erzsébet

    2015-11-22

    Neuropeptide Y and substance P were thought to play a role in the function of immune cells and in amplification or elimination of the inflammatory processes. In hepatitis the number of both neuropeptide Y and substance P immunoreactive nerve fibres are increased, where the increase of neoropeptide Y is significant. A large number of lymphocytes and mast cells are also stained for neuropeptide Y and substance P. Very close associations (less than 1 µm) were observed between neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve fibres and immune cells stained also with neuropeptide Y. Some immune cells were also found to be immunoreactive for tumor necrosis factor-α and NF-κB. Some of the SP IR immunocells were also stained for TNF-α and nuclear factor kappaB. Based on these data it is hypothesized that neuropeptid Y and substance P released from nerve fibres and immune cells play a role in inflammation and elimination of inflammation in hepatitis.

  20. Neuropeptide S- and Neuropeptide S receptor-expressing neuron populations in the human pons

    PubMed Central

    Adori, Csaba; Barde, Swapnali; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Uhlén, Mathias; Reinscheid, Rainer R.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a regulatory peptide with potent pharmacological effects. In rodents, NPS is expressed in a few pontine cell clusters. Its receptor (NPSR1) is, however, widely distributed in the brain. The anxiolytic and arousal-promoting effects of NPS make the NPS–NPSR1 system an interesting potential drug target in mood-related disorders. However, so far possible disease-related mechanisms involving NPS have only been studied in rodents. To validate the relevance of these animal studies for i.a. drug development, we have explored the distribution of NPS-expressing neurons in the human pons using in situ hybridization and stereological methods and we compared the distribution of NPS mRNA expressing neurons in the human and rat brain. The calculation revealed a total number of 22,317 ± 2411 NPS mRNA-positive neurons in human, bilaterally. The majority of cells (84%) were located in the parabrachial area in human: in the extension of the medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei, in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus and around the adjacent lateral lemniscus. In human, in sharp contrast to the rodents, only very few NPS-positive cells (5%) were found close to the locus coeruleus. In addition, we identified a smaller cell cluster (11% of all NPS cells) in the pontine central gray matter both in human and rat, which has not been described previously even in rodents. We also examined the distribution of NPSR1 mRNA-expressing neurons in the human pons. These cells were mainly located in the rostral laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the cuneiform nucleus, the microcellular tegmental nucleus region and in the periaqueductal gray. Our results show that both NPS and NPSR1 in the human pons are preferentially localized in regions of importance for integration of visceral autonomic information and emotional behavior. The reported interspecies differences must, however, be considered when looking for targets for new pharmacotherapeutical interventions. PMID:26441556

  1. Parasite neuropeptide biology: Seeding rational drug target selection?

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Paul; Atkinson, Louise; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Dalzell, Johnathan J.; Sluder, Ann; Hammerland, Lance; Maule, Aaron G.

    2011-01-01

    The rationale for identifying drug targets within helminth neuromuscular signalling systems is based on the premise that adequate nerve and muscle function is essential for many of the key behavioural determinants of helminth parasitism, including sensory perception/host location, invasion, locomotion/orientation, attachment, feeding and reproduction. This premise is validated by the tendency of current anthelmintics to act on classical neurotransmitter-gated ion channels present on helminth nerve and/or muscle, yielding therapeutic endpoints associated with paralysis and/or death. Supplementary to classical neurotransmitters, helminth nervous systems are peptide-rich and encompass associated biosynthetic and signal transduction components – putative drug targets that remain to be exploited by anthelmintic chemotherapy. At this time, no neuropeptide system-targeting lead compounds have been reported, and given that our basic knowledge of neuropeptide biology in parasitic helminths remains inadequate, the short-term prospects for such drugs remain poor. Here, we review current knowledge of neuropeptide signalling in Nematoda and Platyhelminthes, and highlight a suite of 19 protein families that yield deleterious phenotypes in helminth reverse genetics screens. We suggest that orthologues of some of these peptidergic signalling components represent appealing therapeutic targets in parasitic helminths. PMID:24533265

  2. Insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Terhzaz, Selim; Teets, Nicholas M.; Cabrero, Pablo; Henderson, Louise; Ritchie, Michael G.; Nachman, Ronald J.; Dow, Julian A. T.; Denlinger, David L.; Davies, Shireen-A.

    2015-01-01

    The success of insects is linked to their impressive tolerance to environmental stress, but little is known about how such responses are mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Here we show that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene is a desiccation- and cold stress-responsive gene in diverse dipteran species. Using targeted in vivo gene silencing, physiological manipulations, stress-tolerance assays, and rationally designed neuropeptide analogs, we demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster capa neuropeptide gene and its encoded peptides alter desiccation and cold tolerance. Knockdown of the capa gene increases desiccation tolerance but lengthens chill coma recovery time, and injection of capa peptide analogs can reverse both phenotypes. Immunohistochemical staining suggests that capa accumulates in the capa-expressing Va neurons during desiccation and nonlethal cold stress but is not released until recovery from each stress. Our results also suggest that regulation of cellular ion and water homeostasis mediated by capa peptide signaling in the insect Malpighian (renal) tubules is a key physiological mechanism during recovery from desiccation and cold stress. This work augments our understanding of how stress tolerance is mediated by neuroendocrine signaling and illustrates the use of rationally designed peptide analogs as agents for disrupting protective stress tolerance. PMID:25730885

  3. Insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold tolerance.

    PubMed

    Terhzaz, Selim; Teets, Nicholas M; Cabrero, Pablo; Henderson, Louise; Ritchie, Michael G; Nachman, Ronald J; Dow, Julian A T; Denlinger, David L; Davies, Shireen-A

    2015-03-01

    The success of insects is linked to their impressive tolerance to environmental stress, but little is known about how such responses are mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Here we show that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene is a desiccation- and cold stress-responsive gene in diverse dipteran species. Using targeted in vivo gene silencing, physiological manipulations, stress-tolerance assays, and rationally designed neuropeptide analogs, we demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster capa neuropeptide gene and its encoded peptides alter desiccation and cold tolerance. Knockdown of the capa gene increases desiccation tolerance but lengthens chill coma recovery time, and injection of capa peptide analogs can reverse both phenotypes. Immunohistochemical staining suggests that capa accumulates in the capa-expressing Va neurons during desiccation and nonlethal cold stress but is not released until recovery from each stress. Our results also suggest that regulation of cellular ion and water homeostasis mediated by capa peptide signaling in the insect Malpighian (renal) tubules is a key physiological mechanism during recovery from desiccation and cold stress. This work augments our understanding of how stress tolerance is mediated by neuroendocrine signaling and illustrates the use of rationally designed peptide analogs as agents for disrupting protective stress tolerance.

  4. Toward a consensus nomenclature for insect neuropeptides and peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Coast, Geoffrey M; Schooley, David A

    2011-03-01

    The nomenclature currently in use for insect neuropeptide and peptide hormone families is reviewed and suggestions are made as to how it can be rationalized. Based upon this review, a number of conventions are advanced as a guide to a more rationale nomenclature. The scheme that is put forward builds upon the binomial nomenclature scheme proposed by Raina and Gäde in 1988, when just over 20 insect neuropeptides had been identified. Known neuropeptides and peptide hormones are assigned to 32 structurally distinct families, frequently with overlapping functions. The names given to these families are those that are currently in use, and describe a biological function, homology to known invertebrate/vertebrate peptides, or a conserved structural motif. Interspecific isoforms are identified using a five-letter code to indicate genus and species names, and intraspecific isoforms are identified by Roman or Arabic numerals, with the latter used to signify the order in which sequences are encoded on a prepropeptide. The proposed scheme is sufficiently flexible to allow the incorporation of novel peptides, and could be extended to other arthropods and non-arthropod invertebrates. PMID:21093513

  5. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neuropeptide Expression in Patients with Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Wamelen, Daniel J.; Aziz, N. Ahmad; Anink, Jasper J.; van Steenhoven, Robin; Angeloni, Debora; Fraschini, Franco; Jockers, Ralf; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To study whether sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) arise from dysfunction of the body's master clock, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Design: Postmortem cohort study. Patients: Eight patients with HD and eight control subjects matched for sex, age, clock time and month of death, postmortem delay, and fixation time of paraffin-embedded hypothalamic tissue. Measurements and Results: Using postmortem paraffin-embedded tissue, we assessed the functional integrity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in patients with HD and control subjects by determining the expression of two major regulatory neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and arginine vasopressin. Additionally, we studied melatonin 1 and 2 receptor expression. Compared with control subjects, the suprachiasmatic nucleus contained 85% fewer neurons immunoreactive for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and 33% fewer neurons for arginine vasopressin in patients with HD (P = 0.002 and P = 0.027). The total amount of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and arginine vasopressin messenger RNA was unchanged. No change was observed in the number of melatonin 1 or 2 receptor immunoreactive neurons. Conclusions: These findings indicate posttranscriptional neuropeptide changes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of patients with HD, and suggest that sleep and circadian rhythm disorders in these patients may at least partly arise from suprachiasmatic nucleus dysfunction. Citation: van Wamelen DJ; Aziz NA; Anink JJ; van Steenhoven R; Angeloni D; Fraschini F; Jockers R; Roos RAC; Swaab DF. Suprachiasmatic nucleus neuropeptide expression in patients with Huntington's disease. SLEEP 2013;36(1):117–125. PMID:23288978

  6. [Modification of the FF neuropeptide enhances its hypertensive effect].

    PubMed

    Kapel'ko, V I; Bespalova, Zh D; Efremov, E E; Lakomkin, V L; Orlova, Ts R; Lakomkin, S V; Sidorova, M V; Az'muko, A A; Molokoedov, A S; Sharf, T V

    2009-05-01

    Neuropeptide FF (H-Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH2) injected intravenously temporarily enhanced the arterial pressure (AP) and the heart rate (HR). However, its role in the regulation of blood circulation is obscure. To study the properties of the molecule, its analogue was synthesized, in which proline in position 7 was substituted with glycine, and leucine in the position 2 with norleucine. Modified neuropeptide FF (FFm) also temporarily and in a dose-dependent manner increased the AP and HR; however, the equal degree of increase was reached at doses of FFm being 5-7 times lesser as compared with the natural peptide. The application of the FFm at hemorrhagic shock excluded mortality of animals during the experiment, considerably increased the degree of AP and HR restoration in the remaining experiments, and improved the survival of animals in 24 hours. It has been found that the level of antibodies to the fragment of hFF1 receptor in the serum is lower in spontaneously hypertensive rats SHR as compared with Wistar rats, but it is increased in patients of cardiological profile as compared with donors. The findings suggest involvement of neuropeptide FF in the regulation of blood circulation; however, the precise mechanisms remain to be determined.

  7. The Evolution and Variety of RFamide-Type Neuropeptides: Insights from Deuterostomian Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Elphick, Maurice R.; Mirabeau, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Five families of neuropeptides that have a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified in vertebrates: (1) gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), (2) neuropeptide FF (NPFF), (3) pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide (QRFP), (4) prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), and (5) Kisspeptin. Experimental demonstration of neuropeptide–receptor pairings combined with comprehensive analysis of genomic and/or transcriptomic sequence data indicate that, with the exception of the deuterostomian PrRP system, the evolutionary origins of these neuropeptides can be traced back to the common ancestor of bilaterians. Here, we review the occurrence of homologs of vertebrate RFamide-type neuropeptides and their receptors in deuterostomian invertebrates – urochordates, cephalochordates, hemichordates, and echinoderms. Extending analysis of the occurrence of the RFamide motif in other bilaterian neuropeptide families reveals RFamide-type peptides that have acquired modified C-terminal characteristics in the vertebrate lineage (e.g., NPY/NPF), neuropeptide families where the RFamide motif is unique to protostomian members (e.g., CCK/sulfakinins), and RFamide-type peptides that have been lost in the vertebrate lineage (e.g., luqins). Furthermore, the RFamide motif is also a feature of neuropeptide families with a more restricted phylogenetic distribution (e.g., the prototypical FMRFamide-related neuropeptides in protostomes). Thus, the RFamide motif is both an ancient and a convergent feature of neuropeptides, with conservation, acquisition, or loss of this motif occurring in different branches of the animal kingdom. PMID:24994999

  8. Can neuropeptides treat obesity? A review of neuropeptides and their potential role in the treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Boughton, C K; Murphy, K G

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide public health issue. The physiological systems that regulate body weight are thus of great interest as targets for anti-obesity agents. Peptidergic systems are critical to the regulation of energy homeostasis by key regions in the hypothalamus and brainstem. A number of neuropeptide systems have therefore been investigated as potential treatments for obesity. Blocking orexigenic peptide signals such as neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexins, relaxin-3 and galanin-like peptide or stimulating anorectic signalling pathways used by peptides such as the melanocortins, ciliary neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are approaches that have shown some promise, but which have also highlighted possible concerns. Manipulation of central peptidergic systems poses a number of therapeutic problems, including brain access and side effects. Given that the homeostatic defence of body weight may limit the effectiveness of any single-target therapy developed, a combination therapy approach may offer the best hope for the effective prevention and treatment of obesity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Neuropeptides. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-7 PMID:23121386

  9. Development of sub-nanomolar dipeptidic ligands of neuropeptide FF receptors.

    PubMed

    Gealageas, Ronan; Schneider, Séverine; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Schmitt, Martine; Laboureyras, Emilie; Dugave, Christophe; Mollereau, Catherine; Simonnet, Guy; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frédéric; Bihel, Frédéric

    2012-12-15

    Based on our earlier reported neuropeptide FF receptors antagonist (RF9), we carried out an extensive structural exploration of the N-terminus part of the amidated dipeptide Arg-Phe-NH(2) in order to establish a structure-activity relationships (SAR) study towards both NPFF receptor subtypes. This SAR led to the discovery of dipeptides (12, 35) with subnanomolar affinities towards NPFF1 receptor subtype, similar to endogenous ligand NPVF. More particularly, compound 12 exhibited a potent in vivo preventive effect on opioid-induced hyperalgesia at low dose. The significant selectivity of 12 toward NPFF1-R indicates that this receptor subtype may play a critical role in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF-like peptides.

  10. How to contribute to the progress of neuroendocrinology: New insights from discovering novel neuropeptides and neurosteroids regulating pituitary and brain functions.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Obtaining new insights by discovering novel neuropeptides and neurosteroids regulating pituitary and brain functions is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. At the beginning of 1970s, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was discovered in mammals. Since then, it was generally accepted that GnRH is the only hypothalamic neuropeptide regulating gonadotropin release in vertebrates. In 2000, however, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that actively inhibits gonadotropin release, was discovered in quail. The follow-up studies demonstrated that GnIH acts as a new key player for regulation of reproduction across vertebrates. It now appears that GnIH acts on the pituitary and the brain to serve a number of behavioral and physiological functions. On the other hand, a new concept has been established that the brain synthesizes steroids, called neurosteroids. The formation of neurosteroids in the brain was originally demonstrated in mammals and subsequently in other vertebrates. Recently, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone was discovered as a novel bioactive neurosteroid inducing locomotor behavior of vertebrates, indicating that neurosteroidogenesis in the brain is still incompletely elucidated in vertebrates. At the beginning of 2010s, it was further found that the pineal gland actively produces neurosteroids. Pineal neurosteroids act on the brain to regulate locomotor rhythms and neuronal survival. Furthermore, the interaction of neuropeptides and neurosteroids is becoming clear. GnIH decreases aggressive behavior by regulating neuroestrogen synthesis in the brain. This review summarizes these new insights by discovering novel neuropeptides and neurosteroids in the field of neuroendocrinology.

  11. Involvement of neuropeptide Y in neuroendocrine stress responses. Central and peripheral studies.

    PubMed

    Mormède, P; Castagné, V; Rivet, J M; Gaillard, R; Corder, R

    1990-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is closely associated to stress-reactive structures in the central and peripheral nervous system. In the periphery, the peptide is colocalized with catecholamines in postganglionic sympathetic fibres and the adrenal medulla. In the brain, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus receives a dense innervation of NPYergic neurons, some of which also contain monoamines. With the use of a specific immunoradiometric assay, we have demonstrated that NPY is released into the peripheral circulation during psychological stress together with catecholamines. The postganglionic origin of the peptide was demonstrated by the activity of the nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium to attenuate the response. Adrenalectomy or insulin-induced hypoglycemia did not alter basal or stimulated NPY plasma levels, showing that the adrenal is not a major source of circulating NPY in the rat. Although NPY and noradrenaline are frequently released in parallel in various experimental conditions, a clear dissociation can be found in several cases, such as cold stress or the response to phentolamine, where no change can be seen in plasma NPY despite a large activation of noradrenergic terminals. Furthermore, the neuropeptide may play a role in stress-induced pathological states such as hypertension, since its release is greater in animals previously submitted to chronic stress and high-sodium diet. On the other hand, its role in the central nervous system control mechanisms of the stress response is far from being clear, but to understand the interaction of NPY we need a better knowledge of the role of noradrenergic neurons in the central control of the adrenocortical axis or sympathetic nervous system activity. PMID:2193112

  12. Screening for the Genes Involved in Bombykol Biosynthesis: Identification and Functional Characterization of Bombyx mori Acyl Carrier Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Atsushi; Kaji, Misato; Hashimoto, Kana; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2011-01-01

    Species-specific sex pheromones released by female moths to attract conspecific male moths are synthesized de novo in the pheromone gland (PG) via fatty acid synthesis (FAS). Biosynthesis of moth sex pheromones is usually regulated by a neurohormone termed pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), a 33-aa peptide that originates in the subesophageal ganglion. In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs), which store the sex pheromone (bombykol) precursor fatty acid, accumulate in PG cells prior to eclosion. PBAN activation of the PBAN receptor stimulates lipolysis of the stored LD triacylglycerols (TAGs) resulting in release of the bombykol precursor for final modification. While we have previously characterized a number of molecules involved in bombykol biosynthesis, little is known about the mechanisms of PBAN signaling that regulate the TAG lipolysis in PG cells. In the current study, we sought to further identify genes involved in bombykol biosynthesis as well as PBAN signaling, by using a subset of 312 expressed-sequence tag (EST) clones that are in either our B. mori PG cDNA library or the public B. mori EST databases, SilkBase and CYBERGATE, and which are preferentially expressed in the PG. Using RT-PCR expression analysis and an RNAi screening approach, we have identified another eight EST clones involved in bombykol biosynthesis. Furthermore, we have determined the functional role of a clone designated BmACP that encodes B. mori acyl carrier protein (ACP). Our results indicate that BmACP plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of the bombykol precursor fatty acid via the canonical FAS pathway during pheromonogenesis. PMID:22649392

  13. Direct regulation of GnRH neuron excitability by arcuate nucleus POMC and NPY neuron neuropeptides in female mice.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan; Herbison, Allan E

    2012-11-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons act to sense and coordinate the brain's responses to metabolic cues. One neuronal network that is very sensitive to metabolic status is that controlling fertility. In this study, we investigated the impact of neuropeptides released by NPY and POMC neurons on the cellular excitability of GnRH neurons, the final output cells of the brain controlling fertility. The majority (∼70%) of GnRH neurons were activated by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and this resulted from the direct postsynaptic activation of melanocortin receptor 3 and melanocortin receptor 4. A small population of GnRH neurons (∼15%) was excited by cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript or inhibited by β-endorphin. Agouti-related peptide, released by NPY neurons, was found to have variable inhibitory (∼10%) and stimulatory (∼25%) effects upon subpopulations of GnRH neurons. A variety of NPY and pancreatic polypeptide analogs was used to examine potential NPY interactions with GnRH neurons. Although porcine NPY (Y1/Y2/Y5 agonist) directly inhibited the firing of approximately 45% of GnRH neurons, [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-NPY (Y1/Y4/Y5 agonist) could excite (56%) or inhibit (19%). Experiments with further agonists indicated that Y1 receptors were responsible for suppressing GnRH neuron activity, whereas postsynaptic Y4 receptors were stimulatory. These results show that the activity of GnRH neurons is regulated in a complex manner by neuropeptides released by POMC and NPY neurons. This provides a direct route through which different metabolic cues can regulate fertility.

  14. Increased prepubertal body weight enhances leptin sensitivity in proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide y neurons before puberty onset in female rats.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, David; Fuente-Martín, Esther; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Pubertal onset may be advanced by obesity, with leptin potentially acting as a permissive factor. We hypothesized that having increased body weight (BW) prepubertally affects the ability of leptin to activate intracellular signaling pathways and modulate the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in reproduction and metabolism. Because being raised in small litters (SLs) tends to increase BW at weaning, female rats were raised in litters of 4 or large litters (LLs) of 12 pups. Leptin (3 μg/g BW) or vehicle (saline) was injected sc at postnatal day (PND) 21 and 30. Rats raised in SLs weighed more at both ages, but relative visceral and subcutaneous fat was increased only on PND21. Serum leptin levels were not different at PND21 or PND30. At PND21, key elements of intracellular leptin signaling (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and phosphorylated Akt [p-Akt]) were lower in SL than in LL rats. Leptin injection stimulated phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in both groups, with a greater increase in LL, whereas p-Akt rose only in SL rats. At PND30, basal leptin signaling did not differ between LL and SL rats. Leptin activation of Akt was similar at 45 minutes, but at 2 hours p-AKT levels were higher in SL than in LL rats, as was the decrease in neuropeptide Y mRNA and increase in pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels. No change in the reproductive axis was found. Thus, being raised in SLs increases BW and visceral body fat content, fails to increase plasma leptin concentrations, and increases the leptin responsiveness of both neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin cells in the prepubertal hypothalamus.

  15. Reproductive neuropeptides that stimulate spawning in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    In, Vu Van; Ntalamagka, Nikoleta; O'Connor, Wayne; Wang, Tianfang; Powell, Daniel; Cummins, Scott F; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    The Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, is a socioeconomically important species in Australia, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism that regulates its reproduction. To address this gap, we have performed a combination of high throughput transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis, to identify genes and neuropeptides that are expressed in the key regulatory tissues of S. glomerata; the visceral ganglia and gonads. Neuropeptides are known to encompass a diverse class of peptide messengers that play functional roles in many aspects of an animal's life, including reproduction. Approximately 28 neuropeptide genes were identified, primarily within the visceral ganglia transcriptome, that encode precursor proteins containing numerous neuropeptides; some were confirmed through mass spectral peptidomics analysis of the visceral ganglia. Of those, 28 bioactive neuropeptides were synthesized, and then tested for their capacity to induce gonad development and spawning in S. glomerata. Egg laying hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, APGWamide, buccalin, CCAP and LFRFamide were neuropeptides found to trigger spawning in ripe animals. Additional testing of APGWa and buccalin demonstrated their capacity to advance conditioning and gonadal maturation. In summary, our analysis of S. glomerata has identified neuropeptides that can influence the reproductive cycle of this species, specifically by accelerating gonadal maturation and triggering spawning. Other molluscan neuropeptides identified in this study will enable further research into understanding the neuroendocrinology of oysters, which may benefit their cultivation. PMID:27328253

  16. Reproductive neuropeptides that stimulate spawning in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    In, Vu Van; Ntalamagka, Nikoleta; O'Connor, Wayne; Wang, Tianfang; Powell, Daniel; Cummins, Scott F; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    The Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, is a socioeconomically important species in Australia, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism that regulates its reproduction. To address this gap, we have performed a combination of high throughput transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis, to identify genes and neuropeptides that are expressed in the key regulatory tissues of S. glomerata; the visceral ganglia and gonads. Neuropeptides are known to encompass a diverse class of peptide messengers that play functional roles in many aspects of an animal's life, including reproduction. Approximately 28 neuropeptide genes were identified, primarily within the visceral ganglia transcriptome, that encode precursor proteins containing numerous neuropeptides; some were confirmed through mass spectral peptidomics analysis of the visceral ganglia. Of those, 28 bioactive neuropeptides were synthesized, and then tested for their capacity to induce gonad development and spawning in S. glomerata. Egg laying hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, APGWamide, buccalin, CCAP and LFRFamide were neuropeptides found to trigger spawning in ripe animals. Additional testing of APGWa and buccalin demonstrated their capacity to advance conditioning and gonadal maturation. In summary, our analysis of S. glomerata has identified neuropeptides that can influence the reproductive cycle of this species, specifically by accelerating gonadal maturation and triggering spawning. Other molluscan neuropeptides identified in this study will enable further research into understanding the neuroendocrinology of oysters, which may benefit their cultivation.

