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Sample records for activating phosphorylation site

  1. MSK1 activity is controlled by multiple phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    McCOY, Claire E.; Campbell, David G.; Deak, Maria; Bloomberg, Graham B.; Arthur, J. Simon C.

    2004-01-01

    MSK1 (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase) is a kinase activated in cells downstream of both the ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. In the present study, we show that, in addition to being phosphorylated on Thr-581 and Ser-360 by ERK1/2 or p38, MSK1 can autophosphorylate on at least six sites: Ser-212, Ser-376, Ser-381, Ser-750, Ser-752 and Ser-758. Of these sites, the N-terminal T-loop residue Ser-212 and the ‘hydrophobic motif’ Ser-376 are phosphorylated by the C-terminal kinase domain of MSK1, and their phosphorylation is essential for the catalytic activity of the N-terminal kinase domain of MSK1 and therefore for the phosphorylation of MSK1 substrates in vitro. Ser-381 is also phosphorylated by the C-terminal kinase domain, and mutation of Ser-381 decreases MSK1 activity, probably through the inhibition of Ser-376 phosphorylation. Ser-750, Ser-752 and Ser-758 are phosphorylated by the N-terminal kinase domain; however, their function is not known. The activation of MSK1 in cells therefore requires the activation of the ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK cascades and does not appear to require additional signalling inputs. This is in contrast with the closely related RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) proteins, whose activity requires phosphorylation by PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1) in addition to phosphorylation by ERK1/2. PMID:15568999

  2. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites Altering Pollen Soluble Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Activity.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Deborah J; Haque, Tamanna; Tudor, Richard L; Barron, Yoshimi; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Cotton, Nicholas P J; de Graaf, Barend H J; White, Scott A; Cooper, Helen J; Franklin, F Christopher H; Harper, Jeffery F; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2017-03-01

    Protein phosphorylation regulates numerous cellular processes. Identifying the substrates and protein kinases involved is vital to understand how these important posttranslational modifications modulate biological function in eukaryotic cells. Pyrophosphatases catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic phosphate (PPi) to inorganic phosphate Pi, driving biosynthetic reactions; they are essential for low cytosolic inorganic phosphate. It was suggested recently that posttranslational regulation of Family I soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (sPPases) may affect their activity. We previously demonstrated that two pollen-expressed sPPases, Pr-p26.1a and Pr-p26.1b, from the flowering plant Papaver rhoeas were inhibited by phosphorylation. Despite the potential significance, there is a paucity of data on sPPase phosphorylation and regulation. Here, we used liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry to map phosphorylation sites to the otherwise divergent amino-terminal extensions on these pollen sPPases. Despite the absence of reports in the literature on mapping phosphorylation sites on sPPases, a database survey of various proteomes identified a number of examples, suggesting that phosphorylation may be a more widely used mechanism to regulate these enzymes. Phosphomimetic mutants of Pr-p26.1a/b significantly and differentially reduced PPase activities by up to 2.5-fold at pH 6.8 and 52% in the presence of Ca(2+) and hydrogen peroxide over unmodified proteins. This indicates that phosphoregulation of key sites can inhibit the catalytic responsiveness of these proteins in concert with key intracellular events. As sPPases are essential for many metabolic pathways in eukaryotic cells, our findings identify the phosphorylation of sPPases as a potential master regulatory mechanism that could be used to attenuate metabolism.

  3. Musk Kinase Activity is Modulated By A Serine Phosphorylation Site in The Kinase Loop.

    PubMed

    Camurdanoglu, B Z; Hrovat, C; Dürnberger, G; Madalinski, M; Mechtler, K; Herbst, R

    2016-09-26

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) forms when a motor neuron contacts a muscle fibre. A reciprocal exchange of signals initiates a cascade of signalling events that result in pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. At the centre of these signalling events stands muscle specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK activation, kinase activity and subsequent downstream signalling are crucial for NMJ formation as well as maintenance. Therefore MuSK kinase activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper NMJ development. We have identified a novel serine phosphorylation site at position 751 in MuSK that is increasingly phosphorylated upon agrin stimulation. S751 is also phosphorylated in muscle tissue and its phosphorylation depends on MuSK kinase activity. A phosphomimetic mutant of S751 increases MuSK kinase activity in response to non-saturating agrin concentrations . In addition, basal MuSK and AChR phosphorylation as well as AChR cluster size are increased. We believe that the phosphorylation of S751 provides a novel mechanism to relief the autoinhibition of the MuSK activation loop. Such a lower autoinhibition could foster or stabilize MuSK kinase activation, especially during stages when no or low level of agrin are present. Phosphorylation of S751 might therefore represent a novel mechanism to modulate MuSK kinase activity during prepatterning or NMJ maintenance.

  4. A phosphorylation site in the ftz homeodomain is required for activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, J; Hung, L H; Strome, R; Krause, H M

    1998-01-01

    The Drosophila homeodomain-containing protein Fushi tarazu (Ftz) is expressed sequentially in the embryo, first in alternate segments, then in specific neuroblasts and neurons in the central nervous system, and finally in parts of the gut. During these different developmental stages, the protein is heavily phosphorylated on different subsets of Ser and Thr residues. This stage-specific phosphorylation suggests possible roles for signal transduction pathways in directing tissue-specific Ftz activities. Here we show that one of the Ftz phosphorylation sites, T263 in the N-terminus of the Ftz homeodomain, is phosphorylated in vitro by Drosophila embryo extracts and protein kinase A. In the embryo, mutagenesis of this site to the non-phosphorylatable residue Ala resulted in loss of ftz-dependent segments. Conversely, substitution of T263 with Asp, which is also non-phosphorylatable, but which successfully mimics phosphorylated residues in a number of proteins, rescued the mutant phenotype. This suggests that T263 is in the phosphorylated state when functioning normally in vivo. We also demonstrate that the T263 substitutions of Ala and Asp do not affect Ftz DNA-binding activity in vitro, nor do they affect stability or transcriptional activity in transfected S2 cells. This suggests that T263 phosphorylation is most likely required for a homeodomain-mediated interaction with an embryonically expressed protein. PMID:9545243

  5. Phosphorylation of the VP16 transcriptional activator protein during herpes simplex virus infection and mutational analysis of putative phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Ottosen, Søren; Herrera, Francisco J.; Doroghazi, James R.; Hull, Angela; Mittal, Sheenu; Lane, William S.; Triezenberg, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    VP16 is a virion phosphoprotein of herpes simplex virus and a transcriptional activator of the viral immediate-early (IE) genes. We identified four novel VP16 phosphorylation sites (Ser18, Ser353, Ser411, and Ser452) at late times in infection, but found no evidence of phosphorylation of Ser375, a residue reportedly phosphorylated when VP16 is expressed from a transfected plasmid. A virus carrying a S375A mutation of VP16 was viable in cell culture but with a slow growth rate. The association of the mutant VP16 protein with IE gene promoters and subsequent IE gene expression was markedly reduced during infection, consistent with prior transfection and in vitro results. Surprisingly, the association of Oct-1 with IE promoters was also diminished during infection by the mutant strain. We propose that Ser375 is important for the interaction of VP16 with Oct-1, and that the interaction is required to enable both proteins to bind to IE promoters. PMID:16297954

  6. Site-specific phosphorylation and microtubule dynamics control Pyrin inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Yang, Jieling; Liu, Wang; Wang, Yupeng; Shao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Pyrin, encoded by the MEFV gene, is best known for its gain-of-function mutations causing familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autoinflammatory disease. Pyrin forms a caspase-1–activating inflammasome in response to inactivating modifications of Rho GTPases by various bacterial toxins or effectors. Pyrin-mediated innate immunity is unique in that it senses bacterial virulence rather than microbial molecules, but its mechanism of activation is unknown. Here we show that Pyrin was phosphorylated in bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. We identified Ser-205 and Ser-241 in mouse Pyrin whose phosphorylation resulted in inhibitory binding by cellular 14-3-3 proteins. The two serines underwent dephosphorylation upon toxin stimulation or bacterial infection, triggering 14-3-3 dissociation, which correlated with Pyrin inflammasome activation. We developed antibodies specific for phosphorylated Ser-205 and Ser-241, which confirmed the stimuli-induced dephosphorylation of endogenous Pyrin. Mutational analyses indicated that both phosphorylation and signal-induced dephosphorylation of Ser-205/241 are important for Pyrin activation. Moreover, microtubule drugs, including colchicine, commonly used to treat FMF, effectively blocked activation of the Pyrin inflammasome. These drugs did not affect Pyrin dephosphorylation and 14-3-3 dissociation but inhibited Pyrin-mediated apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) aggregation. Our study reveals that site-specific (de)phosphorylation and microtubule dynamics critically control Pyrin inflammasome activation, illustrating a fine and complex mechanism in cytosolic immunity. PMID:27482109

  7. Identification of novel in vivo phosphorylation sites of the human proapoptotic protein BAD: pore-forming activity of BAD is regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Polzien, Lisa; Baljuls, Angela; Rennefahrt, Ulrike E E; Fischer, Andreas; Schmitz, Werner; Zahedi, Rene P; Sickmann, Albert; Metz, Renate; Albert, Stefan; Benz, Roland; Hekman, Mirko; Rapp, Ulf R

    2009-10-09

    BAD is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by phosphorylation in response to survival factors. Although much attention has been devoted to the identification of phosphorylation sites in murine BAD, little data are available with respect to phosphorylation of human BAD protein. Using mass spectrometry, we identified here besides the established phosphorylation sites at serines 75, 99, and 118 several novel in vivo phosphorylation sites within human BAD (serines 25, 32/34, 97, and 124). Furthermore, we investigated the quantitative contribution of BAD targeting kinases in phosphorylating serine residues 75, 99, and 118. Our results indicate that RAF kinases represent, besides protein kinase A, PAK, and Akt/protein kinase B, in vivo BAD-phosphorylating kinases. RAF-induced phosphorylation of BAD was reduced to control levels using the RAF inhibitor BAY 43-9006. This phosphorylation was not prevented by MEK inhibitors. Consistently, expression of constitutively active RAF suppressed apoptosis induced by BAD and the inhibition of colony formation caused by BAD could be prevented by RAF. In addition, using the surface plasmon resonance technique, we analyzed the direct consequences of BAD phosphorylation by RAF with respect to association with 14-3-3 and Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) proteins. Phosphorylation of BAD by active RAF promotes 14-3-3 protein association, in which the phosphoserine 99 represented the major binding site. Finally, we show here that BAD forms channels in planar bilayer membranes in vitro. This pore-forming capacity was dependent on phosphorylation status and interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Collectively, our findings provide new insights into the regulation of BAD function by phosphorylation.

