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Sample records for activating neuropeptide receptor

  1. Activation of Neuropeptide FF Receptors by Kisspeptin Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shinya; Misu, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kenji; Setsuda, Shohei; Masuda, Ryo; Ohno, Hiroaki; Naniwa, Yousuke; Ieda, Nahoko; Inoue, Naoko; Ohkura, Satoshi; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2011-01-13

    Kisspeptin is a member of the RFamide neuropeptide family that is implicated in gonadotropin secretion. Because kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling is implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction, GPR54 ligands represent promising therapeutic agents against endocrine secretion disorders. In the present study, the selectivity profiles of GPR54 agonist peptides were investigated for several GPCRs, including RFamide receptors. Kisspeptin-10 exhibited potent binding and activation of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and NPFFR2). In contrast, short peptide agonists bound with much lower affinity to NPFFRs while showing relatively high selectivity toward GPR54. The possible localization of secondary kisspeptin targets was also demonstrated by variation in the levels of GnRH release from the median eminence and the type of GPR54 agonists used. Negligible affinity of the reported NPFFR ligands to GPR54 was observed and indicates the unidirectional cross-reactivity between both ligands.

  2. Neuropeptide Y receptor mediates activation of ERK1/2 via transactivation of the IGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Sandra; Belemnaba, Lazare; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Bucher, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y binds to G-protein coupled receptors whose action results in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. Using HEK293 cells stably expressing the native neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors, we found that the NPY agonist elicits a transient phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). We first show that ERK1/2 activation following Y1 receptor stimulation is dependent on heterotrimeric Gi/o since it is completely inhibited by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin. In addition, ERK1/2 activation is internalization-independent since mutant Y1 receptors unable to recruit β-arrestins, can still activate ERK signaling to the same extent as wild-type receptors. We next show that this activation of the MAPK pathway is inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126, is not dependent on calcium signaling at the Y1 receptor (no effect upon inhibition of phospholipase C, protein kinase C or protein kinase D) but instead dependent on Gβ/γ and associated signaling pathways that activate PI3-kinase. Although inhibition of the epidermal-growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase did not influence NPY-induced ERK1/2 activation, we show that the inhibition of insulin growth factor receptor IGFR by AG1024 completely blocks activation of ERK1/2 by the Y1 receptor. This Gβ/γ-PI3K-AG1024-sensitive pathway does not involve activation of IGFR through the release of a soluble ligand by metalloproteinases since it is not affected by the metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat. Finally, we found that a similar pathway, sensitive to wortmannin-AG1024 but insensitive to marimastat, is implicated in activation of ERK signaling in HEK293 cells by endogenously expressed GPCRs coupled to Gq-protein (muscarinic M3 receptors) or coupled to Gs-protein (endothelin ETB receptors). Our analysis is the first to show that β-arrestin recruitment to the NPY Y1 receptor is not necessary for MAPK activation by this receptor but that transactivation of the IGFR receptor is required.

  3. Neuropeptide S reduces mouse aggressiveness in the resident/intruder test through selective activation of the neuropeptide S receptor.

    PubMed

    Ruzza, Chiara; Asth, Laila; Guerrini, Remo; Trapella, Claudio; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2015-10-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptor (NPSR). In particular NPS evokes robust anxiolytic-like effects in rodents together with a stimulant and arousal promoting action. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of NPS on the aggressiveness of mice subjected to the resident/intruder test. Moreover the putative role played by the endogenous NPS/NPSR system in regulating mice aggressiveness was investigating using mice lacking the NPSR receptor (NPSR(-/-)) and the NPSR selective antagonists [(t)Bu-D-Gly(5)]NPS and SHA 68. NPS (0.01-1 nmol, icv) reduced, in a dose dependent manner, both the time that resident mice spent attacking the intruder mice and their number of attacks, producing pharmacological effects similar to those elicited by the standard anti-aggressive drug valproate (300 mg/kg, ip). This NPS effect was evident in NPSR wild type (NPSR(+/+)) mice but completely disappeared in NPSR(-/-) mice. Moreover, NPSR(-/-) mice displayed a significantly higher time spent attacking than NPSR(+/+) mice. [(t)Bu-D-Gly(5)]NPS (10 nmol, icv) did not change the behavior of mice in the resident/intruder test but completely counteracted NPS effects. SHA 68 (50 mg/kg, ip) was inactive per se and against NPS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that NPS produces anti-aggressive effects in mice through the selective activation of NPSR and that the endogenous NPS/NPSR system can exert a role in the control of aggressiveness levels under the present experimental conditions.

  4. Identification of a platyhelminth neuropeptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hanan H; Humphries, Judith E; Larsen, Martha J; Kubiak, Teresa M; Geary, Timothy G; Maule, Aaron G; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2007-06-01

    We report the characterisation of the first neuropeptide receptor from the phylum Platyhelminthes, an early-diverging phylum which includes a number of important human and veterinary parasites. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) was identified from the model flatworm Girardia tigrina (Tricladida: Dugesiidae) based on the presence of motifs widely conserved amongst GPCRs. In two different assays utilising heterologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the Girardia GPCR was most potently activated by neuropeptides from the FMRFamide-like peptide class. The most potent platyhelminth neuropeptide in both assays was GYIRFamide, a FMRFamide-like peptide known to be present in G. tigrina. There was no activation by neuropeptide Fs, another class of flatworm neuropeptides. Also active were FMRFamide-like peptides derived from other phyla but not known to be present in any platyhelminth. Most potent among these were nematode neuropeptides encoded by the Caenorhabditis elegans flp-1 gene which share a PNFLRFamide carboxy terminal motif. The ability of nematode peptides to stimulate a platyhelminth receptor demonstrates a degree of structural conservation between FMRFamide-like peptide receptors from these two distinct, distant phyla which contain parasitic worms.

  5. Activation of Neuropeptide Y Receptors Modulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Physiology and Exerts Neuroprotective Actions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Elvas, Filipe; Brudzewsky, Dan; Martins, Tânia; Kolomiets, Bogdan; Tralhão, Pedro; Gøtzsche, Casper R.; Cavadas, Cláudia; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Woldbye, David P. D.; Picaud, Serge; Santiago, Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in mammalian retina but the location and potential modulatory effects of NPY receptor activation remain largely unknown. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a hallmark of several retinal degenerative diseases, particularly glaucoma. Using purified RGCs and ex vivo rat retinal preparations, we have measured RGC intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and RGC spiking activity, respectively. We found that NPY attenuated the increase in the [Ca2+]i triggered by glutamate mainly via Y1 receptor activation. Moreover, (Leu31, Pro34)−NPY, a Y1/Y5 receptor agonist, increased the initial burst response of OFF-type RGCs, although no effect was observed on RGC spontaneous spiking activity. The Y1 receptor activation was also able to directly modulate RGC responses by attenuating the NMDA-induced increase in RGC spiking activity. These results suggest that Y1 receptor activation, at the level of inner or outer plexiform layers, leads to modulation of RGC receptive field properties. Using in vitro cultures of rat retinal explants exposed to NMDA, we found that NPY pretreatment prevented NMDA-induced cell death. However, in an animal model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, pretreatment with NPY or (Leu31, Pro34)−NPY was not able to prevent apoptosis or rescue RGCs. In conclusion, we found modulatory effects of NPY application that for the first time were detected at the level of RGCs. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether NPY neuroprotective actions detected in retinal explants can be translated into animal models of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:26311075

  6. Activation of Neuropeptide Y Receptors Modulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Physiology and Exerts Neuroprotective Actions In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Martins, João; Elvas, Filipe; Brudzewsky, Dan; Martins, Tânia; Kolomiets, Bogdan; Tralhão, Pedro; Gøtzsche, Casper R; Cavadas, Cláudia; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Woldbye, David P D; Picaud, Serge; Santiago, Ana R; Ambrósio, António F

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in mammalian retina but the location and potential modulatory effects of NPY receptor activation remain largely unknown. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a hallmark of several retinal degenerative diseases, particularly glaucoma. Using purified RGCs and ex vivo rat retinal preparations, we have measured RGC intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and RGC spiking activity, respectively. We found that NPY attenuated the increase in the [Ca2+]i triggered by glutamate mainly via Y1 receptor activation. Moreover, (Leu31, Pro34)-NPY, a Y1/Y5 receptor agonist, increased the initial burst response of OFF-type RGCs, although no effect was observed on RGC spontaneous spiking activity. The Y1 receptor activation was also able to directly modulate RGC responses by attenuating the NMDA-induced increase in RGC spiking activity. These results suggest that Y1 receptor activation, at the level of inner or outer plexiform layers, leads to modulation of RGC receptive field properties. Using in vitro cultures of rat retinal explants exposed to NMDA, we found that NPY pretreatment prevented NMDA-induced cell death. However, in an animal model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, pretreatment with NPY or (Leu31, Pro34)-NPY was not able to prevent apoptosis or rescue RGCs. In conclusion, we found modulatory effects of NPY application that for the first time were detected at the level of RGCs. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether NPY neuroprotective actions detected in retinal explants can be translated into animal models of retinal degenerative diseases.

  7. Identification of functionally important residues in the silkmoth pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor, an insect ortholog of the vertebrate Neuromedin U Receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biosynthesis of sex pheromone components in many lepidopteran insects is regulated by interactions between pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the PBAN receptor (PBANR), a class-A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). To identify functionally important amino acid residues in t...

  8. The pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) receptor of Heliothis virescens: Identification, functional expression, and structure-activity relationships of ligand analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) promotes synthesis and release of sex pheromones in moths. We have identified and functionally expressed a PBAN receptor from Heliothis virescens (HevPBANR) and elucidated structure-activity relationships of PBAN analogs. Screening of a larval C...

  9. Stimulation of the sympathetic perimesenteric arterial nerves releases neuropeptide Y potentiating the vasomotor activity of noradrenaline: involvement of neuropeptide Y-Y1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Donoso, M V; Brown, N; Carrasco, C; Cortes, V; Fournier, A; Huidobro-Toro, J P

    1997-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) appears to be involved in the sympathetic regulation of vascular tone. To assess the putative role of NPY in mesenteric circulation, the release and biological effect of NPY were examined after electrical stimulation of perimesenteric arterial nerves. Nerve stimulation with trains of 2-30 Hz increased the perfusion pressure of the arterially perfused rat mesenteric bed in a frequency- and time-dependent fashion. Trains of 15-30 Hz significantly displaced to the left, approximately threefold, the noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor concentration-response curve, in addition to increasing significantly its efficacy. Perfusion with 10 nM exogenous NPY mimicked the electrical stimulation effect, causing a threefold leftward shift of the NA concentration-response curve and increasing the maximal NA response. These effects were antagonized by 100 nM BIBP 3226, indicating the activity of NPY-Y1 receptors. Electrical stimulation of the perimesenteric nerves released immunoreactive NPY (ir-NPY) in a frequency-dependent fashion; the ir-NPY coelutes with synthetic NPY as confirmed by HPLC. Both the electrically induced pressor response and the calcium-dependent release of NPY were obliterated in preparations perfused with 1 microM guanethidine or in rats pretreated intravenously for 48 h with 6-hydroxydopamine, thus revealing the sympathetic origin of these phenomena. Only a small proportion of the total NPY content in the perimesenteric arterial nerves is released after electrical stimulation. Chromatographic studies of the physiological sources of the ir-NPY support that NPY fragments are generated via peptidase degradation. The present findings demonstrate that NPY is released from the perimesenteric arterial sympathetic nerves and acts, via the activation of NPY-Y1 receptors, as the mediator responsible for the potentiation of NA's effect on perfusion pressure in the isolated rat mesenteric bed.

  10. High-affinity neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, A J; Matthews, J E; Slepetis, R J; Jansen, M; Viveros, O H; Tadepalli, A; Harrington, W; Heyer, D; Landavazo, A; Leban, J J

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptide transmitters in the mammalian brain. In the periphery it is costored and coreleased with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals. However, the physiological functions of this peptide remain unclear because of the absence of specific high-affinity receptor antagonists. Three potent NPY receptor antagonists were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo functional assays. We describe here the effects of these antagonists inhibiting specific radiolabeled NPY binding at Y1 and Y2 receptors and antagonizing the effects of NPY in human erythroleukemia cell intracellular calcium mobilization perfusion pressure in the isolated rat kidney, and mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. PMID:7568074

  11. Caloric restriction stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons through neuropeptide Y and ghrelin receptors activation

    PubMed Central

    Carmo-Silva, Sara; Botelho, Mariana; de Almeida, Luís Pereira; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is an anti-aging intervention known to extend lifespan in several experimental models, at least in part, by stimulating autophagy. Caloric restriction increases neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and plasma ghrelin, a peripheral gut hormone that acts in hypothalamus to modulate energy homeostasis. NPY and ghrelin have been shown to be neuroprotective in different brain areas and to induce several physiological modifications similar to those induced by caloric restriction. However, the effect of NPY and ghrelin in autophagy in cortical neurons is currently not known. Using a cell culture of rat cortical neurons we investigate the involvement of NPY and ghrelin in caloric restriction-induced autophagy. We observed that a caloric restriction mimetic cell culture medium stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons and NPY or ghrelin receptor antagonists blocked this effect. On the other hand, exogenous NPY or ghrelin stimulate autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Moreover, NPY mediates the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Since autophagy impairment occurs in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, NPY and ghrelin synergistic effect on autophagy stimulation may suggest a new strategy to delay aging process. PMID:27441412

  12. The Arginine Residue within the C-Terminal Active Core of Bombyx mori Pheromone Biosynthesis-Activating Neuropeptide is Essential for Receptor Binding and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Takeshi; Lee, Jae Min; Nagata, Koji; Matsumoto, Shogo; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    In most lepidopteran insects, the biosynthesis of sex pheromones is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN). Bombyx mori PBAN (BomPBAN) consists of 33 amino acid residues and contains a C-terminus FSPRLamide motif as the active core. Among neuropeptides containing the FXPRLamide motif, the arginine (Arg, R) residue at the second position from the C-terminus is highly conserved across several neuropeptides, which can be designated as RXamide peptides. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of the Arg residue in the BomPBAN active core. We synthesized 10-residue peptides corresponding to the C-terminal part of BomPBAN with a series of replacements at the second position from the C-terminus, termed the C2 position, and measured their efficacy in stimulating Ca2+ influx in insect cells expressing a fluorescent PBAN receptor chimera (PBANR–EGFP) using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, Fura Red–AM. The PBAN analogs with the C2 position replaced with alanine (Ala, A), aspartic acid (Asp, D), serine (Ser, S), or l-2-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) decreased PBAN-like activity. RC2A (SKTRYFSPALamide) and RC2D (SKTRYFSPDLamide) had the lowest activity and could not inhibit the activity of PBAN C10 (SKTRYFSPRLamide). We also prepared Rhodamine Red-labeled peptides of the PBAN analogs and examined their ability to bind PBANR. In contrast to Rhodamine Red-PBAN C10 at 100 nM, none of the synthetic analogs exhibited PBANR binding at the same concentration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the C2 Arg residue in BomPBAN is essential for PBANR binding and activation. PMID:22654866

  13. Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) activates cancer-related pathways and is widely expressed in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, V; Ezer, S; Sundman, L; Hagström, J; Remes, S; Söderhäll, C; Greco, D; Dario, G; Haglund, C; Kere, J; Arola, J

    2014-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from disseminated neuroendocrine cells and express general and specific neuroendocrine markers. Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) is expressed in neuroendocrine cells and its ligand neuropeptide S (NPS) affects cell proliferation. Our aim was to study whether NPS/NPSR1 could be used as a biomarker for neuroendocrine neoplasms and to identify the gene pathways affected by NPS/NPSR1. We collected a cohort of NETs comprised of 91 samples from endocrine glands, digestive tract, skin, and lung. Tumor type was validated by immunostaining of chromogranin-A and synaptophysin expression and tumor grade was analyzed by Ki-67 proliferation index. NPS and NPSR1 expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against NPS and monoclonal antibodies against the amino-terminus and carboxy-terminus of NPSR1 isoform A (NPSR1-A). The effects of NPS on downstream signaling were studied in a human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line which overexpresses NPSR1-A and is of neuroendocrine origin. NPSR1 and NPS were expressed in most NET tissues, with the exception of adrenal pheochromocytomas in which NPS/NPSR1 immunoreactivity was very low. Transcriptome analysis of NPSR1-A overexpressing cells revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, circadian activity, focal adhesion, transforming growth factor beta, and cytokine-cytokine interactions were the most altered gene pathways after NPS stimulation. Our results show that NETs are a source of NPS and NPSR1, and that NPS affects cancer-related pathways. PMID:24915894

  14. Neuropeptides, via specific receptors, regulate T cell adhesion to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Levite, M; Cahalon, L; Hershkoviz, R; Steinman, L; Lider, O

    1998-01-15

    The ability of T cells to adhere to and interact with components of the blood vessel walls and the extracellular matrix is essential for their extravasation and migration into inflamed sites. We have found that the beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion of resting human T cells to fibronectin, a major glycoprotein component of the extracellular matrix, is induced by physiologic concentrations of three neuropeptides: calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin; each acts via its own specific receptor on the T cell membrane. In contrast, substance P (SP), which coexists with CGRP in the majority of peripheral endings of sensory nerves, including those innervating the lymphoid organs, blocks T cell adhesion to fibronectin when induced by CGRP, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, and PMA. Inhibition of T cell adhesion was obtained both by the intact SP peptide and by its 1-4 N-terminal and its 4-11, 5-11, and 6-11 C-terminal fragments, used at similar nanomolar concentrations. The inhibitory effects of the parent SP peptide and its fragments were abrogated by an SP NK-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting they all act through the same SP NK-1 receptor. These findings suggest that neuropeptides, by activating their specific T cell-expressed receptors, can provide the T cells with both positive (proadhesive) and negative (antiadhesive) signals and thereby regulate their function. Thus, neuropeptides may influence diverse physiologic processes involving integrins, including leukocyte-mediated migration and inflammation. PMID:9551939

  15. Activation of Bombyx neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor A4 via a Gαi-dependent signaling pathway by direct interaction with neuropeptide F from silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoyan; Yang, Huipeng; He, Xiaobai; Liao, Yuan; Zheng, Congxia; Zhou, Qi; Zhu, Chenggang; Zhang, Guozheng; Gao, Jimin; Zhou, Naiming

    2014-02-01

    Members of the mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) family serve as neurotransmitters and contribute to a diversity of physiological functions. Although neuropeptide F (NPF), the NPY-like orthologs from insects, have been identified, the NPF receptors and their signaling and physiological functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we established the stable and transient functional expression of a Bombyx orphan G protein-coupled receptor, BNGR-A4, in both mammalian HEK293 and insect SF21 cells. We identified Bombyx mori NPFs as specific endogenous ligands for the Bombyx Neuropeptide GPCR A4 (BNGR-A4) and, accordingly, named the receptor BomNPFR. Our results demonstrated that BomNPFR was activated by synthetic BomNPF1a and BomNPF1b at a high efficacy and by BomNPF2 at a low efficacy. This activation led to a decrease of forskolin or adipokinetic hormone peptide-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, an increase of intracellular Ca(2+), the activation of ERK1/2 signaling and receptor internalization. Moreover, a Rhodamine-labeled BomNPF1a peptide was found to bind specifically to BomNPFR. The results derived from quantitative RT-PCR analysis and dsRNA-mediated knockdown experiments demonstrated the possible role of BomNPFR in the regulation of food intake and growth. Our results provide the first in-depth information on BomNPFR-mediated signaling for the further elucidation of the BomNPF/BomNPFR system in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes. PMID:24374022

  16. The neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor knockdown modulates activator protein 1-involved feeding behavior in amphetamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and two immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, have been found to be involved in regulating the appetite-suppressing effect of amphetamine (AMPH). The present study investigated whether cerebral catecholamine (CA) might regulate NPY and POMC expression and whether NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) participated in activator protein-1 (AP-1)–mediated feeding. Methods Rats were given AMPH daily for 4 days. Changes in the expression of NPY, Y1R, c-Fos, c-Jun, and AP-1 were assessed and compared. Results Decreased CA could modulate NPY and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) expressions. NPY and food intake decreased the most on Day 2, but Y1R, c-Fos, and c-Jun increased by approximately 350%, 280%, and 300%, respectively, on Day 2. Similarly, AP-1/DNA binding activity was increased by about 180% on Day 2. The expression patterns in Y1R, c-Fos, c-Jun, and AP-1/DNA binding were opposite to those in NPY during AMPH treatment. Y1R knockdown was found to modulate the opposite regulation between NPY and AP-1, revealing an involvement of Y1R in regulating NPY/AP-1–mediated feeding. Conclusions These results point to a molecular mechanism of CA/NPY/Y1R/AP-1 signaling in the control of AMPH-mediated anorexia and may advance the medical research of anorectic and anti-obesity drugs. PMID:24225225

  17. Neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors: drug targets, and peptide and non-peptide ligands: a tribute to Prof. Dieter Seebach.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Daniel; Bartfai, Tamas

    2012-11-01

    The number of neuropeptides and their corresponding receptors has increased steadily over the last fourty years: initially, peptides were isolated from gut or brain (e.g., Substance P, somatostatin), then by targeted mining in specific regions (e.g., cortistatin, orexin in the brain), or by deorphanization of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; orexin, ghrelin receptors) and through the completion the Human Genome Project. Neuropeptides (and their receptors) have regionally restricted distributions in the central and peripheral nervous system. The neuropeptide signaling is somewhat more distinct spatially than signaling with classical, low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters that are more widely expressed, and, therefore, one assumes that drugs acting at neuropeptide receptors may have more selective pharmacological actions with possibly fewer side effects than drugs acting on glutamatergic, GABAergic, monoaminergic, or cholinergic systems. Neuropeptide receptors, which may have a few or multiple subtypes and splice variants, belong almost exclusively to the GPCR family also known as seven-transmembrane receptors (7TM), a favorite class of drug targets in the pharmaceutical industry. Most neuropeptides are co-stored and co-released with classic neurotransmitters, albeit often only at higher frequencies of stimulation or at bursting activity, thus restricting the neuropeptide signaling to specific circumstances, another reason to assume that neuropeptide drug mimics may have less side effects. Neuropeptides possess a wide spectrum of functions from neurohormone, neurotransmitter to growth factor, but also as key inflammatory mediators. Neuropeptides become 'active' when the nervous system is challenged, e.g., by stress, injury, drug abuse, or neuropsychiatric disorders with genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental components. The unsuspected number of true neuropeptides and their cognate receptors provides opportunities to identify novel targets for the treatment of

  18. Neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors: drug targets, and peptide and non-peptide ligands: a tribute to Prof. Dieter Seebach.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Daniel; Bartfai, Tamas

    2012-11-01

    The number of neuropeptides and their corresponding receptors has increased steadily over the last fourty years: initially, peptides were isolated from gut or brain (e.g., Substance P, somatostatin), then by targeted mining in specific regions (e.g., cortistatin, orexin in the brain), or by deorphanization of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; orexin, ghrelin receptors) and through the completion the Human Genome Project. Neuropeptides (and their receptors) have regionally restricted distributions in the central and peripheral nervous system. The neuropeptide signaling is somewhat more distinct spatially than signaling with classical, low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters that are more widely expressed, and, therefore, one assumes that drugs acting at neuropeptide receptors may have more selective pharmacological actions with possibly fewer side effects than drugs acting on glutamatergic, GABAergic, monoaminergic, or cholinergic systems. Neuropeptide receptors, which may have a few or multiple subtypes and splice variants, belong almost exclusively to the GPCR family also known as seven-transmembrane receptors (7TM), a favorite class of drug targets in the pharmaceutical industry. Most neuropeptides are co-stored and co-released with classic neurotransmitters, albeit often only at higher frequencies of stimulation or at bursting activity, thus restricting the neuropeptide signaling to specific circumstances, another reason to assume that neuropeptide drug mimics may have less side effects. Neuropeptides possess a wide spectrum of functions from neurohormone, neurotransmitter to growth factor, but also as key inflammatory mediators. Neuropeptides become 'active' when the nervous system is challenged, e.g., by stress, injury, drug abuse, or neuropsychiatric disorders with genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental components. The unsuspected number of true neuropeptides and their cognate receptors provides opportunities to identify novel targets for the treatment of

  19. Neuropeptide S facilitates mice olfactory function through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the olfactory cortex.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Peng; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Wang, Hai-Liang; Dai, Li-Rong; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a newly identified neuromodulator located in the brainstem and regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptors (NPSR). High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the olfactory cortex suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPS or co-injection of NPSR antagonist on the olfactory behaviors, food intake, and c-Fos expression in olfactory cortex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. NPS (0.1-1 nmol) i.c.v. injection significantly reduced the latency to find the buried food, and increased olfactory differentiation of different odors and the total sniffing time spent in olfactory habituation/dishabituation tasks. NPS facilitated olfactory ability most at the dose of 0.5 nmol, which could be blocked by co-injection of 40 nmol NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS. NPS administration dose-dependently inhibited food intake in fasted mice. Ex-vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry in the olfactory cortex revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced c-Fos expression in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex (Pir), ventral tenia tecta (VTT), the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt). The percentage of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 88.5% and 98.1% in the AON and Pir, respectively. The present findings demonstrated that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function in mice.

  20. Neuropeptide FF receptors as novel targets for limbic seizure attenuation.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Meurs, Alfred; Bihel, Frederic; Hammoud, Hassan; Schmitt, Martine; De Kock, Joery; Utard, Valerie; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Buffel, Ine; Coppens, Jessica; Tourwe, Dirk; Maes, Veronique; De Prins, An; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Massie, Ann; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan; Boon, Paul; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frederic; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well established anticonvulsant and first-in-class antiepileptic neuropeptide. In this study, the controversial role of NPY1 receptors in epilepsy was reassessed by testing two highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands and a mixed NPY1/NPFF receptor antagonist BIBP3226 in a rat model for limbic seizures. While BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the pilocarpine-induced seizures, neither of the highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands altered the seizure severity. Administration of the NPFF1/NPFF2 receptor antagonist RF9 also significantly attenuated limbic seizure activity. To further prove the involvement of NPFF receptors in these seizure-modulating effects, low and high affinity antagonists for the NPFF receptors were tested. We observed that the low affinity ligand failed to exhibit anticonvulsant properties while the two high affinity ligands significantly attenuated the seizures. Continuous NPFF1 receptor agonist administration also inhibited limbic seizures whereas bolus administration of the NPFF1 receptor agonist was without effect. This suggests that continuous agonist perfusion could result in NPFF1 receptor desensitization and mimic NPFF1 receptor antagonist administration. Our data unveil for the first time the involvement of the NPFF system in the management of limbic seizures. PMID:25963417

  1. Neuropeptide FF receptors as novel targets for limbic seizure attenuation.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Meurs, Alfred; Bihel, Frederic; Hammoud, Hassan; Schmitt, Martine; De Kock, Joery; Utard, Valerie; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Buffel, Ine; Coppens, Jessica; Tourwe, Dirk; Maes, Veronique; De Prins, An; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Massie, Ann; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan; Boon, Paul; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frederic; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well established anticonvulsant and first-in-class antiepileptic neuropeptide. In this study, the controversial role of NPY1 receptors in epilepsy was reassessed by testing two highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands and a mixed NPY1/NPFF receptor antagonist BIBP3226 in a rat model for limbic seizures. While BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the pilocarpine-induced seizures, neither of the highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands altered the seizure severity. Administration of the NPFF1/NPFF2 receptor antagonist RF9 also significantly attenuated limbic seizure activity. To further prove the involvement of NPFF receptors in these seizure-modulating effects, low and high affinity antagonists for the NPFF receptors were tested. We observed that the low affinity ligand failed to exhibit anticonvulsant properties while the two high affinity ligands significantly attenuated the seizures. Continuous NPFF1 receptor agonist administration also inhibited limbic seizures whereas bolus administration of the NPFF1 receptor agonist was without effect. This suggests that continuous agonist perfusion could result in NPFF1 receptor desensitization and mimic NPFF1 receptor antagonist administration. Our data unveil for the first time the involvement of the NPFF system in the management of limbic seizures.

  2. Identification of Functionally Important Residues of the Silkmoth Pheromone Biosynthesis-activating Neuropeptide Receptor, an Insect Ortholog of the Vertebrate Neuromedin U Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Takeshi; Katayama, Yukie; Guo, Linjun; Liu, Desheng; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Kou; Lee, Jae Min; Nagamine, Toshihiro; Hull, J. Joe; Matsumoto, Shogo; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagata, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis of sex pheromone components in many lepidopteran insects is regulated by the interaction between pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the PBAN receptor (PBANR), a class A G-protein-coupled receptor. To identify functionally important amino acid residues in the silkmoth PBANR, a series of 27 alanine substitutions was generated using a PBANR chimera C-terminally fused with enhanced GFP. The PBANR mutants were expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and their ability to bind and be activated by a core PBAN fragment (C10PBANR2K) was monitored. Among the 27 mutants, 23 localized to the cell surface of transfected Sf9 cells, whereas the other four remained intracellular. Reduced binding relative to wild type was observed with 17 mutants, and decreased Ca2+ mobilization responses were observed with 12 mutants. Ala substitution of Glu-95, Glu-120, Asn-124, Val-195, Phe-276, Trp-280, Phe-283, Arg-287, Tyr-307, Thr-311, and Phe-319 affected both binding and Ca2+ mobilization. The most pronounced effects were observed with the E120A mutation. A molecular model of PBANR indicated that the functionally important PBANR residues map to the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th transmembrane helices, implying that the same general region of class A G-protein-coupled receptors recognizes both peptidic and nonpeptidic ligands. Docking simulations suggest similar ligand-receptor recognition interactions for PBAN-PBANR and the orthologous vertebrate pair, neuromedin U (NMU) and NMU receptor (NMUR). The simulations highlight the importance of two glutamate residues, Glu-95 and Glu-120, in silkmoth PBANR and Glu-117 and Glu-142 in human NMUR1, in the recognition of the most functionally critical region of the ligands, the C-terminal residue and amide. PMID:24847080

  3. Regulation of endogenous human NPFF2 receptor by neuropeptide FF in SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ankö, Minna-Liisa; Panula, Pertti

    2006-01-01

    Neuropeptide FF has many functions both in the CNS and periphery. Two G protein-coupled receptors (NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors) have been identified for neuropeptide FF. The expression analysis of the peptide and receptors, together with pharmacological and physiological data, imply that NPFF2 receptor would be the primary receptor for neuropeptide FF. Here, we report for the first time a cell line endogenously expressing hNPFF2 receptor. These SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells also express neuropeptide FF. We used the cells to investigate the hNPFF2 receptor function. The pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity upon receptor activation indicated coupling to Gi/o proteins. Upon agonist exposure, the receptors were internalized and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade was activated. Upon neuropeptide FF treatment, the actin cytoskeleton was reorganized in the cells. The expression of hNPFF2 receptor mRNA was up-regulated by neuropeptide FF. Concomitant with the receptor mRNA, the receptor protein expression was increased. The homologous regulation of hNPFF2 receptor correlates with our previous results in vivo showing that during inflammation, the up-regulation of neuropeptide FF mRNA precedes that of NPFF2 receptor. The regulation of hNPFF2 receptor by NPFF could also be important in the periphery where neuropeptide FF has been suggested to function as a hormone.

  4. Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor effects on pulpal nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, J L; Hargreaves, K M

    2008-10-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important modulatory neuropeptide that regulates several physiological systems, including the activity of sensory neurons. We evaluated whether activation of the NPY Y1 receptor could modulate the activity of capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in trigeminal ganglia and dental pulp. We tested this hypothesis by measuring capsaicin-stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide release (CGRP) as a measure of nociceptor activity. Capsaicin-evoked CGRP release was inhibited by 50% (p < 0.05) in trigeminal ganglia and by 26% (p < 0.05) in dental pulp when tissues were pre-treated with [Leu(31),Pro(34)]NPY. The Y1 receptor was found to co-localize with the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in trigeminal ganglia. These results demonstrate that activation of the Y1 receptor results in the inhibition of the activity of capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the trigeminal ganglia and dental pulp. These findings are relevant to the physiological modulation of dental nociceptors by endogenous NPY and demonstrate an important novel analgesic target for the treatment of dental pain.

  5. Comparison of synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors and their gene expression in response to feeding in Ixodes scapularis (Ixodidae) vs. Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Egekwu, N; Sonenshine, D E; Garman, H; Barshis, D J; Cox, N; Bissinger, B W; Zhu, J; M Roe, R

    2016-02-01

    Illumina GAII high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors of the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata with the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Gene ontology molecular level three mapping revealed no significant differences amongst the same categories represented in O. turicata and I. scapularis. Transcripts predicting 22 neuropeptides or their receptors in the O. turicata synganglion were similar to annotations for 23 neuropeptides or receptors previously identified from I scapularis, with minor exceptions. A transcript predicting ecdysis triggering hormone receptor was identified in O. turicata; transcripts encoding for proprotein convertase and glycoprotein B were identified in both species. Transcripts predicting the same neurotransmitter receptors were found in the synganglion of both species. Gene expression of the transcripts showed numerous differences in response to feeding. Major differences were observed in expression of genes believed important in regulating slow vs. rapid feeding, blood water elimination, cuticle synthesis plasticity and in signalling reproductive activity. Although the glutamate receptor was strongly upregulated in both species, the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor, which inhibits glutamate, was upregulated significantly only in I. scapularis. These differences are consistent with the slow vs. rapid action of the pharyngeal pump in the two species.

  6. Comparison of synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors and their gene expression in response to feeding in Ixodes scapularis (Ixodidae) vs. Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Egekwu, N; Sonenshine, D E; Garman, H; Barshis, D J; Cox, N; Bissinger, B W; Zhu, J; M Roe, R

    2016-02-01

    Illumina GAII high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors of the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata with the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Gene ontology molecular level three mapping revealed no significant differences amongst the same categories represented in O. turicata and I. scapularis. Transcripts predicting 22 neuropeptides or their receptors in the O. turicata synganglion were similar to annotations for 23 neuropeptides or receptors previously identified from I scapularis, with minor exceptions. A transcript predicting ecdysis triggering hormone receptor was identified in O. turicata; transcripts encoding for proprotein convertase and glycoprotein B were identified in both species. Transcripts predicting the same neurotransmitter receptors were found in the synganglion of both species. Gene expression of the transcripts showed numerous differences in response to feeding. Major differences were observed in expression of genes believed important in regulating slow vs. rapid feeding, blood water elimination, cuticle synthesis plasticity and in signalling reproductive activity. Although the glutamate receptor was strongly upregulated in both species, the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor, which inhibits glutamate, was upregulated significantly only in I. scapularis. These differences are consistent with the slow vs. rapid action of the pharyngeal pump in the two species. PMID:26783017

  7. Neuropeptide receptors as potential drug targets in the treatment of inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Erika; Pozsgai, Gábor; Hajna, Zsófia; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Szolcsányi, János

    2014-01-01

    Cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems exists via regulator molecules, such as neuropeptides, hormones and cytokines. A number of neuropeptides have been implicated in the genesis of inflammation, such as tachykinins and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Development of their receptor antagonists could be a promising approach to anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. Anti-inflammatory neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, urocortin, adrenomedullin, somatostatin, cortistatin, ghrelin, galanin and opioid peptides, are also released and act on their own receptors on the neurons as well as on different inflammatory and immune cells. The aim of the present review is to summarize the most prominent data of preclinical animal studies concerning the main pharmacological effects of ligands acting on the neuropeptide receptors. Promising therapeutic impacts of these compounds as potential candidates for the development of novel types of anti-inflammatory drugs are also discussed. PMID:23432438

  8. Neuropeptides and Neuropeptide Receptors in the Drosophila melanogaster Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hewes, Randall S.; Taghert, Paul H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent genetic analyses in worms, flies, and mammals illustrate the importance of bioactive peptides in controlling numerous complex behaviors, such as feeding and circadian locomotion. To pursue a comprehensive genetic analysis of bioactive peptide signaling, we have scanned the recently completed Drosophila genome sequence for G protein-coupled receptors sensitive to bioactive peptides (peptide GPCRs). Here we describe 44 genes that represent the vast majority, and perhaps all, of the peptide GPCRs encoded in the fly genome. We also scanned for genes encoding potential ligands and describe 22 bioactive peptide precursors. At least 32 Drosophila peptide receptors appear to have evolved from common ancestors of 15 monophyletic vertebrate GPCR subgroups (e.g., the ancestral gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor). Six pairs of receptors are paralogs, representing recent gene duplications. Together, these findings shed light on the evolutionary history of peptide GPCRs, and they provide a template for physiological and genetic analyses of peptide signaling in Drosophila. PMID:11381038

  9. Capsaicin-Sensitive Sensory Nerves Mediate the Cellular and Microvascular Effects of H2S via TRPA1 Receptor Activation and Neuropeptide Release.

    PubMed

    Hajna, Zsófia; Sághy, Éva; Payrits, Maja; Aubdool, Aisah A; Szőke, Éva; Pozsgai, Gábor; Bátai, István Z; Nagy, Lívia; Filotás, Dániel; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Brain, Susan D; Pintér, Erika

    2016-10-01

    It is supposed that TRPA1 receptor can be activated by hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Here, we have investigated the role of TRPA1 receptor in H2S-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase in trigeminal ganglia (TRG) neurons, and the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in H2S-evoked cutaneous vasodilatation. [Ca(2+)]i was measured with ratiometric technique on TRG neurons of TRPA1(+/+) and TRPA1(-/-) mice after NaHS, Na2S, allylisothiocyanate (AITC) or KCl treatment. Microcirculatory changes in the ear were detected by laser Doppler imaging in response to topical NaHS, AITC, NaOH, NaSO3 or NaCl. Mice were either treated with resiniferatoxin (RTX), or CGRP antagonist BIBN4096, or NK1 receptor antagonist CP99994, or K(+) ATP channel blocker glibenclamide. Alpha-CGRP(-/-) and NK1 (-/-) mice were also investigated. NaHS and Na2S increased [Ca(2+)]i in TRG neurons derived from TRPA(+/+) but not from TRPA1(-/-) mice. NaHS increased cutaneous blood flow, while NaOH, NaSO3 and NaCl did not cause significant changes. NaHS-induced vasodilatation was reduced in RTX-treated animals, as well as by pre-treatment with BIBN4096 or CP99994 alone or in combination. NaHS-induced vasodilatation was significantly smaller in alpha-CGRP(-/-) or NK1 (-/-) mice compared to wild-types. H2S activates capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves through TRPA1 receptors and the resultant vasodilatation is mediated by the release of vasoactive sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P. PMID:27525636

  10. Neuropeptide S ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the subiculum complex.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Xin, Le; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Ren, Wen-Ting; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide S (NPS), via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPS receptor (NPSR) in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the subiculum complex of hippocampal formation suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory spatial memory. The present study was undertaken to investigate effects of NPS on the scopolamine- or MK801-induced impairment of olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board spatial memory test, and by monitoring Fos expression in the subiculum complex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos-immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPS (0.5 nmol) significantly increased the number of visits to switched odorants in recall trial in mice suffering from odor-discriminating inability induced by scopolamine, a selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, or MK801, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, after training trials. The improvement of olfactory spatial memory by NPS was abolished by the NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS (40 nmol). Ex vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced Fos expression in the subiculum complex encompassing the subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). The percentages of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 91.3, 86.5 and 90.0 % in the S, PrS and PaS, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the subiculum complex, ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 in mice.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of neuropeptides and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) for neuropeptides in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Noda, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2014-03-01

    The genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors were identified in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Forty-eight candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or peptide hormones. These include all known insect neuropeptides and neurohormones, with the exception of neuropeptide-like precursor 2 (NPLP2) and trissin. The gene coding for prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was first identified from hemimetabolous insect. A total of 57 putative neuropeptide GPCR genes were identified and phylogenetic analysis showed most of them to be closely related to insect GPCRs. A notable finding was the occurrence of vertebrate hormone receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR)-like GPCR and parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR)-like GPCRs. These results suggest that N. lugens possesses the most comprehensive neuropeptide system yet found in insects. Moreover, our findings demonstrate the power of RNA-seq as a tool for analyzing the neuropeptide-related genes in the absence of whole genome sequence information.

  12. Unwinding of the C-Terminal Residues of Neuropeptide Y is critical for Y₂ Receptor Binding and Activation.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Anette; Müller, Paul; Zellmann, Tristan; Scheidt, Holger A; Thomas, Lars; Bosse, Mathias; Meier, Rene; Meiler, Jens; Huster, Daniel; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Schmidt, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Despite recent breakthroughs in the structural characterization of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), there is only sparse data on how GPCRs recognize larger peptide ligands. NMR spectroscopy, molecular modeling, and double-cycle mutagenesis studies were integrated to obtain a structural model of the peptide hormone neuropeptide Y (NPY) bound to its human G-protein-coupled Y2 receptor (Y2R). Solid-state NMR measurements of specific isotope-labeled NPY in complex with in vitro folded Y2R reconstituted into phospholipid bicelles provided the bioactive structure of the peptide. Guided by solution NMR experiments, it could be shown that the ligand is tethered to the second extracellular loop by hydrophobic contacts. The C-terminal α-helix of NPY, which is formed in a membrane environment in the absence of the receptor, is unwound starting at T(32) to provide optimal contacts in a deep binding pocket within the transmembrane bundle of the Y2R.

  13. Neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Parker, S L; Balasubramaniam, A

    2008-02-01

    We briefly survey the current knowledge and concepts regarding structure and function of the neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor and its agonists, especially as related to pharmacology of the receptor and its roles in pathological processes. Specific structural features are considered that could be responsible for the known compartmentalization and participation of the receptor in cell and tissue organization. This is further discussed in relation to changes of levels of the Y2 receptor in pathological conditions (especially in epilepsy and drug abuse), to endocytosis and recycling, and to participation in wound healing, retinopathy and angiogenesis. Properties of the receptor and of Y2 agonists are considered and reviewed in connection to the negative regulation of transmitter release, feeding, mood and social behavior. The possible involvement of the Y2 receptor in diabetes, carcinogenesis and bone formation is also reviewed. PMID:17828288

  14. Neuropeptides: metabolism to bioactive fragments and the pharmacology of their receptors.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    The proteolytic processing of neuropeptides has an important regulatory function and the peptide fragments resulting from the enzymatic degradation often exert essential physiological roles. The proteolytic processing generates, not only biologically inactive fragments, but also bioactive fragments that modulate or even counteract the response of their parent peptides. Frequently, these peptide fragments interact with receptors that are not recognized by the parent peptides. This review discusses tachykinins, opioid peptides, angiotensins, bradykinins, and neuropeptide Y that are present in the central nervous system and their processing to bioactive degradation products. These well-known neuropeptide systems have been selected since they provide illustrative examples that proteolytic degradation of parent peptides can lead to bioactive metabolites with different biological activities as compared to their parent peptides. For example, substance P, dynorphin A, angiotensin I and II, bradykinin, and neuropeptide Y are all degraded to bioactive fragments with pharmacological profiles that differ considerably from those of the parent peptides. The review discusses a selection of the large number of drug-like molecules that act as agonists or antagonists at receptors of neuropeptides. It focuses in particular on the efforts to identify selective drug-like agonists and antagonists mimicking the effects of the endogenous peptide fragments formed. As exemplified in this review, many common neuropeptides are degraded to a variety of smaller fragments but many of the fragments generated have not yet been examined in detail with regard to their potential biological activities. Since these bioactive fragments contain a small number of amino acid residues, they provide an ideal starting point for the development of drug-like substances with ability to mimic the effects of the degradation products. Thus, these substances could provide a rich source of new pharmaceuticals

  15. Amygdalar neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors mediate the anxiolytic-like actions of neuropeptide Y in the social interaction test.

    PubMed

    Sajdyk, T J; Vandergriff, M G; Gehlert, D R

    1999-03-01

    The effects of intra-amygdalar neuropeptide Y infusions were assessed in rats using the social interaction test. Neuropeptide Y administered into the central nucleus of the amygdala did not alter behavior, while injections into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala produced an increased social interaction time. Furthermore, the anxiolytic-like effect was antagonized by co-administration of the potent neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor antagonist ((R)-N-[[4-(aminocarbonylaminomethyl)-phenyl]methyl]-N2-(diphen ylacetyl)-argininamide trifluoroacetate) 3304, but not with the inactive enantiomer ((R)-N-[[4-(aminocarbonylaminomethyl)-phenyl]methyl]-N2-(diphen ylacetyl)-argininamide trifluoroacetate) 3457. Therefore, neuropeptide Y produces an anxiolytic-like effect in the social interaction test through neuropetide Y Y1 receptors located in the basolateral amygdala.

  16. Discovery of sea urchin NGFFFamide receptor unites a bilaterian neuropeptide family

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Dean C.; Beets, Isabel; Rowe, Matthew L.; Blowes, Liisa M.; Oliveri, Paola; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides are ancient regulators of physiology and behaviour, but reconstruction of neuropeptide evolution is often difficult owing to lack of sequence conservation. Here, we report that the receptor for the neuropeptide NGFFFamide in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (phylum Echinodermata) is an orthologue of vertebrate neuropeptide-S (NPS) receptors and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) receptors. Importantly, this has facilitated reconstruction of the evolution of two bilaterian neuropeptide signalling systems. Genes encoding the precursor of a vasopressin/oxytocin-type neuropeptide and its receptor duplicated in a common ancestor of the Bilateria. One copy of the precursor retained ancestral features, as seen in highly conserved vasopressin/oxytocin–neurophysin-type precursors. The other copy diverged, but this took different courses in protostomes and deuterostomes. In protostomes, the occurrence of a disulfide bridge in neuropeptide product(s) of the precursor was retained, as in CCAP, but with loss of the neurophysin domain. In deuterostomes, we see the opposite scenario—the neuropeptides lost the disulfide bridge, and neurophysin was retained (as in the NGFFFamide precursor) but was subsequently lost in vertebrate NPS precursors. Thus, the sea urchin NGFFFamide precursor and receptor are ‘missing links’ in the evolutionary history of neuropeptides that control ecdysis in arthropods (CCAP) and regulate anxiety in humans (NPS). PMID:25904544

  17. Identification and Functional Characterization of the Phosphorylation Sites of the Neuropeptide FF2 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Lauriane; Froment, Carine; Pardo, Pierre; Candotto, Cédric; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine; Moulédous, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide FF2 (NPFF2) receptor belongs to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors and mediates the effects of several related RFamide neuropeptides. One of the main pharmacological interests of this system resides in its ability to regulate endogenous opioid systems, making it a potential target to reduce the negative effects of chronic opioid use. Phosphorylation of intracellular residues is the most extensively studied post-translational modification regulating G protein-coupled receptor activity. However, until now, no information concerning NPFF2 receptor phosphorylation is available. In this study, we combined mass spectrometric analysis and site-directed mutagenesis to analyze for the first time the phosphorylation pattern of the NPFF2 receptor and the role of the various phosphorylation sites in receptor signaling, desensitization, and trafficking in a SH-SY5Y model cell line. We identified the major, likely GRK-dependent, phosphorylation cluster responsible for acute desensitization, 412TNST415 at the end of the C terminus of the receptor, and additional sites involved in desensitization (372TS373) and internalization (Ser395). We thus demonstrate the key role played by phosphorylation in the regulation of NPFF2 receptor activity and trafficking. Our data also provide additional evidence supporting the concept that desensitization and internalization are partially independent processes relying on distinct phosphorylation patterns. PMID:25326382

  18. Neuropeptide Y receptor gene y6: multiple deaths or resurrections?

    PubMed

    Starbäck, P; Wraith, A; Eriksson, H; Larhammar, D

    2000-10-14

    The neuropeptide Y family of G-protein-coupled receptors consists of five cloned members in mammals. Four genes give rise to functional receptors in all mammals investigated. The y6 gene is a pseudogene in human and pig and is absent in rat, but generates a functional receptor in rabbit and mouse and probably in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), a distant relative of the pig family. We report here that the guinea pig y6 gene has a highly distorted nucleotide sequence with multiple frame-shift mutations. One evolutionary scenario may suggest that y6 was inactivated before the divergence of the mammalian orders and subsequently resurrected in some lineages. However, the pseudogene mutations seem to be distinct in human, pig, and guinea pig, arguing for separate inactivation events. In either case, the y6 gene has a quite unusual evolutionary history with multiple independent deaths or resurrections.

  19. Oxytocin and vasopressin: linking pituitary neuropeptides and their receptors to social neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Baribeau, Danielle A.; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26441508

  20. Specific Activation of the G Protein-coupled Receptor BNGR-A21 by the Neuropeptide Corazonin from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Dually Couples to the Gq and Gs Signaling Cascades*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingwen; Huang, Haishan; Yang, Huipeng; He, Xiaobai; Jiang, Xue; Shi, Ying; Alatangaole, Damirin; Shi, Liangen; Zhou, Naiming

    2013-01-01

    Corazonin, an undecapeptide neurohormone sharing a highly conserved amino acid sequence across Insecta, plays different physiological roles in the regulation of heart contraction rates, silk spinning rates, the induction of dark color and morphometric phase changes, and ecdysis. Corazonin receptors have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, Manduca sexta, and Musca domestica. However, detailed information on the signaling and major physiological functions of corazonin and its receptor is largely unknown. In the current study, using both the mammalian cell line HEK293 and insect cell lines BmN and Sf21, we paired the Bombyx corazonin neuropeptide as a specific endogenous ligand for the Bombyx neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor A21 (BNGR-A21), and we therefore designated this receptor as BmCrzR. Further characterization indicated that synthetic BmCrz demonstrated a high affinity for and activated BmCrzR, resulting in intracellular cAMP accumulation, Ca2+ mobilization, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation via the Gq- and Gs-coupled signaling pathways. The direct interaction of BmCrzR with BmCrz was confirmed by a rhodamine-labeled BmCrz peptide. Moreover, experiments with double-stranded RNA and synthetic peptide injection suggested a possible role of BmCrz/BmCrzR in the regulation of larval growth and spinning rate. Our present results provide the first in-depth information on BmCrzR-mediated signaling for further elucidation of the BmCrz/BmCrzR system in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes. PMID:23457297

  1. Neuropeptide substance P upregulates chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in primary mouse neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Ramnath, Raina Devi; Bhatia, Madhav

    2007-08-01

    Neuropeptides play an important role in the active communication between the nervous and immune systems. Substance P (SP) is a prominent neuropeptide involved in neurogenic inflammation and has been reported to exert various proinflammatory actions on inflammatory leukocytes including neutrophils. The present study further investigated the modulatory effect of SP (1 muM) on chemokine production and chemokine receptor expression in primary mouse neutrophils. Our results showed that SP primed neutrophils for chemotactic responses not only to the CXC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2/CXCL2 but also to the CC chemokine MIP-1alpha/CCL3. The activating effect of SP on neutrophils was further evidenced by upregulation of the CD11b integrin, the activation marker of neutrophils. SP induced both the mRNA and protein expression of the chemokines MIP-1alpha/CCL3 and MIP-2/CXCL2 in neutrophils and upregulated the chemokine receptors CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-1 and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)-2. This stimulatory effect on chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in neutrophils was further found to be neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) specific. Pretreatment with selective NK-1R antagonists inhibited SP-triggered activation of neutrophils and chemokine and chemokine receptor upregulation. Moreover, SP-induced chemokine upregulation was NF-kappaB dependent. SP time dependently induced NF-kappaB p65 binding activity, IkappaBalpha degradation, and NF-kappaB p65 nuclear translocation in neutrophils. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation with its inhibitor Bay11-7082 (10 muM) abolished SP-induced NF-kappaB binding activity and upregulation of MIP-1alpha/CCL3 and MIP-2/CXCL2 in neutrophils. Together, these results suggest that SP exerts a direct stimulatory effect on the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in mouse neutrophils. The effect is NK-1R mediated, involving NF-kappaB activation.

  2. Development of sub-nanomolar dipeptidic ligands of neuropeptide FF receptors.

    PubMed

    Gealageas, Ronan; Schneider, Séverine; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Schmitt, Martine; Laboureyras, Emilie; Dugave, Christophe; Mollereau, Catherine; Simonnet, Guy; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frédéric; Bihel, Frédéric

    2012-12-15

    Based on our earlier reported neuropeptide FF receptors antagonist (RF9), we carried out an extensive structural exploration of the N-terminus part of the amidated dipeptide Arg-Phe-NH(2) in order to establish a structure-activity relationships (SAR) study towards both NPFF receptor subtypes. This SAR led to the discovery of dipeptides (12, 35) with subnanomolar affinities towards NPFF1 receptor subtype, similar to endogenous ligand NPVF. More particularly, compound 12 exhibited a potent in vivo preventive effect on opioid-induced hyperalgesia at low dose. The significant selectivity of 12 toward NPFF1-R indicates that this receptor subtype may play a critical role in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF-like peptides.

  3. Neuropeptides: metabolism to bioactive fragments and the pharmacology of their receptors.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    The proteolytic processing of neuropeptides has an important regulatory function and the peptide fragments resulting from the enzymatic degradation often exert essential physiological roles. The proteolytic processing generates, not only biologically inactive fragments, but also bioactive fragments that modulate or even counteract the response of their parent peptides. Frequently, these peptide fragments interact with receptors that are not recognized by the parent peptides. This review discusses tachykinins, opioid peptides, angiotensins, bradykinins, and neuropeptide Y that are present in the central nervous system and their processing to bioactive degradation products. These well-known neuropeptide systems have been selected since they provide illustrative examples that proteolytic degradation of parent peptides can lead to bioactive metabolites with different biological activities as compared to their parent peptides. For example, substance P, dynorphin A, angiotensin I and II, bradykinin, and neuropeptide Y are all degraded to bioactive fragments with pharmacological profiles that differ considerably from those of the parent peptides. The review discusses a selection of the large number of drug-like molecules that act as agonists or antagonists at receptors of neuropeptides. It focuses in particular on the efforts to identify selective drug-like agonists and antagonists mimicking the effects of the endogenous peptide fragments formed. As exemplified in this review, many common neuropeptides are degraded to a variety of smaller fragments but many of the fragments generated have not yet been examined in detail with regard to their potential biological activities. Since these bioactive fragments contain a small number of amino acid residues, they provide an ideal starting point for the development of drug-like substances with ability to mimic the effects of the degradation products. Thus, these substances could provide a rich source of new pharmaceuticals

  4. Identification of a Receptor for Neuropeptide VGF and Its Role in Neuropathic Pain*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Chun; Pristerá, Alessandro; Ayub, Mahmood; Swanwick, Richard S.; Karu, Kersti; Hamada, Yosuke; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Okuse, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    VGF (nonacronymic) is a neuropeptide precursor that plays multiple roles in regulation of energy balance, reproduction, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and pain. Data from a number of pain models showed significant up-regulation of VGF in sensory neurons. TLQP-21, one of the VGF-derived neuropeptides, has been shown to induce a hyperalgesic response when injected subcutaneously into the hind paw of mice. However, the precise role of VGF-derived neuropeptides in neuropathic pain and the molecular identity of the receptor for VGF-derived peptides are yet to be investigated. Here we identified gC1qR, the globular heads of the C1q receptor, as the receptor for TLQP-21 using chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry analysis. TLQP-21 caused an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels in rat macrophages and microglia. Inoculation of TLQP-21-stimulated macrophages into rat hind paw caused mechanical hypersensitivity. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels in macrophages was attenuated by either siRNA or neutralizing antibodies against gC1qR. Furthermore, application of the gC1qR-neutralizing antibody to rats with partial sciatic nerve ligation resulted in a delayed onset of nerve injury-associated mechanical hypersensitivity. These results indicate that gC1qR is the receptor for TLQP-21 and plays an important role in chronic pain through activation of macrophages. Because direct association between TLQP-21 and gC1qR is required for activation of macrophages and causes hypersensitivity, disrupting this interaction may be a useful new approach to develop novel analgesics. PMID:24106277

  5. Identification of a receptor for neuropeptide VGF and its role in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Chun; Pristerá, Alessandro; Ayub, Mahmood; Swanwick, Richard S; Karu, Kersti; Hamada, Yosuke; Rice, Andrew S C; Okuse, Kenji

    2013-11-29

    VGF (nonacronymic) is a neuropeptide precursor that plays multiple roles in regulation of energy balance, reproduction, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and pain. Data from a number of pain models showed significant up-regulation of VGF in sensory neurons. TLQP-21, one of the VGF-derived neuropeptides, has been shown to induce a hyperalgesic response when injected subcutaneously into the hind paw of mice. However, the precise role of VGF-derived neuropeptides in neuropathic pain and the molecular identity of the receptor for VGF-derived peptides are yet to be investigated. Here we identified gC1qR, the globular heads of the C1q receptor, as the receptor for TLQP-21 using chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry analysis. TLQP-21 caused an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels in rat macrophages and microglia. Inoculation of TLQP-21-stimulated macrophages into rat hind paw caused mechanical hypersensitivity. The increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels in macrophages was attenuated by either siRNA or neutralizing antibodies against gC1qR. Furthermore, application of the gC1qR-neutralizing antibody to rats with partial sciatic nerve ligation resulted in a delayed onset of nerve injury-associated mechanical hypersensitivity. These results indicate that gC1qR is the receptor for TLQP-21 and plays an important role in chronic pain through activation of macrophages. Because direct association between TLQP-21 and gC1qR is required for activation of macrophages and causes hypersensitivity, disrupting this interaction may be a useful new approach to develop novel analgesics.