  17. Analytic framework for peptidomics applied to large-scale neuropeptide identification.

    PubMed

    Secher, Anna; Kelstrup, Christian D; Conde-Frieboes, Kilian W; Pyke, Charles; Raun, Kirsten; Wulff, Birgitte S; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale mass spectrometry-based peptidomics for drug discovery is relatively unexplored because of challenges in peptide degradation and identification following tissue extraction. Here we present a streamlined analytical pipeline for large-scale peptidomics. We developed an optimized sample preparation protocol to achieve fast, reproducible and effective extraction of endogenous peptides from sub-dissected organs such as the brain, while diminishing unspecific protease activity. Each peptidome sample was analysed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry and the resulting data set was integrated with publically available databases. We developed and applied an algorithm that reduces the peptide complexity for identification of biologically relevant peptides. The developed pipeline was applied to rat hypothalamus and identifies thousands of neuropeptides and their post-translational modifications, which is combined in a resource format for visualization, qualitative and quantitative analyses. PMID:27142507

  18. CHO cells synthesize amidated neuropeptide Y from a C-peptide deleted form of the precursor.

    PubMed

    Johansen, T E; O'Hare, M M; Wulff, B S; Schwartz, T W

    1991-07-01

    Post-translational processing of peptide precursors producing amidated, biologically active peptides is generally believed to occur only in specially differentiated endocrine or neural cells. Previously it has been shown that endoproteolytic processing of peptide precursors is very inefficient in non-endocrine cells like CHO cells. We have studied the processing of a C-peptide-deleted precursor of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in which the precursor terminates in the sequence Gly-Lys-Arg and does not require any dibasic specific endoproteolytic processing. Following transfection of CHO cells with an expression plasmid encoding this mutated NPY precursor, between 50 and 80 percent of the synthesized NPY was secreted from stable transfectants as authentic amidated NPY as assessed by both a C-terminal amide specific radioimmunoassay and by isoelectric focusing. It is concluded that amidated peptides can be produced in non-endocrine cells provided they are presented with a precursor which does not have to be endoproteolytically processed.

  19. Partial processing of the neuropeptide Y precursor in transfected CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Wulff, B S; O'Hare, M M; Boel, E; Theill, L E; Schwartz, T W

    1990-02-12

    The activation of regulatory peptides by post-translational modification of their biosynthetic precursors is generally thought to occur only in neuroendocrine cells. We have selected clones of Chinese hamster ovary cells, a non-neuroendocrine cell line, which were transfected with a eukaryotic expression vector coding for the precursor for neuropeptide Y. Although the majority of the immunoreactive NPY was found in the form of pro-NPY, some degree of intracellular proteolytic processing of the precursor occurred in all clones. Part of the intracellular NPY immunoreactivity was even correctly amidated. Extracellular degradation of pro-NPY in the tissue culture medium generated immunoreactivity which corresponded in size to NPY. It is concluded that precursor processing can occur in non-neuroendocrine cells both as a biological process within the cells and as apparent processing, degradation in the tissue culture medium.

  20. Analytic framework for peptidomics applied to large-scale neuropeptide identification

    PubMed Central

    Secher, Anna; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Conde-Frieboes, Kilian W.; Pyke, Charles; Raun, Kirsten; Wulff, Birgitte S.; Olsen, Jesper V.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale mass spectrometry-based peptidomics for drug discovery is relatively unexplored because of challenges in peptide degradation and identification following tissue extraction. Here we present a streamlined analytical pipeline for large-scale peptidomics. We developed an optimized sample preparation protocol to achieve fast, reproducible and effective extraction of endogenous peptides from sub-dissected organs such as the brain, while diminishing unspecific protease activity. Each peptidome sample was analysed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry and the resulting data set was integrated with publically available databases. We developed and applied an algorithm that reduces the peptide complexity for identification of biologically relevant peptides. The developed pipeline was applied to rat hypothalamus and identifies thousands of neuropeptides and their post-translational modifications, which is combined in a resource format for visualization, qualitative and quantitative analyses. PMID:27142507

  1. CGRP as a neuropeptide in migraine: lessons from mice

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a neurological disorder that is far more than just a bad headache. A hallmark of migraine is altered sensory perception. A likely contributor to this altered perception is the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Over the past decade, CGRP has become firmly established as a key player in migraine. Although the mechanisms and sites of action by which CGRP might trigger migraine remain speculative, recent advances with mouse models provide some hints. This brief review focuses on how CGRP might act as both a central and peripheral neuromodulator to contribute to the migraine-like symptom of light aversive behaviour in mice. PMID:26032833

  2. Cytological approach to morphogenesis in the planarian blastema. II. The effect of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Hori, I

    1997-01-01

    The regeneration blastema consists of three cell types, undifferentiated cells, regenerative cells, and differentiated cells all of which can be identified by their ultrastructural characteristics. Quantitative changes in the numbers of these cells within the blastema offer important clues about the detailed process of regeneration. When decapitated worms were allowed to regenerate in neuropeptide-containing tap water, the undifferentiated cells accumulated rapidly and initiated blastema formation. These cells were then replaced with regenerative cells, and subsequently with differentiated cells. In the non-treated regenerating worms, the proportion of undifferentiated cells was much lower than in the neuropeptide-treated ones. The results of this study indicate that neuropeptides have a remarkable effect on the early stage of regeneration in planarians. Immunoelectron microscopy using a gold-conjugated anti-neuropeptide antiserum revealed the presence of neuropeptides in some kinds of parenchymal cells in the post-blastemal area.

  3. Locus coeruleus response to single-prolonged stress and early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Esther L; Laukova, Marcela; Alaluf, Lishay G; Olsson, Emelie; Serova, Lidia I

    2015-12-01

    Dysregulation of the central noradrenergic system is a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined molecular changes in locus coeruleus (LC) triggered by single-prolonged stress (SPS) PTSD model at a time when behavioral symptoms are manifested, and the effect of early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). Immediately following SPS stressors, male SD rats were administered intranasal NPY (SPS/NPY) or vehicle (SPS/V). Seven days later, TH protein, but not mRNA, was elevated in LC only of the SPS/V group. Although 90% of TH positive cells expressed GR, its levels were unaltered. Compared to unstressed controls, LC of SPS/V, but not SPS/NPY, expressed less Y2 receptor mRNA with more CRHR1 mRNA in subset of animals, and elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in central nucleus of amygdala. Following testing for anxiety on elevated plus maze (EPM), there were significantly increased TH, DBH and NPY mRNAs in LC of SPS-treated, but not previously unstressed animals. Their levels highly correlated with each other but not with behavioral features on EPM. Thus, SPS triggers long-term noradrenergic activation and higher sensitivity to mild stressors, perhaps mediated by the up-regulation influence of amygdalar CRH input and down-regulation of Y2R presynaptic inhibition in LC. Results also demonstrate the therapeutic potential of early intervention with intranasal NPY for traumatic stress-elicited noradrenergic impairments. Single-prolonged stress (SPS)-triggered long-term changes in the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine (LC/NE) system with increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1) mRNA and lower neuropeptide Y receptor 2 (Y2R) mRNA levels as well as elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) that were prevented by early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). SPS treatment led to increased sensitivity of LC to mild stress of elevated plus maze

  4. Locus coeruleus response to single-prolonged stress and early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Esther L; Laukova, Marcela; Alaluf, Lishay G; Olsson, Emelie; Serova, Lidia I

    2015-12-01

    Dysregulation of the central noradrenergic system is a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined molecular changes in locus coeruleus (LC) triggered by single-prolonged stress (SPS) PTSD model at a time when behavioral symptoms are manifested, and the effect of early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). Immediately following SPS stressors, male SD rats were administered intranasal NPY (SPS/NPY) or vehicle (SPS/V). Seven days later, TH protein, but not mRNA, was elevated in LC only of the SPS/V group. Although 90% of TH positive cells expressed GR, its levels were unaltered. Compared to unstressed controls, LC of SPS/V, but not SPS/NPY, expressed less Y2 receptor mRNA with more CRHR1 mRNA in subset of animals, and elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in central nucleus of amygdala. Following testing for anxiety on elevated plus maze (EPM), there were significantly increased TH, DBH and NPY mRNAs in LC of SPS-treated, but not previously unstressed animals. Their levels highly correlated with each other but not with behavioral features on EPM. Thus, SPS triggers long-term noradrenergic activation and higher sensitivity to mild stressors, perhaps mediated by the up-regulation influence of amygdalar CRH input and down-regulation of Y2R presynaptic inhibition in LC. Results also demonstrate the therapeutic potential of early intervention with intranasal NPY for traumatic stress-elicited noradrenergic impairments. Single-prolonged stress (SPS)-triggered long-term changes in the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine (LC/NE) system with increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1) mRNA and lower neuropeptide Y receptor 2 (Y2R) mRNA levels as well as elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) that were prevented by early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). SPS treatment led to increased sensitivity of LC to mild stress of elevated plus maze

  5. Development of a peptidomimetic antagonist of neuropeptide FF receptors for the prevention of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bihel, Frédéric; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Schneider, Séverine; Bertin, Isabelle; Wagner, Patrick; Schmitt, Martine; Laboureyras, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoît; Schneider, Elodie; Mollereau, Catherine; Simonnet, Guy; Simonin, Frédéric; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques

    2015-03-18

    Through the development of a new class of unnatural ornithine derivatives as bioisosteres of arginine, we have designed an orally active peptidomimetic antagonist of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR). Systemic low-dose administration of this compound to rats blocked opioid-induced hyperalgesia, without any apparent side-effects. Interestingly, we also observed that this compound potentiated opioid-induced analgesia. This unnatural ornithine derivative provides a novel therapeutic approach for both improving analgesia and reducing hyperalgesia induced by opioids in patients being treated for chronic pain.

  6. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mo; Loschek, Laura F.; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C.

    2016-01-01

    A female’s reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides), which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female’s preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny. PMID:27145127

  7. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ashiq; Üçpunar, Habibe K; Zhang, Mo; Loschek, Laura F; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C

    2016-05-01

    A female's reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides), which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female's preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny. PMID:27145127

  8. Immunopathological study of neuropeptide expression in human salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Deguchi, H; Nakahata, A; Kurashima, C; Hirokawa, K

    1990-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of anti-neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and anti-Leu-7 on formalin-fixed sections of human salivary gland neoplasms was determined by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. In addition, neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin, and substance P, in human salivary gland neoplasms were expressed, whereas other polypeptides, including glucagon, cholecystokinin, leu-enkephalin and calcitonin, were absent. When 182 paraffin-embedded examples of human salivary gland tumors, including 112 benign and 70 malignant neoplasms, were examined immunohistochemically, positive immunoreactivity was observed in: 51 cases with NSE (59%) and 46 cases with Leu-7 (54%) of 86 pleomorphic adenomas; 11 cases with Leu-7 (61%) of 18 Warthin's tumors; 7 cases with Leu-7 (58%) of 12 acinic cell carcinomas; 5 cases with NSE (31%) of 16 adenoid cystic carcinomas; 5 cases with NSE (42%) and 4 cases with Leu-7 (33%) of 12 adenocarcinomas; 4 cases with NSE (25%) and 6 cases with Leu-7 (38%) of 16 undifferentiated carcinomas. The other tumors, such as oxyphilic adenomas, basal cell adenomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, were nonreactive. Neuropeptides were observed in the neoplastic epithelial cells of certain tumors such as Warthin's tumors, acinic cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. These findings suggest the possibility that cells of neuroendocrine origin, present in certain neoplastic salivary gland epithelia may play a significant role in the histogenesis of human salivary gland neoplasms.

  9. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-03-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles and parafollicular C-cells. A high degree of co-existence between PACAP and VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) was observed in the intrathyroid nerve fibres and cell bodies of the thyroid ganglion indicating a common origin for the two peptides. A minor population of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres with relation to blood vessels co-stored NPY (neuropeptide Y), whereas only a few fibres co-stored CGRP. PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptor mRNA's occurred in follicular cells and blood vessels, whereas the expression of the VPAC(2) receptor was low. The findings suggest that PACAP plays a role in the regulation of parathyroid and thyroid blood flow and hormone secretion.

  10. The neuropeptide catestatin promotes vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through the Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Chunyan; Sun, Ningling

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Catestatin stimulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} Catestatin provokes sustained increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. {yields} Catestatin produces increased activation of calcineurin and promotes NFATc1 translocation into the nucleus. -- Abstract: The Chromogranin A-derived neuropeptide catestatin is an endogenous nicotinic cholinergic antagonist that acts as a pleiotropic hormone. Since catestatin shares several functions with other members derived from the chromogranin/secretogranin protein family and other neuropeptides which exert proliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we therefore hypothesized that catestatin would regulate VSMC proliferation. The present study demonstrates that catestatin caused a dose-dependent induction of proliferation in rat aortic smooth muscle cells and furthermore evoked a sustained increase in intracellular calcium. This subsequently leaded to enhanced activation of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin and resulted in an activation of the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), initiating transcription of proliferative genes. In addition, cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent inhibitor of calcineurin, abrogated catestatin-mediated effect on VSMCs, indicating that the calcineurin-NFAT signaling is strongly required for catestatin-induced growth of VSMCs. The present study establishes catestatin as a novel proliferative cytokine on vascular smooth muscle cells and this effect is mediated by the Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway.

  11. The roles of neuropeptides in Caenorhabditis elegans including their importance in the regulation of feeding and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    C. elegans has 302 neurons (in the adult hermaphrodite) and this simple nervous system harbours over 250 neuropeptides. Neuropeptides are a class of signalling molecule implicated in key physiological roles and thus confer a surprising level of complexity to signalling in this nematode. Indeed, it is probable that most, if not all, sensory, motor and interneurons, in C. elegans synthesise and release at least one neuropeptide but that many neurons synthesise an array of neuropeptides. In this review neuropeptides and their receptors with specific roles in feeding, metabolism, reproduction and locomotion are discussed. It is noted that the majority of C. elegans neuropeptides do not yet have defined roles and their cognate receptors have not yet been identified. Future studies will serve to provide further fundamental insight into how neuropeptide signalling can underpin animal behaviour.

  12. Mass spectrometric analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of crustacean neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    OuYang, Chuanzi; Liang, Zhidan; Li, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptides represent one of the largest classes of signaling molecules used by nervous systems to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. Over the past several years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies have revolutionized the discovery of neuropeptides in numerous model organisms, especially in decapod crustaceans. Here, we focus our discussion on recent advances in the use of MS-based techniques to map neuropeptides in the spatial domain and monitoring their dynamic changes in the temporal domain. These MS-enabled investigations provide valuable information about the distribution, secretion and potential function of neuropeptides with high molecular specificity and sensitivity. In situ MS imaging and in vivo microdialysis are highlighted as key technologies for probing spatio-temporal dynamics of neuropeptides in the crustacean nervous system. This review summarizes the latest advancement in MS-based methodologies for neuropeptide analysis including typical workflow and sample preparation strategies as well as major neuropeptide families discovered in decapod crustaceans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology.

  13. More than two decades of research on insect neuropeptide GPCRs: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Caers, Jelle; Verlinden, Heleen; Zels, Sven; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Vuerinckx, Kristel; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the state of the art on neuropeptide receptors in insects. Most of these receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are involved in the regulation of virtually all physiological processes during an insect's life. More than 20 years ago a milestone in invertebrate endocrinology was achieved with the characterization of the first insect neuropeptide receptor, i.e., the Drosophila tachykinin-like receptor. However, it took until the release of the Drosophila genome in 2000 that research on neuropeptide receptors boosted. In the last decade a plethora of genomic information of other insect species also became available, leading to a better insight in the functions and evolution of the neuropeptide signaling systems and their intracellular pathways. It became clear that some of these systems are conserved among all insect species, indicating that they fulfill crucial roles in their physiological processes. Meanwhile, other signaling systems seem to be lost in several insect orders or species, suggesting that their actions were superfluous in those insects, or that other neuropeptides have taken over their functions. It is striking that the deorphanization of neuropeptide GPCRs gets much attention, but the subsequent unraveling of the intracellular pathways they elicit, or their physiological functions are often hardly examined. Especially in insects besides Drosophila this information is scarce if not absent. And although great progress made in characterizing neuropeptide signaling systems, even in Drosophila several predicted neuropeptide receptors remain orphan, awaiting for their endogenous ligand to be determined. The present review gives a précis of the insect neuropeptide receptor research of the last two decades. But it has to be emphasized that the work done so far is only the tip of the iceberg and our comprehensive understanding of these important signaling systems will still increase substantially in the coming years. PMID

  14. Neuropeptide Receptor Transcript Expression Levels and Magnitude of Ionic Current Responses Show Cell Type-Specific Differences in a Small Motor Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Veronica J.; Daur, Nelly; Temporal, Simone; Schulz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relationship between neuropeptide receptor transcript expression and current responses in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the crab, Cancer borealis. We identified a transcript with high sequence similarity to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) receptors in insects and mammalian neuropeptide S receptors. This transcript was expressed throughout the nervous system, consistent with the role of CCAP in a range of different behaviors. In the STG, single-cell qPCR showed expression in only a subset of neurons. This subset had previously been shown to respond to CCAP with the activation of a modulator-activated inward current (IMI), with one exception. In the one cell type that showed expression but no IMI responses, we found CCAP modulation of synaptic currents. Expression levels within STG neuron types were fairly variable, but significantly different between some neuron types. We tested the magnitude and concentration dependence of IMI responses to CCAP application in two identified neurons, the lateral pyloric (LP) and the inferior cardiac (IC) neurons. LP had several-fold higher expression and showed larger current responses. It also was more sensitive to low CCAP concentrations and showed saturation at lower concentrations, as sigmoid fits showed smaller EC50 values and steeper slopes. In addition, occlusion experiments with proctolin, a different neuropeptide converging onto IMI, showed that saturating concentrations of CCAP activated all available IMI in LP, but only approximately two-thirds in IC, the neuron with lower receptor transcript expression. The implications of these findings for comodulation are discussed. PMID:25926455

  15. Neuropeptide Y receptor gene y6: multiple deaths or resurrections?

    PubMed

    Starbäck, P; Wraith, A; Eriksson, H; Larhammar, D

    2000-10-14

    The neuropeptide Y family of G-protein-coupled receptors consists of five cloned members in mammals. Four genes give rise to functional receptors in all mammals investigated. The y6 gene is a pseudogene in human and pig and is absent in rat, but generates a functional receptor in rabbit and mouse and probably in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), a distant relative of the pig family. We report here that the guinea pig y6 gene has a highly distorted nucleotide sequence with multiple frame-shift mutations. One evolutionary scenario may suggest that y6 was inactivated before the divergence of the mammalian orders and subsequently resurrected in some lineages. However, the pseudogene mutations seem to be distinct in human, pig, and guinea pig, arguing for separate inactivation events. In either case, the y6 gene has a quite unusual evolutionary history with multiple independent deaths or resurrections.

  16. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Neves, Joana; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2016-11-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. Studies in both humans and rodent models revealed that brain NPY levels are altered in some neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Machado-Joseph disease. In this review, we will focus on the roles of NPY in the pathological mechanisms of these disorders, highlighting NPY as a neuroprotective agent, as a neural stem cell proliferative agent, as an agent that increases trophic support, as a stimulator of autophagy and as an inhibitor of excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation. Moreover, the effect of NPY in some clinical manifestations commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Machado-Joseph disease, such as depressive symptoms and body weight loss, are also discussed. In conclusion, this review highlights NPY system as a potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. NEUROENDOCRINE ACTIONS AND REGULATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROPEPTIDE Y DURING LACTATION

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, W,R.; Ramoz, G.; Torto, R.; Keefe, K.A.; Wang, J. J.; Kalra, S. P.

    2007-01-01

    The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its co-messenger, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), in arcuate neurons of the hypothalamus is increased during lactation in rats. Our research has been addressing the questions of the physiological actions of these peptides during lactation and the physiological signals associated with lactation that result in increased expression of their genes. Our studies indicate that NPY and AgRP exert pleiotropic actions during lactation that help integrate neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance with controls over anterior and posterior pituitary hormone secretion. Further, reciprocal signaling to the NPY/AgRP system by leptin and ghrelin is responsible for the changes in expression of these hypothalamic peptides in lactating animals, and thus, may contribute to regulation of food intake and the various neuroendocrine adaptations of lactation. PMID:17241697

  18. Neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Parker, S L; Balasubramaniam, A

    2008-02-01

    We briefly survey the current knowledge and concepts regarding structure and function of the neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor and its agonists, especially as related to pharmacology of the receptor and its roles in pathological processes. Specific structural features are considered that could be responsible for the known compartmentalization and participation of the receptor in cell and tissue organization. This is further discussed in relation to changes of levels of the Y2 receptor in pathological conditions (especially in epilepsy and drug abuse), to endocytosis and recycling, and to participation in wound healing, retinopathy and angiogenesis. Properties of the receptor and of Y2 agonists are considered and reviewed in connection to the negative regulation of transmitter release, feeding, mood and social behavior. The possible involvement of the Y2 receptor in diabetes, carcinogenesis and bone formation is also reviewed. PMID:17828288

  19. The effect of obesogenic diets on brain Neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Gumbs, Myrtille C R; van den Heuvel, José K; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem characterized by accumulated fat mass. The availability of an energy-dense, highly palatable diet plays an important role in obesity development. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an orexigenic peptide, is affected by dietary composition and NPY can affect dietary preference. The hypothalamic NPY system is well characterized and has been studied in several models of obesity. However, findings from models of diet-induced obesity are not straightforward. In addition, NPY plays a role in (food-)motivated behaviors and interacts with the mesolimbic dopamine system, both of which are altered in obesity. We here review the effect of obesogenic diets on NPY levels in the hypothalamus and reward-related regions. PMID:27132202

  20. Role of neuropeptide FF in central cardiovascular and neuroendocrine regulation.

    PubMed

    Jhamandas, Jack H; Goncharuk, Valeri

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) is an octapeptide belonging to the RFamide family of peptides that have been implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions in the brain including central cardiovascular and neuroendocrine regulation. The effects of these peptides are mediated via NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors that are abundantly expressed in the rat and human brain. Herein, we review evidence for the role of NPFF in central regulation of blood pressure particularly within the brainstem and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). At a cellular level, NPFF demonstrates distinct responses in magnocellular and parvocellular neurons of the PVN, which regulate the secretion of neurohypophyseal hormones and sympathetic outflow, respectively. Finally, the presence of NPFF system in the human brain and its alterations within the hypertensive brain are discussed.

  1. Patterns of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and neuropeptide immunoreactivity during arm regeneration in the starfish Asterias rubens

    PubMed Central

    Moss, C.

    1998-01-01

    Regeneration of the arm of the starfish, Asterias rubens (L.) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) was examined using two preparations. The first involved regeneration of the entire arm tip and its associated sensory structures and the second examined regeneration of a small section of radial nerve cord in the mid-arm region. Cell cycle activity was investigated by incorporation of the thymidine analogue, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Details of neuroanatomy were obtained by immunocytochemistry (ICC) using an antiserum to the recently isolated starfish neuropeptide, GFNSALMFamide (S1). BrdU labelling indicated that initial events occur by morphallaxis, with cell cycle activity first apparent after formation of a wound epidermis. As regeneration proceeded, BrdU immunoreactive (IR) nuclei revealed cell cycle activity in cells at the distal ends of the radial nerve cord epidermis, in the coelomic epithelium, the perihaemal and water vascular canal epithelia, and in the forming tube feet of both preparations. By varying the time between BrdU pulses and tissue fixation, the possible migration or differentiation of labelled cells was investigated. Neuropeptide ICC indicated the extension of S1-IR nerve fibres into the regenerating area, soon after initial wound healing processes were complete. These fibres were varicose and disorganized in appearance, when compared to the normal pattern of S1-IR in the radial nerve. S1-IR was also observed in cell bodies, which reappeared in the reforming optic cushion and radial nerve at later stages of regeneration. Double labelling studies with anti-BrdU and anti-S1 showed no co-localization in these cell bodies, in all the stages examined. It appeared that S1-IR cells were not undergoing, and had not recently undergone, cell cycle activity. It cannot be confirmed whether S1-IR neurons were derived from proliferating cells of epithelial origin, or from transdifferentiation of epithelial cells, although the former mechanism is suggested

  2. Diversity and abundance: the basic properties of neuropeptide action in molluscs.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Tibor

    2011-05-15

    Neuropeptides, the most diverse group of signaling molecules, are responsible for regulating a variety of cellular and behavioral processes in all vertebrate and invertebrate animals. The role played by peptide signals in information processing is fundamentally different from that of conventional neurotransmitters. Neuropeptides may act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators and are released at either synaptic or non-synaptic sites. Peptide signals control developmental processes, drive specific behaviors or contribute to the mechanisms of learning and memory storage. Co-transmission within or across peptide families, and between peptide and non-peptide signaling molecules, is common; this ensures the great versatility of their action. How these tasks are fulfilled when multiple neuropeptides are released has become an important topic for peptide research. Although our knowledge concerning the physiological and behavioral roles of most of the neuropeptides isolated from molluscs is incomplete, this article provides examples to address the complexity of peptide signaling.