  8. A Variable Active Site Residue Influences the Kinetics of Response Regulator Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Immormino, Robert M; Silversmith, Ruth E; Bourret, Robert B

    2016-10-04

    Two-component regulatory systems, minimally composed of a sensor kinase and a response regulator protein, are common mediators of signal transduction in microorganisms. All response regulators contain a receiver domain with conserved active site residues that catalyze the signal activating and deactivating phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions. We explored the impact of variable active site position T+1 (one residue C-terminal to the conserved Thr/Ser) on reaction kinetics and signaling fidelity, using wild type and mutant Escherichia coli CheY, CheB, and NarL to represent the three major sequence classes observed across response regulators: Ala/Gly, Ser/Thr, and Val/Ile/Met, respectively, at T+1. Biochemical and structural data together suggested that different amino acids at T+1 impacted reaction kinetics by altering access to the active site while not perturbing overall protein structure. A given amino acid at position T+1 had similar effects on autodephosphorylation in each protein background tested, likely by modulating access of the attacking water molecule to the active site. Similarly, rate constants for CheY autophosphorylation with three different small molecule phosphodonors were consistent with the steric constraints on access to the phosphorylation site arising from combination of specific phosphodonors with particular amino acids at T+1. Because other variable active site residues also influence response regulator phosphorylation biochemistry, we began to explore how context (here, the amino acid at T+2) affected the influence of position T+1 on CheY autocatalytic reactions. Finally, position T+1 affected the fidelity and kinetics of phosphotransfer between sensor kinases and response regulators but was not a primary determinant of their interaction.

  9. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-01-01

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser696 and Ser698 in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser886 and/or Ser893 in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser717 in the JM, and at Ser733, Thr752, Ser783, Ser864, Ser911, Ser958 and Thr998 in the kinase domain. The LC–ESI–MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr890, Ser893 and Thr894) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr890, Ser893, Thr894 and Thr899, differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  10. The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and the origin of hyperhomocysteinemia in aging and dementia.

    PubMed

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2015-01-01

    The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in mitochondria is proposed to consist of two molecules of thioretinamide bound to cobalamin, forming thioretinaco, complexed with ozone, oxygen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. and inorganic phosphate, TR2CoO3O2NAD(+)H2PO4(-). Reduction of the pyridinium nitrogen of the nicotinamide group by an electron from electron transport complexes initiates polymerization of phosphate with adenosine diphosphate, yielding nicotinamide riboside and ATP bound to thioretinaco ozonide oxygen. A second electron reduces oxygen to hydroperoxyl radical, releasing ATP from the active site. A proton gradient is created within F1F0 ATPase complexes of mitochondria by reaction of protons with reduced nicotinamide riboside and with hydroperoxyl radical, yielding reduced nicotinamide riboside and hydroperoxide. The hyperhomocysteinemia of aging and dementia is attributed to decreased synthesis of adenosyl methionine by thioretinaco ozonide and ATP, causing decreased allosteric activation of cystathionine synthase and decreased allosteric inhibition of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and resulting in dysregulation of methionine metabolism.

  11. Phosphorylation site prediction in plants.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiuming; Schulze, Waltraud X; Xu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation events on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues are the most pervasive protein covalent bond modifications in plant signaling. Both low and high throughput studies reveal the importance of phosphorylation in plant molecular biology. Although becoming more and more common, the proteome-wide screening on phosphorylation by experiments remains time consuming and costly. Therefore, in silico prediction methods are proposed as a complementary analysis tool to enhance the phosphorylation site identification, develop biological hypothesis, or help experimental design. These methods build statistical models based on the experimental data, and they do not have some of the technical-specific bias, which may have advantage in proteome-wide analysis. More importantly computational methods are very fast and cheap to run, which makes large-scale phosphorylation identifications very practical for any types of biological study. Thus, the phosphorylation prediction tools become more and more popular. In this chapter, we will focus on plant specific phosphorylation site prediction tools, with essential illustration of technical details and application guidelines. We will use Musite, PhosPhAt and PlantPhos as the representative tools. We will present the results on the prediction of the Arabidopsis protein phosphorylation events to give users a general idea of the performance range of the three tools, together with their strengths and limitations. We believe these prediction tools will contribute more and more to the plant phosphorylation research community.

  12. Artificial phosphorylation sites modulate the activity of a voltage-gated potassium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyaratne, Amila; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The KvAP potassium channel is representative of a family of voltage-gated ion channels where the membrane potential is sensed by a transmembrane helix containing several positively charged arginines. Previous work by Wang and Zocchi [A. Wang and G. Zocchi, PLoS ONE 6, e18598 (2011), 10.1371/journal.pone.0018598] showed how a negatively charged polyelectrolyte attached in proximity to the voltage sensing element can bias the opening probability of the channel. Here we introduce three phosphorylation sites at the same location and show that the response curve of the channel shifts by about 20 mV upon phosphorylation, while other characteristics such as the single-channel conductance are unaffected. In summary, we construct an artificial phosphorylation site which confers allosteric regulation to the channel.

  13. Phosphorylation of serine 264 impedes active site accessibility in the E1 component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Franziska; Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Golbik, Ralph; Spinka, Michael; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Brauer, Johanna; Patel, Mulchand S; Tittmann, Kai

    2007-05-29

    At the junction of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle in cellular metabolism, the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. In mammals, PDHc is tightly regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of three serine residues in the thiamin-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) component. In vivo, inactivation of human PDHc correlates mostly with phosphorylation of serine 264, which is located at the entrance of the substrate channel leading to the active site of E1. Despite intense investigations, the molecular mechanism of this inactivation has remained enigmatic. Here, a detailed analysis of microscopic steps of catalysis in human wild-type PDHc-E1 and pseudophosphorylation variant Ser264Glu elucidates how phosphorylation of Ser264 affects catalysis. Whereas the intrinsic reactivity of the active site in catalysis of pyruvate decarboxylation remains nearly unaltered, the preceding binding of substrate to the enzyme's active site via the substrate channel and the subsequent reductive acetylation of the E2 component are severely slowed in the phosphorylation variant. The structure of pseudophosphorylation variant Ser264Glu determined by X-ray crystallography reveals no differences in the three-dimensional architecture of the phosphorylation loop or of the active site, when compared to those of the wild-type enzyme. However, the channel leading to the active site is partially obstructed by the side chain of residue 264 in the variant. By analogy, a similar obstruction of the substrate channel can be anticipated to result from a phosphorylation of Ser264. The kinetic and thermodynamic results in conjunction with the structure of Ser264Glu suggest that phosphorylation blocks access to the active site by imposing a steric and electrostatic barrier for substrate binding and active site coupling with the E2 component. As a Ser264Gln variant, which carries no charge at position 264, is also selectively

  14. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site, Ser-170, as a regulator of bad pro-apoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Dramsi, Shaynoor; Scheid, Michael P; Maiti, Arpita; Hojabrpour, Payman; Chen, Xianming; Schubert, Kathryn; Goodlett, David R; Aebersold, Ruedi; Duronio, Vincent

    2002-02-22

    Bad is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that is thought to exert a death-promoting effect by heterodimerization with Bcl-X(L), nullifying its anti-apoptotic activity. Growth factors may promote cell survival at least partially through phosphorylation of Bad at one or more of Ser-112, -136, or -155. Our previous work showed that Bad is also phosphorylated in response to cytokines at another site, which we now identify as Ser-170. The functional role of this novel phosphorylation site was assessed by site-directed mutagenesis and analysis of the pro-apoptotic function of Bad in transiently transfected HEK293 and COS-7 cells or by stable expression in the cytokine-dependent cell line, MC/9. In general, mutation of Ser-170 to Ala results in a protein with increased ability to induce apoptosis, similar to the S112A mutant. Mutation of Ser-170 to Asp, mimicking a constitutively phosphorylated site, results in a protein that is virtually unable to induce apoptosis. Similarly, the S112A/S170D double mutant does not cause apoptosis in HEK293 and MC/9 cell lines. These data strongly suggest that phosphorylation of Bad at Ser-170 is a critical event in blocking the pro-apoptotic activity of Bad.

  15. Modulation of p47PHOX activity by site-specific phosphorylation: Akt-dependent activation of the NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Hoyal, Carolyn R.; Gutierrez, Abel; Young, Brandon M.; Catz, Sergio D.; Lin, Jun-Hsiang; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Babior, Bernard M.

    2003-01-01

    The leukocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to O\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{2}^{-}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} at the expense of NADPH. Extensive phosphorylation of the oxidase subunit p47PHOX occurs during the activation of the enzyme in intact cells. p47PHOX carrying certain serine-to-alanine mutations fails to support NADPH oxidase activity in intact cells, suggesting that the phosphorylation of specific serines on p47PHOX is required for the activation of the oxidase. Earlier studies with both intact cells and a kinase-dependent, cell-free system have suggested that protein kinase C can phosphorylate those serines of p47PHOX whose phosphorylation is necessary for its activity. Work with inhibitors suggested that a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway also can activate the oxidase. Phosphorylation of p47PHOX by Akt (protein kinase B), whose activation depends on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, could be the final step in such a pathway. We now find that Akt activates the oxidase in vitro by phosphorylating serines S304 and S328 of p47PHOX. These results suggest that Akt could participate in the activation of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. PMID:12704229

  16. Phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphate kinase at the active site studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Deville-Bonne, D; Sellam, O; Merola, F; Lascu, I; Desmadril, M; Véron, M

    1996-11-19

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is the enzyme responsible in the cell for the phosphorylation of nucleoside or deoxynucleoside diphosphates into the corresponding triphosphates at the expense of ATP. Transfer of the gamma-phosphate is very fast (turnover number above 1000 s-1) and involves the phosphorylation of a histidine residue at the active site of the enzyme. We have used intrinsic protein fluorescence of the single tryptophan of Dictyostelium discoideum NDP kinase as a sensitive probe for monitoring the interaction of the enzyme with its substrates. We demonstrate that the 20% quenching of steady-state fluorescence observed upon addition of ATP is due to formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. Time-resolved fluorescence indicates that the Trp-137 side chain is rigidly bound to the protein core with a unique lifetime of 4.5 ns for the free enzyme at 20 degrees C and that it remains tightly immobilized during the time course of the reaction. Phosphorylation of this catalytic residue (His-122) in the presence of ATP induces a similar decrease in mean lifetime, due to the splitting of the signal and the appearance of a shorter decay. This splitting is discussed in terms of a slow conformational equilibrium. We demonstrate that, in the wild-type enzyme, the conserved His-55 quenches the fluorescence of Trp-137 as the H55A mutant protein fluorescence displays an increase in quantum yield. Even though H55A mutant enzyme is active, the absence of the imidazole ring prevents the detection of the phosphorylated state of His-122 by Trp-137. We conclude that His-55 serves as a relay between His-122 and Trp-137.