  6. Neuropeptide S- and Neuropeptide S receptor-expressing neuron populations in the human pons

    PubMed Central

    Adori, Csaba; Barde, Swapnali; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Uhlén, Mathias; Reinscheid, Rainer R.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a regulatory peptide with potent pharmacological effects. In rodents, NPS is expressed in a few pontine cell clusters. Its receptor (NPSR1) is, however, widely distributed in the brain. The anxiolytic and arousal-promoting effects of NPS make the NPS–NPSR1 system an interesting potential drug target in mood-related disorders. However, so far possible disease-related mechanisms involving NPS have only been studied in rodents. To validate the relevance of these animal studies for i.a. drug development, we have explored the distribution of NPS-expressing neurons in the human pons using in situ hybridization and stereological methods and we compared the distribution of NPS mRNA expressing neurons in the human and rat brain. The calculation revealed a total number of 22,317 ± 2411 NPS mRNA-positive neurons in human, bilaterally. The majority of cells (84%) were located in the parabrachial area in human: in the extension of the medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei, in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus and around the adjacent lateral lemniscus. In human, in sharp contrast to the rodents, only very few NPS-positive cells (5%) were found close to the locus coeruleus. In addition, we identified a smaller cell cluster (11% of all NPS cells) in the pontine central gray matter both in human and rat, which has not been described previously even in rodents. We also examined the distribution of NPSR1 mRNA-expressing neurons in the human pons. These cells were mainly located in the rostral laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the cuneiform nucleus, the microcellular tegmental nucleus region and in the periaqueductal gray. Our results show that both NPS and NPSR1 in the human pons are preferentially localized in regions of importance for integration of visceral autonomic information and emotional behavior. The reported interspecies differences must, however, be considered when looking for targets for new pharmacotherapeutical interventions. PMID:26441556

  7. Rapid internalization and recycling of the human neuropeptide Y Y(1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Gicquiaux, Hervé; Lecat, Sandra; Gaire, Mireille; Dieterlen, Alain; Mély, Yves; Takeda, Kenneth; Bucher, Bernard; Galzi, Jean-Luc

    2002-02-22

    Desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involves receptor phosphorylation and reduction in the number of receptors at the cell surface. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y(1) receptor undergoes fast desensitization. We examined agonist-induced signaling and internalization using NPY Y(1) receptors fused to green fluorescent protein (EGFP). When expressed in HEK293 cells, EGFP-hNPY Y(1) receptors were localized at the plasma membrane, desensitized rapidly as assessed using calcium responses, and had similar properties compared to hNPY Y(1) receptors. Upon agonist challenge, the EGFP signal decreased rapidly (t(1/2) = 107 +/- 3 s) followed by a slow recovery. This decrease was blocked by BIBP3226, a Y(1) receptor antagonist, or by pertussis toxin, in agreement with Y(1) receptor activation. Internalization of EGFP-hNPY Y(1) receptors to acidic endosomal compartments likely accounts for the decrease in the EGFP signal, being absent after pretreatment with monensin. Concanavalin A and hypertonic sucrose, which inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis, blocked the decrease in fluorescence. After agonist, intracellular EGFP signals were punctate and co-localized with transferrin-Texas Red, a marker of clathrin-associated internalization and recycling, but not with LysoTracker Red, a lysosomal pathway marker, supporting receptor trafficking to recycling endosomes rather than the late endosomal/lysosomal pathway. Pulse-chase experiments revealed no receptor degradation after internalization. The slow recovery of fluorescence was unaffected by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, indicating that de novo synthesis of receptors was not limiting. Use of a multicompartment model to fit our fluorescence data allows simultaneous determination of internalization and recycling rate constants. We propose that rapid internalization of receptors via the clathrin-coated pits recycling pathway may largely account for the rapid desensitization of NPY Y(1) receptors. PMID:11741903

  8. Neuropeptide and sigma receptors as novel therapeutic targets for the pharmacotherapy of depression.

    PubMed

    Paschos, Konstantinos A; Veletza, Stavroula; Chatzaki, Ekaterini

    2009-09-01

    Among the most prevalent of mental illnesses, depression is increasing in incidence in the Western world. It presents with a wide variety of symptoms that involve both the CNS and the periphery. Multiple pharmacological observations led to the development of the monoamine theory as a biological basis for depression, according to which diminished neurotransmission within the CNS, including that of the dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and serotonin systems, is the leading cause of the disorder. Current conventional pharmacological antidepressant therapies, using selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, aim to enhance monoaminergic neurotransmission. However, the use of these agents presents severe disadvantages, including a delay in the alleviation of depressive symptoms, significant adverse effects and high frequencies of non-responding patients. Neuroendocrinological data of recent decades reveal that depression and anxiety disorders may occur simultaneously due to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity. As a result, the stress-diathesis model was developed, which attempts to associate genetic and environmental influences in the aetiology of depression. The amygdala and the hippocampus control the activity of the HPA axis in a counter-balancing way, and a plethora of regulatory neuropeptide signalling pathways are involved. Intervention at these molecular targets may lead to alternative antidepressant therapeutic solutions that are expected to overcome the limitations of existing antidepressants. This prospect is based on preclinical evidence from pharmacological and genetic modifications of the action of neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor, substance P, galanin, vasopressin and neuropeptide Y. The recent synthesis of orally potent non-peptide micromolecules that can selectively bind to various neuropeptide receptors permits the onset of clinical trials to evaluate

  9. Identification of Neuropeptide Receptors Expressed by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Gregory S.; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating Hormone (MCH) is a 19 amino acid cyclic neuropeptide that acts in rodents via the MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions. MCH is produced by a distinct population of neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and zona incerta (ZI) but MCHR1 mRNA is widely expressed throughout the brain. The physiological responses and behaviors regulated by the MCH system have been investigated, but less is known about how MCH neurons are regulated. The effects of most classical neurotransmitters on MCH neurons have been studied, but those of neuropeptides are poorly understood. In order to gain insight into how neuropeptides regulate the MCH system, we investigated which neuropeptide receptors are expressed by MCH neurons using double in situ hybridization. In all, twenty receptors, selected based upon either a suspected interaction with the MCH system or demonstrated high expression levels in the LH and ZI, were tested to determine whether they are expressed by MCH neurons. Overall, eleven neuropeptide receptors were found to exhibit significant colocalization with MCH neurons: Nociceptin / Orphanin FQ Opioid receptor (NOP), MCHR1, both Orexin receptors (ORX), Somatostatin receptor 1 and 2 (SSTR1, SSTR2), the Kisspeptin receotor (KissR1), Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1), Neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), Cholecystokinin receptor A (CCKAR) and the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). Of these receptors, six have never before been linked to the MCH system. Surprisingly, several receptors thought to regulate MCH neurons displayed minimal colocalization with MCH, suggesting that they may not directly regulate the MCH system. PMID:24978951

  10. Expression of neuropeptide receptor mRNA during osteoblastic differentiation of mouse iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Satomi; Goto, Tetsuya; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Joujima, Takaaki; Egusa, Hiroshi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Maki, Kenshi

    2014-12-01

    Various studies have shown a relationship between nerves and bones. Recent evidence suggests that both sensory and sympathetic nerves affect bone metabolism; however, little is known about how neuropeptides are involved in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into osteoblastic (OB) cells. To evaluate the putative effects of neuropeptides during the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into calcified tissue-forming OB cells, we investigated the expression patterns of neuropeptide receptors at each differentiation stage. Mouse iPS cells were seeded onto feeder cells and then transferred to low-attachment culture dishes to form embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs were cultured for 4 weeks in osteoblastic differentiation medium. The expression of α1-adrenergic receptor (AR), α2-AR, β2-AR, neuropeptide Y1 receptor (NPY1-R), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2-R), calcitonin gene-related protein receptor (CGRP-R), and neurokinin 1-R (NK1-R) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Among these neuropeptide receptors, CGRP-R and β2-AR were expressed at all stages of cell differentiation, including the iPS cell stage, with peak expression occurring at the early osteoblastic differentiation stage. Another sensory nervous system receptor, NK1-R, was expressed mainly in the late osteoblastic differentiation stage. Furthermore, CGRP-R mRNA showed an additional small peak corresponding to EBs cultured for 3 days, suggesting that EBs may be affected by serum CGRP. These data suggest that the sensory nervous system receptor CGRP-R and the sympathetic nervous system receptor β2-AR may be involved in the differentiation of iPS cells into the osteoblastic lineage. It follows from these findings that CGRP and β2-AR may regulate cell differentiation in the iPS and EB stages, and that each neuropeptide has an optimal period of influence during the differentiation process. PMID:25464890

  11. FRPR-4 Is a G-Protein Coupled Neuropeptide Receptor That Regulates Behavioral Quiescence and Posture in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew D; Janssen, Tom; York, Neil; Lee, Kun He; Schoofs, Liliane; Raizen, David M

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to regulate a broad array of animal behaviors and physiological processes. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes approximately 100 predicted neuropeptide receptor GPCRs, but in vivo roles for only a few have been identified. We describe here a role for the GPCR FRPR-4 in the regulation of behavioral quiescence and locomotive posture. FRPR-4 is activated in cell culture by several neuropeptides with an amidated isoleucine-arginine-phenylalanine (IRF) motif or an amidated valine-arginine-phenylalanine (VRF) motif at their carboxy termini, including those encoded by the gene flp-13. Loss of frpr-4 function results in a minor feeding quiescence defect after heat-induced cellular stress. Overexpression of frpr-4 induces quiescence of locomotion and feeding as well as an exaggerated body bend posture. The exaggerated body bend posture requires the gene flp-13. While frpr-4 is expressed broadly, selective overexpression of frpr-4 in the proprioceptive DVA neurons results in exaggerated body bends that require flp-13 in the ALA neuron. Our results suggest that FLP-13 and other neuropeptides signal through FRPR-4 and other receptors to regulate locomotion posture and behavioral quiescence. PMID:26571132

  12. FRPR-4 Is a G-Protein Coupled Neuropeptide Receptor That Regulates Behavioral Quiescence and Posture in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    York, Neil; Lee, Kun He; Schoofs, Liliane; Raizen, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to regulate a broad array of animal behaviors and physiological processes. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes approximately 100 predicted neuropeptide receptor GPCRs, but in vivo roles for only a few have been identified. We describe here a role for the GPCR FRPR-4 in the regulation of behavioral quiescence and locomotive posture. FRPR-4 is activated in cell culture by several neuropeptides with an amidated isoleucine-arginine-phenylalanine (IRF) motif or an amidated valine-arginine-phenylalanine (VRF) motif at their carboxy termini, including those encoded by the gene flp-13. Loss of frpr-4 function results in a minor feeding quiescence defect after heat-induced cellular stress. Overexpression of frpr-4 induces quiescence of locomotion and feeding as well as an exaggerated body bend posture. The exaggerated body bend posture requires the gene flp-13. While frpr-4 is expressed broadly, selective overexpression of frpr-4 in the proprioceptive DVA neurons results in exaggerated body bends that require flp-13 in the ALA neuron. Our results suggest that FLP-13 and other neuropeptides signal through FRPR-4 and other receptors to regulate locomotion posture and behavioral quiescence. PMID:26571132

  13. Expression of neuropeptides and their receptors in the developing retina of mammals.

    PubMed

    Bagnoli, P; Dal Monte, M; Casini, G

    2003-10-01

    The present review examines various aspects of the developmental expression of neuropeptides and of their receptors in mammalian retinas, emphasizing their possible roles in retinal maturation. Different peptidergic systems have been investigated with some detail during retinal development, including substance P (SP), somatostatin (SRIF), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioid peptides and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Overall, the developmental expression of most peptides is characterized by early appearance, transient features and achievement of the mature pattern at the time of eye opening. Concerning possible developmental actions of neuropeptides, recent studies imply a role of SP in the modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission in early postnatal rabbit retinas, when cholinergic cells participate in the retinal spontaneous waves of activity. In addition, the presence of transient SRIF expressing ganglion cells and recent observations in SRIF receptor knock-out mice indicate variegated roles of this peptide in the development of the retina and of retinofugal projections. Furthermore, VIP and PACAP exert protective and growth-promoting actions that may sustain retinal neurons during their development, and opioid peptides may control cell proliferation in the developing retina. Finally, a peak in the expression of certain peptides, including VIP, NPY and CRF, is present around the time of eye opening, when the retina begins the analysis of structured visual information, suggesting important roles of these peptides during this delicate phase of retinal development. In summary, although the physiological actions of peptides during retinal development are far from being clarified, the data reviewed herein indicate promising perspectives in this field of study.

  14. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ.

    PubMed

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides

  15. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-03-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles and parafollicular C-cells. A high degree of co-existence between PACAP and VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) was observed in the intrathyroid nerve fibres and cell bodies of the thyroid ganglion indicating a common origin for the two peptides. A minor population of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres with relation to blood vessels co-stored NPY (neuropeptide Y), whereas only a few fibres co-stored CGRP. PAC(1) and VPAC(1) receptor mRNA's occurred in follicular cells and blood vessels, whereas the expression of the VPAC(2) receptor was low. The findings suggest that PACAP plays a role in the regulation of parathyroid and thyroid blood flow and hormone secretion.

  16. Neuropeptide Y inhibits the trigeminovascular pathway through NPY Y1 receptor: implications for migraine.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Margarida-Martins; Akerman, Simon; Tavares, Isaura; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Migraine is a painful neurologic disorder with premonitory symptomatology that can include disturbed appetite. Migraine pathophysiology involves abnormal activation of trigeminocervical complex (TCC) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in the brain and is involved in pain modulation. NPY receptors are present in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis suggesting a role in migraine pathophysiology. The present study aimed to determine the effect of systemic administration of NPY on TCC neuronal activity in response to dural nociceptive trigeminovascular activation. We performed in vivo electrophysiology in anesthetized rats, administered NPY (10, 30, and 100 µg·kg), and investigated the receptors involved by studying NPY Y1 (30 µg·kg), Y2 (30 µg·kg), and Y5 receptor agonists (100·µg·kg), and NPY Y1 receptor antagonist (30 µg·kg). NPY (30 and 100 µg·kg) significantly reduced TCC neuronal firing in response to dural-evoked trigeminovascular activation, but only NPY (30 µg·kg) significantly reduced spontaneous trigeminal firing. NPY Y1 receptor agonist also significantly reduced dural-evoked and spontaneous TCC neuronal firing. NPY (10 µg·kg), NPY Y2, and Y5 receptor agonists, and the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist had no significant effects on nociceptive dural-evoked neuronal firing in the TCC or spontaneous trigeminal firing. This study demonstrates that NPY dose dependently inhibits dural-evoked trigeminal activity, through NPY Y1 receptor activation, indicating antinociceptive actions of NPY in a migraine animal model. Based on the role of NPY in appetite regulation, it is possible that disruption of the NPY system might explain changes of appetite in migraineurs.

  17. Neuropeptide Y inhibits the trigeminovascular pathway through NPY Y1 receptor: implications for migraine.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Margarida-Martins; Akerman, Simon; Tavares, Isaura; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Migraine is a painful neurologic disorder with premonitory symptomatology that can include disturbed appetite. Migraine pathophysiology involves abnormal activation of trigeminocervical complex (TCC) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in the brain and is involved in pain modulation. NPY receptors are present in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis suggesting a role in migraine pathophysiology. The present study aimed to determine the effect of systemic administration of NPY on TCC neuronal activity in response to dural nociceptive trigeminovascular activation. We performed in vivo electrophysiology in anesthetized rats, administered NPY (10, 30, and 100 µg·kg), and investigated the receptors involved by studying NPY Y1 (30 µg·kg), Y2 (30 µg·kg), and Y5 receptor agonists (100·µg·kg), and NPY Y1 receptor antagonist (30 µg·kg). NPY (30 and 100 µg·kg) significantly reduced TCC neuronal firing in response to dural-evoked trigeminovascular activation, but only NPY (30 µg·kg) significantly reduced spontaneous trigeminal firing. NPY Y1 receptor agonist also significantly reduced dural-evoked and spontaneous TCC neuronal firing. NPY (10 µg·kg), NPY Y2, and Y5 receptor agonists, and the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist had no significant effects on nociceptive dural-evoked neuronal firing in the TCC or spontaneous trigeminal firing. This study demonstrates that NPY dose dependently inhibits dural-evoked trigeminal activity, through NPY Y1 receptor activation, indicating antinociceptive actions of NPY in a migraine animal model. Based on the role of NPY in appetite regulation, it is possible that disruption of the NPY system might explain changes of appetite in migraineurs. PMID:27023421

  18. Neuropeptide Y inhibits the trigeminovascular pathway through NPY Y1 receptor: implications for migraine

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Margarida-Martins; Akerman, Simon; Tavares, Isaura; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Migraine is a painful neurologic disorder with premonitory symptomatology that can include disturbed appetite. Migraine pathophysiology involves abnormal activation of trigeminocervical complex (TCC) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in the brain and is involved in pain modulation. NPY receptors are present in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis suggesting a role in migraine pathophysiology. The present study aimed to determine the effect of systemic administration of NPY on TCC neuronal activity in response to dural nociceptive trigeminovascular activation. We performed in vivo electrophysiology in anesthetized rats, administered NPY (10, 30, and 100 µg·kg−1), and investigated the receptors involved by studying NPY Y1 (30 µg·kg−1), Y2 (30 µg·kg−1), and Y5 receptor agonists (100·µg·kg−1), and NPY Y1 receptor antagonist (30 µg·kg−1). NPY (30 and 100 µg·kg−1) significantly reduced TCC neuronal firing in response to dural-evoked trigeminovascular activation, but only NPY (30 µg·kg−1) significantly reduced spontaneous trigeminal firing. NPY Y1 receptor agonist also significantly reduced dural-evoked and spontaneous TCC neuronal firing. NPY (10 µg·kg−1), NPY Y2, and Y5 receptor agonists, and the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist had no significant effects on nociceptive dural-evoked neuronal firing in the TCC or spontaneous trigeminal firing. This study demonstrates that NPY dose dependently inhibits dural-evoked trigeminal activity, through NPY Y1 receptor activation, indicating antinociceptive actions of NPY in a migraine animal model. Based on the role of NPY in appetite regulation, it is possible that disruption of the NPY system might explain changes of appetite in migraineurs. PMID:27023421

  19. [Galanin: a new biologically active gastrointestinal neuropeptide].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F E

    1990-03-01

    The 29 amino acid containing neuropeptide galanin is localized in the intrinsic nervous system of the entire gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas. It was found in man and several animal species. Molecular biology studies revealed different molecular forms of galanin in several mammalian species including man. The galanin precursor was also found. Galanin shows several potent pharmacological actions: it inhibits gastrointestinal motility in man. It also has an inhibitory effect on intestinal smooth muscle contractility of several animal species. These actions are mediated directly by opening of potassium channels and indirectly by inhibition of acetylcholine release. In addition galanin inhibits pancreatic hormone secretion (i.e. hypoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia) and partly the release of hormones localized in the gastrointestinal tract. On exocrine glands in man (salivary glands) galanin has hydrokinetic actions. The physiological role of galanin might be regulation of gastrointestinal motility, control of secretory function of intestine and a regulatory role in endocrine and exocrine gland secretion.

  20. [Galanin: a new biologically active gastrointestinal neuropeptide].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F E

    1990-03-01

    The 29 amino acid containing neuropeptide galanin is localized in the intrinsic nervous system of the entire gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas. It was found in man and several animal species. Molecular biology studies revealed different molecular forms of galanin in several mammalian species including man. The galanin precursor was also found. Galanin shows several potent pharmacological actions: it inhibits gastrointestinal motility in man. It also has an inhibitory effect on intestinal smooth muscle contractility of several animal species. These actions are mediated directly by opening of potassium channels and indirectly by inhibition of acetylcholine release. In addition galanin inhibits pancreatic hormone secretion (i.e. hypoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia) and partly the release of hormones localized in the gastrointestinal tract. On exocrine glands in man (salivary glands) galanin has hydrokinetic actions. The physiological role of galanin might be regulation of gastrointestinal motility, control of secretory function of intestine and a regulatory role in endocrine and exocrine gland secretion. PMID:1693024

  1. Involvement of neuropeptide FF receptors in neuroadaptive responses to acute and chronic opiate treatments.

    PubMed

    Elhabazi, K; Trigo, J M; Mollereau, C; Moulédous, L; Zajac, J-M; Bihel, F; Schmitt, M; Bourguignon, J J; Meziane, H; Petit-demoulière, B; Bockel, F; Maldonado, R; Simonin, F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Opiates remain the most effective compounds for alleviating severe pain across a wide range of conditions. However, their use is associated with significant side effects. Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors have been implicated in several opiate-induced neuroadaptive changes including the development of tolerance. In this study, we investigated the consequences of NPFF receptor blockade on acute and chronic stimulation of opioid receptors in mice by using RF9, a potent and selective antagonist of NPFF receptors that can be administered systemically. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of RF9 were investigated on opioid pharmacological responses including locomotor activity, antinociception, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, rewarding properties and physical dependence. KEY RESULTS RF9 had no effect on morphine-induced horizontal hyperlocomotion and slightly attenuated the decrease induced in vertical activity. Furthermore, RF9 dose-dependently blocked the long-lasting hyperalgesia produced by either acute fentanyl or chronic morphine administration. RF9 also potentiated opiate early analgesic effects and prevented the development of morphine tolerance. Finally, RF9 increased morphine-induced conditioned place preference without producing any rewarding effect by itself and decreased naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome following chronic morphine treatment. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS The NPFF system is involved in the development of two major undesirable effects: tolerance and dependence, which are clinically associated with prolonged exposure to opiates. Our findings suggest that NPFF receptors are interesting therapeutic targets to improve the analgesic efficacy of opiates by limiting the development of tolerance, and for the treatment of opioid dependence.

  2. NPFF2 receptor is involved in the modulatory effects of neuropeptide FF for macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-long; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-yuan; He, Ning; Zhuang, Yan; Li, Jing-yi; Fang, Quan; Wang, Kai-rong; Wang, Rui

    2014-05-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to regulate diverse biological processes. Its modulatory effect in the immune field, however, has not been fully explored yet. Here, we report that NPFF2 receptors may be functionally expressed in two immune cell models, the primary peritoneal macrophage and RAW 264.7 macrophage. Firstly, the mRNA levels of NPFF2 receptor were up-regulated in macrophages when treated with LPS for 24 to 72 h. Subsequently, our data hinted that NPFF regulates the viability of both kinds of macrophages. After treatment with RF9, a reported antagonist for both NPFF receptors, delayed or inhibited the NPFF-induced macrophages viability augmentation, suggesting the involvement of NPFF2 receptor. Furthermore, down-regulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOSs) partially significantly inhibited the viability augmentation of macrophages induced by NPFF, implying a nitric oxide synthases- dependent pathway is involved. However, the NOSs are not the only route by which NPFF affects the viability of macrophages. Pharmacological inhibitors of NF-κB signal pathway also blocked the NPFF-induced macrophages growth, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB signal pathway. The regulation activity of NPFF for macrophages suggests that NPFF could act as a potential hormone in the control of immune system. Collectively, our data provide new evidence about the immune modulatory effect of NPFF, which will be helpful in extending the scope of NPFF functions.

  3. Altered expression of neuropeptide Y receptors caused by focal cortical dysplasia in human intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hanjiang; Guan, Yuguang; Zhou, Jian; Qi, Xueling; Li, Tianfu; Xu, Zhiqing David; Luan, Guo-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common cause of pharmacologically-intractable epilepsy, however, the precise mechanisms underlying the epileptogenicity of FCD remains to be determined. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an endogenous anticonvulsant in the central nervous system, plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Increased expression of NPY and its receptors has been identified in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, presumed to act as an endogenous anticonvulsant mechanism. Therefore, we investigated whether expression changes in NPY receptors occurs in patients with FCD. We specifically investigated the expression of seizure-related NPY receptor subtypes Y1, Y2, and Y5 in patients with FCD versus autopsy controls. We found that Y1R and Y2R were up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels in the temporal and frontal lobes in FCD lesions. By contrast, there was no significant change in either receptor detected in parietal lesions. Notably, overexpression of Y5R was consistently observed in all FCD lesions. Our results demonstrate the altered expression of Y1R, Y2R and Y5R occurs in FCD lesions within the temporal, frontal and parietal lobe. Abnormal NPY receptor subtype expression may be associated with the onset and progression of epileptic activity and may act as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of refractory epilepsy caused by FCD. PMID:26943580

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ controls ingestive behavior, agouti-related protein, and neuropeptide Y mRNA in the arcuate hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Garretson, John T; Teubner, Brett J W; Grove, Kevin L; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-03-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ controls ingestive behavior, agouti-related protein, and neuropeptide Y mRNA in the arcuate hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Garretson, John T; Teubner, Brett J W; Grove, Kevin L; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-03-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors. PMID:25788674

  6. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Controls Ingestive Behavior, Agouti-Related Protein, and Neuropeptide Y mRNA in the Arcuate Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Garretson, John T.; Teubner, Brett J.W.; Grove, Kevin L.; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors. PMID:25788674

  7. Heat Avoidance Is Regulated by Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels and a Neuropeptide Signaling Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Dominique A.; Chen, Will C.; Agin, Rebecca; MacInnis, Bronwyn L.; Hellman, Andrew B.; Garrity, Paul A.; Tan, Man-Wah; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to avoid noxious extremes of hot and cold is critical for survival and depends on thermal nociception. The TRPV subset of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels is heat activated and proposed to be responsible for heat detection in vertebrates and fruit flies. To gain insight into the genetic and neural basis of thermal nociception, we developed assays that quantify noxious heat avoidance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and used them to investigate the genetic basis of this behavior. First, we screened mutants for 18 TRP channel genes (including all TRPV orthologs) and found only minor defects in heat avoidance in single and selected double and triple mutants, indicating that other genes are involved. Next, we compared two wild isolates of C. elegans that diverge in their threshold for heat avoidance and linked this phenotypic variation to a polymorphism in the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1. Further analysis revealed that loss of either the NPR-1 receptor or its ligand, FLP-21, increases the threshold for heat avoidance. Cell-specific rescue of npr-1 implicates the interneuron RMG in the circuit regulating heat avoidance. This neuropeptide signaling pathway operates independently of the TRPV genes, osm-9 and ocr-2, since mutants lacking npr-1 and both TRPV channels had more severe defects in heat avoidance than mutants lacking only npr-1 or both osm-9 and ocr-2. Our results show that TRPV channels and the FLP-21/NPR-1 neuropeptide signaling pathway determine the threshold for heat avoidance in C. elegans. PMID:21368276

  8. Neuropeptide FF receptors exhibit direct and anti-opioid effects on mice dorsal raphe nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-01

    By using acutely dissociated dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRN) from young mice, direct and anti-opioid effects of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors were measured. The NPFF analog 1 DMe (10 µM) had no effect on resting Ca2+ channels but reduced the magnitude of Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization in 83.3% neurons tested, of which the inhibition rate is 45.4±2.9%. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced to 18.9% the number of responding neurons and attenuated by 47% the response of 1 DMe. In contrast, cholera toxin treatment had no significant effect. Eighteen minute perfusion with 1 DMe at a very low 10 nM concentration, that did not directly inhibit Ca2+ transients triggered by depolarization in every neuron, attenuated by 78% the inhibitory effect of Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) on Ca2+ transients, but not that of by serotonin. These results demonstrated for the first time that NPFF receptors on mice DRN inhibit Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization via Gi/o protein and also exhibit a specific anti-opioid activity on nociceptin receptors, and that their specific anti-opioid activity is not a direct consequence of their activity on Ca2+ transients.

  9. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  10. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  11. Neuropeptides and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zaben, M J; Gray, W P

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is important for modulating the behavioural responses to stress and for certain forms of learning and memory. The mechanisms underlying the necessary coupling of neuronal activity to neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) function remain poorly understood. Within the dentate subgranular stem cell niche, local interneurons appear to play an important part in this excitation-neurogenesis coupling via GABAergic transmission, which promotes neuronal differentiation and integration. Neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and galanin have emerged as important mediators for signalling local and extrinsic interneuronal activity to subgranular zone precursors. Here we review the distribution of these neuropeptides and their receptors in the neurogenic area of the hippocampus and their precise effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. We also discuss neuropeptides' potential involvement in functional aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis particularly their involvement in the modulation of learning and memory and behavior responses.

  12. Neuropeptides in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Stjepana; Walker, Matthew C

    2013-12-01

    Neuropeptides play an important role in modulating seizures and epilepsy. Unlike neurotransmitters which operate on a millisecond time-scale, neuropeptides have longer half lives; this leads to modulation of neuronal and network activity over prolonged periods, so contributing to setting the seizure threshold. Most neuropeptides are stored in large dense vesicles and co-localize with inhibitory interneurons. They are released upon high frequency stimulation making them attractive targets for modulation of seizures, during which high frequency discharges occur. Numerous neuropeptides have been implicated in epilepsy; one, ACTH, is already used in clinical practice to suppress seizures. Here, we concentrate on neuropeptides that have a direct effect on seizures, and for which therapeutic interventions are being developed. We have thus reviewed the abundant reports that support a role for neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin, ghrelin, somatostatin and dynorphin in suppressing seizures and epileptogenesis, and for tachykinins having pro-epileptic effects. Most in vitro and in vivo studies are performed in hippocampal tissue in which receptor expression is usually high, making translation to other brain areas less clear. We highlight recent therapeutic strategies to treat epilepsy with neuropeptides, which are based on viral vector technology, and outline how such interventions need to be refined in order to address human disease.

  13. Renal and cardiac neuropeptide Y and NPY receptors in a rat model of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Callanan, Ean Y; Lee, Edward W; Tilan, Jason U; Winaver, Joseph; Haramati, Aviad; Mulroney, Susan E; Zukowska, Zofia

    2007-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is coreleased with norepinephrine and stimulates vasoconstriction, vascular and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via Y1 receptors (R) and angiogenesis via Y2R. Although circulating NPY is elevated in heart failure, NPY's role remains unclear. Activation of the NPY system was determined in Wistar rats with the aortocaval (A-V) fistula model of high-output heart failure. Plasma NPY levels were elevated in A-V fistula animals (115.7 +/- 15.3 vs. 63.1 +/- 17.4 pM in sham, P < 0.04). Animals either compensated [urinary Na(+) excretion returning to normal with moderate disease (COMP)] or remained decompensated with severe cardiac and renal failure (urinary Na(+) excretion <0.5 meq/day), increased heart weight, decreased mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow (RBF), and death within 5-7 days (DECOMP). Cardiac and renal tissue NPY decreased with heart failure, proportionate to the severity of renal complications. Cardiac and renal Y1R mRNA expression also decreased (1.5-fold, P < 0.005) in rats with heart failure. In contrast, Y2R expression increased up to 72-fold in the heart and 5.7-fold in the kidney (P < 0.001) proportionate to severity of heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Changes in receptor expression were confirmed since the Y1R agonist, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, had no effect on RBF, whereas the Y2R agonist (13-36)-NPY increased RBF to compensate for disease. Thus, in this model of heart failure, cardiac and renal NPY Y1 receptors decrease and Y2 receptors increase, suggesting an increased effect of NPY on the receptors involved in cardiac remodeling and angiogenesis, and highlighting an important regulatory role of NPY in congestive heart failure.

  14. Interaction between retinoid acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) and neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) in asthma.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Sääf, Annika; Söderhäll, Cilla; Melén, Erik; Mandelin, Jami; Pietras, Christina Orsmark; Ezer, Sini; Karisola, Piia; Vendelin, Johanna; Gennäs, Gustav Boije af; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Alenius, Harri; von Mutius, Erika; Doekes, Gert; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Riedler, Josef; van Hage, Marianne; D'Amato, Mauro; Scheynius, Annika; Pershagen, Göran; Kere, Juha; Pulkkinen, Ville

    2013-01-01

    Retinoid acid receptor-related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for asthma in a genome-wide association study. To investigate the impact of RORA on asthma susceptibility, we performed a genetic association study between RORA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vicinity of the asthma-associated SNP (rs11071559) and asthma-related traits. Because the regulatory region of a previously implicated asthma susceptibility gene, Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1), has predicted elements for RORA binding, we hypothesized that RORA may interact biologically and genetically with NPSR1. 37 RORA SNPs and eight NPSR1 SNPs were genotyped in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE (2033 children) and the European cross-sectional PARSIFAL study (1120 children). Seven RORA SNPs confined into a 49 kb region were significantly associated with physician-diagnosed childhood asthma. The most significant association with rs7164773 (T/C) was driven by the CC genotype in asthma cases (OR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.36-2.93, p = 0.0003 in BAMSE; and 1.61, 1.18-2.19, p = 0.002 in the combined BAMSE-PARSIFAL datasets, respectively), and strikingly, the risk effect was dependent on the Gln344Arg mutation in NPSR1. In cell models, stimulation of NPSR1 activated a pathway including RORA and other circadian clock genes. Over-expression of RORA decreased NPSR1 promoter activity further suggesting a regulatory loop between these genes. In addition, Rora mRNA expression was lower in the lung tissue of Npsr1 deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates during the early hours of the light period. We conclude that RORA SNPs are associated with childhood asthma and show epistasis with NPSR1, and the interaction between RORA and NPSR1 may be of biological relevance. Combinations of common susceptibility alleles and less common functional polymorphisms may modify the joint risk effects on asthma susceptibility. PMID:23565190

  15. Transferrin receptors in rat brain: neuropeptide-like pattern and relationship to iron distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J M; Ruff, M R; Weber, R J; Pert, C B

    1985-01-01

    We have characterized and visualized the binding of 125I-labeled transferrin to sections of rat brain. This saturable, reversible, high-affinity (Kd = 1 X 10(-9) M) binding site appears indistinguishable from transferrin receptors previously characterized in other tissues. Moreover, a monoclonal antibody raised to rat lymphocyte transferrin receptors could immunoprecipitate recovered intact transferrin solubilized from labeled brain slices, indicating that labeling was to the same molecular entity previously characterized as the transferrin receptor. The pattern of transferrin receptor distribution visualized in brain with both 125I-labeled transferrin and an anti-transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody are almost indistinguishable but differ from the pattern of iron distribution. Iron-rich brain areas generally receive neuronal projections from areas with abundant transferrin receptors, suggesting that iron may be transported neuronally. However, many brain areas with a high density of transferrin receptors appear unrelated to iron uptake and neuronal transport and form a receptor distribution pattern similar to that of other known neuropeptides. This "neuropeptide-like" distribution pattern suggests that transferrin may have neuromodulatory, perhaps behavioral, function in brain. Images PMID:2989832

  16. Development of a peptidomimetic antagonist of neuropeptide FF receptors for the prevention of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bihel, Frédéric; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Schneider, Séverine; Bertin, Isabelle; Wagner, Patrick; Schmitt, Martine; Laboureyras, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoît; Schneider, Elodie; Mollereau, Catherine; Simonnet, Guy; Simonin, Frédéric; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques

    2015-03-18

    Through the development of a new class of unnatural ornithine derivatives as bioisosteres of arginine, we have designed an orally active peptidomimetic antagonist of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR). Systemic low-dose administration of this compound to rats blocked opioid-induced hyperalgesia, without any apparent side-effects. Interestingly, we also observed that this compound potentiated opioid-induced analgesia. This unnatural ornithine derivative provides a novel therapeutic approach for both improving analgesia and reducing hyperalgesia induced by opioids in patients being treated for chronic pain.

  17. Neuronal Expression of the Human Neuropeptide S Receptor NPSR1 Identifies NPS-Induced Calcium Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, Frank; Kügler, Sebastian; Blaesse, Peter; Lange, Maren D.; Skryabin, Boris V.; Pape, Hans-Christian; Jüngling, Kay

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptide S (NPS) system was discovered as a novel neurotransmitter system a decade ago and has since been identified as a key player in the modulation of fear and anxiety. Genetic variations of the human NPS receptor (NPSR1) have been associated with pathologies like panic disorders. However, details on the molecular fundamentals of NPSR1 activity in neurons remained elusive. We expressed NPSR1 in primary hippocampal cultures. Using single-cell calcium imaging we found that NPSR1 stimulation induced calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum via activation of IP3 and ryanodine receptors. Store-operated calcium channels were activated in a downstream process mediating entry of extracellular calcium. We provide the first detailed analysis of NPSR1 activity and the underlying intracellular pathways with respect to calcium mobilization in neurons. PMID:25714705

  18. Neuropeptide S receptor gene -- converging evidence for a role in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Domschke, K; Reif, A; Weber, H; Richter, J; Hohoff, C; Ohrmann, P; Pedersen, A; Bauer, J; Suslow, T; Kugel, H; Heindel, W; Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Jacob, C; Maier, W; Fritze, J; Bandelow, B; Krakowitzky, P; Rothermundt, M; Erhardt, A; Binder, E B; Holsboer, F; Gerlach, A L; Kircher, T; Lang, T; Alpers, G W; Ströhle, A; Fehm, L; Gloster, A T; Wittchen, H-U; Arolt, V; Pauli, P; Hamm, A; Deckert, J

    2011-09-01

    Animal studies have suggested neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety-related behavior. In this study, a multilevel approach was applied to further elucidate the role of NPS in the etiology of human anxiety. The functional NPSR A/T (Asn¹⁰⁷Ile) variant (rs324981) was investigated for association with (1) panic disorder with and without agoraphobia in two large, independent case-control studies, (2) dimensional anxiety traits, (3) autonomic arousal level during a behavioral avoidance test and (4) brain activation correlates of anxiety-related emotional processing in panic disorder. The more active NPSR rs324981 T allele was found to be associated with panic disorder in the female subgroup of patients in both samples as well as in a meta-analytic approach. The T risk allele was further related to elevated anxiety sensitivity, increased heart rate and higher symptom reports during a behavioral avoidance test as well as decreased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, lateral orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex during processing of fearful faces in patients with panic disorder. The present results provide converging evidence for a female-dominant role of NPSR gene variation in panic disorder potentially through heightened autonomic arousal and distorted processing of anxiety-relevant emotional stimuli.

  19. Radiosynthesis and in Vivo Evaluation of Neuropeptide Y5 Receptor (NPY5R) PET Tracers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J S Dileep; Walker, Mary; Packiarajan, Mathivanan; Jubian, Vrej; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Chandrasena, Gamini; Pratap, Mali; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2016-05-18

    Neuropeptide Y receptor type 5 (NPY5R) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that belongs to the subfamily of neuropeptide receptors (NPYR) that mediate the action of endogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY). Animal models and preclinical studies indicate a role for NPY5R in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety, and obesity and as a target of potential therapeutic drugs. To better understand the pathophysiological involvement of NPY5R, and to measure target occupancy by potential therapeutic drugs, it would be advantageous to measure NPY5R binding in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). Four potent and selective NPY5R antagonists were radiolabeled via nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions with [(18)F]fluoride. Of the four radioligands investigated, PET studies in anesthetized baboons showed that [(18)F]LuAE00654 ([(18)F]N-[trans-4-({[4-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)thiazol-2-yl]amino}methyl)cyclohexyl]propane-2-sulfonamide) penetrates blood brain barrier (BBB) and a small amount is retained in the brain. Slow metabolism of [(18)F]LuAE00654 was observed in baboon plasma. Blocking studies with a specific NPY5R antagonist demonstrated up to 60% displacement of radioactivity in striatum, the brain region with highest NPY5R binding. Our studies suggest that [(18)F]LuAE00654 can be a potential PET radiotracer for the quantification and occupancy studies of NPY5R drug candidates. PMID:26886507

  20. Effects of Starvation on Brain Short Neuropeptide F-1, -2, and -3 Levels and Short Neuropeptide F Receptor Expression Levels of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Shinji; Matsumoto, Sumihiro; Nakane, Tomohiro; Ohara, Ayako; Morooka, Nobukatsu; Konuma, Takahiro; Nagai, Chiaki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    In our previous report, we demonstrated the possibility that various regulatory neuropeptides influence feeding behavior in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Among these feeding-related neuropeptides, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) exhibited feeding-accelerating activity when injected into B. mori larvae. Like other insect sNPFs, the deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA encoding the sNPF precursor appears to produce multiple sNPF and sNPF-related peptides in B. mori. The presence of three sNPFs, sNPF-1, sNPF-2, and sNPF-3, in the brain of B. mori larvae was confirmed by direct MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric profiling. In addition, all three sNPFs are present in other larval ganglia. The presence of sNPF mRNA in the central nervous system (CNS) was also confirmed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Semi-quantitative analyses of sNPFs in the larval brain using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry further revealed that brain sNPF levels decrease in response to starvation, and that they recover with the resumption of feeding. These data suggest that sNPFs were depleted by the starvation process. Furthermore, food deprivation decreased the transcriptional levels of the sNPF receptor (BNGR-A10) in the brain and CNS, suggesting that the sNPF system is dependent on the feeding state of the insect and that the sNPF system may be linked to locomotor activity associated with foraging behavior. Since the injection of sNPFs accelerated the onset of feeding in B. mori larvae, we concluded that sNPFs are strongly related to feeding behavior. In addition, semi-quantitative MS analyses revealed that allatostatin, which is present in the larval brain, is also reduced in response to starvation, whereas the peptide level of Bommyosuppressin was not affected by different feeding states. PMID:22649403

  1. Cloning, expression, and ligand-binding characterization of two neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Weimin; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important multifunctional peptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) performs its physiological functions through different subtype receptors. In this study, full-length cDNAs of two NPY receptors (YRs) in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were cloned and named npy8br (y8b) and npy2r (y2). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Y8b receptor is an ortholog of the teleostean Y8b receptor, which belongs to the Y1 subfamily, and the Y2 receptor is an ortholog of the teleostean Y2 receptor, which belongs to the Y2 subfamily. Both of the YRs have G protein-coupled receptor family profiles. Multiple alignments demonstrate that the extracellular loop regions of YRs have distinctive residues of each species. Expression profile analysis revealed that the grouper Y8b receptor mRNA is primarily expressed in the brain, stomach and intestine, while the grouper Y2 receptor mRNA is primarily expressed in the brain, ovary, liver and heart. Double immunofluorescence analysis determined that the grouper YRs interact with the grouper NPY around the human embryonic kidney 293T cell surface. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis in a phage display system revealed that Asp(6.59) might be a common NPY-binding site, while Asp(2.68) of the Y8b receptor and Glu(5.24) of the Y2 receptor could be likely involved in subtype-specific binding. Combining the expression profile and ligand-binding feature, the grouper Y8b receptor could be involved in regulating food intake via the brain-gut axis and the grouper Y2 receptor might play a role in balancing the regulatory activity of the Y8b receptor and participate in metabolism in the liver and ovary.

  2. Receptors for the Neuropeptides, Myoinhibitory Peptide and SIFamide, in Control of the Salivary Glands of the Blacklegged Tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Šimo, Ladislav; Koči, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

    2013-01-01

    Tick salivary glands are important organs that enable the hematophagous feeding of the tick. We previously described the innervation of the salivary gland acini types II and III by a pair of protocerebral salivary gland neurons that produce both myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide (Šimo et al., 2009b). In this study we identified authentic receptors expressed in the salivary glands for these neuropeptides. Homology-based searches for these receptors in the Ixodes scapularis genome sequence were followed by gene cloning and functional expression of the receptors. Both receptors were activated by low nanomolar concentrations of their respective ligands. The temporal expression patterns of the two ligands and their respective receptors suggest that the SIFamide signaling system pre-exists in unfed salivary glands, while the MIP system is activated upon initiation of feeding. Immunoreactivity for the SIFamide receptor in the salivary gland was detected in acini types II and III, surrounding the acinar valve and extending to the basal region of the acinar lumen. The location of the SIFamide receptor in the salivary glands suggests three potential target cell types and their probable functions: myoepithelial cells that may function in the contraction of the acini and/or the control of the valve; large, basally located dopaminergic granular cells for regulation of paracrine dopamine; and neck cells that may be involved in the control of the acinar duct and its valve. PMID:23357681

  3. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex. PMID:22375000

  4. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex.

  5. Neuropeptide Receptor Transcript Expression Levels and Magnitude of Ionic Current Responses Show Cell Type-Specific Differences in a Small Motor Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Veronica J.; Daur, Nelly; Temporal, Simone; Schulz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relationship between neuropeptide receptor transcript expression and current responses in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the crab, Cancer borealis. We identified a transcript with high sequence similarity to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) receptors in insects and mammalian neuropeptide S receptors. This transcript was expressed throughout the nervous system, consistent with the role of CCAP in a range of different behaviors. In the STG, single-cell qPCR showed expression in only a subset of neurons. This subset had previously been shown to respond to CCAP with the activation of a modulator-activated inward current (IMI), with one exception. In the one cell type that showed expression but no IMI responses, we found CCAP modulation of synaptic currents. Expression levels within STG neuron types were fairly variable, but significantly different between some neuron types. We tested the magnitude and concentration dependence of IMI responses to CCAP application in two identified neurons, the lateral pyloric (LP) and the inferior cardiac (IC) neurons. LP had several-fold higher expression and showed larger current responses. It also was more sensitive to low CCAP concentrations and showed saturation at lower concentrations, as sigmoid fits showed smaller EC50 values and steeper slopes. In addition, occlusion experiments with proctolin, a different neuropeptide converging onto IMI, showed that saturating concentrations of CCAP activated all available IMI in LP, but only approximately two-thirds in IC, the neuron with lower receptor transcript expression. The implications of these findings for comodulation are discussed. PMID:25926455

  6. Identification of a Neuropeptide S Responsive Circuitry Shaping Amygdala Activity via the Endopiriform Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Meis, Susanne; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge Ricardo; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Stork, Oliver; Munsch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor are thought to define a set of specific brain circuits involved in fear and anxiety. Here we provide evidence for a novel, NPS-responsive circuit that shapes neural activity in the mouse basolateral amygdala (BLA) via the endopiriform nucleus (EPN). Using slice preparations, we demonstrate that NPS directly activates an inward current in 20% of EPN neurons and evokes an increase of glutamatergic excitation in this nucleus. Excitation of the EPN is responsible for a modulation of BLA activity through NPS, characterized by a general increase of GABAergic inhibition and enhancement of spike activity in a subset of BLA projection neurons. Finally, local injection of NPS to the EPN interferes with the expression of contextual, but not auditory cued fear memory. Together, these data suggest the existence of a specific NPS-responsive circuitry between EPN and BLA, likely involved in contextual aspects of fear memory. PMID:18628994

  7. Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R. )

    1989-05-01

    Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues.

  8. Anti-opioid effects of neuropeptide FF receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Kersanté, Flavie; Wang, Jin-Ya; Chen, Jin-Chung; Mollereau, Catherine; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-25

    The present study investigates the modulatory effects of neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors on the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway controlled by opioid receptors. A stable NPFF(2) receptor agonist, dNPA, was injected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the release of dopamine and serotonin within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), induced by intraperitoneal injection of morphine, was monitored using the brain microdialysis, in non-constrained rat. dNPA decreased systemic morphine-induced elevation of dopamine and serotonin metabolites within the NAc. Furthermore, co-injected with morphine into the VTA, NPFF inhibited morphine-induced stereotypy 60-120min after the injection. This neurochemical and behavioural anti-opioid effect mediated by NPFF(2) receptors at the level of VTA suggests the involvement of NPFF in the rewarding effects of opiates on the mesolimbic dopamine system.

  9. Neuropeptides stimulate human osteoblast activity and promote gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Shi, Shushan; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-06-01

    Neuropeptides released from the skeletal nerve fibers have neurotransmitter and immunoregulatory roles; they exert paracrine biological effects on bone cells present close to the nerve endings expressing these signaling molecules. The aims of this study were a systematic investigation of the effects of the neuropeptides substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) on the cell viability and function of the human osteoblasts, and comparing their difference in the role of regulating bone formation. Cultures of normal human osteoblasts were treated with SP, CGRP, VIP, NPY or TH at three concentrations. We found that each of the five neuropeptides induced increases in cell viability of human osteoblasts. The stimulatory action of NPY was the highest, followed by VIP, SP and TH, while CGRP had the lowest stimulatory effect. The viability index of osteoblasts was inversely associated with the concentration of neuropeptides, and positively with the time of exposure. Moreover, the five neuropeptides increased the ALP activity and osteocalcin to different extents in a dose-dependent manner. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly promoted by neuropeptides. The results demonstrated that neuropeptides released from skeletal nerve endings after a stimulus appeared to be able to induce the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts via enhancing GJIC between cells, and further influence the bone formation. These findings may contribute toward a better understanding of the neural influence on bone remodeling and improving treatments related to bone diseases.

  10. Identification of neuropeptide S antagonists: structure-activity relationship studies, X-ray crystallography, and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Carla; Zhang, Yanan; Gilmour, Brian; Graf, Tyler; Fennell, Timothy; Snyder, Rodney; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Reinscheid, Rainer K; Garau, Celia; Runyon, Scott P

    2014-08-20

    Modulation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system has been linked to a variety of CNS disorders such as panic disorder, anxiety, sleeping disorders, asthma, obesity, PTSD, and substance abuse. In this study, a series of diphenyltetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-α]pyrazin-3(5H)-ones were synthesized and evaluated for antagonist activity at the neuropeptide S receptor. The absolute configuration was determined by chiral resolution of the key synthetic intermediate, followed by analysis of one of the individual enantiomers by X-ray crystallography. The R isomer was then converted to a biologically active compound (34) that had a Ke of 36 nM. The most potent compound displayed enhanced aqueous solubility compared with the prototypical antagonist SHA-68 and demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic properties for behavioral assessment. In vivo analysis in mice indicated a significant blockade of NPS induced locomotor activity at an ip dose of 50 mg/kg. This suggests that analogs having improved drug-like properties will facilitate more detailed studies of the neuropeptide S receptor system.

  11. Identification of Neuropeptide S Antagonists: Structure–Activity Relationship Studies, X-ray Crystallography, and in Vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system has been linked to a variety of CNS disorders such as panic disorder, anxiety, sleeping disorders, asthma, obesity, PTSD, and substance abuse. In this study, a series of diphenyltetrahydro-1H-oxazolo[3,4-α]pyrazin-3(5H)-ones were synthesized and evaluated for antagonist activity at the neuropeptide S receptor. The absolute configuration was determined by chiral resolution of the key synthetic intermediate, followed by analysis of one of the individual enantiomers by X-ray crystallography. The R isomer was then converted to a biologically active compound (34) that had a Ke of 36 nM. The most potent compound displayed enhanced aqueous solubility compared with the prototypical antagonist SHA-68 and demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic properties for behavioral assessment. In vivo analysis in mice indicated a significant blockade of NPS induced locomotor activity at an ip dose of 50 mg/kg. This suggests that analogs having improved drug-like properties will facilitate more detailed studies of the neuropeptide S receptor system. PMID:24964000

  12. Reduced anxiety-like and depression-related behavior in neuropeptide Y Y4 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Painsipp, E; Wultsch, T; Edelsbrunner, M E; Tasan, R O; Singewald, N; Herzog, H; Holzer, P

    2008-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) acting through Y1 receptors reduces anxiety- and depression-like behavior in rodents, whereas Y2 receptor stimulation has the opposite effect. This study addressed the implication of Y4 receptors in emotional behavior by comparing female germ line Y4 knockout (Y4-/-) mice with control and germ line Y2-/- animals. Anxiety- and depression-like behavior was assessed with the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) and tail suspension tests (TST), respectively. Learning and memory were evaluated with the object recognition test (ORT). In the OF and EPM, both Y4-/- and Y2-/- mice exhibited reduced anxiety-related behavior and enhanced locomotor activity relative to control animals. Locomotor activity in a familiar environment was unchanged in Y4-/- but reduced in Y2-/- mice. The basal rectal temperature exhibited diurnal and genotype-related alterations. Control mice had temperature minima at noon and midnight, whereas Y4-/- and Y2-/- mice displayed only one temperature minimum at noon. The magnitude of SIH was related to time of the day and genotype in a complex manner. In the TST, the duration of immobility was significantly shorter in Y4-/- and Y2-/- mice than in controls. Object memory 6 h after initial exposure to the ORT was impaired in Y2-/- but not in Y4-/- mice, relative to control mice. These results show that genetic deletion of Y4 receptors, like that of Y2 receptors, reduces anxiety-like and depression-related behavior. Unlike Y2 receptor knockout, Y4 receptor knockout does not impair object memory. We propose that Y4 receptors play an important role in the regulation of behavioral homeostasis.

  13. [Physiology of the neuropeptides].

    PubMed

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez- Expósito, M J

    In the present review, the characteristics of mammalian neuropeptides have been studied. Neuropeptides are widely distributed not only in the nervous system but also in the periphery. They are synthesised by neurons as large precursor molecules (pre propeptides) which have to be cleaved and modified in order to form the mature neuropeptides. Neuropeptides may exert actions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and/or neurohormones. In the neurons, they coexist with classic transmitters and often with other peptides. After their releasing, they bind to especific receptors to exert their action in the target cell. Most of these receptors belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors. Finally, peptidases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of neuropeptides. Conclusions. In the last years, the number of known neuropeptides and the understanding of their functions have been increased. With these data, present investigations are looking for the treatment of different pathologies associated with alterations in the physiology of neuropeptides.

  14. Effects of neuropeptide FF and related peptides on the antinociceptive activities of VD-hemopressin(α) in naive and cannabinoid-tolerant mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jia-Xin; Wang, Zi-Long; Li, Ning; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Pei; Tang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Ting; Yu, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Run; Zheng, Ting; Fang, Quan; Wang, Rui

    2015-11-15

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) system has recently been reported to modulate cannabinoid-induced antinociception. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the roles of NPFF system in the antinociceptive effects induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of mouse VD-hemopressin(α), a novel endogenous agonist of cannabinoid CB1 receptor, in naive and VD-hemopressin(α)-tolerant mice. The effects of NPFF system on the antinociception induced by VD-hemopressin(α) were investigated in the radiant heat tail-flick test in naive mice and VD-hemopressin(α)-tolerant mice. The cannabinoid-tolerant mice were produced by given daily injections of VD-hemopressin(α) (20 nmol, i.c.v.) for 5 days and the antinociception was measured on day 6. In naive mice, intracerebroventricular injection of NPFF dose-dependently attenuated central analgesia of VD-hemopressin(α). In contrast, neuropeptide VF (NPVF) and D.NP(N-Me)AFLFQPQRF-NH2 (dNPA), two highly selective agonists for Neuropeptide FF1 and Neuropeptide FF2 receptors, enhanced VD-hemopressin(α)-induced antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the VD-hemopressin(α)-modulating activities of NPFF and related peptides were antagonized by the Neuropeptide FF receptors selective antagonist 1-adamantanecarbonyl-RF-NH2 (RF9). In VD-hemopressin(α)-tolerant mice, NPFF failed to modify VD-hemopressin(α)-induced antinociception. However, both neuropeptide VF and dNPA dose-dependently potentiated the antinociception of VD-hemopressin(α) and these cannabinoid-potentiating effects were reduced by RF9. The present works support the cannabinoid-modulating character of NPFF system in naive and cannabinoid-tolerant mice. In addition, the data suggest that a chronic cannabinoid treatment modifies the pharmacological profiles of NPFF, but not the cannabinoid-potentiating effects of neuropeptide VF and dNPA.

  15. Neuropeptide Y acts in the paraventricular nucleus to suppress sympathetic nerve activity and its baroreflex regulation.

    PubMed

    Cassaglia, Priscila A; Shi, Zhigang; Li, Baoxin; Reis, Wagner L; Clute-Reinig, Nicholas M; Stern, Javier E; Brooks, Virginia L

    2014-04-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a brain neuromodulator that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of energy balance, also acts centrally to inhibit sympathetic nerve activity (SNA); however, the site and mechanism of action are unknown. In chloralose-anaesthetized female rats, nanoinjection of NPY into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) dose-dependently suppressed lumbar SNA (LSNA) and its baroreflex regulation, and these effects were blocked by prior inhibition of NPY Y1 or Y5 receptors. Moreover, PVN injection of Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists in otherwise untreated rats increased basal and baroreflex control of LSNA, indicating that endogenous NPY tonically inhibits PVN presympathetic neurons. The sympathoexcitation following blockade of PVN NPY inhibition was eliminated by prior PVN nanoinjection of the melanocortin 3/4 receptor inhibitor SHU9119. Moreover, presympathetic neurons, identified immunohistochemically using cholera toxin b neuronal tract tracing from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), express NPY Y1 receptor immunoreactivity, and patch-clamp recordings revealed that both NPY and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) inhibit and stimulate, respectively, PVN-RVLM neurons. Collectively, these data suggest that PVN NPY inputs converge with α-MSH to influence presympathetic neurons. Together these results identify endogenous NPY as a novel and potent inhibitory neuromodulator within the PVN that may contribute to changes in SNA that occur in states associated with altered energy balance, such as obesity and pregnancy. PMID:24535439

  16. Neuropeptide Y family receptors Y1 and Y2 from sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Lagman, David; Sundström, Görel; Larhammar, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The vertebrate gene family for neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors expanded by duplication of the chromosome carrying the ancestral Y1-Y2-Y5 gene triplet. After loss of some duplicates, the ancestral jawed vertebrate had seven receptor subtypes forming the Y1 (including Y1, Y4, Y6, Y8), Y2 (including Y2, Y7) and Y5 (only Y5) subfamilies. Lampreys are considered to have experienced the same chromosome duplications as gnathostomes and should also be expected to have multiple receptor genes. However, previously only a Y4-like and a Y5 receptor have been cloned and characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two additional receptors from the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Sequence phylogeny alone could not with certainty assign their identity, but based on synteny comparisons of P. marinus and the Arctic lamprey, Lethenteron camtschaticum, with jawed vertebrates, the two receptors most likely are Y1 and Y2. Both receptors were expressed in human HEK293 cells and inositol phosphate assays were performed to determine the response to the three native lamprey peptides NPY, PYY and PMY. The three peptides have similar potencies in the nanomolar range for Y1. No obvious response to the three peptides was detected for Y2. Synteny analysis supports identification of the previously cloned receptor as Y4. No additional NPY receptor genes could be identified in the presently available lamprey genome assemblies. Thus, four NPY-family receptors have been identified in lampreys, orthologs of the same subtypes as in humans (Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5), whereas many other vertebrate lineages have retained additional ancestral subtypes.

  17. Mimicking of Arginine by Functionalized N(ω)-Carbamoylated Arginine As a New Broadly Applicable Approach to Labeled Bioactive Peptides: High Affinity Angiotensin, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropeptide FF, and Neurotensin Receptor Ligands As Examples.

    PubMed

    Keller, Max; Kuhn, Kilian K; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Biselli, Sabrina; Mollereau, Catherine; Wifling, David; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Bernhardt, Günther; Cabrele, Chiara; Vanderheyden, Patrick M L; Gmeiner, Peter; Buschauer, Armin

    2016-03-10

    Derivatization of biologically active peptides by conjugation with fluorophores or radionuclide-bearing moieties is an effective and commonly used approach to prepare molecular tools and diagnostic agents. Whereas lysine, cysteine, and N-terminal amino acids have been mostly used for peptide conjugation, we describe a new, widely applicable approach to peptide conjugation based on the nonclassical bioisosteric replacement of the guanidine group in arginine by a functionalized carbamoylguanidine moiety. Four arginine-containing peptide receptor ligands (angiotensin II, neurotensin(8-13), an analogue of the C-terminal pentapeptide of neuropeptide Y, and a neuropeptide FF analogue) were subject of this proof-of-concept study. The N(ω)-carbamoylated arginines, bearing spacers with a terminal amino group, were incorporated into the peptides by standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis. The synthesized chemically stable peptide derivatives showed high receptor affinities with Ki values in the low nanomolar range, even when bulky fluorophores had been attached. Two new tritiated tracers for angiotensin and neurotensin receptors are described.

  18. Internalization mechanism of neuropeptide Y bound to its Y1 receptor investigated by high resolution microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Noémie; Didier, Pascal; Postupalenko, Viktoriia; Bucher, Bernard; Mély, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays numerous biological roles that are mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Among the latter, the NPY Y1 subtype receptor undergoes a rapid desensitization following agonist exposure. This desensitization was suggested to result from a rapid clathrin-dependent internalization of Y1 and its recycling at the plasma membrane via sorting/early endosomes (SE/EE) and recycling endosomes (RE). Herein, to validate and quantitatively consolidate the mechanism of NPY internalization, we quantitatively investigated the NPY-induced internalization of the Y1 receptor by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), a super-resolution imaging technique that can resolve EE and SE, which are below the resolution limit of conventional optical microscopes. Using Cy5-labeled NPY, we could monitor with time the internalization and recycling of NPY on HEK293 cells stably expressing eGFP-labeled Y1 receptors. Furthermore, by discriminating the SE/EE from the larger RE by their sizes and monitoring these two populations as a function of time, we could firmly consolidate the kinetic model describing the internalization mechanism of the Y1 receptors as the basis for their rapid desensitization following agonist exposure.

  19. Regional distribution of neuropeptide Y and its receptor in the porcine central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Busch-Sørensen, M; Sheikh, S P; O'Hare, M; Tortora, O; Schwartz, T W; Gammeltoft, S

    1989-05-01

    The regional distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity and receptor binding was studied in the porcine CNS. The highest amounts of immunoreactive NPY were found in the hypothalamus, septum pellucidum, gyrus cinguli, cortex frontalis, parietalis, and piriformis, corpus amygdaloideum, and bulbus olfactorius (200-1,000 pmol/g wet weight). In the cortex temporalis and occipitalis, striatum, hippocampus, tractus olfactorius, corpus mamillare, thalamus, and globus pallidus, the NPY content was 50-200 pmol/g wet weight, whereas the striatum, colliculi, substantia nigra, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis contained less than 50 pmol/g wet weight. The receptor binding of NPY was highest in the hippocampus, corpus fornicis, corpus amygdaloideum, nucleus accumbens, and neurohypophysis, with a range of 1.0-5.87 pmol/mg of protein. Intermediate binding (0.5-1.0 pmol/mg of protein) was found in the septum pellucidum, columna fornicis, corpus mamillare, cortex piriformis, gyrus cinguli, striatum, substantia grisea centralis, substantia nigra, and cerebellum. In the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, corpus pineale, colliculi, corpus geniculatum mediale, nucleus ruber, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis, receptor binding of NPY was detectable but less than 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. No binding was observed in the bulbus and tractus olfactorius and adenohypophysis. In conclusion, immunoreactive NPY and its receptors are widespread in the porcine CNS, with predominant location in the limbic system, olfactory system, hypothalamoneurohypophysial tract, corpus striatum, and cerebral cortex.

  20. Neuropeptide FF receptor modulates potassium currents in a dorsal root ganglion cell line.

    PubMed

    Mollereau, Catherine; Roumy, Michel; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors on F-11 cells, a hybridoma derived from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and mouse neuroblastoma. Binding experiments revealed a low density (4 fmol/mg) of high affinity (0.5 nM) [(3)H]-EYF binding sites in these cells. The whole-cell planar patch-clamp technique showed that dNPA, a selective NPFF(2) agonist, increased the voltage-dependent potassium outward currents (about 30 pA/pF) by 21%; this reversible effect on sustained delayed potassium currents is blocked by tetraethylammonium. The similar effects of NPFF and opioid agonists on K(+) currents in this cell line may explain their similar antinociceptive actions at the spinal level.

  1. ETA and ETB receptors contribute to neuropeptide Y-induced secretion of endothelin-1 in right but not left human ventricular endocardial endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Samad, Dima; Bkaily, Ghassan; Magder, Sheldon; Jacques, Danielle

    2016-02-01

    Our recent work showed that neuropeptide Y-induced secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in left and right human ventricular endocardial endothelial cells (hLEECs or hREECs respectively) via the activation of neuropeptide Y2 or Y5 receptors depending on the cell type. The aim of this study was to verify whether hLEECs or hREECs secretion of ET-1 induced by NPY is due, in part, to the activation of ETA and/or ETB receptors by the secreted ET-1. Using the technique of indirect immunofluorescence coupled to real 3-D confocal microscopy, as well as ELISA, our results show that in hREECs, the NPY-induced release of ET-1 seems to be due, in part, to the activation of both ETA and ETB receptors. On the other hand, in hLEECs, ETA and ETB receptors do not contribute to the ET-1 released by NPY. Therefore, our results suggest that the NPY-induced release of ET-1 in EECRs is due to NPY receptor activation and the subsequent activation of the ETA and ETB receptors by the released ET-1. However, the release of ET-1 by NPY in hLEECs is mainly due to NPY receptor activation. Furthermore, this secretory process of ET-1 is different between the right and left ventricular cells and highlights the important tuning roles that right and left ventricular EECs possess as well as their contribution to the physiological and pathophysiological states of the underlying heart muscle.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Substance P and Neuropeptide Y against laboratory strains of bacteria and oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christopher J; Burnell, Kindra K; Brogden, Kim A

    2006-08-01

    Infection and inflammation of mucosal tissue may induce the production of neuropeptides, specifically Substance P and Neuropeptide Y. Since these neuropeptides are similar to antimicrobial peptides in their amino acid composition, amphipathic design, cationic charge, and size, we wanted to determine if they had antimicrobial activity against a panel of common bacteria and oral microorganisms using the radial diffusion assay. Neuropeptide Y and Substance P had antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MIC 20.6+/-5.5 microg/ml SEM and 71.5+/-15 SEM microg/ml, respectively), but did not have activity against laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (MIC>500 microg/ml) nor oral strains of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (MIC>500 microg/ml). While Substance P and Neuropeptide Y did not have direct antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested, they still may stimulate local epithelial cells to produce other innate immune factors like defensins and cathelicidins. However, this remains to be determined.