  3. Anti-epileptic effects of neuropeptide Y gene transfection into the rat brain☆

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Changzheng; Zhao, Wenqing; Li, Wenling; Lv, Peiyuan; Dong, Xiufang

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y gene transfection into normal rat brain tissue can provide gene overexpression, which can attenuate the severity of kainic acid-induced seizures. In this study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying the neuropeptide Y gene was transfected into brain tissue of rats with kainic acid-induced epilepsy through stereotactic methods. Following these transfections, we verified overexpression of the neuropeptide Y gene in the epileptic brain. Electroencephalograms showed that seizure severity was significantly inhibited and seizure latency was significantly prolonged up to 4 weeks after gene transfection. Moreover, quantitative fluorescent PCR and western blot assays revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B was inhibited in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. These findings indicate that neuropeptide Y may inhibit seizures via down-regulation of the functional expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. PMID:25206425

  4. Probing neuropeptide signaling at the organ and cellular domains via imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Greer, Tyler; Li, Lingjun

    2012-08-30

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has evolved to be a promising technology due to its ability to detect a broad mass range of molecular species and create density maps for selected compounds. It is currently one of the most useful techniques to determine the spatial distribution of neuropeptides in cells and tissues. Although IMS is conceptually simple, sample preparation steps, mass analyzers, and software suites are just a few of the factors that contribute to the successful design of a neuropeptide IMS experiment. This review provides a brief overview of IMS sampling protocols, instrumentation, data analysis tools, technological advancements and applications to neuropeptide localization in neurons and endocrine tissues. Future perspectives in this field are also provided, concluding that neuropeptide IMS would greatly facilitate studies of neuronal network and biomarker discovery.

  5. Neuronal Expression of the Human Neuropeptide S Receptor NPSR1 Identifies NPS-Induced Calcium Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, Frank; Kügler, Sebastian; Blaesse, Peter; Lange, Maren D.; Skryabin, Boris V.; Pape, Hans-Christian; Jüngling, Kay

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptide S (NPS) system was discovered as a novel neurotransmitter system a decade ago and has since been identified as a key player in the modulation of fear and anxiety. Genetic variations of the human NPS receptor (NPSR1) have been associated with pathologies like panic disorders. However, details on the molecular fundamentals of NPSR1 activity in neurons remained elusive. We expressed NPSR1 in primary hippocampal cultures. Using single-cell calcium imaging we found that NPSR1 stimulation induced calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum via activation of IP3 and ryanodine receptors. Store-operated calcium channels were activated in a downstream process mediating entry of extracellular calcium. We provide the first detailed analysis of NPSR1 activity and the underlying intracellular pathways with respect to calcium mobilization in neurons. PMID:25714705

  6. Localization and characterization of neuropeptide Y-like peptides in the brain and islet organ of the anglerfish (Lophius americanus).

    PubMed

    Noe, B D; Milgram, S L; Balasubramaniam, A; Andrews, P C; Calka, J; McDonald, J K

    1989-08-01

    Results from a previous report demonstrate that more than one molecular form of neuropeptide Y-like peptide may be present in the islet organ of the anglerfish (Lophius americanus). Most of the neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive material was anglerfish peptide YG, which is expressed in a subset of islet cells, whereas an additional neuropeptide Y-like peptide(s) was localized in islet nerves. To learn more about the neuropeptide Y-like peptides in islet nerves, we have employed immunohistochemical and biochemical methods to compare peptides found in anglerfish islets and brain. Using antisera that selectively react with either mammalian forms of neuropeptide Y or with anglerfish peptide YG, subsets of neurons were found in the brain that labelled with only one or the other of the antisera. In separate sections, other neurons that were labelled with either antiserum exhibited similar morphologies. Peptides from brains and islets were subjected to gel filtration and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Radioimmunoassays employing either the neuropeptide Y or peptide YG antisera were used to examine chromatographic eluates. Immunoreactive peptides having retention times of human neuropeptide Y and porcine neuropeptide Y were identified in extracts of both brain and islets. This indicates that peptides structurally similar to both of these peptides from the neuropeptide Y-pancreatic polypeptide family are expressed in neurons of anglerfish brain and nerve fibers of anglerfish islets. The predominant form of neuropeptide Y-like peptide in islets was anglerfish peptide YG. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive peptides from islet extracts that had chromatographic retention times identical to human neuropeptide Y and porcine neuropeptide Y were present in much smaller quantities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2673525

  7. Naloxone-induced anorexia increases neuropeptide Y concentrations in the dorsomedial hypothalamus: evidence for neuropeptide Y-opioid interactions in the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P D; Wilding, J P; al-Dokhayel, A A; Gilbey, S G; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R

    1994-01-01

    We measured neuropeptide Y (NPY) concentration in microdissected hypothalamic nuclei, by radioimmunoassay, and NPY mRNA in the hypothalamus in rats treated systemically with the nonspecific opioid antagonist, naloxone, to produce mild anorexia. Twenty rats were treated with daily SC injections of naloxone (7.5 mg/kg); 20 were treated with vehicle alone. Naloxone produced a 7% reduction in food intake (p < 0.01) and a reduction in weight gain (p < 0.002). Neuropeptide Y concentrations were increased specifically in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMN) in rats treated with naloxone (6.8 +/- 0.7 fmol/micrograms protein vs. 3.1 +/- 1.0 fmol/micrograms protein, p < 0.05, n = 10 per group). Total hypothalamic NPY mRNA was unchanged. Neuropeptide Y-opioid interactions may be important in the control of food intake.

  8. Mimicking of Arginine by Functionalized N(ω)-Carbamoylated Arginine As a New Broadly Applicable Approach to Labeled Bioactive Peptides: High Affinity Angiotensin, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropeptide FF, and Neurotensin Receptor Ligands As Examples.

    PubMed

    Keller, Max; Kuhn, Kilian K; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Biselli, Sabrina; Mollereau, Catherine; Wifling, David; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Bernhardt, Günther; Cabrele, Chiara; Vanderheyden, Patrick M L; Gmeiner, Peter; Buschauer, Armin

    2016-03-10

    Derivatization of biologically active peptides by conjugation with fluorophores or radionuclide-bearing moieties is an effective and commonly used approach to prepare molecular tools and diagnostic agents. Whereas lysine, cysteine, and N-terminal amino acids have been mostly used for peptide conjugation, we describe a new, widely applicable approach to peptide conjugation based on the nonclassical bioisosteric replacement of the guanidine group in arginine by a functionalized carbamoylguanidine moiety. Four arginine-containing peptide receptor ligands (angiotensin II, neurotensin(8-13), an analogue of the C-terminal pentapeptide of neuropeptide Y, and a neuropeptide FF analogue) were subject of this proof-of-concept study. The N(ω)-carbamoylated arginines, bearing spacers with a terminal amino group, were incorporated into the peptides by standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis. The synthesized chemically stable peptide derivatives showed high receptor affinities with Ki values in the low nanomolar range, even when bulky fluorophores had been attached. Two new tritiated tracers for angiotensin and neurotensin receptors are described.

  9. Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.

    PubMed

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction.

  10. Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.

    PubMed

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction. PMID:23851261

  11. A neuropeptide circuit that coordinates sperm transfer and copulation duration in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tayler, Timothy D.; Pacheco, Diego A.; Hergarden, Anne C.; Murthy, Mala; Anderson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Innate behaviors are often executed in concert with accompanying physiological programs. How this coordination is achieved is poorly understood. Mating behavior and the transfer of sperm and seminal fluid (SSFT) provide a model for understanding how concerted behavioral and physiological programs are coordinated. Here we identify a male-specific neural pathway that coordinates the timing of SSFT with the duration of copulation behavior in Drosophila. Silencing four abdominal ganglion (AG) interneurons (INs) that contain the neuropeptide corazonin (Crz) both blocked SSFT and substantially lengthened copulation duration. Activating these Crz INs caused rapid ejaculation in isolated males, a phenotype mimicked by injection of Crz peptide. Crz promotes SSFT by activating serotonergic (5-HT) projection neurons (PNs) that innervate the accessory glands. Activation of these PNs in copulo caused premature SSFT and also shortened copulation duration. However, mating terminated normally when these PNs were silenced, indicating that SSFT is not required for appropriate copulation duration. Thus, the lengthened copulation duration phenotype caused by silencing Crz INs is independent of the block to SSFT. We conclude that four Crz INs independently control SSFT and copulation duration, thereby coupling the timing of these two processes. PMID:23197833

  12. Neuropeptide W increases mean arterial pressure as a result of behavioral arousal

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Alicia T.; Yosten, Gina L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide W (NPW), an endogenous ligand for G protein-coupled receptors NPBWR1 (GPR7) and NPBWR2 (GPR8), has been detected in neurons in limbic and reticular activating system areas known to be important in arousal, as well as hypothalamic nuclei known to be important in food and water intake and the neuroendocrine response to stress. In rat, central administration of NPW increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and behaviors associated with locomotion and grooming. We hypothesized that the NPW-induced increase in MAP was secondary to those increases in physical activity. Since peptides that stimulate arousal have been shown to increase sympathetic activity (e.g., orexin), we tested the ability of the mixed α1- and α2-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine, to block the NPW-23-induced rise in MAP. Phentolamine pretreatment abrogated the NPW-induced MAP increase. However, we noticed the animals no longer exhibited NPW-associated behavioral arousal when pretreated with phentolamine. Anesthesia also blocked the NPW-induced increase in MAP, although the animals still were able to respond with an increase in MAP to centrally administered ANG II. Additionally, pretreatment with an orexin type 1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced the behavioral action of NPW-23 and completely blocked the peptide's action to increase MAP, suggesting that orexin neurons are downstream targets of NPW. Our results suggest that NPW increased MAP secondary to increased behavioral arousal. PMID:23926134

  13. Neuropeptide S receptor gene -- converging evidence for a role in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Domschke, K; Reif, A; Weber, H; Richter, J; Hohoff, C; Ohrmann, P; Pedersen, A; Bauer, J; Suslow, T; Kugel, H; Heindel, W; Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Jacob, C; Maier, W; Fritze, J; Bandelow, B; Krakowitzky, P; Rothermundt, M; Erhardt, A; Binder, E B; Holsboer, F; Gerlach, A L; Kircher, T; Lang, T; Alpers, G W; Ströhle, A; Fehm, L; Gloster, A T; Wittchen, H-U; Arolt, V; Pauli, P; Hamm, A; Deckert, J

    2011-09-01

    Animal studies have suggested neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety-related behavior. In this study, a multilevel approach was applied to further elucidate the role of NPS in the etiology of human anxiety. The functional NPSR A/T (Asn¹⁰⁷Ile) variant (rs324981) was investigated for association with (1) panic disorder with and without agoraphobia in two large, independent case-control studies, (2) dimensional anxiety traits, (3) autonomic arousal level during a behavioral avoidance test and (4) brain activation correlates of anxiety-related emotional processing in panic disorder. The more active NPSR rs324981 T allele was found to be associated with panic disorder in the female subgroup of patients in both samples as well as in a meta-analytic approach. The T risk allele was further related to elevated anxiety sensitivity, increased heart rate and higher symptom reports during a behavioral avoidance test as well as decreased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, lateral orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex during processing of fearful faces in patients with panic disorder. The present results provide converging evidence for a female-dominant role of NPSR gene variation in panic disorder potentially through heightened autonomic arousal and distorted processing of anxiety-relevant emotional stimuli.

  14. Direct stimulation of BAT thermogenesis does not affect hypothalamic neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Bing, C; Hopkins, D; Wang, Q; Frankish, H; Buckingham, R; Williams, G

    1998-01-01

    Acute cold exposure which significantly stimulated thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), also increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in its hypothalamic sites of release without affecting NPY synthesis, suggesting that NPY release is acutely inhibited. To clarify whether these changes in NPY are the cause or consequence of BAT activation, we studied whether hypothalamic NPY and NPY mRNA levels in rats were affected by acute intraperitoneal injection of the beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist BRL 35135 (500 micrograms/kg), which directly activates BAT thermogenesis. BRL 35135 treatment doubled BAT uncoupling protein mRNA levels (p < 0.05), and increased core temperature by 0.4 degree C (p < 0.05), but neither hypothalamic regional NPY levels nor hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels were affected by BRL 35135. This suggests that the NPY changes induced by cold exposure are not the result of BAT activation, and is consistent with the hypothesis that decreased NPY release during cold exposure might disinhibit the sympathetic innervation that drives BAT thermogenesis.

  15. Neuropeptide FF receptors exhibit direct and anti-opioid effects on mice dorsal raphe nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-01

    By using acutely dissociated dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRN) from young mice, direct and anti-opioid effects of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors were measured. The NPFF analog 1 DMe (10 µM) had no effect on resting Ca2+ channels but reduced the magnitude of Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization in 83.3% neurons tested, of which the inhibition rate is 45.4±2.9%. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced to 18.9% the number of responding neurons and attenuated by 47% the response of 1 DMe. In contrast, cholera toxin treatment had no significant effect. Eighteen minute perfusion with 1 DMe at a very low 10 nM concentration, that did not directly inhibit Ca2+ transients triggered by depolarization in every neuron, attenuated by 78% the inhibitory effect of Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) on Ca2+ transients, but not that of by serotonin. These results demonstrated for the first time that NPFF receptors on mice DRN inhibit Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization via Gi/o protein and also exhibit a specific anti-opioid activity on nociceptin receptors, and that their specific anti-opioid activity is not a direct consequence of their activity on Ca2+ transients.

  16. The Endoparasitoid, Cotesia vestalis, Regulates Host Physiology by Reprogramming the Neuropeptide Transcriptional Network

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Dong, Shuai; Li, Ming-tian; Yang, Yan-yan; Stanley, David; Chen, Xue-xin

    2015-01-01

    Endoparasitoids develop inside another insect by regulating host immunity and development via maternal factors injected into hosts during oviposition. Prior results have provided insights into parasitism-induced immunosuppression, including the neuropeptide accumulation in parasitized insects. Nonetheless, our understanding of neuropeptide influence on host development and behavior is not yet complete. We posed the hypothesis that parasitization alters expression of genes encoding pro-neuropeptides and used larvae of Plutella xylostella and its endoparasitoid, Cotesia vestalis to test our hypothesis. We prepared transcriptomes from the larval P. xylostella brain-CC-CA complex and identified transcripts encoding 19 neuropeptides. All corresponding cDNAs were confirmed by RACE. Our results demonstrate that parasitism significantly down-regulated, or delayed, expression of genes encoding pro-neuropeptides within 48 h post-parasitization. Changing expression of these genes may account for the previously reported decreased feeding behavior, reduced growth rates and aborted development in the host larvae. In effect, parasitization may operate at the molecular level within the CNS to create global changes in larval host biology. The significance of our finding is that, in addition to the known effects on immunity, parasitoids influence host pro-neuropeptide gene transcription. This finding reveals a new mechanism operating in host-parasitoid relationships to the advantage of the parasitoid. PMID:25640113

  17. Rapid Preconcentration for Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Assay of Trace Level Neuropeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of neuropeptides in the brain through in vivo microdialysis sampling provides direct correlation between neuropeptide concentration and brain function. Capillary liquid chromatography-multistage mass spectrometry (CLC-MSn) has proven to be effective at measuring endogenous neuropeptides in microdialysis samples. In the method, microliter samples are concentrated onto nanoliter volume packed beds before ionization and mass spectrometry analysis. The long times required for extensive preconcentration present a barrier to routine use because of the many samples that must be analyzed and instability of neuropeptides. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of 75 μm inner diameter (i.d.) capillary column packed with 10 μm reversed phase particles for increasing the throughput in CLC-MSn based neuropeptide measurement. Coupling a high injection flow rate for fast sample loading/desalting with a low elution flow rate to maintain detection sensitivity, this column has reduced analysis time from ˜30 min to 3.8 min for 5 μL sample, with 3 pM limit of detection (LOD) for enkephalins and 10 pM LOD for dynorphin A1-8 in 5 μL sample. The use of isotope-labeled internal standard lowered peptide signal variation to less than 5 %. This method was validated for in vivo detection of Leu and Met enkephalin with microdialysate collected from rat globus pallidus. The improvement in speed and stability makes CLC-MSn measurement of neuropeptides in vivo more practical.

  18. Quantitative Neuropeptidome Analysis Reveals Neuropeptides Are Correlated with Social Behavior Regulation of the Honeybee Workers.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Hu, Han; Qi, Yuping; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-10-01

    Neuropeptides play vital roles in orchestrating neural communication and physiological modulation in organisms, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones. The highly evolved social structure of honeybees is a good system for understanding how neuropeptides regulate social behaviors; however, much knowledge on neuropeptidomic variation in the age-related division of labor remains unknown. An in-depth comparison of the brain neuropeptidomic dynamics over four time points of age-related polyethism was performed on two strains of honeybees, the Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica, ITb) and the high royal jelly producing bee (RJb, selected for increasing royal jelly production for almost four decades from the ITb in China). Among the 158 identified nonredundant neuropeptides, 77 were previously unreported, significantly expanding the coverage of the honeybee neuropeptidome. The fact that 14 identical neuropeptide precursors changed their expression levels during the division of labor in both the ITb and RJb indicates they are highly related to task transition of honeybee workers. These observations further suggest the two lines of bees employ a similar neuropeptidome modification to tune their respective physiology of age polyethism via regulating excretory system, circadian clock system, and so forth. Noticeably, the enhanced level of neuropeptides implicated in regulating water homeostasis, brood pheromone recognition, foraging capacity, and pollen collection in RJb signify the fact that neuropeptides are also involved in the regulation of RJ secretion. These findings gain novel understanding of honeybee neuropeptidome correlated with social behavior regulation, which is potentially important in neurobiology for honeybees and other insects.

  19. The α-Helical Structure of Prodomains Promotes Translocation of Intrinsically Disordered Neuropeptide Hormones into the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Dirndorfer, Daniela; Seidel, Ralf P.; Nimrod, Guy; Miesbauer, Margit; Ben-Tal, Nir; Engelhard, Martin; Zimmermann, Richard; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Tatzelt, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Different neuropeptide hormones, which are either too small to adopt a stable conformation or are predicted to be intrinsically disordered, are synthesized as larger precursors containing a prodomain in addition to an N-terminal signal peptide. We analyzed the biogenesis of three unstructured neuropeptide hormones and observed that translocation of these precursors into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is critically dependent on the presence of the prodomain. The hormone domains could be deleted from the precursors without interfering with ER import and secretion, whereas constructs lacking the prodomain remained in the cytosol. Domain-swapping experiments revealed that the activity of the prodomains to promote productive ER import resides in their ability to adopt an α-helical structure. Removal of the prodomain from the precursor did not interfere with co-translational targeting of the nascent chain to the Sec61 translocon but with its subsequent productive translocation into the ER lumen. Our study reveals a novel function of prodomains to enable import of small or intrinsically disordered secretory proteins into the ER based on their ability to adopt an α-helical conformation. PMID:23532840

  20. Do vasoactive neuropeptide autoimmune disorders explain pyridostigmine's association with Gulf War syndrome?

    PubMed

    Staines, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Gulf War syndrome (GWS) is a perplexing multi-symptom condition comprising a constellation of signs and symptoms consistently described in the literature. These include muscle fatigue and tiredness, malaise, myalgia, impaired cognition, ataxia, diarrhoea, bladder dysfunction, sweating disturbances, headaches, fever, arthralgia, skin rashes, and gastrointestinal and sleep disturbances. Excessive chemical sensitivity and odour intolerance is reported. Epidemiological analysis suggests association with pyridostigmine bromide (PB) use as nerve gas prophylaxis, insect repellent, certain vaccination regimes, a variety of possible chemical exposures and physical and psychological stress. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are potent vasoactive (vasodilatory) neuropeptides (VNs) having pleiotropic functions as immunomodulators, neuroregulators and hormones. VNs also have neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic roles. VNs act on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to activate adenylate cyclase, an important step in cyclic AMP metabolism. Autoimmune dysfunction of these VNs or their receptors is postulated to give rise to fatigue-related conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Complex mechanisms involving heat shock proteins (hsps) and cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) DNA fragments may also be associated with autoimmunity to VNs or their GPCRs in contributing to fatigue-related conditions. Dysfunction of certain VNs may be the missing link in explaining the nebulous nexus between PB and GWS. This paper explores a possible link between exposures to PB and other chemical, physical and psychological stressors in producing a fatigue-related illness possibly related to autoimmune dysfunction of certain VNs. Treatment options involving restoration of VN function are considered in the context of analogues with other neurotransmitter fatigue-related conditions such as

  1. An immunohistochemical localization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in its amidated form in human frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Blinkenberg, M; Kruse-Larsen, C; Mikkelsen, J D

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive neurons was studied in human frontal cerebral cortex from surgical biopsy specimens by immunohistochemical techniques. NPY-containing neurons were identified in all cortical sublayers except sublayer I. The stained neurons were of the multipolar, bitufted, round or triangular form with dendritic and axonal processes. The immunoreactive neurons were considered to be cortical interneurons, due to their nonpyramidal form, and since their processes could be followed intracortically particularly in direction to superficial cortical layers. The NPY precursor molecule is processed to NPY by a dibasic cleavage, and NPY is further enzymatically amidated before release and receptor activation can be achieved. Antisera raised against Cys-NPY(32-36)amide recognize amidated NPY not cross-reacting with nonamidated NPY. These antisera and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of a population of NPYamide-immunoreactive cells morphologically indistinguishable from the NPY-immunoreactive cells in the human frontal cortex. By comparing the number of immunoreactive cells in adjacent sections, it appears that the number of NPY-immunoreactive cells was higher than those immunoreactive to NPYamide. Also, the density of NPY fibers was much higher compared with the number stained with NPYamide antiserum. The present immunohistochemical study indicates that NPY in its amidated form is contained in a subpopulation of human cortical NPY-immunoreactive neurons and may participate as an active neurotransmitter/modulator within the human cerebral cortex.

  2. Neuropeptide Y stimulates retinal neural cell proliferation--involvement of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Ana Rita; Martins, João; Araújo, Inês M; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Ambrósio, António F; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2008-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide widely present in the CNS, including the retina. Previous studies have demonstrated that NPY promotes cell proliferation of rat post-natal hippocampal and olfactory epithelium precursor cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of NPY on cell proliferation of rat retinal neural cells. For this purpose, primary retinal cell cultures expressing NPY, and NPY Y(1), Y(2), Y(4) and Y(5) receptors [Alvaro et al., (2007) Neurochem. Int., 50, 757] were used. NPY (10-1000 nM) stimulated cell proliferation through the activation of NPY Y(1), Y(2) and Y(5) receptors. NPY also increased the number of proliferating neuronal progenitor cells (BrdU(+)/nestin(+) cells). The intracellular mechanisms coupled to NPY receptors activation that mediate the increase in cell proliferation were also investigated. The stimulatory effect of NPY on cell proliferation was reduced by L-nitroarginine-methyl-esther (L-NAME; 500 microM), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4, 3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 microM), a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor or U0126 (1 microM), an inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). In conclusion, NPY stimulates retinal neural cell proliferation, and this effect is mediated through nitric oxide-cyclic GMP and ERK 1/2 pathways.

  3. Insulin suppresses ghrelin-induced calcium signaling in neuropeptide Y neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Yuko; Kohno, Daisuke; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) play an important role in feeding regulation. Plasma levels of ghrelin and insulin show reciprocal dynamics before and after meals. We hypothesized that ghrelin and insulin also exert reciprocal effects on ARC NPY neurons. Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured by fura-2 microfluorometry in single neurons isolated from ARC of adult rats, followed by immunocytochemical identification of NPY neurons. Ghrelin at 10−10 M increased [Ca2+]i in isolated ARC neurons, and co-administration of insulin concentration-dependently suppressed the ghrelin-induced [Ca2+]i increases. Insulin at 10−16 M, 10−14 M, 10−12 M and 10−10 M counteracted ghrelin action in 26%, 41%, 61% and 53% of ghrelin-responsive neurons, respectively, showing a maximal effect at 10−12 M, the estimated postprandial concentration of insulin in the brain. The majority (>70%) of the ghrelin-activated insulin-inhibited neurons were shown to contain NPY. Double-immunohistochemistry revealed that 85% of NPY neurons in ARC express insulin receptors. These data demonstrate that insulin directly interacts with ARC NPY neurons and counteracts ghrelin action. Our results suggest that postprandial increase in plasma insulin/ghrelin ratio and insulin inhibition of ghrelin action on ARC NPY neurons cooperate to effectively inhibit the neuron activity and terminate feeding. PMID:22081645

  4. Central administration of neuropeptide FF and related peptides attenuate systemic morphine analgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Quan; Jiang, Tian-nan; Li, Ning; Han, Zheng-lan; Wang, Rui

    2011-04-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to an opioid-modulating peptide family. NPFF has been reported to play important roles in the control of pain and analgesia through interactions with the opioid system. However, very few studies examined the effect of supraspinal NPFF system on analgesia induced by opiates administered at the peripheral level. In the present study, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPFF (1, 3 and 10 nmol) dose-dependently inhibited systemic morphine (0.12 mg, i.p.) analgesia in the mouse tail flick test. Similarly, i.c.v. administration of dNPA and NPVF, two agonists highly selective for NPFF(2) and NPFF(1) receptors, respectively, decreased analgesia induced by i.p. morphine in mice. Furthermore, these anti-opioid activities of NPFF and related peptides were blocked by pretreatment with the NPFF receptors selective antagonist RF9 (10 nmol, i.c.v.). These results demonstrate that activation of central NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors has the similar anti-opioid actions on the antinociceptive effect of systemic morphine.