  17. Mapping the Zap-70 phosphorylation sites on LAT (linker for activation of T cells) required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins in T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Paz, P E; Wang, S; Clarke, H; Lu, X; Stokoe, D; Abo, A

    2001-01-01

    T-cell-receptor (TCR)-mediated LAT (linker for activation of T cells) phosphorylation is critical for the membrane recruitment of signalling complexes required for T-cell activation. Although tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT is required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins, the molecular mechanism associated with this event is unclear. In the present study we reconstituted the LAT signalling pathway by demonstrating that a direct tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT with activated protein-tyrosine kinase Zap70 is necessary and sufficient for the association and activation of signalling proteins. Zap-70 efficiently phosphorylates LAT on tyrosine residues at positions 226, 191, 171, 132 and 127. By substituting these tyrosine residues in LAT with phenylalanine and by utilizing phosphorylated peptides derived from these sites, we mapped the tyrosine residues in LAT required for the direct interaction and activation of Vav, p85/p110alpha and phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1). Our results indicate that Tyr(226) and Tyr(191) are required for Vav binding, whereas Tyr(171) and Tyr(132) are necessary for association and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity and PLCgamma1 respectively. Furthermore, by expression of LAT mutants in LAT-deficient T cells, we demonstrate that Tyr(191) and Tyr(171) are required for T-cell activation and Tyr(132) is required for the activation of PLCgamma1 and Ras signalling pathways. PMID:11368773

  18. A Casein Kinase II Phosphorylation Site in AtYY1 Affects Its Activity, Stability, and Function in the ABA Response

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiu-Yun; Li, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins are crucial in the regulation of protein activity and stability in various signaling pathways. In this study, we identified an ABA repressor, Arabidopsis Ying Yang 1 (AtYY1) as a potential target of casein kinase II (CKII). AtYY1 physically interacts with two regulatory subunits of CKII, CKB3, and CKB4. Moreover, AtYY1 can be phosphorylated by CKII in vitro, and the S284 site is the major CKII phosphorylation site. Further analyses indicated that S284 phosphorylation can enhance the transcriptional activity and protein stability of AtYY1 and hence strengthen the effect of AtYY1 as a negative regulator in the ABA response. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism of AtYY1 mediated by CKII phosphorylation. PMID:28348572

  19. Altered binding of thioflavin t to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase after phosphorylation of the active site by chlorpyrifos oxon or dichlorvos

    SciTech Connect

    Sultatos, L.G. Kaushik, R.

    2008-08-01

    The peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, when occupied by a ligand, is known to modulate reaction rates at the active site of this important enzyme. The current report utilized the peripheral anionic site specific fluorogenic probe thioflavin t to determine if the organophosphates chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos bind to the peripheral anionic site of human recombinant acetylcholinesterase, since certain organophosphates display concentration-dependent kinetics when inhibiting this enzyme. Incubation of 3 nM acetylcholinesterase active sites with 50 nM or 2000 nM inhibitor altered both the B{sub max} and K{sub d} for thioflavin t binding to the peripheral anionic site. However, these changes resulted from phosphorylation of Ser203 since increasing either inhibitor from 50 nM to 2000 nM did not alter further thioflavin t binding kinetics. Moreover, the organophosphate-induced decrease in B{sub max} did not represent an actual reduction in binding sites, but instead likely resulted from conformational interactions between the acylation and peripheral anionic sites that led to a decrease in the rigidity of bound thioflavin t. A drop in fluorescence quantum yield, leading to an apparent decrease in B{sub max}, would accompany the decreased rigidity of bound thioflavin t molecules. The organophosphate-induced alterations in K{sub d} represented changes in binding affinity of thioflavin t, with diethylphosphorylation of Ser203 increasing K{sub d}, and dimethylphosphorylation of Ser203 decreasing K{sub d}. These results indicate that chlorpyrifos oxon and dichlorvos do not bind directly to the peripheral anionic site of acetylcholinesterase, but can affect binding to that site through phosphorylation of Ser203.

  20. The Plastid Casein Kinase 2 Phosphorylates Rubisco Activase at the Thr-78 Site but Is Not Essential for Regulation of Rubisco Activation State

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Y.; Bender, Kyle W.; Walker, Berkley J.; Zielinski, Raymond E.; Spalding, Martin H.; Ort, Donald R.; Huber, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Rubisco activase (RCA) is essential for the activation of Rubisco, the carboxylating enzyme of photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, RCA is composed of a large RCAα and small RCAβ isoform that are formed by alternative splicing of a single gene (At2g39730). The activity of Rubisco is controlled in response to changes in irradiance by regulation of RCA activity, which is known to involve a redox-sensitive disulfide bond located in the carboxy-terminal extension of the RCAα subunit. Additionally, phosphorylation of RCA threonine-78 (Thr-78) has been reported to occur in the dark suggesting that phosphorylation may also be associated with dark-inactivation of RCA and deactivation of Rubisco. In the present study, we developed site-specific antibodies to monitor phosphorylation of RCA at the Thr-78 site and used non-reducing SDS-PAGE to monitor the redox status of the RCAα subunit. By immunoblotting, phosphorylation of both RCA isoforms occurred at low light and in the dark and feeding peroxide or DTT to leaf segments indicated that redox status of the chloroplast stroma was a critical factor controlling RCA phosphorylation. Use of a knockout mutant identified the plastid-targeted casein kinase 2 (cpCK2α) as the major protein kinase involved in RCA phosphorylation. Studies with recombinant cpCK2α and synthetic peptide substrates identified acidic residues at the –1, +2, and +3 positions surrounding Thr-78 as strong positive recognition elements. The cpck2 knockout mutant had strongly reduced phosphorylation at the Thr-78 site but was similar to wild type plants in terms of induction kinetics of photosynthesis following transfer from darkness or low light to high light, suggesting that if phosphorylation of RCA Thr-78 plays a direct role it would be redundant to redox regulation for control of Rubisco activation state under normal conditions. PMID:27064346

  1. PKA regulates calcineurin function through the phosphorylation of RCAN1: Identification of a novel phosphorylation site

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seon Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kooyeon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2015-04-17

    Calcineurin is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase that has been implicated in T cell activation through the induction of nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT). We have previously suggested that endogenous regulator of calcineurin (RCAN1, also known as DSCR1) is targeted by protein kinase A (PKA) for the control of calcineurin activity. In the present study, we characterized the PKA-mediated phosphorylation site in RCAN1 by mass spectrometric analysis and revealed that PKA directly phosphorylated RCAN1 at the Ser 93. PKA-induced phosphorylation and the increase in the half-life of the RCAN1 protein were prevented by the substitution of Ser 93 with Ala (S93A). Furthermore, the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 potentiated the inhibition of calcineurin-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression by RCAN1. Our results suggest the presence of a novel phosphorylation site in RCAN1 and that its phosphorylation influences calcineurin-dependent inflammatory target gene expression. - Highlights: • We identify novel phosphorylation sites in RCAN1 by LC-MS/MS analysis. • PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 inhibits calcineurin-mediated intracellular signaling. • We show the immunosuppressive function of RCAN1 phosphorylation at Ser 93 in suppressing cytokine expression.

  2. Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated and phosphorylated at different sites in rat pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells treated with phorbol ester and forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, E.; Tank, A.W.; Weiner, D.H.; Mosimann, W.F.; Yanagihara, N.; Weiner, N.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of phorbol ester (4..beta..-phorbol, 12..beta..-myristate, 13..cap alpha..-acetate; TPA), an activator of Ca/sup + +//phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PK-C), and forskolin, which stimulates adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK), on the activation and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells were examined. Incubation of the cells with TPA (0.01-1 ..mu..M) or forskolin (0.01-0.1 ..mu..M) produces increases in activation and phosphorylation of TH in a concentration-dependent manner. The stimulatory effects of TPA are dependent on extracellular Ca/sup + +/ and are inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with trifluoperazine (TFP). The effects of forskolin are independent of Ca/sup + +/ and are not inhibited by TFP. In cells treated with forskolin, the time course of the increase in cAMP correlates with the increases in TH activity and phosphorylation. cAMP levels do not increase in cells treated with TPA. There is an increase in the phosphorylation of only one tryptic phosphopeptide derived from TH in cells treated with either forskolin or TPA. The peptide phosphorylated in TPA-treated cells exhibits different elution characteristics on HPLC from that in forskolin-treated cells. The authors conclude that TH in PC 12 cells is phosphorylated on different sites by cAMP-PK and PK-C. Phosphorylation of either of these sites is associated with enzyme activation.

  3. Examining site-specific GPCR phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Adrian J; Tobin, Andrew B; Kong, Kok Choi

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one of the most prominent post-translation modifications mediated by agonist stimulation. This process has been shown to result not only in receptor desensitisation but also, via the recruitment of arrestin adaptor proteins, to promote receptor coupling to numerous signalling pathways. Furthermore, there is now a growing body of evidence suggesting that GPCRs may employ phosphorylation as a mechanism to regulate their cell-type-specific signalling, hence generating tissue-specific functions. These advances have resulted partly from improved methods used in the determination of phospho-acceptor sites on GPCRs and improved analysis of the consequences of phosphorylation. This chapter aims to describe the methods used in our laboratory for the investigation of site-specific phosphorylation of the M₃-muscarinic receptor. These methods could easily be applied in the study of other receptors.

  4. EGFR kinase possesses a broad specificity for ErbB phosphorylation sites, and ligand increases catalytic-centre activity without affecting substrate binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We previously found that EGF (epidermal growth factor) increases the EGFR (EGF receptor) kinase-binding affinity towards the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites in downstream adaptor proteins such as Gab1 (Grb2-associated binding protein 1) and Shc [Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and collagen containing protein], but not that towards EGFR autophosphorylation sites [Fan, Wong, Deb and Johnson (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 38143–38150]. EGFR activation can also result in transphosphorylation of tyrosine resides in the C-terminal region of the related receptors ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 in heterodimers which are formed upon ligand stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of EGFR kinase by comparing the steady state kinetic parameters for peptides derived from all four ErbBs in the absence or presence of EGF. Our results demonstrated that (i) EGFR kinase can efficiently phosphorylate a broad range of diverse peptide sequences representing ErbB sites; (ii) certain ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 sites had higher specificity constants than any EGFR sequence and (iii) EGF stimulation consistently increases the kcat approx. 5-fold, but does not significantly alter the Km for any ErbB peptides. Furthermore, peptides containing lysine at position −2 or −3 N-terminal to the target tyrosine were found to be poor EGFR kinase substrates, and substitution of these lysines with glutamine decreased the Km and increased the kcat for these substrates. We conclude that EGFR kinase-mediated ErbB transphosphorylations are mostly controlled at the level of oligomerization, and not by a preference of the EGFR kinase for phosphorylation sites in any particular ErbB. The results also demonstrated that, unlike phosphorylation sites in select downstream targets, EGF does not regulate the recognition of phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal region of any of the ErbBs. PMID:16122376

  5. Two Pdk1 phosphorylation sites on the plant cell death suppressor Adi3 contribute to substrate phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joel W.; Nelson Dittrich, Anna C.; Chen, Sixue; Avila, Julian; Giavalisco, Patrick; Devarenne, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The tomato AGC kinase Adi3 is phosphorylated by Pdk1 for activation of its cell death suppression activity. The Pdk1 phosphorylation site for activation of Adi3 is at Ser539. However, there is at least one additional Pdk1 phosphorylation site on Adi3 that has an unknown function. Here we identify an Arabidopsis thaliana sequence homologue of Adi3 termed AGC1-3. Two Pdk1 phosphorylation sites were identified on AGC1-3, activation site Ser596 and Ser269, and by homology Ser212 on Adi3 was identified as a second Pdk1 phosphorylation site. While Ser212 is not required for Adi3 autophosphorylation, Ser212 was shown to be required for full phosphorylation of the Adi3 substrate Gal83. PMID:23507047