  3. Quantitative analysis of neuropeptide Y receptor association with β-arrestin2 measured by bimolecular fluorescence complementation

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, LE; Briddon, SJ; Hill, SJ; Holliday, ND

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: β-Arrestins are critical scaffold proteins that shape spatiotemporal signalling from seven transmembrane domain receptors (7TMRs). Here, we study the association between neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors and β-arrestin2, using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to directly report underlying protein–protein interactions. Experimental approach: Y1 receptors were tagged with a C-terminal fragment, Yc, of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and β-arrestin2 fused with the complementary N-terminal fragment, Yn. After Y receptor–β-arrestin association, YFP fragment refolding to regenerate fluorescence (BiFC) was examined by confocal microscopy in transfected HEK293 cells. Y receptor/β-arrestin2 BiFC responses were also quantified by automated imaging and granularity analysis. Key results: NPY stimulation promoted association between Y1–Yc and β-arrestin2–Yn, and the specific development of BiFC in intracellular compartments, eliminated when using non-interacting receptor and arrestin mutants. Responses developed irreversibly and were slower than for downstream Y1 receptor–YFP internalization, a consequence of delayed maturation and stability of complemented YFP. However, β-arrestin2 BiFC measurements delivered appropriate ligand pharmacology for both Y1 and Y2 receptors, and demonstrated higher affinity of Y1 compared to Y2 receptors for β-arrestin2. Receptor mutagenesis combined with β-arrestin2 BiFC revealed that alternative arrangements of Ser/Thr residues in the Y1 receptor C tail could support β-arrestin2 association, and that Y2 receptor–β-arrestin2 interaction was enhanced by the intracellular loop mutation H155P. Conclusions and implications: The BiFC approach quantifies Y receptor ligand pharmacology focused on the β-arrestin2 pathway, and provides insight into mechanisms of β-arrestin2 recruitment by activated and phosphorylated 7TMRs, at the level of protein–protein interaction. PMID:20438572

  4. Neuropeptide FF receptor antagonist, RF9, attenuates the fever induced by central injection of LPS in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-qing; Wang, Sheng-bin; Ma, Jing-lin; Guo, Jia; Fang, Quan; Sun, Tao; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Rui

    2011-04-01

    The endogenous opioid system has been found to be involved in the fever caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Neuropeptide FF (NPFF, FLFQPQRF-NH(2)) is an endogenous peptide known to modulate opioid activity, mainly in the central nervous system. Therefore, those data suggested a link between LPS-induced fever and NPFF systems. Using a model of acute neuroinflammation, we sought to determine the effects of NPFF systems on the fever induced by i.c.v. injection of LPS. Coinjected with different doses of NPFF (10 and 30 nmol), the fever of LPS (125 ng) was not modified. Interestingly, the selective NPFF receptors antagonist RF9 (30 nmol) injected into the third ventricle failed to induce significant effect, but it decreased the fever of LPS (125 ng) after cerebral administration in mice. These results suggest that NPFF receptors activation is required for LPS to produce fever. This interaction is the first evidence that NPFF systems participate in the control of acute neuroinflammation in conscious animals.

  5. Functional and Genetic Characterization of Neuropeptide Y-Like Receptors in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Liesch, Jeff; Bellani, Lindsay L.; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the principal vector for dengue fever, causing 50–100 million infections per year, transmitted between human and mosquito by blood feeding. Ae. aegypti host-seeking behavior is known to be inhibited for three days following a blood meal by a hemolymph-borne humoral factor. Head Peptide-I is a candidate peptide mediating this suppression, but the mechanism by which this peptide alters mosquito behavior and the receptor through which it signals are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Head Peptide-I shows sequence similarity to short Neuropeptide-F peptides (sNPFs) that have been implicated in feeding behaviors and are known to signal through Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Like Receptors (NPYLRs). We identified eight NPYLRs in the Ae. aegypti genome and screened each in a cell-based calcium imaging assay for sensitivity against a panel of peptides. Four of the Ae. aegypti NPYLRs responded to one or more peptide ligands, but only NYPLR1 responded to Head Peptide-I as well as sNPFs. Two NPYLR1 homologues identified in the genome of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, were also sensitive to Head Peptide-I. Injection of synthetic Head Peptide-I and sNPF-3 inhibited host-seeking behavior in non-blood-fed female mosquitoes, whereas control injections of buffer or inactive Head Peptide-I [Cys10] had no effect. To ask if NPYLR1 is necessary for blood-feeding-induced host-seeking inhibition, we used zinc-finger nucleases to generate five independent npylr1 null mutant strains and tested them for behavioral abnormalities. npylr1 mutants displayed normal behavior in locomotion, egg laying, sugar feeding, blood feeding, host seeking, and inhibition of host seeking after a blood meal. Conclusions In this work we deorphanized four Ae. aegypti NPYLRs and identified NPYLR1 as a candidate sNPF receptor that is also sensitive to Head Peptide-I. Yet npylr1 alone is not required for host-seeking inhibition and we conclude that other

  6. Adult exposure to tributyltin affects hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, Y1 receptor distribution, and circulating leptin in mice.

    PubMed

    Bo, E; Farinetti, A; Marraudino, M; Sterchele, D; Eva, C; Gotti, S; Panzica, G

    2016-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a pesticide used in antifouling paints, is toxic for aquatic invertebrates. In vertebrates, TBT may act in obesogen- inducing adipogenetic gene transcription for adipocyte differentiation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that acute administration of TBT induces c-fos expression in the arcuate nucleus. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult exposure to TBT may alter a part of the nervous pathways controlling animal food intake. In particular, we investigated the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity. This neuropeptide forms neural circuits dedicated to food assumption and its action is mediated by Y1 receptors that are widely expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei responsible for the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. To this purpose, TBT was orally administered at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg/day/body weight to adult animals [male and female C57BL/6 (Y1-LacZ transgenic mice] for 4 weeks. No differences were found in body weight and fat deposition, but we observed a significant increase in feed efficiency in TBT-treated male mice and a significant decrease in circulating leptin in both sexes. Computerized quantitative analysis of NPY immunoreactivity and Y1-related β-galactosidase activity demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in NPY and Y1 transgene expression in the hypothalamic circuit controlling food intake of treated male mice in comparison with controls. In conclusion, the present results indicate that adult exposure to TBT is profoundly interfering with the nervous circuits involved in the stimulation of food intake. PMID:27310180

  7. The stress response neuropeptide CRF increases amyloid-β production by regulating γ-secretase activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Ran, Yong; Jung, Joo In; Holmes, Oliver; Price, Ashleigh R; Smithson, Lisa; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Han, Chul; Wolfe, Michael S; Daaka, Yehia; Ryabinin, Andrey E; Kim, Seong-Hun; Hauger, Richard L; Golde, Todd E; Felsenstein, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    The biological underpinnings linking stress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk are poorly understood. We investigated how corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), a critical stress response mediator, influences amyloid-β (Aβ) production. In cells, CRF treatment increases Aβ production and triggers CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) and γ-secretase internalization. Co-immunoprecipitation studies establish that γ-secretase associates with CRFR1; this is mediated by β-arrestin binding motifs. Additionally, CRFR1 and γ-secretase co-localize in lipid raft fractions, with increased γ-secretase accumulation upon CRF treatment. CRF treatment also increases γ-secretase activityin vitro, revealing a second, receptor-independent mechanism of action. CRF is the first endogenous neuropeptide that can be shown to directly modulate γ-secretase activity. Unexpectedly, CRFR1 antagonists also increased Aβ. These data collectively link CRF to increased Aβ through γ-secretase and provide mechanistic insight into how stress may increase AD risk. They also suggest that direct targeting of CRF might be necessary to effectively modulate this pathway for therapeutic benefit in AD, as CRFR1 antagonists increase Aβ and in some cases preferentially increase Aβ42 via complex effects on γ-secretase. PMID:25964433

  8. Neuropeptides and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gábriel, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, a common complication of diabetes, develops in 75% of patients with type 1 and 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes, progressing to legal blindness in about 5%. In the recent years, considerable efforts have been put into finding treatments for this condition. It has been discovered that peptidergic mechanisms (neuropeptides and their analogues, activating a diverse array of signal transduction pathways through their multiple receptors) are potentially important for consideration in drug development strategies. A considerable amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last three decades on human retinal neuropeptides and those elements in the pathomechanisms of diabetic retinopathy which might be related to peptidergic signal transduction. Here, human retinal neuropeptides and their receptors are reviewed, along with the theories relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy both in humans and in experimental models. By collating this information, the curative potential of certain neupeptides and their analogues/antagonists can also be discussed, along with the existing clinical treatments of diabetic retinopathy. The most promising peptidergic pathways for which treatment strategies may be developed at present are stimulation of the somatostatin-related pathway and the pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide-related pathway or inhibition of angiotensinergic mechanisms. These approaches may result in the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor production and neuronal apoptosis; therefore, both the optical quality of the image and the processing capability of the neural circuit in the retina may be saved. PMID:23043302

  9. Neuropeptide Y regulates intracellular calcium through different signalling pathways linked to a Y1-receptor in rat mesenteric small arteries

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Dolores; Buus, Carsten L; Mulvany, Michael J; Nilsson, Holger

    2000-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension were performed to clarify whether the mechanisms which cause the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-elicited contraction and potentiation of noradrenaline contractions, and the NPY inhibition of forskolin responses are linked to a single or different NPY receptor(s) in rat mesenteric small arteries.In resting arteries, NPY moderately elevated [Ca2+]i and tension. These effects were antagonized by the selective Y1 receptor antagonist, (R)-N2-(diphenacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-D-arginineamide (BIBP 3226) (apparent pKB values of 8.54±0.25 and 8.27±0.17, respectively).NPY (0.1 μM) caused a near 3 fold increase in sensitivity to noradrenaline but did not significantly modify the tension-[Ca2+]i relationship for this agonist. BIBP 3226 competitively antagonized the contractile response to NPY in arteries submaximally preconstricted with noradrenaline (pA2 7.87±0.20).In arteries activated by vasopressin, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin (3 μM) induced a maximum relaxation and a return of [Ca2+]i to resting levels. NPY completely inhibited these effects. The contractile responses to NPY in arteries maximally relaxed with either sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or nifedipine were not significantly higher than those evoked by the peptide at resting tension, in contrast to the contractions to NPY in forskolin-relaxed arteries. BIBP 3226 competitively antagonized the contraction to NPY in forskolin-relaxed arteries with a pA2 of 7.92±0.29.Electrical field stimulation (EFS) at 8–32 Hz caused large contractions in arteries relaxed with either forskolin or noradrenaline in the presence of phentolamine. These responses to EFS were inhibited by BIBP 3226. Similar EFS in resting, non-activated arteries did not produce any response.The present results suggest that different intracellular pathways are linked to a single NPY Y1 receptor in intact rat mesenteric small arteries, and provide

  10. Neuropeptide Y regulates intracellular calcium through different signalling pathways linked to a Y(1)-receptor in rat mesenteric small arteries.

    PubMed

    Prieto, D; Buus, C L; Mulvany, M J; Nilsson, H

    2000-04-01

    Simultaneous measurements of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and tension were performed to clarify whether the mechanisms which cause the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-elicited contraction and potentiation of noradrenaline contractions, and the NPY inhibition of forskolin responses are linked to a single or different NPY receptor(s) in rat mesenteric small arteries. In resting arteries, NPY moderately elevated [Ca(2+)](i) and tension. These effects were antagonized by the selective Y(1) receptor antagonist, (R)-N(2)-(diphenacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-D-argininea mide (BIBP 3226) (apparent pK(B) values of 8.54+/-0.25 and 8.27+/-0.17, respectively). NPY (0.1 microM) caused a near 3 fold increase in sensitivity to noradrenaline but did not significantly modify the tension-[Ca(2+)](i) relationship for this agonist. BIBP 3226 competitively antagonized the contractile response to NPY in arteries submaximally preconstricted with noradrenaline (pA(2) 7.87+/-0.20). In arteries activated by vasopressin, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin (3 microM) induced a maximum relaxation and a return of [Ca(2+)](i) to resting levels. NPY completely inhibited these effects. The contractile responses to NPY in arteries maximally relaxed with either sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or nifedipine were not significantly higher than those evoked by the peptide at resting tension, in contrast to the contractions to NPY in forskolin-relaxed arteries. BIBP 3226 competitively antagonized the contraction to NPY in forskolin-relaxed arteries with a pA(2) of 7.92+/-0.29. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) at 8-32 Hz caused large contractions in arteries relaxed with either forskolin or noradrenaline in the presence of phentolamine. These responses to EFS were inhibited by BIBP 3226. Similar EFS in resting, non-activated arteries did not produce any response. The present results suggest that different intracellular pathways are linked to a single NPY Y(1) receptor in intact rat

  11. Heterogeneity of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) contractile and relaxing receptors in horse penile small arteries.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Dolores; Arcos, Luis Rivera de Los; Martínez, Pilar; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo

    2004-12-01

    The distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunorective nerves and the receptors involved in the effects of NPY upon electrical field stimulation (EFS)- and noradrenaline (NA)-elicited contractions were investigated in horse penile small arteries. NPY-immunoreactive nerves were widely distributed in the erectile tissues with a particularly high density around penile intracavernous small arteries. In small arteries isolated from the proximal part of the corpora cavernosa, NPY (30 nM) produced a variable modest enhancement of the contractions elicited by both EFS and NA. At the same concentration, the NPY Y(1) receptor agonist, [Leu(31), Pro(34)]NPY, markedly potentiated responses to EFS and NA, whereas the NPY Y(2) receptor agonist, NPY(13-36), enhanced exogenous NA-induced contractions. In arteries precontracted with NA, NPY, peptide YY (PYY), [Leu(31), Pro(34)]NPY and the NPY Y(2) receptor agonists, N-acetyl[Leu(28,31)]NPY (24-36) and NPY(13-36), elicited concentration-dependent contractile responses. Human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) evoked a biphasic response consisting of a relaxation followed by contraction. NPY(3-36), the compound 1229U91 (Ile-Glu-Pro-Dapa-Tyr-Arg-Leu-Arg-Tyr-NH2, cyclic(2,4')diamide) and eventually NPY(13-36) relaxed penile small arteries. The selective NPY Y(1) receptor antagonist BIBP3226 ((R)-N(2)-(diphenacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]D-arginineamide) (0.3 microM) shifted to the right the concentration-response curves to both NPY and [Leu(31), Pro(34)]NPY and inhibited the contractions induced by the highest concentrations of hPP but not the relaxations observed at lower doses. In the presence of the selective NPY Y(2) receptor antagonist BIIE0246 ((S)-N2-[[1-[2-[4-[(R,S)-5,11-dihydro-6(6h)-oxodibenz[b,e]azepin-11-y1]-1-piperazinyl]-2-oxoethyl]cyclo-pentyl-N-[2-[1,2-dihydro-3,5 (4H)-dioxo-1,2-diphenyl-3H-1,2, 4-triazol-4-yl]ethyl]-argininamide) (0.3 microM), the Y(2) receptor agonists NPY(13-36) and N-acetyl[Leu(28,31)]NPY (24

  12. Heterogeneity of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) contractile and relaxing receptors in horse penile small arteries

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Dolores; Arcos, Luis Rivera de los; Martínez, Pilar; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunorective nerves and the receptors involved in the effects of NPY upon electrical field stimulation (EFS)- and noradrenaline (NA)-elicited contractions were investigated in horse penile small arteries. NPY-immunoreactive nerves were widely distributed in the erectile tissues with a particularly high density around penile intracavernous small arteries. In small arteries isolated from the proximal part of the corpora cavernosa, NPY (30 nM) produced a variable modest enhancement of the contractions elicited by both EFS and NA. At the same concentration, the NPY Y1 receptor agonist, [Leu31, Pro34]NPY, markedly potentiated responses to EFS and NA, whereas the NPY Y2 receptor agonist, NPY(13–36), enhanced exogenous NA-induced contractions. In arteries precontracted with NA, NPY, peptide YY (PYY), [Leu31, Pro34]NPY and the NPY Y2 receptor agonists, N-acetyl[Leu28,31]NPY (24–36) and NPY(13–36), elicited concentration-dependent contractile responses. Human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) evoked a biphasic response consisting of a relaxation followed by contraction. NPY(3–36), the compound 1229U91 (Ile-Glu-Pro-Dapa-Tyr-Arg-Leu-Arg-Tyr-NH2, cyclic(2,4′)diamide) and eventually NPY(13–36) relaxed penile small arteries. The selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP3226 ((R)-N2-(diphenacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]D-arginineamide) (0.3 μM) shifted to the right the concentration–response curves to both NPY and [Leu31, Pro34]NPY and inhibited the contractions induced by the highest concentrations of hPP but not the relaxations observed at lower doses. In the presence of the selective NPY Y2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 ((S)-N2-[[1-[2-[4-[(R,S)-5,11-dihydro-6(6h)-oxodibenz[b,e]azepin-11-y1]-1-piperazinyl]-2-oxoethyl]cyclo-pentyl-N-[2-[1,2-dihydro–3,5 (4H)-dioxo-1,2-diphenyl-3H-1,2, 4-triazol-4-yl]ethyl]-argininamide) (0.3 μM), the Y2 receptor agonists NPY(13–36) and N-acetyl[Leu28,31]NPY (24–36) evoked potent slow

  13. [Expression of neuropeptide Y and long leptin receptor in gastrointestinal tract of giant panda].

    PubMed

    Luo, Qihui; Tang, Xiuying; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Li, Caiwu

    2015-08-01

    To study the expression and distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and long leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the gastrointestinal tract of giant panda, samples of three animals were collected from the key laboratory for reproduction and conservation genetics of endangered wildlife of Sichuan province, China conservation and research center for the giant panda. Paraffin sections of giant panda gastrointestinal tissue samples were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and strept actividin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The results show that the intestinal histology of three pandas was normal and no pathological changes, and there were rich single-cell and multi-cell mucous glands, long intestinal villi and thick muscularis mucosa and muscle layer. Positive cells expressing NPY and OB-Rb were widely detected in the gastrointestinal tract by IHC methods. NPY positive nerve fibers and neuronal cell were widely distributed in submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus, especially in the former. They were arranged beaded or point-like shape. NPY positive cells were observed in the shape of ellipse and polygon and mainly located in the mucous layer and intestinal glands. OB-Rb positive cells were mainly distributed in the mucous layer and the laminae propria, especially the latter. These results confirmed that NPY and OB-Rb are widely distributed in the gut of the giant panda, which provide strong reference for the research between growth and development, digestion and absorption, and immune function.

  14. Intranasally Administered Neuropeptide S (NPS) Exerts Anxiolytic Effects Following Internalization Into NPS Receptor-Expressing Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Irina A; Dine, Julien; Yen, Yi-Chun; Buell, Dominik R; Herrmann, Leonie; Holsboer, Florian; Eder, Matthias; Landgraf, Rainer; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Experiments in rodents revealed neuropeptide S (NPS) to constitute a potential novel treatment option for anxiety diseases such as panic and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, both its cerebral target sites and the molecular underpinnings of NPS-mediated effects still remain elusive. By administration of fluorophore-conjugated NPS, we pinpointed NPS target neurons in distinct regions throughout the entire brain. We demonstrated their functional relevance in the hippocampus. In the CA1 region, NPS modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. NPS is taken up into NPS receptor-expressing neurons by internalization of the receptor–ligand complex as we confirmed by subsequent cell culture studies. Furthermore, we tracked internalization of intranasally applied NPS at the single-neuron level and additionally demonstrate that it is delivered into the mouse brain without losing its anxiolytic properties. Finally, we show that NPS differentially modulates the expression of proteins of the glutamatergic system involved inter alia in synaptic plasticity. These results not only enlighten the path of NPS in the brain, but also establish a non-invasive method for NPS administration in mice, thus strongly encouraging translation into a novel therapeutic approach for pathological anxiety in humans. PMID:22278093

  15. Nonpeptide Small Molecule Agonist and Antagonist Original Leads for Neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 receptors (NPFF1-R and NPFF2-R), and their endogenous ligand NPFF, are one of only several systems responsible for mediating opioid-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance, and dependence. Currently, no small molecules displaying good affinity or selectivity for either subtype have been reported, to decipher the role of NPFF2-R as it relates to opioid-mediated analgesia, for further exploration of NPFF1-R, or for medication development for either subtype. We report the first nonpeptide small molecule scaffold for NPFF1,2-R, the guanidino-piperidines, and SAR studies resulting in the discovery of a NPFF1 agonist (7b, Ki = 487 ± 117 nM), a NPFF1 antagonist (46, Ki = 81 ± 17 nM), and a NPFF2 partial antagonist (53a, Ki = 30 ± 5 nM), which serve as leads for the development of pharmacological probes and potential therapeutic agents. Testing of 46 alone was without effect in the mouse 48 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal test, but pretreatment with 46 prevented NPFF-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:25268943

  16. [Expression of neuropeptide Y and long leptin receptor in gastrointestinal tract of giant panda].

    PubMed

    Luo, Qihui; Tang, Xiuying; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Li, Caiwu

    2015-08-01

    To study the expression and distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and long leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the gastrointestinal tract of giant panda, samples of three animals were collected from the key laboratory for reproduction and conservation genetics of endangered wildlife of Sichuan province, China conservation and research center for the giant panda. Paraffin sections of giant panda gastrointestinal tissue samples were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and strept actividin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The results show that the intestinal histology of three pandas was normal and no pathological changes, and there were rich single-cell and multi-cell mucous glands, long intestinal villi and thick muscularis mucosa and muscle layer. Positive cells expressing NPY and OB-Rb were widely detected in the gastrointestinal tract by IHC methods. NPY positive nerve fibers and neuronal cell were widely distributed in submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus, especially in the former. They were arranged beaded or point-like shape. NPY positive cells were observed in the shape of ellipse and polygon and mainly located in the mucous layer and intestinal glands. OB-Rb positive cells were mainly distributed in the mucous layer and the laminae propria, especially the latter. These results confirmed that NPY and OB-Rb are widely distributed in the gut of the giant panda, which provide strong reference for the research between growth and development, digestion and absorption, and immune function. PMID:26762039

  17. Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors meditate targeted delivery of anticancer drug with encapsulated nanoparticles to breast cancer cells with high selectivity and its potential for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Shen, Zheyu; Ma, Xuehua; Ren, Wenzhi; Xiang, Lingchao; Gong, An; Xia, Tian; Guo, Junming; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-03-11

    By enabling nanoparticle-based drug delivery system to actively target cancer cells with high selectivity, active targeted molecules have attracted great attention in the application of nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery. However, the clinical application of most active targeted molecules in breast cancer therapy is limited, due to the low expression of their receptors in breast tumors or coexpression in the normal and tumor breast tissues. Here, a neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors ligand PNBL-NPY, as a novel targeted molecule, is conjugated with anticancer drug doxorubicin encapsulating albumin nanoparticles to investigate the effect of Y1 receptors on the delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles to breast cancer cells and its potential for breast cancer therapy. The PNBL-NPY can actively recognize and bind to the Y1 receptors that are significantly overexpressed on the surface of the breast cancer cells, and the drug-loaded nanoparticles are delivered directly into the cancer cells through internalization. This system is highly selective and able to distinguish the breast cancer cells from the normal cells, due to normal breast cells that express Y2 receptors only. It is anticipated that this study may provide a guidance in the development of Y1 receptor-based nanoparticulate drug delivery system for a safer and more efficient breast cancer therapy.

  18. Genetic Association of Objective Sleep Phenotypes with a Functional Polymorphism in the Neuropeptide S Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Janek; Sander, Christian; Burkhardt, Ralph; Häntzsch, Madlen; Mergl, Roland; Scholz, Markus; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hensch, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Background The neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR1) and its ligand neuropeptide S (NPS) have received increased attention in the last few years, as both establish a previously unknown system of neuromodulation. Animal research studies have suggested that NPS may be involved in arousal/wakefulness and may also have a crucial role in sleep regulation. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs324981 in NPSR1 has begun to shed light on a function of the NPS-system in human sleep regulation. Due to an amino acid exchange, the T-allele leads to an increased sensitivity of the NPSR1. In the only genome-wide association study to date on circadian sleep parameters in humans, an association was found between rs324981 and regular bedtime. However, the sleep parameters in this study were only measured by self-rating. Therefore, our study aimed to replicate these findings using an objective measure of sleep. Methods The study included n = 393 white subjects (62–79 years) who participated in an actigraphic assessment for determining sleep duration, rest duration, sleep onset, rest onset and sleep onset latency. Genotyping of the SNP rs324981 was performed using the TaqMan OpenArray System. Results The genotype at rs324981 was not significantly associated with rest onset (bedtime) or sleep onset (p = .146 and p = .199, respectively). However, the SNP showed a significant effect on sleep- and rest duration (p = .007 and p = .003, respectively). Subjects that were homozygous for the minor T-allele had a significantly decreased sleep- and rest duration compared to A-allele carriers. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the sleep pattern in humans is influenced by the NPS-system. However, the previously reported association between bedtime and rs324981 could not be confirmed. The current finding of decreased sleep duration in T/T allele carriers is in accordance with studies in rodents reporting similar results after NPS application. PMID:24896296

  19. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of neuropeptide-mediated neurite outgrowth: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Lestanova, Z; Bacova, Z; Bakos, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The present knowledge, regarding the neuronal growth and neurite extension, includes neuropeptide action in the central nervous system. Research reports have brought much information about the multiple intracellular signaling pathways of neuropeptides. However, regardless of the differences in the local responses elicited by neuropeptides, there exist certain functional similarities in the effects of neuropeptides, mediated by their receptors. In the present review, data of the relevant studies, focused on G protein-coupled receptors activated by neuropeptides, are summarized. Particularly, receptors that activate phosphatidylinositol-calcium system and protein kinase C pathways, resulting in the reorganization of the neuronal cytoskeleton and changes in the neuronal morphology, are discussed. Based on our data received, we are showing that oxytocin increases the gene expression of GTPase cell division cycle protein 42 (Cdc42), implicated in many aspects of the neuronal growth and morphology. We are also paying a special attention to neurite extension and retraction in the context of neuropeptide regulation. PMID:27560639

  20. Neuropeptide Y is produced in visceral adipose tissue and promotes proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells via the Y1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiping; Guan, Haiyan; Arany, Edith; Hill, David J; Cao, Xiang

    2008-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in neural tissue of the central and peripheral nervous systems and has a number of important functions besides regulating appetite and energy homeostasis. Here we identify a novel site of NPY biosynthesis and a role for NPY in promoting proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells. We show that NPY mRNA is not only expressed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but that its levels are up-regulated 6-fold in our early-life programmed rat model of increased visceral adiposity. This is accompanied by a parallel rise in NPY protein, demonstrating that VAT is a novel peripheral site of NPY biosynthesis. Furthermore, NPY mRNA expression is also elevated >2-fold in VAT of obese Zucker rats. Importantly, NPY stimulates proliferation of primary rat preadipocytes as well as 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in vitro. This mitogenic effect appears to be mediated by the Y1 receptor and involves the activation of extracellular related kinase 1/2. In addition, insulin and glucocorticoid up-regulate VAT NPY expression in lean but not obese Zucker rats. Taken together, these results suggest that an enhanced local expression of NPY within VAT may be a common feature of and contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying increased visceral adiposity.

  1. Neuropeptide Receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 Regulate Caenorhabditis elegans Avoidance Response to the Plant Stress Hormone Methyl Salicylate

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jintao; Xu, Zhaofa; Tan, Zhiping; Zhang, Zhuohua; Ma, Long

    2015-01-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSa) is a stress hormone released by plants under attack by pathogens or herbivores . MeSa has been shown to attract predatory insects of herbivores and repel pests. The molecules and neurons underlying animal response to MeSa are not known. Here we found that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a strong avoidance response to MeSa, which requires the activities of two closely related neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2. Molecular analyses suggest that NPR-1 expressed in the RMG inter/motor neurons is required for MeSa avoidance. An NPR-1 ligand FLP-18 is also required. Using a rescuing npr-2 promoter to drive a GFP transgene, we identified that NPR-2 is expressed in multiple sensory and interneurons. Genetic rescue experiments suggest that NPR-2 expressed in the AIZ interneurons is required for MeSa avoidance. We also provide evidence that the AWB sensory neurons might act upstream of RMGs and AIZs to detect MeSa. Our results suggest that NPR-2 has an important role in regulating animal behavior and that NPR-1 and NPR-2 act on distinct interneurons to affect C. elegans avoidance response to MeSa. PMID:25527285

  2. Neuropeptide F peptides act through unique signaling pathways to affect cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Setzu, M; Biolchini, M; Lilliu, A; Manca, M; Muroni, P; Poddighe, S; Bass, C; Angioy, A M; Nichols, R

    2012-02-01

    Elucidating how neuropeptides affect physiology may result in delineating peptidergic mechanisms and identifying antagonists for application in basic and translational science. Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates cardiac activity; frequently invertebrates contain orthologs of vertebrate peptides. We report invertebrate NPY-like neuropeptide F (NPF) arrested the signal frequency of the slow phase of the cardiac cycle (EC50 = 1 pM); however, signal frequency of the fast phase was affected only minimally. Neuropeptide F decreased the duration of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 0.6 pM), but increased the duration of the fast phase by ~57% (EC50 = 10nM). Short NPF-1 (sNPF-1) decreased the signal frequency of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 9 nM); yet, signal frequency of the fast phase was unaffected. Short NPF-1 decreased the duration of the slow phase ~55% (EC50 ~50 nM), but increased the duration of the fast phase ~20% without dose dependency. Neuropeptide F and sNPF-1 increased isoelectric period duration. This novel report demonstrated NPY-like peptides are cardioactive but functionally unique. These data contribute to understanding how invertebrate orthologs affect cardiovascular activity. Dipteran fast and slow phases may be generated from separate pacemakers in the abdominal heart and in the anterior thoracocephalic aorta, respectively. Thus, our research suggests NPF and sNPF-1 act through different mechanisms to regulate cardiac activity. Invertebrate NPY-like peptides act in olfaction and feeding yet mechanisms which are associated with their cardioactive effects remain unknown; our work may provide evidence linking their roles in sensory response and cardiac activity.

  3. Neuropeptide F peptides act through unique signaling pathways to affect cardiac activity

    PubMed Central

    Setzu, M.; Biolchini, M.; Lilliu, A.; Manca, M.; Muroni, P.; Poddighe, S.; Bass, C.; Angioy, A.M.; Nichols, R.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating how neuropeptides affect physiology may result in delineating peptidergic mechanisms and identifying antagonists for application in basic and translational science. Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates cardiac activity; frequently invertebrates contain orthologs of vertebrate peptides. We report invertebrate NPY-like neuropeptide F (NPF) arrested the signal frequency of the slow phase of the cardiac cycle (EC50 = 1 pM); however, signal frequency of the fast phase was affected only minimally. Neuropeptide F decreased the duration of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 0.6 pM), but increased the duration of the fast phase by ~57% (EC50 = 10 nM). Short NPF-1 (sNPF-1) decreased the signal frequency of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 9 nM); yet, signal frequency of the fast phase was unaffected. Short NPF-1 decreased the duration of the slow phase ~55% (EC50 ~ 50 nM), but increased the duration of the fast phase ~20% without dose dependency. Neuropeptide F and sNPF-1 increased isoelectric period duration. This novel report demonstrated NPY-like peptides are cardioactive but functionally unique. These data contribute to understanding how invertebrate orthologs affect cardiovascular activity. Dipteran fast and slow phases may be generated from separate pacemakers in the abdominal heart and in the anterior thoracocephalic aorta, respectively. Thus, our research suggests NPF and sNPF-1 act through different mechanisms to regulate cardiac activity. Invertebrate NPY-like peptides act in olfaction and feeding yet mechanisms which are associated with their cardioactive effects remain unknown; our work may provide evidence linking their roles in sensory response and cardiac activity. PMID:22289500

  4. Neuropeptide S promotes wakefulness through activation of the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic and orexinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, P; Shao, Y F; Zhang, M; Fan, K; Kong, X P; Wang, R; Hou, Y P

    2012-04-01

    In spite of the initial and pivotal findings that the newly identified neuropeptide S (NPS) promotes arousal associated with locomotor and anxiolytic-like effects, the mechanisms through which NPS acts to modulate sleep-waking states remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate in the rat the effects of i.c.v. injection of NPS on the EEG, sleep-wake cycle, and brain c-Fos expression. NPS at 0.1 and 1 nmol increased significantly wakefulness (W) during the first 2 h (54.7 ± 3.2 and 64.9 ± 2.1 min, respectively, vs. 41.4 ± 2.5 min seen with saline injections, P<0.01 and P<0.001), accompanied by an increase in EEG high frequency activities (14.5-60 Hz). In the meanwhile, slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) decreased significantly. Ex-vivo Fos immunohistochemistry in the posterior hypothalamus revealed that, as compared with saline-treated rats, NPS enhanced c-Fos expression in histaminergic neurons by 76.0% in the ventral tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) and 57.8% in the dorsal TMN, and in orexinergic neurons by 28.2% in the perifornical nucleus (PeF), 24.3% in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), and 13.7% in the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) of the posterior hypothalamus. The NPS-induced c-Fos expression in histaminergic neurons and orexinergic neurons where NPS receptor (NPSR) mRNA is highly expressed, suggests that NPS activates histaminergic and orexinergic neurons to promote W.

  5. Neuropeptide S receptor 1 expression in the intestine and skin--putative role in peptide hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Sundman, L; Saarialho-Kere, U; Vendelin, J; Lindfors, K; Assadi, G; Kaukinen, K; Westerholm-Ormio, M; Savilahti, E; Mäki, M; Alenius, H; D'Amato, M; Pulkkinen, V; Kere, J; Saavalainen, P

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) was recently found to be genetically associated with inflammatory bowel disease in addition to asthma and related traits. Epithelia of several organs express NPSR1 isoforms A and B, including the intestine and the skin, and NPSR1 appears to be upregulated in inflammation. In this study, we used cell lines and tissue samples to characterize the expression of NPSR1 and its ligand neuropeptide S (NPS) in inflammation. We used polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to investigate the expression of NPS and NPSR1 in intestinal diseases, such as celiac disease and food allergy, and in cutaneous inflammatory disorders. We found that NPSR1-A was expressed by the enteroendocrine cells of the gut. Overall, the expression pattern of NPS was similar to its receptor suggesting an autocrine mechanism. In an NPSR1-A overexpressing cell model, stimulation with NPS resulted in a dose-dependent upregulation of glycoprotein hormone, alpha polypeptide (CGA), tachykinin 1 (TAC1), neurotensin (NTS) and galanin (GAL) encoding peptide hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells. Because NPSR1 was also expressed in macrophages, neutrophils, and intraepithelial lymphocytes, we demonstrated that stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma increased NPSR1 expression in the THP-1 monocytic cells. In conclusion, similar to other neuropeptides and their receptors, NPSR1 signalling might play a dual role along the gut-brain axis. The NPS/NPSR1 pathway may participate in the regulation of the peptide hormone production in enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine.

  6. Neuropeptide Y effects on murine natural killer activity: changes with ageing and cAMP involvement.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, M; Del Río, M; Víctor, V M; Medina, S

    2001-09-15

    Changes in the bidirectional interaction between the nervous and the immune systems have been proposed as a cause of ageing. Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), could show different effects on immune function with age. In the present work, we have studied the in vitro action of a wide range of NPY concentrations, i.e. from 10(-13) to 10(-7) M, on natural killer (NK) activity, a function which decreases with age. Spleen, axillary nodes, thymus and peritoneum leukocytes from mice of different ages: young (12+/-2 weeks), adult (24+/-2 weeks), mature (50+/-2 weeks) and old (72+/-2 weeks) were used. Stimulation by NPY of NK activity was observed in adult and mature animals in axillary nodes and thymus, and an inhibition in the spleen from young mice. The specificity of the NPY effect on cytotoxic activity was confirmed using a C-terminal fragment of NPY. Furthermore, cAMP levels in leukocytes were found to be decreased by NPY in adult mice, suggesting an involvement of this messenger system in the NK modulation by this neuropeptide.

  7. Distinct roles of the Y1 and Y2 receptors on neuropeptide Y-induced sensitization to sedation.

    PubMed

    Naveilhan, P; Canals, J M; Arenas, E; Ernfors, P

    2001-09-01

    Intracranial injection of neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases the sensitivity to sodium pentobarbital and ketamin sedation and has similar properties as GABA agonists on sleep. Mice sensitive to sedation have increased levels of NPY in many brain regions and Y1(-/-) mice show a marked resistance to barbiturates. Here we characterized the role of the NPY Y receptors in anesthetic-induced sedation. We show that Y1 and Y2, but not Y5, receptors participate in the modulation of sedation. Administration of a Y1 agonist increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sedation and Y1(-/-) mice were less sensitive to this anesthetic. However, Y2(-/-) mice display increased sensitivity, showing that Y2 modulates GABAergic induced sedation both pharmacologically and physiologically and has a functionally opposing role to the Y1 receptor. Analysis of Y1(-/-)/Y2(-/-) double mutant mice show that increased sensitivity by Y1 occurs independent of the Y2 receptor, while the decreased sensitivity mediated by Y2 depend on an intact Y1 receptor. In contrast to sodium pentobarbital, both Y1 and Y2 receptors increase the sensitivity in a collaborative fashion to NMDA antagonist-induced sedation. These data demonstrate the physiological and pharmacological impact of the Y1 and Y2 receptors on sedation.

  8. Molecular analysis of central feeding regulation by neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons with NPY receptor small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides play important roles in central feeding behavior. Among them, neuropeptide Y (NPY) has the strongest orexigenic action. It is synthesized in NPY-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), which projects to other nuclei, mainly to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). PVN, which possesses NPY-Y1, -Y2 and -Y4, -Y5 receptors, is considered as feeding center for central feeding behavior. Herein I review recent results on feeding behavior obtained by gene knockdown technologies. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) plasmid-based vectors, which drive transcription of siRNA by U6 RNA polymerase III promoter to produce knockdown of the NPY and its receptor (Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5) genes, were stereotaxically injected into mouse ARC and PVN. Feeding behaviors were measured for 6days after siRNA vector injection. NPY and its receptor mRNA levels were decreased, which were measured by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, and simultaneous decrease in their proteins was also detected in separate nuclei by immunohistochemistry. In the NPY system, decrease in NPY, Y1 and Y5 expressions in specialized nuclei diminished central feeding behavior, whereas decrease in Y2 or Y4 expression in both ARC or PVN did not affect feeding behavior. Thus, specialized change in expressions of NPY and its receptors (especially Y1 and Y5) are important for regulation of endogenous feeding behavior in central regulation. Further analysis of NPY receptors may provide better understanding of feeding behavior and of potential therapeutic targets.

  9. Neuromodulatory function of neuropeptides in the normal CNS.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Adalberto; Salio, Chiara; Ferrini, Francesco; Lossi, Laura

    2011-12-01

    Neuropeptides are small protein molecules produced and released by discrete cell populations of the central and peripheral nervous systems through the regulated secretory pathway and acting on neural substrates. Inside the nerve cells, neuropeptides are selectively stored within large granular vesicles (LGVs), and commonly coexist in neurons with low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, amino acids, and catecholamines). Storage in LGVs is responsible for a relatively slow response to secretion that requires enhanced or repeated stimulation. Coexistence (i.e. the concurrent presence of a neuropeptide with other messenger molecules in individual neurons), and co-storage (i.e. the localization of two or more neuropeptides within individual LGVs in neurons) give rise to a complicated series of pre- and post-synaptic functional interactions with low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters. The typically slow response and action of neuropeptides as compared to fast-neurotransmitters such as excitatory/inhibitory amino acids and catecholamines is also due to the type of receptors that trigger neuropeptide actions onto target cells. Almost all neuropeptides act on G-protein coupled receptors that, upon ligand binding, activate an intracellular cascade of molecular enzymatic events, eventually leading to cellular responses. The latter occur in a time span (seconds or more) considerably longer (milliseconds) than that of low-molecular-weight fast-neurotransmitters, directly operating through ion channel receptors. As reviewed here, combined immunocytochemical visualization of neuropeptides and their receptors at the ultrastructural level and electrophysiological studies, have been fundamental to better unravel the role of neuropeptides in neuron-to-neuron communication.

  10. A functional variant in the neuropeptide S receptor 1 gene moderates the influence of urban upbringing on stress processing in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Streit, Fabian; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Torsten; Frank, Josef; Schäfer, Axel; Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Akdeniz, Ceren; Lederbogen, Florian; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Kirsch, Peter; Wüst, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    We have previously shown that urban upbringing and city living were associated with stress-induced activity in the amygdala and the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC). This finding might link the epidemiological risk factor "urbanicity" to neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. However, given the heritability of stress-related phenotypes, it appears likely that genetic factors can modulate the effect of urbanicity on social stress processing. In the present exploratory study, we investigated if a functional sequence variation in the neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1 rs324981) is associated with brain activation patterns under acute psychosocial stress and if it modulates the link between urbanicity and central stress processing. In animals, neuropeptide S has strong anxiolytic effects and it induces hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. In humans, rs324981 was found to be associated with anxiety and stress-related phenotypes. Forty-two subjects were exposed to a psychosocial stress task for scanner environments (ScanSTRESS). While no main effect of rs324981 on amygdala and pACC activity was detected, we found a distinct interaction between rs324981 and urban upbringing modulating right amygdala responses. Moreover, right amygdala responses were significantly higher in subjects who also showed a salivary cortisol response to the stress exposure. The present finding of a gene × environment interaction further supports the view that the brain NPS system is involved in central stress regulation. This study provides first evidence for the assumption that a NPSR1 variant modulates brain activation under stress, interacting with the environmental risk factor urban upbringing.

  11. Localization of Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Rat Retina and the Synaptic Connectivity of Y1 Immunoreactive Cells

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Iona; Oh, Su-Ja; Chun, Myung-Hoon; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an inhibitory neuropeptide expressed by a moderately dense population of wide-field amacrine cells in the rat retina, acts through multiple (Y1–y6) G-protein–coupled receptors. This study determined the cellular localization of Y1 receptors and the synaptic connectivity of Y1 processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rat retina. Specific Y1 immunoreactivity was localized to horizontal cell bodies in the distal inner nuclear layer and their processes in the outer plexiform layer. Immunoreactivity was also prominent in cell processes located in strata 2 and 4, and puncta in strata 4 and 5 of the IPL. Double-label immunohistochemical experiments with calbindin, a horizontal cell marker, confirmed Y1 immunostaining in all horizontal cells. Double-label immunohistochemical experiments, using antibodies to choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter to label cholinergic amacrine cell processes, demonstrated that Y1 immunoreactivity in strata 2 and 4 of the IPL was localized to cholinergic amacrine cell processes. Electron microscopic studies of the inner retina showed that Y1-immunostained amacrine cell processes and puncta received synaptic inputs from unlabeled amacrine cell processes (65.2%) and bipolar cell axon terminals (34.8%). Y1-immunoreactive amacrine cell processes most frequently formed synaptic outputs onto unlabeled amacrine cell processes (34.0%) and ganglion cell dendrites (54.1%). NPY immunoreactivity in the rat retina is distributed primarily to strata 1 and 5 of the IPL, and the present findings, thus, suggest that NPY acts in a paracrine manner on Y1 receptors to influence both horizontal and amacrine cells. PMID:12455004

  12. The role of adenosine A2A and A3 receptors on the differential modulation of norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y release from peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Donoso, M Verónica; Aedo, Felipe; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo

    2006-03-01

    The pre-synaptic sympathetic modulator role of adenosine was assessed by studying transmitter release following electrical depolarization of nerve endings from the rat mesenteric artery. Mesentery perfusion with exogenous adenosine exclusively inhibited the release of norepinephrine (NA) but did not affect the overflow of neuropeptide Y (NPY), establishing the basis for a differential pre-synaptic modulator mechanism. Several adenosine structural analogs mimicked adenosine's effect on NA release and their relative order of potency was: 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride = 1-[2-chloro-6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-1-deoxy-N-methyl-beta-d-ribofuranuronamide = 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)adenosine > adenosine > N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine. The use of selective receptor subtype antagonists confirmed the involvement of A(2A) and A(3) adenosine receptors. The modulator role of adenosine is probably due to the activation of both receptors; co-application of 1 nM 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride plus 1 nM 1-[2-chloro-6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-1-deoxy-N-methyl-beta-D-ribofuranuronamide caused additive reductions in NA released. Furthermore, while 1 nM of an A(2A) or A(3) receptor antagonist only partially reduced the inhibitory action of adenosine, the combined co-application of the two antagonists fully blocked the adenosine-induced inhibition. Only the simultaneous blockade of the adenosine A(2A) plus A(3) receptors with selective antagonists elicited a significant increase in NA overflow. H 89 reduced the release of both NA and NPY. We conclude that pre-synaptic A(2A) and A(3) adenosine receptor activation modulates sympathetic co-transmission by exclusively inhibiting the release of NA without affecting immunoreactive (ir)-NPY and we suggest separate mechanisms for vesicular release modulation.

  13. The effects of serotonin1A receptor on female mice body weight and food intake are associated with the differential expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and the GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Butt, Isma; Hong, Andrew; Di, Jing; Aracena, Sonia; Banerjee, Probal; Shen, Chang-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Both common eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are characteristically diseases of women. To characterize the role of the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) in these eating disorders in females, we investigated the effect of saline or 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) treatment on feeding behavior and body weight in adult WT female mice and in adult 5-HT1A-R knockout (KO) female mice. Our results showed that KO female mice have lower food intake and body weight than WT female mice. Administration of 8-OH-DPAT decreased food intake but not body weight in WT female mice. Furthermore, qRT-PCR was employed to analyze the expression levels of neuropeptides, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor subunit β (GABAA β subunits) and glutamic acid decarboxylase in the hypothalamic area. The results showed the difference in food intake between WT and KO mice was accompanied by differential expression of POMC, CART and GABAA β2, and the difference in body weight between WT and KO mice was associated with significantly different expression levels of CART and GABAA β2. As such, our data provide new insight into the role of 5-HT1A-R in both feeding behavior and the associated expression of neuropeptides and the GABAA receptor.

  14. Cloning and sequence analysis of the neuropeptide Y receptors Y5 and Y6 in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Tomas A; Larson, Earl T; Larhammar, Dan

    2007-01-15

    Two coelacanth species, Latimeria chalumnae and Latimeria menadoensis, the recently discovered second species, have a key evolutionary position at the divergence of bony fishes and tetrapods. Together with lungfishes, they are the only living species separating the species-rich tetrapods from the other major group of vertebrates, the ray-finned fishes. The coelacanth is therefore of great importance for comparisons of gene families that differ between these two groups, such as the neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor family. In this work we have sequenced the full-length genes for two NPY receptors in Latimeria chalumnae. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two sequences are orthologs of the mammalian Y5 and Y6 receptors. The Y5 gene has been implicated in appetite stimulation in mammals but is absent from teleost fishes. The presence of the Y5 receptor in Latimeria together with phylogenetic analysis shows that Y5 existed before the separation of bony fishes and tetrapods. The Latimeria receptor has about 62% identity to tetrapod Y5 sequences and contains the extended third intracellular loop with several highly conserved motifs that may be involved in signal transduction. The Latimeria Y6 receptor has about 60% identity to tetrapod Y6 sequences. The functional role of Y6 is unclear as the gene is seemingly functional in some mammals but is non-functional in others. The Y6 receptor is also missing in teleost fishes. Our results confirm an early vertebrate origin for all NPY receptor subtypes presently found in mammals followed by differential gene loss in the different classes of vertebrates.

  15. Nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 (TiO2 NPs) upregulates the expression of silkworm (Bombyx mori) neuropeptide receptor and promotes silkworm feeding, growth, and silking.

    PubMed

    Ni, Min; Zhang, Hua; Li, Fan Chi; Wang, Bin Bin; Xu, Kai Zun; Shen, Wei De; Li, Bing

    2015-06-01

    Bombyx mori orphan G protein-coupled receptor, BNGR-A4, is the specific receptor of B. mori neuropeptide F (BmNPFR, neuropeptide F designated NPF). BmNPFR binds specifically and efficiently to B. mori neuropeptides BmNPF1a and BmNPF1b, which activates the ERK1/2 signaling pathway to regulate B. mori food intake and growth. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can promote B. mori growth. However, whether the mechanisms of TiO2 NPs' effects are correlated with BmNPFR remains unknown. In this study, the effects of TiO2 NPs (5mg/L) feeding and BmNPFR-dsRNA injection on B. mori food intake and growth were investigated; after TiO2 NPs treatments, B. mori food intake, body weight, and cocoon shell weight were 5.82%, 4.64%, and 9.30% higher, respectively, than those of controls. The food intake, body weight, and cocoon shell weight of the BmNPFR-dsRNA injection group were reduced by 8.05%, 6.28%, and 6.98%, respectively, compared to the control. After TiO2 NPs treatment for 72h, the transcriptional levels of BmNPFR, BmNPF1a, and BmNPF1b in the midgut were 1.58, 1.43, and 1.34-folds, respectively, of those of the control, but 1.99, 2.26, and 2.19-folds, respectively, of the BmNPFR-dsRNA injection group; the phosphorylation level of MAPK was 24.03% higher than the control, while the phosphorylation level of BmNPFR-dsRNA injection group was 71.00% of control. The results indicated that TiO2 NPs affect B. mori feeding and growth through increasing the expression of BmNPFR. This study helps clarify the roles of BmNPF/BmNPFR system in TiO2 NPs' effects on B. mori feeding, growth, and development.

  16. The effects of aging and chronic fluoxetine treatment on circadian rhythms and suprachiasmatic nucleus expression of neuropeptide genes and 5-HT1B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Marilyn J.; Hester, James M.; Hopper, Jason A.; Franklin, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Age-related changes in circadian rhythms, including attenuation of photic phase shifts, are associated with changes in the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Aging decreases expression of mRNA for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a key neuropeptide for rhythm generation and photic phase shifts, and increases expression of serotonin transporters and 5-HT1B receptors, whose activation inhibits these phase shifts. Here we describe studies in hamsters showing that aging decreases SCN expression of mRNA for gastrin-releasing peptide, which also modulates photic phase resetting. Because serotonin innervation trophically supports SCN VIP mRNA expression, and serotonin transporters decrease extracellular serotonin, we predicted that chronic administration of the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, would attenuate the age-related changes in SCN VIP mRNA expression and 5-HT1B receptors. In situ hybridization studies showed that fluoxetine treatment does not alter SCN VIP mRNA expression, in either age group, at zeitgeber time (ZT)6 or 13 (ZT12 corresponds to lights off). However, receptor autoradiographic studies showed that fluoxetine prevents the age-related increase in SCN 5-HT1B receptors at ZT6, and decreases SCN 5-HT1B receptors in both ages at ZT13. Therefore, aging effects on SCN VIP mRNA and SCN 5-HT1B receptors are differentially regulated; the age-related increase in serotonin transporter sites mediates the latter but not the former. The studies also showed that aging and chronic fluoxetine treatment decrease total daily wheel running without altering the phase of the circadian wheel running rhythm, in contrast to previous reports of phase resetting by acute fluoxetine treatment. PMID:20525077

  17. Evidence from knockout mice for distinct implications of neuropeptide-Y Y2 and Y4 receptors in the circadian control of locomotion, exploration, water and food intake.

    PubMed

    Edelsbrunner, M E; Painsipp, E; Herzog, H; Holzer, P

    2009-12-01

    Members of the neuropeptide-Y (NPY) family acting via Y2 and/or Y4 receptors have been proposed to participate in the control of ingestive behaviour and energy homeostasis. Since these processes vary between day and night, we explored the circadian patterns of locomotor, exploratory and ingestive behaviour in mice with disrupted genes for Y2 (Y2-/-) or Y4 (Y4-/-) receptors. To this end, the LabMaster system was used and its utility for the analysis of changes in circadian activity and ingestion caused by gene knockout evaluated. Female animals, aged 27weeks on average, were housed singly in cages fitted with sensors for water and food intake and two infrared frames for recording ambulation and rearing under a 12h light/dark cycle for 4days. Relative to WT animals, diurnal locomotion, exploration, drinking and feeding were reduced, whereas nocturnal locomotion was enhanced in Y2-/- mice. In contrast, Y4-/- mice moved more but ate and drank less during the photophase, while they ate more and explored less during the scotophase. Both Y2-/- and Y4-/- mice weighed more than WT mice. These findings attest to a differential role of Y2 and Y4 receptor signalling in the circadian control of behaviours that balance energy intake and energy expenditure. These phenotypic traits can be sensitively and continuously recorded by the LabMaster system.

  18. Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES. PMID:24318733

  19. Behavioral effects of neuropeptide Y in F344 rat substrains with a reduced dipeptidyl-peptidase IV activity.

    PubMed

    Karl, Tim; Hoffmann, Torsten; Pabst, Reinhard; von Hörsten, Stephan

    2003-07-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) is involved in several physiological functions by cleavage of dipeptides with a Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequence of regulatory peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY). Cleavage of NPY by DPPIV results in NPY(3-36), which lacks affinity for the Y(1) but not for other NPY receptor subtypes. Among other effects, the NPY Y(1) receptor mediates anxiolytic-like effects of NPY. In previous studies with F344 rat substrains lacking endogenous DPPIV-like activity we found a reduced behavioral stress response, which might be due to a differential degradation of NPY. Here we tested this hypothesis and administered intracerebroventricularly two different doses of NPY (0.0, 0.2, 1.0 nmol) in mutant and wildtype-like F344 substrains. NPY dose-dependently stimulated food intake and feeding motivation, decreased motor activity in the plus maze and social interaction test, and exerted anxiolytic-like effects. More important for the present hypothesis, NPY administration was found to be more potent in the DPPIV-negative substrains in exerting anxiolytic-like effects (increased social interaction time in the social interaction test) and sedative-like effects (decreased motor activity in the elevated plus maze). These data demonstrate for the first time a differential potency of NPY in DPPIV-deficient rats and suggest a changed receptor-specificity of NPY, which may result from a differential degradation of NPY in this genetic model of DPPIV deficiency. Overall, these results provide direct evidence that NPY-mediated effects in the central nervous system are modulated by DPPIV-like enzymatic activity. PMID:12957230

  20. Orphan neuropeptides. Novel neuropeptides modulating sleep or feeding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shinjae; Civelli, Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Neuropeptides form the largest family of modulators of synaptic transmission. Until 1995 some 60 different neuropeptides had been found. With the recognition that all neuropeptides act by binding to G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a new approach relying on the use of orphan GPCRs as targets was designed to identify novel neuropeptides. Thirteen new neuropeptide families have since been discovered. In this review we will describe the orphan GPCR-based approach that led to these discoveries and present its impact on two specific physiological responses, feeding and sleep. In particular, we will discuss the modulatory roles of the hypocretins/orexins and of neuropeptide S in sleep and awakening and those of ghrelin and melanin concentrating hormone in food intake.

  1. Neuropeptide FF activates ERK and NF kappa B signal pathways in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-long; Zhang, Xiao-yuan; He, Ning; Sun, Tao; Zhuang, Yan; Fang, Quan; Wang, Kai-rong; Wang, Rui

    2012-11-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) has been reported to play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes. However, little attention has been focused on the downstream signal transduction pathway of NPFF. Here, we used the differentiated neuroblastoma cell line, dSH-SY5Y, which endogenously expresses hNPFF2 receptor, to investigate the signal transduction downstream of NPFF. In particular we investigated the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways by NPFF in these cells. NPFF rapidly and transiently stimulated ERK. H89, a selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), inhibited the NPFF-activated ERK pathway, indicating the involvement of PKA in the NPFF-induced ERK activation. Down-regulation of nitric oxide synthases also attenuated NPFF-induced ERK activation, suggesting that a nitric oxide synthase-dependent pathway is involved. Moreover, the core upstream components of the NF-κB pathway were also significantly activated in response to NPFF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is involved in the signal transduction pathway of NPFF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that nitric oxide synthases are involved in the signal transduction pathway of NPFF, and provide the first evidence for the interaction between NPFF and the NF-κB pathway. These advances in our interpretation of the NPFF pathway mechanism will aid the comprehensive understanding of its function and provide novel molecular insight for further study of the NPFF system.

  2. Role of neuropeptides in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Dvorakova, Magdalena Chottova; Kruzliak, Peter; Rabkin, Simon W

    2014-11-01

    The role of neuropeptides in cardiomyopathy-associated heart failure has been garnering more attention. Several neuropeptides--Neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and their receptors have been studied in the various types of cardiomyopathies. The data indicate associations with the strength of the association varying depending on the kind of neuropeptide and the nature of the cardiomyopathy--diabetic, ischemic, inflammatory, stress-induced or restrictive cardiomyopathy. Several neuropeptides appear to alter regulation of genes involved in heart failure. Demonstration of an association is an essential first step in proving causality or establishing a role for a factor in a disease. Understanding the complexity of neuropeptide function should be helpful in establishing new or optimal therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure in cardiomyopathies.

  3. Modulation of Locomotion and Reproduction by FLP Neuropeptides in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Jung; Burton, Tina; Ha, Lawrence; Huang, Zi; Olajubelo, Adewale; Li, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides function in animals to modulate most, if not all, complex behaviors. In invertebrates, neuropeptides can function as the primary neurotransmitter of a neuron, but more generally they co-localize with a small molecule neurotransmitter, as is commonly seen in vertebrates. Because a single neuron can express multiple neuropeptides and because neuropeptides can bind to multiple G protein-coupled receptors, neuropeptide actions increase the complexity by which the neural connectome can be activated or inhibited. Humans are estimated to have 90 plus neuropeptide genes; by contrast, nematodes, a relatively simple organism, have a slightly larger complement of neuropeptide genes. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has over 100 neuropeptide-encoding genes, of which at least 31 genes encode peptides of the FMRFamide family. To understand the function of this large FMRFamide peptide family, we isolated knockouts of different FMRFamide-encoding genes and generated transgenic animals in which the peptides are overexpressed. We assayed these animals on two basic behaviors: locomotion and reproduction. Modulating levels of different neuropeptides have strong as well as subtle effects on these behaviors. These data suggest that neuropeptides play critical roles in C. elegans to fine tune neural circuits controlling locomotion and reproduction.

  4. Modulation of Locomotion and Reproduction by FLP Neuropeptides in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Jung; Burton, Tina; Ha, Lawrence; Huang, Zi; Olajubelo, Adewale; Li, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides function in animals to modulate most, if not all, complex behaviors. In invertebrates, neuropeptides can function as the primary neurotransmitter of a neuron, but more generally they co-localize with a small molecule neurotransmitter, as is commonly seen in vertebrates. Because a single neuron can express multiple neuropeptides and because neuropeptides can bind to multiple G protein-coupled receptors, neuropeptide actions increase the complexity by which the neural connectome can be activated or inhibited. Humans are estimated to have 90 plus neuropeptide genes; by contrast, nematodes, a relatively simple organism, have a slightly larger complement of neuropeptide genes. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has over 100 neuropeptide-encoding genes, of which at least 31 genes encode peptides of the FMRFamide family. To understand the function of this large FMRFamide peptide family, we isolated knockouts of different FMRFamide-encoding genes and generated transgenic animals in which the peptides are overexpressed. We assayed these animals on two basic behaviors: locomotion and reproduction. Modulating levels of different neuropeptides have strong as well as subtle effects on these behaviors. These data suggest that neuropeptides play critical roles in C. elegans to fine tune neural circuits controlling locomotion and reproduction. PMID:26406995

  5. Neuropeptides as targets for the development of anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Clynen, Elke; Swijsen, Ann; Raijmakers, Marjolein; Hoogland, Govert; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. These seizures are due to abnormal excessive and synchronous neuronal activity in the brain caused by a disruption of the delicate balance between excitation and inhibition. Neuropeptides can contribute to such misbalance by modulating the effect of classical excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. In this review, we discuss 21 different neuropeptides that have been linked to seizure disorders. These neuropeptides show an aberrant expression and/or release in animal seizure models and/or epilepsy patients. Many of these endogenous peptides, like adrenocorticotropic hormone, angiotensin, cholecystokinin, cortistatin, dynorphin, galanin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, neurotensin, somatostatin, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone, are able to suppress seizures in the brain. Other neuropeptides, such as arginine-vasopressine peptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone, enkephalin, β-endorphin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, and tachykinins have proconvulsive properties. For oxytocin and melanin-concentrating hormone both pro- and anticonvulsive effects have been reported, and this seems to be dose or time dependent. All these neuropeptides and their receptors are interesting targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs. Other neuropeptides such as nesfatin-1 and vasoactive intestinal peptide have been less studied in this field; however, as nesfatin-1 levels change over the course of epilepsy, this can be considered as an interesting marker to diagnose patients who have suffered a recent epileptic seizure.

  6. Neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to combat stress-associated behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Stress has become an integral part of human life and organisms are being constantly subjected to stress and the ability to cope with such stress is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Neuropeptides (bioactive peptides) play a crucial role in mediating different effects of acute and chronic stress. Some of these neuropeptides including oxytocin, urocortins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuropeptide S, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, endorphins, enkephalins, ghrelin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone primarily attenuate stress and act as anxiolytic. On the other hand, neuropeptides including corticotropin releasing hormone, vasopressin, dynorphin, angiotensin, nesfatin-1, orexin and cholecystokinin primarily tend to promote stress related anxiety behavior. However, these neuropeptide tend to produce different actions depending on the type of receptors, the nature and intensity of the stressor. For example, NPY may exhibit anxiolytic effects by activating NPY1 and Y5 receptors, while pro-depressive effects are produced through NPY2 and Y4 receptors. Galanin may produce 'prodepressive' effects by activating its Gal 1 receptors and exert 'antidepressant' effects through Gal 2 receptors. The present review describes different neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to attenuate stress-induced behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects.