  5. Neuropeptide FF inhibits LPS-mediated osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Long; Chen, Zhi-Hao; Li, Di-Jie; Zhao, Fan; Ma, Xiao-Li; Shang, Peng; Yang, Tuanming; Qian, Airong

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) has been implicated in many physiological processes. Previously, we have reported that NPFF modulates the viability and nitric oxide (NO) production of RAW264.7 macrophages. In this study, we investigated the influence of NPFF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated osteoclast formation of RAW264.7 cells. Our results suggest that, NPFF dose-dependently (1 nM, 10 nM and 100 nM) inhibited osteoclast formation, TRAP enzyme activity and bone resorption in osteoclasts induced by LPS respectively. Moreover, LPS-provoked NO release was also inhibited by NPFF treatment, indicating a NO-dependent pathway is mainly involved. Furthermore, the alterations of osteoclast marker genes were also assessed including TRAP, Cathepsin K, MMP-9, NFATc1 and Runx2. NPFF downregulated LPS-caused gene augmentations of TRAP, Cathepsin K and MMP-9, whereas showed no influences on NFATc1 and Runx2. In addition, NPFF receptor 2 (NPFFR2) mRNA expression was also augmented in response to NPFF treatment, hinting the involvement of NPFFR2 pathway. It should be mentioned that RF9 (1 µ M), a reported pharmacological inhibitor for NPFF receptors, exerted NPFF-like agonist properties as to attenuate osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, our findings provide new evidence for the in vitro activity of NPFF on osteoclasts, which may be helpful to extend the scope of NPFF functions.

  6. Involvement of neuropeptide FF receptors in neuroadaptive responses to acute and chronic opiate treatments.

    PubMed

    Elhabazi, K; Trigo, J M; Mollereau, C; Moulédous, L; Zajac, J-M; Bihel, F; Schmitt, M; Bourguignon, J J; Meziane, H; Petit-demoulière, B; Bockel, F; Maldonado, R; Simonin, F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Opiates remain the most effective compounds for alleviating severe pain across a wide range of conditions. However, their use is associated with significant side effects. Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors have been implicated in several opiate-induced neuroadaptive changes including the development of tolerance. In this study, we investigated the consequences of NPFF receptor blockade on acute and chronic stimulation of opioid receptors in mice by using RF9, a potent and selective antagonist of NPFF receptors that can be administered systemically. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of RF9 were investigated on opioid pharmacological responses including locomotor activity, antinociception, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, rewarding properties and physical dependence. KEY RESULTS RF9 had no effect on morphine-induced horizontal hyperlocomotion and slightly attenuated the decrease induced in vertical activity. Furthermore, RF9 dose-dependently blocked the long-lasting hyperalgesia produced by either acute fentanyl or chronic morphine administration. RF9 also potentiated opiate early analgesic effects and prevented the development of morphine tolerance. Finally, RF9 increased morphine-induced conditioned place preference without producing any rewarding effect by itself and decreased naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome following chronic morphine treatment. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS The NPFF system is involved in the development of two major undesirable effects: tolerance and dependence, which are clinically associated with prolonged exposure to opiates. Our findings suggest that NPFF receptors are interesting therapeutic targets to improve the analgesic efficacy of opiates by limiting the development of tolerance, and for the treatment of opioid dependence.

  7. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  8. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  9. Neuropeptide Y Negatively Influences Monocyte Recruitment to the Central Nervous System during Retrovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Tyson A.; Du, Min; Carmody, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monocyte infiltration into the CNS is a hallmark of several viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS), including retrovirus infection. Understanding the factors that mediate monocyte migration in the CNS is essential for the development of therapeutics that can alter the disease process. In the current study, we found that neuropeptide Y (NPY) suppressed monocyte recruitment to the CNS in a mouse model of polytropic retrovirus infection. NPY−/− mice had increased incidence and kinetics of retrovirus-induced neurological disease, which correlated with a significant increase in monocytes in the CNS compared to wild-type mice. Both Ly6Chi inflammatory and Ly6Clo alternatively activated monocytes were increased in the CNS of NPY−/− mice following virus infection, suggesting that NPY suppresses the infiltration of both cell types. Ex vivo analysis of myeloid cells from brain tissue demonstrated that infiltrating monocytes expressed high levels of the NPY receptor Y2R. Correlating with the expression of Y2R on monocytes, treatment of NPY−/− mice with a truncated, Y2R-specific NPY peptide suppressed the incidence of retrovirus-induced neurological disease. These data demonstrate a clear role for NPY as a negative regulator of monocyte recruitment into the CNS and provide a new mechanism for suppression of retrovirus-induced neurological disease. IMPORTANCE Monocyte recruitment to the brain is associated with multiple neurological diseases. However, the factors that influence the recruitment of these cells to the brain are still not well understood. In the current study, we found that neuropeptide Y, a protein produced by neurons, affected monocyte recruitment to the brain during retrovirus infection. We show that mice deficient in NPY have increased influx of monocytes into the brain and that this increase in monocytes correlates with neurological-disease development. These studies provide a mechanism by which the nervous system, through

  10. The effect of tachykinin neuropeptides on amyloid {beta} aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Flashner, Efrat; Raviv, Uri; Friedler, Assaf

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Mechanistic explanation of how tachykinin neuropeptides reduce A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity. {yields} Biophysical studies suggest that tachykinins do not modulate the distribution of A{beta} oligomeric states, but rather may incorporate into the fibrils. {yields} A possible strategy to inhibit toxicity of amyloid fibrils. -- Abstract: A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is production of amyloid {beta} peptides resulting from aberrant cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Amyloid {beta} assembles into fibrils under physiological conditions, through formation of neurotoxic intermediate oligomers. Tachykinin peptides are known to affect amyloid {beta} neurotoxicity in cells. To understand the mechanism of this effect, we studied how tachykinins affect A{beta}(1-40) aggregation in vitro. Fibrils grown in the presence of tachykinins exhibited reduced thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, while their morphology, observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), did not alter. Cross linking studies revealed that the distribution of low molecular weight species was not affected by tachykinins. Our results suggest that there may be a specific interaction between tachykinins and A{beta}(1-40) that allows them to co-assemble. This effect may explain the reduction of A{beta}(1-40) neurotoxicity in cells treated with tachykinins.

  11. Evolution of neuropeptide Y and its related peptides.

    PubMed

    Larhammar, D; Blomqvist, A G; Söderberg, C

    1993-11-01

    1. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides includes also the gut endocrine peptide YY (PYY), tetrapod pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and fish pancreatic peptide-tyrosine (PY). All peptides are 36 amino acids long. 2. Sequences from many types of vertebrates show that NPY has remained extremely well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution with 92% identity between mammals and cartilaginous fishes. 3. PYY has 97-100% identity between cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes, but is less conserved in amphibians and mammals (83% identity between amphibians and sharks and 75% identity between mammals and sharks). 4. NPY and PYY share 70-80% identity in most species. 5. Both NPY and PYY were present in the early vertebrate ancestor because both peptides have been found in lampreys. 6. The tissue distribution appears to have been largely conserved between phyla, except that PYY has more widespread neuronal expression in lower vertebrates. 7. Pancreatic polypeptide has diverged considerably among tetrapods leaving only 50% identity between mammals, birds/reptiles and frogs. 8. Several lines of evidence suggest that the PP gene arose by duplication of the PYY gene, probably in the early evolution of the tetrapods. 9. The pancreatic peptide PY found in anglerfish and daddy sculpin may have resulted from an independent duplication of the PYY gene. 10. The relationships of the recently described mollusc and worm peptides NPF and PYF with the NPY family still appear unclear. PMID:7905810

  12. Genetic comparison of seizure control by norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Weinshenker, D; Szot, P; Miller, N S; Rust, N C; Hohmann, J G; Pyati, U; White, S S; Palmiter, R D

    2001-10-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of neuronal hyperexcitability, and pharmacological and genetic studies have identified norepinephrine (NE) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) as important endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Both transmitters signal through G-protein-coupled receptors, are expressed either together or separately, and are abundant in brain regions implicated in seizure generation. NPY knock-out (NPY KO) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase knock-out (DBH KO) mice that lack NE are susceptible to seizures, and agonists of NE and NPY receptors protect against seizures. To examine the relative contributions of NE and NPY to neuronal excitability, we tested Dbh;Npy double knock-out (DKO) mice for seizure sensitivity. In general, DBH KO mice were much more seizure-sensitive than NPY KO mice and had normal NPY expression, demonstrating that an NPY deficiency did not contribute to the DBH KO seizure phenotype. DKO mice were only slightly more sensitive than DBH KO mice to seizures induced by kainic acid, pentylenetetrazole, or flurothyl, although DKO mice were uniquely prone to handling-induced seizures. NPY contributed to the seizure phenotype of DKO mice at high doses of convulsant agents and advanced stages of seizures. These data suggest that NE is a more potent endogenous anticonvulsant than NPY, and that NPY has the greatest contribution under conditions of extreme neuronal excitability.

  13. Neuropeptides as endogenous neuronal growth regulatory factors on serotonergic maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Davila-Garcia, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    Products of the proopiomelanocortin molecule as well as leu- and met-enkephalin were tested for their effects on serotonergic neuronal maturation. High affinity uptake of ({sup 3}H)5-HT and morphometrics using immunocytochemistry specific for serotonergic neurons were used to monitor neuronal maturation. Cultured brainstem raphe neurons from 14 day fetuses, in the presence or absence of target tissue, were administered neuropeptides at various concentrations for 1,3 or 5 days in culture. ACTH peptides stimulate neurite length and, with the endorphins, the expression of ({sup 3}H)5-HT uptake by serotonergic fetal neurons cultured alone but had no effect when these neurons were cocultured with hippocampal target cells. A daily dose of leu-enkephalin to these cells inhibited neuronal uptake after 5 days of exposure and decreased neurite cell length in 24 hr cultures. In contrast, a single dose of leu-enkephalin at plating stimulated uptake after 5 days while co-administration of bacitracin inhibited uptake expression. Naloxone reversed the opioid effect and stimulated uptake when administered alone. Desulfated-CCK, which resembles leu-enkephalin, was equally potent as leu-enkephalin in inhibiting uptake.

  14. Neuropeptides degranulate serous cells of ferret tracheal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Gashi, A.A.; Borson, D.B.; Finkbeiner, W.E.; Nadel, J.A.; Basbaum, C.B.

    1986-08-01

    To determine whether serous or mucous cells in tracheal submucosal glands respond to the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The authors studied the peptide-induced changes in gland cell morphology accompanying release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules from tracheal explants of ferrets. Explants were labeled for 1 h in medium containing TVSO4 and washed for 3.5 additional hours. Base-line secretion in the absence of drugs declined between 1.5 and 3.5 h after the pulse. Between 2.5 and 3.5 h, the average percent change in counts per minute recovered per sample period was not significantly different from zero. Substance P and VIP added 4 h after labeling each increased greatly the release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules above base line. Bethanechol, a muscarinic-cholinergic agonist, increased secretion by an average of 142% above base line. Light and electron microscopy of the control tissues showed glands with narrow lumens and numerous secretory granules. Glands treated with SP or VIP had enlarged lumens and the serous cells were markedly degranulated. These phenomena were documented by morphometry and suggest that SP and VIP cause secretion from glands at least partially by stimulating exocytosis from serous cells.

  15. Environmental enrichment induces behavioural disturbances in neuropeptide Y knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Wegerer, Vanessa; Jain, Piyush; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Fröhlich, Esther E.; Bock, Elisabeth; Pritz, Elisabeth; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) refers to the provision of a complex and stimulating housing condition which improves well-being, behaviour and brain function of laboratory animals. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of EE are only partially understood. In the current report, we describe a link between EE and neuropeptide Y (NPY), based on findings from NPY knockout (KO) mice exposed to EE. Relative to EE-housed wildtype (WT) animals, NPY KO mice displayed altered behaviour as well as molecular and morphological changes in amygdala and hippocampus. Exposure of WT mice to EE reduced anxiety and decreased central glucocorticoid receptor expression, effects which were absent in NPY KO mice. In addition, NPY deletion altered the preference of EE items, and EE-housed NPY KO mice responded to stress with exaggerated hyperthermia, displayed impaired spatial memory, had higher hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity, effects which were not seen in WT mice. Accordingly, these findings suggest that NPY contributes to the anxiolytic effect of EE and that NPY deletion reverses the beneficial effects of EE into a negative experience. The NPY system could thus be a target for “enviromimetics”, therapeutics which reproduce the beneficial effects of enhanced environmental stimulation. PMID:27305846

  16. Mapping of Neuropeptides in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Nervous System by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Kellersberger, Katherine; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) with great emphasis on comprehensive analysis and mapping distribution of its diverse neuropeptide complement. Previously, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been applied to this endeavor, yet with identification accuracy and throughput compromised. Therefore, molecular imaging methods are pursued to unequivocally determine the identity and location of the neuropeptides at a high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a novel, multi-faceted mass spectrometric strategy combining profiling and imaging techniques to characterize and map neuropeptides from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus STNS at the network level. In total, 55 neuropeptides from 10 families were identified from the major ganglia in the C. sapidus STNS for the first time, including the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), the esophageal ganglion (OG), and the connecting nerve stomatogastric nerve ( stn) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and the MS/MS capability of this technique. In addition, the locations of multiple neuropeptides were documented at a spatial resolution of 25 μm in the STG and upstream nerve using MALDI-TOF/TOF and high-mass-resolution and high-mass-accuracy MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument. Furthermore, distributions of neuropeptides in the whole C. sapidus STNS were examined by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Different isoforms from the same family were simultaneously and unambiguously mapped, facilitating the functional exploration of neuropeptides present in the crustacean STNS and exemplifying the revolutionary role of this novel platform in neuronal network studies.

  17. Mapping of neuropeptides in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system by imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Kellersberger, Katherine; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) with great emphasis on comprehensive analysis and mapping distribution of its diverse neuropeptide complement. Previously, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been applied to this endeavor, yet with identification accuracy and throughput compromised. Therefore, molecular imaging methods are pursued to unequivocally determine the identity and location of the neuropeptides at a high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a novel, multi-faceted mass spectrometric strategy combining profiling and imaging techniques to characterize and map neuropeptides from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus STNS at the network level. In total, 55 neuropeptides from 10 families were identified from the major ganglia in the C. sapidus STNS for the first time, including the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), the esophageal ganglion (OG), and the connecting nerve stomatogastric nerve (stn) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and the MS/MS capability of this technique. In addition, the locations of multiple neuropeptides were documented at a spatial resolution of 25 μm in the STG and upstream nerve using MALDI-TOF/TOF and high-mass-resolution and high-mass-accuracy MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument. Furthermore, distributions of neuropeptides in the whole C. sapidus STNS were examined by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Different isoforms from the same family were simultaneously and unambiguously mapped, facilitating the functional exploration of neuropeptides present in the crustacean STNS and exemplifying the revolutionary role of this novel platform in neuronal network studies.

  18. Cloning, characterization, and DNA sequence of a human cDNA encoding neuropeptide tyrosine.

    PubMed Central

    Minth, C D; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M; Dixon, J E

    1984-01-01

    In vitro translation of the RNA isolated from a human pheochromocytoma demonstrated that this tumor contained a mRNA encoding a 10.5-kDa protein, which was immunoprecipitated with antiserum raised against porcine neuropeptide Y. Double-stranded cDNA was synthesized from total RNA and inserted into the Pst I site of pUC8. Transformants containing the neuropeptide Y cDNA were identified using the mixed hybridization probe d[A-(A,G)-(A,G)-T-T-(A,G,T)-A-T-(A,G)-T-A-(A,G)-T-G]. The probe sequences were based on the known amino acid sequence, His-Tyr-Ile-Asn-Leu, found in porcine neuropeptide Y. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was determined and contained 86 and 174 bases in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions, respectively. The coding sequence consisted of 291 bases, suggesting a precursor to neuropeptide Y that was 97 amino acids long (10,839 Da). The deduced amino acid sequence of the precursor suggested that there were at least two sites of proteolytic processing, which would generate three peptides having 28 (signal peptide), 36 (human neuropeptide Y), and 30 (COOH-terminal peptide) amino acid residues. A partial NH2-terminal sequence obtained by Edman degradation of the immunoprecipitated in vitro translation product identified the positions of methionine and leucine in the first 30 residues of the prepropeptide. A highly sensitive single-stranded complementary mRNA hybridization probe specific for neuropeptide Y mRNA was prepared using the bacteriophage SP6 promoter. This probe was used to identify a mRNA corresponding to neuropeptide Y of approximately 800 bases. Images PMID:6589611

  19. Expression of neuropeptide receptor mRNA during osteoblastic differentiation of mouse iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Satomi; Goto, Tetsuya; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Joujima, Takaaki; Egusa, Hiroshi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Maki, Kenshi

    2014-12-01

    Various studies have shown a relationship between nerves and bones. Recent evidence suggests that both sensory and sympathetic nerves affect bone metabolism; however, little is known about how neuropeptides are involved in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into osteoblastic (OB) cells. To evaluate the putative effects of neuropeptides during the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into calcified tissue-forming OB cells, we investigated the expression patterns of neuropeptide receptors at each differentiation stage. Mouse iPS cells were seeded onto feeder cells and then transferred to low-attachment culture dishes to form embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs were cultured for 4 weeks in osteoblastic differentiation medium. The expression of α1-adrenergic receptor (AR), α2-AR, β2-AR, neuropeptide Y1 receptor (NPY1-R), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2-R), calcitonin gene-related protein receptor (CGRP-R), and neurokinin 1-R (NK1-R) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Among these neuropeptide receptors, CGRP-R and β2-AR were expressed at all stages of cell differentiation, including the iPS cell stage, with peak expression occurring at the early osteoblastic differentiation stage. Another sensory nervous system receptor, NK1-R, was expressed mainly in the late osteoblastic differentiation stage. Furthermore, CGRP-R mRNA showed an additional small peak corresponding to EBs cultured for 3 days, suggesting that EBs may be affected by serum CGRP. These data suggest that the sensory nervous system receptor CGRP-R and the sympathetic nervous system receptor β2-AR may be involved in the differentiation of iPS cells into the osteoblastic lineage. It follows from these findings that CGRP and β2-AR may regulate cell differentiation in the iPS and EB stages, and that each neuropeptide has an optimal period of influence during the differentiation process. PMID:25464890

  20. Neuropeptide Y inhibits the trigeminovascular pathway through NPY Y1 receptor: implications for migraine.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Margarida-Martins; Akerman, Simon; Tavares, Isaura; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Migraine is a painful neurologic disorder with premonitory symptomatology that can include disturbed appetite. Migraine pathophysiology involves abnormal activation of trigeminocervical complex (TCC) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in the brain and is involved in pain modulation. NPY receptors are present in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis suggesting a role in migraine pathophysiology. The present study aimed to determine the effect of systemic administration of NPY on TCC neuronal activity in response to dural nociceptive trigeminovascular activation. We performed in vivo electrophysiology in anesthetized rats, administered NPY (10, 30, and 100 µg·kg), and investigated the receptors involved by studying NPY Y1 (30 µg·kg), Y2 (30 µg·kg), and Y5 receptor agonists (100·µg·kg), and NPY Y1 receptor antagonist (30 µg·kg). NPY (30 and 100 µg·kg) significantly reduced TCC neuronal firing in response to dural-evoked trigeminovascular activation, but only NPY (30 µg·kg) significantly reduced spontaneous trigeminal firing. NPY Y1 receptor agonist also significantly reduced dural-evoked and spontaneous TCC neuronal firing. NPY (10 µg·kg), NPY Y2, and Y5 receptor agonists, and the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist had no significant effects on nociceptive dural-evoked neuronal firing in the TCC or spontaneous trigeminal firing. This study demonstrates that NPY dose dependently inhibits dural-evoked trigeminal activity, through NPY Y1 receptor activation, indicating antinociceptive actions of NPY in a migraine animal model. Based on the role of NPY in appetite regulation, it is possible that disruption of the NPY system might explain changes of appetite in migraineurs.

  1. Neuropeptide Y inhibits the trigeminovascular pathway through NPY Y1 receptor: implications for migraine.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Margarida-Martins; Akerman, Simon; Tavares, Isaura; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Migraine is a painful neurologic disorder with premonitory symptomatology that can include disturbed appetite. Migraine pathophysiology involves abnormal activation of trigeminocervical complex (TCC) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in the brain and is involved in pain modulation. NPY receptors are present in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis suggesting a role in migraine pathophysiology. The present study aimed to determine the effect of systemic administration of NPY on TCC neuronal activity in response to dural nociceptive trigeminovascular activation. We performed in vivo electrophysiology in anesthetized rats, administered NPY (10, 30, and 100 µg·kg), and investigated the receptors involved by studying NPY Y1 (30 µg·kg), Y2 (30 µg·kg), and Y5 receptor agonists (100·µg·kg), and NPY Y1 receptor antagonist (30 µg·kg). NPY (30 and 100 µg·kg) significantly reduced TCC neuronal firing in response to dural-evoked trigeminovascular activation, but only NPY (30 µg·kg) significantly reduced spontaneous trigeminal firing. NPY Y1 receptor agonist also significantly reduced dural-evoked and spontaneous TCC neuronal firing. NPY (10 µg·kg), NPY Y2, and Y5 receptor agonists, and the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist had no significant effects on nociceptive dural-evoked neuronal firing in the TCC or spontaneous trigeminal firing. This study demonstrates that NPY dose dependently inhibits dural-evoked trigeminal activity, through NPY Y1 receptor activation, indicating antinociceptive actions of NPY in a migraine animal model. Based on the role of NPY in appetite regulation, it is possible that disruption of the NPY system might explain changes of appetite in migraineurs. PMID:27023421

  2. Neuropeptide Y inhibits the trigeminovascular pathway through NPY Y1 receptor: implications for migraine

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Margarida-Martins; Akerman, Simon; Tavares, Isaura; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Migraine is a painful neurologic disorder with premonitory symptomatology that can include disturbed appetite. Migraine pathophysiology involves abnormal activation of trigeminocervical complex (TCC) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in the brain and is involved in pain modulation. NPY receptors are present in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis suggesting a role in migraine pathophysiology. The present study aimed to determine the effect of systemic administration of NPY on TCC neuronal activity in response to dural nociceptive trigeminovascular activation. We performed in vivo electrophysiology in anesthetized rats, administered NPY (10, 30, and 100 µg·kg−1), and investigated the receptors involved by studying NPY Y1 (30 µg·kg−1), Y2 (30 µg·kg−1), and Y5 receptor agonists (100·µg·kg−1), and NPY Y1 receptor antagonist (30 µg·kg−1). NPY (30 and 100 µg·kg−1) significantly reduced TCC neuronal firing in response to dural-evoked trigeminovascular activation, but only NPY (30 µg·kg−1) significantly reduced spontaneous trigeminal firing. NPY Y1 receptor agonist also significantly reduced dural-evoked and spontaneous TCC neuronal firing. NPY (10 µg·kg−1), NPY Y2, and Y5 receptor agonists, and the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist had no significant effects on nociceptive dural-evoked neuronal firing in the TCC or spontaneous trigeminal firing. This study demonstrates that NPY dose dependently inhibits dural-evoked trigeminal activity, through NPY Y1 receptor activation, indicating antinociceptive actions of NPY in a migraine animal model. Based on the role of NPY in appetite regulation, it is possible that disruption of the NPY system might explain changes of appetite in migraineurs. PMID:27023421

  3. A pharmacological study of NLP-12 neuropeptide signaling in free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Lise; Janssen, Tom; De Haes, Wouter; Beets, Isabel; Meelkop, Ellen; Grant, Warwick; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-03-01

    NLP-12a and b have been identified as cholecystokinin/sulfakinin-like neuropeptides in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are suggested to play an important role in the regulation of digestive enzyme secretion and fat storage. This study reports on the identification and characterization of an NLP-12-like peptide precursor gene in the rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. The S. ratti NLP-12 peptides are able to activate both C. elegans CKR-2 receptor isoforms in a dose-dependent way with affinities in the same nanomolar range as the native C. elegans NLP-12 peptides. The C-terminal RPLQFamide sequence motif of the NLP-12 peptides is perfectly conserved between free-living and parasitic nematodes. Based on systemic amino acid replacements the Arg-, Leu- and Phe- residues appear to be critical for high-affinity receptor binding. Finally, a SAR analysis revealed the essential pharmacophore in C. elegans NLP-12b to be the pentapeptide RPLQFamide.