  6. Site- and kinase-specific phosphorylation-mediated activation of SLAC1, a guard cell anion channel stimulated by abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Maierhofer, Tobias; Diekmann, Marion; Offenborn, Jan Niklas; Lind, Christof; Bauer, Hubert; Hashimoto, Kenji; S Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Luan, Sheng; Kudla, Jörg; Geiger, Dietmar; Hedrich, Rainer

    2014-09-09

    Under drought stress, abscisic acid (ABA) triggers closure of leaf cell pores called stomata, which are formed by two specialized cells called guard cells in plant epidermis. Two pathways downstream of ABA stimulate phosphorylation of the S-type anion channels SLAC1 (slow anion channel associated 1) and SLAH3 (SLAC1 homolog 3), which causes these channels to open, reducing guard cell volume and triggering stomatal closure. One branch involves OST1 (open stomata 1), a calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase, and the other branch involves calcium-dependent protein kinases of the CPK (calcium-dependent protein kinase) family. We used coexpression analyses in Xenopus oocytes to show that the calcineurin B-like (CBL) calcium sensors CBL1 and CBL9 and their interacting protein kinase CIPK23 also triggered SLAC1 and SLAH3 opening. We analyzed whether regulation of SLAC1 opening by these different families of kinases involved the same or different sites on SLAC1 by measuring channel conductance of SLAC1 with mutations in the putative phosphorylation sites in the amino or carboxyl termini coexpressed with specific kinases in Xenopus oocytes. SLAC1 mutants lacking the OST1-phosphorylated site were still activated by CPK or by CBL/CIPK complexes. Phosphorylation and activation of SLAC1 by any of the kinases were inhibited by the phosphatase ABI1 (ABA insensitive 1), which is inactivated in response to ABA signaling. These findings identified CBL/CIPK complexes as potential regulators of stomatal aperture through S-type anion channels and indicated that phosphorylation at distinct sites enables SLAC1 activation by both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent pathways downstream of ABA.

  7. Phosphorylation of Rap1 by cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Creates a Binding Site for KSR to Sustain ERK Activation by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Maho; Li, Yanping; Dillon, Tara J; Stork, Philip J S

    2017-01-27

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important mediator of hormonal stimulation of cell growth and differentiation through its activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Two small G proteins, Ras and Rap1 have been proposed to mediate this activation. Using HEK293 cells as a model system, we have recently shown that both Ras and Rap1 are required for cAMP signaling to ERKs. However, cAMP-dependent Ras signaling to ERKs is transient and rapidly terminated by PKA phosphorylation of the Raf isoforms C-Raf and B-Raf. In contrast, cAMP-dependent Rap1 signaling to ERKs and Rap1 is potentiated by PKA. We show that this is due to sustained binding of B-Raf to Rap1. One of the targets of PKA is Rap1 itself, directly phosphorylating Rap1a on serine 180 and Rap1b on serine 179. We show that these phosphorylations create potential binding sites for the adaptor protein 14-3-3 that links Rap1 to the scaffold protein KSR. These results suggest that Rap1 activation of ERKs requires PKA phosphorylation and KSR binding. Because KSR and B-Raf exist as heterodimers within the cell, this binding also brings B-Raf to Rap1, allowing Rap1 to couple to ERKs through B-Raf binding to Rap1 independently of its Ras-binding domain.

  8. Phosphorylation sites in human erythrocyte band 3 protein.

    PubMed

    Yannoukakos, D; Vasseur, C; Piau, J P; Wajcman, H; Bursaux, E

    1991-01-30

    The human red cell anion-exchanger, band 3 protein, is one of the main phosphorylated proteins of the erythrocyte membrane. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that ATP-depletion of the red blood cell decreased the anion-exchange rate, suggesting that band 3 protein phosphorylation could be involved in the regulation of anion transport function (Bursaux et al. (1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 777, 253-260). Phosphorylation occurs mainly on the cytoplasmic domain of the protein and the major site of phosphorylation was assigned to tyrosine-8 (Dekowski et al. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 2750-2753). This site being very far from the integral, anion-exchanger domain, the aim of the present study was to determine whether phosphorylation sites exist in the integral domain. The phosphorylation reaction was carried out on isolated membranes in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP and phosphorylated band 3 protein was then isolated. Both the cytoplasmic and the membrane spanning domains were purified. The predominant phosphorylation sites were found on the cytoplasmic domain. RP-HPLC analyses of the tryptic peptides of whole band 3 protein, and of the isolated cytoplasmic and membrane-spanning domains allowed for the precise localization of the phosphorylated residues. 80% of the label was found in the N-terminal tryptic peptide (T-1), (residues 1-56). In this region, all the residues susceptible to phosphorylation were labeled but in varying proportion. Under our conditions, the most active membrane kinase was a tyrosine kinase, activated preferentially by Mn2+ but also by Mg2+. Tyrosine-8 was the main phosphate acceptor residue (50-70%) of the protein, tyrosine-21 and tyrosine-46 residues were also phosphorylated but to a much lesser extent. The main targets of membrane casein kinase, preferentially activated by Mg2+, were serine-29, serine-50, and threonine(s)-39, -42, -44, -48, -49, -54 residue(s) located in the T-1 peptide. A tyrosine phosphatase activity was

  9. Mixed mechanisms of multi-site phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Suwanmajo, Thapanar; Krishnan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-site phosphorylation is ubiquitous in cell biology and has been widely studied experimentally and theoretically. The underlying chemical modification mechanisms are typically assumed to be distributive or processive. In this paper, we study the behaviour of mixed mechanisms that can arise either because phosphorylation and dephosphorylation involve different mechanisms or because phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation can occur through a combination of mechanisms. We examine a hierarchy of models to assess chemical information processing through different mixed mechanisms, using simulations, bifurcation analysis and analytical work. We demonstrate how mixed mechanisms can show important and unintuitive differences from pure distributive and processive mechanisms, in some cases resulting in monostable behaviour with simple dose–response behaviour, while in other cases generating new behaviour-like oscillations. Our results also suggest patterns of information processing that are relevant as the number of modification sites increases. Overall, our work creates a framework to examine information processing arising from complexities of multi-site modification mechanisms and their impact on signal transduction. PMID:25972433

  10. Mixed mechanisms of multi-site phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Suwanmajo, Thapanar; Krishnan, J

    2015-06-06

    Multi-site phosphorylation is ubiquitous in cell biology and has been widely studied experimentally and theoretically. The underlying chemical modification mechanisms are typically assumed to be distributive or processive. In this paper, we study the behaviour of mixed mechanisms that can arise either because phosphorylation and dephosphorylation involve different mechanisms or because phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation can occur through a combination of mechanisms. We examine a hierarchy of models to assess chemical information processing through different mixed mechanisms, using simulations, bifurcation analysis and analytical work. We demonstrate how mixed mechanisms can show important and unintuitive differences from pure distributive and processive mechanisms, in some cases resulting in monostable behaviour with simple dose-response behaviour, while in other cases generating new behaviour-like oscillations. Our results also suggest patterns of information processing that are relevant as the number of modification sites increases. Overall, our work creates a framework to examine information processing arising from complexities of multi-site modification mechanisms and their impact on signal transduction.

  11. Mitotic activation of the DISC1-inducible cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D9 (PDE4D9), through multi-site phosphorylation, influences cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Catherine L; Lee, Louisa C Y; Hill, Elaine V; Henderson, David J P; Anthony, Diana F; Houslay, Daniel M; Yalla, Krishna C; Cairns, Lynne S; Dunlop, Allan J; Baillie, George S; Huston, Elaine; Houslay, Miles D

    2014-09-01

    locate primarily not only in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but also at the cell margins. We propose that the sequestration of PDE4D9 in a specific complex together with AMPK, ERK, MK2 and the H2O2-activatable 'switch' kinase allows for its selective multi-site phosphorylation, activation and regulation in mitosis.

  12. Sequence- and Structure-Based Analysis of Tissue-Specific Phosphorylation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Nermin Pinar; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation is the most widespread and well studied reversible posttranslational modification. Discovering tissue-specific preferences of phosphorylation sites is important as phosphorylation plays a role in regulating almost every cellular activity and disease state. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of global and tissue-specific sequence and structure properties of phosphorylation sites utilizing recent proteomics data. We identified tissue-specific motifs in both sequence and spatial environments of phosphorylation sites. Target site preferences of kinases across tissues indicate that, while many kinases mediate phosphorylation in all tissues, there are also kinases that exhibit more tissue-specific preferences which, notably, are not caused by tissue-specific kinase expression. We also demonstrate that many metabolic pathways are differentially regulated by phosphorylation in different tissues. PMID:27332813

  13. Mutation of serum response factor phosphorylation sites and the mechanism by which its DNA-binding activity is increased by casein kinase II.

    PubMed Central

    Manak, J R; Prywes, R

    1991-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylates the mammalian transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) on a serine residue(s) located within a region of the protein spanning amino acids 70 to 92, thereby enhancing its DNA-binding activity in vitro. We report here that serine 83 appears to be the residue phosphorylated by CKII but that three other serines in this region can also be involved in phosphorylation and the enhancement of DNA-binding activity. A mutant that contained glutamate residues in place of these serines had only low-level binding activity; however, when the serines were replaced with glutamates and further mutations were made that increased the negative charge of the region, the resulting mutant showed a constitutively high level of binding equal to that achieved by phosphorylation of wild-type SRF. We have investigated the mechanism by which phosphorylation of SRF increases its DNA-binding activity. We have ruled out the possibilities that phosphorylation affects SRF dimerization or relieves inhibition due to masking of the DNA-binding domain by an amino-terminal region of the protein. Rather, using partial proteolysis to probe SRF's structure, we find that the conformation of SRF's DNA-binding domain is altered by phosphorylation. Images PMID:2046671

  14. Multi-site Phosphorylation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel α Subunits from Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Berendt, Frank J.; Park, Kang-Sik; Trimmer, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of ion channels underlies cellular plasticity in mammalian neurons. Voltage-gated sodium or Nav channels underlie action potential initiation and propagation, dendritic excitability, and many other aspects of neuronal excitability. Various protein kinases have been suggested to phosphorylate the primary α subunit of Nav channels, affecting diverse aspects of channel function. Previous studies of Nav α subunit phosphorylation have led to the identification of a small set of phosphorylation sites important in meditating aspects of Nav channel function. Here we use nanoflow liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC MS/MS) on Nav α subunits affinity-purified from rat brain with two distinct monoclonal antibodies to identify 15 phosphorylation sites on Nav1.2, 12 of which have not been previously reported. We also found 3 novel phosphorylation sites on Nav1.1. In general, commonly used phosphorylation site prediction algorithms did not accurately predict these novel in vivo phosphorylation sites. Our results demonstrate that specific Nav α subunits isolated from rat brain are highly phosphorylated, and suggest extensive modulation of Nav channel activity in mammalian brain. Identification of phosphorylation sites using monoclonal antibody-based immunopurification and mass spectrometry is an effective approach to define the phosphorylation status of Nav channels and important membrane proteins in mammalian brain. PMID:20131913

  15. Mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by nucleoside diphosphate kinase pH dependence and role of the active site Lys16 and Tyr56 residues.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Babolat, M; Xu, Y W; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    2001-04-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase phosphorylates nucleoside diphosphates with little specificity for the base and the sugar. Although nucleotide analogues used in antiviral therapies are also metabolized to their triphosphate form by NDP kinase, their lack of the 3'-hydroxyl of the ribose, which allows them to be DNA chain terminators, severely impairs the catalytic efficiency of NDP kinase. We have analyzed the kinetics parameters of several mutant NDP kinases modified on residues (Lys16, Tyr56, Asn119) interacting with the gamma-phosphate and/or the 3'-OH of the Mg2+-ATP substrate. We compared the relative contributions of the active-site residues and the substrate 3'-OH for point mutations on Lys16, Tyr56 and Asn119. Analysis of additional data from pH profiles identify the ionization state of these residues in the enzyme active form. X-ray structure of K16A mutant NDP kinase shows no detectable rearrangement of the residues of the active site.