  7. Neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to combat stress-associated behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Stress has become an integral part of human life and organisms are being constantly subjected to stress and the ability to cope with such stress is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Neuropeptides (bioactive peptides) play a crucial role in mediating different effects of acute and chronic stress. Some of these neuropeptides including oxytocin, urocortins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuropeptide S, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, endorphins, enkephalins, ghrelin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone primarily attenuate stress and act as anxiolytic. On the other hand, neuropeptides including corticotropin releasing hormone, vasopressin, dynorphin, angiotensin, nesfatin-1, orexin and cholecystokinin primarily tend to promote stress related anxiety behavior. However, these neuropeptide tend to produce different actions depending on the type of receptors, the nature and intensity of the stressor. For example, NPY may exhibit anxiolytic effects by activating NPY1 and Y5 receptors, while pro-depressive effects are produced through NPY2 and Y4 receptors. Galanin may produce 'prodepressive' effects by activating its Gal 1 receptors and exert 'antidepressant' effects through Gal 2 receptors. The present review describes different neuropeptides as therapeutic targets to attenuate stress-induced behavioral and neuroendocrinological effects. PMID:24625277

  8. Galanin-neuropeptide Y (NPY) interactions in central cardiovascular control: involvement of the NPY Y receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Parrado, Concepción; Rivera, Alicia; de la Calle, Adelaida; Agnati, Luigi; Fuxe, Kjell; Narváez, José A

    2006-07-01

    The interactions between neuropeptide Y (NPY), specifically through NPY Y(1) and Y(2) receptor subtypes, and galanin [GAL(1-29)] have been analysed at the cardiovascular level. The cardiovascular effects of intracisternal coinjections of GAL(1-29) with NPY or NPY Y(1) or Y(2) agonists, as well as quantitative receptor autoradiography of the binding characteristics of NPY Y(1) and Y(2) receptor subtypes in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), in the presence or absence of GAL(1-29), have been investigated. The effects of coinjections of GAL(1-29) and the NPY Y(1) agonist on the expression of c-FOS immunoreactivity in the NTS were also studied. The coinjection of NPY with GAL(1-29) induced a significant vasopressor and tachycardic action with a maximum 40% increase (P < 0.001). The coinjection of the NPY Y(1) agonist and GAL(1-29) induced a similar increase in mean arterial pressure and heart rate as did NPY plus GAL(1-29), actions that were not observed with the NPY Y(2) agonist plus GAL(1-29). GAL(1-29), 3 nm, significantly and substantially (by approximately 40%) decreased NPY Y(1) agonist binding in the NTS. This effect was significantly blocked (P < 0.01) in the presence of the specific galanin antagonist M35. The NPY Y(2) agonist binding was not modified in the presence of GAL(1-29). At the c-FOS level, the coinjection of NPY Y(1) and GAL(1-29) significantly reduced the c-FOS-immunoreactive response induced by either of the two peptides. The present findings suggest the existence of a modulatory antagonistic effect of GAL(1-29) mediated via galanin receptors on the NPY Y(1) receptor subtype and its signalling within the NTS.

  9. Sleep-active neuron specification and sleep induction require FLP-11 neuropeptides to systemically induce sleep

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; König, Sabine; Bringmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an essential behavioral state. It is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons that express GABA. However, little is known about how sleep neuron function is determined and how sleep neurons change physiology and behavior systemically. Here, we investigated sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is induced by the single sleep-active neuron RIS. We found that the transcription factor LIM-6, which specifies GABAergic function, in parallel determines sleep neuron function through the expression of APTF-1, which specifies the expression of FLP-11 neuropeptides. Surprisingly FLP-11, and not GABA, is the major component that determines the sleep-promoting function of RIS. FLP-11 is constantly expressed in RIS. At sleep onset RIS depolarizes and releases FLP-11 to induce a systemic sleep state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12499.001 PMID:26949257

  10. Identification of the novel bioactive peptides dRYamide-1 and dRYamide-2, ligands for a neuropeptide Y-like receptor in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ida, Takanori; Takahashi, Tomoko; Tominaga, Hatsumi; Sato, Takahiro; Kume, Kazuhiko; Ozaki, Mamiko; Hiraguchi, Tetsutaro; Maeda, Toru; Shiotani, Hajime; Terajima, Saki; Sano, Hiroko; Mori, Kenji; Yoshida, Morikatsu; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kato, Johji; Murakami, Noboru; Kangawa, Kenji; Kojima, Masayasu

    2011-07-15

    A number of bioactive peptides are involved in regulating a wide range of animal behaviors, including food consumption. Vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent stimulator of appetitive behavior. Recently, Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF) and short NPF (sNPF), the Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate NPY, were identified to characterize the functions of NPFs in the feeding behaviors of this insect. Dm-NPFR1 and NPFR76F are the receptors for dNPF and sNPF, respectively; both receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Another GPCR (CG5811; NepYR) was indentified in Drosophila as a neuropeptide Y-like receptor. Here, we identified 2 ligands of CG5811, dRYamide-1 and dRYamide-2. Both peptides are derived from the same precursor (CG40733) and have no significant structural similarities to known bioactive peptides. The C-terminal sequence RYamide of dRYamides is identical to that of NPY family peptides; on the other hand, dNPF and sNPF have C-terminal RFamide. When administered to blowflies, dRYamide-1 suppressed feeding motivation. We propose that dRYamides are related to the NPY family in vertebrates, similar to dNPF and sNPF.

  11. Physiological Activity of Neuropeptide F on the Hindgut of the Blood-Feeding Hemipteran, Rhodnius prolixus

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ronald; Orchard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Current hypotheses propose that, in the invertebrates, neuropeptide F (NPF), the vertebrate NPY homologue, may be capable of regulating responses to diverse cues related to nutritional status and feeding. An investigation into the effects of Drosophila melanogaster NPF (DrmNPF) and Anopheles gambiae NPF (AngNPF) on hindgut physiology of Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heimptera: Reduviidae) suggests a myoinhibitory role for these peptides and the R. prolixus native peptide. Extracts of the central nervous system of R. prolixus were processed and several HPLC-fractions revealed NPF-like activity within the nanomolar equivalent range when tested using the hindgut contraction assay. Although NPF has been shown to decrease epithelial membrane potential in Aedes aegypti larval midgut preparations, NPF does not appear to play a role in epithelial transport of potassium in the hindgut. While the function of NPF has yet to be established, NPF-like effects suggest multiple physiological roles for NPF among invertebrates. PMID:20050776

  12. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Induced Overexpression of Neuropeptide Y Y2 Receptors in the Hippocampus Suppresses Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldbye, David P. D.; Angehagen, Mikael; Gotzsche, Casper R.; Elbrond-Bek, Heidi; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Christiansen, Soren H.; Olesen, Mikkel V.; Nikitidou, Litsa; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Kokaia, Merab

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus exerts seizure-suppressant effects in rodent epilepsy models and is currently considered for clinical application in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure suppression by neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus is…

  13. Translational approach for gene therapy in epilepsy: Model system and unilateral overexpression of neuropeptide Y and Y2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Ledri, Litsa Nikitidou; Melin, Esbjörn; Christiansen, Søren H; Gøtzsche, Casper R; Cifra, Alessandra; Woldbye, David P D; Kokaia, Mérab

    2016-02-01

    Although novel treatment strategies based on the gene therapy approach for epilepsy has been encouraging, there is still a gap in demonstrating a proof-of-concept in a clinically relevant animal model and study design. In the present study, a conceptually novel framework reflecting a plausible clinical trial for gene therapy of temporal lobe epilepsy was explored: We investigated (i) whether the post intrahippocampal kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of chronic epilepsy in rats could be clinically relevant; and (ii) whether a translationally designed neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Y2 receptor-based gene therapy approach targeting only the seizure-generating focus unilaterally can decrease seizure frequency in this chronic model of epilepsy. Our data suggest that the intrahippocampal kainate model resembles the disease development of human chronic mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE): (i) spontaneous seizures originate in the sclerotic hippocampus; (ii) only a part of the animals develops chronic epilepsy; (iii) animals show largely variable seizure frequency that (iv) tends to progressively increase over time. Despite significant hippocampal degeneration caused by the kainate injection, the use of MRI allowed targeting the recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors encoding NPY and Y2 receptor genes to the remaining dorsal and ventral hippocampal areas ipsilateral to the kainate injection. Continuous video-EEG monitoring demonstrated not only prevention of the progressive increase in seizure frequency in rAAV-NPY/Y2 treated animals as compared to the controls, but even 45% decrease of seizure frequency in 80% of the epileptic animals. This translationally designed study in a clinically relevant model of epilepsy suggests that simultaneous overexpression of NPY and Y2 receptors unilaterally in the seizure focus is a relevant and promising approach that can be further validated in more extensive preclinical studies to develop a future treatment strategy for

  14. The orexin neuropeptide system: physical activity and hypothalamic function throughout the aging process

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Anastasia N.; Perez-Leighton, Claudio Esteban; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a rising medical need for novel therapeutic targets of physical activity. Physical activity spans from spontaneous, low intensity movements to voluntary, high-intensity exercise. Regulation of spontaneous and voluntary movement is distributed over many brain areas and neural substrates, but the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for mediating overall activity levels are not well understood. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of physical activity, which is executed through coordination of multiple signaling systems, including the orexin neuropeptides. Orexin producing neurons integrate physiological and metabolic information to coordinate multiple behavioral states and modulate physical activity in response to the environment. This review is organized around three questions: (1) How do orexin peptides modulate physical activity? (2) What are the effects of aging and lifestyle choices on physical activity? (3) What are the effects of aging on hypothalamic function and the orexin peptides? Discussion of these questions will provide a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding hypothalamic orexin regulation of physical activity during aging and provide a platform on which to develop improved clinical outcomes in age-associated obesity and metabolic syndromes. PMID:25408639

  15. Molecular characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Boo, Kyung Saeng

    2005-12-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) produced in the subesophageal ganglion stimulates pheromone production in the pheromone gland. A cDNA isolated from female adult heads of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) encodes 193 amino acids including PBAN, designated as Plx-PBAN, and four other neuropeptides (NPs): diapause hormone (DH) homologue, alpha-NP, beta-NP and gamma-NP. All of the peptides are amidated in their C-termini and shared a conserved motif, FXPR(or K)L structure, as reported from other PBAN cDNAs. Plx-PBAN consists of 30 amino acids, the shortest PBAN so far reported. Plx-PBAN exhibited below 50% homology, compared with other known PBANs. The Plx-DH homologue is structurally different from DH of Bombyx mori. The length of Plx-beta-NP (16 amino acids) was the shortest and showed relatively low similarity, whereas gamma-NP (10 amino acids in length) was the longest among examined gamma-NPs. When female adults were injected with synthetic Plx-PBAN, pheromone production showed a maximal increase 1h post-injection. RT-PCR screening revealed that Plx-PBAN cDNA was expressed in all examined body parts, with the highest expression level in the head of female adults. Analysis of RT-PCR products indicated the Plx-PBAN sequence was identical in all examined body parts of both sexes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Plx-PBAN gene is distantly related to other PBANs, demonstrated by the relatively low similarity. PMID:16005110

  16. Penultimate proline in neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Glover, Matthew S; Bellinger, Earl P; Radivojac, Predrag; Clemmer, David E

    2015-08-18

    A recent ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) study revealed that tryptic peptide ions containing a proline residue at the second position from the N-terminus (i.e., penultimate proline) frequently adopt multiple conformations, owing to the cis-trans isomerization of Xaa(1)-Pro(2) peptide bonds [J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2015, 26, 444]. Here, we present a statistical analysis of a neuropeptide database that illustrates penultimate proline residues are frequently found in neuropeptides. In order to probe the effect of penultimate proline on neuropeptide conformations, IMS-MS experiments were performed on two model peptides in which penultimate proline residues were known to be important for biological activity: the N-terminal region of human neuropeptide Y (NPY1-9, Tyr(1)-Pro(2)-Ser(3)-Lys(4)-Pro(5)-Asp(6)-Asn(7)-Pro(8)-Gly(9)-NH2) and a tachykinin-related peptide (CabTRP Ia, Ala(1)-Pro(2)-Ser(3)-Gly(4)-Phe(5)-Leu(6)-Gly(7)-Met(8)-Arg(9)-NH2). From these studies, it appears that penultimate prolines allow neuropeptides to populate multiple conformations arising from the cis-trans isomerization of Xaa(1)-Pro(2) peptide bonds. Although it is commonly proposed that the role of penultimate proline residues is to protect peptides from enzymatic degradation, the present results indicate that penultimate proline residues also are an important means of increasing the conformational heterogeneity of neuropeptides.

  17. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    PubMed Central

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation. PMID:25714881

  18. Knocking down the transcript of protein kinase C-lambda modulates hypothalamic glutathione peroxidase, melanocortin receptor and neuropeptide Y gene expression in amphetamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Pei-Ni; Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Chin-Hsiu; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2011-07-01

    It has been reported that neuropeptide Y (NPY) contributes to the behavioral response of amphetamine (AMPH), a psychostimulant. The present study examined whether protein kinase C (PKC)-λ signaling was involved in this action. Moreover, possible roles of glutathione peroxidase (GP) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) were also examined. Rats were given AMPH daily for 4 days. Hypothalamic NPY, PKCλ, GP and MC4R were determined and compared. Pretreatment with α-methyl-para-tyrosine could block AMPH-induced anorexia, revealing that endogenous catecholamine was involved in regulating AMPH anorexia. PKCλ, GP and MC4R were increased with maximal response on Day 2 during AMPH treatment, which were concomitant with the decreases in NPY. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) DNA binding activity was increased during AMPH treatment, revealing the involvement of CREB-dependent gene transcription. An interruption of cerebral PKCλ transcript could partly block AMPH-induced anorexia and partly reverse NPY, MC4R and GP mRNA levels to normal. These results suggest that PKCλ participates in regulating AMPH-induced anorexia via a modulation of hypothalamic NPY gene expression and that increases of GP and MC4R may contribute to this modulation. Our results provided molecular evidence for the regulation of AMPH-induced behavioral response.

  19. Neuropeptide regulation of fear and anxiety: Implications of cholecystokinin, endogenous opioids, and neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mallory E; Choi, Dennis C; Ressler, Kerry J

    2012-12-01

    The neural circuitry of fear likely underlies anxiety and fear-related disorders such as specific and social phobia, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The primary pharmacological treatments currently utilized for these disorders include benzodiazepines, which act on the GABAergic receptor system, and antidepressants, which modulate the monamine systems. However, recent work on the regulation of fear neural circuitry suggests that specific neuropeptide modulation of this system is of critical importance. Recent reviews have examined the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis neuropeptides as well as the roles of neurotrophic factors in regulating fear. The present review, instead, will focus on three neuropeptide systems which have received less attention in recent years but which are clearly involved in regulating fear and its extinction. The endogenous opioid system, particularly activating the μ opioid receptors, has been demonstrated to regulate fear expression and extinction, possibly through functioning as an error signal within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray to mark unreinforced conditioned stimuli. The cholecystokinin (CCK) system initially led to much excitement through its potential role in panic disorder. More recent work in the CCK neuropeptide pathway suggests that it may act in concordance with the endogenous cannabinoid system in the modulation of fear inhibition and extinction. Finally, older as well as very recent data suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may play a very interesting role in counteracting stress effects, enhancing extinction, and enhancing resilience in fear and stress preclinical models. Future work in understanding the mechanisms of neuropeptide functioning, particularly within well-known behavioral circuits, are likely to provide fascinating new clues into the understanding of fear behavior as well as suggesting novel therapeutics for treating disorders of anxiety and fear dysregulation.

  20. Stimulation of neuropeptide Y gene expression by brain-derived neurotrophic factor requires both the phospholipase Cgamma and Shc binding sites on its receptor, TrkB.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A G; Hargreaves, A C; Gunn-Moore, F J; Tavaré, J M

    1998-01-01

    In PC12 cells, it has been previously reported that nerve growth factor stimulates neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression. In the current study we examined the signalling pathways involved in this effect by transiently expressing in PC12 cells the receptor (TrkB) for the related neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF caused a 3-fold induction of luciferase expression from a transiently co-transfected plasmid possessing the firefly luciferase gene under the control of the NPY promoter. This effect of BDNF was completely blocked by either a Y484F mutation in TrkB (which blocks high-affinity Shc binding to TrkB) or by a Y785F substitution [which blocks the binding, phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma)]. Activation of the NPY promoter by neurotrophin-3 in PC12 cells overexpressing TrkC was also completely blocked by a naturally occurring kinase insert which prevents the high-affinity binding of Shc and PLCgamma. NPY promoter activation by BDNF was blocked by PD98059, suggesting a role for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase). Stimulation of NPY gene expression by PMA, but not by BDNF, was blocked by Ro-31-8220, a protein kinase C inhibitor, excluding a role for this serine/threonine protein kinase in the effect of BDNF. In addition, BDNF did not cause an elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Taken together, our results suggest that stimulation of the NPY promoter by BDNF requires the simultaneous activation of two distinct pathways; one involves Shc and MAP kinase, and the other appears to be PLCgamma-independent but requires an intact tyrosine-785 on TrkB and so may involve an effector of TrkB signalling that remains to be identified. PMID:9677306

  1. The satiety signaling neuropeptide perisulfakinin inhibits the activity of central neurons promoting general activity.

    PubMed

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC(50)=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca(2+) current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPgamma channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPgamma channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  2. The Satiety Signaling Neuropeptide Perisulfakinin Inhibits the Activity of Central Neurons Promoting General Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  3. DNA methylation in the Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1) promoter in relation to asthma and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Reinius, Lovisa E; Gref, Anna; Sääf, Annika; Acevedo, Nathalie; Joerink, Maaike; Kupczyk, Maciej; D'Amato, Mauro; Bergström, Anna; Melén, Erik; Scheynius, Annika; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Pershagen, Göran; Söderhäll, Cilla; Kere, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Asthma and allergy are complex disorders influenced by both inheritance and environment, a relationship that might be further clarified by epigenetics. Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1) has been associated with asthma and allergy and a study suggested modulation of the genetic risk by environmental factors. We aimed to study DNA methylation in the promoter region of NPSR1 in relation to asthma and environmental exposures. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) was used to investigate potential functional roles of both genotypes and methylation status in the NPSR1 promoter. DNA methylation was analysed using EpiTYPER in blood samples from two well-characterized cohorts; the BIOAIR study of severe asthma in adults and the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE. We observed that DNA methylation and genetic variants in the promoter influenced the binding of nuclear proteins to DNA, suggesting functional relevance. Significant, although small, differences in methylation were related to both adult severe asthma (p = 0.0001) and childhood allergic asthma (p = 0.01). Furthermore, DNA methylation was associated with exposures such as current smoking in adults for two CpG sites (p = 0.005 and 0.04), parental smoking during infancy in the children (p = 0.02) and in which month the sample was taken (p = 0.01). In summary, DNA methylation levels in the promoter of NPSR1 showed small but significant associations with asthma, both in adults and in children, and to related traits such as allergy and certain environmental exposures. Both genetic variation and the methylated state of CpG sites seem to have an effect on the binding of nuclear proteins in the regulatory region of NPSR1 suggesting complex regulation of this gene in asthma and allergy. PMID:23372674

  4. Modulation of Vasomotive Activity in Rabbit External Ophthalmic Artery by Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Esmeralda Sofia Costa; Marques-Neves, Carlos; Rocha, Maria Isabel Sousa; Sales-Luís, José Paulo Pacheco; Silva-Carvalho, Luís Filipe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the vasomotive activity upon the external ophthalmic artery of vasointestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) using a previously developed model. Methods. Isolated rabbit eyes (n = 12) were perfused in situ with tyrode through the external ophthalmic artery. Effects of intra-arterial injections of NPY 200 μg/ml (Group A; n = 6) and VIP 200 μg/ml (Group B; n = 6) on the recorded pressure were obtained. For statistical analysis, Student's paired t-test and Fast Fourier Transform were used. Results. Spontaneous oscillations were observed before any drug administration in the 12 rabbit models. NPY produced an increase in total vascular resistance and a higher frequency and amplitude of oscillations, while VIP evoked the opposite effects. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of vasomotion in basal conditions in rabbit external ophthalmic artery. Concerning drug effects, NPY increased arterial resistance and enhanced vasomotion while VIP produced opposite effects which demonstrates their profound influence in arterial vasomotion. PMID:22496962

  5. Crustacean neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2010-12-01

    Crustaceans have long been used for peptide research. For example, the process of neurosecretion was first formally demonstrated in the crustacean X-organ-sinus gland system, and the first fully characterized invertebrate neuropeptide was from a shrimp. Moreover, the crustacean stomatogastric and cardiac nervous systems have long served as models for understanding the general principles governing neural circuit functioning, including modulation by peptides. Here, we review the basic biology of crustacean neuropeptides, discuss methodologies currently driving their discovery, provide an overview of the known families, and summarize recent data on their control of physiology and behavior.

  6. Migraine and neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Tajti, János; Szok, Délia; Majláth, Zsófia; Tuka, Bernadett; Csáti, Anett; Vécsei, László

    2015-08-01

    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder. The pathomechanism is not clear, but extensive preclinical and clinical studies are ongoing. The structural basis of the leading hypothesis is the trigeminovascular system, which includes the trigeminal ganglion, the meningeal vasculature, and the distinct nuclei of the brainstem, the thalamus and the somatosensory cortex. This review covers the effects of sensory (calcitonin gene-related peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and substance P), sympathetic (neuropeptide Y) and parasympathetic (vasoactive intestinal peptide) migraine-related neuropeptides and the functions of somatostatin, nociceptin and the orexins in the trigeminovascular system. These neuropeptides may take part in neurogenic inflammation (plasma protein extravasation and vasodilatation) of the intracranial vasculature and peripheral and central sensitization of the trigeminal system. The results of human clinical studies are discussed with regard to the alterations in these neuropeptides in the plasma, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid during or between migraine attacks, and the therapeutic possibilities involving migraine-related neuropeptides in the acute and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache are surveyed.

  7. RFamide neuropeptide actions on the molluscan ventricle: Interactions with primary neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Moulis, A; Huddart, H

    2006-01-01

    Different RFamide neuropeptides, some of non-molluscan origin, were examined for their effect on the ventricles of Buccinum undatum and Busycon canaliculatum. None of the peptides tested were inhibitory on these ventricles. All the peptides were extremely active, causing excitation of the preparations at low concentrations. The neuropeptides were then tested with the primary neurotransmitters. In the case of serotonin, the excitatory primary neurotransmitter, the RFamide neuropeptides induced a response, which was greatly enhanced by serotonin. Acetylcholine, the inhibitory neurotransmitter, induced relaxation whenever added, following a neuropeptide. The neuropeptides seemed to be independent of external Ca(2+), since in Ca(2+)-free media tension was induced. On the contrary, serotonin was dependent on external Ca(2+). These findings indicate that the neuropeptides generated tension via a different receptor to that of the primary neurotransmitters, using a different 2nd messenger and activating different Ca(2+) sources. Finally, the parent neuropeptide Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2), when added following a different RFamide peptide, excited the preparation further, thus indicating the presence of a receptor that has higher affinity for some structures than others. When Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2) followed Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2), no such response was recorded since the latter is of higher potency than the former.

  8. Anxiolytic-like effect of the selective neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 in the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Fabrizio; Mathé, Aleksander A; Jiménez, Patricia; Stasi, Luigi; Arban, Roberto; Gerrard, Philip; Caberlotto, Laura

    2006-12-01

    The involvement of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of mood disorders has been suggested by clinical and preclinical evidence. NPY Y1 and Y2 receptors have been proposed to mediate the NPY modulation of stress responses and anxiety related behaviors. To further investigate the role of Y2 receptors in anxiety we studied the effect of BIIE0246, a selective Y2 receptor antagonist, in the elevated plus-maze test. Rats treated with 1.0 nmol BIIE0246 showed an increase in the time spent on the open arm of the maze. In addition, to study the effects of the Y2 antagonism on NPY protein level, NPY-like immunoreactivity was measured in different brain regions following treatment with BIIE0246, but no statistically significant effects were observed. These results suggest that BIIE0246 has an anxiolytic-like profile in the elevated plus-maze.

  9. Duplications of the Neuropeptide Receptor VIPR2 Confer Significant Risk for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Vacic, Vladimir; McCarthy, Shane; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Murray, Fiona; Chou, Hsun-Hua; Peoples, Aine; Makarov, Vladimir; Yoon, Seungtai; Bhandari, Abhishek; Corominas, Roser; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Krause, Verena; Larach-Walters, Verónica; Welsh, David K.; Craig, David; Kelsoe, John R.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Aquila, Marie Dell; Morris, Derek W.; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Insel, Paul A.; McClellan, Jon; King, Mary-Claire; Karayiorgou, Maria; Levy, Deborah L.; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Sebat, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Rare copy number variants (CNVs) play a prominent role in the etiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders1. Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500 kb) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 2, 3q29 3, 15q13.3 2 and 22q11.2 4 and microduplication at 16p11.2 5. However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant genes and neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we performed a large two-stage genome-wide scan of rare CNVs and report the significant association of copy number gains at chromosome 7q36.3 with schizophrenia (P= 4.0×10-5, OR = 16.14 [3.06, ∞]). Microduplications with variable breakpoints occurred within a 362 kb region and were detected in 29 of 8,290 (0.35%) patients versus two of 7,431 (0.03%) controls in the combined sample (p-value= 5.7×10-7, odds ratio (OR) = 14.1 [3.5, 123.9]). All duplications overlapped or were located within 89 kb upstream of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor VIPR2. VIPR2 transcription and cyclic-AMP signaling were significantly increased in cultured lymphocytes from patients with microduplications of 7q36.3. These findings implicate altered VIP signaling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and suggest VIPR2 as a potential target for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21346763

  10. Neuropeptides amplify and focus the monoaminergic inhibition of nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hapiak, Vera; Summers, Philip; Ortega, Amanda; Law, Wen Jing; Stein, Andrew; Komuniecki, Richard

    2013-08-28

    Monoamines and neuropeptides interact to modulate most behaviors. To better understand these interactions, we have defined the roles of tyramine (TA), octopamine, and neuropeptides in the inhibition of aversive behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. TA abolishes the serotonergic sensitization of aversive behavior mediated by the two nociceptive ASH sensory neurons and requires the expression of the adrenergic-like, Gαq-coupled, TA receptor TYRA-3 on inhibitory monoaminergic and peptidergic neurons. For example, TA inhibition requires Gαq and Gαs signaling in the peptidergic ASI sensory neurons, with an array of ASI neuropeptides activating neuropeptide receptors on additional neurons involved in locomotory decision-making. The ASI neuropeptides required for tyraminergic inhibition are distinct from those required for octopaminergic inhibition, suggesting that individual monoamines stimulate the release of different subsets of ASI neuropeptides. Together, these results demonstrate that a complex humoral mix of monoamines is focused by more local, synaptic, neuropeptide release to modulate nociception and highlight the similarities between the tyraminergic/octopaminergic inhibition of nociception in C. elegans and the noradrenergic inhibition of nociception in mammals that also involves inhibitory peptidergic signaling.

  11. Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Arcuate Nuclei Contribute to Elevated Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pregnant Rats: Roles of Neuropeptide Y and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Gotthardt, Laura C; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the contributions of the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei in α-chloralose-anesthetized pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Baseline arterial pressure (AP) was lower, and heart rate (HR), lumbar sympathetic activity, and splanchnic SNA were higher in pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus via bilateral muscimol nanoinjections decreased AP and HR more in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats and decreased lumbar SNA only in pregnant rats. Similarly, after arcuate muscimol nanoninjections, the decreases in AP, HR, and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activities were greater in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats. Major arcuate neuronal groups that project to the paraventricular nucleus express inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) and excitatory α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Inhibition of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 also decreased AP, HR, and lumbar SNA in pregnant rats but not in nonpregnant rats. Conversely, paraventricular nucleus NPY expression was reduced in pregnant animals, and although blockade of paraventricular NPY Y1 receptors increased AP, HR, and lumbar sympathetic activity in nonpregnant rats, it had no effects in pregnant rats. Yet, the sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic effects of paraventricular NPY nanoinjections were similar between groups. In conclusion, the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei contribute to increased basal SNA during pregnancy, likely due in part to decreased tonic NPY inhibition and increased tonic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone excitation of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus.

  12. Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Arcuate Nuclei Contribute to Elevated Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pregnant Rats: Roles of Neuropeptide Y and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Gotthardt, Laura C; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the contributions of the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei in α-chloralose-anesthetized pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Baseline arterial pressure (AP) was lower, and heart rate (HR), lumbar sympathetic activity, and splanchnic SNA were higher in pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus via bilateral muscimol nanoinjections decreased AP and HR more in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats and decreased lumbar SNA only in pregnant rats. Similarly, after arcuate muscimol nanoninjections, the decreases in AP, HR, and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activities were greater in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats. Major arcuate neuronal groups that project to the paraventricular nucleus express inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) and excitatory α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Inhibition of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 also decreased AP, HR, and lumbar SNA in pregnant rats but not in nonpregnant rats. Conversely, paraventricular nucleus NPY expression was reduced in pregnant animals, and although blockade of paraventricular NPY Y1 receptors increased AP, HR, and lumbar sympathetic activity in nonpregnant rats, it had no effects in pregnant rats. Yet, the sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic effects of paraventricular NPY nanoinjections were similar between groups. In conclusion, the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei contribute to increased basal SNA during pregnancy, likely due in part to decreased tonic NPY inhibition and increased tonic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone excitation of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus. PMID:26483343

  13. Insulin increases sympathetic nerve activity in part by suppression of tonic inhibitory neuropeptide Y inputs into the paraventricular nucleus in female rats.

    PubMed

    Cassaglia, Priscila A; Shi, Zhigang; Brooks, Virginia L

    2016-07-01

    Following binding to receptors in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), insulin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and baroreflex control of SNA via a pathway that includes the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Previous studies in males indicate that the sympathoexcitatory response is mediated by α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which binds to PVN melanocortin type 3/4 receptors (MC3/4R). The present study was conducted in α-chloralose-anesthetized female rats to test the hypothesis that suppression of inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) inputs to the PVN is also involved. In support of this, blockade of PVN NPY Y1 receptors with BIBO 3304 (NPY1x), ArcN insulin nanoinjections, and PVN NPY1x followed by ArcN insulin each increased lumbar SNA (LSNA) and its baroreflex regulation similarly. Moreover, prior PVN injections of NPY blocked the sympathoexcitatory effects of ArcN insulin. Finally, PVN nanoinjections of the MC3/4R inhibitor SHU9119 prevented both the acute (15 min) and longer, more slowly developing (60 min), increases in LSNA in response to ArcN insulin. In conclusion, in females, ArcN insulin increases LSNA, in part, by suppressing tonic PVN NPY inhibition, which unmasks excitatory α-MSH drive of LSNA. Moreover, the steadily increasing rise in LSNA induced by ArcN insulin is also dependent on PVN MC3/4R. PMID:27122366

  14. A selective CAP2b neuropeptide antagonist for an expressed receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapause hormone (DH) is an insect neuropeptide that is highly effective in terminating the overwintering pupal diapause in members of the Helicoverpa/Heliothis complex of agricultural pests, thus DH and related compounds have promise as tools for pest management. To augment our development of effec...

  15. Antagonism of the neuropeptide S receptor with RTI-118 decreases cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Schmoutz, Christopher D; Zhang, Yanan; Runyon, Scott P; Goeders, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuromodulatory peptide, acting via a G-protein-coupled receptor to regulate sleep, anxiety and behavioral arousal. Recent research has found that intracerebroventricular NPS can increase cocaine and alcohol self-administration in rodents, suggesting a key role in reward-related neurocircuitry. It is hypothesized that antagonism of the NPS system might represent a novel strategy for the pharmacological treatment of cocaine abuse. To this end, a small-molecule NPSR antagonist (RTI-118) was developed and tested in animal models of cocaine seeking and cocaine taking. Male Wistar rats (n=54) trained to self-administer cocaine and food under a concurrent alternating FR4 schedule exhibited specific dose-dependent decreases in cocaine intake when administered RTI-118. RTI-118 also decreased the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior induced by conditioned cues, yohimbine and a priming dose of cocaine. These data support the hypothesis that antagonism of the neuropeptide S receptor may ultimately show efficacy in reducing cocaine use and relapse. PMID:22982682

  16. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  17. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  18. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XVI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the sixteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  19. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the fifteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  20. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  1. Neuropeptides and steroid hormones in arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cerinic, M M; Konttinen, Y; Generini, S; Cutolo, M

    1998-05-01

    Primary afferent nociceptive and peptidergic efferent nerves are sensitized in arthritis and thus easily stimulated by mechanical and chemical stimuli. This leads to increased or disturbed release of neuropeptides from nerve terminals. This local (at the site of stimulation), expanded (expanded and additional receptive fields), and remote (cross-spinal reflexes) neuropeptide release leads to disturbed tissue homeostasis and neurogenic inflammation. In arthritis, raised levels of neuropeptides were detected in the synovial fluid, whereas nerve fibers were lacking in the synovial tissue. It has been hypothesized that cycles of nerve fiber destruction and degeneration follow the cycles of joint inflammation. This evidence suggests that the peripheral nervous system, through its neuropeptides, may contribute to the generation of inflammation, i.e., "neurogenic inflammation." Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function and sex hormone status have been suggested to contribute to the development and persistence of arthritis. In particular, current evidence indicates that glucocorticoid secretion is closely and reciprocally interrelated with inflammation, and that an adrenal insufficiency is present in many forms of immune-mediated arthritis. Conversely, gonadal steroids seem to play a central role as predisposing factors in many forms of arthritis, with estrogens involved as immuno-enhancing hormones and androgens as natural immunosuppressors. Functional receptors for sex hormones have been described in cells involved in the immune response and, after activation, the hormone-receptor complex might modulate the expression of selected cytokines. The possibility of targeting the efferent nerves with specific peptides and replacement therapies with selected steroid hormones may represent a new and potentially efficient and natural system of modulation of the arthritis.

  2. Spinal astrocytes produce and secrete dynorphin neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Andrew; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Fitzsimmons, Bethany; Yaksh, Tony; Hook, Vivian

    2013-04-01

    Dynorphin peptide neurotransmitters (neuropeptides) have been implicated in spinal pain processing based on the observations that intrathecal delivery of dynorphin results in proalgesic effects and disruption of extracellular dynorphin activity (by antisera) prevents injury evoked hyperalgesia. However, the cellular source of secreted spinal dynorphin has been unknown. For this reason, this study investigated the expression and secretion of dynorphin-related neuropeptides from spinal astrocytes (rat) in primary culture. Dynorphin A (1-17), dynorphin B, and α-neoendorphin were found to be present in the astrocytes, illustrated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, in a discrete punctate pattern of cellular localization. Measurement of astrocyte cellular levels of these dynorphins by radioimmunoassays confirmed the expression of these three dynorphin-related neuropeptides. Notably, BzATP (3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate) and KLA (di[3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonyl]-lipid A) activation of purinergic and toll-like receptors, respectively, resulted in stimulated secretion of dynorphins A and B. However, α-neoendorphin secretion was not affected by BzATP or KLA. These findings suggest that dynorphins A and B undergo regulated secretion from spinal astrocytes. These findings also suggest that spinal astrocytes may provide secreted dynorphins that participate in spinal pain processing.

  3. C. elegans Stress-Induced Sleep Emerges from the Collective Action of Multiple Neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Nath, Ravi D; Chow, Elly S; Wang, Han; Schwarz, Erich M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-09-26

    The genetic basis of sleep regulation remains poorly understood. In C. elegans, cellular stress induces sleep through epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent activation of the EGF receptor in the ALA neuron. The downstream mechanism by which this neuron promotes sleep is unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing of ALA reveals that the most highly expressed, ALA-enriched genes encode neuropeptides. Here we have systematically investigated the four most highly enriched neuropeptides: flp-7, nlp-8, flp-24, and flp-13. When individually removed by null mutation, these peptides had little or no effect on stress-induced sleep. However, stress-induced sleep was abolished in nlp-8; flp-24; flp-13 triple-mutant animals, indicating that these neuropeptides work collectively in controlling stress-induced sleep. We tested the effect of overexpression of these neuropeptide genes on five behaviors modulated during sleep-pharyngeal pumping, defecation, locomotion, head movement, and avoidance response to an aversive stimulus-and we found that, if individually overexpressed, each of three neuropeptides (nlp-8, flp-24, or flp-13) induced a different suite of sleep-associated behaviors. These overexpression results raise the possibility that individual components of sleep might be specified by individual neuropeptides or combinations of neuropeptides.

  4. C. elegans Stress-Induced Sleep Emerges from the Collective Action of Multiple Neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Nath, Ravi D; Chow, Elly S; Wang, Han; Schwarz, Erich M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-09-26

    The genetic basis of sleep regulation remains poorly understood. In C. elegans, cellular stress induces sleep through epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent activation of the EGF receptor in the ALA neuron. The downstream mechanism by which this neuron promotes sleep is unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing of ALA reveals that the most highly expressed, ALA-enriched genes encode neuropeptides. Here we have systematically investigated the four most highly enriched neuropeptides: flp-7, nlp-8, flp-24, and flp-13. When individually removed by null mutation, these peptides had little or no effect on stress-induced sleep. However, stress-induced sleep was abolished in nlp-8; flp-24; flp-13 triple-mutant animals, indicating that these neuropeptides work collectively in controlling stress-induced sleep. We tested the effect of overexpression of these neuropeptide genes on five behaviors modulated during sleep-pharyngeal pumping, defecation, locomotion, head movement, and avoidance response to an aversive stimulus-and we found that, if individually overexpressed, each of three neuropeptides (nlp-8, flp-24, or flp-13) induced a different suite of sleep-associated behaviors. These overexpression results raise the possibility that individual components of sleep might be specified by individual neuropeptides or combinations of neuropeptides. PMID:27546573

  5. Transcriptional profiling reveals differential expression of a neuropeptide-like protein and pseudogenes in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-1 mutant Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Aarnio, Vuokko; Heikkinen, Liisa; Peltonen, Juhani; Goldsteins, Gundars; Lakso, Merja; Wong, Garry

    2014-03-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) functions in higher organisms in development, metabolism and toxic responses. Its Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) ortholog, AHR-1, facilitates neuronal development, growth and movement. We investigated the effect of AHR mutation on the transcriptional profile of L4 stage C. elegans using RNA-seq and quantitative real time PCR in order to understand better AHR-1 function at the genomic level. Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing yielded 51.1, 61.2 and 54.0 million reads from wild-type controls, ahr-1(ia03) and ahr-1(ju145) mutants, respectively, providing detection of over 18,000 transcripts in each sample. Fourteen transcripts were over-expressed and 125 under-expressed in both ahr-1 mutants when compared to wild-type. Under-expressed genes included soluble guanylate cyclase (gcy) family genes, some of which were previously demonstrated to be regulated by AHR-1. A neuropeptide-like protein gene, nlp-20, and a F-box domain protein gene fbxa-192 and its pseudogenes fbxa-191 and fbxa-193 were also under-expressed. Conserved xenobiotic response elements were identified in the 5' flanking regions of some but not all of the gcy, nlp-20, and fbxa genes. These results extend previous studies demonstrating control of gcy family gene expression by AHR-1, and furthermore suggest a role of AHR-1 in regulation of a neuropeptide gene as well as pseudogenes.

  6. Effect of fasting on cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript, neuropeptide Y, and leptin receptor expression in the non-human primate hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Van Vugt, Dean A; Lujan, Marla E; Froats, Mark; Krzemien, Alicja; Couceyro, Pastor R; Reid, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    Leptin is a cytokine produced by white adipose tissue that circulates in direct proportion to adiposity and is an important signal of energy balance. Leptin inhibits food intake in rodents by inhibiting the orexigenic neuropetides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti regulated peptide (AgRP) and stimulating the anorexigenic neuropeptides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). In order to extend our understanding of neuroendocrine regulation of appetite in the primate, we determined the effect of a metabolic challenge on CART, NPY, and leptin receptor (Ob-R) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the nonhuman primate (NHP) hypothalamus. Ten adult female rhesus monkeys were either maintained on a regular diet or fasted for two days before euthanasia. CART, NPY, and Ob-R mRNA were measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH). A 2-day fast decreased CART expression in the ARC, increased NPY gene expression in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and increased Ob-R expression in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN). This is the first report that fasting inhibits CART expression and stimulates Ob-R expression in monkeys. Increased NPY expression in the SON and PVN, but not the ARC of fasted monkeys also is novel. With some exceptions, our observations are confirmatory of findings in rodent studies. Similarities in the neuroendocrine responses to a metabolic challenge in monkeys and rodents support extending existing hypotheses of neuroendocrine control of energy homeostasis to primates. PMID:17124379

  7. Neuropeptides in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Eva; Scheich, Bálint; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2013-12-01

    Dementia conditions and memory deficits of different origins (vascular, metabolic and primary neurodegenerative such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) are getting more common and greater clinical problems recently in the aging population. Since the presently available cognitive enhancers have very limited therapeutical applications, there is an emerging need to elucidate the complex pathophysiological mechanisms, identify key mediators and novel targets for future drug development. Neuropeptides are widely distributed in brain regions responsible for learning and memory processes with special emphasis on the hippocampus, amygdala and the basal forebrain. They form networks with each other, and also have complex interactions with the cholinergic, glutamatergic, dopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways. This review summarizes the extensive experimental data in the well-established rat and mouse models, as well as the few clinical results regarding the expression and the roles of the tachykinin system, somatostatin and the closely related cortistatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioid peptides and galanin. Furthermore, the main receptorial targets, mechanisms and interactions are described in order to highlight the possible therapeutical potentials. Agents not only symptomatically improving the functional impairments, but also inhibiting the progression of the neurodegenerative processes would be breakthroughs in this area. The most promising mechanisms determined at the level of exploratory investigations in animal models of cognitive disfunctions are somatostatin sst4, NPY Y2, PACAP-VIP VPAC1, tachykinin NK3 and galanin GALR2 receptor agonisms, as well as delta opioid receptor antagonism. Potent and selective non-peptide ligands with good CNS penetration are needed for further characterization of these molecular pathways to

  8. Identification of a new member of PBAN family of neuropeptides from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells in the central or peripheral nervous systems regulate various physiological and behavioral events during insect development and reproduction. Pyrokinin/Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) is a major neuropeptide family, chara...

  9. Neuropeptidomics: Mass Spectrometry-Based Identification and Quantitation of Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides produced from prohormones by selective action of endopeptidases are vital signaling molecules, playing a critical role in a variety of physiological processes, such as addiction, depression, pain, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides bind to post-synaptic receptors and elicit cellular effects like classical neurotransmitters. While each neuropeptide could have its own biological function, mass spectrometry (MS) allows for the identification of the precise molecular forms of each peptide without a priori knowledge of the peptide identity and for the quantitation of neuropeptides in different conditions of the samples. MS-based neuropeptidomics approaches have been applied to various animal models and conditions to characterize and quantify novel neuropeptides, as well as known neuropeptides, advancing our understanding of nervous system function over the past decade. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides and MS-based neuropeptidomic strategies for the identification and quantitation of neuropeptides. PMID:27103886

  10. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, combined with bimolecular fluorescence complementation, reveals the effects of β-arrestin complexes and endocytic targeting on the membrane mobility of neuropeptide Y receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Laura E.; Briddon, Stephen J.; Holliday, Nicholas D.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis are powerful ways to study mobility and stoichiometry of G protein coupled receptor complexes, within microdomains of single living cells. However, relating these properties to molecular mechanisms can be challenging. We investigated the influence of β-arrestin adaptors and endocytosis mechanisms on plasma membrane diffusion and particle brightness of GFP-tagged neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors. A novel GFP-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system also identified Y1 receptor-β-arrestin complexes. Diffusion co-efficients (D) for Y1 and Y2-GFP receptors in HEK293 cell plasma membranes were 2.22 and 2.15 × 10− 9 cm2 s− 1 respectively. At a concentration which promoted only Y1 receptor endocytosis, NPY treatment reduced Y1-GFP motility (D 1.48 × 10− 9 cm2 s− 1), but did not alter diffusion characteristics of the Y2-GFP receptor. Agonist induced changes in Y1 receptor motility were inhibited by mutations (6A) which prevented β-arrestin recruitment and internalisation; conversely they became apparent in a Y2 receptor mutant with increased β-arrestin affinity. NPY treatment also increased Y1 receptor-GFP particle brightness, changes which indicated receptor clustering, and which were abolished by the 6A mutation. The importance of β-arrestin recruitment for these effects was illustrated by reduced lateral mobility (D 1.20–1.33 × 10− 9 cm2 s− 1) of Y1 receptor-β-arrestin BiFC complexes. Thus NPY-induced changes in Y receptor motility and brightness reflect early events surrounding arrestin dependent endocytosis at the plasma membrane, results supported by a novel combined BiFC/FCS approach to detect the underlying receptor-β-arrestin signalling complex. PMID:22487268

  11. From a marine neuropeptide to antimicrobial pseudopeptides containing aza-β(3)-amino acids: structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Laurencin, Mathieu; Legrand, Baptiste; Duval, Emilie; Henry, Joël; Baudy-Floc'H, Michèle; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Bondon, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of aza-β3-amino acids into endogenous neuropeptide from mollusks (ALSGDAFLRF-NH2) with weak antimicrobial activities allows us to design new AMPs sequences. We find that, depending on the nature of the substitution, these could result either in inactive pseudopeptides or in a drastic enhancement of the antimicrobial activity without high cytotoxicity resulted. Structural studies perform by NMR and circular dichroism on the pseudopeptides show the impact of aza-β3-amino acids on the peptide structures. We obtain the first three-dimensional structures of pseudopeptides containing aza-β3-amino acids in aqueous micellar SDS and demonstrate that hydrazino turn can be formed in aqueous solution. Overall, these results demonstrate the ability to modulate AMPs activities through structural modifications induced by the nature and the position of these amino acid analogs in the peptide sequences. PMID:22320306

  12. Central neuropeptide Y receptors are involved in 3rd ventricular ghrelin induced alteration of colonic transit time in conscious fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Tebbe, Johannes J; Tebbe, Clemens G; Mronga, Silke; Ritter, Michael; Schäfer, Martin KH

    2005-01-01

    Background Feeding related peptides have been shown to be additionally involved in the central autonomic control of gastrointestinal functions. Recent studies have shown that ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, is involved in the autonomic regulation of GI function besides feeding behavior. Pharmacological evidence indicates that ghrelin effects on food intake are mediated by neuropeptide Y in the central nervous system. Methods In the present study we examine the role of ghrelin in the central autonomic control of GI motility using intracerobroventricular and IP microinjections in a freely moving conscious rat model. Further the hypothesis that a functional relationship between NPY and ghrelin within the CNS exists was addressed. Results ICV injections of ghrelin (0.03 nmol, 0.3 nmol and 3.0 nmol/5 μl and saline controls) decreased the colonic transit time up to 43%. IP injections of ghrelin (0.3 nmol – 3.0 nmol kg-1 BW and saline controls) decreased colonic transit time dose related. Central administration of the NPY1 receptor antagonist, BIBP-3226, prior to centrally or peripherally administration of ghrelin antagonized the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic transit. On the contrary ICV-pretreatment with the NPY2 receptor antagonist, BIIE-0246, failed to modulate the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic motility. Conclusion The results suggest that ghrelin acts in the central nervous system to modulate gastrointestinal motor function utilizing NPY1 receptor dependent mechanisms. PMID:15720710

  13. Neuropeptide FF analog RF9 is not an antagonist of NPFF receptor and decreases food intake in mice after its central and peripheral administration.

    PubMed

    Maletínská, Lenka; Tichá, Anežka; Nagelová, Veronika; Spolcová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Elbert, Tomáš; Zelezná, Blanka

    2013-03-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to the RF-amide family of peptides bearing the identical C-terminal amino acid sequence (R-F-NH2). In addition to NPFF, prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), another RF-amide, binds to NPFF receptors with high affinity. A selective antagonist of PrRP has not yet been identified, but a selective antagonist of NPFF, 1-adamantanecarbonyl-RF-NH2 (RF9), was recently reported to antagonize the hyperalgesic effect of NPFF after central administration to mice. In the present study, RF9 competed with NPFF analog D-Y-L-(N-Me)-F-Q-P-Q-R-F-NH2 (1DMe) in binding to CHO-K1 cell membranes transfected with the human NPFF2 receptor. In rat pituitary RC-4B/C cells, where the expression of the NPFF2 receptor was proved by immunodetection, RF9 did not reverse the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 induced by [Tyr(1)]NPFF. In vivo experiments with fasted mice confirmed that centrally injected [Tyr(1)]NPFF significantly lowered food intake. However, RF9, a putative NPFF2 antagonist, did not reverse the anorectic effect of [Tyr(1)]NPFF. Paradoxically, RF9 itself exhibited an anorectic effect in fasted mice not only after intracerebroventricular but also after subcutaneous administration. This finding casts doubt on claims that RF9 is an NPFF antagonist.

  14. Coordinated regulation of foraging and metabolism in C. elegans by RFamide neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Merav; Reale, Vincenzina; Olofsson, Birgitta; Knights, Andrew; Evans, Peter; de Bono, Mario

    2009-04-01

    Animals modify food-seeking behavior and metabolism according to perceived food availability. Here we show that, in the roundworm C. elegans, release of neuropeptides from interneurons that are directly postsynaptic to olfactory, gustatory, and thermosensory neurons coordinately regulates behavior and metabolism. Animals lacking these neuropeptides, encoded by the flp-18 gene, are defective in chemosensation and foraging, accumulate excess fat, and exhibit reduced oxygen consumption. Two G protein-coupled receptors of the NPY/RFamide family, NPR-4 and NPR-5, are activated by FLP-18 peptides in vitro and exhibit mutant phenotypes that recapitulate those of flp-18 mutants. Our data suggest that sensory input can coordinately regulate behavior and metabolism via NPY/RFamide-like receptors. They suggest that peptidergic feedback from interneurons regulates sensory neuron activity, and that at least some of this communication occurs extrasynaptically. Extrasynaptic neuropeptide signaling may greatly increase the computational capacity of neural circuits. PMID:19356718

  15. Increased neuropeptide Y pressor activity in Goldblatt hypertensive rats: in vivo studies with BIBP 3226.

    PubMed

    Mezzano, V; Donoso, V; Capurro, D; Huidobro-Toro, J P

    1998-01-01

    Nanomoles of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and noradrenaline (NA), administered i.v. to pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, caused nearly equipotent dose-dependent pressor responses in normotensive rats. However, in renovascular Goldblatt hypertensive rats, the dose-response curves for both NPY and NA were significantly displaced to the left, approximately threefold. Intravenous administration of BIBP 3226 (30-180 microg/kg) did not consistently lower blood pressure, per se, but did evoke competitive antagonism of the NPY pressor response in both rat populations. The magnitude of the NPY antagonism evoked by BIBP 3226 was comparable in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The absence of NA antagonism demonstrates the selectivity of the BIBP 3226 blockade.

  16. Immunohistochemical distribution of neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide-like immunoreactivity and their receptors in the epidermal skin of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Yvan; Bastianetto, Stéphane; Duranton, Albert; Breton, Lionel; Quirion, Rémi

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) could play an important role in skin functions. However, the expression of NPY, the related peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and their receptors have not been investigated in human skin. Using specific antisera directed against NPY, PYY, PP and the Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptor subtypes, we investigated here the expression of these markers. NPY-like immunoreactivity (ir) in the epidermal skin could not be detected. For the first time we report the presence of positive PP-like ir immunofluorescent signals in epidermal cells, i.e. keratinocytes of skin from three areas (abdomen, breast and face) obtained as surgical left-overs. The immunofluorescent signal of PP-like ir varies from very low to high level in all three areas. In contrast, PYY-like ir is only expressed in some cells and with varied level of intensity. Furthermore and for the first time we observed specific Y1 and Y4 receptor-like ir in all epidermal layers, while the Y2 and Y5 subtypes were absent. Interestingly, as seen in human epidermis, in Episkin, a reconstituted human epidermal layer, we detected the presence of PP-like as well as Y1-like and Y4-like ir. These data have shown the presence and distribution of PYY, PP and Y1 and Y4 receptors in the human skin and Episkin, suggesting possible novel roles of NPY related peptides and their receptors in skin homeostasis. PMID:26002416

  17. Immunohistochemical distribution of neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide-like immunoreactivity and their receptors in the epidermal skin of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Yvan; Bastianetto, Stéphane; Duranton, Albert; Breton, Lionel; Quirion, Rémi

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) could play an important role in skin functions. However, the expression of NPY, the related peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and their receptors have not been investigated in human skin. Using specific antisera directed against NPY, PYY, PP and the Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptor subtypes, we investigated here the expression of these markers. NPY-like immunoreactivity (ir) in the epidermal skin could not be detected. For the first time we report the presence of positive PP-like ir immunofluorescent signals in epidermal cells, i.e. keratinocytes of skin from three areas (abdomen, breast and face) obtained as surgical left-overs. The immunofluorescent signal of PP-like ir varies from very low to high level in all three areas. In contrast, PYY-like ir is only expressed in some cells and with varied level of intensity. Furthermore and for the first time we observed specific Y1 and Y4 receptor-like ir in all epidermal layers, while the Y2 and Y5 subtypes were absent. Interestingly, as seen in human epidermis, in Episkin, a reconstituted human epidermal layer, we detected the presence of PP-like as well as Y1-like and Y4-like ir. These data have shown the presence and distribution of PYY, PP and Y1 and Y4 receptors in the human skin and Episkin, suggesting possible novel roles of NPY related peptides and their receptors in skin homeostasis.

  18. Variants in neuropeptide Y receptor 1 and 5 are associated with nutrient-specific food intake and are under recent selection in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Elbers, Clara C; de Kovel, Carolien G F; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Meijboom, Juliaan R; Bauer, Florianne; Grobbee, Diederick E; Trynka, Gosia; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wijmenga, Cisca; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    There is a large variation in caloric intake and macronutrient preference between individuals and between ethnic groups, and these food intake patterns show a strong heritability. The transition to new food sources during the agriculture revolution around 11,000 years ago probably created selective pressure and shaped the genome of modern humans. One major player in energy homeostasis is the appetite-stimulating hormone neuropeptide Y, in which the stimulatory capacity may be mediated by the neuropeptide Y receptors 1, 2 and 5 (NPY1R, NPY2R and NPY5R). We assess association between variants in the NPY1R, NPY2R and NPY5R genes and nutrient intake in a cross-sectional, single-center study of 400 men aged 40 to 80 years, and we examine whether genomic regions containing these genes show signatures of recent selection in 270 HapMap individuals (90 Africans, 90 Asians, and 90 Caucasians) and in 846 Dutch bloodbank controls. Our results show that derived alleles in NPY1R and NPY5R are associated with lower carbohydrate intake, mainly because of a lower consumption of mono- and disaccharides. We also show that carriers of these derived alleles, on average, consume meals with a lower glycemic index and glycemic load and have higher alcohol consumption. One of these variants shows the hallmark of recent selection in Europe. Our data suggest that lower carbohydrate intake, consuming meals with a low glycemic index and glycemic load, and/or higher alcohol consumption, gave a survival advantage in Europeans since the agricultural revolution. This advantage could lie in overall health benefits, because lower carbohydrate intake, consuming meals with a low GI and GL, and/or higher alcohol consumption, are known to be associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases. PMID:19759915

  19. Expression of the fructose receptor BmGr9 and its involvement in the promotion of feeding, suggested by its co-expression with neuropeptide F1 in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Tanaka, Shiho; Nagata, Shinji; Takada, Tomoyuki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-08-01

    Insect gustatory receptors (Grs) are members of a large family of proteins with seven transmembrane domains that provide insects with the ability to detect chemical signals critical for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, 69 Bombyx mori Grs (BmGrs) genes have been identified via genome studies. BmGr9 has been shown to respond specifically to fructose and to function as a ligand-gated ion channel selectively activated by fructose. However, the sites where this Gr are expressed remain unclear. We demonstrated using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR that BmGr9 is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), as well as oral sensory organs. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-BmGr9 antiserum to show that BmGr9 is expressed in cells of the oral sensory organs, including the maxillary galea, maxillary palps, labrum, and labium, as well as in putative neurosecretory cells of the CNS. Furthermore, double immunohistochemical analysis showed that most BmGr9-expressing cells co-localized with putative neuropeptide F1-expressing cells in the brain, suggesting that BmGr9 is involved in the promotion of feeding behaviors. In addition, a portion of BmGr9-expressing cells in the brain co-localized with cells expressing BmGr6, a molecule of the sugar receptor clade, suggesting that sugars other than fructose are involved in the regulation of feeding behaviors in B. mori larvae. PMID:27288056

  20. The intriguing mission of neuropeptide Y in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava

    2013-07-01

    For many years, the central nervous system and the immune system were considered two autonomous entities. However, extensive research in the field of neuroimmunomodulation during the past decades has demonstrated the presence of different neuropeptides and their respective receptors in the immune cells. More importantly, it has provided evidence for the direct effects of neuropeptides on the immune cell functions. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is generally considered the most abundant peptide in the central and peripheral nervous system. However, it is also distinguished by exhibiting pleiotropic functions in many other physiological systems, including the immune system. NPY affects the functions of the cells of the adaptive and innate immunity. In this respect, NPY is known to modulate immune cell trafficking, T helper cell differentiation, cytokine secretion, natural killer cell activity, phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species. The specific Y receptors have been found in immune cells, and their expression is amplified upon immune stimulation. Different Y receptor subtypes may mediate an opposite effect of NPY on the particular function, thus underlining its regulatory role. Since the immune cells are capable of producing NPY upon appropriate stimulation, this peptide can regulate immune cell functions in an autocrine/paracrine manner. NPY also has important implications in several immune-mediated disorders, which affirms the clear need for further investigation of its role in either the mechanisms of the disease development or its possible therapeutic capacity. This review summarises the key points of NPY's mission throughout the immune system.

  1. The D. melanogaster capa-1 neuropeptide activates renal NF-kB signaling.

    PubMed

    Terhzaz, Selim; Overend, Gayle; Sebastian, Sujith; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A

    2014-03-01

    The capa peptide family exists in a very wide range of insects including species of medical, veterinary and agricultural importance. Capa peptides act via a cognate G-protein coupled receptor (capaR) and have a diuretic action on the Malpighian tubules of Dipteran and Lepidopteran species. Capa signaling is critical for fluid homeostasis and has been associated with desiccation tolerance in the fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The mode of capa signaling is highly complex, affecting calcium, nitric oxide and cyclic GMP pathways. Such complex physiological regulation by cell signaling pathways may occur ultimately for optimal organismal stress tolerance to multiple stressors. Here we show that D. melanogaster capa-1 (Drome-capa-1) acts via the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB) stress signaling network. Human PCR gene arrays of capaR-transfected Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293 cells showed that Drome-capa-1 increases expression of NF-kB, NF-kB regulated genes including IL8, TNF and PTGS2, and NF-kB pathway-associated transcription factors i.e. EGR1, FOS, cJUN. Furthermore, desiccated HEK293 cells show increased EGR1, EGR3 and PTGS2 - but not IL8, expression. CapaR-transfected NF-kB reporter cells showed that Drome-capa-1 increased NF-kB promoter activity via increased calcium. In Malpighian tubules, both Drome-capa-1 stimulation and desiccation result in increased gene expression of the D. melanogaster NF-kB orthologue, Relish; as well as EGR-like stripe and klumpfuss. Drome-capa-1 also induces Relish translocation in tubule principal cells. Targeted knockdown of Relish in only tubule principal cells reduces desiccation stress tolerance of adult flies. Together, these data suggest that Drome-capa-1 acts in desiccation stress tolerance, by activating NF-kB signaling.

  2. From gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone to SIFamides: are echinoderm SALMFamides the "missing link" in a bilaterian family of neuropeptides that regulate reproductive processes?

    PubMed

    Elphick, Maurice R

    2013-11-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) belongs to a family of vertebrate neuropeptides with a C-terminal PxRFamide motif, which exert effects by activating the G-protein coupled receptors NPFF1 and/or NPFF2. Comparative analysis of genome sequence data has revealed that orthologs of NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptors occur throughout the Bilateria and the neuropeptide ligand that activates the Drosophila NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptor has been identified as AYRKPPFNGSIFamide ("SIFamide"). Therefore, SIFamide-type neuropeptides, which occur throughout protostomian invertebrates, probably share a common evolutionary origin with vertebrate PxRFamide-type neuropeptides. Based on structural similarities, here SALMFamide neuropeptides are identified as candidate ligand components of this ancient bilaterian peptide-receptor signaling system in a deuterostomian invertebrate phylum, the echinoderms (e.g., starfish, sea urchins). Furthermore, functional studies provide evidence that PxRFamide/SALMFamide/SIFamide-type neuropeptides have evolutionarily conserved roles in regulation (typically inhibitory) of reproductive processes.

  3. Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

    2013-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma

  4. Modulation of neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors influences the expression of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and amphetamine withdrawal anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Kotlinska, J H; Gibula-Bruzda, E; Koltunowska, D; Raoof, H; Suder, P; Silberring, J

    2012-01-01

    Many data indicate that endogenous opioid system is involved in amphetamine-induced behavior. Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) possesses opioid-modulating properties. The aim of the present study was to determine whether pharmacological modulation of NPFF receptors modify the expression of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and amphetamine withdrawal anxiety-like behavior, both processes relevant to drug addiction/abuse. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPFF (5, 10, and 20 nmol) inhibited the expression of amphetamine CPP at the doses of 10 and 20 nmol. RF9, the NPFF receptors antagonist, reversed inhibitory effect of NPFF (20 nmol, i.c.v.) at the doses of 10 and 20 nmol and did not show any effect in amphetamine- and saline conditioned rats. Anxiety-like effect of amphetamine withdrawal was measured 24h after the last (14 days) amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, i.p.) treatment in the elevated plus-maze test. Amphetamine withdrawal decreased the percent of time spent by rats in the open arms and the percent of open arms entries. RF9 (5, 10, and 20 nmol, i.c.v.) significantly reversed these anxiety-like effects of amphetamine withdrawal and elevated the percent of time spent by rats in open arms at doses of 5 and 10 nmol, and the percent of open arms entries in all doses used. NPFF (20 nmol) pretreatment inhibited the effect of RF9 (10 nmol). Our results indicated that stimulation or inhibition of NPFF receptors decrease the expression of amphetamine CPP and amphetamine withdrawal anxiety, respectively. These findings may have implications for a better understanding of the processes involved in amphetamine dependence.