  4. Central administration of neuropeptide Y induces precocious puberty in female rats.

    PubMed

    Minami, S; Sarkar, D K

    1992-12-01

    To examine the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of puberty, the effects of various doses of NPY or saline injected into the 3rd ventricle of peripubertal female rats were determined. A single injection of NPY at a dose range of 10-20 micrograms into the 3rd ventricle of 30-day-old female rats advanced the time of vaginal opening (VO) and first ovulation by 4 days, as compared to saline-treated controls. Ova number and ovarian, adrenal and uterine weights at first estrous were similar in all animals regardless of treatment. The NPY-treated precocious animals showed lower body weight than did the VO-matched controls, but showed similar body weight as that of age-matched controls. Determination of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in the peripubertal female rats revealed that plasma LH was increased transiently immediately after NPY administration. Also, NPY-treated rats which had precocious puberty showed elevated pituitary and plasma LH levels on the day of VO. These results suggest that NPY can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to precociously initiate puberty.

  5. Epithelium-generated neuropeptide Y induces smooth muscle contraction to promote airway hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanru; Koziol-White, Cynthia; Jude, Joseph; Jiang, Meiqi; Zhao, Hengjiang; Cao, Gaoyuan; Yoo, Edwin; Jester, William; Morley, Michael P.; Zhou, Su; Wang, Yi; Lu, Min Min; Panettieri, Reynold A.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases globally and can be divided into presenting with or without an immune response. Current therapies have little effect on nonimmune disease, and the mechanisms that drive this type of asthma are poorly understood. Here, we have shown that loss of the transcription factors forkhead box P1 (Foxp1) and Foxp4, which are critical for lung epithelial development, in the adult airway epithelium evokes a non-Th2 asthma phenotype that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) without eosinophilic inflammation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that loss of Foxp1 and Foxp4 expression induces ectopic expression of neuropeptide Y (Npy), which has been reported to be present in the airways of asthma patients, but whose importance in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Treatment of human lung airway explants with recombinant NPY increased airway contractility. Conversely, loss of Npy in Foxp1- and Foxp4-mutant airway epithelium rescued the AHR phenotype. We determined that NPY promotes AHR through the induction of Rho kinase activity and phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which induces airway smooth muscle contraction. Together, these studies highlight the importance of paracrine signals from the airway epithelium to the underlying smooth muscle to induce AHR and suggest that therapies targeting epithelial induction of this phenotype may prove useful in treatment of noneosinophilic asthma. PMID:27088802

  6. Neuropeptide Y stimulates neuronal precursor proliferation in the post-natal and adult dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Howell, Owain W; Doyle, Kharen; Goodman, Jeffrey H; Scharfman, Helen E; Herzog, Herbert; Pringle, Ashley; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Gray, William P

    2005-05-01

    Adult dentate neurogenesis is important for certain types of hippocampal-dependent learning and also appears to be important for the maintenance of normal mood and the behavioural effects of antidepressants. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a peptide neurotransmitter released by interneurons in the dentate gyrus, has important effects on mood, anxiety-related behaviour and learning and memory. We report that adult NPY receptor knock-out mice have significantly reduced cell proliferation and significantly fewer immature doublecortin-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus. We also show that the neuroproliferative effect of NPY is dentate specific, is Y1-receptor mediated and involves extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation. NPY did not exhibit any effect on cell survival in vitro but constitutive loss of the Y1 receptor in vivo resulted in greater survival of newly generated neurons and an unchanged total number of dentate granule cells. These results show that NPY stimulates neuronal precursor proliferation in the dentate gyrus and suggest that NPY-releasing interneurons may modulate dentate neurogenesis.

  7. Intracellular nitric oxide mediates neuroproliferative effect of neuropeptide y on postnatal hippocampal precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Angela; Newland, Philip L; Zaben, Malik; Attard, George S; Gray, William P

    2012-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is proliferative for a range of cells types in vitro. NPY plays a key role in regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo under both basal and pathological conditions, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We have investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) on the neurogenic effects of NPY. Using postnatal rat hippocampal cultures, we show that the proliferative effect of NPY on nestin(+) precursor cells is NO-dependent. As well as the involvement of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the proliferative effect is mediated via an NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling pathway. We show that NPY-mediated intracellular NO signaling results in an increase in neuroproliferation. By contrast, extracellular NO had an opposite, inhibitory effect on proliferation. The importance of the NO-cGMP-PKG signaling pathway in ERK1/2 activation was confirmed using Western blotting. This work unites two significant modulators of hippocampal neurogenesis within a common signaling framework and provides a mechanism for the independent extra- and intracellular regulation of postnatal neural precursors by NO.

  8. Neuropeptide Y potentiates beta-adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Raymond; Guan, Haiyan; Yang, Kaiping

    2012-10-10

    Recently, we have shown that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is produced and upregulated in visceral adipose tissue of an early-life programmed rat model of central obesity. Moreover, we have demonstrated that NPY promotes proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells and contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. However, the role of NPY in regulating adipocyte metabolism is poorly understood. The present study was designed to examine the effects of NPY on adipocyte metabolic function using 3T3-L1 adipocytes as an in vitro cell model system. We found that although it did not affect basal lipolysis, NPY potentiated isoproterenol (a β-adrenergic receptor agonist) stimulated lipolysis. Furthermore, this potentiation occurred upstream of adenylyl cyclase, since NPY did not enhance forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase) stimulated lipolysis. In addition, NPY also augmented isoproterenol-stimulated phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase. In contrast, NPY did not alter the expression of several key lipolytic and lipogenic enzymes/proteins. Taken together, our results revealed a novel cross talk between the NPY and β-adrenergic signaling pathways in regulating lipolysis. Thus, the present findings add a new dimension to the dynamic role NPY plays in regulating energy balance.

  9. Adaptation to extreme stress: post-traumatic stress disorder, neuropeptide Y and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rasmusson, Ann M; Schnurr, Paula P; Zukowska, Zofia; Scioli, Erica; Forman, Daniel E

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise in the United States. Epidemiological surveys suggest that the rates of these medical conditions are especially high among persons with psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A variety of factors are thought to contribute to the risk for metabolic syndrome, including excessive caloric intake, decreased activity and energy expenditure, use of certain medications, stress and genetic influences. Recent research demonstrates that stress, acting through the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and glucocorticoid systems, potentiates the development of obesity and other aspects of metabolic syndrome in mice fed a high caloric, fat and sugar diet. Alterations in the NPY and glucocorticoid systems also impact behavioral adaptation to stress, as indicated by studies in animals and persons exposed to severe, life-threatening or traumatic stress. The following review examines the biology of the NPY and neuroactive steroid systems as physiological links between metabolic syndrome and PTSD, a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric stress disorder. Hopefully, understanding the function of these systems from both a translational and systems biology point of view in relation to stress will enable development of more effective methods for preventing and treating the negative physical and mental health consequences of stress.

  10. The Neuropeptide Allatostatin A Regulates Metabolism and Feeding Decisions in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hentze, Julie L.; Carlsson, Mikael A.; Kondo, Shu; Nässel, Dick R.; Rewitz, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    Coordinating metabolism and feeding is important to avoid obesity and metabolic diseases, yet the underlying mechanisms, balancing nutrient intake and metabolic expenditure, are poorly understood. Several mechanisms controlling these processes are conserved in Drosophila, where homeostasis and energy mobilization are regulated by the glucagon-related adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs). Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila neuropeptide Allatostatin A (AstA) regulates AKH and DILP signaling. The AstA receptor gene, Dar-2, is expressed in both the insulin and AKH producing cells. Silencing of Dar-2 in these cells results in changes in gene expression and physiology associated with reduced DILP and AKH signaling and animals lacking AstA accumulate high lipid levels. This suggests that AstA is regulating the balance between DILP and AKH, believed to be important for the maintenance of nutrient homeostasis in response to changing ratios of dietary sugar and protein. Furthermore, AstA and Dar-2 are regulated differentially by dietary carbohydrates and protein and AstA-neuronal activity modulates feeding choices between these types of nutrients. Our results suggest that AstA is involved in assigning value to these nutrients to coordinate metabolic and feeding decisions, responses that are important to balance food intake according to metabolic needs. PMID:26123697

  11. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of neuropeptide Y on growth hormone secretion in acromegaly in vivo.

    PubMed

    Watanobe, H; Tamura, T

    1997-02-01

    It has been reported that neuropeptide Y (NPY) affects growth hormone (GH) secretion in several animal species. With respect to the role of NPY in regulating GH release in humans, one previous study has reported that NPY inhibited GH secretion from cultured GH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells in vitro. However, since it has yet to be explored whether NPY affects GH secretion in acromegaly in vivo, in this study we attempted to examine the effect of intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection of 100 microg of human NPY on plasma GH levels in 15 patients with active acromegaly, trying to find a possible correlation among GH responses to NPY, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH;500 microg, i.v.), luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH;100 microg, i.v.), and bromocriptine (Br;2.5 mg, per os). NPY significantly increased GH secretion (more than twice the basal level) in 4 (27%) patients, and all of them were responsive to LHRH and non-responsive to Br. In contrast, 3 (20%) acromegalics showed a significant decrease in GH levels (less than half the baseline) after NPY, and all these patients were responsive to both TRH and Br. From these results, we hypothesize that the NPY-induced increase in GH release may be a feature of somatotroph-like pituitary adenoma causing acromegaly, whereas the NPY-induced decrease in GH secretion may be a feature of lactotroph-like adenoma.

  12. An Indirect Action Contributes to C-Fos Induction in Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus by Neuropeptide Y

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengjie; Dakshinamoorthy, Janani; Kim, Eun Ran; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively to examine the underlying NPY orexigenic neural pathways. However, PVH C-Fos induction is in discordance with the abundant expression of NPY receptors, a group of inhibitory Gi protein coupled receptors in the PVH, and with the overall role of PVH neurons in feeding inhibition, suggesting a mechanism of indirect action. Here we showed that the ability of NPY on C-Fos induction in the PVH was blunted in conditions of insulin deficiency and fasting, a condition associated with a high level of NPY and a low level of insulin. Moreover, insulin insufficiency blunted C-Fos induction in the PVH by fasting-induced re-feeding, and insulin and NPY induced c-Fos induction in the same group of PVH neurons. Finally, NPY produced normal C-Fos induction in the PVH with disruption of GABA-A receptors. Thus, our results revealed that PVH C-Fos induction by NPY is mediated by an indirect action, which is at least partially mediated by insulin action, but not GABA-A receptors. PMID:26813148

  13. NPFF2 receptor is involved in the modulatory effects of neuropeptide FF for macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-long; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-yuan; He, Ning; Zhuang, Yan; Li, Jing-yi; Fang, Quan; Wang, Kai-rong; Wang, Rui

    2014-05-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to regulate diverse biological processes. Its modulatory effect in the immune field, however, has not been fully explored yet. Here, we report that NPFF2 receptors may be functionally expressed in two immune cell models, the primary peritoneal macrophage and RAW 264.7 macrophage. Firstly, the mRNA levels of NPFF2 receptor were up-regulated in macrophages when treated with LPS for 24 to 72 h. Subsequently, our data hinted that NPFF regulates the viability of both kinds of macrophages. After treatment with RF9, a reported antagonist for both NPFF receptors, delayed or inhibited the NPFF-induced macrophages viability augmentation, suggesting the involvement of NPFF2 receptor. Furthermore, down-regulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOSs) partially significantly inhibited the viability augmentation of macrophages induced by NPFF, implying a nitric oxide synthases- dependent pathway is involved. However, the NOSs are not the only route by which NPFF affects the viability of macrophages. Pharmacological inhibitors of NF-κB signal pathway also blocked the NPFF-induced macrophages growth, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB signal pathway. The regulation activity of NPFF for macrophages suggests that NPFF could act as a potential hormone in the control of immune system. Collectively, our data provide new evidence about the immune modulatory effect of NPFF, which will be helpful in extending the scope of NPFF functions.

  14. The anti-inflammatory potential of neuropeptide FF in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Yuan; Sun, Tao; He, Ning; Li, Jing-Yi; Zhuang, Yan; Zeng, Qian; Yu, Jing; Fang, Quan; Wang, Rui

    2013-09-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) has many functions in regulating various biological processes. However, little attention has been focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of this peptide. In the present study, the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of NPFF in both primary peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated. Our data showed that NPFF suppressed the nitric oxide (NO) production of macrophages in the inflammation process. RF9, a reported antagonist of NPFF receptors, completely blocked the NPFF-induced NO suppression, suggesting a NPFF receptors-mediated pathway is mainly involved. Down-regulation of the nitric oxide synthases significantly inhibited the NPFF-induced NO reduction, indicating the involvement of nitric oxide synthases. However, the nitric oxide synthases were not the only route by which NPFF modulated the NO levels of macrophages. Pharmacological antagonists of the NF-κB signal pathway also completely suppressed the NPFF-induced NO decline. Moreover, we also observed that NPFF is capable of blocking the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 in macrophages, implying the involvement of the NF-κB signal pathway. Finally, we observed that NPFF markedly attenuated the carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema, indicating that NPFF is capable of exerting anti-inflammatory potency in vivo. Collectively, our findings reveal the potential role of NPFF in the anti-inflammatory field both in vitro and in vivo, which will be helpful for the further exploitation of NPFF utility therapeutically.

  15. Altered expression of neuropeptide Y receptors caused by focal cortical dysplasia in human intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hanjiang; Guan, Yuguang; Zhou, Jian; Qi, Xueling; Li, Tianfu; Xu, Zhiqing David; Luan, Guo-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common cause of pharmacologically-intractable epilepsy, however, the precise mechanisms underlying the epileptogenicity of FCD remains to be determined. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an endogenous anticonvulsant in the central nervous system, plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Increased expression of NPY and its receptors has been identified in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, presumed to act as an endogenous anticonvulsant mechanism. Therefore, we investigated whether expression changes in NPY receptors occurs in patients with FCD. We specifically investigated the expression of seizure-related NPY receptor subtypes Y1, Y2, and Y5 in patients with FCD versus autopsy controls. We found that Y1R and Y2R were up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels in the temporal and frontal lobes in FCD lesions. By contrast, there was no significant change in either receptor detected in parietal lesions. Notably, overexpression of Y5R was consistently observed in all FCD lesions. Our results demonstrate the altered expression of Y1R, Y2R and Y5R occurs in FCD lesions within the temporal, frontal and parietal lobe. Abnormal NPY receptor subtype expression may be associated with the onset and progression of epileptic activity and may act as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of refractory epilepsy caused by FCD. PMID:26943580

  16. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). SCF and NGF values were also decreased after antihistamine treatment (P < 0.05). Post-treatment levels of CGRP were significantly higher compared with pretreatment values, while no significant difference was detected between pre and post treatment levels of SP. Cetirizine was significantly more effective than loratadine on lowering serum levels of SCF among the other neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine.

  17. Neuropeptide Y signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus inhibits male sexual behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Inaba, A; Komori, Y; Muroi, Y; Kinoshita, K; Ishii, T

    2016-04-21

    Animals change their biological activities depending on their nutritional state. Reproductive functions, including sexual behavior, are suppressed under low-energy conditions; however, the underlying neuronal mechanism is poorly understood. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic molecule released in response to low-energy conditions and has an inhibitory effect on sexual behavior. We examined how NPY is involved in energy state-dependent regulation of male sexual behavior. Mounting, intromission, and ejaculation were evaluated as parameters of sexual behavior. Almost all parameters indicated that fasting for 24h suppressed male sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular injection of NPY inhibited sexual behavior in males that free-fed for 8h following 24-h fasting (fed males). We next examined whether the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which serotonergic (5-HT) neurons are distributed, is involved in NPY-mediated inhibition of male sexual behavior. NPY-positive processes immunoreactive for a presynaptic marker, synaptophysin, were distributed in the DRN of both fed and fasted males. Expression of the NPY Y1 receptor in 5-HT neurons was also observed. Direct injection of NPY or 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT1A receptor agonist that inhibits the activity of 5-HT neurons) into the DRN inhibited male sexual behavior in fed males. In contrast, injection of BIBP-3226, a NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, or (+)-DOI hydrochloride (DOI), a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist that activates 5-HT neurons, into the DRN partially recovered male sexual behavior in 24-h fasted males. These results suggest that NPY inhibits serotonergic neuronal activity via the Y1 receptor in the DRN, resulting in suppression of male sexual behavior in low-energy conditions.

  18. Gene expression and pharmacology of nematode NLP-12 neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Paul; Leech, Suzie; Marks, Nikki J; Geary, Timothy G; Maule, Aaron G

    2006-05-31

    This study examines the biology of NLP-12 neuropeptides in Caenorhabditis elegans, and in the parasitic nematodes Ascaris suum and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. DYRPLQFamide (1 nM-10 microM; n > or =6) produced contraction of innervated dorsal and ventral Ascaris body wall muscle preparations (10 microM, 6.8+/-1.9 g; 1 microM, 4.6+/-1.8 g; 0.1 microM, 4.1+/-2.0 g; 10 nM, 3.8+/-2.0 g; n > or =6), and also caused a qualitatively similar, but quantitatively lower contractile response (10 microM, 4.0+/-1.5 g, n=6) on denervated muscle strips. Ovijector muscle displayed no measurable response (10 microM, n=5). nlp-12 cDNAs were characterised from A. suum (As-nlp-12) and T. colubriformis (Tc-nlp-12), both of which show sequence similarity to C. elegans nlp-12, in that they encode multiple copies of -LQFamide peptides. In C. elegans, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis showed that nlp-12 was transcribed throughout the life cycle, suggesting that DYRPLQFamide plays a constitutive role in the nervous system of this nematode. Transcription was also identified in both L3 and adult stages of T. colubriformis, in which Tc-nlp-12 is expressed in a single tail neurone. Conversely, As-nlp-12 is expressed in both head and tail tissue of adult female A. suum, suggesting species-specific differences in the transcription pattern of this gene.

  19. Limited neuropeptide Y precursor processing in unfavourable metastatic neuroblastoma tumours.

    PubMed

    Bjellerup, P; Theodorsson, E; Jörnvall, H; Kogner, P

    2000-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is found at high concentrations in neural crest-derived tumours and has been implicated as a regulatory peptide in tumour growth and differentiation. Neuroblastomas, ganglioneuromas and phaeochromocytomas with significant concentrations of NPY-like immunoreactivity were investigated for different molecular forms of NPY and for significance of proNPY processing. Gel-permeation chromatography identified intact NPY (1-36) in all tumours, whereas proNPY (69 amino acids) was detected only in control adrenal tissue and malignant neuroblastomas. Purification of NPY-like immunoreactivity in tumour extracts and structural characterization revealed that both NPY (1-36) and the truncated form NPY (3-36) was present. The degree of processing of proNPY to NPY in tumour tissue was lower in advanced neuroblastomas with regional or metastatic spread (stage 3 and 4) (n = 6), (41%, 12-100%, median, range), compared to the less aggressive stage 1, 2 and 4S tumours (n = 12), (93%; 69-100%), (P= 0.012). ProNPY processing of less than 50% was correlated with poor clinical outcome (P = 0.004). MYCN oncogene amplification was also correlated to a low degree of proNPY processing (P = 0.025). In summary, a low degree of proNPY processing was correlated to clinical advanced stage and poor outcome in neuroblastomas. ProNPY/NPY processing generated molecular forms of NPY with known differences in NPY-receptor selectivity, implicating a potential for in vivo modulation of NPY-like effects in tumour tissue.

  20. The hypothalamic neuropeptide FF network is impaired in hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Goncharuk, Valeri D; Buijs, Ruud M; Jhamandas, Jack H; Swaab, Dick F

    2014-01-01

    Background The human hypothalamus contains the neuropeptide FF (NPFF) neurochemical network. Animal experiments demonstrated that NPFF is implicated in the central cardiovascular regulation. We therefore studied expression of this peptide in the hypothalamus of individuals who suffered from essential hypertension (n = 8) and died suddenly due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and compared to that of healthy individuals (controls) (n = 6) who died abruptly due to mechanical trauma of the chest. Methods The frozen right part of the hypothalamus was cut coronally into serial sections of 20 μm thickness, and each tenth section was stained immunohistochemically using antibody against NPFF. The central section through each hypothalamic nucleus was characterized by the highest intensity of NPFF immunostaining and thus was chosen for quantitative densitometry. Results In hypertensive patients, the area occupied by NPFF immunostained neuronal elements in the central sections through the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (Pa), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), perinuclear zone (PNZ) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), dorso- (DMH), ventromedial (VMH) nuclei, and perifornical nucleus (PeF) was dramatically decreased compared to controls, ranging about six times less in the VMH to 15 times less in the central part of the BST (BSTC). The NPFF innervation of both nonstained neuronal profiles and microvasculature was extremely poor in hypertensive patients compared to control. Conclusions The decreased NPFF expression in the hypothalamus of hypertensive patients might be a cause of impairment of its interaction with other neurochemical systems, and thereby might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:25161813

  1. A neuropeptide speeds circadian entrainment by reducing intercellular synchrony

    PubMed Central

    An, Sungwon; Harang, Rich; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; Tsai, Connie A.; Mazuski, Cristina; Kim, Jihee; Doyle, Francis J.; Petzold, Linda R.; Herzog, Erik D.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work or transmeridian travel can desynchronize the body's circadian rhythms from local light–dark cycles. The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generates and entrains daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Paradoxically, we found that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a neuropeptide implicated in synchrony among SCN cells, can also desynchronize them. The degree and duration of desynchronization among SCN neurons depended on both the phase and the dose of VIP. A model of the SCN consisting of coupled stochastic cells predicted both the phase- and the dose-dependent response to VIP and that the transient phase desynchronization, or “phase tumbling”, could arise from intrinsic, stochastic noise in small populations of key molecules (notably, Period mRNA near its daily minimum). The model also predicted that phase tumbling following brief VIP treatment would accelerate entrainment to shifted environmental cycles. We tested this using a prepulse of VIP during the day before a shift in either a light cycle in vivo or a temperature cycle in vitro. Although VIP during the day does not shift circadian rhythms, the VIP pretreatment approximately halved the time required for mice to reentrain to an 8-h shifted light schedule and for SCN cultures to reentrain to a 10-h shifted temperature cycle. We conclude that VIP below 100 nM synchronizes SCN cells and above 100 nM reduces synchrony in the SCN. We show that exploiting these mechanisms that transiently reduce cellular synchrony before a large shift in the schedule of daily environmental cues has the potential to reduce jet lag. PMID:24167276

  2. Hypothalamic neuropeptide systems and anticipatory weight change in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Adam, C L; Mercer, J G

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal animals are able both to programme changes in body weight in response to annual changes in photoperiod (anticipatory regulation) and to correct changes in body weight caused by imposed energetic demand (compensatory regulation). Experimental evidence from the Siberian hamster suggests that seasonally appropriate body weight is continually reset according to photoperiodic history, even when actual body weight is driven away from this target weight by manipulation of energy intake. These characteristics constitute the "sliding set point" of seasonal body weight regulation. To define the mechanisms and molecules underlying anticipatory body weight regulation, we are investigating the involvement of hypothalamic systems with an established role in the compensatory defence of body weight. Weight loss or restricted growth induced by short days (SD) results in low circulating leptin compared with long day (LD) controls. However, this chronic low leptin signal is read differently from acute low leptin resulting from food deprivation; leptin receptor gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) is lower in SD, whereas food deprivation increases expression levels, suggesting changes in sensitivity to leptin feedback. SD alterations in mRNA levels for a number of hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor genes appear counter-intuitive for a SD body weight trajectory. However, early increases in ARC cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression in SDs could be involved in driving body weight loss or growth restriction. The sites of photoperiod interaction with energy balance neuronal circuitry and the neurochemical encoding of body weight set point require full characterisation. Study of anticipatory regulation in seasonal animals offers new insight into body weight regulation across mammalian species, including man.