  16. The regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, S C; Woods, A; Jones, N A; Davison, M D; Carling, D

    2000-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade is activated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio within the cell. AMPK is regulated allosterically by AMP and by reversible phosphorylation. Threonine-172 within the catalytic subunit (alpha) of AMPK (Thr(172)) was identified as the major site phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase (AMPKK) in vitro. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to study the role of phosphorylation of Thr(172) on AMPK activity. Mutation of Thr(172) to an aspartic acid residue (T172D) in either alpha1 or alpha2 resulted in a kinase complex with approx. 50% the activity of the corresponding wild-type complex. The activity of wild-type AMPK decreased by greater than 90% following treatment with protein phosphatases, whereas the activity of the T172D mutant complex fell by only 10-15%. Mutation of Thr(172) to an alanine residue (T172A) almost completely abolished kinase activity. These results indicate that phosphorylation of Thr(172) accounts for most of the activation by AMPKK, but that other sites are involved. In support of this we have shown that AMPKK phosphorylates at least two other sites on the alpha subunit and one site on the beta subunit. Furthermore, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of Thr(172) may be involved in the sensitivity of the AMPK complex to AMP. PMID:10642499

  17. Contrasting features of ERK1/2 activity and synapsin I phosphorylation at the ERK1/2-dependent site in the rat brain in status epilepticus induced by kainic acid in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Yoko; Nairn, Angus C.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) plays diverse roles in the central nervous system. Activation of ERK1/2 has been observed in various types of neuronal excitation, including seizure activity in vivo and in vitro. However, studies examining ERK1/2 activity and its substrate phosphorylation in parallel are scarce especially in seizure models. We have been studying the phosphorylation state of the presynaptic protein, synapsin I at ERK1/2-dependent and -independent sites in various types of seizure models and showed that ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin I was indeed under control of ERK1/2 activity in vivo. To further expand our study, here we examined the effects of prolonged seizure activity on ERK1/2 activity and synapsin I phosphorylation by using status epilepticus induced by kainic acid (KA-SE) in rats in vivo. In KA-SE, robust ERK1/2 activation was observed in the hippocampus, a representative limbic structure, with lesser activation in the parietal cortex, a representative non-limbic structure. In contrast, the phosphorylation level of synapsin I at ERK1/2-dependent phospho-site 4/5 was profoundly decreased, the extent of which was much larger in the hippocampus than in the parietal cortex. In addition, phosphorylation at other ERK1/2-independent phospho-sites in synapsin I also showed an even larger decrease. All these changes disappeared after recovery from KA-SE. These results indicate that the phosphorylation state of synapsin I is dynamically regulated by the balance between kinase and phosphatase activities. The contrasting features of robust ERK1/2 activation yet synapsin I dephosphorylation may be indicative of an irreversible pathological outcome of the epileptic state in vivo. PMID:26320550

  18. A grammar inference approach for predicting kinase specific phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner.

  19. Mapping of phosphorylation sites in polyomavirus large T antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Hassauer, M.; Scheidtmann, K.H.; Walter, G.

    1986-06-01

    The phosphorylation sites of polyomavirus large T antigen from infected or transformed cells were investigated. Tryptic digestion of large T antigen from infected, /sup 32/P/sub i/-labeled cells revealed seven major phosphopeptides. Five of these were phosphorylated only at serine residues, and two were phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues. The overall ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine was 6:1. The transformed cell line B4 expressed two polyomavirus-specific phosphoproteins: large T antigen, which was only weakly phosphorylated, and a truncated form of large T antigen of 34,000 molecular weight which was heavily phosphorylated. Both showed phosphorylation patterns similar to that of large T antigen from infected cells. Peptide analyses of large T antigens encoded by the deletion mutants dl8 and dl23 or of specific fragments of wild-type large T antigen indicated that the phosphorylation sites are located in an amino-terminal region upstream of residue 194. The amino acid composition of the phosphopeptides as revealed by differential labeling with various amino acids indicated that several phosphopeptides contain overlapping sequences and that all phosphorylation sites are located in four tryptic peptides derived from a region between Met71 and Arg191. Two of the potential phosphorylation sites were identified as Ser81 and Thr187. The possible role of this modification of large T antigen is discussed.

  20. Synthetic phosphorylation of p38α recapitulates protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Chooi, K Phin; Galan, Sébastien R G; Raj, Ritu; McCullagh, James; Mohammed, Shabaz; Jones, Lyn H; Davis, Benjamin G

    2014-02-05

    Through a "tag-and-modify" protein chemical modification strategy, we site-selectively phosphorylated the activation loop of protein kinase p38α. Phosphorylation at natural (180) and unnatural (172) sites created two pure phospho-forms. p38α bearing only a single phosphocysteine (pCys) as a mimic of pThr at 180 was sufficient to switch the kinase to an active state, capable of processing natural protein substrate ATF2; 172 site phosphorylation did not. In this way, we chemically recapitulated triggering of a relevant segment of the MAPK-signaling pathway in vitro. This allowed detailed kinetic analysis of global and stoichiometric phosphorylation events catalyzed by p38α and revealed that site 180 is a sufficient activator alone and engenders dominant mono-phosphorylation activity. Moreover, a survey of kinase inhibition using inhibitors with different (Type I/II) modes (including therapeutically relevant) revealed unambiguously that Type II inhibitors inhibit phosphorylated p38α and allowed discovery of a predictive kinetic analysis based on cooperativity to distinguish Type I vs II.

  1. Phosphorylation at Ser²⁶ in the ATP-binding site of Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent kinase II as a mechanism for switching off the kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehtap; Gangopadhyay, Samudra S; Leavis, Paul; Grabarek, Zenon; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2013-02-07

    CaMKII (Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) is a serine/threonine phosphotransferase that is capable of long-term retention of activity due to autophosphorylation at a specific threonine residue within each subunit of its oligomeric structure. The γ isoform of CaMKII is a significant regulator of vascular contractility. Here, we show that phosphorylation of CaMKII γ at Ser²⁶, a residue located within the ATP-binding site, terminates the sustained activity of the enzyme. To test the physiological importance of phosphorylation at Ser²⁶, we generated a phosphospecific Ser²⁶ antibody and demonstrated an increase in Ser²⁶ phosphorylation upon depolarization and contraction of blood vessels. To determine if the phosphorylation of Ser²⁶ affects the kinase activity, we mutated Ser²⁶ to alanine or aspartic acid. The S26D mutation mimicking the phosphorylated state of CaMKII causes a dramatic decrease in Thr²⁸⁷ autophosphorylation levels and greatly reduces the catalytic activity towards an exogenous substrate (autocamtide-3), whereas the S26A mutation has no effect. These data combined with molecular modelling indicate that a negative charge at Ser²⁶ of CaMKII γ inhibits the catalytic activity of the enzyme towards its autophosphorylation site at Thr²⁸⁷ most probably by blocking ATP binding. We propose that Ser²⁶ phosphorylation constitutes an important mechanism for switching off CaMKII activity.

  2. Crosstalk between signaling pathways provided by single and multiple protein phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Hafumi; Demir, Emek; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular fate depends on the spatio-temporal separation and integration of signaling processes which can be provided by phosphorylation events. In this study we identify the crucial points in signaling crosstalk which can be triggered by discrete phosphorylation events on a single target protein. We integrated the data on individual human phosphosites with the evidence on their corresponding kinases, the functional consequences on phosphorylation on activity of the target protein and corresponding pathways. Our results show that there is a substantial fraction of phosphosites that can play critical roles in crosstalk between alternative or redundant pathways and regulatory outcome of phosphorylation can be linked to a type of phosphorylated residue. These regulatory phosphosites can serve as hubs in the signal flow and their functional roles are directly connected to their specific properties. Namely, phosphosites with similar regulatory functions are phosphorylated by the same kinases and participate in regulation of similar biochemical pathways. Such sites are more likely to cluster in sequence and space unlike sites with antagonistic outcomes of their phosphorylation on a target protein. In addition we found that in silico phosphorylation of sites with similar functional consequences have comparable outcomes on a target protein stability. An important role of phosphorylation sites in biological crosstalk is evident from the analysis of their evolutionary conservation. PMID:25451034

  3. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites on Extracellular Corneal Epithelial Cell Maspin

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Malathi; Mirza, Shama P.; Twining, Sally S.

    2011-01-01

    Maspin, a 42-kDa non classical serine protease inhibitor (serpin) is expressed by epithelial cells of various tissues including the cornea. The protein localizes to the nucleus and cytosol, and is present in the extracellular space. While extracellular maspin regulates corneal stromal fibroblast adhesion and inhibits angiogenesis during wound healing in the cornea, the molecular mechanism of its extracellular functions is unclear. We hypothesized that identifying post-translational modifications of maspin, such as phosphorylation, may help decipher its mode of action. The focus of this study was on the identification of phosphorylation sites on extracellular maspin, since the extracellular form of the molecule is implicated in several functions. Multi-stage fragmentation mass spectrometry was used to identify sites of phosphorylation on extracellular corneal epithelial cell maspin. A total of eight serine and threonine phosphorylation sites (Thr50, Ser97, Thr118, Thr157, Ser240, Ser298, Thr310, Ser316) were identified on the extracellular forms of the molecule. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on extracellular maspin was not detected on extracellular maspin from corneal epithelial cell, in contrast to breast epithelial cells. This study provides the basis for further investigation into the functional role of phosphorylation of corneal epithelial maspin. PMID:21365746

  4. Identification of Ser-543 as the major regulatory phosphorylation site in spinach leaf nitrate reductase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, M.; Shiraishi, N.; Campbell, W. H.; Yoo, B. C.; Harmon, A. C.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Spinach leaf NADH:nitrate reductase (NR) responds to light/dark signals and photosynthetic activity in part as a result of rapid regulation by reversible protein phosphorylation. We have identified the major regulatory phosphorylation site as Ser-543, which is located in the hinge 1 region connecting the cytochrome b domain with the molybdenum-pterin cofactor binding domain of NR, using recombinant NR fragments containing or lacking the phosphorylation site sequence. Studies with NR partial reactions indicated that the block in electron flow caused by phosphorylation also could be localized to the hinge 1 region. A synthetic peptide (NR6) based on the phosphorylation site sequence was phosphorylated readily by NR kinase (NRk) in vitro. NR6 kinase activity tracked the ATP-dependent inactivation of NR during several chromatographic steps and completely inhibited inactivation/phosphorylation of native NR in vitro. Two forms of NRk were resolved by using anion exchange chromatography. Studies with synthetic peptide analogs indicated that both forms of NRk had similar specificity determinants, requiring a basic residue at P-3 (i.e., three amino acids N-terminal to the phosphorylated serine) and a hydrophobic residue at P-5. Both forms are strictly calcium dependent but belong to distinct families of protein kinases because they are distinct immunochemically.