  5. Neuropeptide Y: A stressful review

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Holzer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stress is defined as an adverse condition that disturbs the homeostasis of the body and activates adaptation responses. Among the many pathways and mediators involved, neuropeptide Y (NPY) stands out due to its unique stress-relieving, anxiolytic and neuroprotective properties. Stress exposure alters the biosynthesis of NPY in distinct brain regions, the magnitude and direction of this effect varying with the duration and type of stress. NPY is expressed in particular neurons of the brainstem, hypothalamus and limbic system, which explains why NPY has an impact on stress-related changes in emotional-affective behaviour and feeding as well as on stress coping. The biological actions of NPY in mammals are mediated by the Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptor, Y1 receptor stimulation being anxiolytic whereas Y2 receptor activation is anxiogenic. Emerging evidence attributes NPY a role in stress resilience, the ability to cope with stress. Thus there is a negative correlation between stress-induced behavioural disruption and cerebral NPY expression in animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder. Exogenous NPY prevents the negative consequences of stress, and polymorphisms of the NPY gene are predictive of impaired stress processing and increased risk of neuropsychiatric diseases. Stress is also a factor contributing to, and resulting from, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, in which NPY appears to play an important neuroprotective role. This review summarizes the evidence for an implication of NPY in stress-related and neurodegenerative pathologies and addresses the cerebral NPY system as a therapeutic target. PMID:26441327

  6. Identification and expression analysis of diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jian-Cheng; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides play essential roles in a variety of physiological responses that contribute to the development and reproduction of insects. Both the diapause hormone (DH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) belong to the PBAN/pyrokinin neuropeptide family, which has a conserved pentapeptide motif FXPRL at the C-terminus. We identified the full-length cDNA encoding DH-PBAN in Maruca vitrata, a major lepidopteran pest of leguminous crops. The open reading frame of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 591 bp in length, encoding 197 amino acids, from which five putative neuropeptides [DH, PBAN, α-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptide (SGNP), β-SGNP and γ-SGNP] are derived. Marvi-DH-PBAN was highly similar (83%) to DH-PBAN of Omphisa fuscidentalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), but possesses a unique C-terminal FNPRL motif, where asparagine has replaced a serine residue present in other lepidopteran PBAN peptides. The genomic DNA sequence of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 6,231 bp in size and is composed of six exons. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the Marvi-DH-PBAN protein sequence is closest to its homolog in Crambidae, but distant from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera DH-PBAN, which agrees with the current taxonomy. DH-PBAN transcripts were present in the head and thoracic complex, but absent in the abdomen of M. vitrata. Real-time quantitative PCR assays have demonstrated a relatively higher expression of Marvi-DH-PBAN mRNA in the latter half of the pupal stages and in adults. These findings represent a significant step forward in our understanding of the DH-PBAN gene architecture and phylogeny, and raise the possibility of using Marvi-DH-PBAN to manage M. vitrata populations through molecular techniques.

  7. Identification and Expression Analysis of Diapause Hormone and Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) in the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jian-Cheng; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides play essential roles in a variety of physiological responses that contribute to the development and reproduction of insects. Both the diapause hormone (DH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) belong to the PBAN/pyrokinin neuropeptide family, which has a conserved pentapeptide motif FXPRL at the C-terminus. We identified the full-length cDNA encoding DH-PBAN in Maruca vitrata, a major lepidopteran pest of leguminous crops. The open reading frame of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 591 bp in length, encoding 197 amino acids, from which five putative neuropeptides [DH, PBAN, α-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptide (SGNP), β-SGNP and γ-SGNP] are derived. Marvi-DH-PBAN was highly similar (83%) to DH-PBAN of Omphisa fuscidentalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), but possesses a unique C-terminal FNPRL motif, where asparagine has replaced a serine residue present in other lepidopteran PBAN peptides. The genomic DNA sequence of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 6,231 bp in size and is composed of six exons. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the Marvi-DH-PBAN protein sequence is closest to its homolog in Crambidae, but distant from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera DH-PBAN, which agrees with the current taxonomy. DH-PBAN transcripts were present in the head and thoracic complex, but absent in the abdomen of M. vitrata. Real-time quantitative PCR assays have demonstrated a relatively higher expression of Marvi-DH-PBAN mRNA in the latter half of the pupal stages and in adults. These findings represent a significant step forward in our understanding of the DH-PBAN gene architecture and phylogeny, and raise the possibility of using Marvi-DH-PBAN to manage M. vitrata populations through molecular techniques. PMID:24409312

  8. Electrical kindling of the hippocampus is associated with functional activation of neuropeptide Y-containing neurons.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, M; Monno, A; Samanin, R; Sperk, G; Vezzani, A

    1993-11-01

    The release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was measured from hippocampal slices of rats at stage 2 (preconvulsive stage) and stage 5 (full seizure expression) of electrical kindling of the dorsal hippocampus (upper blade of the dentate gyrus). Spontaneous release in naive rats (9.0 +/- 0.8 fmol/ml every 10 min) was independent of external Ca2+ but was reduced by 38 +/- 3.6% (P < 0.05) during 20 min incubation with 5 microM tetrodotoxin. Spontaneous efflux in naive rats did not differ from that in shams (implanted with electrodes but not stimulated) or in rats kindled to stage 2 and stage 5. Twenty-five, 50 and 100 mM KCl induced a concentration-dependent release of NPY (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 at 25 and 50-100 mM respectively) from slices of shams. The effect of 100 mM KCl was reduced by 94 +/- 1% (P < 0.01) in the absence of Ca2+. Two days after the last stage 2 stimulation and 1 week after the last stage 5 seizure, NPY release was significantly larger than in shams at all KCl concentrations in the stimulated and contralateral hippocampus (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Forty-eight hours after one single after-discharge and 1 month after the last stage 5 seizure, 50 mM KCl induced a significantly larger release of NPY in the stimulated and contralateral hippocampus (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), although the effect was less than during kindling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Hypothalamic neuropeptides and the regulation of appetite.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jennifer A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2012-07-01

    Neuropeptides released by hypothalamic neurons play a major role in the regulation of feeding, acting both within the hypothalamus, and at other appetite regulating centres throughout the brain. Where classical neurotransmitters signal only within synapses, neuropeptides diffuse over greater distances affecting both nearby and distant neurons expressing the relevant receptors, which are often extrasynaptic. As well as triggering a behavioural output, neuropeptides also act as neuromodulators: altering the response of neurons to both neurotransmitters and circulating signals of nutrient status. The mechanisms of action of hypothalamic neuropeptides with established roles in feeding, including melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the orexins, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), agouti-gene related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y, and oxytocin, are reviewed in this article, with emphasis laid on both their effects on appetite regulating centres throughout the brain, and on examining the evidence for their physiological roles. In addition, evidence for the involvement of several putative appetite regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides is assessed including, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide W and the galanin-like peptides. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central control of Food Intake'.

  10. Neuropeptide Y functions as a neuroproliferative factor.

    PubMed

    Hansel, D E; Eipper, B A; Ronnett, G V

    2001-04-19

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a number of functions in mammalian physiology. Here we identify a role for NPY in promoting proliferation of postnatal neuronal precursor cells. NPY is synthesized in the postnatal olfactory epithelium by sustentacular cells, previously proposed to function only in structural support. Mice with a targeted deletion of NPY contain half as many dividing olfactory neuronal precursor cells as do controls. Furthermore, NPY-deficient mice develop significantly fewer olfactory neurons by adulthood. NPY acts on multipotent neuronal precursor or basal cells to activate rapidly and transiently the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases. The NPY Y1 receptor subtype appears to mediate this effect. The ability of NPY to induce neuronal precursor proliferation is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), indicating an upstream PKC-dependent activation of ERK1/2. These results indicate that NPY may regulate neuronal precursor proliferation in the adult mammal.

  11. Association of neuropeptide Y and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor gene SNPs with breeding value for growth and egg production traits in Mazandaran native chickens.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, S A; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Niknafs, Sh

    2012-08-16

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) are two candidate genes with a wide variety of physiological functions in growth and especially in reproduction processes. We examined the association of one SNP from each of these genes with growth- and egg production-related traits in Mazandaran native chickens. Two hundred and six individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Marker-trait association analyses were performed using both breeding value and phenotypic information. The data came from 18 successive generations of selection at a Mazandaran native chicken breeding station in Iran. Data were analyzed with a univariate animal model in an ASREML procedure to estimate breeding values of the birds for these traits. Two alleles were found for both genes, A and a alleles for GnRHR, with frequencies of 0.614 and 0.386, B and b alleles for NPY, with frequencies of 0.780 and 0.221, respectively. The additive genetic effects of the GnRHR gene on egg number and egg mass were significant. Also, body weight at sexual maturity was significantly influenced by the NPY gene. We conclude that GnRHR and NPY genes are associated with egg production and growth traits, respectively.

  12. Possible role of serotonin and neuropeptide Y on the disruption of the reproductive axis activity by perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Fernández-Pérez, B; Lafuente, A

    2015-03-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an endocrine disruptor, whose exposure can induce several alterations on the reproductive axis activity in males during adulthood. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of serotonin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis induced by PFOS in adult male rats. For that, adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. After PFOS exposure, serotonin concentration increased in the anterior and mediobasal hypothalamus as well as in the median eminence. The metabolism of this amine (expressed as the ratio 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA)/serotonin) was diminished except in the anterior hypothalamus, with the doses of 3.0 and 6.0mg/kg/day, being this dose 0.5mg/kg/day in the median eminence. In general terms, PFOS-treated rats presented a decrease of the hypothalamic concentration of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and NPY. A diminution of the serum levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and estradiol were also shown. These results suggest that both serotonin and NPY could be involved in the inhibition induced by PFOS on the reproductive axis activity in adult male rats.

  13. Single Gene Deletions of Orexin, Leptin, Neuropeptide Y, and Ghrelin Do Not Appreciably Alter Food Anticipatory Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gunapala, Keith M.; Gallardo, Christian M.; Hsu, Cynthia T.; Steele, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Timing activity to match resource availability is a widely conserved ability in nature. Scheduled feeding of a limited amount of food induces increased activity prior to feeding time in animals as diverse as fish and rodents. Typically, food anticipatory activity (FAA) involves temporally restricting unlimited food access (RF) to several hours in the middle of the light cycle, which is a time of day when rodents are not normally active. We compared this model to calorie restriction (CR), giving the mice 60% of their normal daily calorie intake at the same time each day. Measurement of body temperature and home cage behaviors suggests that the RF and CR models are very similar but CR has the advantage of a clearly defined food intake and more stable mean body temperature. Using the CR model, we then attempted to verify the published result that orexin deletion diminishes food anticipatory activity (FAA) but observed little to no diminution in the response to CR and, surprisingly, that orexin KO mice are refractory to body weight loss on a CR diet. Next we tested the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormone, leptin, using mouse mutants. NPY deletion did not alter the behavior or physiological response to CR. Leptin deletion impaired FAA in terms of some activity measures, such as walking and rearing, but did not substantially diminish hanging behavior preceding feeding time, suggesting that leptin knockout mice do anticipate daily meal time but do not manifest the full spectrum of activities that typify FAA. Ghrelin knockout mice do not have impaired FAA on a CR diet. Collectively, these results suggest that the individual hormones and neuropepetides tested do not regulate FAA by acting individually but this does not rule out the possibility of their concerted action in mediating FAA. PMID:21464907

  14. Neuropeptide Y stimulates autophagy in hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Aveleira, Célia A; Botelho, Mariana; Carmo-Silva, Sara; Pascoal, Jorge F; Ferreira-Marques, Marisa; Nóbrega, Clévio; Cortes, Luísa; Valero, Jorge; Sousa-Ferreira, Lígia; Álvaro, Ana R; Santana, Magda; Kügler, Sebastian; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-03-31

    Aging is characterized by autophagy impairment that contributes to age-related disease aggravation. Moreover, it was described that the hypothalamus is a critical brain area for whole-body aging development and has impact on lifespan. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the major neuropeptides present in the hypothalamus, and it has been shown that, in aged animals, the hypothalamic NPY levels decrease. Because caloric restriction (CR) delays aging, at least in part, by stimulating autophagy, and also increases hypothalamic NPY levels, we hypothesized that NPY could have a relevant role on autophagy modulation in the hypothalamus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of NPY on autophagy in the hypothalamus. Using both hypothalamic neuronal in vitro models and mice overexpressing NPY in the hypothalamus, we observed that NPY stimulates autophagy in the hypothalamus. Mechanistically, in rodent hypothalamic neurons, NPY increases autophagy through the activation of NPY Y1 and Y5 receptors, and this effect is tightly associated with the concerted activation of PI3K, MEK/ERK, and PKA signaling pathways. Modulation of hypothalamic NPY levels may be considered a potential strategy to produce protective effects against hypothalamic impairments associated with age and to delay aging. PMID:25775546

  15. Androgen inhibits, while oestrogen enhances, restraint-induced activation of neuropeptide neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Lund, T D; Munson, D J; Haldy, M E; Handa, R J

    2004-03-01

    The hormonal response to stress is enhanced by oestrogen but inhibited by androgens. To determine underlying changes in activity of neuropeptide neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), we examined the effect of oestrogen and androgen treatment on restraint-induced c-fos mRNA, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) heteronuclear RNA, and arginine vasopressin hnRNA expression in the PVN. Male rats were gonadectomized and injected with oestradiol benzoate (EB) or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP; s.c., daily for 4 days). Rats were stressed by restraint for 10 min or 30 min before killing. Other rats were stressed for 30 min and then returned to their home cage for 20 min before killing. Corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone responses to restraint stress were significantly greater in EB-treated rats and lower in DHTP-treated rats at the 30-min timepoint compared to controls. c-fos mRNA increases following stress were augmented by EB but inhibited by DHTP. CRH hnRNA expression increased significantly in the PVN in response to restraint stress, and this increase was augmented by EB treatment, but decreased by DHTP treatment. Vasopressin hnRNA expression was also increased in response to stress, and this increase was attenuated by DHTP. These findings indicate that gonadal hormones influence the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis to stress.

  16. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms. PMID:25330347

  17. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.

  18. Mice that are resistant to diet-induced weight loss have greater food anticipatory activity and altered melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2) gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vaanholt, Lobke M; Mitchell, Sharon E; Sinclair, Rachel E; Speakman, John R

    2015-07-01

    Diet-induced weight loss varies considerably between individuals, but the mechanisms driving these individual differences remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether key neuropeptides involved in the regulation of energy balance or reward systems were differentially expressed in mice that were prone or resistant to caloric restriction (CR) induced weight loss. Mice (n=30 males and n=34 females) were fed 70% of their own baseline ad libitum intake for 25days, after which their brains were collected and expression of various neuropeptides were investigated and compared between the 10 male and 10 female mice that showed the greatest (high weight loss, HWL) or lowest weight loss (LWL) (n=40 in total). HWL mice showed a differential neuropeptide profile to LWL in both sexes, characterised by increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), leptin receptor (ObRb), and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) in the arcuate nucleus. No changes in the expression of fat mass and obesity related gene (FTO) or suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (Socs3) were observed. Levels of dopamine D2 receptor were decreased in the nucleus accumbens in HWL compared to LWL mice. HWL mice showed a stronger increase in food anticipatory activity (FAA) in response to CR than LWL mice. These results indicate that the mice prone to diet-induced weight loss experienced greater hunger, potentially driving their elevated FAA.

  19. A PDF/NPF neuropeptide signaling circuitry of male Drosophila melanogaster controls rival-induced prolonged mating.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Jae; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2013-12-01

    A primary function of males for many species involves mating with females for reproduction. Drosophila melanogaster males respond to the presence of other males by prolonging mating duration to increase the chance of passing on their genes. To understand the basis of such complex behaviors, we examine the genetic network and neural circuits that regulate rival-induced Longer-Mating-Duration (LMD). Here, we identify a small subset of clock neurons in the male brain that regulate LMD via neuropeptide signaling. LMD requires the function of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in four s-LNv neurons and its receptor PDFR in two LNd neurons per hemisphere, as well as the function of neuropeptide F (NPF) in two neurons within the sexually dimorphic LNd region and its receptor NPFR1 in four s-LNv neurons per hemisphere. Moreover, rival exposure modifies the neuronal activities of a subset of clock neurons involved in neuropeptide signaling for LMD. PMID:24314729

  20. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  1. The neuropeptide bursicon acts in cuticle metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bursicon is a heterodimeric neuropeptide formed of bursicon a (burs a) and bursicon B (burs B) that controls cuticle tanning and wing expansion in insects. Burs a-a and burs B-B homodimers are also formed; they act via an unknown receptor to induce expression of prophylactic immune and stress genes ...

  2. Neuropeptides in the Gonads: From Evolution to Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Nicolette L.; Bentley, George E.

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. These gonadal neuropeptide systems are neither well understood in isolation, nor in their interactions with other neuropeptide systems. Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which themselves are under regulation by true neuropeptide systems from the hypothalamus, is relatively meager. This review discusses the existence of a variety of neuropeptides and their receptors which have been discovered in vertebrate gonads, and the possible way in which such systems could have evolved. We then focus on two key neuropeptides for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Comparative studies have provided us with a degree of understanding as to how a gonadal GnRH system might have evolved, and they have been responsible for the discovery of GnIH and its gonadal counterpart. We attempt to highlight what is known about these two key gonadal neuropeptides, how their actions differ from their hypothalamic counterparts, and how we might learn from comparative studies of them and other gonadal neuropeptides in terms of pharmacology, reproductive physiology and evolutionary biology. PMID:21607065

  3. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Anxiety by Differentially Activating Serotonergic and Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Ergic System in Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga): An Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a predator elicits an innate fear response and mimics several behavioral disorders related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The protective role of an enriched condition (EC) against psychogenic stressors in various animal models has been well documented. However, this condition has not been tested in field mice in the context of PTSD. In this study, we show that field mice (Mus booduga) housed under EC exhibit predominantly proactive and less reactive behavior compared with mice housed under standard conditions (SC) during exposure to their natural predator (field rat Rattus rattus). Furthermore, we observed that EC mice displayed less anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark-box after exposure to the predator (7 hrs/7 days). In EC mice, predator exposure elevated the level of serotonin (5-Hydroxytrypamine, [5-HT]) in the amygdala as part of the coping response. Subsequently, the serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1A receptor were up-regulated significantly, but the same did not occur in the 5-HT2C receptor, which is associated with the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) and a transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Our results show that predator exposure induced the activation of CaMKII/CREB, which is accompanied with increased levels of histone acetylation (H3, H4) and decreased histone deacetylases (HDAC1, 2). Subsequently, in the amygdala, the transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y1 receptor were up-regulated, whereas the Y2 receptor was down-regulated. Therefore, EC facilitated a coping response against a fear associated cue in a PTSD animal model and reduced anxiety by differentially activating serotonergic and NPY-ergic systems. PMID:26016844

  4. Pharmacological characterization of EN-9, a novel chimeric peptide of endomorphin-2 and neuropeptide FF that produces potent antinociceptive activity and limited tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Long; Li, Ning; Wang, Pei; Tang, Hong-Hai; Han, Zheng-Lan; Song, Jing-Jing; Li, Xu-Hui; Yu, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Run; Xu, Biao; Zhang, Meng-Na; Fang, Quan; Wang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Mounting evidences indicate the functional interactions between neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and opioids, including the endogenous opioids. In the present work, EN-9, a chimeric peptide containing the functional domains of the endogenous opioid endomorphin-2 (EM-2) and NPFF, was synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. In vitro cAMP assay demonstrated that EN-9 was a multifunctional agonist of κ-opioid, NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors. In the mouse tail-flick test, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of EN-9 produced significant antinociception with an ED50 value of 13.44 nmol, which lasted longer than that of EM-2. In addition, EN-9 induced potent antinociception after both intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Furthermore, the experiments using the antagonists of opioid and NPFF receptors indicated that the central antinociception of EN-9 was mainly mediated by κ-opioid receptor, independently on NPFF receptors. Notably, the central antinociception of EN-9 was not reduced over a period of 6 days repeated i.c.v. injection. Repeated i.c.v. administration of EN-9 with the NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors antagonist RF9 resulted in a progressive loss of analgesic potency, consistent with the development of tolerance. Moreover, central administration of EN-9 induced the place conditioning aversion only at a high dose of 60 nmol, but not at low doses. At supraspinal level, only high dose of EN-9 (60 nmol, i.c.v.) inhibited gastrointestinal transit via NPFF receptors. Similarly, systemic administration of EN-9 also inhibited gastrointestinal transit at high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v.). Taken together, the multifunctional agonist of κ-opioid and NPFF receptors EN-9 produced a potent, non-tolerance forming antinociception with limited side effects. PMID:26970017

  5. Pharmacological characterization of EN-9, a novel chimeric peptide of endomorphin-2 and neuropeptide FF that produces potent antinociceptive activity and limited tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Long; Li, Ning; Wang, Pei; Tang, Hong-Hai; Han, Zheng-Lan; Song, Jing-Jing; Li, Xu-Hui; Yu, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Run; Xu, Biao; Zhang, Meng-Na; Fang, Quan; Wang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Mounting evidences indicate the functional interactions between neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and opioids, including the endogenous opioids. In the present work, EN-9, a chimeric peptide containing the functional domains of the endogenous opioid endomorphin-2 (EM-2) and NPFF, was synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. In vitro cAMP assay demonstrated that EN-9 was a multifunctional agonist of κ-opioid, NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors. In the mouse tail-flick test, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of EN-9 produced significant antinociception with an ED50 value of 13.44 nmol, which lasted longer than that of EM-2. In addition, EN-9 induced potent antinociception after both intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Furthermore, the experiments using the antagonists of opioid and NPFF receptors indicated that the central antinociception of EN-9 was mainly mediated by κ-opioid receptor, independently on NPFF receptors. Notably, the central antinociception of EN-9 was not reduced over a period of 6 days repeated i.c.v. injection. Repeated i.c.v. administration of EN-9 with the NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors antagonist RF9 resulted in a progressive loss of analgesic potency, consistent with the development of tolerance. Moreover, central administration of EN-9 induced the place conditioning aversion only at a high dose of 60 nmol, but not at low doses. At supraspinal level, only high dose of EN-9 (60 nmol, i.c.v.) inhibited gastrointestinal transit via NPFF receptors. Similarly, systemic administration of EN-9 also inhibited gastrointestinal transit at high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v.). Taken together, the multifunctional agonist of κ-opioid and NPFF receptors EN-9 produced a potent, non-tolerance forming antinociception with limited side effects.

  6. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A.; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. PMID:26294734

  7. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice.

    PubMed

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia.

  8. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E; Scrivens, James H; Elphick, Maurice R

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates-for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome-the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  9. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E.; Scrivens, James H.; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates–for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome–the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  10. Mini-review: the evolution of neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank

    2012-08-10

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in basal animals with primitive nervous systems such as cnidarians (Hydra, jellyfishes, corals, and sea anemones). Most animals emerging after the Cnidaria belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Protostomia (to which the majority of invertebrates belong) and Deuterostomia (to which some minor groups of invertebrates, and all vertebrates belong). These two lineages split about 700 million years (Myr) ago. Many mammalian neuropeptide GPCRs have orthologues in the Protostomia and this is also true for some of the mammalian neuropeptides. Examples are oxytocin/vasopressin, GnRH, gastrin/CCK, and neuropeptide Y and their GPCRs. These results implicate that protostomes (for example insects and nematodes) can be used as models to study the biology of neuropeptide signaling.

  11. Mini-review: the evolution of neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank

    2012-08-10

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in basal animals with primitive nervous systems such as cnidarians (Hydra, jellyfishes, corals, and sea anemones). Most animals emerging after the Cnidaria belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Protostomia (to which the majority of invertebrates belong) and Deuterostomia (to which some minor groups of invertebrates, and all vertebrates belong). These two lineages split about 700 million years (Myr) ago. Many mammalian neuropeptide GPCRs have orthologues in the Protostomia and this is also true for some of the mammalian neuropeptides. Examples are oxytocin/vasopressin, GnRH, gastrin/CCK, and neuropeptide Y and their GPCRs. These results implicate that protostomes (for example insects and nematodes) can be used as models to study the biology of neuropeptide signaling. PMID:22726357

  12. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    PubMed

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  13. Microglia-Induced Maladaptive Plasticity Can Be Modulated by Neuropeptides In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Morara, Stefano; Colangelo, Anna Maria; Provini, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Microglia-induced maladaptive plasticity is being recognized as a major cause of deleterious self-sustaining pathological processes that occur in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. Microglia, the primary homeostatic guardian of the central nervous system, exert critical functions both during development, in neural circuit reshaping, and during adult life, in the brain physiological and pathological surveillance. This delicate critical role can be disrupted by neural, but also peripheral, noxious stimuli that can prime microglia to become overreactive to a second noxious stimulus or worsen underlying pathological processes. Among regulators of microglia, neuropeptides can play a major role. Their receptors are widely expressed in microglial cells and neuropeptide challenge can potently influence microglial activity in vitro. More relevantly, this regulator activity has been assessed also in vivo, in experimental models of brain diseases. Neuropeptide action in the central nervous system has been associated with beneficial effects in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathological experimental models. This review describes some of the mechanisms of the microglia maladaptive plasticity in vivo and how neuropeptide activity can represent a useful therapeutical target in a variety of human brain pathologies. PMID:26273481

  14. Signal transduction activated by cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Laviada, Inés; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia

    2005-07-01

    Since the discovery that cannabinoids exert biological actions through binding to specific receptors, signal mechanisms triggered by these receptors have been focus of extensive study. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signalling events produced by cannabinoids from membrane receptors to downstream regulators. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified to date: CB(1) and CB(2) both belonging to the heptahelichoidal receptor family but with different tissue distribution and signalling mechanisms. Coupling to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and thus inhibition of adenylyl cyclase has been observed in both receptors but other signal transduction pathways that are regulated or not by these G proteins are differently activated upon ligand-receptor binding including ion channels, sphingomyelin hydrolysis, ceramide generation, phospholipases activation and downstream targets as MAP kinase cascade, PI3K, FAK or NOS regulation. Cannabinoids may also act independently of CB(1)or CB(2) receptors. The existence of new unidentified putative cannabinoid receptors has been claimed by many investigators. Endocannabinoids activate vanilloid TRPV1 receptors that may mediate some of the cannabinoid effects. Other actions of cannabinoids can occur through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms.

  15. Activation of the galanin receptor 2 in the periphery reverses nerve injury-induced allodynia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Galanin is expressed at low levels in the intact sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia with a dramatic increase after peripheral nerve injury. The neuropeptide is also expressed in primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn, spinal inter-neurons and in a number of brain regions known to modulate nociception. Intrathecal administration of galanin modulates sensory responses in a dose-dependent manner with inhibition at high doses. To date it is unclear which of the galanin receptors mediates the anti-nociceptive effects of the neuropeptide and whether their actions are peripherally and/or centrally mediated. In the present study we investigated the effects of direct administration into the receptive field of galanin and the galanin receptor-2/3-agonist Gal2-11 on nociceptive primary afferent mechanical responses in intact rats and mice and in the partial saphenous nerve injury (PSNI) model of neuropathic pain. Results Exogenous galanin altered the responses of mechano-nociceptive C-fibre afferents in a dose-dependent manner in both naive and nerve injured animals, with low concentrations facilitating and high concentrations markedly inhibiting mechano-nociceptor activity. Further, use of the galanin fragment Gal2-11 confirmed that the effects of galanin were mediated by activation of galanin receptor-2 (GalR2). The inhibitory effects of peripheral GalR2 activation were further supported by our demonstration that after PSNI, mechano-sensitive nociceptors in galanin over-expressing transgenic mice had significantly higher thresholds than in wild type animals, associated with a marked reduction in spontaneous neuronal firing and C-fibre barrage into the spinal cord. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the high level of endogenous galanin in injured primary afferents activates peripheral GalR2, which leads to an increase in C-fibre mechanical activation thresholds and a marked reduction in evoked and ongoing nociceptive

  16. QRFP and Its Receptors Regulate Locomotor Activity and Sleep in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Audrey; Chiu, Cindy N.; Mosser, Eric A.; Kahn, Sohini; Spence, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus plays an important role in regulating sleep, but few hypothalamic sleep-promoting signaling pathways have been identified. Here we demonstrate a role for the neuropeptide QRFP (also known as P518 and 26RFa) and its receptors in regulating sleep in zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate. We show that QRFP is expressed in ∼10 hypothalamic neurons in zebrafish larvae, which project to the hypothalamus, hindbrain, and spinal cord, including regions that express the two zebrafish QRFP receptor paralogs. We find that the overexpression of QRFP inhibits locomotor activity during the day, whereas mutation of qrfp or its receptors results in increased locomotor activity and decreased sleep during the day. Despite the restriction of these phenotypes to the day, the circadian clock does not regulate qrfp expression, and entrained circadian rhythms are not required for QRFP-induced rest. Instead, we find that QRFP overexpression decreases locomotor activity largely in a light-specific manner. Our results suggest that QRFP signaling plays an important role in promoting sleep and may underlie some aspects of hypothalamic sleep control. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hypothalamus is thought to play a key role in regulating sleep in vertebrate animals, but few sleep-promoting signaling pathways that function in the hypothalamus have been identified. Here we use the zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, to functionally and anatomically characterize the neuropeptide QRFP. We show that QRFP is exclusively expressed in a small number of neurons in the larval zebrafish hypothalamus that project widely in the brain. We also show that QRFP overexpression reduces locomotor activity, whereas animals that lack QRFP signaling are more active and sleep less. These results suggest that QRFP signaling participates in the hypothalamic regulation of sleep. PMID:26865608

  17. Maturation of suprathreshold auditory nerve activity involves cochlear CGRP-receptor complex formation.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Ian M; Bussey-Gaborski, Rhiannon; Holt, Joseph C; Jordan, Paivi M; Luebke, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    In adult animals, the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is contained in cochlear efferent fibers projecting out to the cochlea, and contributes to increased suprathreshold sound-evoked activity in the adult auditory nerve. Similarly, CGRP applied to the lateral-line organ (hair cell organ) increases afferent nerve activity in adult frogs (post-metamorphic day 30), yet this increase is developmentally delayed from post-metamorphic day 4-30. In this study, we discovered that there was also a developmental delay in increased suprathreshold sound-evoked activity auditory nerve between juvenile and adult mice similar to what had been observed previously in frog. Moreover, juvenile mice with a targeted deletion of the αCGRP gene [CGRP null (-/-)] did not show a similar developmental increase in nerve activity, suggesting CGRP signaling is involved. This developmental delay is not due to a delay in CGRP expression, but instead is due to a delay in receptor formation. We observed that the increase in sound-evoked nerve activity is correlated with increased formation of cochlear CGRP receptors, which require three complexed proteins (CLR, RAMP1, RCP) to be functional. CGRP receptor formation in the cochlea was incomplete at 1 month of age (juvenile), but complete by 3 months (adult), which corresponded to the onset of suprathreshold enhancement of sound-evoked activity in wild-type animals. Taken together, these data support a model for cochlear function that is enhanced by maturation of CGRP receptor complexes. PMID:27440744

  18. Gene expression changes in serotonin, GABA-A receptors, neuropeptides and ion channels in the dorsal raphe nucleus of adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats following binge-like alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    McClintick, Jeanette N; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Edenberg, Howard J

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol binge-drinking during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of excessive adolescent ethanol binge-drinking on gene expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of alcohol preferring (P) rats. Repeated binges across adolescence (three 1h sessions across the dark-cycle per day, 5 days per week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session) significantly altered the expression of approximately one-third of the detected genes. Multiple neurotransmitter systems were altered, with the largest changes in the serotonin system (21 of 23 serotonin-related genes showed decreased expression) and GABA-A receptors (8 decreased and 2 increased). Multiple neuropeptide systems were also altered, with changes in the neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone systems similar to those associated with increased drinking and decreased resistance to stress. There was increased expression of 21 of 32 genes for potassium channels. Expression of downstream targets of CREB signaling was increased. There were also changes in expression of genes involved in inflammatory processes, axonal guidance, growth factors, transcription factors, and several intracellular signaling pathways. These widespread changes indicate that excessive binge drinking during adolescence alters the functioning of the DRN and likely its modulation of many regions of the central nervous system, including the mesocorticolimbic system.

  19. Gene expression changes in serotonin, GABA-A receptors, neuropeptides and ion channels in the dorsal raphe nucleus of adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats following binge-like alcohol drinking

    PubMed Central

    McClintick, Jeanette N.; McBride, William J.; Bell, Richard L.; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Edenberg, Howard J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol binge-drinking during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of excessive adolescent ethanol binge-drinking on gene expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of alcohol preferring (P) rats. Repeated binges across adolescence (three 1h sessions across the dark-cycle per day, 5 days per week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5 – 3 g/kg/session) significantly altered the expression of approximately one-third of the detected genes. Multiple neurotransmitter systems were altered, with the largest changes in the serotonin system (21 of 23 serotonin-related genes showed decreased expression) and GABA-A receptors (8 decreased and 2 increased). Multiple neuropeptide systems were also altered, with changes in the neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone systems similar to those associated with increased drinking and decreased resistance to stress. There was increased expression of 21 of 32 genes for potassium channels. Expression of downstream targets of CREB signaling was increased. There were also changes in expression of genes involved in inflammatory processes, axonal guidance, growth factors, transcription factors, and several intracellular signaling pathways. These widespread changes indicate that excessive binge drinking during adolescence alters the functioning of the DRN and likely its modulation of many regions of the central nervous system, including the mesocorticolimbic system. PMID:25542586

  20. Neuropeptides function in a homeostatic manner to modulate excitation-inhibition imbalance in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Stawicki, Tamara M; Takayanagi-Kiya, Seika; Zhou, Keming; Jin, Yishi

    2013-05-01

    Neuropeptides play crucial roles in modulating neuronal networks, including changing intrinsic properties of neurons and synaptic efficacy. We previously reported a Caenorhabditis elegans mutant, acr-2(gf), that displays spontaneous convulsions as the result of a gain-of-function mutation in a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. The ACR-2 channel is expressed in the cholinergic motor neurons, and acr-2(gf) causes cholinergic overexcitation accompanied by reduced GABAergic inhibition in the locomotor circuit. Here we show that neuropeptides play a homeostatic role that compensates for this excitation-inhibition imbalance in the locomotor circuit. Loss of function in genes required for neuropeptide processing or release of dense core vesicles specifically modulate the convulsion frequency of acr-2(gf). The proprotein convertase EGL-3 is required in the cholinergic motor neurons to restrain convulsions. Electrophysiological recordings of neuromuscular junctions show that loss of egl-3 in acr-2(gf) causes a further reduction of GABAergic inhibition. We identify two neuropeptide encoding genes, flp-1 and flp-18, that together counteract the excitation-inhibition imbalance in acr-2(gf) mutants. We further find that acr-2(gf) causes an increased expression of flp-18 in the ventral cord cholinergic motor neurons and that overexpression of flp-18 reduces the convulsion of acr-2(gf) mutants. The effects of these peptides are in part mediated by two G-protein coupled receptors, NPR-1 and NPR-5. Our data suggest that the chronic overexcitation of the cholinergic motor neurons imposed by acr-2(gf) leads to an increased production of FMRFamide neuropeptides, which act to decrease the activity level of the locomotor circuit, thereby homeostatically modulating the excitation and inhibition imbalance.

  1. Role of Tachykinin 1 and 4 Gene-Derived Neuropeptides and the Neurokinin 1 Receptor in Adjuvant-Induced Chronic Arthritis of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Borbély, Éva; Hajna, Zsófia; Sándor, Katalin; Kereskai, László; Tóth, István; Pintér, Erika; Nagy, Péter; Szolcsányi, János; Quinn, John; Zimmer, Andreas; Stewart, James; Paige, Christopher; Berger, Alexandra; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Objective Substance P, encoded by the Tac1 gene, is involved in neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia via neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor activation. Its non-neuronal counterpart, hemokinin-1, which is derived from the Tac4 gene, is also a potent NK1 agonist. Although hemokinin-1 has been described as a tachykinin of distinct origin and function compared to SP, its role in inflammatory and pain processes has not yet been elucidated in such detail. In this study, we analysed the involvement of tachykinins derived from the Tac1 and Tac4 genes, as well as the NK1 receptor in chronic arthritis of the mouse. Methods Complete Freund’s Adjuvant was injected intraplantarly and into the tail of Tac1−/−, Tac4−/−, Tacr1−/− (NK1 receptor deficient) and Tac1−/−/Tac4−/− mice. Paw volume was measured by plethysmometry and mechanosensitivity using dynamic plantar aesthesiometry over a time period of 21 days. Semiquantitative histopathological scoring and ELISA measurement of IL-1β concentrations of the tibiotarsal joints were performed. Results Mechanical hyperalgesia was significantly reduced from day 11 in Tac4−/− and Tacr1−/− animals, while paw swelling was not altered in any strain. Inflammatory histopathological alterations (synovial swelling, leukocyte infiltration, cartilage destruction, bone damage) and IL-1β concentration in the joint homogenates were significantly smaller in Tac4−/− and Tac1−/−/Tac4−/− mice. Conclusions Hemokinin-1, but not substance P increases inflammation and hyperalgesia in the late phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis. While NK1 receptors mediate its antihyperalgesic actions, the involvement of another receptor in histopathological changes and IL-1β production is suggested. PMID:23626716

  2. Role of neuropeptides in anxiety, stress, and depression: from animals to humans.

    PubMed

    Kormos, Viktória; Gaszner, Balázs

    2013-12-01

    Major depression, with its strikingly high prevalence, is the most common cause of disability in communities of Western type, according to data of the World Health Organization. Stress-related mood disorders, besides their deleterious effects on the patient itself, also challenge the healthcare systems with their great social and economic impact. Our knowledge on the neurobiology of these conditions is less than sufficient as exemplified by the high proportion of patients who do not respond to currently available medications targeting monoaminergic systems. The search for new therapeutical strategies became therefore a "hot topic" in neuroscience, and there is a large body of evidence suggesting that brain neuropeptides not only participate is stress physiology, but they may also have clinical relevance. Based on data obtained in animal studies, neuropeptides and their receptors might be targeted by new candidate neuropharmacons with the hope that they will become important and effective tools in the management of stress related mood disorders. In this review, we attempt to summarize the latest evidence obtained using animal models for mood disorders, genetically modified rodent models for anxiety and depression, and we will pay some attention to previously published clinical data on corticotropin releasing factor, urocortin 1, urocortin 2, urocortin 3, arginine-vasopressin, neuropeptide Y, pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide, neuropeptide S, oxytocin, substance P and galanin fields of stress research.

  3. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons.

    PubMed

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Pírez, Nicolás; Griffith, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Neuropeptides have widespread effects on behavior, but how these molecules alter the activity of their target cells is poorly understood. We employed a new model system in Drosophila melanogaster to assess the electrophysiological and molecular effects of neuropeptides, recording in situ from larval motor neurons, which transgenically express a receptor of choice. We focused on two neuropeptides, pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and small neuropeptide F (sNPF), which play important roles in sleep/rhythms and feeding/metabolism. PDF treatment depolarized motor neurons expressing the PDF receptor (PDFR), increasing excitability. sNPF treatment had the opposite effect, hyperpolarizing neurons expressing the sNPF receptor (sNPFR). Live optical imaging using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor for cyclic AMP (cAMP) showed that PDF induced a large increase in cAMP, whereas sNPF caused a small but significant decrease in cAMP. Coexpression of pertussis toxin or RNAi interference to disrupt the G-protein Gαo blocked the electrophysiological responses to sNPF, showing that sNPFR acts via Gαo signaling. Using a fluorescent sensor for intracellular calcium, we observed that sNPF-induced hyperpolarization blocked spontaneous waves of activity propagating along the ventral nerve cord, demonstrating that the electrical effects of sNPF can cause profound changes in natural network activity in the brain. This new model system provides a platform for mechanistic analysis of how neuropeptides can affect target cells at the electrical and molecular level, allowing for predictions of how they regulate brain circuits that control behaviors such as sleep and feeding.

  4. Comparative potency of some extended peptide chain members of the RFamide neuropeptide family, assessed on the hearts of Busycon canaliculatum and Buccinum undatum.

    PubMed

    Moulis, A; Huddart, H; Hill, R B

    2003-11-01

    Twenty different RFamide neuropeptide analogues were examined for their relative potencies on the ventricles of Busycon canaliculatum and Buccinum undatum and on the atrium of Busycon to determine the essential requirements for activity at the RFamide receptor. None of the neuropeptide studies was inhibitory to natural cardiac rhythmicity or to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)) or FLRFamide (Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2)) responses. Two tripeptides studied were completely without effect, indicating that a minimum of four amino acids in the peptide chain length was essential for any activity. The original parent tetrapeptide FMRFamide was surprisingly less potent than many of the extended chain peptides such as the penta, hepta and decapeptides. These RFamide neuropeptides were strongly inotropic on both ventricles and the atrium, while on the latter they were strongly chronotropic despite several of these peptides being of a non-molluscan origin. Chain length seems to be of little importance for activity at the receptor. Surprisingly, SCP(B) (small cardioactive Peptide B) was not very effective in either Busycon or Buccinum ventricle. What was also clear was that the configuration of the carboxyl terminal was important for activity. Two neuropeptides in this study possessed an Arg-Met carboxyl terminal and were much less effective than FMRFamide, suggesting that an Arg-Phe terminal is most effective in receptor activation. PMID:12937940

  5. Comparative potency of some extended peptide chain members of the RFamide neuropeptide family, assessed on the hearts of Busycon canaliculatum and Buccinum undatum.

    PubMed

    Moulis, A; Huddart, H; Hill, R B

    2003-11-01

    Twenty different RFamide neuropeptide analogues were examined for their relative potencies on the ventricles of Busycon canaliculatum and Buccinum undatum and on the atrium of Busycon to determine the essential requirements for activity at the RFamide receptor. None of the neuropeptide studies was inhibitory to natural cardiac rhythmicity or to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)) or FLRFamide (Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2)) responses. Two tripeptides studied were completely without effect, indicating that a minimum of four amino acids in the peptide chain length was essential for any activity. The original parent tetrapeptide FMRFamide was surprisingly less potent than many of the extended chain peptides such as the penta, hepta and decapeptides. These RFamide neuropeptides were strongly inotropic on both ventricles and the atrium, while on the latter they were strongly chronotropic despite several of these peptides being of a non-molluscan origin. Chain length seems to be of little importance for activity at the receptor. Surprisingly, SCP(B) (small cardioactive Peptide B) was not very effective in either Busycon or Buccinum ventricle. What was also clear was that the configuration of the carboxyl terminal was important for activity. Two neuropeptides in this study possessed an Arg-Met carboxyl terminal and were much less effective than FMRFamide, suggesting that an Arg-Phe terminal is most effective in receptor activation.

  6. Drosulfakinin activates CCKLR-17D1 and promotes larval locomotion and escape response in Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are ubiquitous in both mammals and invertebrates and play essential roles in regulation and modulation of many developmental and physiological processes through activation of G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs). However, the mechanisms by which many of the neuropeptides regulate speci...

  7. Neuropeptide feedback modifies odor-evoked dynamics in C. elegans olfactory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Sreekanth H.; Kato, Saul; Albrecht, Dirk R.; Nakagawa, Takao; Abbott, L. F.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2010-01-01

    Many neurons release classical transmitters together with neuropeptide cotransmitters whose functions are incompletely understood. Here we define the relationship between two transmitters in the olfactory system of Caenorhabditis elegans, showing that a neuropeptide-to-neuropeptide feedback loop alters sensory dynamics in primary olfactory neurons. The AWC olfactory neuron is glutamatergic and also expresses the peptide NLP-1. nlp-1 mutants have increased AWC-dependent behaviors, suggesting that NLP-1 limits the normal response. The receptor for NLP-1 is the G protein-coupled receptor NPR-11, which acts in postsynaptic AIA interneurons. Feedback from AIA interneurons modulates odor-evoked calcium dynamics in AWC olfactory neurons and requires INS-1, a neuropeptide released from AIA. The neuropeptide feedback loop dampens behavioral responses to odors on short and long timescales. Our results point to neuronal dynamics as a site of behavioral regulation and reveal the ability of neuropeptide feedback to remodel sensory networks on multiple timescales. PMID:20364145

  8. Short neuropeptide F is a sleep-promoting inhibitory modulator

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuhua; Donelson, Nathan C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.; Guo, Fang; Rosbash, Michael; Griffith, Leslie C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY To advance the understanding of sleep regulation, we screened for sleep-promoting cells and identified neurons expressing neuropeptide Y-like short neuropeptide F (sNPF). Sleep-induction by sNPF meets all relevant criteria. Rebound sleep following sleep deprivation is reduced by activation of sNPF neurons and flies even experience negative sleep rebound upon cessation of sNPF neuronal stimulation, indicating that sNPF provides an important signal to the sleep homeostat. Only a subset of sNPF-expressing neurons, which includes the small ventrolateral clock neurons, is sleep-promoting. Their release of sNPF increases sleep consolidation in part by suppressing the activity of wake-promoting large ventrolateral clock neurons, and suppression of neuronal firing may be the general response to sNPF receptor activation. sNPF acutely increases sleep without altering feeding behavior, which it affects only on a much longer time scale. The profound effect of sNPF on sleep indicates that it is an important sleep-promoting molecule. PMID:24094110

  9. Neuropeptides in cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1984-12-01

    Neuropeptides can affect cardiovascular function in various ways. They can serve as cotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system; for example, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is released with acetylcholine and neuropeptide Y with norepinephrine from postganglionic neurons. Substance P and, presumably, other peptides can can affect cardiovascular function when released near blood vessels by antidromically conducted impulses in branches of stimulated sensory neurons. In the central nervous system, many different neuropeptides appear to function as transmitters or contransmittes in the neural pathways that regulate the cardiovascular system. In addition neuropeptides such as vasopressin and angiotensin II also circulate as hormones that are involved in cardiovascular control. Large doses of exogenous vasopressin are required to increase blood pressure in normal animals because the increase in total peripheral resistance produced by the hormones is accompanied by a decrease in cardiac output. However, studies with synthetic peptides that selectively antagonize the vasopressor action of vasopressin indicate that circulating vasopressin is important in maintaining blood pressure when animals are hypovolemic due to dehydration, haemorrhage or adrenocortical insufficiency. VIP dilates blood vessels and stimulates renin secretion by a direct action on the juxtaglomerular cells. Renin secretion is stimulated when the concentration of VIP in plasma exceeds 75 pmol/litre, and higher values are seen in a number of conditions. Neostigmine, a drug which increases the secretion of endogenous VIP, also increases renin secretion, and this increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Thus, VIP may be a physiologically significant renin stimulating hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. FLP-4 neuropeptide and its receptor in a neuronal circuit regulate preference choice through functions of ASH-2 trithorax complex in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yonglin; Zhi, Lingtong; Guan, Xiangmin; Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Preference choice on food is an important response strategy for animals living in the environment. Using assay system of preference choice on bacterial foods, OP50 and PA14, we identified the involvement of ADL sensory neurons in the control of preference choice in Caenorhabditis elegans. Both genetically silencing and ChR2-mediated activation of ADL sensory neurons significantly affected preference choice. ADL regulated preference choice by inhibiting function of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)/SRH-220. ADL sensory neurons might regulate preference choice through peptidergic signals of FLP-4 and NLP-10, and function of FLP-4 or NLP-10 in regulating preference choice was regulated by SRH-220. FLP-4 released from ADL sensory neurons further regulated preference choice through its receptor of NPR-4 in AIB interneurons. In AIB interneurons, NPR-4 was involved in the control of preference choice by activating the functions of ASH-2 trithorax complex consisting of SET-2, ASH-2, and WDR-5, implying the crucial role of molecular machinery of trimethylation of histone H3K4 in the preference choice control. The identified novel neuronal circuit and the underlying molecular mechanisms will strengthen our understanding neuronal basis of preference choice in animals. PMID:26887501

  11. FLP-4 neuropeptide and its receptor in a neuronal circuit regulate preference choice through functions of ASH-2 trithorax complex in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yonglin; Zhi, Lingtong; Guan, Xiangmin; Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong

    2016-02-18

    Preference choice on food is an important response strategy for animals living in the environment. Using assay system of preference choice on bacterial foods, OP50 and PA14, we identified the involvement of ADL sensory neurons in the control of preference choice in Caenorhabditis elegans. Both genetically silencing and ChR2-mediated activation of ADL sensory neurons significantly affected preference choice. ADL regulated preference choice by inhibiting function of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)/SRH-220. ADL sensory neurons might regulate preference choice through peptidergic signals of FLP-4 and NLP-10, and function of FLP-4 or NLP-10 in regulating preference choice was regulated by SRH-220. FLP-4 released from ADL sensory neurons further regulated preference choice through its receptor of NPR-4 in AIB interneurons. In AIB interneurons, NPR-4 was involved in the control of preference choice by activating the functions of ASH-2 trithorax complex consisting of SET-2, ASH-2, and WDR-5, implying the crucial role of molecular machinery of trimethylation of histone H3K4 in the preference choice control. The identified novel neuronal circuit and the underlying molecular mechanisms will strengthen our understanding neuronal basis of preference choice in animals.

  12. FLP-4 neuropeptide and its receptor in a neuronal circuit regulate preference choice through functions of ASH-2 trithorax complex in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yonglin; Zhi, Lingtong; Guan, Xiangmin; Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Preference choice on food is an important response strategy for animals living in the environment. Using assay system of preference choice on bacterial foods, OP50 and PA14, we identified the involvement of ADL sensory neurons in the control of preference choice in Caenorhabditis elegans. Both genetically silencing and ChR2-mediated activation of ADL sensory neurons significantly affected preference choice. ADL regulated preference choice by inhibiting function of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)/SRH-220. ADL sensory neurons might regulate preference choice through peptidergic signals of FLP-4 and NLP-10, and function of FLP-4 or NLP-10 in regulating preference choice was regulated by SRH-220. FLP-4 released from ADL sensory neurons further regulated preference choice through its receptor of NPR-4 in AIB interneurons. In AIB interneurons, NPR-4 was involved in the control of preference choice by activating the functions of ASH-2 trithorax complex consisting of SET-2, ASH-2, and WDR-5, implying the crucial role of molecular machinery of trimethylation of histone H3K4 in the preference choice control. The identified novel neuronal circuit and the underlying molecular mechanisms will strengthen our understanding neuronal basis of preference choice in animals. PMID:26887501

  13. The roles of neuropeptides in Caenorhabditis elegans including their importance in the regulation of feeding and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    C. elegans has 302 neurons (in the adult hermaphrodite) and this simple nervous system harbours over 250 neuropeptides. Neuropeptides are a class of signalling molecule implicated in key physiological roles and thus confer a surprising level of complexity to signalling in this nematode. Indeed, it is probable that most, if not all, sensory, motor and interneurons, in C. elegans synthesise and release at least one neuropeptide but that many neurons synthesise an array of neuropeptides. In this review neuropeptides and their receptors with specific roles in feeding, metabolism, reproduction and locomotion are discussed. It is noted that the majority of C. elegans neuropeptides do not yet have defined roles and their cognate receptors have not yet been identified. Future studies will serve to provide further fundamental insight into how neuropeptide signalling can underpin animal behaviour.

  14. Using Nuclear Receptor Activity to Stratify Hepatocarcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Imran; Houck, Keith; Judson, Richard S.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Martin, Matthew T.; Reif, David M.; Wambaugh, John; Dix, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nuclear receptors (NR) are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that control a range of cellular processes. Persistent stimulation of some NR is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. Here we report on a systematic analysis of new in vitro human NR activity data on 309 environmental chemicals in relationship to their liver cancer-related chronic outcomes in rodents. Results The effects of 309 environmental chemicals on human constitutive androstane receptors (CAR/NR1I3), pregnane X receptor (PXR/NR1I2), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR/NR1C), liver X receptors (LXR/NR1H), retinoic X receptors (RXR/NR2B) and steroid receptors (SR/NR3) were determined using in vitro data. Hepatic histopathology, observed in rodents after two years of chronic treatment for 171 of the 309 chemicals, was summarized by a cancer lesion progression grade. Chemicals that caused proliferative liver lesions in both rat and mouse were generally more active for the human receptors, relative to the compounds that only affected one rodent species, and these changes were significant for PPAR (p0.001), PXR (p0.01) and CAR (p0.05). Though most chemicals exhibited receptor promiscuity, multivariate analysis clustered them into relatively few NR activity combinations. The human NR activity pattern of chemicals weakly associated with the severity of rodent liver cancer lesion progression (p0.05). Conclusions The rodent carcinogens had higher in vitro potency for human NR relative to non-carcinogens. Structurally diverse chemicals with similar NR promiscuity patterns weakly associated with the severity of rodent liver cancer progression. While these results do not prove the role of NR activation in human liver cancer, they do have implications for nuclear receptor chemical biology and provide insights into putative toxicity pathways. More importantly, these findings suggest the

  15. Neuropeptidergic Signaling and Active Feeding State Inhibit Nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ezcurra, Marina; Walker, Denise S.; Beets, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and nutritional status are important cues affecting behavioral states. Here we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a cascade of dopamine and neuropeptide signaling acts to inhibit nociception in food-poor environments. In the absence of food, animals show decreased sensitivity and increased adaptation to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH nociceptors. The effects of food on adaptation are affected by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling; dopamine acts via the DOP-1 receptor to decrease adaptation on food, whereas the neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 act to increase adaptation off food. NPR-1 and NPR-2 function cell autonomously in the ASH neurons to increase adaptation off food, whereas the DOP-1 receptor controls neuropeptide release from interneurons that modulate ASH activity indirectly. These results indicate that feeding state modulates nociception through the interaction of monoamine and neuropeptide signaling pathways. PMID:26985027

  16. Neuropeptidergic Signaling and Active Feeding State Inhibit Nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Marina; Walker, Denise S; Beets, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter; Schafer, William R

    2016-03-16

    Food availability and nutritional status are important cues affecting behavioral states. Here we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a cascade of dopamine and neuropeptide signaling acts to inhibit nociception in food-poor environments. In the absence of food, animals show decreased sensitivity and increased adaptation to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH nociceptors. The effects of food on adaptation are affected by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling; dopamine acts via the DOP-1 receptor to decrease adaptation on food, whereas the neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 act to increase adaptation off food. NPR-1 and NPR-2 function cell autonomously in the ASH neurons to increase adaptation off food, whereas the DOP-1 receptor controls neuropeptide release from interneurons that modulate ASH activity indirectly. These results indicate that feeding state modulates nociception through the interaction of monoamine and neuropeptide signaling pathways.

  17. Neuropeptidergic Signaling and Active Feeding State Inhibit Nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Marina; Walker, Denise S; Beets, Isabel; Swoboda, Peter; Schafer, William R

    2016-03-16

    Food availability and nutritional status are important cues affecting behavioral states. Here we report that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a cascade of dopamine and neuropeptide signaling acts to inhibit nociception in food-poor environments. In the absence of food, animals show decreased sensitivity and increased adaptation to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH nociceptors. The effects of food on adaptation are affected by dopamine and neuropeptide signaling; dopamine acts via the DOP-1 receptor to decrease adaptation on food, whereas the neuropeptide receptors NPR-1 and NPR-2 act to increase adaptation off food. NPR-1 and NPR-2 function cell autonomously in the ASH neurons to increase adaptation off food, whereas the DOP-1 receptor controls neuropeptide release from interneurons that modulate ASH activity indirectly. These results indicate that feeding state modulates nociception through the interaction of monoamine and neuropeptide signaling pathways. PMID:26985027

  18. Sensory Neurons Arouse C. elegans Locomotion via Both Glutamate and Neuropeptide Release

    PubMed Central

    Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Hu, Zhitao; Schafer, William R.; Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans undergoes periods of behavioral quiescence during larval molts (termed lethargus) and as adults. Little is known about the circuit mechanisms that establish these quiescent states. Lethargus and adult locomotion quiescence is dramatically reduced in mutants lacking the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1. Here, we show that the aroused locomotion of npr-1 mutants results from the exaggerated activity in multiple classes of sensory neurons, including nociceptive (ASH), touch sensitive (ALM and PLM), and stretch sensing (DVA) neurons. These sensory neurons accelerate locomotion via both neuropeptide and glutamate release. The relative contribution of these sensory neurons to arousal differs between larval molts and adults. Our results suggest that a broad network of sensory neurons dictates transitions between aroused and quiescent behavioral states. PMID:26154367

  19. [Neuropeptides, Cytokines and Thymus Peptides as Effectors of Interactions Between Thymus and Neuroendocrine System].

    PubMed

    Torkhovskaya, T I; Belova, O V; Zimina, I V; Kryuchkova, A V; Moskvina, S N; Bystrova, O V; Arion, V Ya; Sergienko, V I

    2015-01-01

    The review presents data on mutual influence of nervous system and thymus, realized through the neuroendocrine-immune interactions. The pres- ence of adrenergic and peptidergic nerves in thymus creates conditions for implementation of the effect of neuropeptides secreted by them. These neuropeptides induce activation of thymus cells receptors and influence on the main processes in thymus, including T-lymphocyte maturation, cytokine and hormones production. In turn, thymuspeptides and/or cytokines, controlled by them, enter the brain and exert influence on neuro- nalfunction, which creates the basis for changes of behavior and homeostasis maintenance in response to infection. Ageing and some infectious, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and cancer diseases are accompanied by distortion of interactions between thymus and central nervous system. Mechanisms of signaling pathways, which determine these interactions, are not revealed yet, and their understanding will promote the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  20. Phylogenetic appearance of Neuropeptide S precursor proteins in tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Reinscheid, Rainer K.

    2007-01-01

    Sleep and emotional behavior are two hallmarks of vertebrate animal behavior, implying that specialized neuronal circuits and dedicated neurochemical messengers may have been developed during evolution to regulate such complex behaviors. Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a newly identified peptide transmitter that activates a typical G protein-coupled receptor. Central administration of NPS produces profound arousal, enhances wakefulness and suppresses all stages of sleep. In addition, NPS can alleviate behavioral responses to stress by producing anxiolytic-like effects. A bioinformatic analysis of current genome databases revealed that the NPS peptide precursor gene is present in all vertebrates with the exception of fish. A high level of sequence conservation, especially of aminoterminal structures was detected, indicating stringent requirements for agonist-induced receptor activation. Duplication of the NPS precursor gene was only found in one out of two marsupial species with sufficient genome coverage (Monodelphis domestica; opossum), indicating that the duplicated opossum NPS sequence might have arisen as an isolated event. Pharmacological analysis of both Monodelphis NPS peptides revealed that only the closely related NPS peptide retained agonistic activity at NPS receptors. The duplicated precursor might be either a pseudogene or could have evolved different receptor selectivity. Together, these data show that NPS is a relatively recent gene in vertebrate evolution whose appearance might coincide with its specialized physiological functions in terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:17293003

  1. ProSAAS-derived peptides are colocalized with neuropeptide Y and function as neuropeptides in the regulation of food intake.

    PubMed

    Wardman, Jonathan H; Berezniuk, Iryna; Di, Shi; Tasker, Jeffrey G; Fricker, Lloyd D

    2011-01-01

    ProSAAS is the precursor of a number of peptides that have been proposed to function as neuropeptides. Because proSAAS mRNA is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, we examined the cellular localization of several proSAAS-derived peptides in the mouse hypothalamus and found that they generally colocalized with neuropeptide Y (NPY), but not α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. However, unlike proNPY mRNA, which is upregulated by food deprivation in the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither proSAAS mRNA nor proSAAS-derived peptides were significantly altered by 1-2 days of food deprivation in wild-type mice. Furthermore, while proSAAS mRNA levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus were significantly lower in Cpe(fat/fat) mice as compared to wild-type littermates, proNPY mRNA levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus and in other subregions of the hypothalamus were not significantly different between wild-type and Cpe(fat/fat) mice. Intracerebroventricular injections of antibodies to two proSAAS-derived peptides (big LEN and PEN) significantly reduced food intake in fasted mice, while injections of antibodies to two other proSAAS-derived peptides (little LEN and little SAAS) did not. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of parvocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, a target of arcuate NPY projections, showed that big LEN produced a rapid and reversible inhibition of synaptic glutamate release that was spike independent and abolished by blocking postsynaptic G protein activity, suggesting the involvement of a postsynaptic G protein-coupled receptor and the release of a retrograde synaptic messenger. Taken together with previous studies, these findings support a role for proSAAS-derived peptides such as big LEN as neuropeptides regulating food intake.

  2. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise. PMID:26725515

  3. More than two decades of research on insect neuropeptide GPCRs: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Caers, Jelle; Verlinden, Heleen; Zels, Sven; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Vuerinckx, Kristel; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the state of the art on neuropeptide receptors in insects. Most of these receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are involved in the regulation of virtually all physiological processes during an insect's life. More than 20 years ago a milestone in invertebrate endocrinology was achieved with the characterization of the first insect neuropeptide receptor, i.e., the Drosophila tachykinin-like receptor. However, it took until the release of the Drosophila genome in 2000 that research on neuropeptide receptors boosted. In the last decade a plethora of genomic information of other insect species also became available, leading to a better insight in the functions and evolution of the neuropeptide signaling systems and their intracellular pathways. It became clear that some of these systems are conserved among all insect species, indicating that they fulfill crucial roles in their physiological processes. Meanwhile, other signaling systems seem to be lost in several insect orders or species, suggesting that their actions were superfluous in those insects, or that other neuropeptides have taken over their functions. It is striking that the deorphanization of neuropeptide GPCRs gets much attention, but the subsequent unraveling of the intracellular pathways they elicit, or their physiological functions are often hardly examined. Especially in insects besides Drosophila this information is scarce if not absent. And although great progress made in characterizing neuropeptide signaling systems, even in Drosophila several predicted neuropeptide receptors remain orphan, awaiting for their endogenous ligand to be determined. The present review gives a précis of the insect neuropeptide receptor research of the last two decades. But it has to be emphasized that the work done so far is only the tip of the iceberg and our comprehensive understanding of these important signaling systems will still increase substantially in the coming years. PMID

  4. The Evolution and Variety of RFamide-Type Neuropeptides: Insights from Deuterostomian Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Elphick, Maurice R.; Mirabeau, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Five families of neuropeptides that have a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified in vertebrates: (1) gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), (2) neuropeptide FF (NPFF), (3) pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide (QRFP), (4) prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), and (5) Kisspeptin. Experimental demonstration of neuropeptide–receptor pairings combined with comprehensive analysis of genomic and/or transcriptomic sequence data indicate that, with the exception of the deuterostomian PrRP system, the evolutionary origins of these neuropeptides can be traced back to the common ancestor of bilaterians. Here, we review the occurrence of homologs of vertebrate RFamide-type neuropeptides and their receptors in deuterostomian invertebrates – urochordates, cephalochordates, hemichordates, and echinoderms. Extending analysis of the occurrence of the RFamide motif in other bilaterian neuropeptide families reveals RFamide-type peptides that have acquired modified C-terminal characteristics in the vertebrate lineage (e.g., NPY/NPF), neuropeptide families where the RFamide motif is unique to protostomian members (e.g., CCK/sulfakinins), and RFamide-type peptides that have been lost in the vertebrate lineage (e.g., luqins). Furthermore, the RFamide motif is also a feature of neuropeptide families with a more restricted phylogenetic distribution (e.g., the prototypical FMRFamide-related neuropeptides in protostomes). Thus, the RFamide motif is both an ancient and a convergent feature of neuropeptides, with conservation, acquisition, or loss of this motif occurring in different branches of the animal kingdom. PMID:24994999

  5. Monoaminergic activity in subregions of raphé nuclei elicited by prior stress and the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor.