  3. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Induced Overexpression of Neuropeptide Y Y2 Receptors in the Hippocampus Suppresses Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldbye, David P. D.; Angehagen, Mikael; Gotzsche, Casper R.; Elbrond-Bek, Heidi; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Christiansen, Soren H.; Olesen, Mikkel V.; Nikitidou, Litsa; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Kokaia, Merab

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus exerts seizure-suppressant effects in rodent epilepsy models and is currently considered for clinical application in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure suppression by neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus is…

  4. Lipid-Conjugation of Endogenous Neuropeptides: Improved Biotherapy against Human Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Gopakumar; Lepetre, Sinda; Maksimenko, Andrei; Mura, Simona; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptides are small neuronal signaling molecules that act as neuromodulators for a variety of neural functions including analgesia, reproduction, social behavior, learning, and memory. One of the endogenous neuropeptides-Met-Enkephalin (Met-Enk), has been shown to display an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, a novel lipid-modification approach is shown to create a small library of neuropeptides that will allow increased bioavailability and plasma stability after systemic administration. It is demonstrated, on an experimental model of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, that lipid conjugation of Met-Enk enhances its tumor suppression efficacy compared to its nonlipidated counterparts, both in vitro and in vivo. More strikingly, the in vivo studies show that a combination therapy with a reduced concentration of Gemcitabine has suppressed the tumor growth considerably even three weeks after the last treatment.

  5. Distribution of neuropeptides in the antennal lobes of male Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Kromann, Sophie H; Hansson, Bill S; Ignell, Rickard

    2013-11-01

    Olfaction is an important sensory modality that regulates a plethora of behavioural expressions in insects. Processing of olfactory information takes place in the primary olfactory centres of the brain, namely the antennal lobes (ALs). Neuropeptides have been shown to be present in the olfactory system of various insect species. In the present study, we analyse the distribution of tachykinin, FMRFamide-related peptides, allatotropin, allatostatin, myoinhibitory peptides and SIFamide in the AL of the male Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that most neuropeptides were expressed in different subpopulations of AL neurons. Their arborisation patterns within the AL suggest a significant role of neuropeptide signalling in the modulation of AL processing. In addition to local interneurons, our analysis also revealed a diversity of extrinsic peptidergic neurons that connected the antennal lobe with other brain centres. Their distributions suggest that extrinsic neurons perform various types of context-related modulation. PMID:23955643

  6. Drosulfakinin activates CCKLR-17D1 and promotes larval locomotion and escape response in Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are ubiquitous in both mammals and invertebrates and play essential roles in regulation and modulation of many developmental and physiological processes through activation of G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs). However, the mechanisms by which many of the neuropeptides regulate speci...

  7. The homeostatic role of neuropeptide Y in immune function and its impact on mood and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Farzi, A; Reichmann, F; Holzer, P

    2015-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), one of the most abundant peptides in the nervous system, exerts its effects via five receptor types, termed Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5 and Y6. NPY's pleiotropic functions comprise the regulation of brain activity, mood, stress coping, ingestion, digestion, metabolism, vascular and immune function. Nerve-derived NPY directly affects immune cells while NPY also acts as a paracrine and autocrine immune mediator, because immune cells themselves are capable of producing and releasing NPY. NPY is able to induce immune activation or suppression, depending on a myriad of factors such as the Y receptors activated and cell types involved. There is an intricate relationship between psychological stress, mood disorders and the immune system. While stress represents a risk factor for the development of mood disorders, it exhibits diverse actions on the immune system as well. Conversely, inflammation is regarded as an internal stressor and is increasingly recognized to contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and metabolic disorders. Intriguingly, the cerebral NPY system has been found to protect against distinct disturbances in response to immune challenge, attenuating the sickness response and preventing the development of depression. Thus, NPY plays an important homeostatic role in balancing disturbances of physiological systems caused by peripheral immune challenge. This implication is particularly evident in the brain in which NPY counteracts the negative impact of immune challenge on mood, emotional processing and stress resilience. NPY thus acts as a unique signalling molecule in the interaction of the immune system with the brain in health and disease.

  8. Timing of Neuropeptide Coupling Determines Synchrony and Entrainment in the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath; Herzog, Erik D.; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Robust synchronization is a critical feature of several systems including the mammalian circadian clock. The master circadian clock in mammals consists of about 20000 ‘sloppy’ neuronal oscillators within the hypothalamus that keep robust time by synchronization driven by inter-neuronal coupling. The complete understanding of this synchronization in the mammalian circadian clock and the mechanisms underlying it remain an open question. Experiments and computational studies have shown that coupling individual oscillators can achieve robust synchrony, despite heterogeneity and different network topologies. But, much less is known regarding the mechanisms and circuits involved in achieving this coupling, due to both system complexity and experimental limitations. Here, we computationally study the coupling mediated by the primary coupling neuropeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its canonical receptor, VPAC2R, using the transcriptional elements and generic mode of VIP-VPAC2R signaling. We find that synchrony is only possible if VIP (an inducer of Per expression) is released in-phase with activators of Per expression. Moreover, anti-phasic VIP release suppresses coherent rhythms by moving the network into a desynchronous state. Importantly, experimentally observed rhythms in VPAC2R have little effect on network synchronization, but can improve the amplitude of the SCN network rhythms while narrowing the network entrainment range. We further show that these findings are valid across several computational network models. Thus, we identified a general design principle to achieve robust synchronization: An activating coupling agent, such as VIP, must act in-phase with the activity of core-clock promoters. More generally, the phase of coupling is as critical as the strength of coupling from the viewpoint of synchrony and entrainment. PMID:24743470

  9. The homeostatic role of neuropeptide Y in immune function and its impact on mood and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Farzi, Aitak; Reichmann, Florian; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), one of the most abundant peptides in the nervous system, exerts its effects via 5 receptor types, termed Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5 and y6. NPY’s pleiotropic functions comprise the regulation of brain activity, mood, stress coping, ingestion, digestion, metabolism, vascular and immune function. Nerve-derived NPY directly affects immune cells while NPY also acts as a paracrine and autocrine immune mediator, since immune cells themselves are capable of producing and releasing NPY. NPY is able to induce immune activation or suppression, depending on a myriad of factors such as the Y receptors activated and cell types involved. There is an intricate relationship between psychological stress, mood disorders and the immune system. While stress represents a risk factor for the development of mood disorders, it exhibits diverse actions on the immune system as well. Conversely, inflammation is regarded as an internal stressor and is increasingly recognized to contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and metabolic disorders. Intriguingly, the cerebral NPY system has been found to protect against distinct disturbances in response to immune challenge, attenuating the sickness response and preventing the development of depression. Thus, NPY plays an important homeostatic role in balancing disturbances of physiological systems caused by peripheral immune challenge. This implication is particularly evident in the brain in which NPY counteracts the negative impact of immune challenge on mood, emotional processing and stress resilience. NPY thus acts as a unique signalling molecule in the interaction of the immune system with the brain in health and disease. PMID:25545642

  10. Rapid preconcentration for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay of trace level neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Mabrouk, Omar S; Kennedy, Robert T

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of neuropeptides in the brain through in vivo microdialysis sampling provides direct correlation between neuropeptide concentration and brain function. Capillary liquid chromatography-multistage mass spectrometry (CLC-MS(n)) has proven to be effective at measuring endogenous neuropeptides in microdialysis samples. In the method, microliter samples are concentrated onto nanoliter volume packed beds before ionization and mass spectrometry analysis. The long times required for extensive preconcentration present a barrier to routine use because of the many samples that must be analyzed and instability of neuropeptides. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of 75 μm inner diameter (i.d.) capillary column packed with 10 μm reversed phase particles for increasing the throughput in CLC-MS(n) based neuropeptide measurement. Coupling a high injection flow rate for fast sample loading/desalting with a low elution flow rate to maintain detection sensitivity, this column has reduced analysis time from ∼30 min to 3.8 min for 5 μL sample, with 3 pM limit of detection (LOD) for enkephalins and 10 pM LOD for dynorphin A1-8 in 5 μL sample. The use of isotope-labeled internal standard lowered peptide signal variation to less than 5 %. This method was validated for in vivo detection of Leu and Met enkephalin with microdialysate collected from rat globus pallidus. The improvement in speed and stability makes CLC-MS(n) measurement of neuropeptides in vivo more practical.

  11. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ.

    PubMed

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides

  12. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to post-fracture nociceptive sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-01-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and CGRP signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hindlimbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling up-regulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to post-fracture hindlimb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hindlimb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on post-fracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hindlimb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, NGF) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor and these mice had attenuated post-fracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or NGF each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling up-regulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of CRPS. PMID:25932690

  13. Identification of Neuropeptide Receptors Expressed by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Gregory S.; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating Hormone (MCH) is a 19 amino acid cyclic neuropeptide that acts in rodents via the MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions. MCH is produced by a distinct population of neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and zona incerta (ZI) but MCHR1 mRNA is widely expressed throughout the brain. The physiological responses and behaviors regulated by the MCH system have been investigated, but less is known about how MCH neurons are regulated. The effects of most classical neurotransmitters on MCH neurons have been studied, but those of neuropeptides are poorly understood. In order to gain insight into how neuropeptides regulate the MCH system, we investigated which neuropeptide receptors are expressed by MCH neurons using double in situ hybridization. In all, twenty receptors, selected based upon either a suspected interaction with the MCH system or demonstrated high expression levels in the LH and ZI, were tested to determine whether they are expressed by MCH neurons. Overall, eleven neuropeptide receptors were found to exhibit significant colocalization with MCH neurons: Nociceptin / Orphanin FQ Opioid receptor (NOP), MCHR1, both Orexin receptors (ORX), Somatostatin receptor 1 and 2 (SSTR1, SSTR2), the Kisspeptin receotor (KissR1), Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1), Neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), Cholecystokinin receptor A (CCKAR) and the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). Of these receptors, six have never before been linked to the MCH system. Surprisingly, several receptors thought to regulate MCH neurons displayed minimal colocalization with MCH, suggesting that they may not directly regulate the MCH system. PMID:24978951

  14. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to postfracture nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-10-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome. Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture-induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling upregulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to postfracture hind limb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on postfracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, and nerve growth factor) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture-induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor, and these mice had attenuated postfracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or nerve growth factor each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling upregulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:25932690

  15. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to postfracture nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-10-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome. Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture-induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling upregulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to postfracture hind limb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on postfracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, and nerve growth factor) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture-induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor, and these mice had attenuated postfracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or nerve growth factor each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling upregulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome.

  16. Paradoxical effect of gonadotrophin-inhibiting hormone to negatively regulate neuropeptide Y neurones in mouse arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, J S; Coleman, H A; Enriori, P J; Parkington, H C; Li, Q; Pereira, A; Cowley, M A; Clarke, I J

    2013-12-01

    Regulation of reproduction and energy homeostasis are linked, although our understanding of the central neural mechanisms subserving this connection is incomplete. Gonadotrophin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide that negatively regulates reproduction and stimulates food intake. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and products of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor (β-endorphin melanocortins) are appetite regulating peptides produced in the neurones of the arcuate nucleus; these peptides also regulate reproduction. In the present study, we determined the effects of GnIH on NPY and POMC neurones. Using brain slices from mice with transgenes for fluorescent tags in the two types of neurone and patch clamp electrophysiology, a predominant inhibitory effect of GnIH was observed. GnIH (100 nM) inhibited the firing rate in POMC cells, confirming the results of previous studies and consistent with the stimulatory effect of GnIH on food intake. Paradoxically (i.e. because both GnIH and NPY stimulate food intake), GnIH also had a predominantly inhibitory effect on action potential activity in NPY cells. GnIH also inhibited the secretion of NPY and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone secretion in incubated hypothalamic blocks. GnIH (100 ng) injected into the cerebral ventricles of mice did not increase the number of NPY cells that were positively immunostained for c-Fos. Finally, dual label immunocytochemistry showed that 20% of NPY neurones had close contacts from GnIH fibres/varicosities. In conclusion, we confirm a negative effect of GnIH on POMC cells and demonstrate a paradoxical reduction of electrophysiological and functional activity in NPY cells.

  17. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vecsei, L.; Csala, B.; Widerloev, E.E.; Ekman, R.; Czopf, J.; Palffy, G. )

    1990-09-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y were investigated by use of radioimmunoassay in patients suffering from chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. The somatostatin level was significantly decreased in the CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis compared to the control group. The magnitude of this change was more pronounced in patients with severe clinical symptoms of the illness. The CSF neuropeptide Y concentration did not differ from the control values. These findings suggest a selective involvement of somatostatin neurotransmission in multiple sclerosis.

  18. Immunohistochemical study of the neuropeptides in the stellate ganglion of the water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nasu, T; De Ocampo, G; Molina, H A; Tateyama, S; Morimoto, M

    2000-05-01

    The localization of some neuropeptides including neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin (Gal), methionine enkephalin (M-ENK), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity was studied in the stellate ganglion (SG) of water buffalo. NPY, SP, Gal and TH immunoreactivities were present in almost all of the ganglion cells. NPY, SP, Gal, SP, CGRP, VIP and M-ENK immunoreactive nerve fibers were also seen in the SG. The localization and pattern of distribution of these peptides in the water buffalo stellate ganglion were compared with those in stellate ganglia of other mammalian species.

  19. Anorexia in human and experimental animal models: physiological aspects related to neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia, a loss of appetite for food, can be caused by various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, firstly, clinical aspects of anorexia nervosa are summarized in brief. Secondly, hypothalamic neuropeptides responsible for feeding regulation in each hypothalamic nucleus are discussed. Finally, three different types of anorexigenic animal models; dehydration-induced anorexia, cisplatin-induced anorexia and cancer anorexia-cachexia, are introduced. In conclusion, hypothalamic neuropeptides may give us novel insight to understand and find effective therapeutics strategy essential for various kinds of anorexia.

  20. Effects of intravenous neuropeptide Y on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Vettor, R; Pagano, C; Granzotto, M; Englaro, P; Angeli, P; Blum, W F; Federspil, G; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Jeanrenaud, B

    1998-11-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neuropeptide Y to normal rats induces a syndrome characterised by obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and over expression of the adipose tissue ob gene. Little is known about the effect of circulating neuropeptide Y on glucose metabolism, insulin secretion and leptin. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effect of an intravenous infusion of neuropeptide Y on glucose disposal, endogenous glucose production, whole body glycolytic flux, and glucose storage as assessed during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp. In addition, the insulin-stimulated glucose utilisation index in individual tissues was measured by the 2-deoxy-[1-3H]-glucose technique. The effect of neuropeptide Y on insulin secretion was evaluated by hyperglycaemic clamp. Infusion did not induce any change in endogenous glucose production during basal conditions or at the end of the clamp. Glucose disposal was significantly increased in the rats given neuropeptide Y compared with controls (27.8 +/- 1.3 vs 24.3 +/- 1.6 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1); p < 0.05) as was the glycolytic flux (18.9 +/- 1.6 vs 14.4 +/- 0.8 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1); p < 0.05), while glucose storage was comparable in the two groups. In skeletal muscle, the glucose utilisation index was increased significantly in rats given neuropeptide Y. The glucose utilisation index in subcutaneous and epididimal adipose tissue was not significantly different between the two groups. Plasma leptin was significantly increased by hyperinsulinaemia, but was not affected by neuropeptide Y infusion. Both the early and late phase of the insulin response to hyperglycaemia were significantly reduced by neuropeptide Y. In conclusion neuropeptide Y infusion may increase insulin-induced glucose disposal in normal rats, accelerating its utilisation through the glycolytic pathway. Neuropeptide Y reduces both phases of the insulin response to hyperglycaemia.

  1. Expression and precursor processing of neuropeptide Y in human pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma tumors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, M M; Schwartz, T W

    1989-12-15

    The expression of the potent vasoactive peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) was studied in 16 clinically and/or histologically diagnosed human pheochromocytomas and 3 human neuroblastoma tumors. All tumors contained NPY in concentrations ranging from 21 pmol/g of tissue, similar to that found in normal adrenal tissue, to 91,000 pmol/g (median, 1,700 pmol/g). Three control tumors of Cushing's type did not contain NPY. An almost total proteolytic processing of pro-NPY to normal NPY was observed in the tumors (median, 93%; range, 72-100%). A positive correlation between the processing efficiency and the NPY content was also observed. The small amount of pro-NPY found in the tumors was characterized by "in vitro conversion" with endoproteinase Lys-C. In the tumor extracts, the majority of the NPY immunoreactivity, corresponding in size to the NPY standard, also behaved like synthetic NPY by high performance liquid chromatography and isoelectric focusing. As assessed by both its elution position in isoelectric focusing and its reaction with an antiserum specific for the COOH-terminal amidated sequence, the peptide produced by the tumors was found to be efficiently amidated, a modification which is essential for the biological activity of NPY. It is concluded that although only a subset of chromaffin cells express NPY, a very high number of pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas produce correctly amidated and thus biologically active NPY in large amounts, and that this is of potential importance for tumor-related cardiovascular symptoms and for autocrine stimulation of tumor cells.

  2. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in tumor growth and progression: Lessons learned from pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Tilan, Jason; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter with pleiotropic actions, many of which are highly relevant to tumor biology. Consequently, the peptide has been implicated as a factor regulating the growth of a variety of tumors. Among them, two pediatric malignancies with high endogenous NPY synthesis and release - neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma - became excellent models to investigate the role of NPY in tumor growth and progression. The stimulatory effect on tumor cell proliferation, survival, and migration, as well as angiogenesis in these tumors, is mediated by two NPY receptors, Y2R and Y5R, which are expressed in either a constitutive or inducible manner. Of particular importance are interactions of the NPY system with the tumor microenvironment, as hypoxic conditions commonly occurring in solid tumors strongly activate the NPY/Y2R/Y5R axis. This activation is triggered by hypoxia-induced up-regulation of Y2R/Y5R expression and stimulation of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), which converts NPY to a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist, NPY(3-36). While previous studies focused mainly on the effects of NPY on tumor growth and vascularization, they also provided insight into the potential role of the peptide in tumor progression into a metastatic and chemoresistant phenotype. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of NPY in neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma and its interactions with the tumor microenvironment in the context of findings in other malignancies, as well as discusses future directions and potential clinical implications of these discoveries.

  3. Regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides gene expression in diet induced obesity resistant rats: possible targets for obesity prediction?

    PubMed

    Cifani, Carlo; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria V; Pucci, Mariangela; Giusepponi, Maria E; Romano, Adele; Di Francesco, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; D'Addario, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Several factors play a role in obesity (i.e., behavior, environment, and genetics) and epigenetic regulation of gene expression has emerged as a potential contributor in the susceptibility and development of obesity. To investigate the individual sensitivity to weight gain/resistance, we here studied gene transcription regulation of several hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of energy balance in rats developing obesity (diet-induced obesity, DIO) or not (diet resistant, DR), when fed with a high fat diet. Rats have been followed up to 21 weeks of high fat diet exposure. After 5 weeks high fat diet exposure, the obese phenotype was developed and we observed a selective down-regulation of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) genes. No changes were observed in the expression of the agouti-related protein (AgRP), as well as for all the anorexigenic genes under study. After long-term high fat diet exposure (21 weeks), NPY and PPAR-γ, as well as most of the genes under study, resulted not be different between DIO and DR, whereas a lower expression of the anorexigenic pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) gene was observed in DIO rats when compared to DR rats. Moreover we observed that changes in NPY and POMC mRNA were inversely correlated with gene promoters DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that selective alterations in hypothalamic peptide genes regulation could contribute to the development of overweight in rats and that environmental factor, as in this animal model, might be partially responsible of these changes via epigenetic mechanism.

  4. Regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides gene expression in diet induced obesity resistant rats: possible targets for obesity prediction?

    PubMed Central

    Cifani, Carlo; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria V.; Pucci, Mariangela; Giusepponi, Maria E.; Romano, Adele; Di Francesco, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; D'Addario, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Several factors play a role in obesity (i.e., behavior, environment, and genetics) and epigenetic regulation of gene expression has emerged as a potential contributor in the susceptibility and development of obesity. To investigate the individual sensitivity to weight gain/resistance, we here studied gene transcription regulation of several hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of energy balance in rats developing obesity (diet-induced obesity, DIO) or not (diet resistant, DR), when fed with a high fat diet. Rats have been followed up to 21 weeks of high fat diet exposure. After 5 weeks high fat diet exposure, the obese phenotype was developed and we observed a selective down-regulation of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) genes. No changes were observed in the expression of the agouti-related protein (AgRP), as well as for all the anorexigenic genes under study. After long-term high fat diet exposure (21 weeks), NPY and PPAR-γ, as well as most of the genes under study, resulted not be different between DIO and DR, whereas a lower expression of the anorexigenic pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) gene was observed in DIO rats when compared to DR rats. Moreover we observed that changes in NPY and POMC mRNA were inversely correlated with gene promoters DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that selective alterations in hypothalamic peptide genes regulation could contribute to the development of overweight in rats and that environmental factor, as in this animal model, might be partially responsible of these changes via epigenetic mechanism. PMID:26106286

  5. Adult exposure to tributyltin affects hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, Y1 receptor distribution, and circulating leptin in mice.

    PubMed

    Bo, E; Farinetti, A; Marraudino, M; Sterchele, D; Eva, C; Gotti, S; Panzica, G

    2016-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a pesticide used in antifouling paints, is toxic for aquatic invertebrates. In vertebrates, TBT may act in obesogen- inducing adipogenetic gene transcription for adipocyte differentiation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that acute administration of TBT induces c-fos expression in the arcuate nucleus. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult exposure to TBT may alter a part of the nervous pathways controlling animal food intake. In particular, we investigated the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity. This neuropeptide forms neural circuits dedicated to food assumption and its action is mediated by Y1 receptors that are widely expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei responsible for the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. To this purpose, TBT was orally administered at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg/day/body weight to adult animals [male and female C57BL/6 (Y1-LacZ transgenic mice] for 4 weeks. No differences were found in body weight and fat deposition, but we observed a significant increase in feed efficiency in TBT-treated male mice and a significant decrease in circulating leptin in both sexes. Computerized quantitative analysis of NPY immunoreactivity and Y1-related β-galactosidase activity demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in NPY and Y1 transgene expression in the hypothalamic circuit controlling food intake of treated male mice in comparison with controls. In conclusion, the present results indicate that adult exposure to TBT is profoundly interfering with the nervous circuits involved in the stimulation of food intake. PMID:27310180

  6. Introduction of a neurohormone in the fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are the largest group of insect hormones, and are synthesized in the central and peripheral nervous systems. One neuropeptide family is the PBAN/pyrokinin family defined by a common FXPRLamide or similar amino acid fragment at the C-terminal end. Over the past years we have extended kn...

  7. Transgenic n-3 PUFAs enrichment leads to weight loss via modulating neuropeptides in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Ge, Yinlin; Gai, Xiaoying; Xue, Meilan; Li, Ning; Kang, Jingxuan; Wan, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinyu

    2016-01-12

    Body weight is related to fat mass, which is associated with obesity. Our study explored the effect of fat-1 gene on body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. In present study, we observed that the weight/length ratio of fat-1 transgenic mice was lower than that of wild-type mice. The serum levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CT), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and blood glucose (BG) in fat-1 transgenic mice were all decreased. The weights of peri-bowels fat, perirenal fat and peri-testicular fat in fat-1 transgenic mice were reduced. We hypothesized that increase of n-3 PUFAs might alter the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes and lead to loss of body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. Therefore, we measured mRNA levels of appetite neuropeptides, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related peptides (AgRP), Proopiomelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in hypothalamus by real-time PCR. Compared with wild-type mice, the mRNA levels of CART, POMC and ghrelin were higher, while the mRNA levels of NPY, AgRP and nesfatin-1 were lower in fat-1 transgenic mice. The results indicate that fat-1 gene or n-3 PUFAs participates in regulation of body weight, and the mechanism of this phenomenon involves the expression of appetite neuropeptides and lipoproteins in fat-1 transgenic mice. PMID:26610903

  8. Neuropeptide Y protects against methamphetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Thiriet, Nathalie; Deng, Xiaolin; Solinas, Marcello; Ladenheim, Bruce; Curtis, Wendy; Goldberg, Steven R; Palmiter, Richard D; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2005-06-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit drug that causes neuronal apoptosis in the mouse striatum, in a manner similar to the neuronal loss observed in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, injections of METH to mice were found to cause the death of enkephalin-positive projection neurons but not the death of neuropeptide Y (NPY)/nitric oxide synthase-positive striatal interneurons. In addition, these METH injections were associated with increased expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA and changes in the expression of the NPY receptors Y1 and Y2. Administration of NPY in the cerebral ventricles blocked METH-induced apoptosis, an effect that was mediated mainly by stimulation of NPY Y2 receptors and, to a lesser extent, of NPY Y1 receptors. Finally, we also found that neuropeptide Y knock-out mice were more sensitive than wild-type mice to METH-induced neuronal apoptosis of both enkephalin- and nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons, suggesting that NPY plays a general neuroprotective role within the striatum. Together, our results demonstrate that neuropeptide Y belongs to the class of factors that maintain neuronal integrity during cellular stresses. Given the similarity between the cell death patterns induced by METH and by disorders such as Huntington's disease, our results suggest that NPY analogs might be useful therapeutic agents against some neurodegenerative processes.