  5. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan M F; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul M K

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser(65))--which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)--and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser(65). How Ser(65)-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65)) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser(65) by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), thereby promoting Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser(65). Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser(65) in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65). Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65), leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser(65)-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), which could aid in the development of Parkin

  6. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan MF; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul MK

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser65)—which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)—and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65. How Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser65 by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, thereby promoting Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser65. Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser65 in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65. Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65, leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser65-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, which could aid in the development of Parkin activators that mimic the effect of

  7. Methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Appella, Ettore; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents. More specifically, a phosphopeptide mimetic is incorporated into a polypeptide in place of a phosphorylated amino acid. The polypeptide is used as antigen by standard methods to generate either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies which cross-react with the naturally phosphorylated polypeptide. The phosphopeptide mimetic preferably contains a non-hydrolyzable linkage from the appropriate carbon atom of the amino acid residue to a phosphate group. A preferred linkage is a CF.sub.2 group. Such a linkage is used to generate the phosphoserine mimetic F.sub.2 Pab, which is incorporated into a polypeptide sequence derived from p53 to produce antibodies which recognize a specific phosphorylation state of p53. A CF.sub.2 group linkage is also used to produce the phosphothreonine mimetic F.sub.2 Pmb, and to produce the phosphotyrosine mimetic, F.sub.2 Pmp.

  8. Activation of a GTP-binding protein and a GTP-binding-protein-coupled receptor kinase (beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1) by a muscarinic receptor m2 mutant lacking phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, K; Haga, K; Haga, T; Moro, O; Sadée, W

    1994-12-01

    A mutant of the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtype (m2 receptor), lacking a large part of the third intracellular loop, was expressed and purified using the baculovirus/insect cell culture system. The mutant was not phosphorylated by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, as expected from the previous assignment of phosphorylation sites to the central part of the third intracellular loop. However, the m2 receptor mutant was capable of stimulating beta-adrenergic-receptor-kinase-1-mediated phosphorylation of a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the m2 phosphorylation sites in an agonist-dependent manner. Both mutant and wild-type m2 receptors reconstituted with the guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G protein), G(o) and G(i)2, displayed guanine-nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding, as assessed by displacement of [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding with carbamoylcholine, and both stimulated guanosine 5'-3-O-[35S]thiotriphosphate ([35S]GTP[S]) binding in the presence of carbamoylcholine and GDP. The Ki values of carbamoylcholine effects on [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding were indistinguishable for the mutant and wild-type m2 receptors. Moreover, the phosphorylation of the wild-type m2 receptor by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1 did not affect m2 interaction with G proteins as assessed by the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate or [35S]GTP[S]. These results indicate that (a) the m2 receptor serves both as an activator and as a substrate of beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, and (b) a large part of the third intracellular loop of the m2 receptor does not contribute to interaction with G proteins and its phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase does not uncouple the receptor and G proteins in reconstituted lipid vesicles.

  9. Mechanism of APC/CCDC20 activation by mitotic phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Renping; Weissmann, Florian; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Brown, Nicholas G.; VanderLinden, Ryan; Imre, Richard; Jarvis, Marc A.; Brunner, Michael R.; Davidson, Iain F.; Litos, Gabriele; Haselbach, David; Mechtler, Karl; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A.; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit are initiated by the 1.2-MDa ubiquitin ligase APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) and its coactivator CDC20 (cell division cycle 20). To avoid chromosome missegregation, APC/CCDC20 activation is tightly controlled. CDC20 only associates with APC/C in mitosis when APC/C has become phosphorylated and is further inhibited by a mitotic checkpoint complex until all chromosomes are bioriented on the spindle. APC/C contains 14 different types of subunits, most of which are phosphorylated in mitosis on multiple sites. However, it is unknown which of these phospho-sites enable APC/CCDC20 activation and by which mechanism. Here we have identified 68 evolutionarily conserved mitotic phospho-sites on human APC/C bound to CDC20 and have used the biGBac technique to generate 47 APC/C mutants in which either all 68 sites or subsets of them were replaced by nonphosphorylatable or phospho-mimicking residues. The characterization of these complexes in substrate ubiquitination and degradation assays indicates that phosphorylation of an N-terminal loop region in APC1 is sufficient for binding and activation of APC/C by CDC20. Deletion of the N-terminal APC1 loop enables APC/CCDC20 activation in the absence of mitotic phosphorylation or phospho-mimicking mutations. These results indicate that binding of CDC20 to APC/C is normally prevented by an autoinhibitory loop in APC1 and that its mitotic phosphorylation relieves this inhibition. The predicted location of the N-terminal APC1 loop implies that this loop controls interactions between the N-terminal domain of CDC20 and APC1 and APC8. These results reveal how APC/C phosphorylation enables CDC20 to bind and activate the APC/C in mitosis. PMID:27114510

  10. Connexin 35/36 is phosphorylated at regulatory sites in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Kothmann, W. Wade; Li, Xiaofan; Burr, Gary S.; O’Brien, John

    2007-01-01

    Connexin 35/36 is the most widespread neuronal gap junction protein in the retina and central nervous system. Electrical and/or tracer coupling in a number of neuronal circuits that express this connexin are regulated by light adaptation. In many cases the regulation of coupling depends on signaling pathways that activate protein kinases such as PKA, and Cx35 has been shown to be regulated by PKA phosphorylation in cell culture systems. To examine whether phosphorylation might regulate Cx35/36 in the retina we developed phospho-specific polyclonal antibodies against the two regulatory phosphorylation sites of Cx35 and examined the phosphorylation state of this connexin in the retina. Western blot analysis with hybrid bass retinal membrane preparations showed Cx35 to be phosphorylated at both the Ser110 and Ser276 sites, and this labeling was eliminated by alkaline phosphatase digestion. The homologous sites of mouse and rabbit Cx36 were also phosphorylated in retinal membrane preparations. Quantitative confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed gap junctions identified with a monoclonal anti-Cx35 antibody to have variable levels of phosphorylation at both the Ser110 and Ser276 sites. Unusual gap junctions that could be identified by their large size (up to 32 μm2) and location in the IPL showed a prominent shift in phosphorylation state from heavily phosphorylated in nighttime, dark-adapted retina to weakly phosphorylated in daytime, light-adapted retina. Both Ser110 and Ser276 sites showed significant changes in this manner. Under both lighting conditions other gap junctions varied from non-phosphorylated to heavily phosphorylated. We predict that changes in the phosphorylation states of these sites correlate with changes in the degree of coupling through Cx35/36 gap junctions. This leads to the conclusion that connexin phosphorylation mediates changes in coupling in some retinal networks. However, these changes are not global and likely occur in a cell type

  11. Proteomic investigation of phosphorylation sites in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Moreel, Xavier; Gagné, Pierre; Labelle, Yves; Droit, Arnaud; Chevalier-Paré, Mélissa; Bourassa, Sylvie; McDonald, Darin; Hendzel, Michael J; Prigent, Claude; Poirier, Guy G

    2009-02-01

    Phosphorylation is a very common post-translational modification event known to modulate a wide range of biological responses. Beyond the regulation of protein activity, the interrelation of phosphorylation with other post-translational mechanisms is responsible for the control of diverse signaling pathways. Several observations suggest that phosphorylation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates its activity. There is also accumulating evidence to suggest the establishment of phosphorylation-dependent assembly of PARP-1-associated multiprotein complexes. Although it is relatively straightforward to demonstrate phosphorylation of a defined target, identification of the actual amino acids involved still represents a technical challenge for many laboratories. With the use of a combination of bioinformatics-based predictions tools for generic and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites, in vitro phosphorylation assays and mass spectrometry analysis, we investigated the phosphorylation profile of PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), two major enzymes responsible for poly(ADP-ribose) turnover. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed the phosphorylation of several serine/threonine residues within important regulatory domains and motifs of both enzymes. With the use of in vivo microirradiation-induced DNA damage, we show that altered phosphorylation at specific sites can modify the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of PARP-1 at sites of DNA damage. By documenting and annotating a collection of known and newly identified phosphorylation sites, this targeted proteomics study significantly advances our understanding of the roles of phosphorylation in the regulation of PARP-1 and PARG.

  12. Action at a distance: amino acid substitutions that affect binding of the phosphorylated CheY response regulator and catalysis of dephosphorylation can be far from the CheZ phosphatase active site.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ashalla M; Mole, Beth M; Silversmith, Ruth E; Bourret, Robert B

    2011-09-01

    Two-component regulatory systems, in which phosphorylation controls the activity of a response regulator protein, provide signal transduction in bacteria. For example, the phosphorylated CheY response regulator (CheYp) controls swimming behavior. In Escherichia coli, the chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ stimulates the dephosphorylation of CheYp. CheYp apparently binds first to the C terminus of CheZ and then binds to the active site where dephosphorylation occurs. The phosphatase activity of the CheZ(2) dimer exhibits a positively cooperative dependence on CheYp concentration, apparently because the binding of the first CheYp to CheZ(2) is inhibited compared to the binding of the second CheYp. Thus, CheZ phosphatase activity is reduced at low CheYp concentrations. The CheZ21IT gain-of-function substitution, located far from either the CheZ active site or C-terminal CheY binding site, enhances CheYp binding and abolishes cooperativity. To further explore mechanisms regulating CheZ activity, we isolated 10 intragenic suppressor mutations of cheZ21IT that restored chemotaxis. The suppressor substitutions were located along the central portion of CheZ and were not allele specific. Five suppressor mutants tested biochemically diminished the binding of CheYp and/or the catalysis of dephosphorylation, even when the suppressor substitutions were distant from the active site. One suppressor mutant also restored cooperativity to CheZ21IT. Consideration of results from this and previous studies suggests that the binding of CheYp to the CheZ active site (not to the C terminus) is rate limiting and leads to cooperative phosphatase activity. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions distant from the active site can affect CheZ catalytic activity and CheYp binding, perhaps via the propagation of structural or dynamic perturbations through a helical bundle.