    PubMed

    Summers, C H; Kampshoff, J L; Ronan, P J; Lowry, C A; Prestbo, A A; Korzan, W J; Renner, K J

    2003-12-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates neuroendocrine responses to stressful stimuli; one mechanism through which CRF may modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is via actions on neuromodulatory systems such as serotonergic systems. Recent electrophysiological studies and the distribution of CRF receptors within midbrain and pontine raphé nuclei suggest that stress and CRF may have actions on topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurones. We compared the effects of vehicle or intracerebroventricular r/hCRF injections (0, 0.1, 1 or 10 micro g) in rats previously maintained in home cages or restrained for 1 h, 24 h before injection, on monoamine and monoamine metabolite tissue concentrations in the dorsal (lateral wings, rostral midline, caudal midline), median (rostral, caudal) and interfascicular raphé subdivisions of the midbrain and pontine raphé nuclei, using brain microdissection and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. At the lowest dose studied (0.1 micro g), CRF infusions in previously stressed rats decreased 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations only within the rostral median raphé nucleus. At higher doses, CRF infusions in previously stressed rats increased tissue concentrations of 5-HTP, serotonin (5-HT), or the serotonin metabolite, 5-HIAA, within rostral (but not caudal) regions of the median and dorsal raphé nuclei. By contrast, restraint stress alone had no effect on tissue concentrations of 5-HTP, 5-HT or 5-HIAA measured 24 h later in any subdivision, while CRF injections in rats not previously exposed to restraint stress, with few exceptions, also had no effect. These results suggest that the effects of CRF on serotonergic function are context-dependent, dose-dependent, and regionally specific within subdivisions of the brainstem raphé nuclei. PMID:14636174

  6. Regulation of aversion to noxious food by Drosophila neuropeptide Y- and insulin-like systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Zhao, Zhangwu; Shen, Ping

    2005-10-01

    Omnivores, including humans, have an inborn tendency to avoid noxious or unfamiliar foods. Such defensive foraging behaviors are modifiable, however, in response to physiological needs. Here we describe a method for assessing risk-sensitive food acquisition in Drosophila melanogaster. Food-deprived fly larvae become more likely to feed on noxious foods (adulterated with quinine) as the duration of deprivation increases. The neuropeptide F receptor NPFR1, a mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor homolog, centrally regulates the response to noxious food in D. melanogaster. Overexpression of NPFR1 was sufficient to cause nondeprived larvae to more readily take in noxious food, whereas loss of NPFR1 signaling led to the opposite phenotype. Moreover, NPFR1 neuronal activity may be directly regulated by the insulin-like signaling pathway. Upregulation of insulin-like receptor signaling in NPFR1 cells suppressed the feeding response to noxious food. Our results suggest that the coordinated activities of the conserved NPY- and insulin-like receptor signaling systems are essential for the dynamic regulation of noxious food intake according to the animal's energy state.

  7. Coagulation, Protease Activated Receptors and Viral Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation protease cascade plays an essential role in hemostasis. In addition, a clot contributes to host defense by limiting the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases induce intracellular signaling by cleavage of cell surface receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors allow cells to sense changes in the extracellular environment, such as infection. Viruses activate the coagulation cascade by inducing tissue factor expression and by disrupting the endothelium. Virus infection of the heart can cause myocarditis, cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Recent studies using a mouse model have shown that tissue factor, thrombin and PAR-1 signaling all positively regulate the innate immune during viral myocarditis. In contrast, PAR-2 signaling was found to inhibit interferon-β expression and the innate immune response. These observations suggest that anticoagulants may impair the innate immune response to viral infection and that inhibition of PAR-2 may be a new target to reduce viral myocarditis.. PMID:24203054

  8. Modulators of androgen and estrogen receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bart L; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on significant recent findings regarding modulators of androgen and estrogen receptor activity. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) interact with androgen receptors (ARs), and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) interact with estrogen receptors (ERs), with variable tissue selectivity. SERMs, which interact with both ERб and ERв in a tissue-specific manner to produce diverse outcomes in multiple tissues, continue to generate significant interest for clinical application. Development of SARMs for clinical application has been slower to date because of potential adverse effects, but these diverse compounds continue to be investigated for use in disorders in which modulation of the AR is important. SARMs have been investigated mostly at the basic and preclinical level to date, with few human clinical trials published. These compounds have been evaluated mostly for application in different stages of prostate cancer to date, but they hold promise for multiple other applications. Publication of the large STAR and RUTH clinical trials demonstrated that the SERMs tamoxifen and raloxifene have interesting similarities and differences in tissues that contain ERs. Lasofoxifene, bazedoxifene, and arzoxifene are newer SERMs that have been demonstrated in clinical trials to more potently increase bone mineral density and lower serum cholesterol values than tamoxifen or raloxifene. Both SARMs and SERMs hold great promise for therapeutic use in multiple disorders in which tissue-specific effects are mediated by their respective receptors.

  9. Possible role of the histaminergic system in autonomic and cardiovascular responses to neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Nagai, Katsuya

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) affects blood pressure (BP) in anesthetized rats. Here, we examined the effects of the third cerebral ventricular (3CV) injection of various doses of NPY on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and BP in anesthetized rats. 3CV injection of NPY suppressed RSNA and BP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, suppressing effects of NPY on RSNA and BP were eliminated by lateral cerebral ventricular (LCV) preinjection of thioperamide, an antagonist of histaminergic H3-receptor, not diphenhydramine, an antagonist of histaminergic H1-receptor. In addition, 3CV injection of NPY accelerated gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) and inhibited brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) of anesthetized rats, and lowered brown adipose tissue temperature (BAT-T) of conscious rats. Thus, these evidences suggest that central NPY affects autonomic nerves containing RSNA, GVNA or BAT-SNA, and BP by mediating central histaminergic H3-receptors.

  10. Neuropeptides control the dynamic behavior of airway mucosal dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Voedisch, Sabrina; Rochlitzer, Sabine; Veres, Tibor Z; Spies, Emma; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The airway mucosal epithelium is permanently exposed to airborne particles. A network of immune cells patrols at this interface to the environment. The interplay of immune cells is orchestrated by different mediators. In the current study we investigated the impact of neuronal signals on key functions of dendritic cells (DC). Using two-photon microscopic time-lapse analysis of living lung sections from CD11c-EYFP transgenic mice we studied the influence of neuropeptides on airway DC motility. Additionally, using a confocal microscopic approach, the phagocytotic capacity of CD11c(+) cells after neuropeptide stimulation was determined. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) leads to an unspecific release of neuropeptides from nerves. After EFS and treatment with the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), airway DC in living lung slices showed an altered motility. Furthermore, the EFS-mediated effect could partially be blocked by pre-treatment with the receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). Additionally, the phagocytotic capacity of bone marrow-derived and whole lung CD11c(+) cells could be inhibited by neuropeptides CGRP, VIP, and Substance P. We then cross-linked these data with the in vivo situation by analyzing DC motility in two different OVA asthma models. Both in the acute and prolonged OVA asthma model altered neuropeptide amounts and DC motility in the airways could be measured. In summary, our data suggest that neuropeptides modulate key features motility and phagocytosis of mouse airway DC. Therefore altered neuropeptide levels in airways during allergic inflammation have impact on regulation of airway immune mechanisms and therefore might contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma.

  11. Leptin receptor-deficient (knockout) medaka, Oryzias latipes, show chronical up-regulated levels of orexigenic neuropeptides, elevated food intake and stage specific effects on growth and fat allocation.

    PubMed

    Chisada, Shin-ichi; Kurokawa, Tadahide; Murashita, Koji; Rønnestad, Ivar; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Shunichi; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The first studies that identified leptin and its receptor (LepR) in mammals were based on mutant animals that displayed dramatic changes in body-weight and regulation of energy homeostasis. Subsequent studies have shown that a deficiency of leptin or LepR in homoeothermic mammals results in hyperphagia, obesity, infertility and a number of other abnormalities. The physiological roles of leptin-mediated signaling in ectothermic teleosts are still being explored. Here, we produced medaka with homozygous LepR gene mutation using the targeting induced local lesions in a genome method. This knockout mutant had a point mutation of cysteine for stop codon at the 357th amino acid just before the leptin-binding domain. The evidence for loss of function of leptin-mediated signaling in the mutant is based on a lack of response to feeding in the expression of key appetite-related neuropeptides in the diencephalon. The mutant lepr−/− medaka expressed constant up-regulated levels of mRNA for the orexigenic neuropeptide Ya and agouti-related protein and a suppressed level of anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin 1 in the diencephalon independent of feeding, which suggests that the mutant did not possess functional LepR. Phenotypes of the LepR-mutant medaka were analyzed in order to understand the effects on food intake, growth, and fat accumulation in the tissues. The food intake of the mutant medaka was higher in post-juveniles and adult stages than that of wild-type (WT) fish. The hyperphagia led to a high growth rate at the post-juvenile stage, but did not to significant alterations in final adult body size. There was no additional deposition of fat in the liver and muscle in the post-juvenile and adult mutants, or in the blood plasma in the adult mutant. However, adult LepR mutants possessed large deposits of visceral fat, unlike in the WT fish, in which there were none. Our analysis confirms that LepR in medaka exert a powerful influence on the control on food intake. Further

  12. Using Nuclear Receptor Activity to Stratify Hepatocarcinogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NR) are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that control a range of cellular processes. Persistent stimulation of some NR is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. Here we report on a systematic an...

  13. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone requires a receptor tyrosine kinase to activate egg formation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are major disease vectors because most species must feed on blood from a vertebrate host to produce eggs. Blood feeding by the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti triggers the release of two neurohormones, ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptides (ILPs), which activate multiple processes required for egg formation. ILPs function by binding to the insulin receptor, which activates downstream components in the canonical insulin signaling pathway. OEH in contrast belongs to a neuropeptide family called neuroparsins, whose receptor is unknown. Here we demonstrate that a previously orphanized receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) from A. aegypti encoded by the gene AAEL001915 is an OEH receptor. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the protein encoded by this gene, designated AAEL001915, belongs to a clade of RTKs related to the insulin receptor, which are distinguished by an extracellular Venus flytrap module. Knockdown of AAEL001915 by RNAi disabled OEH-mediated egg formation in A. aegypti. AAEL001915 was primarily detected in the mosquito ovary in association with follicular epithelial cells. Both monomeric and dimeric AAEL001915 were detected in mosquito ovaries and transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Functional assays further indicated that OEH bound to dimeric AAEL001915, which resulted in downstream phosphorylation of Ak strain transforming factor (Akt). We hypothesize that orthologs of AAEL001915 in other insects are neuroparsin receptors. PMID:25848040

  14. Platelet neuropeptide Y is critical for ischemic revascularization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tilan, Jason U.; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Abe, Ken; Kuo-Bonde, Lydia; Chalothorn, Dan; Kitlinska, Joanna; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.; Faber, James E.; Zukowska, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the sympathetic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) is potently angiogenic, primarily through its Y2 receptor, and that endogenous NPY is crucial for capillary angiogenesis in rodent hindlimb ischemia. Here we sought to identify the source of NPY responsible for revascularization and its mechanisms of action. At d 3, NPY−/− mice demonstrated delayed recovery of blood flow and limb function, consistent with impaired collateral conductance, while ischemic capillary angiogenesis was reduced (∼70%) at d 14. This biphasic temporal response was confirmed by 2 peaks of NPY activation in rats: a transient early increase in neuronally derived plasma NPY and increase in platelet NPY during late-phase recovery. Compared to NPY-null platelets, collagen-activated NPY-rich platelets were more mitogenic (∼2-fold vs. ∼1.6-fold increase) for human microvascular endothelial cells, and Y2/Y5 receptor antagonists ablated this difference in proliferation. In NPY+/+ mice, ischemic angiogenesis was prevented by platelet depletion and then restored by transfusion of platelets from NPY+/+ mice, but not NPY−/− mice. In thrombocytopenic NPY−/− mice, transfusion of wild-type platelets fully restored ischemia-induced angiogenesis. These findings suggest that neuronally derived NPY accelerates the early response to femoral artery ligation by promoting collateral conductance, while platelet-derived NPY is critical for sustained capillary angiogenesis.—Tilan, J. U., Everhart, L. M., Abe, K., Kuo-Bonde, L., Chalothorn, D., Kitlinska, J., Burnett, M. S., Epstein, S. E., Faber, J. E., Zukowska, Z. Platelet neuropeptide Y is critical for ischemic revascularization in mice. PMID:23457218

  15. C-Terminus of the B-Chain of Relaxin-3 Is Important for Receptor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Bathgate, Ross A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Human relaxin-3 is a neuropeptide that is structurally similar to human insulin with two chains (A and B) connected by three disulfide bonds. It is expressed primarily in the brain and has modulatory roles in stress and anxiety, feeding and metabolism, and arousal and behavioural activation. Structure-activity relationship studies have shown that relaxin-3 interacts with its cognate receptor RXFP3 primarily through its B-chain and that its A-chain does not have any functional role. In this study, we have investigated the effect of modification of the B-chain C-terminus on the binding and activity of the peptide. We have chemically synthesised and characterized H3 relaxin as C-termini acid (both A and B chains having free C-termini; native form) and amide forms (both chains’ C-termini were amidated). We have confirmed that the acid form of the peptide is more potent than its amide form at both RXFP3 and RXFP4 receptors. We further investigated the effects of amidation at the C-terminus of individual chains. We report here for the first time that amidation at the C-terminus of the B-chain of H3 relaxin leads to significant drop in the binding and activity of the peptide at RXFP3/RXFP4 receptors. However, modification of the A-chain C-terminus does not have any effect on the activity. We have confirmed using circular dichroism spectroscopy that there is no secondary structural change between the acid and amide form of the peptide, and it is likely that it is the local C-terminal carboxyl group orientation that is crucial for interacting with the receptors. PMID:24349312

  16. Unique biological function of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for biosynthesis of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Funkelstein, Lydiane; Beinfeld, Margery; Minokadeh, Ardalan; Zadina, James; Hook, Vivian

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptides are essential for cell-cell communication in the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. Production of active neuropeptides requires proteolytic processing of proneuropeptide precursors in secretory vesicles that produce, store, and release neuropeptides that regulate physiological functions. This review describes recent findings indicating the prominent role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for production of neuropeptides from their protein precursors. The role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production was discovered using the strategy of activity-based probes for proenkephalin-cleaving activity for identification of the enzyme protein by mass spectrometry. The novel role of cathepsin L in secretory vesicles for neuropeptide production has been demonstrated in vivo by cathepsin L gene knockout studies, cathepsin L gene expression in neuroendocrine cells, and notably, cathepsin L localization in neuropeptide-containing secretory vesicles. Cathepsin L is involved in producing opioid neuropeptides consisting of enkephalin, β-endorphin, and dynorphin, as well as in generating the POMC-derived peptide hormones ACTH and α-MSH. In addition, NPY, CCK, and catestatin neuropeptides utilize cathepsin L for their biosynthesis. The neuropeptide-synthesizing functions of cathepsin L represent its unique activity in secretory vesicles, which contrasts with its role in lysosomes. Interesting evaluations of protease gene knockout studies in mice that lack cathepsin L compared to those lacking PC1/3 and PC2 (PC, prohormone convertase) indicate the key role of cathepsin L in neuropeptide production. Therefore, dual cathepsin L and prohormone convertase protease pathways participate in neuropeptide production. Significantly, the recent new findings indicate cathepsin L as a novel 'proprotein convertase' for production of neuropeptides that mediate cell-cell communication in health and disease.

  17. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)–forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. PMID:26994072

  18. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally.

  19. Insulin receptor activation in solitary fibrous tumours.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Chang, Q; Rubin, B P; Fletcher, C D M; Morgan, T W; Mentzer, S J; Sugarbaker, D J; Fletcher, J A; Xiao, S

    2007-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are known to overexpress insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). The down-stream oncogenic pathways of IGF-2, however, are not clear. Here we report uniform activation of the insulin receptor (IR) pathway in SFTs, which are mesenchymal tumours frequently associated with hypoglycaemia. Whereas the IR and its downstream signalling pathways were constitutively activated in SFTs, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) was not expressed in these tumours. We also find that SFT cells secrete IGF-2 and proliferate in serum-free medium, consistent with an IGF-2/IR autocrine loop. The aetiological relevance of IGF-2 is supported by expression of IR-A, the IR isoform with high affinity for IGF-2, in all SFTs. Our studies suggest that IR activation plays an oncogenic role in SFTs.

  20. Biased Signaling of Protease-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peishen; Metcalf, Matthew; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their role in protein degradation and digestion, proteases can also function as hormone-like signaling molecules that regulate vital patho-physiological processes, including inflammation, hemostasis, pain, and repair mechanisms. Certain proteases can signal to cells by cleaving protease-activated receptors (PARs), a family of four G protein-coupled receptors. PARs are expressed by almost all cell types, control important physiological and disease-relevant processes, and are an emerging therapeutic target for major diseases. Most information about PAR activation and function derives from studies of a few proteases, for example thrombin in the case of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4, and trypsin in the case of PAR2 and PAR4. These proteases cleave PARs at established sites with the extracellular N-terminal domains, and expose tethered ligands that stabilize conformations of the cleaved receptors that activate the canonical pathways of G protein- and/or β-arrestin-dependent signaling. However, a growing number of proteases have been identified that cleave PARs at divergent sites to activate distinct patterns of receptor signaling and trafficking. The capacity of these proteases to trigger distinct signaling pathways is referred to as biased signaling, and can lead to unique patho-physiological outcomes. Given that a different repertoire of proteases are activated in various patho-physiological conditions that may activate PARs by different mechanisms, signaling bias may account for the divergent actions of proteases and PARs. Moreover, therapies that target disease-relevant biased signaling pathways may be more effective and selective approaches for the treatment of protease- and PAR-driven diseases. Thus, rather than mediating the actions of a few proteases, PARs may integrate the biological actions of a wide spectrum of proteases in different patho-physiological conditions. PMID:24860547

  1. Equivalent Activities of Repulsive Axon Guidance Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hong; Yoshikawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Receptors on the growth cone at the leading edge of elongating axons play critical guidance roles by recognizing cues via their extracellular domains and transducing signals via their intracellular domains, resulting in changes in direction of growth. An important concept to have emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a major guidance mechanism. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are likely to be qualitative differences in the signals they transduce. However, the nature of these possible differences is unknown. By creating chimeras using the extracellular and intracellular domains of three different Drosophila repulsive receptors, Unc5, Roundabout (Robo), and Derailed (Drl) and expressing them in defined cells within the embryonic nervous system, we examined the responses elicited by their intracellular domains systematically. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative differences in growth cone response or axon growth, suggesting that, despite their highly diverged sequences, each intracellular domain elicits repulsion via a common pathway. In terms of the signaling pathway(s) used by the repulsive receptors, mutations in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio strongly enhance the repulsive activity of all three intracellular domains, suggesting that repulsion by Unc5, Robo, and Drl, and perhaps repulsion in general, involves Trio activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A prevailing concept that has emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a guidance mechanism for steering axons to their appropriate targets. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are differences in the signals that they transduce. However, this has never been tested directly. We have used the advanced genetics of Drosophila to compare directly the outputs of different repulsive receptors. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative

  2. Neuropeptides and nasal secretion.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, J N; Kaliner, M

    1991-10-01

    The nasal mucosa is innervated by the sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems. Nociceptive sensory nerves are stimulated by mucosal injury, inhalation of irritants, or mast cell degranulation and release of the calcitonin gene-related peptide, the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A, and other peptides by the axon response mechanism. Sensory nerve stimulation initiates systemic reflexes, such as the sneeze, and central parasympathetic reflexes which release acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and other peptides and lead to glandular secretion. In concert, these proinflammatory neural responses lead to vasodilation, vascular permeability, and glandular secretion. Sympathetic nerves release neuropeptide Y and norepinephrine, potent vasoconstrictors which act to decompress the nasal mucosa and produce nasal patency. The balance between the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic neurotransmitters may regulate nasal homeostasis, whereas the nociceptive sensory system may be held in reserve as a defense mechanism. Dysfunction of these systems may lead to pathological nasal syndromes. In the future, specific neuropeptide agonists and antagonists may be useful for the treatment of human rhinitic diseases. PMID:1928355

  3. Zinc regulation of food intake: new insights on the role of neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Cathy W

    2003-07-01

    The role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in feeding behavior and zinc deficiency-induced anorexia has been controversial because hypothalamic NPY levels are elevated in both zinc deficiency and food restriction. A recent report shows that while NPY is released from terminals in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of food-restricted animals, this release is significantly impaired in zinc-deficient animals. Zinc deficiency may therefore cause anorexia by inhibiting the release of NPY that is required for receptor activation. PMID:12918877

  4. Control of sleep-to-wake transitions via fast aminoacid and slow neuropeptide transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mosqueiro, Thiago; de Lecea, Luis; Huerta, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The Locus Coeruleus (LC) modulates cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, brainstem and spinal cord circuits and it expresses receptors for neuromodulators that operate in a time scale of several seconds. Evidences from anatomical, electrophysiological and optogenetic experiments have shown that LC neurons receive input from a group of neurons called Hypocretins (HCRTs) that release a neuropeptide called hypocretin. It is less known how these two groups of neurons can be coregulated using GABAergic neurons. Since the time scales of GABAA inhibition is several orders of magnitude faster than the hypocretin neuropeptide effect, we investigate the limits of circuit activity regulation using a realistic model of neurons. Our investigation shows that GABAA inhibition is insufficient to control the activity levels of the LCs. Despite slower forms of GABAA can in principle work, there is not much plausibility due to the low probability of the presence of slow GABAA and lack of robust stability at the maximum firing frequencies. The best possible control mechanism predicted by our modeling analysis is the presence of inhibitory neuropeptides that exert effects in a similar time scale as the hypocretin/orexin. Although the nature of these inhibitory neuropeptides has not been identified yet, it provides the most efficient mechanism in the modeling analysis. Finally, we present a reduced mean-field model that perfectly captures the dynamics and the phenomena generated by this circuit. This investigation shows that brain communication involving multiple time scales can be better controlled by employing orthogonal mechanisms of neural transmission to decrease interference between cognitive processes and hypothalamic functions. PMID:25598695

  5. NPY/neuropeptide Y enhances autophagy in the hypothalamus: a mechanism to delay aging?

    PubMed

    Aveleira, Célia A; Botelho, Mariana; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Aging was recently described as a life event programmed by the hypothalamus, a key brain region that is crucial for the neuroendocrine interaction between the central nervous system and the periphery. Autophagy impairment is a hallmark of aging, contributing to the aging phenotype and to the aggravation of age-related diseases. Since hypothalamic autophagy decreases with age, strategies to promote autophagy in the hypothalamus may be relevant for control of the aging process. NPY (neuropeptide Y) is an endogenous neuropeptide mainly produced by the hypothalamus. We recently reported, for the first time, that NPY stimulates autophagy in rodent hypothalamus and mediates caloric restriction-induced autophagy in hypothalamic neurons. Moreover, we observed that NPY acts through NPY1R (neuropeptide Y receptor Y1) or NPY5R activation involving a concerted action of different signaling pathways. Since both hypothalamic autophagy and NPY levels decrease with age, modulation of NPY levels could provide new putative therapeutic tools to ameliorate age-related deteriorations and extend longevity.

  6. NPY/neuropeptide Y enhances autophagy in the hypothalamus: a mechanism to delay aging?

    PubMed

    Aveleira, Célia A; Botelho, Mariana; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Aging was recently described as a life event programmed by the hypothalamus, a key brain region that is crucial for the neuroendocrine interaction between the central nervous system and the periphery. Autophagy impairment is a hallmark of aging, contributing to the aging phenotype and to the aggravation of age-related diseases. Since hypothalamic autophagy decreases with age, strategies to promote autophagy in the hypothalamus may be relevant for control of the aging process. NPY (neuropeptide Y) is an endogenous neuropeptide mainly produced by the hypothalamus. We recently reported, for the first time, that NPY stimulates autophagy in rodent hypothalamus and mediates caloric restriction-induced autophagy in hypothalamic neurons. Moreover, we observed that NPY acts through NPY1R (neuropeptide Y receptor Y1) or NPY5R activation involving a concerted action of different signaling pathways. Since both hypothalamic autophagy and NPY levels decrease with age, modulation of NPY levels could provide new putative therapeutic tools to ameliorate age-related deteriorations and extend longevity. PMID:26086271

  7. Activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases by recombinant calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, N; Disa, J; Spielman, W S; Brooks, D P; Nambi, P; Aiyar, N

    2000-02-18

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a 37-amino-acid neuropeptide and a potent vasodilator. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide has been shown to have a number of effects in a variety of systems, the mechanisms of action and the intracellular signaling pathways, especially the regulation of mitogen-activated protien kinase (MAPK) pathway, is not known. In the present study we investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regulation of MAPKs in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with a recombinant porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Calcitonin gene-related peptide caused a significant dose-dependent increase in cAMP response and the effect was inhibited by calcitonin gene-related peptide(8-37), the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist. Calcitonin gene-related peptide also caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) activities, with apparently no significant change in cjun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase also stimulated ERK and P38 activities in these cells suggesting the invovement of cAMP in this process. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-stimulated ERK and P38 MAPK activities were inhibited significantly by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist, calcitonin gene-related peptide-(8-37) suggesting the involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Preincubation of the cells with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H89 [¿N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, hydrochloride¿] inhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated activation of ERK and p38 kinases. On the other hand, preincubation of the cells with wortmannin ¿[1S-(1alpha,6balpha,9abeta,11alpha, 11bbeta)]-11-(acetyloxy)-1,6b,7,8,9a,10,11, 11b-octahydro-1-(methoxymethyl)-9a,11b-dimethyl-3H-furo[4,3, 2-de]indeno[4,5-h]-2

  8. Correlations between the expression of the insulin sensitizing hormones, adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin, and the appetite regulatory hormone, neuropeptide Y and its receptors in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Nway, Nay Chi; Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Chatree, Saimai; Maikaew, Pailin

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin are adipokines involved in insulin sensitivity. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors, Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R, are involved in appetite regulation. Here we examined the correlations between these two hormones groups in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. We demonstrated that in subcutaneous adipose tissue, the adiponectin, visfatin and omentin expression positively correlated with that of subcutaneous NPY. Subcutaneous adiponectin expression positively correlated with subcutaneous Y1R and Y5R. Subcutaneous visfatin expression positively correlated with subcutaneous Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R. Subcutaneous omentin expression positively correlated with subcutaneous Y5R. In visceral adipose tissue, adiponectin, visfatin and omentin expression positively correlated with visceral NPY. Visceral visfatin expression positively correlated with visceral Y1R, Y2R and Y5R. There was no correlation between the subcutaneous and visceral expression of these adipokines and receptors. BMI correlated better with visceral adipocyte characteristics including width, height, perimeter, and area than with those of subcutaneous adipocyte. Visceral, but not subcutaneous, adipocyte parameters positively correlated with insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), but negatively associated with Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). These results suggest that adiponectin, omentin, and visfatin expression correlated with NPY expression in either type of adipose tissue, with no evidence of cross-linking between adipose tissue depots, suggesting that there might be (a) different regulation mechanism(s) between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues with regard to expressions of these two hormone groups. Further studies are required to identify factors that regulate the linkage between these hormones in each adipose tissue type.

  9. Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and neuropeptide Y-ergic structures of the enteric nervous system in the carcinoma of the human large intestine.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, Janusz; Łakomy, Ireneusz Mirosław

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at immunohistochemical analysis of potential changes in the enteric nervous system caused by cancer of the large intestine. In this purpose, neurons and nerve fibers of intestinal plexuses containing neuropeptides: vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), in pathologically changed part of the large intestine were microscpically observed and compared. Samples were taken from patients operated due to cancer of the sigmoid colon and rectum. The number of neurons and density of nerve fibres containing neuropeptides found in sections with cancer tissues were compared to those observed in sections from the uninvolved intestinal wall. Changes relating to reductions in the number of NPY-ergic neurons and density of nerve fibres in submucous and myenteric plexuses in the sections with cancer tissues (pathological sections) were statistically significant. A statistically similar presence of VIP-ergic and PACAP-ergic neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses was observed in both the pathological and control sections. On the other hand, in the pathological sections, VIP-ergic nerve fibres in the myenteric plexuses and PACAP-ergic nerve fibres in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were found to be less dense. Analysis revealed changes in pathologically affected part of the large intestine may caused disruption of proper intestinal function. Observed changes in the neural elements which are responsible for relaxation of the intestine may suggest dysfunction in the innervation of this part of the colon.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Biscetti, F; Straface, G; Pitocco, D; Zaccardi, F; Ghirlanda, G; Flex, A

    2009-12-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of three nuclear receptor isoforms, PPARalpha, PPARgamma and PPARdelta, encoded by different genes, and they form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The clinical interest in PPARs originates with fibrates and thiazolidinediones, which, respectively, act on PPARalpha and PPARgamma and are used to ameliorate hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PPARs play a central role in these patients due to their ability to regulate the expression of numerous genes involved in glycaemic control, lipid metabolism, vascular tone and inflammation. Abnormal angiogenesis is implicated in several of the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, characterized by vasculopathy associated with aberrant growth of new blood vessels. This pathological process plays a crucial role in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, impaired wound healing and impaired coronary collateral vessel development. In recent years, there has been increasing appreciation of the fact that PPARs might be involved in the molecular mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis through the action of growth factors and cytokines that stimulate migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells. During the last few years direct comparative analyses have been performed, using selective PPARs agonists, to clarify the angiogenic properties of the different members of the PPAR family. Lately, the findings provide new information to order to understand the biological, clinical and therapeutic effects of PPARs, and the role of these nuclear receptors in angiogenesis, with potentially important implications for the management of subjects affected by T2DM. PMID:19628379

  11. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  12. Peptidomics for the discovery and characterization of neuropeptides and hormones.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2015-09-01

    The discovery of neuropeptides as signaling molecules with paracrine or hormonal regulatory functions has led to trailblazing advances in physiology and fostered the characterization of numerous neuropeptide-binding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as potential drug targets. The impact on human health has been tremendous: approximately 30% of commercial drugs act via the GPCR pathway. However, about 25% of the GPCRs encoded by the mammalian genome still lack their pharmacological identity. Searching for the orphan GPCR endogenous ligands that are likely to be neuropeptides has proved to be a formidable task. Here we describe the mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies and experimental strategies that have been successful in achieving high-throughput characterization of endogenous peptides in nervous and endocrine systems.

  13. Peptidomics for the discovery and characterization of neuropeptides and hormones

    PubMed Central

    Romanova, Elena V.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of neuropeptides as signaling molecules with paracrine or hormonal regulatory functions has led to trailblazing advances in physiology and fostered the characterization of numerous neuropeptide-binding G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as potential drug targets. The impact on human health has been tremendous: approximately 30% of commercial drugs act via the GPCR pathway. However, about 25% of the GPCRs encoded by the mammalian genome still lack their pharmacological identity. Searching for the orphan GPCR endogenous ligands that likely are neuropeptides has proved to be a formidable task. Here we describe the mass spectrometry-based technologies and experimental strategies that have been successful in achieving high throughput characterization of endogenous peptides in nervous and endocrine systems. PMID:26143240

  14. Molecular characterization of a short neuropeptide F signaling system in the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans.

    PubMed

    Caers, Jelle; Peymen, Katleen; Van Hiel, Matthias B; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptides of the short neuropeptide F (sNPF) family are widespread among arthropods and found in every sequenced insect genome so far. Functional studies have mainly focused on the regulatory role of sNPF in feeding behavior, although this neuropeptide family has pleiotropic effects including in the control of locomotion, osmotic homeostasis, sleep, learning and memory. Here, we set out to characterize and determine possible roles of sNPF signaling in the haematophagous tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans, a vector of African Trypanosoma parasites causing human and animal African trypanosomiasis. We cloned the G. m. morsitans cDNA sequences of an sNPF-like receptor (Glomo-sNPFR) and precursor protein encoding four Glomo-sNPF neuropeptides. All four Glomo-sNPF peptides concentration-dependently activated Glomo-sNPFR in a cell-based calcium mobilization assay, with EC50 values in the nanomolar range. Gene expression profiles in adult female tsetse flies indicate that the Glomo-sNPF system is mainly restricted to the nervous system. Glomo-snpfr transcripts were also detected in the hindgut of adult females. In contrast to the Drosophila sNPF system, tsetse larvae lack expression of Glomo-snpf and Glomo-snpfr genes. While Glomo-snpf transcript levels are upregulated in pupae, the onset of Glomo-snpfr expression is delayed to adulthood. Expression profiles in adult tissues are similar to those in other insects suggesting that the tsetse sNPF system may have similar functions such as a regulatory role in feeding behavior, together with a possible involvement of sNPFR signaling in osmotic homeostasis. Our molecular data will enable further investigations into the functions of sNPF signaling in tsetse flies. PMID:27288635

  15. Gustatory stimuli representing different perceptual qualities elicit distinct patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

    PubMed

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-04-24

    Taste stimuli that evoke different perceptual qualities (e.g., sweet, umami, bitter, sour, salty) are detected by dedicated subpopulations of taste bud cells that use distinct combinations of sensory receptors and transduction molecules. Here, we report that taste stimuli also elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds that are correlated with those perceptual qualities. We measured tastant-dependent secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) from circumvallate papillae of Tas1r3(+/+), Tas1r3(+/-) and Tas1r3 (-/-) mice. Isolated tongue epithelia were mounted in modified Ussing chambers, permitting apical stimulation of taste buds; secreted peptides were collected from the basal side and measured by specific ELISAs. Appetitive stimuli (sweet: glucose, sucralose; umami: monosodium glutamate; polysaccharide: Polycose) elicited GLP-1 and NPY secretion and inhibited basal glucagon secretion. Sweet and umami stimuli were ineffective in Tas1r3(-/-) mice, indicating an obligatory role for the T1R3 subunit common to the sweet and umami taste receptors. Polycose responses were unaffected by T1R3 deletion, consistent with the presence of a distinct polysaccharide taste receptor. The effects of sweet stimuli on peptide secretion also required the closing of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, as the KATP channel activator diazoxide inhibited the effects of glucose and sucralose on both GLP-1 and glucagon release. Both sour citric acid and salty NaCl increased NPY secretion but had no effects on GLP-1 or glucagon. Bitter denatonium showed no effects on these peptides. Together, these results suggest that taste stimuli of different perceptual qualities elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

  16. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39): molecular structure and activity for parathyroid hormone 2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Della Penna, K; Kinose, F; Sun, H; Koblan, K S; Wang, H

    2003-01-01

    The neuropeptide TIP39 was recently purified from bovine hypothalamus based on the ability of the peptide to activate the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) ( Nat. Neurosci. 2 (1999) 941). PTH2R is abundantly expressed in the nervous system, and its expression pattern suggests that it may play a role in modulation of pituitary function and in nociception. Towards understanding the physiological role of TIP39 and PTH2R, we cloned human, mouse and rat TIP39 gene. Our results revealed that: (1) the mature peptide is processed from a precursor; (2) TIP39 peptide is highly conserved among species; and (3) TIP39 from all species activates adenylyl cyclase and elevates intracellular calcium levels through PTH2R. We also defined and compared the structure-activity relationship of TIP39 on both activation of adenylyl cyclase and calcium mobilization pathways through PTH2R, finding common and differential determinants of TIP39 that are required for these pathways. Furthermore, we observed that TIP39 elevates intracellular calcium levels in primary dorsal root ganglion neurons whereas the peptide inactive on PTH2R do not, suggesting that TIP39 may activate these neurons important for nociception in vivo through PTH2R-dependent mechanisms.

  17. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophage functions by neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Involvement of protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, M; Bernaez, I; Del Rio, M; Hernanz, A

    1993-01-01

    The peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) at concentrations from 10(-12) M to 10(-8) M have been shown in this study to stimulate significantly, in vitro, several functions of resting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis, ingestion of inert particles (latex beads) and foreign cells (Candida albicans), and production of superoxide anion measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. A dose-response relationship was observed, with a maximal stimulation of the macrophage functions studied at 10(-10) M. These effects seem to be produced by specific receptors for the neuropeptides studied in peritoneal macrophages. Whereas the two peptides induced no change of intracellular cyclic AMP, they caused a significant stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) in murine macrophages. These results suggest that NPY and PYY produce their effects on macrophage function through PKC activation. PMID:8262554

  18. Direct regulation of GnRH neuron excitability by arcuate nucleus POMC and NPY neuron neuropeptides in female mice.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan; Herbison, Allan E

    2012-11-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons act to sense and coordinate the brain's responses to metabolic cues. One neuronal network that is very sensitive to metabolic status is that controlling fertility. In this study, we investigated the impact of neuropeptides released by NPY and POMC neurons on the cellular excitability of GnRH neurons, the final output cells of the brain controlling fertility. The majority (∼70%) of GnRH neurons were activated by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and this resulted from the direct postsynaptic activation of melanocortin receptor 3 and melanocortin receptor 4. A small population of GnRH neurons (∼15%) was excited by cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript or inhibited by β-endorphin. Agouti-related peptide, released by NPY neurons, was found to have variable inhibitory (∼10%) and stimulatory (∼25%) effects upon subpopulations of GnRH neurons. A variety of NPY and pancreatic polypeptide analogs was used to examine potential NPY interactions with GnRH neurons. Although porcine NPY (Y1/Y2/Y5 agonist) directly inhibited the firing of approximately 45% of GnRH neurons, [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-NPY (Y1/Y4/Y5 agonist) could excite (56%) or inhibit (19%). Experiments with further agonists indicated that Y1 receptors were responsible for suppressing GnRH neuron activity, whereas postsynaptic Y4 receptors were stimulatory. These results show that the activity of GnRH neurons is regulated in a complex manner by neuropeptides released by POMC and NPY neurons. This provides a direct route through which different metabolic cues can regulate fertility.

  19. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Tropsha, Alexander; Varnek, Alexandre; Zakharov, Alexey; Worth, Andrew; Richard, Ann M.; Grulke, Christopher M.; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Fourches, Denis; Horvath, Dragos; Benfenati, Emilio; Muratov, Eugene; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Grisoni, Francesca; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.; Incisivo, Giuseppina M.; Hong, Huixiao; Ng, Hui W.; Tetko, Igor V.; Balabin, Ilya; Kancherla, Jayaram; Shen, Jie; Burton, Julien; Nicklaus, Marc; Cassotti, Matteo; Nikolov, Nikolai G.; Nicolotti, Orazio; Andersson, Patrik L.; Zang, Qingda; Politi, Regina; Beger, Richard D.; Todeschini, Roberto; Huang, Ruili; Farag, Sherif; Rosenberg, Sine A.; Slavov, Svetoslav; Hu, Xin; Judson, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Objectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) and demonstrate the efficacy of using predictive computational models trained on high-throughput screening data to evaluate thousands of chemicals for ER-related activity and prioritize them for further testing. Methods: CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration with 17 groups in the United States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure–activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1,677 chemical structures provided by the U.S. EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical and 8 continuous models for binding, agonist, and antagonist ER activity. All predictions were evaluated on a set of 7,522 chemicals curated from the literature. To overcome the limitations of single models, a consensus was built by weighting models on scores based on their evaluated accuracies. Results: Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing high prediction reliabilities. Out of the 32,464 chemicals, the consensus model predicted 4,001 chemicals (12.3%) as high priority actives and 6,742 potential actives (20.8%) to be considered for further testing. Conclusion: This project demonstrated the possibility to screen large libraries of chemicals using a consensus of different in silico approaches. This concept will be applied in future projects related to other

  20. How IGF-1 activates its receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kavran, Jennifer M; McCabe, Jacqueline M; Byrne, Patrick O; Connacher, Mary Katherine; Wang, Zhihong; Ramek, Alexander; Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E; Hristova, Kalina; Cole, Philip A; Leahy, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is involved in growth and survival of normal and neoplastic cells. A ligand-dependent conformational change is thought to regulate IGF1R activity, but the nature of this change is unclear. We point out an underappreciated dimer in the crystal structure of the related Insulin Receptor (IR) with Insulin bound that allows direct comparison with unliganded IR and suggests a mechanism by which ligand regulates IR/IGF1R activity. We test this mechanism in a series of biochemical and biophysical assays and find the IGF1R ectodomain maintains an autoinhibited state in which the TMs are held apart. Ligand binding releases this constraint, allowing TM association and unleashing an intrinsic propensity of the intracellular regions to autophosphorylate. Enzymatic studies of full-length and kinase-containing fragments show phosphorylated IGF1R is fully active independent of ligand and the extracellular-TM regions. The key step triggered by ligand binding is thus autophosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03772.001 PMID:25255214

  1. Levodopa replacement therapy alters enzyme activities in striatum and neuropeptide content in striatal output regions of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Engber, T M; Susel, Z; Kuo, S; Gerfen, C R; Chase, T N

    1991-06-21

    The effects of striatal dopamine denervation and levodopa replacement therapy on neuronal populations in the rat striatum were assessed by measurement of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activities in the striatum, dynorphin and substance P concentrations in the substantia nigra, and enkephalin concentration in the globus pallidus. Rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway were treated for 21 days with levodopa (100 mg/kg/day, i.p., with 25 mg/kg benserazide) on either an intermittent (b.i.d.) or continuous (osmotic pump infusion) regimen and sacrificed following a three day drug washout. In saline-treated control rats, striatal GAD activity and globus pallidus enkephalin content were elevated and nigral substance P content was reduced ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA lesion. Intermittent levodopa treatment further increased GAD activity, decreased CAT activity, restored substance P to control levels, markedly increased dynorphin content, and had no effect on enkephalin. In contrast, continuous levodopa elevated globus pallidus enkephalin beyond the levels occurring with denervation, but had no effect on any of the other neurochemical measures. These results indicate that striatal neuronal populations are differentially affected by chronic levodopa therapy and by the continuous or intermittent nature of the treatment regimen. With the exception of substance P, levodopa did not reverse the effects of the 6-OHDA lesion but, rather, either exacerbated the lesion-induced changes (e.g. GAD and enkephalin) or altered neurochemical markers which had been unaffected by the lesion (e.g. CAT and dynorphin).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1717109

  2. Intracellular Na+, K+ and Cl- activities in Acheta domesticus Malpighian tubules and the response to a diuretic kinin neuropeptide.

    PubMed

    Coast, Geoffrey M

    2012-08-15

    The mechanism of primary urine production and the activity of a diuretic kinin, Achdo-KII, were investigated in malpighian tubules of Acheta domesticus by measuring intracellular Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) activities, basolateral membrane voltage (V(b)), fluid secretion and transepithelial ion transport. Calculated electrochemical gradients for K(+) and Cl(-) across the basolateral membrane show they are actively transported into principal cells, and basolateral Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels do not contribute to net transepithelial K(+) transport and fluid secretion. A basolateral Cl(-) conductance was revealed after the blockade of K(+) channels with Ba(2+), and a current carried by the passive outward movement of Cl(-) accounts for the hyperpolarization of V(b) in response to Ba(2+). Ion uptake via Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransport, driven by the inwardly directed Na(+) electrochemical gradient, is thermodynamically feasible, and is consistent with the actions of bumetanide, which reduces fluid secretion and both Na(+) and K(+) transport. The Na(+) gradient is maintained by its extrusion across the apical membrane and by a basolateral ouabain-sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Achdo-KII has no significant effect on the intracellular ion activities or V(b). Electrochemical gradients across the apical membrane were estimated from previously published values for the levels of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) in the secreted fluid. The electrochemical gradient for Cl(-) favours passive movement into the lumen, but falls towards zero after stimulation by Achdo-KII. This coincides with a twofold increase in Cl(-) transport, which is attributed to the opening of an apical Cl(-) conductance, which depolarises the apical membrane voltage.

  3. Spongian diterpenoids inhibit androgen receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu Chi; Meimetis, Labros G; Tien, Amy H; Mawji, Nasrin R; Carr, Gavin; Wang, Jun; Andersen, Raymond J; Sadar, Marianne D

    2013-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and a validated drug target for all stages of prostate cancer. Antiandrogens compete with physiological ligands for AR ligand-binding domain (LBD). High-throughput screening of a marine natural product library for small molecules that inhibit AR transcriptional activity yielded the furanoditerpenoid spongia-13(16),-14-dien-19-oic acid, designated terpene 1 (T1). Characterization of T1 and the structurally related semi-synthetic analogues (T2 and T3) revealed that these diterpenoids have antiandrogen properties that include inhibition of both androgen-dependent proliferation and AR transcriptional activity by a mechanism that involved competing with androgen for AR LBD and blocking essential N/C interactions required for androgen-induced AR transcriptional activity. Structure activity relationship analyses revealed some chemical features of T1 that are associated with activity and yielded T3 as the most potent analogue. In vivo, T3 significantly reduced the weight of seminal vesicles, which are an androgen-dependent tissue, thereby confirming T3’s on-target activity. The ability to create analogues of diterpenoids that have varying antiandrogen activity represents a novel class of chemical compounds for the analysis of AR ligand-binding properties and therapeutic development. PMID:23443807

  4. Modulation of neuropeptide Y and Y1 receptor expression in the amygdala by fluctuations in the brain content of neuroactive steroids during ethanol drinking discontinuation in Y1R/LacZ transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Eva, Carola; Mele, Paolo; Collura, Devis; Nai, Antonella; Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Serra, Mariangela; Biggio, Giovanni

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that GABAergic neuroactive steroids increase Y1 receptor (Y1R) gene expression in the amygdala of Y1R/LacZ transgenic mice, harbouring the murine Y1R gene promoter linked to a LacZ reporter gene. As ethanol is known to increase GABAergic neuroactive steroids, we investigated the relationship between fluctuations in the brain content of neuroactive steroids induced by chronic voluntary ethanol consumption or ethanol discontinuation and both the level of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity and Y1R gene expression in the amygdala of Y1R/LacZ transgenic mice. Ethanol discontinuation (48 h) after voluntary consumption of consecutive solutions of 3%, 6%, 10% and 20% (v/v) ethanol over 4 weeks produced an anxiety-like behaviour as measured by elevated plus maze. Voluntary ethanol intake increased the cerebrocortical concentration of the progesterone metabolite 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG) that returned to control level 48 h after discontinuation of ethanol intake. Ethanol discontinuation significantly decreased NPY immunoreactivity and concomitantly increased Y1R/LacZ transgene expression in the amygdala, whereas chronic ethanol intake failed to affect these parameters. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride prevented both the increase in the cerebrocortical concentration of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG apparent after 4 weeks of ethanol intake and the changes in NPY immunoreactivity and transgene expression induced by ethanol discontinuation. Data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG plays an important role in the changes in NPY-Y1R signalling in the amygdala during ethanol discontinuation.

  5. The role of neuropeptides in sleep modulation.

    PubMed

    Prospéro-García, Oscar; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica

    2004-10-01

    Several neuropeptides affect the sleep-wake cycle, for example, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin octapeptide, orexin, somatostatin, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y and cortistatin, which regulate food ingestion. There are also proteins from the immunological system: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, as well as trophic molecules, such as growth hormone-releasing hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin-4. Based on this information, we believe that some functions of sleep can be suggested. One of these functions could be the regulation of energy, since many, if not all, of the neuropeptides that regulate feeding affect the level of alertness. Likewise, the immunological system and the trophic molecules establish a dialog with the brain during sleep in order to reestablish neuronal structure. These proteins are the expression of genes that accomplish the function of regulating our waking and our sleep, suggesting the important control the genome is exerting on this activity.

  6. Propacetamol-Induced Injection Pain Is Associated with Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Florian; Eberhardt, Esther; Leffler, Andreas; Eberhardt, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    Propacetamol (PPCM) is a prodrug of paracetamol (PCM), which was generated to increase water solubility of PCM for intravenous delivery. PPCM is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to PCM and diethylglycine and shares some structural and metabolic properties with lidocaine. Although PPCM is considered to be comparable to PCM regarding its analgesic properties, injection pain is a common side effect described for PPCM but not PCM. Injection pain is a frequent and unpleasant side effect of numerous drugs in clinical use, and previous reports have indicated that the ligand gated ion channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can mediate this effect on sensory neurons. This study aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms by which PPCM, in contrast to PCM, causes injection pain. Therefore, human TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp and ratiometric calcium imaging. PPCM (but not PCM) activated TRPV1, sensitized heat-induced currents, and caused an increase in intracellular calcium. In TRPA1-expressing cells however, both PPCM and PCM evoked calcium responses but failed to induce inward currents. Intracutaneous injection of PPCM, but not of PCM, in human volunteers induced an intense and short-lasting pain and an increase in superficial blood flow, indicating activation of nociceptive C fibers and subsequent neuropeptide release. In conclusion, activation of human TRPV1 by PPCM seems to be a relevant mechanism for induction of pain upon intracutaneous injection and thus also for pain reported as an adverse side effect upon intravenous administration. PMID:27457427

  7. Propacetamol-Induced Injection Pain Is Associated with Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Florian; Eberhardt, Esther; Leffler, Andreas; Eberhardt, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    Propacetamol (PPCM) is a prodrug of paracetamol (PCM), which was generated to increase water solubility of PCM for intravenous delivery. PPCM is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to PCM and diethylglycine and shares some structural and metabolic properties with lidocaine. Although PPCM is considered to be comparable to PCM regarding its analgesic properties, injection pain is a common side effect described for PPCM but not PCM. Injection pain is a frequent and unpleasant side effect of numerous drugs in clinical use, and previous reports have indicated that the ligand gated ion channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can mediate this effect on sensory neurons. This study aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms by which PPCM, in contrast to PCM, causes injection pain. Therefore, human TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp and ratiometric calcium imaging. PPCM (but not PCM) activated TRPV1, sensitized heat-induced currents, and caused an increase in intracellular calcium. In TRPA1-expressing cells however, both PPCM and PCM evoked calcium responses but failed to induce inward currents. Intracutaneous injection of PPCM, but not of PCM, in human volunteers induced an intense and short-lasting pain and an increase in superficial blood flow, indicating activation of nociceptive C fibers and subsequent neuropeptide release. In conclusion, activation of human TRPV1 by PPCM seems to be a relevant mechanism for induction of pain upon intracutaneous injection and thus also for pain reported as an adverse side effect upon intravenous administration.

  8. Intrinsic relative activities of κ opioid agonists in activating Gα proteins and internalizing receptor: Differences between human and mouse receptors.

    PubMed

    DiMattio, Kelly M; Ehlert, Frederick J; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-08-15

    Several investigators recently identified biased κ opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi-G) and receptor internalization (RAi-I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi-G - logRAi-I, RAi-G/RAi-I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1-17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed.

  9. Intrinsic Relative Activities of Opioid Agonists in Activating Gα proteins and Internalizing Receptor: Differences between Human and Mouse Receptors

    PubMed Central

    DiMattio, Kelly M.; Ehlert, Frederick J.; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators recently identified biased opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [35S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi−G) and receptor internalization (RAi−I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi−G − Log RAi−I, RAi−G/RAi−I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1–17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed. PMID:26057692

  10. Neuropeptide-Driven Cross-Modal Plasticity following Sensory Loss in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitch, Ithai; Laurent, Patrick; Zhao, Buyun; Walker, Denise; Beets, Isabel; Schoofs, Liliane; Bai, Jihong; Schafer, William R.; Treinin, Millet

    2016-01-01

    Sensory loss induces cross-modal plasticity, often resulting in altered performance in remaining sensory modalities. Whereas much is known about the macroscopic mechanisms underlying cross-modal plasticity, only scant information exists about its cellular and molecular underpinnings. We found that Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes deprived of a sense of body touch exhibit various changes in behavior, associated with other unimpaired senses. We focused on one such behavioral alteration, enhanced odor sensation, and sought to reveal the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that translate mechanosensory loss into improved olfactory acuity. To this end, we analyzed in mechanosensory mutants food-dependent locomotion patterns that are associated with olfactory responses and found changes that are consistent with enhanced olfaction. The altered locomotion could be reversed in adults by optogenetic stimulation of the touch receptor (mechanosensory) neurons. Furthermore, we revealed that the enhanced odor response is related to a strengthening of inhibitory AWC→AIY synaptic transmission in the olfactory circuit. Consistently, inserting in this circuit an engineered electrical synapse that diminishes AWC inhibition of AIY counteracted the locomotion changes in touch-deficient mutants. We found that this cross-modal signaling between the mechanosensory and olfactory circuits is mediated by neuropeptides, one of which we identified as FLP-20. Our results indicate that under normal function, ongoing touch receptor neuron activation evokes FLP-20 release, suppressing synaptic communication and thus dampening odor sensation. In contrast, in the absence of mechanosensory input, FLP-20 signaling is reduced, synaptic suppression is released, and this enables enhanced olfactory acuity; these changes are long lasting and do not represent ongoing modulation, as revealed by optogenetic experiments. Our work adds to a growing literature on the roles of neuropeptides in cross

  11. Gonadotrophin-releasing activity of neurohypophysial hormones: II. The pituitary oxytocin receptor mediating gonadotrophin release differs from that of corticotrophs.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J; Catt, K J

    1989-07-01

    Neurohypophysial hormones stimulate gonadotrophin release from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro, acting through receptors distinct from those which mediate the secretory response to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The LH response to oxytocin was not affected by the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, methyl isobutylxanthine, but was diminished in the absence of extracellular calcium and was progressively increased as the calcium concentration in the medium was raised to normal. In addition, the calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine, suppressed oxytocin-stimulated secretion of LH. It is likely that the mechanisms of LH release induced by GnRH and neurohypophysial hormones are similar, although stimulation of gonadotrophin secretion is mediated by separate receptor systems. Oxytocin was more active than vasopressin in releasing LH, but less active in releasing ACTH. The highly selective oxytocin agonist, [Thr4,Gly7]oxytocin, elicited concentration-dependent secretion of LH but had little effect on corticotrophin secretion. The neurohypophysial hormone antagonist analogues, [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)2]vasopressin, [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)2,Orn8]vasotocin and [d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)2Val4,Cit8]vasopressin, inhibited the LH response to both oxytocin and vasopressin. However, [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)2]vasopressin was much less effective in inhibiting the ACTH response to the neurohypophysial hormones, and [d(CH2)5Tyr-(Me)2,Orn8]vasotocin and [d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)2,Val4,Cit8]vasopressin exhibited no inhibitory activity against ACTH release. Thus, agonist and antagonist analogues of neurohypophysial hormones display divergent activities with regard to LH and ACTH responses, and the neuropeptide receptor mediating gonadotroph activation is clearly different from that on the corticotroph. Whereas the corticotroph receptor is a vasopressin-type receptor an oxytocin-type receptor is responsible for gonadotrophin release by neurohypophysial hormones.

  12. Orexins/hypocretins modulate the activity of NPY-positive and -negative neurons in the rat intergeniculate leaflet via OX1 and OX2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Palus, K; Chrobok, L; Lewandowski, M H

    2015-08-01

    Orexins/hypocretins (OXA and OXB) are two hypothalamic peptides involved in the regulation of many physiological processes including the sleep-wake cycle, food intake and arousal. The orexinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus is considered a non-specific peptidergic system, and its nerve fibers innervate numerous brain areas. Among many targets of orexinergic neurons is the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus - a small but important structure of the mammalian biological clock. In rats, the IGL consists of GABAergic cells which also synthesize different neuropeptides. One group of neurons produces neuropeptide Y (NPY) and sends its axons to the master biological clock known as the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Another neuronal group produces enkephalin and is known to connect contralateral IGLs. This study evaluated the effects of orexins on identified IGL neurons revealing that 58% of the recorded neurons were sensitive to OXA (200nM) and OXB (200nM) administration. Both NPY-positive and -negative neurons were depolarized by these neuropeptides. Experiments using selective orexin receptor antagonists (SB-334867, 10μM and TCS-OX2-29, 10μM) suggested that both orexin receptors participate in the recorded OXA effects. In addition, IGL neurons were either directly depolarized by OXA or their activity was altered by changes in presynaptic inputs. We observed an increase of GABA release onto the investigated IGL neuron after OXA application, consistent with a presynaptic localization of the orexin receptors. An increase in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency was not observed within the IGL. Our findings reinforce the connection between circadian clock physiology and the orexinergic system.

  13. Signaling pathways engaged by NK cell receptors: double concerto for activating receptors, inhibitory receptors and NK cells.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, E; Bléry, M; Vély, F; Vivier, E

    2000-04-01

    Despite the absence of antigen-specific receptors at their surface, NK cells can selectively eliminate virus-infected cells, tumor cells and allogenic cells. A dynamic and precisely coordinated balance between activating and inhibitory receptors governs NK cell activation programs. Multiple activating and inhibitory NK cell surface molecules have been described, a group of them acting as receptors for MHC class I molecules. In spite of their heterogeneity, activating NK cell receptors present remarkable structural and functional homologies with T cell- and B cell-antigen receptors. Inhibitory NK cell receptors operate at early stages of activating cascades by recruiting protein tyrosine phosphatases via intra- cytoplasmic motifs (ITIM), a strategy which is widely conserved in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells.

  14. GABA excitation in mouse hilar neuropeptide Y neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li-Ying; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2007-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the dentate hilar area play an important role in inhibiting the activity of hippocampal circuitry. Hilar cells are often among the first lost in hippocampal epilepsy. As many types of neurons are found in the hilus, we used a new transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of neurons that colocalized neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SST), and GABA for whole-cell, perforated, and cell-attached recording in 240 neurons. As these neurons have not previously been identifiable in live slices, they have not been the focus of physiological analysis. Hilar NPY neurons showed modest spike frequency adaptation, a large 15.6 ± 1.0 mV afterhyperpolarization, a mean input resistance of 335 ± 26 mΩ, and were capable of fast-firing. Muscimol-mediated excitatory actions were found in a nominally Ca2+-free/high-Mg2+ bath solution using cell-attached recording. GABAA receptor antagonists inhibited half the recorded neurons and blocked burst firing. Gramicidin perforated-patch recording revealed a GABA reversal potential positive to both the resting membrane potential and spike threshold. Together, these data suggest GABA is excitatory to many NPY cells. NPY and SST consistently hyperpolarized and reduced spike frequency in these neurons. No hyperpolarization of NPY on membrane potential was detected in the presence of tetrodotoxin, AP5, CNQX and bicuculline, supporting an indirect effect. Under similar conditions, SST hyperpolarized the cells, suggesting a direct postsynaptic action. Depolarizing actions of GABA and GABA-dependent burst-firing may synchronize a rapid release of GABA, NPY, and SST, leading to pre- and postsynaptic inhibition of excitatory hippocampal circuits. PMID:17204505

  15. Principles of antibody-mediated TNF receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Wajant, H

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of research on receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), agonistic antibodies have been used to stimulate TNFRSF receptors in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, CD95, one of the first cloned TNFRSF receptors, was solely identified as the target of cell death-inducing antibodies. Early on, it became evident from in vitro studies that valency and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding of antibodies targeting TNFRSF receptors can be of crucial relevance for agonistic activity. TNFRSF receptor-specific antibodies of the IgM subclass and secondary cross-linked or aggregation prone dimeric antibodies typically display superior agonistic activity compared with dimeric antibodies. Likewise, anchoring of antibodies to cell surface-expressed FcγRs potentiate their ability to trigger TNFRSF receptor signaling. However, only recently has the relevance of oligomerization and FcγR binding for the in vivo activity of antibody-induced TNFRSF receptor activation been straightforwardly demonstrated in vivo. This review discusses the crucial role of oligomerization and/or FcγR binding for antibody-mediated TNFRSF receptor stimulation in light of current models of TNFRSF receptor activation and especially the overwhelming relevance of these issues for the rational development of therapeutic TNFRSF receptor-targeting antibodies. PMID:26292758

  16. Anti-epileptic effects of neuropeptide Y gene transfection into the rat brain☆

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Changzheng; Zhao, Wenqing; Li, Wenling; Lv, Peiyuan; Dong, Xiufang

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y gene transfection into normal rat brain tissue can provide gene overexpression, which can attenuate the severity of kainic acid-induced seizures. In this study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying the neuropeptide Y gene was transfected into brain tissue of rats with kainic acid-induced epilepsy through stereotactic methods. Following these transfections, we verified overexpression of the neuropeptide Y gene in the epileptic brain. Electroencephalograms showed that seizure severity was significantly inhibited and seizure latency was significantly prolonged up to 4 weeks after gene transfection. Moreover, quantitative fluorescent PCR and western blot assays revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B was inhibited in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. These findings indicate that neuropeptide Y may inhibit seizures via down-regulation of the functional expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. PMID:25206425

  17. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  18. Identification of a neuropeptide modified with bromine as an endogenous ligand for GPR7.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Ryo; Yoshida, Hiromi; Fukusumi, Shoji; Habata, Yugo; Hosoya, Masaki; Kawamata, Yuji; Yano, Takahiko; Hinuma, Shuji; Kitada, Chieko; Asami, Taiji; Mori, Masaaki; Fujisawa, Yukio; Fujino, Masahiko

    2002-09-13

    We isolated a novel gene in a search of the Celera data base and found that it encoded a peptidic ligand for a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR7 (O'Dowd, B. F., Scheideler, M. A., Nguyen, T., Cheng, R., Rasmussen, J. S., Marchese, A., Zastawny, R., Heng, H. H., Tsui, L. C., Shi, X., Asa, S., Puy, L., and George, S. R. (1995) Genomics 28, 84-91; Lee, D. K., Nguyen, T., Porter, C. A., Cheng, R., George, S. R., and O'Dowd, B. F. (1999) Mol. Brain Res. 71, 96-103). The expression of this gene was detected in various tissues in rats, including the lymphoid organs, central nervous system, mammary glands, and uterus. GPR7 mRNA was mainly detected in the central nervous system and uterus. In situ hybridization showed that the gene encoding the GPR7 ligand was expressed in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats. To determine the molecular structure of the endogenous GPR7 ligand, we purified it from bovine hypothalamic tissue extracts on the basis of cAMP production-inhibitory activity to cells expressing GPR7. Through structural analyses, we found that the purified endogenous ligand was a peptide with 29 amino acid residues and that it was uniquely modified with bromine. We subsequently determined that the C-6 position of the indole moiety in the N-terminal Trp was brominated. We believe this is the first report on a neuropeptide modified with bromine and have hence named it neuropeptide B. In in vitro assays, bromination did not influence the binding of neuropeptide B to the receptor.