  9. The neuropeptide F (NPF) encoding gene from the cestode, Moniezia expansa.

    PubMed

    Mair, G R; Halton, D W; Shaw, C; Maule, A G

    2000-01-01

    Neuropeptide F (NPF) is an abundantly expressed neuropeptide in platyhelminth nervous systems, and exhibits a moderate, myogenic effect on muscle preparations of parasitic flatworms. NPF displays structural similarities to peptides from molluscs and vertebrate members of the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-superfamily of peptides. NPY is one of the most abundant and highly conserved neuropeptides within vertebrates and similarities between the gene organization of NPY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), suggest a common evolutionary origin of this peptide family. Dual localization analyses coupled with confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed a close spatial relationship between NPF-containing nerves and muscle fibres in M. expansa. Molecular cloning techniques identified the M. expansa NPF (mxNPF) precursor and characterized the isolated transcript which encodes an open reading frame of 57 amino acids. The transcript possesses a 17 amino acid signal peptide and the mature NPF sequence (39 amino acids) followed by a carboxyterminal glycyl extension. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA identified a product which possessed a 54 base pair intron with consensus sequences for 5' and 3' splice sites. The M. expansa npf gene possesses a phase 2 intron within the penultimate arginyl residue, a characteristic feature of NPY superfamily peptide-genes. The intron-exon organization of the npf gene, coupled with the abundant expression of NPF within the nervous systems of flatworms, suggests an early evolutionary origin for this peptide transmitter family within the nervous systems of basal bilaterian metazoans.

  10. Transgenic n-3 PUFAs enrichment leads to weight loss via modulating neuropeptides in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Ge, Yinlin; Gai, Xiaoying; Xue, Meilan; Li, Ning; Kang, Jingxuan; Wan, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinyu

    2016-01-12

    Body weight is related to fat mass, which is associated with obesity. Our study explored the effect of fat-1 gene on body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. In present study, we observed that the weight/length ratio of fat-1 transgenic mice was lower than that of wild-type mice. The serum levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CT), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and blood glucose (BG) in fat-1 transgenic mice were all decreased. The weights of peri-bowels fat, perirenal fat and peri-testicular fat in fat-1 transgenic mice were reduced. We hypothesized that increase of n-3 PUFAs might alter the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes and lead to loss of body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. Therefore, we measured mRNA levels of appetite neuropeptides, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related peptides (AgRP), Proopiomelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in hypothalamus by real-time PCR. Compared with wild-type mice, the mRNA levels of CART, POMC and ghrelin were higher, while the mRNA levels of NPY, AgRP and nesfatin-1 were lower in fat-1 transgenic mice. The results indicate that fat-1 gene or n-3 PUFAs participates in regulation of body weight, and the mechanism of this phenomenon involves the expression of appetite neuropeptides and lipoproteins in fat-1 transgenic mice.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-01

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  12. Development of mimetic analogs of pyrokinin-like neuropeptides to disrupt pest insect physiology/behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrokinin (FXPRLamide) neuropeptides regulate a variety of critical processes and behaviors in insects, though they are unsuitable as tools to arthropod endocrinologists and/or as pest management agents due to sub-optimal biostability and/or bioavailability characteristics. Peptidomimetic analogs c...

  13. Feed intake of gilts following intracerebroventicular injection of the novel hypothalamic RFamide (RFa) neuropeptide, 26RFa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RFamide (RFa) peptides have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological processes including energy expenditure and feed intake. 26RFa is a recently discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide that altered the release of pituitary hormones and stimulated feed intake via a NPY-specific mechanism in rat...

  14. Inhibition of hypothalamic MCT1 expression increases food intake and alters orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide expression

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo-Vega, Roberto; Cortés-Campos, Christian; Barahona, María José; Carril, Claudio; Ordenes, Patricio; Salgado, Magdiel; Oyarce, Karina; García-Robles, María de los Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic glucosensing, which involves the detection of glucose concentration changes by brain cells and subsequent release of orexigenic or anorexigenic neuropeptides, is a crucial process that regulates feeding behavior. Arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons are classically thought to be responsible for hypothalamic glucosensing through a direct sensing mechanism; however, recent data has shown a metabolic interaction between tanycytes and AN neurons through lactate that may also be contributing to this process. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is the main isoform expressed by tanycytes, which could facilitate lactate release to hypothalamic AN neurons. We hypothesize that MCT1 inhibition could alter the metabolic coupling between tanycytes and AN neurons, altering feeding behavior. To test this, we inhibited MCT1 expression using adenovirus-mediated transfection of a shRNA into the third ventricle, transducing ependymal wall cells and tanycytes. Neuropeptide expression and feeding behavior were measured in MCT1-inhibited animals after intracerebroventricular glucose administration following a fasting period. Results showed a loss in glucose regulation of orexigenic neuropeptides and an abnormal expression of anorexigenic neuropeptides in response to fasting. This was accompanied by an increase in food intake and in body weight gain. Taken together, these results indicate that MCT1 expression in tanycytes plays a role in feeding behavior regulation. PMID:27677351

  15. Neuropeptide FF, but not prolactin-releasing peptide, mRNA is differentially regulated in the hypothalamic and medullary neurons after salt loading.

    PubMed

    Kalliomäki, M-L; Panula, P

    2004-01-01

    Hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei are involved in the body fluid homeostasis. Especially vasopressin peptide and mRNA levels are regulated by hypo- and hyperosmolar stimuli. Other neuropeptides such as dynorphin, galanin and neuropeptide FF are coregulated with vasopressin. In this study neuropeptide FF and another RF-amide peptide, the prolactin-releasing peptide mRNA levels were studied by quantitative in situ hybridization after chronic salt loading, a laboratory model of chronic dehydration. The neuropeptide FF mRNA expressing cells virtually disappeared from the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei after salt loading, suggesting that hyperosmolar stress downregulated the NPFF gene transcription. The neuropeptide FF mRNA signal levels were returned to control levels after the rehydration period of 7 days. No changes were observed in those medullary nuclei that express neuropeptide FF mRNA. No significant changes were observed in the hypothalamic or medullary prolactin-releasing peptide mRNA levels. Neuropeptide FF mRNA is drastically downregulated in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurons after salt loading. Other neuropeptides studied in this model are concomitantly coregulated with vasopressin: i.e. their peptide levels are downregulated and mRNA levels are upregulated which is in contrast to neuropeptide FF regulation. It can thus be concluded that neuropeptide FF is not regulated through the vasopressin regulatory system but via an independent pathway. The detailed mechanisms underlying the downregulation of neuropeptide FF mRNA in neurons remain to be clarified.

  16. Identification of a novel starfish neuropeptide that acts as a muscle relaxant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Go, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hye Young; Lin, Ming; Elphick, Maurice R; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-04-01

    Neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants have been identified in chordates and protostomian invertebrates but little is known about the molecular identity of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in deuterostomian invertebrates (e.g. echinoderms) that are 'evolutionary intermediates' of chordates and protostomes. Here, we have used the apical muscle of the starfish Patiria pectinifera to assay for myorelaxants in extracts of this species. A hexadecapeptide with the amino acid sequence Phe-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Leu-Ser-Ala-Gly-Phe-Thr-Asp was identified and designated starfish myorelaxant peptide (SMP). Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the SMP precursor protein revealed that it comprises 12 copies of SMP as well as 3 peptides (7 copies in total) that are structurally related to SMP. Analysis of the expression of SMP precursor transcripts in P. pectinifera using qPCR revealed the highest expression in the radial nerve cords and lower expression levels in a range of neuromuscular tissues, including the apical muscle, tube feet and cardiac stomach. Consistent with these findings, SMP also caused relaxation of tube foot and cardiac stomach preparations. Furthermore, SMP caused relaxation of apical muscle preparations from another starfish species - Asterias amurensis. Collectively, these data indicate that SMP has a general physiological role as a muscle relaxant in starfish. Interestingly, comparison of the sequence of the SMP precursor with known neuropeptide precursors revealed that SMP belongs to a bilaterian family of neuropeptides that include molluscan pedal peptides (PP) and arthropodan orcokinins (OK). This is the first study to determine the function of a PP/OK-type peptide in a deuterostome. Pedal peptide/orcokinin (PP/OK)-type peptides are a family of structurally related neuropeptides that were first identified and functionally characterised in protostomian invertebrates. Here, we report the discovery of starfish myorelaxant

  17. Neuropeptide Y and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediate injury-induced neuroregeneration in mouse olfactory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen Cosgrove

    2011-01-01

    In the olfactory epithelium (OE), injury induces ATP release, and subsequent activation of P2 purinergic receptors by ATP promotes neuroregeneration by increasing basal progenitor cell proliferation. The molecular mechanisms underlying ATP-induced increases in OE neuroregeneration have not been established. In the present study, the roles of neuroproliferative factors neuropeptide Y (NPY) and fibroblast growth factor2 (FGF2), and p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) on ATP-mediated increases of neuroregeneration in the OE were investigated. ATP increased basal progenitor cell proliferation in the OE via activation of P2 purinergic receptors in vitro and in vivo as monitored by incorporation of 5′-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into DNA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels. ATP induced p44/42 ERK activation in globose basal cells (GBC) but not horizontal basal cells (HBC). ATP differentially regulated p44/42 ERK over time in the OE both in vitro and in vivo with transient inhibition (5–15 min) followed by activation (30 min – 1 hr) of p44/42 ERK. In addition, ATP indirectly activated p44/42 ERK in the OE via ATP-induced NPY release and subsequent activation of NPY Y1 receptors in the basal cells. There were no synergistic effects of ATP and NPY or FGF2 on OE neuroregeneration. These data clearly have implications for the pharmacological modulation of neuroregeneration in the olfactory epithelium. PMID:22154958

  18. Rapid internalization and recycling of the human neuropeptide Y Y(1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Gicquiaux, Hervé; Lecat, Sandra; Gaire, Mireille; Dieterlen, Alain; Mély, Yves; Takeda, Kenneth; Bucher, Bernard; Galzi, Jean-Luc

    2002-02-22

    Desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involves receptor phosphorylation and reduction in the number of receptors at the cell surface. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y(1) receptor undergoes fast desensitization. We examined agonist-induced signaling and internalization using NPY Y(1) receptors fused to green fluorescent protein (EGFP). When expressed in HEK293 cells, EGFP-hNPY Y(1) receptors were localized at the plasma membrane, desensitized rapidly as assessed using calcium responses, and had similar properties compared to hNPY Y(1) receptors. Upon agonist challenge, the EGFP signal decreased rapidly (t(1/2) = 107 +/- 3 s) followed by a slow recovery. This decrease was blocked by BIBP3226, a Y(1) receptor antagonist, or by pertussis toxin, in agreement with Y(1) receptor activation. Internalization of EGFP-hNPY Y(1) receptors to acidic endosomal compartments likely accounts for the decrease in the EGFP signal, being absent after pretreatment with monensin. Concanavalin A and hypertonic sucrose, which inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis, blocked the decrease in fluorescence. After agonist, intracellular EGFP signals were punctate and co-localized with transferrin-Texas Red, a marker of clathrin-associated internalization and recycling, but not with LysoTracker Red, a lysosomal pathway marker, supporting receptor trafficking to recycling endosomes rather than the late endosomal/lysosomal pathway. Pulse-chase experiments revealed no receptor degradation after internalization. The slow recovery of fluorescence was unaffected by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, indicating that de novo synthesis of receptors was not limiting. Use of a multicompartment model to fit our fluorescence data allows simultaneous determination of internalization and recycling rate constants. We propose that rapid internalization of receptors via the clathrin-coated pits recycling pathway may largely account for the rapid desensitization of NPY Y(1) receptors. PMID:11741903

  19. Relevance of the neuropeptide Y system in the biology of cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Ruscica, M; Dozio, E; Motta, M; Magni, P

    2007-01-01

    The peptides pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide YY (PYY), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) share a similar structure, known as PP-fold. Within this family of peptides, NPY, a highly conserved 36-aminoacid residue peptide, is involved in the regulation of a wide range of physiological functions, such as food intake and energy metabolism, as well as in the promotion of some remarkable aspects of tumor progression, including cell proliferation, matrix invasion, metastatization, and angiogenesis. NPY exerts its biological effects through five G-protein coupled receptors, named Y1-, Y2-, Y4-, Y5-, and y6-R, which appear associated with different aspects of oncogenesis. Y1-R seems involved in the modulation of cancer cell proliferation, whereas Y2-R activation appears to promote angiogenesis. The development of NPY receptor subtype selective analogs has helped to elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological role and localization of each receptor and may contribute to a better understanding of the receptor-ligand interaction. The NPY system appears to be variously associated with specific tumors, including neural crest-derived tumors, breast and prostate cancers. In addition to NPY, PYY is also able to affect cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner and through Y-Rs. In conclusion, peptides of the NPY family and the related receptors play an important role in the progression of different cancer types, with some molecular specificity according to each step of this process. On this basis, future studies may be directed to the implementation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches targeting this system.

  20. Structural and functional characterization of neuropeptide Y in a primitive teleost, the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuisheng; Zhao, Liping; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Qiongyu; Zhou, Wenyi; Qi, Xin; Chen, Huapu; Yang, Huirong; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, the first full-length cDNA encoding Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was cloned from the brain of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). The open reading frame of Japanese eel NPY gene is 294 bp in length, encoding a precursor protein of 97 amino acids, which contains a 36-amino-acid mature peptide. Sequence analysis showed that the Japanese eel NPY peptide is similar to that of other species. Real-time PCR revealed that NPY in Japanese eel is mainly expressed in the brain, especially in the hypothalamus and the optic tectum thalamus. The effect of a negative energy balance on NPY gene expression was examined subsequently. The mRNA level of NPY in the hypothalamus and the optic tectum thalamus showed a pronounced increase after 4 days of food deprivation. The biological activities of Japanese eel NPY were further investigated in vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of the NPY peptide into Japanese eel could potently elevate the expression of the mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH) in hypothalamus and the follicle-stimulating hormone beta (FSHβ), the luteinizing hormone beta (LHβ) and growth hormone (GH) in pituitary. In static incubation studies, the stimulatory effects of NPY on mGnRH expression in hypothalamic fragments and on FSHβ, LHβ and GH expression in pituitary cells were also observed. However, in vivo and in vitro studies showed that NPY exhibits an inhibitory action on the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone beta (TSHβ) in pituitary. The results indicate that NPY is involved in the regulation of multiple physiological processes in Japanese eel.

  1. Neuropeptide processing in regional brain slices: Effect of conformation and sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.W.; Bijl, W.A.; van Nispen, J.W.; Brendel, K.; Davis, T.P. )

    1990-05-01

    The central enzymatic stability of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and its synthetic analogs (cycloN alpha 6, C delta 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) and (Pro7, Lys(Ac)9)-beta-endorphin(6-17) was studied in vitro using a newly developed, regionally dissected rat brain slice, time course incubation procedure. Tissue slice viability was estimated as the ability of the brain slice to take up or release gamma-(3H)aminobutyric acid after high K+ stimulation. Results demonstrated stability of uptake/release up to 5 hr of incubation, suggesting tissue viability over this period. The estimated half-life of peptides based on the results obtained in our incubation protocol suggest that the peptides studied are metabolized at different rates in the individual brain regions tested. A good correlation exists between the high enzyme activity of neutral endopeptidase and the rapid degradation of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and (cycloN alpha 6, C delata 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) in caudate putamen. Proline substitution combined with lysine acetylation appears to improve resistance to enzymatic metabolism in caudate putamen and hypothalamus. However, cyclization of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin forming an amide bond between the alpha-NH2 of the N-terminal threonine and the gamma-COOH of glutamic acid did not improve peptide stability in any brain region tested. The present study has shown that the brain slice technique is a valid and unique approach to study neuropeptide metabolism in small, discrete regions of rat brain where peptides, peptidases and receptors are colocalized and that specific structural modifications can improve peptide stability.

  2. Renal and cardiac neuropeptide Y and NPY receptors in a rat model of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Callanan, Ean Y; Lee, Edward W; Tilan, Jason U; Winaver, Joseph; Haramati, Aviad; Mulroney, Susan E; Zukowska, Zofia

    2007-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is coreleased with norepinephrine and stimulates vasoconstriction, vascular and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via Y1 receptors (R) and angiogenesis via Y2R. Although circulating NPY is elevated in heart failure, NPY's role remains unclear. Activation of the NPY system was determined in Wistar rats with the aortocaval (A-V) fistula model of high-output heart failure. Plasma NPY levels were elevated in A-V fistula animals (115.7 +/- 15.3 vs. 63.1 +/- 17.4 pM in sham, P < 0.04). Animals either compensated [urinary Na(+) excretion returning to normal with moderate disease (COMP)] or remained decompensated with severe cardiac and renal failure (urinary Na(+) excretion <0.5 meq/day), increased heart weight, decreased mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow (RBF), and death within 5-7 days (DECOMP). Cardiac and renal tissue NPY decreased with heart failure, proportionate to the severity of renal complications. Cardiac and renal Y1R mRNA expression also decreased (1.5-fold, P < 0.005) in rats with heart failure. In contrast, Y2R expression increased up to 72-fold in the heart and 5.7-fold in the kidney (P < 0.001) proportionate to severity of heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Changes in receptor expression were confirmed since the Y1R agonist, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, had no effect on RBF, whereas the Y2R agonist (13-36)-NPY increased RBF to compensate for disease. Thus, in this model of heart failure, cardiac and renal NPY Y1 receptors decrease and Y2 receptors increase, suggesting an increased effect of NPY on the receptors involved in cardiac remodeling and angiogenesis, and highlighting an important regulatory role of NPY in congestive heart failure.

  3. Involvement of the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ in kainate seizures.

    PubMed

    Bregola, Gianni; Zucchini, Silvia; Rodi, Donata; Binaschi, Anna; D'Addario, Claudio; Landuzzi, Daniela; Reinscheid, Rainer; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia; Simonato, Michele

    2002-11-15

    The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) has been shown to modulate neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Previous studies indicate that the mRNA levels for the N/OFQ precursor (proN/OFQ) are increased after seizures. However, it is unclear whether N/OFQ plays a role in seizure expression. Therefore, (1) we analyzed proN/OFQ mRNA levels and NOP (the N/OFQ receptor) mRNA levels and receptor density in the kainate model of epilepsy, using Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and receptor binding assay, and (2) we examined susceptibility to kainate seizure in mice treated with 1-[(3R, 4R)-1-cyclooctylmethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-4-piperidyl]-3-ethyl-1, 3-dihydro-benzimidazol-2-one (J-113397), a selective NOP receptor antagonist, and in proN/OFQ knock-out mice. After kainate administration, increased proN/OFQ gene expression was observed in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus and in the medial nucleus of the amygdala. In contrast, NOP mRNA levels and receptor density decreased in the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and cortex. Mice treated with the NOP receptor antagonist J-113397 displayed reduced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures (i.e., significant reduction of behavioral seizure scores). N/OFQ knock-out mice were less susceptible to kainate seizures compared with their wild-type littermates, in that lethality was reduced, latency to generalized seizure onset was prolonged, and behavioral seizure scores decreased. Intracerebroventricular administration of N/OFQ prevented reduced susceptibility to kainate seizures in N/OFQ knock-out mice. These data indicate that acute limbic seizures are associated with increased N/OFQ release in selected areas, causing downregulation of NOP receptors and activation of N/OFQ biosynthesis, and support the notion that the N/OFQ-NOP system plays a facilitatory role in kainate seizure expression.

  4. Exploring the role of neuropeptide S in the regulation of arousal: a functional anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Adori, Csaba; Barde, Swapnali; Vas, Szilvia; Ebner, Karl; Su, Jie; Svensson, Camilla; Mathé, Aleksander A; Singewald, Nicolas; Reinscheid, Rainer R; Uhlén, Mathias; Kultima, Kim; Bagdy, György; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a regulatory peptide expressed by limited number of neurons in the brainstem. The simultaneous anxiolytic and arousal-promoting effect of NPS suggests an involvement in mood control and vigilance, making the NPS-NPS receptor system an interesting potential drug target. Here we examined, in detail, the distribution of NPS-immunoreactive (IR) fiber arborizations in brain regions of rat known to be involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal. Such nerve terminals were frequently apposed to GABAergic/galaninergic neurons in the ventro-lateral preoptic area (VLPO) and to tyrosine hydroxylase-IR neurons in all hypothalamic/thalamic dopamine cell groups. Then we applied the single platform-on-water (mainly REM) sleep deprivation method to study the functional role of NPS in the regulation of arousal. Of the three pontine NPS cell clusters, the NPS transcript levels were increased only in the peri-coerulear group in sleep-deprived animals, but not in stress controls. The density of NPS-IR fibers was significantly decreased in the median preoptic nucleus-VLPO region after the sleep deprivation, while radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry measurements showed a parallel increase of NPS in the anterior hypothalamus. The expression of the NPS receptor was, however, not altered in the VLPO-region. The present results suggest a selective activation of one of the three NPS-expressing neuron clusters as well as release of NPS in distinct forebrain regions after sleep deprivation. Taken together, our results emphasize a role of the peri-coerulear cluster in the modulation of arousal, and the importance of preoptic area for the action of NPS on arousal and sleep. PMID:26462664

  5. Neuropeptide Y, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide in the gut–brain axis

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter; Reichmann, Florian; Farzi, Aitak

    2012-01-01

    The gut–brain axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Four information carriers (vagal and spinal afferent neurons, immune mediators such as cytokines, gut hormones and gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) transmit information from the gut to the brain, while autonomic neurons and neuroendocrine factors carry outputs from the brain to the gut. The members of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of biologically active peptides, NPY, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), are expressed by cell systems at distinct levels of the gut–brain axis. PYY and PP are exclusively expressed by endocrine cells of the digestive system, whereas NPY is found at all levels of the gut–brain and brain–gut axis. The major systems expressing NPY comprise enteric neurons, primary afferent neurons, several neuronal pathways throughout the brain and sympathetic neurons. In the digestive tract, NPY and PYY inhibit gastrointestinal motility and electrolyte secretion and in this way modify the input to the brain. PYY is also influenced by the intestinal microbiota, and NPY exerts, via stimulation of Y1 receptors, a proinflammatory action. Furthermore, the NPY system protects against distinct behavioural disturbances caused by peripheral immune challenge, ameliorating the acute sickness response and preventing long-term depression. At the level of the afferent system, NPY inhibits nociceptive input from the periphery to the spinal cord and brainstem. In the brain, NPY and its receptors (Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5) play important roles in regulating food intake, energy homeostasis, anxiety, mood and stress resilience. In addition, PP and PYY signal to the brain to attenuate food intake, anxiety and depression-related behaviour. These findings underscore the important role of the NPY-Y receptor system at several levels of the gut–brain axis in which NPY, PYY and PP operate both as neural and endocrine messengers. PMID:22979996

  6. Role of neuropeptides in appetite regulation and obesity--a review.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sarika; Anubhuti

    2006-12-01

    Obesity represents the most prevalent nutritional problem worldwide which in the long run predisposes to development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, endometrial carcinoma, osteoarthritis, gall stones and cardiovascular diseases. Despite significant reductions in dietary fat consumption, the prevalence of obesity is on a rise and is taking on pandemic proportions. Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. Recently, a close evolutionary relationship between the peripheral and hypothalamic neuropeptides has become apparent. The hypothalamus being the central feeding organ mediates regulation of short-term and long-term dietary intake via synthesis of various orexigenic and anorectic neuropeptides. The structure and function of many hypothalamic peptides (neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanocortins, agouti-related peptide (AGRP), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), orexins have been characterized in rodent models The peripheral neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY3-36), amylin, bombesin regulate important gastrointestinal functions such as motility, secretion, absorption, provide feedback to the central nervous system on availability of nutrients and may play a part in regulating food intake. The pharmacological potential of several endogenous peripheral peptides released prior to, during and/or after feeding are being explored. Long-term regulation is provided by the main circulating hormones leptin and insulin. These systems implicated in hypothalamic appetite regulation provide potential targets for treatment of obesity which could potentially pass into clinical development in the next 5 years. This review summarizes various effects and interrelationship of these central and peripheral neuropeptides in metabolism, obesity and their potential role as targets for treatment of obesity.