  13. Identification and Functional Characterization of the Phosphorylation Sites of the Neuropeptide FF2 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Lauriane; Froment, Carine; Pardo, Pierre; Candotto, Cédric; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine; Moulédous, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide FF2 (NPFF2) receptor belongs to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors and mediates the effects of several related RFamide neuropeptides. One of the main pharmacological interests of this system resides in its ability to regulate endogenous opioid systems, making it a potential target to reduce the negative effects of chronic opioid use. Phosphorylation of intracellular residues is the most extensively studied post-translational modification regulating G protein-coupled receptor activity. However, until now, no information concerning NPFF2 receptor phosphorylation is available. In this study, we combined mass spectrometric analysis and site-directed mutagenesis to analyze for the first time the phosphorylation pattern of the NPFF2 receptor and the role of the various phosphorylation sites in receptor signaling, desensitization, and trafficking in a SH-SY5Y model cell line. We identified the major, likely GRK-dependent, phosphorylation cluster responsible for acute desensitization, 412TNST415 at the end of the C terminus of the receptor, and additional sites involved in desensitization (372TS373) and internalization (Ser395). We thus demonstrate the key role played by phosphorylation in the regulation of NPFF2 receptor activity and trafficking. Our data also provide additional evidence supporting the concept that desensitization and internalization are partially independent processes relying on distinct phosphorylation patterns. PMID:25326382

  14. Opposing effects of Elk-1 multisite phosphorylation shape its response to ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Mylona, Anastasia; Theillet, Francois-Xavier; Foster, Charles; Cheng, Tammy M; Miralles, Francesc; Bates, Paul A; Selenko, Philipp; Treisman, Richard

    2016-10-14

    Multisite phosphorylation regulates many transcription factors, including the serum response factor partner Elk-1. Phosphorylation of the transcriptional activation domain (TAD) of Elk-1 by the protein kinase ERK at multiple sites potentiates recruitment of the Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex and transcriptional activation, but the roles of individual phosphorylation events had remained unclear. Using time-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that ERK2 phosphorylation proceeds at markedly different rates at eight TAD sites in vitro, which we classified as fast, intermediate, and slow. Mutagenesis experiments showed that phosphorylation of fast and intermediate sites promoted Mediator interaction and transcriptional activation, whereas modification of slow sites counteracted both functions, thereby limiting Elk-1 output. Progressive Elk-1 phosphorylation thus ensures a self-limiting response to ERK activation, which occurs independently of antagonizing phosphatase activity.

  15. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of calsequestrin on CK2-sensitive sites in heart.

    PubMed

    Ram, Michal L; Kiarash, Arash; Marsh, James D; Cala, Steven E

    2004-11-01

    Calsequestrin (CSQ) concentrates in junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) where it functions in regulation of Ca2+ release. When purified from heart tissue, cardiac CSQ contains phosphate on a cluster of C-terminal serine residues, but little is known about the cellular site of kinase action, and the identity of the kinase remains uncertain. To determine basic features of the phosphorylation, we examined the reaction in canine heart preparations. CSQ phosphorylation was observed in [32P]metabolically-labeled heart cells after adenoviral overexpression, and its constitutive phosphorylation was limited to a CK2-sensitive C-terminal serine cluster. The CSQ kinase was oriented intralumenally, as was CSQ, inside membrane vesicles, such that exposure to each required detergent permeabilization. Yet even after detergent permeabilization, CSQ was phosphorylated much less efficiently by protein kinase CK2 in cardiac microsomes than was purified CSQ. Reduced phosphorylation was strongly dependent upon protein concentration, and phosphorylation time courses revealed a phosphatase activity that occurred constitutively as phosphorylated substrate accumulates. Evidence of selective dephosphorylation of CSQ glycoforms in heart homogenates was also seen by mass spectrometry analysis. Molecules with greater mannose content, a feature of early secretory pathway compartments, were more highly phosphorylated, while greater dephosphorylation was apparent in more distal compartments. Taken together, the analyses of CSQ phosphorylation in heart suggest that a constitutive process of phosphate turnover occurs for cardiac CSQ perhaps associated with its intracellular transport.

  16. Structural basis for Mep2 ammonium transceptor activation by phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Bert; Chembath, Anupama; Jefferies, Damien; Basle, Arnaud; Khalid, Syma; Rutherford, Julian C.

    2016-01-01

    Mep2 proteins are fungal transceptors that play an important role as ammonium sensors in fungal development. Mep2 activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, but how this is achieved at the molecular level is not clear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the Mep2 orthologues from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and show that under nitrogen-sufficient conditions the transporters are not phosphorylated and present in closed, inactive conformations. Relative to the open bacterial ammonium transporters, non-phosphorylated Mep2 exhibits shifts in cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region (CTR) to occlude the cytoplasmic exit of the channel and to interact with His2 of the twin-His motif. The phosphorylation site in the CTR is solvent accessible and located in a negatively charged pocket ∼30 Å away from the channel exit. The crystal structure of phosphorylation-mimicking Mep2 variants from C. albicans show large conformational changes in a conserved and functionally important region of the CTR. The results allow us to propose a model for regulation of eukaryotic ammonium transport by phosphorylation. PMID:27088325

  17. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site in c-jun directly targeted in vitro by protein kinase D

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Richard T. . E-mail: rwaldron@mednet.ucla.edu; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Faull, Kym F.; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2007-05-04

    Protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylates the c-jun amino-terminal in vitro at site(s) distinct from JNK [C. Hurd, R.T. Waldron, E. Rozengurt, Protein kinase D complexes with c-jun N-terminal kinase via activation loop phosphorylation and phosphorylates the c-jun N-terminus, Oncogene 21 (2002) 2154-2160], but the sites have not been identified. Here, metabolic {sup 32}P-labeling of c-jun protein in COS-7 cells indicated that PKD phosphorylates c-jun in vivo at a site(s) between aa 43-93, a region containing important functional elements. On this basis, the PKD-mediated phosphorylation site(s) was further characterized in vitro using GST-c-jun fusion proteins. PKD did not incorporate phosphate into Ser63 and Ser73, the JNK sites in GST-c-jun(1-89). Rather, PKD and JNK could sequentially phosphorylate distinct site(s) simultaneously. By mass spectrometry of tryptic phosphopeptides, Ser58 interposed between the JNK-binding portion of the delta domain and the adjacent TAD1 was identified as a prominent site phosphorylated in vitro by PKD. These data were further supported by kinase reactions using truncations or point-mutations of GST-c-jun. Together, these data suggest that PKD-mediated phosphorylation modulates c-jun at the level of its N-terminal functional domains.

  18. Chk2 Activation and Phosphorylation-Dependent Oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingzhi; Tsvetkov, Lyuben M.; Stern, David F.

    2002-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene CHK2 encodes a versatile effector serine/threonine kinase involved in responses to DNA damage. Chk2 has an amino-terminal SQ/TQ cluster domain (SCD), followed by a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain and a carboxyl-terminal kinase catalytic domain. Mutations in the SCD or FHA domain impair Chk2 checkpoint function. We show here that autophosphorylation of Chk2 produced in a cell-free system requires trans phosphorylation by a wortmannin-sensitive kinase, probably ATM or ATR. Both SQ/TQ sites and non-SQ/TQ sites within the Chk2 SCD can be phosphorylated by active Chk2. Amino acid substitutions in the SCD and the FHA domain impair auto- and trans-kinase activities of Chk2. Chk2 forms oligomers that minimally require the FHA domain of one Chk2 molecule and the SCD within another Chk2 molecule. Chk2 oligomerization in vivo increases after DNA damage, and when damage is induced by gamma irradiation, this increase requires ATM. Chk2 oligomerization is phosphorylation dependent and can occur in the absence of other eukaryotic proteins. Chk2 can cross-phosphorylate another Chk2 molecule in an oligomeric complex. Induced oligomerization of a Chk2 chimera in vivo concomitant with limited DNA damage augments Chk2 kinase activity. These results suggest that Chk2 oligomerization regulates Chk2 activation, signal amplification, and transduction in DNA damage checkpoint pathways. PMID:12024051

  19. Phosphorylation site mapping of soluble proteins: bioinformatical filtering reveals potential plastidic phosphoproteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lohrig, Katharina; Müller, Bernd; Davydova, Joulia; Leister, Dario; Wolters, Dirk Andreas

    2009-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a major mode of regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cell architecture. A combination of phosphopeptide enrichment strategies based on TiO(2) and IMAC in addition to our MudPIT strategy revealed the detection of 181 phosphorylation sites which are located on 125 potentially plastidic proteins predicted by GoMiner, TargetP/Predotar in Arabidopsis thaliana. In our study phosphorylation on serine is favored over threonine and this in turn over phosphorylation on tyrosine residues, showing a percentage of 67.4% to 24.3% to 8.3% for pS:pT:pY. Four phosphorylated residues (S208, Y239, T246 and T330), identified by our approach have been fitted to the structure of the activated form of spinach RuBisCO, which are located in close proximity to the substrate binding site for ribulosebisphosphate. Potentially, these phosphorylation sites exert a direct influence on the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Such examples show nicely the value of the presented mass spectrometric dataset for further biochemical applications, since alternative mutation analysis often turns out to be unsuccessful, caused by mutations in essential proteins which result in lethal phenotypes.

  20. Akt phosphorylates Tal1 oncoprotein and inhibits its repressor activity.

    PubMed

    Palamarchuk, Alexey; Efanov, Alexey; Maximov, Vadim; Aqeilan, Rami I; Croce, Carlo M; Pekarsky, Yuri

    2005-06-01

    The helix-loop-helix transcription factor Tal1 is required for blood cell development and its activation is a frequent event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The Akt (protein kinase B) kinase is a key player in transduction of antiapoptotic and proliferative signals in T cells. Because Tal1 has a putative Akt phosphorylation site at Thr90, we investigated whether Akt regulates Tal1. Our results show that Akt specifically phosphorylates Thr90 of the Tal1 protein within its transactivation domain in vitro and in vivo. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed the presence of Tal1 in Akt immune complexes, suggesting that Tal1 and Akt physically interact. We further showed that phosphorylation of Tal1 by Akt causes redistribution of Tal1 within the nucleus. Using luciferase assay, we showed that phosphorylation of Tal1 by Akt decreased repressor activity of Tal1 on EpB42 (P4.2) promoter. Thus, these data indicate that Akt interacts with Tal1 and regulates Tal1 by phosphorylation at Thr90 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner.

  1. Differentiation of opioid drug effects by hierarchical multi-site phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Just, Sascha; Illing, Susann; Trester-Zedlitz, Michelle; Lau, Elaine K; Kotowski, Sarah J; Miess, Elke; Mann, Anika; Doll, Christian; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Burlingame, Alma L; von Zastrow, Mark; Schulz, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Differences in the ability of opioid drugs to promote regulated endocytosis of μ-opioid receptors are related to their tendency to produce drug tolerance and dependence. Here we show that drug-specific differences in receptor internalization are determined by a conserved, 10-residue sequence in the receptor's carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Diverse opioids induce receptor phosphorylation at serine (S)375, present in the middle of this sequence, but opioids differ markedly in their ability to drive higher-order phosphorylation on flanking residues [threonine (T)370, T376, and T379]. Multi-phosphorylation is required for the endocytosis-promoting activity of this sequence and occurs both sequentially and hierarchically, with S375 representing the initiating site. Higher-order phosphorylation involving T370, T376, and T379 specifically requires GRK2/3 isoforms, and the same sequence controls opioid receptor internalization in neurons. These results reveal a biochemical mechanism differentiating the endocytic activity of opioid drugs.