  19. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J.

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  20. Agonist induced constitutive receptor activation as a novel regulatory mechanism. Mu receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Sadée, W; Wang, Z

    1995-01-01

    We propose the hypothesis that certain G protein coupled receptors can become constitutively activated during agonist stimulation so that the receptor remains active even after the agonist is removed. This new paradigm of receptor regulation may account for some long term effects of neurotransmitters and hormones. We have tested the hypothesis that constitutive mu receptor activation represents a crucial step driving narcotic tolerance and dependence. Our results indeed support the conversion of mu to a constitutively active state, mu*, observed in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y tissue culture, in U293 cells transfected with the mu receptor gene, and in vivo. Constitutive mu activation may result from receptor phosphorylation to yield mu*, and further, in vivo studies indicate that formation of mu* could account for narcotic tolerance and dependence.

  1. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the bombesin receptor complex in small cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Gaudino, G; Cirillo, D; Naldini, L; Rossino, P; Comoglio, P M

    1988-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that bombesin-like peptides produced by small cell lung carcinomas may sustain deregulated proliferation through an autocrine mechanism. We have shown that the neuropeptide bombesin leads to the activation of a protein-tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates a 115-kDa protein (p115) associated with the bombesin receptor complex in mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. We now report that phosphotyrosine antibodies recognize a 115-kDa protein, phosphorylated on tyrosine, in four human small cell lung carcinoma cell lines producing bombesin but not in a nonproducer "variant" line. p115 from detergent-treated small cell lung carcinoma cells binds to bombesin-Sepharose and can be phosphorylated on tyrosine in the presence of radiolabeled ATP and Mn2+. As for the p115 immunoprecipitated from mouse fibroblast, the small cell lung carcinoma p115 can be phosphorylated in an immunocomplex kinase assay. However, the latter does not require the presence of exogenous bombesin for activity. Binding data, obtained by using radiolabeled ligand, suggest receptor occupancy in the cell lines producing bombesin. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that proliferation in some human small cell lung carcinoma lines is under autocrine control, regulated through activation of bombesin receptors. Images PMID:2451242

  2. Neuropeptides as therapeutic targets in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Lin, En-Ju D

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the classical neurotransmitters, neuropeptides represent an important class of modulators for affective behaviors and associated disorders, such as anxiety disorders. Many neuropeptides are abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in emotional processing and anxiety behaviors. Moreover, risk factors for anxiety disorders such as stress modulate the expression of various neuropeptides in the brain. Due to the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and yet limited treatment options, there is a clear need for more effective therapeutics. In this regard, the various neuropeptides represent exciting candidates for new therapeutic designs. In this review, I will provide an up-to-date summary on the evidences for the involvement of seven neuropeptides in anxiety: corticotropin-releasing factor, urocortins, vasopressin, oxytocin, substance P, neuropeptide Y and galanin. This review will cover the behavioral effects of these neuropeptides in animal models of anxiety by both genetic and pharmacological manipulations. Human studies indicating a role for these neuropeptides in anxiety disorders will also be discussed.

  3. Regional distribution of somatostatin receptor binding and modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Bergström, L; Garlind, A; Nilsson, L; Alafuzoff, I; Fowler, C J; Winblad, B; Cowburn, R F

    1991-10-01

    We have previously reported a reduction in the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on adenylyl cyclase activity in the superior temporal cortex of a group of Alzheimer's disease cases, compared to a group of matched controls. In the present study, the levels of high affinity 125I-Tyr11-somatostatin-14 binding, its modulation by guanine nucleotides and the effects of somatostatin on adenylyl cyclase activity have been measured in preparations of frontal cortex, hippocampus, caudate nucleus and cerebellum from the same patient and control groups. A significant reduction in 125I-Tyr11-somatostatin-14 binding was observed in the frontal cortex, but not other regions, of the Alzheimer's disease group, compared with control values. The profiles of inhibition of specific 125I-Tyr11-somatostatin-14 binding by Gpp(NH)p were similar in all regions in both groups. No significant differences in basal, forskolin-stimulated, or somatostatin and neuropeptide Y inhibitions of adenylyl cyclase activity were found between the two groups. The pattern of change of somatostatin binding in the Alzheimer's disease cases observed in the present study differs from the reported pattern of loss of somatostatin neurons and may be secondary to the degeneration of somatostatin receptor-bearing cholinergic afferents arising from the nucleus basalis. The results of this study indicate that impaired somatostatin modulation of adenylyl cyclase is not a global phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease brain and also that there are no major disruptions of somatostatin receptor-G-protein coupling or of adenylyl cyclase catalytic activity in this disorder. PMID:1684616

  4. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first Chelicerata pyrokinin receptor from a worldwide tick vector of zoonotic pathogens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified the first pyrokinin receptor (Rhimi-PK-R) from the Chelicerata and analyzed structure-activity relationships of cognate ligand neuropeptides and their analogs. This receptor, which we cloned from larvae of the tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), is the ortholog of the inse...

  5. Modulation of Glucagon Receptor Pharmacology by Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-2 (RAMP2)*

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Cathryn; Lu, Jing; Li, Naichang; Barkan, Kerry; Richards, Gareth O.; Roberts, David J.; Skerry, Timothy M.; Poyner, David; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; Reynolds, Christopher A.; Dowell, Simon J.; Willars, Gary B.; Ladds, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors play important, opposing roles in regulating blood glucose levels. Consequently, these receptors have been identified as targets for novel diabetes treatments. However, drugs acting at the GLP-1 receptor, although having clinical efficacy, have been associated with severe adverse side-effects, and targeting of the glucagon receptor has yet to be successful. Here we use a combination of yeast reporter assays and mammalian systems to provide a more complete understanding of glucagon receptor signaling, considering the effect of multiple ligands, association with the receptor-interacting protein receptor activity-modifying protein-2 (RAMP2), and the role of individual G protein α-subunits. We demonstrate that RAMP2 alters both ligand selectivity and G protein preference of the glucagon receptor. Importantly, we also uncover novel cross-reactivity of therapeutically used GLP-1 receptor ligands at the glucagon receptor that is abolished by RAMP2 interaction. This study reveals the glucagon receptor as a previously unidentified target for GLP-1 receptor agonists and highlights a role for RAMP2 in regulating its pharmacology. Such previously unrecognized functions of RAMPs highlight the need to consider all receptor-interacting proteins in future drug development. PMID:26198634

  6. Leptin and its receptors.

    PubMed

    Wada, Nobuhiro; Hirako, Satoshi; Takenoya, Fumiko; Kageyama, Haruaki; Okabe, Mai; Shioda, Seiji

    2014-11-01

    Leptin is mainly produced in the white adipose tissue before being secreted into the blood and transported across the blood-brain barrier. Leptin binds to a specific receptor (LepR) that has numerous subtypes (LepRa, LepRb, LepRc, LepRd, LepRe, and LepRf). LepRb, in particular, is expressed in several brain nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus, and the dorsomedial, lateral and ventromedial regions of the hypothalamus. LepRb is also co-expressed with several neuropeptides, including proopiomelanocortin, neuropeptide Y, galanin, galanin-like peptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide W. Functionally, LepRb induces activation of the JAK2/ERK, /STAT3, /STAT5 and IRS/PI3 kinase signaling cascades, which are important for the regulation of energy homeostasis and appetite in mammals. In this review, we discuss the structure, genetics and distribution of the leptin receptors, and their role in cell signaling mechanisms. PMID:25218975

  7. Intracellular mechanisms coupled to NPY Y2 and Y5 receptor activation and lipid accumulation in murine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Cortez, Vera; Estrada, Marta; Santana, Magda M; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Marques, Ana Patrícia; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2012-12-01

    The formation of adipose tissue is a process that includes the pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes that are cells specialized in lipid accumulation. The adipocyte differentiation is a process driven by the coordinated expression of various transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ). Neuropeptide Y (NPY) induces adipocyte proliferation and differentiation but the NPY receptors and the intracellular pathways involved in these processes are still not clear. In the present work we studied the role of NPY receptors and the intracellular pathways involved in the stimulatory effect of NPY on lipid accumulation. The murine pre-adipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1, was used as a cell model. Adipogenesis was evaluated by quantifying lipid accumulation by Oil red-O assay and by analyzing PPAR-γ expression using the Western blotting assay. Adipocytes were incubated with NPY (100nM) and a decrease on lipid accumulation and PPAR-γ expression was observed in the presence of NPY Y(2) receptor antagonist (BIIE0246, 1μM) or NPY Y(5) antagonist. Furthermore, NPY Y(2) (NPY(3-36), 100nM) or NPY Y(5) (NPY(19-23)(GLY(1), Ser(3), Gln(4), Thr(6), Ala(31), Aib(32), Gln(34)) PP, 100nM) receptor agonists increased lipid accumulation and PPAR-γ expression. We further investigate the intracellular pathways associated with NPY Y(2) and NPY Y(5) receptor activation. Our results show NPY induces PPAR-γ expression and lipid accumulation through NPY Y(2) and NPY Y(5) receptors activation. PKC and PLC inhibitors inhibit lipid accumulation induced by NPY Y(5) receptor agonist. Moreover, our results suggest that lipid accumulation induced by NPY Y(2) receptor activation occurs through PKA, MAPK and PI3K pathways. In conclusion, this study contributes to a step forward on the knowledge of intracellular mechanisms associated with NPY receptors activation on adipocytes and contributes to a better understanding and the development of new

  8. Receptor Activity-modifying Proteins 2 and 3 Generate Adrenomedullin Receptor Subtypes with Distinct Molecular Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Harriet A.; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S.; Gingell, Joseph J.; Garelja, Michael; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; McElhinney, James M. W. R.; Lathbridge, Alex; Constantine, Arran; Harris, Paul W. R.; Yuen, Tsz-Ying; Brimble, Margaret A.; Barwell, James; Poyner, David R.; Woolley, Michael J.; Conner, Alex C.; Pioszak, Augen A.; Reynolds, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone with numerous effects in the vascular systems. AM signals through the AM1 and AM2 receptors formed by the obligate heterodimerization of a G protein-coupled receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and receptor activity-modifying proteins 2 and 3 (RAMP2 and RAMP3), respectively. These different CLR-RAMP interactions yield discrete receptor pharmacology and physiological effects. The effective design of therapeutics that target the individual AM receptors is dependent on understanding the molecular details of the effects of RAMPs on CLR. To understand the role of RAMP2 and -3 on the activation and conformation of the CLR subunit of AM receptors, we mutated 68 individual amino acids in the juxtamembrane region of CLR, a key region for activation of AM receptors, and determined the effects on cAMP signaling. Sixteen CLR mutations had differential effects between the AM1 and AM2 receptors. Accompanying this, independent molecular modeling of the full-length AM-bound AM1 and AM2 receptors predicted differences in the binding pocket and differences in the electrostatic potential of the two AM receptors. Druggability analysis indicated unique features that could be used to develop selective small molecule ligands for each receptor. The interaction of RAMP2 or RAMP3 with CLR induces conformational variation in the juxtamembrane region, yielding distinct binding pockets, probably via an allosteric mechanism. These subtype-specific differences have implications for the design of therapeutics aimed at specific AM receptors and for understanding the mechanisms by which accessory proteins affect G protein-coupled receptor function. PMID:27013657

  9. SALMFamide salmagundi: the biology of a neuropeptide family in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Elphick, Maurice R

    2014-09-01

    The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that occur in species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata. The prototypes for this neuropeptide family (S1 and S2) were discovered in starfish but subsequently SALMFamides were identified in other echinoderms. There are two types of SALMFamides: L-type, which have the C-terminal motif SxLxFamide, and F-type, which have the C-terminal motif SxFxFamide. They are derived from two types of precursor proteins: an L-type SALMFamide precursor, which comprises only L-type or L-type-like SALMFamides and an F-type SALMFamide precursor, which contains several F-type or F-type-like SALMFamides and, typically, one or more L-type SALMFamides. Thus, SALMFamides occur as heterogeneous mixtures of neuropeptides - a SALMFamide salmagundi. SALMFamides are produced by distinct populations of neurons in echinoderm larval and adult nervous systems and are present in the innervation of neuromuscular organs. Both L-type and F-type SALMFamides cause muscle relaxation in echinoderms and, for example, in starfish this effect of SALMFamides may mediate neural control of cardiac stomach eversion in species that feed extra-orally (e.g., Asterias rubens). The SALMFamide S1 also causes inhibition of neural release of a relaxin-like gonadotropin in the starfish Asterina pectinifera. An important issue that remains to be resolved are the relationships of SALMFamides with neuropeptides that have been identified in other phyla. However, it has been noted that the C-terminal SxLxFamide motif of L-type SALMFamides is a feature of some members of a bilaterian neuropeptide family that includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in vertebrates and SIFamide-type neuropeptides in protostomes. Similarly, the C-terminal FxFamide motif of F-type SALMFamides is a feature of vertebrate QRFP (26RFa)-type neuropeptides. These sequence similarities may provide a basis for molecular identification of receptors that mediate effects of SALMFamides. Furthermore

  10. A widely used retinoic acid receptor antagonist induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Michael; Curtin, Joshua C; Kim, Roy J; Billin, Andrew N; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2007-05-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription factors whose activity is regulated by the binding of small lipophilic ligands, including hormones, vitamins, and metabolites. Pharmacological NR ligands serve as important therapeutic agents; for example, all-trans retinoic acid, an activating ligand for retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha), is used to treat leukemia. Another RARalpha ligand, (E)-S,S-dioxide-4-(2-(7-(heptyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-4,4-dimethyl-2H-1-benzothiopyran-6-yl)-1-propenyl)-benzoic acid (Ro 41-5253), is a potent antagonist that has been a useful and purportedly specific probe of RARalpha function. Here, we report that Ro 41-5253 also activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and target of widely prescribed antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Ro 41-5253 enhanced differentiation of mouse and human preadipocytes and activated PPARgamma target genes in mature adipocytes. Like the TZDs, Ro 41-5253 also down-regulated PPARgamma protein expression in adipocytes. In addition, Ro 41-5253 activated the PPARgamma-ligand binding domain in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. These effects were not prevented by a potent RARalpha agonist or by depleting cells of RARalpha, indicating that PPARgamma activation was not related to RARalpha antagonism. Indeed, Ro 41-5253 was able to compete with TZD ligands for binding to PPARgamma, suggesting that Ro 41-5253 directly affects PPAR activity. These results vividly demonstrate that pharmacological NR ligands may have "off-target" effects on other NRs. Ro 41-5253 is a PPARgamma agonist as well as an RARalpha antagonist whose pleiotropic effects on NRs may signify a unique spectrum of biological responses.

  11. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons maintained in nasal explants decrease LHRH messenger ribonucleic acid levels after activation of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Fueshko, S M; Key, S; Wray, S

    1998-06-01

    Inhibition of the LHRH system appears to play an important role in preventing precocious activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Evidence points to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as the major negative regulator of postnatal LHRH neuronal activity. Changes in LHRH messenger RNA (mRNA) levels after alterations of GABAergic activity have been reported in vivo. However, the extent to which GABA acts directly on LHRH neurons to effect LHRH mRNA levels has been difficult to ascertain. The present work evaluates the effect of GABAergic activity, via GABA(A) receptors, on LHRH neuropeptide gene expression in LHRH neurons maintained in olfactory explants generated from E11.5 mouse embryos. These explants maintain large numbers of primary LHRH neurons that migrate from bilateral olfactory pits in a directed manner. Using in situ hybridization histochemistry and single cell analysis, we report dramatic alterations in LHRH mRNA levels. Inhibition of spontaneous synaptic activity by GABA(A) antagonists, bicuculline (10(-5) M) or picrotoxin (10(-4) M), or of electrical activity by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10(-6) M) significantly increased LHRH mRNA levels. In contrast, LHRH mRNA levels decreased in explants cultured with the GABA(A) receptor agonist, muscimol (10(-4) M), or KCl (50 mM). The observed responses suggest that LHRH neurons possess functional pathways linking GABA(A) receptors to repression of neuropeptide gene expression and indicate that gene expression in embryonic LHRH neurons, outside the CNS, is highly responsive to alterations in neuronal activity.

  12. Mineralocorticoid receptor activation in obesity hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Miki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2009-08-01

    Obesity hypertension and metabolic syndrome have become major public health concerns. Nowadays, aldosterone is recognized as an important mediator of cardiovascular and renal damage. In the kidney, aldosterone injures glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes), the final filtration barrier to plasma macromolecules, leading to proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists effectively ameliorate proteinuria in patients or in animal models of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as in patients who experience 'aldosterone breakthrough.' Recently, clinical and experimental studies have shown that plasma aldosterone concentration is associated with obesity hypertension and metabolic syndrome. We showed that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)/cp, an experimental model of obesity hypertension and metabolic syndrome, are prone to glomerular podocyte injury, proteinuria and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, especially when the animals are fed a high-salt diet. Inappropriate activation of the aldosterone/MR system underlies the renal and cardiac injuries. Adipocyte-derived aldosterone-releasing factors (ARFs), although still unidentified, may account for aldosterone excess and the resultant target organ complication in SHR/cp. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that MR activation triggers target organ disease even in normal or low aldosterone states. We identified a small GTP (guanosine triphosphate)-binding protein, Rac1, as a novel activator of MR, and showed that this ligand-independent MR activation by Rac1 contributes to the nephropathy of several CKD models. We expect that ARFs and Rac1 can be novel therapeutic targets for metabolic syndrome and CKD. Future large-scale clinical trials are awaited to prove the efficacy of MR blockade in patients with obesity hypertension and metabolic syndrome.

  13. RELAXIN ACTIVATES PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir; Bennett, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that triggers multiple signaling pathways through its receptor RXFP1. Many of relaxin’s functions, including vascular and antifibrotic effects, are similar to those induced by activation of PPARγ. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that relaxin signaling through RXFP1 would activate PPARγ activity. In cells overexpressing RXFP1 (HEK-RXFP1), relaxin increased transcriptional activity through a PPAR response element (PPRE) in a concentration-dependent manner. In cells lacking RXFP1, relaxin had no effect. Relaxin increased both the baseline activity and the response to the PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2, but not to agonists of PPARα or PPARδ. In HEK-RXFP1 cells infected with adenovirus expressing PPARγ, relaxin increased transcriptional activity through PPRE, and this effect was blocked with an adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative PPARγ. Knockdown of PPARγ using siRNA resulted in a decrease in the response to both relaxin and rosiglitazone. Both relaxin and rosiglitazone increased expression of the PPARγ target genes CD36 and LXRα in HEK-RXFP1 and in THP-1 cells naturally expressing RXFP1. Relaxin did not increase PPARγ mRNA or protein levels. Treatment of cells with GW9662, an inhibitor of PPARγ ligand binding, effectively blocked rosiglitazone-induced PPARγ activation, but had no effect on relaxin activation of PPARγ. These results suggest that relaxin activates PPARγ activity, and increases the overall response in the presence PPARγ agonists. This activation is dependent on the presence of RXFP1. Furthermore, relaxin activates PPARγ via a ligand-independent mechanism. These studies represent the first report that relaxin can activate the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. PMID:19712722

  14. Methylglyoxal Activates Nociceptors through Transient Receptor Potential Channel A1 (TRPA1)

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Mirjam J.; Filipovic, Milos R.; Leffler, Andreas; de la Roche, Jeanne; Kistner, Katrin; Fischer, Michael J.; Fleming, Thomas; Zimmermann, Katharina; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Reeh, Peter W.; Sauer, Susanne K.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic pain can develop as an agonizing sequela of diabetes mellitus and chronic uremia. A chemical link between both conditions of altered metabolism is the highly reactive compound methylglyoxal (MG), which accumulates in all cells, in particular neurons, and leaks into plasma as an index of the severity of the disorder. The electrophilic structure of this cytotoxic ketoaldehyde suggests TRPA1, a receptor channel deeply involved in inflammatory and neuropathic pain, as a molecular target. We demonstrate that extracellularly applied MG accesses specific intracellular binding sites of TRPA1, activating inward currents and calcium influx in transfected cells and sensory neurons, slowing conduction velocity in unmyelinated peripheral nerve fibers, and stimulating release of proinflammatory neuropeptides from and action potential firing in cutaneous nociceptors. Using a model peptide of the N terminus of human TRPA1, we demonstrate the formation of disulfide bonds based on MG-induced modification of cysteines as a novel mechanism. In conclusion, MG is proposed to be a candidate metabolite that causes neuropathic pain in metabolic disorders and thus is a promising target for medicinal chemistry. PMID:22740698

  15. Effect of total or partial uterus extirpation on sympathetic uterus-projecting neurons in porcine inferior mesenteric ganglion. B. Changes in expression of neuropeptide Y, galanin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating peptide, somatostatin and substance P.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, K

    2003-01-01

    The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM) and substance P (SP) was studied in the neurons of the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) projecting to the uterine horn and uterine cervix after uterus extirpation-induced axotomy in sexually immature gilts. The expression was studied with immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. Uterus-projecting neurons were identified by retrograde tracing with Fast Blue (FB). Immunohistochemistry revealed that FB-positive (FB+) uterus-projecting neurons in control animals contained only immunoreactivities to NPY (ca. 50%) and GAL (single neurons). Uterus extirpation increased the occurrence of NPY and GAL in FB+ neurons. No other studied neuropeptides were found in axotomized uterus-projecting neurons. Hybridization in situ revealed the reduction of NPY expression and induction of GAL expression in FB+ neurons. RT-PCR detected induction of GAL expression in the IMG after uterus extirpation. The expression level of NPY and SOM was significant and was not affected by axotomy. The expression level of PACAP was very low and did not differ between IMG of control, partially and totally hysterectomized animals. No VIP and SP expression was detected in all ganglia. The presented data show clear axotomy-related changes in the expression of GAL and NPY in the uterus-projecting neurons of the porcine IMG. PMID:12817785

  16. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  17. Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  18. Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  19. The growth hormone receptor: mechanism of activation and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Andrew J; Waters, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Growth hormone is widely used clinically to promote growth and anabolism and for other purposes. Its actions are mediated via the growth hormone receptor, both directly by tyrosine kinase activation and indirectly by induction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Insensitivity to growth hormone (Laron syndrome) can result from mutations in the growth hormone receptor and can be treated with IGF-1. This treatment is, however, not fully effective owing to the loss of the direct actions of growth hormone and altered availability of exogenous IGF-1. Excessive activation of the growth hormone receptor by circulating growth hormone results in gigantism and acromegaly, whereas cell transformation and cancer can occur in response to autocrine activation of the receptor. Advances in understanding the mechanism of receptor activation have led to a model in which the growth hormone receptor exists as a constitutive dimer. Binding of the hormone realigns the subunits by rotation and closer apposition, resulting in juxtaposition of the catalytic domains of the associated tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2 below the cell membrane. This change results in activation of JAK2 by transphosphorylation, then phosphorylation of receptor tyrosines in the cytoplasmic domain, which enables binding of adaptor proteins, as well as direct phosphorylation of target proteins. This model is discussed in the light of salient information from closely related class 1 cytokine receptors, such as the erythropoietin, prolactin and thrombopoietin receptors. PMID:20664532

  20. Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-yuan; Zhang, Man; Huang, Tao; Yang, Li-ling; Fu, Hai-bo; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda LD; Mu, Huai-xue; Shi, Xiao-ke; Leung, Christina FP; Fan, Bao-min; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Ai-ping; Zhu, Li-xin; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    A novel neuropeptide spexin was found to be broadly expressed in various endocrine and nervous tissues while little is known about its functions. This study investigated the role of spexin in bowel movement and the underlying mechanisms. In functional constipation (FC) patients, serum spexin levels were significantly decreased. Consistently, in starved mice, the mRNA of spexin was significantly decreased in intestine and colon. Spexin injection increased the velocity of carbon powder propulsion in small intestine and decreased the glass beads expulsion time in distal colon in mice. Further, spexin dose-dependently stimulated the intestinal/colonic smooth muscle contraction. Galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) antagonist M871, but not Galanin receptor 3 (GALR3) antagonist SNAP37899, effectively suppressed the stimulatory effects of spexin on intestinal/colonic smooth muscle contraction, which could be eliminated by extracellular [Ca2+] removal and L-type voltage-dependentCa2+ channel (VDCC) inhibitor nifedipine. Besides, spexin dramatically increased the [Ca2+]i in isolated colonic smooth muscle cells. These data indicate that spexin can act on GALR2 receptor to regulate bowel motility by activating L-type VDCC. Our findings provide evidence for important physiological roles of spexin in GI functions. Selective action on spexin pathway might have therapeutic effects on GI diseases with motility disorders. PMID:26160593

  1. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric

    2015-11-30

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  2. Central effect of vasotocin 4 receptor (VT4R/V1aR) antagonists on the stress response and food intake in chicks given neuropeptide Y (NPY).

    PubMed

    Kuenzel, Wayne J; Hancock, Megan; Nagarajan, Gurueswar; Aman, N Alphonse; Kang, Seong W

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies identified SR-49059 as a most effective antagonist of the avian vasotocin 4 receptor (VT4R) compared to other candidate blockers including the Manning compound using in silico 3 dimensional (3D) modeling/docking analysis of the chicken VT4R and an in vitro anterior pituitary cell culture study. The present experiments were designed to validate whether SR-49059 and the Manning compound would likewise be effective in vivo in blocking the VT4R when applied intracerebroventricularly (ICV) to chicks. Two treatments were tested, a stressor (immobilization) and administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent orexigenic compound. In the first experiment, birds were given the Manning compound, SR-49059 or physiological saline ICV followed by immobilization stress. Blood samples were taken and corticosterone (CORT) was determined by radioimmunoassay. It was hypothesized that both antagonists would reduce the stress response. A second experiment examined the role of the VT4R in food intake regulation. The Manning compound, SR-49059 or physiological saline was administered prior to NPY and food intake was monitored for 1h. It was hypothesized that each of the two antagonists coupled with NPY would augment food intake above the intake resulting from saline plus NPY administration. Related to the second experiment was a third that examined the difference between the effect of central administration of NPY versus SR-49059 in releasing CORT. Results of the first study showed that the Manning compound or SR-49059 prior to stress decreased CORT levels compared to controls while the second experiment showed that SR-49059 or the Manning compound plus NPY, enhanced food intake above that of the experimental group given saline and NPY. The last study showed that NPY increased plasma CORT above birds given SR-49059 centrally or saline administered controls. Taken together, results suggest that the avian VT4R is involved in the central neuroendocrine stress response as

  3. Evidence for tachykinin NK3 receptors-triggered peptide YY release from isolated guinea-pig distal colon.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Shu-ichi; Tohei, Atsushi; Kojima, Ken; Anzai, Naohiko

    2014-10-01

    The anorectic gut hormone, peptide YY (PYY), is released from colonic mucosal endocrine cells, but little is known about the role for tachykinin NK3 receptor in the control of PYY release from the colonic mucosa. We investigated the functional role for NK3 receptors in the control of PYY release from isolated guinea-pig distal colon, and the role for NK3 receptors-triggered PYY release in the control of colonic motility. Isolated colonic preparations were mounted in organ baths for measurement of PYY release and mechanical activity. The release of PYY from these preparations was determined by enzyme immunoassays. The NK3 receptor agonist senktide produced a tetrodotoxin/atropine-sensitive sustained increase in the release of PYY from the colonic preparations. Basal PYY release was transiently inhibited by the NK3 receptor antagonist SB222200. The neuropeptide Y1 receptor antagonist BIBO3304 produced a leftward shift of the concentration-response curves for senktide-evoked neurogenic contraction, but neither the neuropeptide Y2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 nor the neuropeptide Y5 receptor antagonist CGP71683 affected the senktide concentration-response curves. NK3 receptors appear to play an important role in the control of PYY release from colonic mucosa, and NK3 receptor-triggered PYY release can exert Y1 receptor-mediated inhibition of tachykinergic neuromuscular transmission. This indicates a pathophysiological role for the NK3 receptor-triggered PYY release in the control of colonic motility.

  4. Hypothalamus-adipose tissue crosstalk: neuropeptide Y and the regulation of energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic neuropeptide that plays a role in regulating adiposity by promoting energy storage in white adipose tissue and inhibiting brown adipose tissue activation in mammals. This review describes mechanisms underlying NPY's effects on adipose tissue energy metabolism, with an emphasis on cellular proliferation, adipogenesis, lipid deposition, and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, and brown fat activation and thermogenesis. In general, NPY promotes adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation, leading to energy storage in adipose tissue, with effects mediated mainly through NPY receptor sub-types 1 and 2. This review highlights hypothalamus-sympathetic nervous system-adipose tissue innervation and adipose tissue-hypothalamus feedback loops as pathways underlying these effects. Potential sources of NPY that mediate adipose effects include the bloodstream, sympathetic nerve terminals that innervate the adipose tissue, as well as adipose tissue-derived cells. Understanding the role of central vs. peripherally-derived NPY in whole-body energy balance could shed light on mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of obesity. This information may provide some insight into searching for alternative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases.

  5. Functional comparison of two evolutionary conserved insect neurokinin-like receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tachykinins are multifunctional neuropeptides that have been identified in vertebrates as well as invertebrates. The C-terminal FXGXRa-motif constitutes the consensus active core region of invertebrate tachykinins. In Drosophila, two putative G protein-coupled tachykinin receptors have been clone...

  6. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neuropeptide Expression in Patients with Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Wamelen, Daniel J.; Aziz, N. Ahmad; Anink, Jasper J.; van Steenhoven, Robin; Angeloni, Debora; Fraschini, Franco; Jockers, Ralf; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To study whether sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) arise from dysfunction of the body's master clock, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Design: Postmortem cohort study. Patients: Eight patients with HD and eight control subjects matched for sex, age, clock time and month of death, postmortem delay, and fixation time of paraffin-embedded hypothalamic tissue. Measurements and Results: Using postmortem paraffin-embedded tissue, we assessed the functional integrity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in patients with HD and control subjects by determining the expression of two major regulatory neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and arginine vasopressin. Additionally, we studied melatonin 1 and 2 receptor expression. Compared with control subjects, the suprachiasmatic nucleus contained 85% fewer neurons immunoreactive for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and 33% fewer neurons for arginine vasopressin in patients with HD (P = 0.002 and P = 0.027). The total amount of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and arginine vasopressin messenger RNA was unchanged. No change was observed in the number of melatonin 1 or 2 receptor immunoreactive neurons. Conclusions: These findings indicate posttranscriptional neuropeptide changes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of patients with HD, and suggest that sleep and circadian rhythm disorders in these patients may at least partly arise from suprachiasmatic nucleus dysfunction. Citation: van Wamelen DJ; Aziz NA; Anink JJ; van Steenhoven R; Angeloni D; Fraschini F; Jockers R; Roos RAC; Swaab DF. Suprachiasmatic nucleus neuropeptide expression in patients with Huntington's disease. SLEEP 2013;36(1):117–125. PMID:23288978

  7. Conserved structure and adjacent location of the thrombin receptor and protease-activated receptor 2 genes define a protease-activated receptor gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, M.; Ishii, K.; Kuo, W. L.; Piper, M.; Connolly, A.; Shi, Y. P.; Wu, R.; Lin, C. C.; Coughlin, S. R.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thrombin is a serine protease that elicits a variety of cellular responses. Molecular cloning of a thrombin receptor revealed a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a novel proteolytic mechanism. Recently, a second protease-activated receptor was discovered and dubbed PAR2. PAR2 is highly related to the thrombin receptor by sequence and, like the thrombin receptor, is activated by cleavage of its amino terminal exodomain. Also like the thrombin receptor, PAR2 can be activated by the hexapeptide corresponding to its tethered ligand sequence independent of receptor cleavage. Thus, functionally, the thrombin receptor and PAR2 constitute a fledgling receptor family that shares a novel proteolytic activation mechanism. To further explore the relatedness of the two known protease-activated receptors and to examine the possibility that a protease-activated gene cluster might exist, we have compared the structure and chromosomal locations of the thrombin receptor and PAR2 genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genomic structures of the two protease-activated receptor genes were determined by analysis of lambda phage, P1 bacteriophage, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomic clones. Chromosomal location was determined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes, and the relative distance separating the two genes was evaluated both by means of two-color FISH and analysis of YACs and BACs containing both genes. RESULTS: Analysis of genomic clones revealed that the two protease-activated receptor genes share a two-exon genomic structure in which the first exon encodes 5'-untranslated sequence and signal peptide, and the second exon encodes the mature receptor protein and 3'-untranslated sequence. The two receptor genes also share a common locus with the two human genes located at 5q13 and the two mouse genes at 13D2, a syntenic region of the mouse genome. These techniques also suggest that the physical distance separating

  8. Prothymosin alpha selectively enhances estrogen receptor transcriptional activity by interacting with a repressor of estrogen receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Martini, P G; Delage-Mourroux, R; Kraichely, D M; Katzenellenbogen, B S

    2000-09-01

    We find that prothymosin alpha (PTalpha) selectively enhances transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor (ER) but not transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors. This selectivity for ER is explained by PTalpha interaction not with ER, but with a 37-kDa protein denoted REA, for repressor of estrogen receptor activity, a protein that we have previously shown binds to ER, blocking coactivator binding to ER. We isolated PTalpha, known to be a chromatin-remodeling protein associated with cell proliferation, using REA as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen with a cDNA library from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. PTalpha increases the magnitude of ERalpha transcriptional activity three- to fourfold. It shows lesser enhancement of ERbeta transcriptional activity and has no influence on the transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors (progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, thyroid hormone receptor, or retinoic acid receptor) or on the basal activity of ERs. In contrast, the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 increases transcriptional activity of all of these receptors. Cotransfection of PTalpha or SRC-1 with increasing amounts of REA, as well as competitive glutathione S-transferase pulldown and mammalian two-hybrid studies, show that REA competes with PTalpha (or SRC-1) for regulation of ER transcriptional activity and suppresses the ER stimulation by PTalpha or SRC-1, indicating that REA can function as an anticoactivator in cells. Our data support a model in which PTalpha, which does not interact with ER, selectively enhances the transcriptional activity of the ER but not that of other nuclear receptors by recruiting the repressive REA protein away from ER, thereby allowing effective coactivation of ER with SRC-1 or other coregulators. The ability of PTalpha to directly interact in vitro and in vivo with REA, a selective coregulator of the ER, thereby enabling the interaction of ER with coactivators, appears to explain

  9. Cell Surface Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Increase Src and c-Cbl Activity and Receptor Ubiquitylation*

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Eileen E.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    There is an established role for the endocytic pathway in regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to downstream effectors. However, because ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis utilizes multiple “moving parts,” dissecting the spatial versus temporal contributions has been challenging. Blocking all endocytic trafficking can have unintended effects on other receptors as well as give rise to compensatory mechanisms, both of which impact interpretation of EGFR signaling. To overcome these limitations, we used epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated to polystyrene beads (EGF beads). EGF beads simultaneously activate the EGFR while blocking its endocytosis and allow analysis of EGFR signaling from the plasma membrane. Human telomerase immortalized corneal epithelial (hTCEpi) cells were used to model normal epithelial cell biology. In hTCEpi cells, both cell surface and intracellular EGFRs exhibited dose-dependent increases in effector activity after 15 min of ligand stimulation, but only the serine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was statistically significant when accounting for receptor phosphorylation. However, over time with physiological levels of receptor phosphorylation, cell surface receptors produced either enhanced or sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), and the pro-oncogene Src activity. These increases in effector communication by cell surface receptors resulted in an increase in EGFR ubiquitylation with sustained ligand incubation. Together, these data indicate that spatial regulation of EGFR signaling may be an important regulatory mechanism in receptor down-regulation. PMID:25074934

  10. Activating Receptor Signals Drive Receptor Diversity in Developing Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Jacquelyn; May, Rebecca M.; Li, Hongchuan; McCullen, Matthew; Zhang, Bin; Lenvik, Todd; Cichocki, Frank; Anderson, Stephen K.; Kambayashi, Taku

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been appreciated that NK cells exhibit many features reminiscent of adaptive immune cells. Considerable heterogeneity exists with respect to the ligand specificity of individual NK cells and as such, a subset of NK cells can respond, expand, and differentiate into memory-like cells in a ligand-specific manner. MHC I-binding inhibitory receptors, including those belonging to the Ly49 and KIR families, are expressed in a variegated manner, which creates ligand-specific diversity within the NK cell pool. However, how NK cells determine which inhibitory receptors to express on their cell surface during a narrow window of development is largely unknown. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that signals from activating receptors are critical for induction of Ly49 and KIR receptors during NK cell development; activating receptor-derived signals increased the probability of the Ly49 bidirectional Pro1 promoter to transcribe in the forward versus the reverse direction, leading to stable expression of Ly49 receptors in mature NK cells. Our data support a model where the balance of activating and inhibitory receptor signaling in NK cells selects for the induction of appropriate inhibitory receptors during development, which NK cells use to create a diverse pool of ligand-specific NK cells. PMID:27500644

  11. Activating Receptor Signals Drive Receptor Diversity in Developing Natural Killer Cells.

    PubMed

    Freund, Jacquelyn; May, Rebecca M; Yang, Enjun; Li, Hongchuan; McCullen, Matthew; Zhang, Bin; Lenvik, Todd; Cichocki, Frank; Anderson, Stephen K; Kambayashi, Taku

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been appreciated that NK cells exhibit many features reminiscent of adaptive immune cells. Considerable heterogeneity exists with respect to the ligand specificity of individual NK cells and as such, a subset of NK cells can respond, expand, and differentiate into memory-like cells in a ligand-specific manner. MHC I-binding inhibitory receptors, including those belonging to the Ly49 and KIR families, are expressed in a variegated manner, which creates ligand-specific diversity within the NK cell pool. However, how NK cells determine which inhibitory receptors to express on their cell surface during a narrow window of development is largely unknown. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that signals from activating receptors are critical for induction of Ly49 and KIR receptors during NK cell development; activating receptor-derived signals increased the probability of the Ly49 bidirectional Pro1 promoter to transcribe in the forward versus the reverse direction, leading to stable expression of Ly49 receptors in mature NK cells. Our data support a model where the balance of activating and inhibitory receptor signaling in NK cells selects for the induction of appropriate inhibitory receptors during development, which NK cells use to create a diverse pool of ligand-specific NK cells.

  12. Orexin excites rat inferior vestibular nuclear neurons via co-activation of OX1 and OX 2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Chen, Zhang-Peng; Zhuang, Qian-Xing; Zhu, Jing-Ning; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Orexin deficiency results in cataplexy, a motor deficit characterized by sudden loss of muscle tone, strongly indicating an active role of central orexinergic system in motor control. However, effects of orexin on neurons in central motor structures are still largely unknown. Our previous studies have revealed that orexin excites neurons in the cerebellar nuclei and lateral vestibular nucleus, two important subcortical motor centers for control of muscle tone. Here, we report that both orexin-A and orexin-B depolarizes and increases the firing rate of neurons in the inferior vestibular nucleus (IVN), the largest nucleus in the vestibular nuclear complex and holding an important position in integration of information signals in the control of body posture. TTX does not block orexin-induced excitation on IVN neurons, suggesting a direct postsynaptic action of the neuropeptide. Furthermore, bath application of orexin induces an inward current on IVN neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. SB334867 and TCS-OX2-29, specific OX1 and OX2 receptor antagonists, blocked the excitatory effect of orexin, and [Ala(11), D-Leu(15)]-orexin B, a selective OX2 receptor agonist, mimics the orexin-induced inward current on IVN neurons. qPCR and immunofluorescence results show that both OX1 and OX2 receptor mRNAs and proteins are expressed and localized in the rat IVN. These results demonstrate that orexin excites the IVN neurons by co-activation of both OX1 and OX2 receptors, suggesting that via the direct modulation on the IVN, the central orexinergic system may actively participate in the central vestibular-mediated postural and motor control.

  13. Biological activity of a polypeptide modulator of TRPV1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, I A; Andreev, Ya A; Logashina, Yu A; Murashev, A N; Grishin, E V

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents data on the activity of a new APHC2 polypeptide modulator of TRPV1 receptors, which was isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. It has been shown that APHC2 has an analgesic activity, does not impair normal motor activity, and does not change body temperature of experimental animals, which has a great practical value for design of potent analgesics of a new generation. Further study of the characteristics of binding of the polypeptide to the TRPV1 receptor may show approaches to the development of other antagonists of this receptor that do not influence the body temperature. PMID:26725234

  14. Neuropeptide signaling remodels chemosensory circuit composition in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Leinwand, Sarah G.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2013-01-01

    Neural circuits detect environmental changes and drive behavior. The routes of information flow through dense neural networks are dynamic; however, the mechanisms underlying this circuit flexibility are poorly understood. Here, we define a novel, sensory context-dependent and neuropeptide-regulated switch in the composition of a C. elegans salt sensory circuit. The primary salt detectors, ASE sensory neurons, use BLI-4 endoprotease-dependent cleavage to release the insulin-like peptide INS-6 in response to large but not small changes in external salt stimuli. Insulins, signaling through the insulin receptor DAF-2, functionally switch the AWC olfactory sensory neuron into an interneuron in the salt circuit. Animals with disrupted insulin signaling have deficits in salt attraction, suggesting that peptidergic signaling potentiates responses to high salt stimuli, which may promote ion homeostasis. Our results show that sensory context and neuropeptide signaling modify neural networks and suggest general mechanisms for generating flexible behavioral outputs by modulating neural circuit composition. PMID:24013594

  15. The immune effects of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Berczi, I; Chalmers, I M; Nagy, E; Warrington, R J

    1996-05-01

    Current evidence indicates that the neuroendocrine system is the highest regulator of immune/inflammatory reactions. Prolactin and growth hormone stimulate the production of leukocytes, including lymphocytes, and maintain immunocompetence. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis constitutes the most powerful circuit regulating the immune system. The neuropeptides constituting this axis, namely corticotrophin releasing factor, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, and beta-endorphin are powerful immunoregulators, which have a direct regulatory effect on lymphoid cells, regulating immune reactions by the stimulation of immunoregulatory hormones (glucocorticoids) and also by acting on the central nervous system which in turn generates immunoregulatory nerve impulses. Peptidergic nerves are major regulators of the inflammatory response. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide are pro-inflammatory mediators and somatostatin is anti-inflammatory. The neuroendocrine regulation of the inflammatory response is of major significance from the point of view of immune homeostasis. Malfunction of this circuit leads to disease and often is life-threatening. The immune system emits signals towards the neuroendocrine system by cytokine mediators which reach significant blood levels (cytokine-hormones) during systemic immune/inflammatory reactions. Interleukin-1, -6, and TNF-alpha are the major cytokine hormones mediating the acute phase response. These cytokines induce profound neuroendocrine and metabolic changes by interacting with the central nervous system and with many other organs and tissues in the body. Corticotrophin releasing factor functions under these conditions as a major co-ordinator of the response and is responsible for activating the ACTH-adrenal axis for regulating fever and for other CNS effects leading to a sympathetic outflow. Increased ACTH secretion leads to glucocorticoid production. alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone

  16. The role of neuropeptide Y in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Chenliang; Song, Zhiyuan; Lin, Shu

    2016-10-01

    With average life expectancy rising greatly, the incidence rate of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has significantly increased. The heart disease has now become the number one killer that threatens the global population health, the second is stroke. It will be of great significance to investigate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ASCVD in order to promote effective prevention and treatment. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) has now been discovered for more than thirty years and is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. By combining with certain receptors, NPY performs a variety of physiological functions, including the regulation of food intake, cardiovascular effects, development, hormonal secretion, sexual behavior, biological rhythms, temperature and emotion. In ASCVD, increased peripheral NPY was involved in the pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis through affecting the vascular endothelial dysfunction, the formation of foam cells, the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, the local inflammatory response of plaques and the activation and aggregation of platelets. Via central and/or the peripheral nervous system, increased NPY was associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and smoking which are all risk factors for ASCVD. In this review, we summarize the role of neuropeptide Y in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  17. MicroRNA's impact on neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems: small but mighty mediators of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Martinetz, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders rank among the most common severe diseases worldwide, with millions of people affected worldwide every year. The symptoms are manifold, and the outcome for the patients is often unclear. As a high and yearly rising cost burden for society, anxiety disorders, depression and their related mental disorders are currently a well-researched topic in order to develop new functional pharmacological therapies as alternatives to those that are in use and bear many unpleasant side effects. Brain circuitries, such as those underlying anxiety formations, are mainly driven by the interplay of various neurotransmitter systems and the interaction of different brain loci, as well as the modulating impact of neuropeptides. Targeting those networks is a complex but promising way to regulate mood. Alterations on molecular level of the neuronal cell in response to respective receptor activation, especially at post-transcriptional level via the highly regulatory function of non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) seem to hold a promising future in the development of novel therapeutic strategies and are therefore under intensified investigation. This review focusses on the impact of miRNAs on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems of the central nervous system relevant for the formation of anxiety disorders and discusses the potential of miRNAs for the development of new therapeutic strategies for anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:27138168

  18. The role of neuropeptide Y in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Chenliang; Song, Zhiyuan; Lin, Shu

    2016-10-01

    With average life expectancy rising greatly, the incidence rate of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has significantly increased. The heart disease has now become the number one killer that threatens the global population health, the second is stroke. It will be of great significance to investigate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ASCVD in order to promote effective prevention and treatment. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) has now been discovered for more than thirty years and is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. By combining with certain receptors, NPY performs a variety of physiological functions, including the regulation of food intake, cardiovascular effects, development, hormonal secretion, sexual behavior, biological rhythms, temperature and emotion. In ASCVD, increased peripheral NPY was involved in the pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis through affecting the vascular endothelial dysfunction, the formation of foam cells, the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, the local inflammatory response of plaques and the activation and aggregation of platelets. Via central and/or the peripheral nervous system, increased NPY was associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and smoking which are all risk factors for ASCVD. In this review, we summarize the role of neuropeptide Y in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27389447

  19. The activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by the transmitter.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D B; Spivak, C E

    1985-02-01

    Experimental evidence has been published from isolated guinea pig muscle in vitro, and from direct ligand binding to receptors from T. californica, indicating that two agonist ions react with the nicotinic receptor by exchanging for one magnesium ion. It is the basis of the ion exchange receptor pair model, in which two acetylcholine ions exchange for one magnesium ion in contact with and between a pair of negatively charged receptor groups about 4 A apart. In the resting state the electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged receptor groups and the Mg2+ ion exerts a binding force. This binding force is opposed by the quantum mechanical repulsions of the electron clouds of the charged groups and ions in contact, together with the mutual repulsion of the pair of receptor oxyanions. When the Mg2+ ion is replaced by two acetylcholine ions the quaternary heads of the latter are positioned so that they form two mutually repelling ACh+ receptor group dipoles. As the Mg2+ ion leaves, its rehydration energy contributes to the sum of the electron cloud repulsions and the ACh+ receptor group dipole repulsions, causing the receptor groups to be forced apart activating the receptor macromolecule. The subsequent decrease in ACh+ concentration results in the reestablishment of the resting state. The coulombic electrostatic energy, the Born repulsion energy, the London attraction energy and the oxyanion ACh+ dipole repulsion energies have been calculated and shown to be consistent with the model. The displacement of the Mg2+ by two ACh+ ions makes several hundred kcals of energy available for receptor group separation and receptor activation.

  20. Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activiated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent effects of PPARalpha activators in the rodent liver: Di(2-ethylehexyl) phthalate activates the constitutive activated receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl ph...

  1. Negative Regulation of Leptin-induced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Formation by Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Activation in Hypothalamic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Palomba, Letizia; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Imperatore, Roberta; Morello, Giovanna; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Martella, Andrea; Cristino, Luigia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2015-05-29

    The adipocyte-derived, anorectic hormone leptin was recently shown to owe part of its regulatory effects on appetite-regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides to the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons. Leptin is also known to exert a negative regulation on hypothalamic endocannabinoid levels and hence on cannabinoid CB1 receptor activity. Here we investigated the possibility of a negative regulation by CB1 receptors of leptin-mediated ROS formation in the ARC. Through pharmacological and molecular biology experiments we report data showing that leptin-induced ROS accumulation is 1) blunted by arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) in a CB1-dependent manner in both the mouse hypothalamic cell line mHypoE-N41 and ARC neuron primary cultures, 2) likewise blocked by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, troglitazone, in a manner inhibited by T0070907, a PPAR-γ antagonist that also inhibited the ACEA effect on leptin, 3) blunted under conditions of increased endocannabinoid tone due to either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation in mHypoE-N41 and primary ARC neuronal cultures from MAGL(-/-) mice, respectively, and 4) associated with reduction of both PPAR-γ and catalase activity, which are reversed by both ACEA and troglitazone. We conclude that CB1 activation reverses leptin-induced ROS formation and hence possibly some of the ROS-mediated effects of the hormone by preventing PPAR-γ inhibition by leptin, with subsequent increase of catalase activity. This mechanism might underlie in part CB1 orexigenic actions under physiopathological conditions accompanied by elevated hypothalamic endocannabinoid levels.

  2. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  3. Tie2 and Eph Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barton, William A.; Dalton, Annamarie C.; Seegar, Tom C.M.; Himanen, Juha P.

    2014-01-01

    The Eph and Tie cell surface receptors mediate a variety of signaling events during development and in the adult organism. As other receptor tyrosine kinases, they are activated on binding of extracellular ligands and their catalytic activity is tightly regulated on multiple levels. The Eph and Tie receptors display some unique characteristics, including the requirement of ligand-induced receptor clustering for efficient signaling. Interestingly, both Ephs and Ties can mediate different, even opposite, biological effects depending on the specific ligand eliciting the response and on the cellular context. Here we discuss the structural features of these receptors, their interactions with various ligands, as well as functional implications for downstream signaling initiation. The Eph/ephrin structures are already well reviewed and we only provide a brief overview on the initial binding events. We go into more detail discussing the Tie-angiopoietin structures and recognition. PMID:24478383

  4. Effect of beta-adrenoceptors on the behaviour induced by the neuropeptide glutamic acid isoleucine amide.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Attademo, Andrés; Baiardi, Gustavo; Celis, María Ester

    2007-07-30

    Excessive grooming behaviour is induced by intracerebroventricular injections of the neuropeptide glutamic acid isoleucine amide (neuropeptide-EI), via the activation of A-10 dopaminergic neurons and the noradrenergic system. Our object was to study the latter system involved in these behaviours, using male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g with i.c.v. implants. The results show that all the adrenoceptor antagonists "per se" do not affect excessive grooming behaviour or motor activity. Intracerebroventricular administration of propranolol, a general beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, before neuropeptide-EI, inhibited the induced excessive grooming behaviour in a dose dependent manner. Metoprolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, also blocked this behaviour. However, intracerebroventricular injections of phentolamine, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, and ((+/-)-1-[2,3-(Dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol), a beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, had no effect on the behaviour induced by neuropeptide-EI induced behaviour for any of the doses tested. On the other hand, isoproterenol, a general beta-adrenoceptor agonist and dobutamine, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist, both elicited similar behaviours as those induced by neuropeptide-EI. These results support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between neuropeptide-EI and beta-adrenoceptors, more specifically the beta(1)-adrenoceptor, as found with other similar endogenous peptides such as neurotensin, cholecystin, substance P and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Hence, neuropeptide-EI could probably be exerting a neuromodulating effect on the central nervous system.

  5. Peptide YY receptors in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, A.; Oya, M.; Okita, M.; Inoue, T.; Sakatani, N.; Morioka, H.; Shii, K.; Yokono, K.; Mizuno, N.; Baba, S.

    1988-01-15

    Radiolabelled ligand binding studies demonstrated that specific receptors for peptide YY are present in the porcine as well as the canine brains. Peptide YY was bound to brain tissue membranes via high-affinity (dissociation constant, 1.39 X 10(-10)M) and low-affinity (dissociation constant, 3.72 X 10(-8)M) components. The binding sites showed a high specificity for peptide YY and neuropeptide Y, but not for pancreatic polypeptide or structurally unrelated peptides. The specific activity of peptide YY binding was highest in the hippocampus, followed by the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and the amygdala of the porcine brain, this pattern being similarly observed in the canine brain. The results suggest that peptide YY and neuropeptide Y may regulate the function of these regions of the brain through interaction with a common receptor site.

  6. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors via their allosteric binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, J; Bacáková, L; Lisá, V; el-Fakahany, E E; Tucek, S

    1996-01-01

    Ligands that bind to the allosteric-binding sites on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors alter the conformation of the classical-binding sites of these receptors and either diminish or increase their affinity for muscarinic agonists and classical antagonists. It is not known whether the resulting conformational change also affects the interaction between the receptors and the G proteins. We have now found that the muscarinic receptor allosteric modulators alcuronium, gallamine, and strychnine (acting in the absence of an agonist) alter the synthesis of cAMP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the M2 or the M4 subtype of muscarinic receptors in the same direction as the agonist carbachol. In addition, most of their effects on the production of inositol phosphates in CHO cells expressing the M1 or the M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes are also similar to (although much weaker than) those of carbachol. The agonist-like effects of the allosteric modulators are not observed in CHO cells that have not been transfected with the gene for any of the subtypes of muscarinic receptors. The effects of alcuronium on the formation of cAMP and inositol phosphates are not prevented by the classical muscarinic antagonist quinuclidinyl benzilate. These observations demonstrate for the first time that the G protein-mediated functional responses of muscarinic receptors can be evoked not only from their classical, but also from their allosteric, binding sites. This represents a new mechanism of receptor activation. PMID:8710935

  7. Receptor activity-modifying proteins; multifunctional G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L; Walker, Christopher S; Gingell, Joseph J; Ladds, Graham; Reynolds, Christopher A; Poyner, David R

    2016-04-15

    Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are single pass membrane proteins initially identified by their ability to determine the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a family B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). It is now known that RAMPs can interact with a much wider range of GPCRs. This review considers recent developments on the structure of the complexes formed between the extracellular domains (ECDs) of CLR and RAMP1 or RAMP2 as these provide insights as to how the RAMPs direct ligand binding. The range of RAMP interactions is also considered; RAMPs can interact with numerous family B GPCRs as well as examples of family A and family C GPCRs. They influence receptor expression at the cell surface, trafficking, ligand binding and G protein coupling. The GPCR-RAMP interface offers opportunities for drug targeting, illustrated by examples of drugs developed for migraine. PMID:27068971

  8. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in major depression in a multi-neurotransmitter system: a focus on antidepressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Werner, Felix-Martin; Coveñas, R

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the alterations of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and the corresponding subreceptors involved in major depression. Neuronal circuits in the brainstem, hippocampus and hypothalamus are developed, since they can be used to derive a multimodal pharmacotherapy. In this sense, serotonin hypoactivity could occur through a strong presynaptic inhibition of glutaminergic neurons via the subtype 5 of metabotropic glutaminergic receptors, and noradrenaline hypoactivity could be due to an enhanced presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic neurons via GABAB receptors. In the hippocampus, dopamine hypoactivity leads to a decreased positive effect. In clinical trials, the antidepressant effect of drugs interfering with the mentioned subreceptors, for example the triple reuptake inhibitor amitifadine, is being investigated. Moreover, the alterations of neuropeptides, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y and galanin are pointed out. The additional antidepressant effect of analogs, agonists and antagonists of the mentioned neuropeptides should be examined.

  9. Locus coeruleus response to single-prolonged stress and early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Esther L; Laukova, Marcela; Alaluf, Lishay G; Olsson, Emelie; Serova, Lidia I

    2015-12-01

    Dysregulation of the central noradrenergic system is a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined molecular changes in locus coeruleus (LC) triggered by single-prolonged stress (SPS) PTSD model at a time when behavioral symptoms are manifested, and the effect of early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). Immediately following SPS stressors, male SD rats were administered intranasal NPY (SPS/NPY) or vehicle (SPS/V). Seven days later, TH protein, but not mRNA, was elevated in LC only of the SPS/V group. Although 90% of TH positive cells expressed GR, its levels were unaltered. Compared to unstressed controls, LC of SPS/V, but not SPS/NPY, expressed less Y2 receptor mRNA with more CRHR1 mRNA in subset of animals, and elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in central nucleus of amygdala. Following testing for anxiety on elevated plus maze (EPM), there were significantly increased TH, DBH and NPY mRNAs in LC of SPS-treated, but not previously unstressed animals. Their levels highly correlated with each other but not with behavioral features on EPM. Thus, SPS triggers long-term noradrenergic activation and higher sensitivity to mild stressors, perhaps mediated by the up-regulation influence of amygdalar CRH input and down-regulation of Y2R presynaptic inhibition in LC. Results also demonstrate the therapeutic potential of early intervention with intranasal NPY for traumatic stress-elicited noradrenergic impairments. Single-prolonged stress (SPS)-triggered long-term changes in the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine (LC/NE) system with increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1) mRNA and lower neuropeptide Y receptor 2 (Y2R) mRNA levels as well as elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) that were prevented by early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). SPS treatment led to increased sensitivity of LC to mild stress of elevated plus maze

  10. Locus coeruleus response to single-prolonged stress and early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Esther L; Laukova, Marcela; Alaluf, Lishay G; Olsson, Emelie; Serova, Lidia I

    2015-12-01

    Dysregulation of the central noradrenergic system is a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined molecular changes in locus coeruleus (LC) triggered by single-prolonged stress (SPS) PTSD model at a time when behavioral symptoms are manifested, and the effect of early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). Immediately following SPS stressors, male SD rats were administered intranasal NPY (SPS/NPY) or vehicle (SPS/V). Seven days later, TH protein, but not mRNA, was elevated in LC only of the SPS/V group. Although 90% of TH positive cells expressed GR, its levels were unaltered. Compared to unstressed controls, LC of SPS/V, but not SPS/NPY, expressed less Y2 receptor mRNA with more CRHR1 mRNA in subset of animals, and elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in central nucleus of amygdala. Following testing for anxiety on elevated plus maze (EPM), there were significantly increased TH, DBH and NPY mRNAs in LC of SPS-treated, but not previously unstressed animals. Their levels highly correlated with each other but not with behavioral features on EPM. Thus, SPS triggers long-term noradrenergic activation and higher sensitivity to mild stressors, perhaps mediated by the up-regulation influence of amygdalar CRH input and down-regulation of Y2R presynaptic inhibition in LC. Results also demonstrate the therapeutic potential of early intervention with intranasal NPY for traumatic stress-elicited noradrenergic impairments. Single-prolonged stress (SPS)-triggered long-term changes in the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine (LC/NE) system with increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1) mRNA and lower neuropeptide Y receptor 2 (Y2R) mRNA levels as well as elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) that were prevented by early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). SPS treatment led to increased sensitivity of LC to mild stress of elevated plus maze

  11. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but feed intake was stimulated by cLEPR ECD immunization (P < 0.05). The treatment also upregulated the gene expression levels of lepR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (ACC2), and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  12. Activation of G protein by opioid receptors: role of receptor number and G-protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Remmers, A E; Clark, M J; Alt, A; Medzihradsky, F; Woods, J H; Traynor, J R

    2000-05-19

    The collision-coupling model for receptor-G-protein interaction predicts that the rate of G-protein activation is dependent on receptor density, but not G-protein levels. C6 cells expressing mu- or delta-opioid receptors, or SH-SY5Y cells, were treated with beta-funaltrexamine (mu) or naltrindole-5'-isothiocyanate (delta) to decrease receptor number. The time course of full or partial agonist-stimulated ¿35SGTPgammaS binding did not vary in C6 cell membranes containing <1-25 pmol/mg mu-opioid receptor, or 1. 4-4.3 pmol/mg delta-opioid receptor, or in SHSY5Y cells containing 0. 16-0.39 pmol/mg receptor. The association of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding was faster in membranes from C6mu cells than from C6delta cells. A 10-fold reduction in functional G-protein, following pertussis toxin treatment, lowered the maximal level of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding but not the association rate. These data indicate a compartmentalization of opioid receptors and G protein at the cell membrane. PMID:10822058

  13. Retinoic Acid-mediated Nuclear Receptor Activation and Hepatocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bushue, Nathan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Due to their well-known differentiation and apoptosis-inducing abilities, retinoic acid (RA) and its analogs have strong anti-cancer efficacy in human cancers. However, in vivo RA is a liver mitogen. While speculation has persisted that RA-mediated signaling is likely involved in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, direct evidence is still required. Findings in support of this proposition include observations that a release of retinyl palmitate (the precursor of RA) occurs in liver stellate cells following liver injury. Nevertheless, the biological action of this released vitamin A is virtually unknown. More likely is that the released vitamin A is converted to RA, the biological form, and then bound to a specific receptor (retinoid x receptor; RXRα), which is most abundantly expressed in the liver. Considering the mitogenic effects of RA, the RA-activated RXRα would likely then influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver tissue repair. At present, the mechanism by which RA stimulates hepatocyte proliferation is largely unknown. This review summarizes the activation of nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, pregnane x receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and farnesoid x receptor) in an RXRα dependent manner to induce hepatocyte proliferation, providing a link between RA and its proliferative role.