  7. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mina; Song, Seok-Bo; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a high-fat diet. Design The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD), a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD), or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2). Results The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides. PMID:26493717

  8. Interferon-gamma produced by microglia and the neuropeptide PACAP have opposite effects on the viability of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Johanna; Koivuniemi, Raili; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is part of many neurological disorders and immune reactions may influence neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) contributing to the disease process. Our knowledge about the interplay between different cell types in brain inflammation are not fully understood. It is important to know the mechanisms and factors involved in order to enhance regeneration and brain repair. We show here that NPCs express receptors for interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), and IFNgamma activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein-1. IFNgamma reduced cell proliferation in NPCs by upregulation of the cell cycle protein p21 as well as induced cell death of NPCs by activating caspase-3. Studies of putative factors for rescue showed that the neuropeptide, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) increased cell viability, the levels of p-Bad and reduced caspase-3 activation in the NPCs. Medium from cultured microglia contained IFNgamma and decreased the viability of NPCs, whilst blocking with anti-IFNgamma antibodies counteracted this effect. The results show that NPCs are negatively influenced by IFNgamma whereas PACAP is able to modulate its action. The interplay between IFNgamma released from immune cells and PACAP is of importance in brain inflammation and may affect the regeneration and recruitment of NPCs in immune diseases. The observed effects of IFNgamma on NPCs deserve to be taken into account in human anti-viral therapies particularly in children with higher rates of brain stem cell proliferation.

  9. Neuropeptidergic Signaling and Active Feeding State Inhibit Nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ezcurra, Marina; Walker, Denise S.; Beets, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and nutritional status are important cues affecting behavioral states. Here we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a cascade of dopamine and neuropeptide signaling acts to inhibit nociception in food-poor environments. In the absence of food, animals show decreased sensitivity and increased adaptation to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH nociceptors. The effects of food on adaptation are affected by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling; dopamine acts via the DOP-1 receptor to decrease adaptation on food, whereas the neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 act to increase adaptation off food. NPR-1 and NPR-2 function cell autonomously in the ASH neurons to increase adaptation off food, whereas the DOP-1 receptor controls neuropeptide release from interneurons that modulate ASH activity indirectly. These results indicate that feeding state modulates nociception through the interaction of monoamine and neuropeptide signaling pathways. PMID:26985027

  10. Neuropeptidergic Signaling and Active Feeding State Inhibit Nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Marina; Walker, Denise S; Beets, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter; Schafer, William R

    2016-03-16

    Food availability and nutritional status are important cues affecting behavioral states. Here we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a cascade of dopamine and neuropeptide signaling acts to inhibit nociception in food-poor environments. In the absence of food, animals show decreased sensitivity and increased adaptation to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH nociceptors. The effects of food on adaptation are affected by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling; dopamine acts via the DOP-1 receptor to decrease adaptation on food, whereas the neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 act to increase adaptation off food. NPR-1 and NPR-2 function cell autonomously in the ASH neurons to increase adaptation off food, whereas the DOP-1 receptor controls neuropeptide release from interneurons that modulate ASH activity indirectly. These results indicate that feeding state modulates nociception through the interaction of monoamine and neuropeptide signaling pathways.

  11. Neuropeptidergic Signaling and Active Feeding State Inhibit Nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Marina; Walker, Denise S; Beets, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter; Schafer, William R

    2016-03-16

    Food availability and nutritional status are important cues affecting behavioral states. Here we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a cascade of dopamine and neuropeptide signaling acts to inhibit nociception in food-poor environments. In the absence of food, animals show decreased sensitivity and increased adaptation to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH nociceptors. The effects of food on adaptation are affected by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling; dopamine acts via the DOP-1 receptor to decrease adaptation on food, whereas the neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 act to increase adaptation off food. NPR-1 and NPR-2 function cell autonomously in the ASH neurons to increase adaptation off food, whereas the DOP-1 receptor controls neuropeptide release from interneurons that modulate ASH activity indirectly. These results indicate that feeding state modulates nociception through the interaction of monoamine and neuropeptide signaling pathways. PMID:26985027

  12. Neuropeptide imaging on an LTQ with vMALDI source: The complete `all-in-one' peptidome analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaert, Peter D.; Conaway, Maria C. Prieto; Pekar, Tonya M.; Miller, Ken

    2007-02-01

    Direct tissue imaging was performed on dissected insect tissue using a MALDI ion trap to visualize endogenous neuropeptides. Coupling tissue imaging to tandem MSn allows for the identification of previously known species and the ability to identify new ones by de novo sequencing, as searchable databases for insects are sparse. Direct tissue imaging is an attractive technique for the study of neuropeptides as minimal sample preparation is required prior to mass spectrometry. We successfully identified neuropeptides present in the corpora cardiaca and allata of Acheta domesticus (the house cricket). Diagnostic fragments at low m/z were used to distinguish between lipids and neuropeptides. The distribution of peptides appears to be more differentially localized than that of phospholipids, which seem to be more evenly distributed within the tissue.

  13. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in major depression in a multi-neurotransmitter system: a focus on antidepressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Werner, Felix-Martin; Coveñas, R

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the alterations of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and the corresponding subreceptors involved in major depression. Neuronal circuits in the brainstem, hippocampus and hypothalamus are developed, since they can be used to derive a multimodal pharmacotherapy. In this sense, serotonin hypoactivity could occur through a strong presynaptic inhibition of glutaminergic neurons via the subtype 5 of metabotropic glutaminergic receptors, and noradrenaline hypoactivity could be due to an enhanced presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic neurons via GABAB receptors. In the hippocampus, dopamine hypoactivity leads to a decreased positive effect. In clinical trials, the antidepressant effect of drugs interfering with the mentioned subreceptors, for example the triple reuptake inhibitor amitifadine, is being investigated. Moreover, the alterations of neuropeptides, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y and galanin are pointed out. The additional antidepressant effect of analogs, agonists and antagonists of the mentioned neuropeptides should be examined.

  14. Neuropeptides in Heteroptera: Identification of allatotropin-related peptide and tachykinin-related peptides using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the peptidomic analysis of neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex and abdominal perisympathetic organs of polyphagous stinkbugs (Pentatomidae) revealed the group-specific sequences of pyrokinins, CAPA peptides (CAPA-periviscerokinins/PVKs and CAPA-pyrokinin), myosuppressin, corazonin...

  15. Distribution and functional effects of neuropeptide Y on equine ureteral smooth muscle and resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Prieto, D; Hernández, M; Rivera, L; García-Sacristán, A; Simonsen, U

    1997-04-30

    The distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive (IR) nerves, as well as the functional effects of NPY and the Y1- and Y2-receptor agonists, [Leu31,Pro34]NPY and NPY(13-36), respectively, have been investigated in vitro in both visceral and arterial smooth muscle of the horse intravesical ureter. NPY-IR nerve fibres were widely distributed along the entire length of the ureter, although the intravesical part was the most richly innervated region, and the only one where NPY-IR ganglion cells were found. NPY (10(-7) M) did not affect either basal tone or spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the isolated intravesical ureter, but significantly enhanced the increases in both tone and frequency of phasic activity elicited by noradrenaline (10(-6) and 10(-5) M). The Y1-receptor agonist, [Leu31,Pro34]NPY (10(-7) and 10(-6) M) did not significantly alter either ureteral basal tone or the contractile activity induced by noradrenaline, whereas the Y2-receptor agonist, NPY(13-36) (10(-7) M), mimicked the potentiating effect of NPY on noradrenaline responses. In ureteral resistance arteries (effective lumen diameters of 130-300 microm), NPY (10(-10) to 10(-7) M) elicited concentration-dependent contractions, which were inversely correlated with the arterial lumen diameter. Submaximal concentrations of NPY (10(-8) M) significantly increased the sensitivity of ureteral arteries to noradrenaline. [Leu31,Pro34]NPY (10(-10) to 10(-7) M), but not NPY(13-36), induced a contractile effect of similar magnitude and potency as those of NPY, and also potentiated noradrenaline responses. The present results demonstrate a rich NPY-innervation in the intravesical ureter and reveal functional effects of the peptide enhancing motor activity in both ureteral and arterial smooth muscles, although the receptors mediating such effects seem to be different. Thus, NPY potentiates the phasic contractions and tone elicited by noradrenaline through Y2-receptors, whereas it both contracts and

  16. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuropeptides in diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Leena; Cai, Xuemei; Wu, Szuhuei; Andersen, Nicholas D; Martin, Michelle; Malek, Junaid; Guthrie, Patrick; Veves, Aristidis; Logerfo, Frank W

    2011-05-15

    The interaction between neuropeptides and cytokines and its role in cutaneous wound healing is becoming evident. The goal of the present study is to investigate the impact of diabetes on peripheral cytokine and neuropeptide expression and its role in diabetic wound healing. To achieve this goal, the effect of diabetes on wound healing, along with the role of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secreted in the wound microenvironment, and neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), secreted from peripheral nerves is monitored in non-diabetic and diabetic rabbits. Rabbits in the diabetic group received alloxan monohydrate (100mg/kg i.v.). Ten days after diabetic induction, four full thickness circular wounds were created in both ears using a 6mm punch biopsy. Wound healing was monitored over 10 d and gene expression of cytokines and neuropeptides was assessed in the wounds. Compared with the non-diabetic rabbits, wounds of diabetic rabbits heal significantly slower. Diabetic rabbits show significantly increased baseline gene expression of IL-6 and IL-8, their receptors, CXCR1, CXCR2, GP-130, and a decrease of prepro tachykinin-A (PP-TA), the precursor of SP, whereas the expression of prepro-NPY (PP-NPY), the precursor of NPY is not different. Similarly, baseline protein expression of CXCR1 is higher in diabetic rabbit skin. Post-injury, the increase over baseline gene expression of IL-6, IL-8, CXCR1, CXCR2, and GP-130 is significantly less in diabetic wounds compared with non-diabetic wounds. Although there is no difference in PP-TA gene expression between non-diabetic and diabetic rabbits post-injury, the gene expression of PP-NPY is reduced in diabetic rabbits. In conclusion, diabetes causes dysregulation in the neuropeptide expression in the skin along with a suppressed focused inflammatory response to injury. This suggests that the chronic inflammation in the skin of diabetic rabbits inhibits the acute

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite: evidence of roles in larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S S; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  18. Transcriptome and Peptidome Characterisation of the Main Neuropeptides and Peptidic Hormones of a Euphausiid: The Ice Krill, Euphausia crystallorophias

    PubMed Central

    Toullec, Jean-Yves; Corre, Erwan; Bernay, Benoît; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Cascella, Kévin; Ollivaux, Céline; Henry, Joël; Clark, Melody S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ice krill, Euphausia crystallorophias is one of the species at the base of the Southern Ocean food chain. Given their significant contribution to the biomass of the Southern Ocean, it is vitally important to gain a better understanding of their physiology and, in particular, anticipate their responses to climate change effects in the warming seas around Antarctica. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina sequencing was used to produce a transcriptome of the ice krill. Analysis of the assembled contigs via two different methods, produced 36 new pre-pro-peptides, coding for 61 neuropeptides or peptide hormones belonging to the following families: Allatostatins (A, B et C), Bursicon (α and β), Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones (CHH and MIH/VIHs), Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide (CCAP), Corazonin, Diuretic Hormones (DH), the Eclosion Hormone (EH), Neuroparsin, Neuropeptide F (NPF), small Neuropeptide F (sNPF), Pigment Dispersing Hormone (PDH), Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (RPCH) and finally Tachykinin. LC/MS/MS proteomics was also carried out on eyestalk extracts, which are the major site of neuropeptide synthesis in decapod crustaceans. Results confirmed the presence of six neuropeptides and six precursor-related peptides previously identified in the transcriptome analyses. Conclusions This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of neuropeptide hormones in a Eucarida non-decapod Malacostraca, several of which are described for the first time in a non-decapod crustacean. Additionally, there is a potential expansion of PDH and Neuropeptide F family members, which may reflect certain life history traits such as circadian rhythms associated with diurnal migrations and also the confirmation via mass spectrometry of several novel pre-pro-peptides, of unknown function. Knowledge of these essential hormones provides a vital framework for understanding the physiological response of this key Southern Ocean species to climate change and provides

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite: Evidence of Roles in Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S. S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  20. Expression and distribution of neuropeptides in the nervous system of the crab Carcinus maenas and their roles in environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuzhuo; Buchberger, Amanda; Muthuvel, Gajanthan; Li, Lingjun

    2015-12-01

    Environmental fluctuations, such as salinity, impose serious challenges to marine animal survival. Neuropeptides, signaling molecules involved in the regulation process, and the dynamic changes of their full complement in the stress response have yet to be investigated. Here, a MALDI-MS-based stable isotope labeling quantitation strategy was used to investigate the relationship between neuropeptide expression and adaptability of Carcinus maenas to various salinity levels, including high (60 parts per thousand [p.p.t.]) and low (0 p.p.t.) salinity, in both the crustacean pericardial organ (PO) and brain. Moreover, a high salinity stress time course study was conducted. MS imaging (MSI) of neuropeptide localization in C. maenas PO was also performed. As a result of salinity stress, multiple neuropeptide families exhibited changes in their relative abundances, including RFamides (e.g. APQGNFLRFamide), RYamides (e.g. SSFRVGGSRYamide), B-type allatostatins (AST-B; e.g. VPNDWAHFRGSWamide), and orcokinins (e.g. NFDEIDRSSFGFV). The MSI data revealed distribution differences in several neuropeptides (e.g. SGFYANRYamide) between color morphs, but salinity stress appeared to not have a major effect on the localization of the neuropeptides.

  1. Neuropeptidome of the Cephalopod Sepia officinalis: Identification, Tissue Mapping, and Expression Pattern of Neuropeptides and Neurohormones during Egg Laying.

    PubMed

    Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Cornet, Valérie; Leduc, Alexandre; Zanuttini, Bruno; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Bernay, Benoît; Garderes, Johan; Kraut, Alexandra; Couté, Yohan; Henry, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Cephalopods exhibit a wide variety of behaviors such as prey capture, communication, camouflage, and reproduction thanks to a complex central nervous system (CNS) divided into several functional lobes that express a wide range of neuropeptides involved in the modulation of behaviors and physiological mechanisms associated with the main stages of their life cycle. This work focuses on the neuropeptidome expressed during egg-laying through de novo construction of the CNS transcriptome using an RNAseq approach (Illumina sequencing). Then, we completed the in silico analysis of the transcriptome by characterizing and tissue-mapping neuropeptides by mass spectrometry. To identify neuropeptides involved in the egg-laying process, we determined (1) the neuropeptide contents of the neurohemal area, hemolymph (blood), and nerve endings in mature females and (2) the expression levels of these peptides. Among the 38 neuropeptide families identified from 55 transcripts, 30 were described for the first time in Sepia officinalis, 5 were described for the first time in the animal kingdom, and 14 were strongly overexpressed in egg-laying females as compared with mature males. Mass spectrometry screening of hemolymph and nerve ending contents allowed us to clarify the status of many neuropeptides, that is, to determine whether they were neuromodulators or neurohormones.

  2. Neuropeptides in the cerebral ganglia of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: transcriptomic analysis and expression profiles during vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chenchang; Yang, Yanan; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui

    2015-11-23

    Neuropeptides play a critical role in regulating animal reproduction. In vertebrates, GnRH, GnIH and kisspeptin are the key neuropeptide hormones of the reproductive axis, however, the reproductive axis for invertebrates is vague. Knowledge on ovarian development of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, is critical for aquaculture and resources management of the commercially important species. This study employed Illumina sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR techniques to identify neuropeptides that may be involved in ovarian development of S. paramamosain. A total of 32 neuropeptide transcripts from two dozen neuropeptide families, 100 distinct mature peptides were predicted from the transcriptome data of female S. paramamosain cerebral ganglia. Among them, two families, i.e. GSEFLamide and WXXXRamide, were first identified from the cerebral ganglia of crustaceans. Of these neuropeptides, 21 transcripts of interest were selected for further confirmation and all of them were detected in the cerebral ganglia, as well as in other nervous tissues and the ovary. Most of them also had differential expression in the cerebral ganglia during various vitellogenic stages, suggesting their likely involvement in regulating vitellogenesis and ovarian maturation. Overall, these findings provide an important basis for subsequent studies on peptide function in reproduction of S. paramamosain.

  3. Neuropeptides in the cerebral ganglia of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: transcriptomic analysis and expression profiles during vitellogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Chenchang; Yang, Yanan; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides play a critical role in regulating animal reproduction. In vertebrates, GnRH, GnIH and kisspeptin are the key neuropeptide hormones of the reproductive axis, however, the reproductive axis for invertebrates is vague. Knowledge on ovarian development of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, is critical for aquaculture and resources management of the commercially important species. This study employed Illumina sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR techniques to identify neuropeptides that may be involved in ovarian development of S. paramamosain. A total of 32 neuropeptide transcripts from two dozen neuropeptide families, 100 distinct mature peptides were predicted from the transcriptome data of female S. paramamosain cerebral ganglia. Among them, two families, i.e. GSEFLamide and WXXXRamide, were first identified from the cerebral ganglia of crustaceans. Of these neuropeptides, 21 transcripts of interest were selected for further confirmation and all of them were detected in the cerebral ganglia, as well as in other nervous tissues and the ovary. Most of them also had differential expression in the cerebral ganglia during various vitellogenic stages, suggesting their likely involvement in regulating vitellogenesis and ovarian maturation. Overall, these findings provide an important basis for subsequent studies on peptide function in reproduction of S. paramamosain. PMID:26592767

  4. Expression and distribution of neuropeptides in the nervous system of the crab Carcinus maenas and their roles in environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuzhuo; Buchberger, Amanda; Muthuvel, Gajanthan; Li, Lingjun

    2015-12-01

    Environmental fluctuations, such as salinity, impose serious challenges to marine animal survival. Neuropeptides, signaling molecules involved in the regulation process, and the dynamic changes of their full complement in the stress response have yet to be investigated. Here, a MALDI-MS-based stable isotope labeling quantitation strategy was used to investigate the relationship between neuropeptide expression and adaptability of Carcinus maenas to various salinity levels, including high (60 parts per thousand [p.p.t.]) and low (0 p.p.t.) salinity, in both the crustacean pericardial organ (PO) and brain. Moreover, a high salinity stress time course study was conducted. MS imaging (MSI) of neuropeptide localization in C. maenas PO was also performed. As a result of salinity stress, multiple neuropeptide families exhibited changes in their relative abundances, including RFamides (e.g. APQGNFLRFamide), RYamides (e.g. SSFRVGGSRYamide), B-type allatostatins (AST-B; e.g. VPNDWAHFRGSWamide), and orcokinins (e.g. NFDEIDRSSFGFV). The MSI data revealed distribution differences in several neuropeptides (e.g. SGFYANRYamide) between color morphs, but salinity stress appeared to not have a major effect on the localization of the neuropeptides. PMID:26475201

  5. Neuropeptide Y in normal eating and in genetic and dietary-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Beck, B

    2006-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one the most potent orexigenic peptides found in the brain. It stimulates food intake with a preferential effect on carbohydrate intake. It decreases latency to eat, increases motivation to eat and delays satiety by augmenting meal size. The effects on feeding are mediated through at least two receptors, the Y1 and Y5 receptors. The NPY system for feeding regulation is mostly located in the hypothalamus. It is formed of the arcuate nucleus (ARC), where the peptide is synthesized, and the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMN) and ventromedial (VMN) nuclei and perifornical area where it is active. This activity is modulated by the hindbrain and limbic structures. It is dependent on energy availability, e.g. upregulation with food deprivation or restriction, and return to baseline with refeeding. It is also sensitive to diet composition with variable effects of carbohydrates and fats. Leptin signalling and glucose sensing which are directly linked to diet type are the most important factors involved in its regulation. Absence of leptin signalling in obesity models due to gene mutation either at the receptor level, as in the Zucker rat, the Koletsky rat or the db/db mouse, or at the peptide level, as in ob/ob mouse, is associated with increased mRNA abundance, peptide content and/or release in the ARC or PVN. Other genetic obesity models, such as the Otsuka–Long–Evans–Tokushima Fatty rat, the agouti mouse or the tubby mouse, are characterized by a diminution in NPY expression in the ARC nucleus and by a significant increase in the DMN. Further studies are necessary to determine the exact role of NPY in these latter models. Long-term exposure to high-fat or high-energy palatable diets leads to the development of adiposity and is associated with a decrease in hypothalamic NPY content or expression, consistent with the existence of a counter-regulatory mechanism to diminish energy intake and limit obesity development. On the other hand, an

  6. Widespread receptivity to neuropeptide PDF throughout the neuronal circadian clock network of Drosophila revealed by real-time cyclic AMP imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Orie T.; Kim, Dong Jo; Dunbar-Yaffe, Richard; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Lohse, Martin J.; Taghert, Paul H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The neuropeptide PDF is released by sixteen clock neurons in Drosophila and helps maintain circadian activity rhythms by coordinating a network of ~150 neuronal clocks. Whether PDF acts directly on elements of this neural network remains unknown. We address this question by adapting Epac1-camps, a genetically encoded cAMP FRET sensor, for use in the living brain. We find that a subset of the PDF-expressing neurons respond to PDF with long-lasting cAMP increases, and confirm that such responses require the PDF receptor. In contrast, an unrelated Drosophila neuropeptide, DH 31, stimulates large cAMP increases in all PDF-expressing clock neurons. Thus the network of ~150 clock neurons displays widespread, though not uniform, PDF receptivity. This work introduces a sensitive means of measuring cAMP changes in a living brain with sub-cellular resolution. Specifically, it experimentally confirms the longstanding hypothesis that PDF is a direct modulator of most neurons in the Drosophila clock network. PMID:18439407

  7. Distribution of peptidergic populations in the human dentate gyrus (somatostatin [SOM-28, SOM-12] and neuropeptide Y [NPY]) during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Cebada-Sánchez, S; Insausti, R; González-Fuentes, J; Arroyo-Jiménez, M M; Rivas-Infante, E; Lagartos, M J; Martínez-Ruiz, J; Lozano, G; Marcos, P

    2014-10-01

    The postnatal development of the human hippocampal formation establishes the time and place at which we start autobiographical memories. However, data concerning the maturation of the neurochemical phenotypes characteristic of interneurons in the human hippocampus are scarce. We have studied the perinatal and postnatal changes of the dentate gyrus (DG) interneuron populations at three rostrocaudal levels. Immunohistochemically identified neurons and fibers for somatostatin (SOM-12 and SOM-28) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the co-localization of SOM-28 and NPY were analyzed. In total, 13 cases were investigated from late pregnancy (1 case), perinatal period (6 cases), first year (1 case), early infancy (3 cases), and late infancy (2 cases). Overall, the pattern of distribution of these peptides in the DG was similar to that of the adult. The distribution of cells was charted, and the cell density (number of positive cells/mm(2)) was calculated. The highest density corresponded to the polymorphic cell layer and was higher at pre- and perinatal periods. At increasing ages, neuron density modifications revealed a decrease from 5 postnatal months onward. In contrast, by late infancy, two immunoreactive bands for SOM-28 and NPY in the molecular layer were much better defined. Double-immunohistochemistry showed that NPY-positive neurons co-localized with SOM-28, whereas some fibers contained only one or other of the neuropeptides. Thus, this peptidergic population, presumably inhibitory, probably has a role in DG maturation and its subsequent functional activity in memory processing.

  8. Neuropeptide Y-like signalling and nutritionally mediated gene expression and behaviour in the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Ament, S A; Velarde, R A; Kolodkin, M H; Moyse, D; Robinson, G E

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has led to the idea that derived traits can arise through the evolution of novel roles for conserved genes. We explored whether neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like signalling, a conserved pathway that regulates food-related behaviour, is involved in a derived, nutritionally-related trait, the division of labour in worker honey bees. Transcripts encoding two NPY-like peptides were expressed in separate populations of brain neurosecretory cells, consistent with endocrine functions. NPY-related genes were upregulated in the brains of older foragers compared with younger bees performing brood care ('nurses'). A subset of these changes can be attributed to nutrition, but neuropeptide F peptide treatments did not influence sugar intake. These results contrast with recent reports of more robust associations between division of labour and the related insulin-signalling pathway and suggest that some elements of molecular pathways associated with feeding behaviour may be more evolutionarily labile than others.

  9. Hormones, hormonal agents, and neuropeptides involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Kotronoulas, Grigorios; Stamatakis, Antonios; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is an essential ubiquitous biological process, a periodical state of quiescence in which there is minimal processing of sensory information and no interaction with conspecifics or the environment.