  14. An activation switch in the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors: the thyrotropin receptor.

    PubMed

    Urizar, Eneko; Claeysen, Sylvie; Deupí, Xavier; Govaerts, Cedric; Costagliola, Sabine; Vassart, Gilbert; Pardo, Leonardo

    2005-04-29

    We aimed at understanding molecular events involved in the activation of a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, the thyrotropin receptor. We have focused on the transmembrane region and in particular on a network of polar interactions between highly conserved residues. Using molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed mutagenesis techniques we have identified residue Asn-7.49, of the NPxxY motif of TM 7, as a molecular switch in the mechanism of thyrotropin receptor (TSHr) activation. Asn-7.49 appears to adopt two different conformations in the inactive and active states. These two states are characterized by specific interactions between this Asn and polar residues in the transmembrane domain. The inactive gauche+ conformation is maintained by interactions with residues Thr-6.43 and Asp-6.44. Mutation of these residues into Ala increases the constitutive activity of the receptor by factors of approximately 14 and approximately 10 relative to wild type TSHr, respectively. Upon receptor activation Asn-7.49 adopts the trans conformation to interact with Asp-2.50 and a putatively charged residue that remains to be identified. In addition, the conserved Leu-2.46 of the (N/S)LxxxD motif also plays a significant role in restraining the receptor in the inactive state because the L2.46A mutation increases constitutive activity by a factor of approximately 13 relative to wild type TSHr. As residues Leu-2.46, Asp-2.50, and Asn-7.49 are strongly conserved, this molecular mechanism of TSHr activation can be extended to other members of the rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors.

  15. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to post-fracture nociceptive sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-01-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and CGRP signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hindlimbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling up-regulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to post-fracture hindlimb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hindlimb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on post-fracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hindlimb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, NGF) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor and these mice had attenuated post-fracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or NGF each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling up-regulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of CRPS. PMID:25932690

  16. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to postfracture nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-10-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome. Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture-induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling upregulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to postfracture hind limb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on postfracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, and nerve growth factor) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture-induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor, and these mice had attenuated postfracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or nerve growth factor each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling upregulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:25932690

  17. Facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling and upregulated inflammatory mediator expression contribute to postfracture nociceptive sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyou; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-10-01

    Tibia fracture induces exaggerated substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome. Inflammatory changes in the spinal cord contribute to nociceptive sensitization in a variety of animal pain models. This study tested the hypothesis that fracture-induced exaggerated neuropeptide signaling upregulates spinal inflammatory mediator expression, leading to postfracture hind limb nociceptive sensitization. At 4 weeks after performing tibia fracture and casting in rats, we measured hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, and spinal cord neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator content. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected neuropeptide and inflammatory mediator receptor antagonists were evaluated in fracture rats. Transgenic fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP RAMP1 receptor were used to determine the effects of neuropeptide signaling on postfracture pain behavior and spinal inflammatory mediator expression. Hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased spinal SP and CGRP, and increased spinal inflammatory mediator expression (TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, and nerve growth factor) were observed at 4 weeks after fracture in rats. Fracture-induced increases in spinal inflammatory mediators were not observed in fracture mice lacking SP or the CGRP receptor, and these mice had attenuated postfracture nociceptive sensitization. Intrathecal injection of selective receptor antagonists for SP, CGRP, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, CCL2, or nerve growth factor each reduced pain behaviors in the fracture rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that facilitated spinal neuropeptide signaling upregulates the expression of spinal inflammatory mediators contributing to nociceptive sensitization in a rodent fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome.

  18. An Indirect Action Contributes to C-Fos Induction in Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus by Neuropeptide Y

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengjie; Dakshinamoorthy, Janani; Kim, Eun Ran; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively to examine the underlying NPY orexigenic neural pathways. However, PVH C-Fos induction is in discordance with the abundant expression of NPY receptors, a group of inhibitory Gi protein coupled receptors in the PVH, and with the overall role of PVH neurons in feeding inhibition, suggesting a mechanism of indirect action. Here we showed that the ability of NPY on C-Fos induction in the PVH was blunted in conditions of insulin deficiency and fasting, a condition associated with a high level of NPY and a low level of insulin. Moreover, insulin insufficiency blunted C-Fos induction in the PVH by fasting-induced re-feeding, and insulin and NPY induced c-Fos induction in the same group of PVH neurons. Finally, NPY produced normal C-Fos induction in the PVH with disruption of GABA-A receptors. Thus, our results revealed that PVH C-Fos induction by NPY is mediated by an indirect action, which is at least partially mediated by insulin action, but not GABA-A receptors. PMID:26813148

  19. Clinically used selective oestrogen receptor modulators increase LDL receptor activity in primary human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cerrato, F; Fernández-Suárez, M E; Alonso, R; Alonso, M; Vázquez, C; Pastor, O; Mata, P; Lasunción, M A; Gómez-Coronado, D

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Treatment with selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. We assessed the effect of tamoxifen, raloxifene and toremifene and their combinations with lovastatin on LDL receptor activity in lymphocytes from normolipidaemic and familial hypercholesterolaemic (FH) subjects, and human HepG2 hepatocytes and MOLT-4 lymphoblasts. Experimental Approach Lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, treated with different compounds, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-labelled LDL uptake was analysed by flow cytometry. Key Results Tamoxifen, toremifene and raloxifene, in this order, stimulated DiI-LDL uptake by lymphocytes by inhibiting LDL-derived cholesterol trafficking and subsequent down-regulation of LDL receptor expression. Differently to what occurred in HepG2 and MOLT-4 cells, only tamoxifen consistently displayed a potentiating effect with lovastatin in primary lymphocytes. The SERM-mediated increase in LDL receptor activity was not altered by the anti-oestrogen ICI 182 780 nor was it reproduced by 17β-oestradiol. However, the tamoxifen-active metabolite endoxifen was equally effective as tamoxifen. The SERMs produced similar effects on LDL receptor activity in heterozygous FH lymphocytes as in normal lymphocytes, although none of them had a potentiating effect with lovastatin in heterozygous FH lymphocytes. The SERMs had no effect in homozygous FH lymphocytes. Conclusions and Implications Clinically used SERMs up-regulate LDL receptors in primary human lymphocytes. There is a mild enhancement between SERMs and lovastatin of lymphocyte LDLR activity, the potentiation being greater in HepG2 and MOLT-4 cells. The effect of SERMs is independent of oestrogen receptors but is preserved in the tamoxifen-active metabolite endoxifen. This mechanism may contribute to the cholesterol-lowering action of SERMs. PMID:25395200

  20. [Modification of the FF neuropeptide enhances its hypertensive effect].

    PubMed

    Kapel'ko, V I; Bespalova, Zh D; Efremov, E E; Lakomkin, V L; Orlova, Ts R; Lakomkin, S V; Sidorova, M V; Az'muko, A A; Molokoedov, A S; Sharf, T V

    2009-05-01

    Neuropeptide FF (H-Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH2) injected intravenously temporarily enhanced the arterial pressure (AP) and the heart rate (HR). However, its role in the regulation of blood circulation is obscure. To study the properties of the molecule, its analogue was synthesized, in which proline in position 7 was substituted with glycine, and leucine in the position 2 with norleucine. Modified neuropeptide FF (FFm) also temporarily and in a dose-dependent manner increased the AP and HR; however, the equal degree of increase was reached at doses of FFm being 5-7 times lesser as compared with the natural peptide. The application of the FFm at hemorrhagic shock excluded mortality of animals during the experiment, considerably increased the degree of AP and HR restoration in the remaining experiments, and improved the survival of animals in 24 hours. It has been found that the level of antibodies to the fragment of hFF1 receptor in the serum is lower in spontaneously hypertensive rats SHR as compared with Wistar rats, but it is increased in patients of cardiological profile as compared with donors. The findings suggest involvement of neuropeptide FF in the regulation of blood circulation; however, the precise mechanisms remain to be determined.

  1. Transcriptional activation of nuclear estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and its regulation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qi-Liang; Qiu, Jing-Tao; Cui, Sheng; Xia, Guo-Liang; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2016-08-25

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are two important members of steroid receptors family, an evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors. Upon binding to their ligands, ER and PR enter cell nucleus to interact with specific DNA element in the context of chromatin to initiate the transcription of diverse target genes, which largely depends on the timely recruitment of a wide range of cofactors. Moreover, the interactions between steroid hormones and their respective receptors also trigger post-translational modifications on these receptors to fine-tune their transcriptional activities. Besides the well-known phosphorylation modifications on tyrosine and serine/threonine residues, recent studies have identified several other covalent modifications, such as ubiquitylation and sumoylation. These post-translational modifications of steroid receptors affect its stability, subcellular localization, and/or cofactor recruitment; eventually influence the duration and extent of transcriptional activation. This review is to focus on the recent research progress on the transcriptional activation of nuclear ER and PR as well as their physiological functions in early pregnancy, which may help us to better understand related female reproductive diseases. PMID:27546504

  2. Immunohistochemical quantitation of oestrogen receptors and proliferative activity in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, V; Ladekarl, M

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To evaluate the effect of the duration of formalin fixation and of tumour heterogeneity on quantitative estimates of oestrogen receptor content (oestrogen receptor index) and proliferative activity (MIB-1 index) in breast cancer. METHODS--Two monoclonal antibodies, MIB-1 and oestrogen receptor, were applied to formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue from 25 prospectively collected oestrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas, using a microwave antigen retrieval method. Tumour tissue was allocated systematically to different periods of fixation to ensure minimal intraspecimen variation. The percentages of MIB-1 positive and oestrogen receptor positive nuclei were estimated in fields of vision sampled systematically from the entire specimen and from the whole tumour area of one "representative" cross-section. RESULTS--No correlation was found between the oestrogen receptor and MIB-1 indices and the duration of formalin fixation. The estimated MIB-1 and oestrogen receptor indices in tissue sampled systematically from the entire tumour were closely correlated with estimates obtained in a "representative" section. The intra- and interobserver correlation of the MIB-1 index was good, although a slight systematical error at the second assessment of the intraobserver study was noted. CONCLUSION--Quantitative estimates of oestrogen receptor content and proliferative activity are not significantly influenced by the period of fixation in formalin, varying from less than four hours to more than 48 hours. The MIB-1 and the oestrogen receptor indices obtained in a "representative" section do not deviate significantly from average indices determined in tissue samples from the entire tumour. Finally, the estimation of MIB-1 index is reproducible, justifying its routine use. PMID:7629289

  3. Identification of COUP-TFII Orphan Nuclear Receptor as a Retinoic Acid-Activated Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Schoen W; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X Edward; Kretschman, Jennifer E; Reynolds, Ross; Vonrhein, Clemens; Xu, Yong; Wang, Liliang; Tsai, Sophia Y; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Xu, H Eric

    2010-01-12

    The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFI and II) make up the most conserved subfamily of nuclear receptors that play key roles in angiogenesis, neuronal development, organogenesis, cell fate determination, and metabolic homeostasis. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFs have been studied extensively, little is known of their structural features or aspects of ligand regulation. Here we report the ligand-free 1.48 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human COUP-TFII ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals an autorepressed conformation of the receptor, where helix {alpha}10 is bent into the ligand-binding pocket and the activation function-2 helix is folded into the cofactor binding site, thus preventing the recruitment of coactivators. In contrast, in multiple cell lines, COUP-TFII exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, substantially reduce the COUP-TFII transcriptional activity. Importantly, retinoid acids are able to promote COUP-TFII to recruit coactivators and activate a COUP-TF reporter construct. Although the concentration needed is higher than the physiological levels of retinoic acids, these findings demonstrate that COUP-TFII is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, in which ligands activate the receptor by releasing it from the autorepressed conformation.

  4. Insulin and rabbit anti-insulin receptor antibodies stimulate additively the intrinsic receptor kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ponzio, G; Dolais-Kitabgi, J; Louvard, D; Gautier, N; Rossi, B

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the properties of rabbit polyclonal antibodies directed against purified human insulin receptor which strongly stimulate the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. The stimulatory effect of the antibodies on the kinase activity was obtained on the insulin receptor autophosphorylation as well as on the kinase activity towards a synthetic substrate. This stimulation is additive to that induced by insulin. Moreover, rabbit antibodies do not impair insulin binding. These data strongly suggest that antibodies and insulin act through separate pathways. This conclusion is reinforced by the differences observed on the phosphopeptide maps of the receptor's beta subunit whose phosphorylation was performed either in the presence of insulin or rabbit antibodies. Interestingly, these polyclonal antibodies can also induce an activation of the receptor autophosphorylation by interacting only with extracellular determinants. The anti-insulin receptor antibodies mimic insulin in their stimulatory effect on amino acid (AIB) uptake, but they have a different effect to that found on the kinase activity; the simultaneous addition of the antiserum and insulin failed to stimulate this amino acid transport over the level induced by a saturating concentration of hormone. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3034584

  5. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  6. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold. PMID:18434362

  7. Flavonoids as dietary regulators of nuclear receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Avior, Yishai; Bomze, David; Ramon, Ory

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, and dyslipidemia are a rising cause of mortality worldwide. The progression of many metabolic diseases is fundamentally regulated on the transcriptional level by a family of ligand-activated transcription factors, called nuclear receptors, which detect and respond to metabolic changes. Their role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis makes nuclear receptors an important pharmaceutical and dietary target. This review will present the growing evidence that flavonoids, natural secondary plant metabolites, are important regulators of nuclear receptor activity. Structural similarities between flavonoids and cholesterol derivatives combined with the promiscuous nature of most nuclear receptors provide a wealth of possibilities for pharmaceutical and dietary modulation of metabolism. While the challenges of bringing flavonoid-derived therapeutics to the market are significant, we consider this rapidly growing field to be an essential aspect of the functional food initiative and an important mine for pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23598551

  8. Histamine H3 receptor activation decreases kainate-induced hippocampal gamma oscillations in vitro by action potential desynchronization in pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Richard; Lindskog, Maria; Fisahn, André

    2010-01-01

    The study of rhythmic electrical activity in slice preparations has generated important insights into neural network function. While the synaptic mechanisms involved in the generation of in vitro network oscillations have been studied widely, little is known about the modulatory influence exerted on rhythmic activity in neuronal networks by neuropeptides and biogenic amines. Gamma oscillations play an important role in cognitive processes and are altered or disrupted in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. Given the importance of gamma oscillations for learning, memory and cognition processes as well as the recent interest in histamine H3 receptors in the development of pro-cognitive drugs to treat disorders such as AD and schizophrenia, it is relevant to study the impact of histaminergic mechanisms on network gamma oscillations. Here we show for the first time a modulation of gamma oscillation by histaminergic mechanisms. Selective activation of the H3 receptor by R-α-methylhistamine significantly reduces the power of kainate-induced gamma oscillations, but not carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, in the rat hippocampal slice preparation without affecting oscillation frequency. This effect is neither caused by a decrease in excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic currents, nor a decrease in cellular excitability. Instead, we find that the decrease in oscillation power following H3 receptor activation results from a desynchronization of pyramidal neuron action potential firing with regard to the local field potential oscillation cycle. Our data provide a possible mechanism of action for histamine in regulating gamma oscillations in the hippocampal network. PMID:20156850

  9. Involvement of the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ in kainate seizures.

    PubMed

    Bregola, Gianni; Zucchini, Silvia; Rodi, Donata; Binaschi, Anna; D'Addario, Claudio; Landuzzi, Daniela; Reinscheid, Rainer; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia; Simonato, Michele

    2002-11-15

    The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) has been shown to modulate neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Previous studies indicate that the mRNA levels for the N/OFQ precursor (proN/OFQ) are increased after seizures. However, it is unclear whether N/OFQ plays a role in seizure expression. Therefore, (1) we analyzed proN/OFQ mRNA levels and NOP (the N/OFQ receptor) mRNA levels and receptor density in the kainate model of epilepsy, using Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and receptor binding assay, and (2) we examined susceptibility to kainate seizure in mice treated with 1-[(3R, 4R)-1-cyclooctylmethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-4-piperidyl]-3-ethyl-1, 3-dihydro-benzimidazol-2-one (J-113397), a selective NOP receptor antagonist, and in proN/OFQ knock-out mice. After kainate administration, increased proN/OFQ gene expression was observed in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus and in the medial nucleus of the amygdala. In contrast, NOP mRNA levels and receptor density decreased in the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and cortex. Mice treated with the NOP receptor antagonist J-113397 displayed reduced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures (i.e., significant reduction of behavioral seizure scores). N/OFQ knock-out mice were less susceptible to kainate seizures compared with their wild-type littermates, in that lethality was reduced, latency to generalized seizure onset was prolonged, and behavioral seizure scores decreased. Intracerebroventricular administration of N/OFQ prevented reduced susceptibility to kainate seizures in N/OFQ knock-out mice. These data indicate that acute limbic seizures are associated with increased N/OFQ release in selected areas, causing downregulation of NOP receptors and activation of N/OFQ biosynthesis, and support the notion that the N/OFQ-NOP system plays a facilitatory role in kainate seizure expression.

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor stimulation increases blood pressure and heart rate and activates autonomic regulatory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Lee, Charlotte E.; Marcus, Jacob N.; Williams, Todd D.; Overton, J. Michael; Lopez, Marisol E.; Hollenberg, Anthony N.; Baggio, Laurie; Saper, Clifford B.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Elmquist, Joel K.

    2002-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from the gut functions as an incretin that stimulates insulin secretion. GLP-1 is also a brain neuropeptide that controls feeding and drinking behavior and gastric emptying and elicits neuroendocrine responses including development of conditioned taste aversion. Although GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are under development for the treatment of diabetes, GLP-1 administration may increase blood pressure and heart rate in vivo. We report here that centrally and peripherally administered GLP-1R agonists dose-dependently increased blood pressure and heart rate. GLP-1R activation induced c-fos expression in the adrenal medulla and neurons in autonomic control sites in the rat brain, including medullary catecholamine neurons providing input to sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Furthermore, GLP-1R agonists rapidly activated tyrosine hydroxylase transcription in brainstem catecholamine neurons. These findings suggest that the central GLP-1 system represents a regulator of sympathetic outflow leading to downstream activation of cardiovascular responses in vivo. PMID:12093887

  11. Extended Synaptotagmin Interaction with the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Depends on Receptor Conformation, Not Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Michel G; Herdman, Chelsea; Guillou, François; Mishra, Prakash K; Baril, Joëlle; Bellenfant, Sabrina; Moss, Tom

    2015-06-26

    We previously demonstrated that ESyt2 interacts specifically with the activated FGF receptor and is required for a rapid phase of receptor internalization and for functional signaling via the ERK pathway in early Xenopus embryos. ESyt2 is one of the three-member family of Extended Synaptotagmins that were recently shown to be implicated in the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions and in the Ca(2+) dependent regulation of these junctions. Here we show that ESyt2 is directed to the ER by its putative transmembrane domain, that the ESyts hetero- and homodimerize, and that ESyt2 homodimerization in vivo requires a TM adjacent sequence but not the SMP domain. ESyt2 and ESyt3, but not ESyt1, selectively interact in vivo with activated FGFR1. In the case of ESyt2, this interaction requires a short TM adjacent sequence and is independent of receptor autophosphorylation, but dependent on receptor conformation. The data show that ESyt2 recognizes a site in the upper kinase lobe of FGFR1 that is revealed by displacement of the kinase domain activation loop during receptor activation.

  12. Allosteric Activation of a G Protein-coupled Receptor with Cell-penetrating Receptor Mimetics*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Leger, Andrew J.; Baleja, James D.; Rana, Rajashree; Corlin, Tiffany; Nguyen, Nga; Koukos, Georgios; Bohm, Andrew; Covic, Lidija; Kuliopulos, Athan

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are remarkably versatile signaling systems that are activated by a large number of different agonists on the outside of the cell. However, the inside surface of the receptors that couple to G proteins has not yet been effectively modulated for activity or treatment of diseases. Pepducins are cell-penetrating lipopeptides that have enabled chemical and physical access to the intracellular face of GPCRs. The structure of a third intracellular (i3) loop agonist, pepducin, based on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) was solved by NMR and found to closely resemble the i3 loop structure predicted for the intact receptor in the on-state. Mechanistic studies revealed that the pepducin directly interacts with the intracellular H8 helix region of PAR1 and allosterically activates the receptor through the adjacent (D/N)PXXYYY motif through a dimer-like mechanism. The i3 pepducin enhances PAR1/Gα subunit interactions and induces a conformational change in fluorescently labeled PAR1 in a very similar manner to that induced by thrombin. As pepducins can potentially be made to target any GPCR, these data provide insight into the identification of allosteric modulators to this major drug target class. PMID:25934391

  13. Neuropeptide Y stimulates retinal neural cell proliferation--involvement of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Ana Rita; Martins, João; Araújo, Inês M; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Ambrósio, António F; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2008-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide widely present in the CNS, including the retina. Previous studies have demonstrated that NPY promotes cell proliferation of rat post-natal hippocampal and olfactory epithelium precursor cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of NPY on cell proliferation of rat retinal neural cells. For this purpose, primary retinal cell cultures expressing NPY, and NPY Y(1), Y(2), Y(4) and Y(5) receptors [Alvaro et al., (2007) Neurochem. Int., 50, 757] were used. NPY (10-1000 nM) stimulated cell proliferation through the activation of NPY Y(1), Y(2) and Y(5) receptors. NPY also increased the number of proliferating neuronal progenitor cells (BrdU(+)/nestin(+) cells). The intracellular mechanisms coupled to NPY receptors activation that mediate the increase in cell proliferation were also investigated. The stimulatory effect of NPY on cell proliferation was reduced by L-nitroarginine-methyl-esther (L-NAME; 500 microM), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4, 3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 microM), a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor or U0126 (1 microM), an inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). In conclusion, NPY stimulates retinal neural cell proliferation, and this effect is mediated through nitric oxide-cyclic GMP and ERK 1/2 pathways.

  14. Central administration of neuropeptide FF and related peptides attenuate systemic morphine analgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Quan; Jiang, Tian-nan; Li, Ning; Han, Zheng-lan; Wang, Rui

    2011-04-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to an opioid-modulating peptide family. NPFF has been reported to play important roles in the control of pain and analgesia through interactions with the opioid system. However, very few studies examined the effect of supraspinal NPFF system on analgesia induced by opiates administered at the peripheral level. In the present study, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPFF (1, 3 and 10 nmol) dose-dependently inhibited systemic morphine (0.12 mg, i.p.) analgesia in the mouse tail flick test. Similarly, i.c.v. administration of dNPA and NPVF, two agonists highly selective for NPFF(2) and NPFF(1) receptors, respectively, decreased analgesia induced by i.p. morphine in mice. Furthermore, these anti-opioid activities of NPFF and related peptides were blocked by pretreatment with the NPFF receptors selective antagonist RF9 (10 nmol, i.c.v.). These results demonstrate that activation of central NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors has the similar anti-opioid actions on the antinociceptive effect of systemic morphine.

  15. Neuropeptide Y signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus inhibits male sexual behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Inaba, A; Komori, Y; Muroi, Y; Kinoshita, K; Ishii, T

    2016-04-21

    Animals change their biological activities depending on their nutritional state. Reproductive functions, including sexual behavior, are suppressed under low-energy conditions; however, the underlying neuronal mechanism is poorly understood. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic molecule released in response to low-energy conditions and has an inhibitory effect on sexual behavior. We examined how NPY is involved in energy state-dependent regulation of male sexual behavior. Mounting, intromission, and ejaculation were evaluated as parameters of sexual behavior. Almost all parameters indicated that fasting for 24h suppressed male sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular injection of NPY inhibited sexual behavior in males that free-fed for 8h following 24-h fasting (fed males). We next examined whether the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which serotonergic (5-HT) neurons are distributed, is involved in NPY-mediated inhibition of male sexual behavior. NPY-positive processes immunoreactive for a presynaptic marker, synaptophysin, were distributed in the DRN of both fed and fasted males. Expression of the NPY Y1 receptor in 5-HT neurons was also observed. Direct injection of NPY or 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT1A receptor agonist that inhibits the activity of 5-HT neurons) into the DRN inhibited male sexual behavior in fed males. In contrast, injection of BIBP-3226, a NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, or (+)-DOI hydrochloride (DOI), a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist that activates 5-HT neurons, into the DRN partially recovered male sexual behavior in 24-h fasted males. These results suggest that NPY inhibits serotonergic neuronal activity via the Y1 receptor in the DRN, resulting in suppression of male sexual behavior in low-energy conditions.

  16. The action of RFamide neuropeptides on molluscs, with special reference to the gastropods Buccinum undatum and Busycon canaliculatum.

    PubMed

    Moulis, Alexander

    2006-05-01

    The ever-growing RFamide neuropeptide superfamily has members in all animal phyla. Their effects in molluscs, on both smooth and cardiac muscle as well as on neurons, has been studied in detail. These neuropeptides exert a variety of functions: excitatory, inhibitory or even biphasic. Firstly, the literature on the excitatory effect of the RFamide neuropeptides on molluscan muscle and neurons has been reviewed, with greater emphasis and examples from the gastropods Buccinum undatum and Busycon canaliculatum. The peptides seem to be potent activators of contraction, sometimes generating slow tonic force and other times twitch activity. Secondly, the literature on the inhibitory effect of the superfamily has been reviewed. These peptides can exert an inhibitory effect, hyperpolarizing the cells rather than depolarizing them. Thirdly, the neuropeptides may play a variety of other roles, such as contributing to the regulation or maturation process of the animals. There have been cases recorded of RFamide neuropeptides acting as potent venoms in members of the Conus sp. The pathway of action of these multiple roles, their interaction with the parent neurotransmitters acetylcholine and serotonin, as well as the calcium dependency of the RFamide neuropeptides has been discussed, again with special reference to the above mentioned gastropods. A better understanding of the mode of action, the effects, and the importance of the RFamide neuropeptides on molluscan physiology and pharmacology has been attempted by reviewing the existing literature, recognizing the importance of the RFamide neuropeptide actions on molluscs.

  17. Intron-Specific Neuropeptide Probes

    PubMed Central

    Gainer, Harold; Ponzio, Todd A.; Yue, Chunmei; Kawasaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of changes in pre-mRNA levels by intron-specific probes are generally accepted as more closely reflecting changes in gene transcription rates than are measurements of mRNA levels by exonic probes. This is, in part, because the pre-mRNAs, which include the primary transcript and various splicing intermediates located in the nucleus (also referred to as heteronuclear RNAs, or hnRNAs), are processed rapidly (with half-lives <60 min) as compared to neuropeptide mRNAs, which are then transferred to the cytoplasm and which have much longer half-lives (often over days). In this chapter, we describe the use of exon-and intron-specific probes to evaluate oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neuropeptide gene expression by analyses of their mRNAs and hnRNAs by quantitative in situ hybridization (qISH) and also by using specific PCR primers in quantitative, real-time PCR (qPCR) procedures. PMID:21922402

  18. Redefining the concept of protease-activated receptors: cathepsin S evokes itch via activation of Mrgprs

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vemuri B.; Sun, Shuohao; Azimi, Ehsan; Elmariah, Sarina B.; Dong, Xinzhong; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory neurons expressing Mas-related G protein coupled receptors (Mrgprs) mediate histamine-independent itch. We show that the cysteine protease cathepsin S activates MrgprC11 and evokes receptor-dependent scratching in mice. In contrast to its activation of conventional protease-activated receptors, cathepsin S mediated activation of MrgprC11 did not involve the generation of a tethered ligand. We demonstrate further that different cysteine proteases selectively activate specific mouse and human Mrgpr family members. This expansion of our understanding by which proteases interact with GPCRs redefines the concept of what constitutes a protease-activated receptor. The findings also implicate proteases as ligands to members of this orphan receptor family while providing new insights into how cysteine proteases contribute to itch. PMID:26216096

  19. Neuropeptide Y and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) share a common pressor mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Kenneth A.; Fan, Wei; Akerberg, Helena; Larhammar, Dan; Chee, Melissa J. S.; Colmers, William F.; Cone, Roger D.

    2009-01-01

    Central circuits known to regulate food intake and energy expenditure also affect central cardiovascular regulation. For example, both the melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) peptide families, known to regulate food intake, also produce central hypertensive effects. Members of both families share a similar C-terminal amino acid residue sequence, RF(Y) amide, a sequence distinct from that required for melanocortin receptor binding. A recently delineated family of RFamide receptors recognizes both of these C-terminal motifs. We now present evidence that an antagonist with Y1 and RFamide receptor activity, BIBO3304, will attenuate the central cardiovascular effects of both gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) and NPY. The use of synthetic melanocortin and NPY peptide analogs excluded an interaction with melanocortin or Y family receptors. We suggest that the anatomical convergence of NPY and melanocortin neurons on cardiovascular control centers may have pathophysiological implications through a common or similar RFamide receptor(s), much as they converge on other nuclei to coordinately control energy homeostasis. PMID:19363600

  20. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migration through cytoskeleton changes. These findings have raised the question of intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors mediating these responses. During the past years, increasing evidence has shown that classical sex steroid receptors localized in the extra-nuclear compartment or close to membranes of target cells induce these events. The emerging picture is that a process of bidirectional control between signaling activation and sex steroid receptor localization regulates the outcome of hormonal responses in target cells. This mechanism ensures cell cycle progression in estradiol-treated breast cancer cells, and its derangement might occur in progression of human proliferative diseases. These findings will be reviewed here together with unexpected examples of the relationship between sex steroid receptor localization, signaling activation and biological responses in target cells. We apologize to scientists whose reports are not mentioned or extensively discussed owing to space limitations.

  1. Glycine Potentiates AMPA Receptor Function through Metabotropic Activation of GluN2A-Containing NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Jun; Hu, Rong; Lujan, Brendan; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Nakano, Yasuko; Cui, Tian-Yuan; Liao, Ming-Xia; Chen, Jin-Cao; Man, Heng-Ye; Feng, Hua; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors are Ca2+-permeable ion channels. The activation of NMDA receptors requires agonist glutamate and co-agonist glycine. Recent evidence indicates that NMDA receptor also has metabotropic function. Here we report that in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents independent of the channel activity of NMDA receptors and the activation of glycine receptors. The potentiation of AMPA receptor function by glycine is antagonized by the inhibition of ERK1/2. In the hippocampal neurons and in the HEK293 cells transfected with different combinations of NMDA receptors, glycine preferentially acts on GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2ARs), but not GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2BRs), to enhance ERK1/2 phosphorylation independent of the channel activity of GluN2ARs. Without requiring the channel activity of GluN2ARs, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents through GluN2ARs. Thus, these results reveal a metabotropic function of GluN2ARs in mediating glycine-induced potentiation of AMPA receptor function via ERK1/2 activation. PMID:27807405

  2. Overexpression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in hemangioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gregory J.; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Newcomb, Elizabeth W.

    2010-01-01

    Hemangioblastomas frequently develop in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. The tumors are characterized by a dense network of blood capillaries, often in association with cysts. Although activation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the development of malignant brain tumors such as high-grade gliomas, little is known about the role of RTK signaling in hemangioblastomas. To address this issue, we examined hemangioblastoma tumor specimens using receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation profiling and immunohistochemistry. Six human hemangioblastomas were analyzed with a phospho-RTK antibody array, revealing EGFR phosphorylation in all tumors. EGFR expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in all tumors analyzed and downstream effector pathway activation was demonstrated by positive staining for phospho-AKT. Our findings suggest that, in primary hemangioblastomas, RTK upregulation and signaling predominantly involves EGFR, providing an attractive molecular target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20730556

  3. Interfering with mineralocorticoid receptor activation: the past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. Aldosterone binds to and activates the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in a plethora of tissues, but the cardiovascular actions of aldosterone are of primary interest clinically. Although MR antagonists were developed as antihypertensive agents, they are now considered to be important therapeutic options for patients with heart failure. Specifically, blocking only the MR has proven to be a difficult task because of its similarity to other steroid receptors, including the androgen and progesterone receptors. This lack of specificity caused the use of the first-generation mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists to be fraught with difficulty because of the side effects produced by drug administration. However, in recent years, several advances have been made that could potentially increase the clinical use of agents that inhibit the actions of aldosterone. These will be discussed here along with some examples of the beneficial effects of these new therapeutic agents. PMID:25165560

  4. Histamine 3 receptor activation reduces the expression of neuronal angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the heart.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki; Levi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In severe myocardial ischemia, histamine 3 (H₃) receptor activation affords cardioprotection by preventing excessive norepinephrine release and arrhythmias; pivotal to this action is the inhibition of neuronal Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE). Conversely, angiotensin II, formed locally by mast cell-derived renin, stimulates NHE via angiotensin II type 1 (AT₁) receptors, facilitating norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Thus, ischemic dysfunction may depend on a balance between the NHE-modulating effects of H₃ receptors and AT₁ receptors. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to elucidate the H₃/AT₁ receptor interaction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We found that H₃ receptor blockade with clobenpropit increased norepinephrine overflow and arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. This coincided with increased neuronal AT₁ receptor expression. NHE inhibition with cariporide prevented both increases in norepinephrine release and AT₁ receptor expression. Moreover, norepinephrine release and AT₁ receptor expression were increased by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-methyl-L-arginine and the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. H₃ receptor activation in differentiated sympathetic neuron-like PC12 cells permanently transfected with H₃ receptor cDNA caused a decrease in protein kinase C activity and AT₁ receptor protein abundance. Collectively, our findings suggest that neuronal H₃ receptor activation inhibits NHE by diminishing protein kinase C activity. Reduced NHE activity sequentially causes intracellular acidification, increased NO synthesis, and diminished AT₁ receptor expression. Thus, H₃ receptor-mediated NHE inhibition in ischemia/reperfusion not only opposes the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of NHE in cardiac sympathetic neurons, but also down-regulates AT₁ receptor expression. Cardioprotection ultimately results from the combined

  5. Histamine 3 Receptor Activation Reduces the Expression of Neuronal Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki

    2012-01-01

    In severe myocardial ischemia, histamine 3 (H3) receptor activation affords cardioprotection by preventing excessive norepinephrine release and arrhythmias; pivotal to this action is the inhibition of neuronal Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). Conversely, angiotensin II, formed locally by mast cell-derived renin, stimulates NHE via angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors, facilitating norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Thus, ischemic dysfunction may depend on a balance between the NHE-modulating effects of H3 receptors and AT1 receptors. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to elucidate the H3/AT1 receptor interaction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We found that H3 receptor blockade with clobenpropit increased norepinephrine overflow and arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. This coincided with increased neuronal AT1 receptor expression. NHE inhibition with cariporide prevented both increases in norepinephrine release and AT1 receptor expression. Moreover, norepinephrine release and AT1 receptor expression were increased by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-l-arginine and the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. H3 receptor activation in differentiated sympathetic neuron-like PC12 cells permanently transfected with H3 receptor cDNA caused a decrease in protein kinase C activity and AT1 receptor protein abundance. Collectively, our findings suggest that neuronal H3 receptor activation inhibits NHE by diminishing protein kinase C activity. Reduced NHE activity sequentially causes intracellular acidification, increased NO synthesis, and diminished AT1 receptor expression. Thus, H3 receptor-mediated NHE inhibition in ischemia/reperfusion not only opposes the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of NHE in cardiac sympathetic neurons, but also down-regulates AT1 receptor expression. Cardioprotection ultimately results from the combined attenuation of angiotensin II and

  6. Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC). One agonist of PPARa (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemic...

  7. Sensory neuropeptide effects in human skin.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W; Conradson, T B; Dixon, C M; Crossman, D C; Barnes, P J

    1987-12-01

    1 Neuropeptides released from sensory nerves may account for cutaneous flare and wheal following local trauma. In 28 normal subjects we have studied the effects of four sensory neuropeptides given by intradermal injection on the forearm or back. 2 All peptides caused a flare distant from the site of injection, presumably due to an axon reflex. Substance P (SP) was the most potent (geometric mean dose causing 50% of maximum flare, 4.2 pmol). Neurokinin A (NKA) was the next most potent with neurokinin B (NKB) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) the least. The distant flare response to SP, NKA and NKB was maximal at 5 min and disappeared within 2 h. 3 CGRP caused a local erythema over the site of injection at doses above 0.5 pmol which at higher doses lasted for up to 12 h. 4 SP, NKA and NKB caused wheals at doses above 5 pmol with SP and NKB being the most potent. CGRP (up to 250 pmol) did not consistently cause wheal formation. There was no significant effect of coinjection of CGRP upon the response to SP although there was a tendency for an enhancement of the wheal response. 5 The H1-histamine antagonist terfenadine (60 mg orally) significantly inhibited the wheal and distant flare response to histamine (5 nmol) and NKA, but not that caused by NKB. The distant flare of CGRP was also reduced but the local erythema was unaltered. 6. Aspirin (600 mg orally) significantly inhibited the distant flare response to SP, NKA and CGRP, but not that caused by NKB or histamine; the local erythema induced by CGRP was unaffected by aspirin. Aspirin also inhibited the wheal formed by NKA but not the wheal induced by the other substances. 7. These results suggest that tachykinins cause a distant flare response partially via the release of histamine and cyclo-oxygenase products, but cause a wheal by a direct effect on the skin microvasculature. The order of potency SP > NKB > NKA suggests that an SPp or NK, receptor is involved in the wheal response. CGRP by contrast has a

  8. A cleavable cytolysin-neuropeptide Y bioconjugate enables specific drug delivery and demonstrates intracellular mode of action.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Verena M; Kostelnik, Katja B; Rennert, Robert; Böhme, David; Kalkhof, Stefan; Kosel, David; Weber, Lutz; von Bergen, Martin; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2015-07-10

    Myxobacterial tubulysins are promising chemotherapeutics inhibiting microtubule polymerization, however, high unspecific toxicity so far prevents their application in therapy. For selective cancer cell targeting, here the coupling of a synthetic cytolysin to the hY1-receptor preferring peptide [F(7),P(34)]-neuropeptide Y (NPY) using a labile disulfide linker is described. Since hY1-receptors are overexpressed in breast tumors and internalize rapidly, this system has high potential as peptide-drug shuttle system. Molecular characterization of the cytolysin-[F(7),P(34)]-NPY bioconjugate revealed potent receptor activation and receptor-selective internalization, while viability studies verified toxicity. Triple SILAC studies comparing free cytolysin with the bioconjugate demonstrated an intracellular mechanism of action regardless of the delivery pathway. Treatments resulted in a regulation of proteins implemented in cell cycle arrest confirming the tubulysin-like effect of the cytolysin. Thus, the cytolysin-peptide bioconjugate fused by a cleavable linker enables a receptor-specific delivery as well as a potent intracellular drug-release with high cytotoxic activity.

  9. The cytoplasmic tails of protease-activated receptor-1 and substance P receptor specify sorting to lysosomes versus recycling.

    PubMed

    Trejo, J; Coughlin, S R

    1999-01-22

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), is activated when thrombin cleaves its amino-terminal exodomain. The irreversibility of this proteolytic mechanism raises the question of how desensitization and resensitization are accomplished for thrombin signaling. PAR1 is phosphorylated, uncoupled from signaling, and internalized after activation like classic GPCRs. However, unlike classic GPCRs, which internalize and recycle, activated PAR1 is sorted to lysosomes. To identify the signals that specify the distinct sorting of PAR1, we constructed chimeras between PAR1 and the substance P receptor. Wild-type substance P receptor internalized and recycled after activation; PAR1 bearing the cytoplasmic tail of the substance P receptor (P/S) behaved similarly. By contrast, wild-type PAR1 and a substance P receptor bearing the cytoplasmic tail of PAR1 (S/P) sorted to lysosomes after activation. Consistent with these observations, PAR1 and the S/P chimera were effectively down-regulated by their respective agonists as assessed by both receptor protein levels and signaling. Substance P receptor and the P/S chimera showed little down-regulation. These data suggest that the cytoplasmic tails of PAR1 and substance P receptor specify their distinct intracellular sorting patterns after activation and internalization. Moreover, by altering the trafficking fates of PAR1 and substance P receptor, one can dictate the efficiency with which a cell maintains responsiveness to PAR1 or substance P receptor agonists over time.

  10. Mechanisms of Activation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Monomers or Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play essential roles in cellular processes, including metabolism, cell-cycle control, survival, proliferation, motility and differentiation. RTKs are all synthesized as single-pass transmembrane proteins and bind polypeptide ligands, mainly growth factors. It has long been thought that all RTKs, except for the insulin receptor (IR) family, are activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptors. An increasing number of diverse studies, however, indicate that RTKs, previously thought to exist as monomers, are present as pre-formed, yet inactive, dimers prior to ligand binding. The non-covalently associated dimeric structures are reminiscent of those of the IR family, which has a disulfide-linked dimeric structure. Furthermore, recent progress in structural studies has provided insight into the underpinnings of conformational changes during the activation of RTKs. In this review, I discuss two mutually exclusive models for the mechanisms of activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, the neurotrophin receptor and IR families, based on these new insights. PMID:24758840

  11. Modulation of Receptor Phosphorylation Contributes to Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Other Peroxisome Proliferators

    PubMed Central

    Tamasi, Viola; Miller, Kristy K. Michael; Ripp, Sharon L.; Vila, Ermin; Geoghagen, Thomas E.; Prough, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 human adrenal steroid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in vivo but does not ligand-activate PPARα in transient transfection experiments. We demonstrate that DHEA regulates PPARα action by altering both the levels and phosphorylation status of the receptor. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with the expression plasmid encoding PPARα and a plasmid containing two copies of fatty acyl coenzyme oxidase (FACO) peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor responsive element consensus oligonucleotide in a luciferase reporter gene. Nafenopin treatment increased reporter gene activity in this system, whereas DHEA treatment did not. Okadaic acid significantly decreased nafenopin-induced reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Okadaic acid treatment of primary rat hepatocytes decreased both DHEA- and nafenopin-induced FACO activity in primary rat hepatocytes. DHEA induced both PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as PP2A message in primary rat hepatocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the serines at positions 12 and 21 were rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment with DHEA and nafenopin. Results using specific protein phosphatase inhibitors suggested that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for DHEA action, and protein phosphatase 1 might be involved in nafenopin induction. Mutation of serines at position 6, 12, and 21 to an uncharged alanine residue significantly increased transcriptional activity, whereas mutation to negative charged aspartate residues (mimicking receptor phosphorylation) decreased transcriptional activity. DHEA action involves induction of PPARα mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPARα transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region. PMID:18079279

  12. Liver X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist from Cornus alternifolia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-Qing; Ma, Guo-Yi; Peng, Jiang-nan; Ma, Zhan-Ying; Hamann, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptors superfamily and are transcription factors activated by specific ligands. Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptors and have been shown to play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. From the previous screening of several medicinal plants for potential partial PPARγ agonists, the extracts of Cornus alternifolia were found to exhibit promising bioactivity. In this paper, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of four new compounds and their potential as ligands for PPAR. Methods The new compounds were extracted from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and analysis of their hydrolysis products. Results Three new iridoid glycosides including an iridolactone, alternosides A-C (1–3), a new megastigmane glycoside, cornalternoside (4) and 10 known compounds, were obtained from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia. Kaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited potent agonistic activities for PPARα, PPARγ and LXR with EC50 values of 0.62, 3.0 and 1.8 μ M, respectively. Conclusions We isolated four new and ten known compounds from Cornus alternifolia, and one known compound showed agonistic activities for PPARα, PPARγ and LXR. General significance Compound 1 is the first example of a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside containing a β-glucopyranoside moiety at C-6. PMID:22353334

  13. "Neuropeptides in the brain defense against distant organ damage".

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Mike Yoshio; Barbeiro, Hermes Vieira; Barbeiro, Denise Frediani; Cunha, Débora Maria Gomes; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira César; Pinheiro da Silva, Fabiano

    2016-01-15

    Delirium, or acute confusional state, is a common manifestation in diseases that originate outside the central nervous system, affecting 30-40% of elderly hospitalized patients and up to 80% of the critically ill, even though it remains unclear if severe systemic inflammation is able or not to induce cellular disturbances and immune activation in the brain. Neuropeptides are pleotropic molecules heterogeneously distributed throughout the brain and possess a wide spectrum of functions, including regulation of the inflammatory response, so we hypothesized that they would be the major alarm system in the brain before overt microglia activation. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we induced acute pancreatitis in 8-10week old rats and collected brain tissue, 12 and 24h following pancreatic injury, to measure neuropeptide and cytokine tissue levels. We found significantly higher levels of β-endorphin, orexin and oxytocin in the brain of rats submitted to pancreatic injury, when compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, these differences were not associated with increased local cytokine levels, putting in evidence that neuropeptide release occurred independently of microglia activation and may be a pivotal alarm system to initiate neurologic reactions to distant inflammatory non-infectious aggression.

  14. Brain neuropeptides in gastric mucosal protection.

    PubMed

    Gyires, Klára; Zádori, Zoltán S

    2014-12-01

    The centrally induced gastroprotective effect of neuropeptides has been intensively studied. Besides many similarities, however, differences can also be observed in their gastroprotective actions. The gastroprotective dose-response curve proved to be either sigmoid, or bell-shaped. Additional gastrointestinal effects of neuropeptides can contribute to their mucosal protective effect. Part of the neuropeptides induces gastroprotection by peripheral administration as well. Besides vagal nerve the sympathetic nervous system may also be involved in conveying the central effect to the periphery. Better understanding of the complex mechanism of the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity may result in the development of new strategy to enhance gastric mucosal resistance against injury.

  15. Neuropeptide Y stimulates neuronal precursor proliferation in the post-natal and adult dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Howell, Owain W; Doyle, Kharen; Goodman, Jeffrey H; Scharfman, Helen E; Herzog, Herbert; Pringle, Ashley; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Gray, William P

    2005-05-01

    Adult dentate neurogenesis is important for certain types of hippocampal-dependent learning and also appears to be important for the maintenance of normal mood and the behavioural effects of antidepressants. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a peptide neurotransmitter released by interneurons in the dentate gyrus, has important effects on mood, anxiety-related behaviour and learning and memory. We report that adult NPY receptor knock-out mice have significantly reduced cell proliferation and significantly fewer immature doublecortin-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus. We also show that the neuroproliferative effect of NPY is dentate specific, is Y1-receptor mediated and involves extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation. NPY did not exhibit any effect on cell survival in vitro but constitutive loss of the Y1 receptor in vivo resulted in greater survival of newly generated neurons and an unchanged total number of dentate granule cells. These results show that NPY stimulates neuronal precursor proliferation in the dentate gyrus and suggest that NPY-releasing interneurons may modulate dentate neurogenesis.

  16. Neuropeptide Y protects against methamphetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Thiriet, Nathalie; Deng, Xiaolin; Solinas, Marcello; Ladenheim, Bruce; Curtis, Wendy; Goldberg, Steven R; Palmiter, Richard D; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2005-06-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit drug that causes neuronal apoptosis in the mouse striatum, in a manner similar to the neuronal loss observed in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, injections of METH to mice were found to cause the death of enkephalin-positive projection neurons but not the death of neuropeptide Y (NPY)/nitric oxide synthase-positive striatal interneurons. In addition, these METH injections were associated with increased expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA and changes in the expression of the NPY receptors Y1 and Y2. Administration of NPY in the cerebral ventricles blocked METH-induced apoptosis, an effect that was mediated mainly by stimulation of NPY Y2 receptors and, to a lesser extent, of NPY Y1 receptors. Finally, we also found that neuropeptide Y knock-out mice were more sensitive than wild-type mice to METH-induced neuronal apoptosis of both enkephalin- and nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons, suggesting that NPY plays a general neuroprotective role within the striatum. Together, our results demonstrate that neuropeptide Y belongs to the class of factors that maintain neuronal integrity during cellular stresses. Given the similarity between the cell death patterns induced by METH and by disorders such as Huntington's disease, our results suggest that NPY analogs might be useful therapeutic agents against some neurodegenerative processes.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of endogenous and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pomorska, Dorota K; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main role of endogenous opioid peptides is the modulation of pain. Opioid peptides exert their analgesic activity by binding to the opioid receptors distributed widely in the central nervous system (CNS). However, opioid receptors are also found on tissues and organs outside the CNS, including the cells of the immune system, indicating that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in periphery. Morphine, which is a gold standard in the treatment of chronic pain, is well-known for its immunosuppressive effects. Much less is known about the immunomodulatory effects exerted by endogenous (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins and endomorphins) and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors. In this review we tried to summarize opioid peptide-mediated modulation of immune cell functions which can be stimulatory as well as inhibitory. PMID:25553430

  18. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  19. Structural basis for selective activation of ABA receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Francis C.; Burgie, E. Sethe; Park, Sang-Youl; Jensen, Davin R.; Weiner, Joshua J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Chang, Chia-En A.; Cutler, Sean R.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2010-11-01

    Changing environmental conditions and lessening fresh water supplies have sparked intense interest in understanding and manipulating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which controls adaptive responses to drought and other abiotic stressors. We recently discovered a selective ABA agonist, pyrabactin, and used it to discover its primary target PYR1, the founding member of the PYR/PYL family of soluble ABA receptors. To understand pyrabactin's selectivity, we have taken a combined structural, chemical and genetic approach. We show that subtle differences between receptor binding pockets control ligand orientation between productive and nonproductive modes. Nonproductive binding occurs without gate closure and prevents receptor activation. Observations in solution show that these orientations are in rapid equilibrium that can be shifted by mutations to control maximal agonist activity. Our results provide a robust framework for the design of new agonists and reveal a new mechanism for agonist selectivity.

  20. Novel positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors with anesthetic activity

    PubMed Central

    Maldifassi, Maria C.; Baur, Roland; Pierce, David; Nourmahnad, Anahita; Forman, Stuart A.; Sigel, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    GABAA receptors are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and are targets for numerous clinically important drugs such as benzodiazepines, anxiolytics and anesthetics. We previously identified novel ligands of the classical benzodiazepine binding pocket in α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors using an experiment-guided virtual screening (EGVS) method. This screen also identified novel ligands for intramembrane low affinity diazepam site(s). In the current study we have further characterized compounds 31 and 132 identified with EGVS as well as 4-O-methylhonokiol. We investigated the site of action of these compounds in α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using voltage-clamp electrophysiology combined with a benzodiazepine site antagonist and transmembrane domain mutations. All three compounds act mainly through the two β+/α− subunit transmembrane interfaces of the GABAA receptors. We then used concatenated receptors to dissect the involvement of individual β+/α− interfaces. We further demonstrated that these compounds have anesthetic activity in a small aquatic animal model, Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The newly identified compounds may serve as scaffolds for the development of novel anesthetics. PMID:27198062

  1. Do vasoactive neuropeptide autoimmune disorders explain pyridostigmine's association with Gulf War syndrome?

    PubMed

    Staines, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Gulf War syndrome (GWS) is a perplexing multi-symptom condition comprising a constellation of signs and symptoms consistently described in the literature. These include muscle fatigue and tiredness, malaise, myalgia, impaired cognition, ataxia, diarrhoea, bladder dysfunction, sweating disturbances, headaches, fever, arthralgia, skin rashes, and gastrointestinal and sleep disturbances. Excessive chemical sensitivity and odour intolerance is reported. Epidemiological analysis suggests association with pyridostigmine bromide (PB) use as nerve gas prophylaxis, insect repellent, certain vaccination regimes, a variety of possible chemical exposures and physical and psychological stress. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are potent vasoactive (vasodilatory) neuropeptides (VNs) having pleiotropic functions as immunomodulators, neuroregulators and hormones. VNs also have neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic roles. VNs act on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to activate adenylate cyclase, an important step in cyclic AMP metabolism. Autoimmune dysfunction of these VNs or their receptors is postulated to give rise to fatigue-related conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Complex mechanisms involving heat shock proteins (hsps) and cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) DNA fragments may also be associated with autoimmunity to VNs or their GPCRs in contributing to fatigue-related conditions. Dysfunction of certain VNs may be the missing link in explaining the nebulous nexus between PB and GWS. This paper explores a possible link between exposures to PB and other chemical, physical and psychological stressors in producing a fatigue-related illness possibly related to autoimmune dysfunction of certain VNs. Treatment options involving restoration of VN function are considered in the context of analogues with other neurotransmitter fatigue-related conditions such as

  2. Cofactoring and Dimerization of Proteinase-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huilan; Liu, Allen P.; Smith, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein–coupled receptors that transmit cellular responses to extracellular proteases and have important functions in vascular physiology, development, inflammation, and cancer progression. The established paradigm for PAR activation involves proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular N terminus, which reveals a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand by binding intramolecularly to the receptor to trigger transmembrane signaling. Most cells express more than one PAR, which can influence the mode of PAR activation and signaling. Clear examples include murine PAR3 cofactoring of PAR4 and transactivation of PAR2 by PAR1. Thrombin binds to and cleaves murine PAR3, which facilitates PAR4 cleavage and activation. This process is essential for thrombin signaling and platelet activation, since murine PAR3 cannot signal alone. Although PAR1 and PAR4 are both competent to signal, PAR1 is able to act as a cofactor for PAR4, facilitating more rapid cleavage and activation by thrombin. PAR1 can also facilitate PAR2 activation through a different mechanism. Cleavage of the PAR1 N terminus by thrombin generates a tethered ligand domain that can bind intermolecularly to PAR2 to activate signaling. Thus, PARs can regulate each other’s activity by localizing thrombin when in complex with PAR3 and PAR4 or by cleaved PAR1, providing its tethered ligand domain for PAR2 activation. The ability of PARs to cofactor or transactivate other PARs would necessitate that the two receptors be in close proximity, likely in the form of a heterodimer. Here, we discuss the cofactoring and dimerization of PARs and the functional consequences on signaling. PMID:24064459

  3. Neuropeptide W increases mean arterial pressure as a result of behavioral arousal

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Alicia T.; Yosten, Gina L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide W (NPW), an endogenous ligand for G protein-coupled receptors NPBWR1 (GPR7) and NPBWR2 (GPR8), has been detected in neurons in limbic and reticular activating system areas known to be important in arousal, as well as hypothalamic nuclei known to be important in food and water intake and the neuroendocrine response to stress. In rat, central administration of NPW increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and behaviors associated with locomotion and grooming. We hypothesized that the NPW-induced increase in MAP was secondary to those increases in physical activity. Since peptides that stimulate arousal have been shown to increase sympathetic activity (e.g., orexin), we tested the ability of the mixed α1- and α2-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine, to block the NPW-23-induced rise in MAP. Phentolamine pretreatment abrogated the NPW-induced MAP increase. However, we noticed the animals no longer exhibited NPW-associated behavioral arousal when pretreated with phentolamine. Anesthesia also blocked the NPW-induced increase in MAP, although the animals still were able to respond with an increase in MAP to centrally administered ANG II. Additionally, pretreatment with an orexin type 1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced the behavioral action of NPW-23 and completely blocked the peptide's action to increase MAP, suggesting that orexin neurons are downstream targets of NPW. Our results suggest that NPW increased MAP secondary to increased behavioral arousal. PMID:23926134

  4. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). SCF and NGF values were also decreased after antihistamine treatment (P < 0.05). Post-treatment levels of CGRP were significantly higher compared with pretreatment values, while no significant difference was detected between pre and post treatment levels of SP. Cetirizine was significantly more effective than loratadine on lowering serum levels of SCF among the other neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Bailey, David

    2000-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)s are a family of three nuclear hormone receptors, PPARα, -δ, and -γ, which are members of the steriod receptor superfamily. The first member of the family (PPARα) was originally discovered as the mediator by which a number of xenobiotic drugs cause peroxisome proliferation in the liver. Defined functions for all these receptors, until recently, mainly concerned their ability to regulate energy balance, with PPARα being involved in β-oxidation pathways, and PPARγ in the differentiation of adipocytes. Little is known about the functions of PPARδ, though it is the most ubiquitously expressed. Since their discovery, PPARs have been shown to be expressed in monocytes/macrophages, the heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, PPARs can be activated by a vast number of compounds including synthetic drugs, of the clofibrate, and anti-diabetic thiazoldinedione classes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a number of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products, and oxidized low density lipoprotein. This review will aim to introduce the field of PPAR nuclear hormone receptors, and discuss the discovery and actions of PPARs in the cardiovascular system, as well as the source of potential ligands. PMID:10696077

  6. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARα,...

  7. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation. PMID:22269613

  8. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mo; Loschek, Laura F.; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C.

    2016-01-01

    A female’s reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides), which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female’s preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny. PMID:27145127

  9. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ashiq; Üçpunar, Habibe K; Zhang, Mo; Loschek, Laura F; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C

    2016-05-01

    A female's reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides), which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female's preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny. PMID:27145127

  10. Protease-activated-receptor-2 affects protease-activated-receptor-1-driven breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Mohammad; Maoz, Miriam; Kancharla, Arun; Agranovich, Daniel; Peretz, Tamar; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Uziely, Beatrice; Bar-Shavit, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian protease-activated-receptor-1 and -2 (PAR1 and PAR2) are activated by proteases found in the flexible microenvironment of a tumor and play a central role in breast cancer. We propose in the present study that PAR1 and PAR2 act together as a functional unit during malignant and physiological invasion processes. This notion is supported by assessing pro-tumor functions in the presence of short hairpin; shRNA knocked-down hPar2 or by the use of a truncated PAR2 devoid of the entire cytoplasmic tail. Silencing of hPar2 by shRNA-attenuated thrombin induced PAR1 signaling as recapitulated by inhibiting the assembly of Etk/Bmx or Akt onto PAR1-C-tail, by thrombin-instigated colony formation and invasion. Strikingly, shRNA-hPar2 also inhibited the TFLLRN selective PAR1 pro-tumor functions. In addition, while evaluating the physiological invasion process of placenta extravillous trophoblast (EVT) organ culture, we observed inhibition of both thrombin or the selective PAR1 ligand; TFLLRNPNDK induced EVT invasion by shRNA-hPar2 but not by scrambled shRNA-hPar2. In parallel, when a truncated PAR2 was utilized in a xenograft mouse model, it inhibited PAR1-PAR2-driven tumor growth in vivo. Similarly, it also attenuated the interaction of Etk/Bmx with the PAR1-C-tail in vitro and decreased markedly selective PAR1-induced Matrigel invasion. Confocal images demonstrated co-localization of PAR1 and PAR2 in HEK293T cells over-expressing YFP-hPar2 and HA-hPar1. Co-immuno-precipitation analyses revealed PAR1-PAR2 complex formation but no PAR1-CXCR4 complex was formed. Taken together, our observations show that PAR1 and PAR2 act as a functional unit in tumor development and placenta-uterus interactions. This conclusion may have significant consequences on future breast cancer therapeutic modalities and improved late pregnancy outcome. PMID:24177339

  11. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  12. Neuropeptide Y and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediate injury-induced neuroregeneration in mouse olfactory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen Cosgrove

    2011-01-01

    In the olfactory epithelium (OE), injury induces ATP release, and subsequent activation of P2 purinergic receptors by ATP promotes neuroregeneration by increasing basal progenitor cell proliferation. The molecular mechanisms underlying ATP-induced increases in OE neuroregeneration have not been established. In the present study, the roles of neuroproliferative factors neuropeptide Y (NPY) and fibroblast growth factor2 (FGF2), and p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) on ATP-mediated increases of neuroregeneration in the OE were investigated. ATP increased basal progenitor cell proliferation in the OE via activation of P2 purinergic receptors in vitro and in vivo as monitored by incorporation of 5′-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into DNA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels. ATP induced p44/42 ERK activation in globose basal cells (GBC) but not horizontal basal cells (HBC). ATP differentially regulated p44/42 ERK over time in the OE both in vitro and in vivo with transient inhibition (5–15 min) followed by activation (30 min – 1 hr) of p44/42 ERK. In addition, ATP indirectly activated p44/42 ERK in the OE via ATP-induced NPY release and subsequent activation of NPY Y1 receptors in the basal cells. There were no synergistic effects of ATP and NPY or FGF2 on OE neuroregeneration. These data clearly have implications for the pharmacological modulation of neuroregeneration in the olfactory epithelium. PMID:22154958

  13. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ∼4-6 h prior to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral parameters, especially when animals have altered circadian phenotype.

  14. Lysophosphatidylserine analogues differentially activate three LysoPS receptors.

    PubMed

    Uwamizu, Akiharu; Inoue, Asuka; Suzuki, Kensuke; Okudaira, Michiyo; Shuto, Akira; Shinjo, Yuji; Ishiguro, Jun; Makide, Kumiko; Ikubo, Masaya; Nakamura, Sho; Jung, Sejin; Sayama, Misa; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko; Aoki, Junken

    2015-03-01

    Lysophosphatidylserine (1-oleoyl-2 R-lysophosphatidylserine, LysoPS) has been shown to have lipid mediator-like actions such as stimulation of mast cell degranulation and suppression of T lymphocyte proliferation, although the mechanisms of LysoPS actions have been elusive. Recently, three G protein-coupled receptors (LPS1/GPR34, LPS2/P2Y10 and LPS3/GPR174) were found to react specifically with LysoPS, raising the possibility that LysoPS serves as a lipid mediator that exerts its role through these receptors. Previously, we chemically synthesized a number of LysoPS analogues and evaluated them as agonists for mast-cell degranulation. Here, we used a transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) shedding assay to see if these Lyso