  2. Identification of a phosphorylation site in the hinge region of the human progesterone receptor and additional amino-terminal phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Knotts, T A; Orkiszewski, R S; Cook, R G; Edwards, D P; Weigel, N L

    2001-03-16

    We have previously reported the identification of seven in vivo phosphorylation sites in the amino-terminal region of the human progesterone receptor (PR). From our previous in vivo studies, it was evident that several phosphopeptides remained unidentified. In particular, we wished to determine whether human PR contains a phosphorylation site in the hinge region, as do other steroid receptors including chicken PR, human androgen receptor, and mouse estrogen receptor. Previously, problematic trypsin cleavage sites hampered our ability to detect phosphorylation sites in large incomplete tryptic peptides. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and in vitro phosphorylation, we have identified six previously unidentified phosphorylation sites in human PR. Using nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have identified two new in vivo phosphorylation sites, Ser(20) and Ser(676), in baculovirus-expressed human PR. Ser(676) is analogous to the hinge site identified in other steroid receptors. Additionally, precursor ion scans identified another phosphopeptide that contains Ser(130)-Pro(131), a likely candidate for phosphorylation. In vitro phosphorylation of PR with Cdk2 has revealed five additional in vitro Cdk2 phosphorylation sites: Ser(25), Ser(213), Thr(430), Ser(554), and Ser(676). At least two of these, Ser(213) and Ser(676), are authentic in vivo sites. We confirmed the presence of the Cdk2-phosphorylated peptide containing Ser(213) in PR from in vivo labeled T47D cells, indicating that this is an in vivo site. Our combined studies indicate that most, if not all, of the Ser-Pro motifs in human PR are sites for phosphorylation. Taken together, these data indicate that the phosphorylation of PR is highly complex, with at least 14 phosphorylation sites.

  3. Mapping and analysis of phosphorylation sites: a quick guide for cell biologists.

    PubMed

    Dephoure, Noah; Gould, Kathleen L; Gygi, Steven P; Kellogg, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    A mechanistic understanding of signaling networks requires identification and analysis of phosphorylation sites. Mass spectrometry offers a rapid and highly sensitive approach to mapping phosphorylation sites. However, mass spectrometry has significant limitations that must be considered when planning to carry out phosphorylation-site mapping. Here we provide an overview of key information that should be taken into consideration before beginning phosphorylation-site analysis, as well as a step-by-step guide for carrying out successful experiments.

  4. Bioinformatics study of cancer-related mutations within p53 phosphorylation site motifs.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaona; Huang, Qiang; Yu, Long; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2014-07-29

    p53 protein has about thirty phosphorylation sites located at the N- and C-termini and in the core domain. The phosphorylation sites are relatively less mutated than other residues in p53. To understand why and how p53 phosphorylation sites are rarely mutated in human cancer, using a bioinformatics approaches, we examined the phosphorylation site and its nearby flanking residues, focusing on the consensus phosphorylation motif pattern, amino-acid correlations within the phosphorylation motifs, the propensity of structural disorder of the phosphorylation motifs, and cancer mutations observed within the phosphorylation motifs. Many p53 phosphorylation sites are targets for several kinases. The phosphorylation sites match 17 consensus sequence motifs out of the 29 classified. In addition to proline, which is common in kinase specificity-determining sites, we found high propensity of acidic residues to be adjacent to phosphorylation sites. Analysis of human cancer mutations in the phosphorylation motifs revealed that motifs with adjacent acidic residues generally have fewer mutations, in contrast to phosphorylation sites near proline residues. p53 phosphorylation motifs are mostly disordered. However, human cancer mutations within phosphorylation motifs tend to decrease the disorder propensity. Our results suggest that combination of acidic residues Asp and Glu with phosphorylation sites provide charge redundancy which may safe guard against loss-of-function mutations, and that the natively disordered nature of p53 phosphorylation motifs may help reduce mutational damage. Our results further suggest that engineering acidic amino acids adjacent to potential phosphorylation sites could be a p53 gene therapy strategy.

  5. Prediction of phosphorylation sites based on the integration of multiple classifiers.

    PubMed

    Han, R Z; Wang, D; Chen, Y H; Dong, L K; Fan, Y L

    2017-02-23

    Phosphorylation is an important part of post-translational modifications of proteins, and is essential for many biological activities. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation can regulate signal transduction, gene expression, and cell cycle regulation in many cellular processes. Phosphorylation is extremely important for both basic research and drug discovery to rapidly and correctly identify the attributes of a new protein phosphorylation sites. Moreover, abnormal phosphorylation can be used as a key medical feature related to a disease in some cases. The using of computational methods could improve the accuracy of detection of phosphorylation sites, which can provide predictive guidance for the prevention of the occurrence and/or the best course of treatment for certain diseases. Furthermore, this approach can effectively reduce the costs of biological experiments. In this study, a flexible neural tree (FNT), particle swarm optimization, and support vector machine algorithms were used to classify data with secondary encoding according to the physical and chemical properties of amino acids for feature extraction. Comparison of the classification results obtained from the three classifiers showed that the classification of the FNT was the best. The three classifiers were then integrated in the form of a minority subordinate to the majority vote to obtain the results. The performance of the integrated model showed improvement in sensitivity (87.41%), specificity (87.60%), and accuracy (87.50%).

  6. Novel method for the high-throughput production of phosphorylation site-specific monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Nobuyuki; Wakata, Yuka; Inobe, Tomonao; Kitamura, Haruki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsuzawa, Shun; Kishi, Yoshihiro; Isobe, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Threonine phosphorylation accounts for 10% of all phosphorylation sites compared with 0.05% for tyrosine and 90% for serine. Although monoclonal antibody generation for phospho-serine and -tyrosine proteins is progressing, there has been limited success regarding the production of monoclonal antibodies against phospho-threonine proteins. We developed a novel strategy for generating phosphorylation site-specific monoclonal antibodies by cloning immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells that were fixed, intracellularly stained with fluorescently labeled peptides and sorted without causing RNA degradation. Our high-throughput fluorescence activated cell sorting-based strategy, which targets abundant intracellular immunoglobulin as a tag for fluorescently labeled antigens, greatly increases the sensitivity and specificity of antigen-specific plasma cell isolation, enabling the high-efficiency production of monoclonal antibodies with desired antigen specificity. This approach yielded yet-undescribed guinea pig monoclonal antibodies against threonine 18-phosphorylated p53 and threonine 68-phosphorylated CHK2 with high affinity and specificity. Our method has the potential to allow the generation of monoclonal antibodies against a variety of phosphorylated proteins. PMID:27125496

  7. Methionine residues around phosphorylation sites are preferentially oxidized in vivo under stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Veredas, Francisco J.; Cantón, Francisco R.; Aledo, J. Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most prevalent and well-understood protein modifications. Oxidation of protein-bound methionine, which has been traditionally perceived as an inevitable damage derived from oxidative stress, is now emerging as another modification capable of regulating protein activity during stress conditions. However, the mechanism coupling oxidative signals to changes in protein function remains unknown. An appealing hypothesis is that methionine oxidation might serve as a rheostat to control phosphorylation. To investigate this potential crosstalk between phosphorylation and methionine oxidation, we have addressed the co-occurrence of these two types of modifications within the human proteome. Here, we show that nearly all (98%) proteins containing oxidized methionine were also phosphoproteins. Furthermore, phosphorylation sites were much closer to oxidized methionines when compared to non-oxidized methionines. This proximity between modification sites cannot be accounted for by their co-localization within unstructured clusters because it was faithfully reproduced in a smaller sample of structured proteins. We also provide evidence that the oxidation of methionine located within phosphorylation motifs is a highly selective process among stress-related proteins, which supports the hypothesis of crosstalk between methionine oxidation and phosphorylation as part of the cellular defence against oxidative stress. PMID:28079140

  8. Methionine residues around phosphorylation sites are preferentially oxidized in vivo under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Veredas, Francisco J; Cantón, Francisco R; Aledo, J Carlos

    2017-01-12

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most prevalent and well-understood protein modifications. Oxidation of protein-bound methionine, which has been traditionally perceived as an inevitable damage derived from oxidative stress, is now emerging as another modification capable of regulating protein activity during stress conditions. However, the mechanism coupling oxidative signals to changes in protein function remains unknown. An appealing hypothesis is that methionine oxidation might serve as a rheostat to control phosphorylation. To investigate this potential crosstalk between phosphorylation and methionine oxidation, we have addressed the co-occurrence of these two types of modifications within the human proteome. Here, we show that nearly all (98%) proteins containing oxidized methionine were also phosphoproteins. Furthermore, phosphorylation sites were much closer to oxidized methionines when compared to non-oxidized methionines. This proximity between modification sites cannot be accounted for by their co-localization within unstructured clusters because it was faithfully reproduced in a smaller sample of structured proteins. We also provide evidence that the oxidation of methionine located within phosphorylation motifs is a highly selective process among stress-related proteins, which supports the hypothesis of crosstalk between methionine oxidation and phosphorylation as part of the cellular defence against oxidative stress.

  9. Activity-dependent inhibitory synapse remodeling through gephyrin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carmen E; Nikonenko, Irina; Mendez, Pablo; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K; Muller, Dominique

    2015-01-06

    Maintaining a proper balance between excitation and inhibition is essential for the functioning of neuronal networks. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which excitatory activity can affect inhibitory synapse plasticity. Here we used tagged gephyrin, one of the main scaffolding proteins of the postsynaptic density at GABAergic synapses, to monitor the activity-dependent adaptation of perisomatic inhibitory synapses over prolonged periods of time in hippocampal slice cultures. We find that learning-related activity patterns known to induce N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and transient optogenetic activation of single neurons induce within hours a robust increase in the formation and size of gephyrin-tagged clusters at inhibitory synapses identified by correlated confocal electron microscopy. This inhibitory morphological plasticity was associated with an increase in spontaneous inhibitory activity but did not require activation of GABAA receptors. Importantly, this activity-dependent inhibitory plasticity was prevented by pharmacological blockade of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), it was associated with an increased phosphorylation of gephyrin on a site targeted by CaMKII, and could be prevented or mimicked by gephyrin phospho-mutants for this site. These results reveal a homeostatic mechanism through which activity regulates the dynamics and function of perisomatic inhibitory synapses, and they identify a CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation site on gephyrin as critically important for this process.

  10. Asp295 stabilizes the active-site loop structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase, facilitating phosphorylation of Ser292 by pyruvate dehydrogenase-kinase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an invitro system for detailed analysis of reversible phosphorylation of the plant mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, comprising recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana a2b2-hetero tetrameric pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) plus A.thaliana E1-kinase (AtPDK). Upon addition of MgATP...

  11. Tautomeric states of the active-site histidines of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated IIIGlc, a signal-transducing protein from Escherichia coli, using two-dimensional heteronuclear NMR techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, J. G.; Torchia, D. A.; Meadow, N. D.; Roseman, S.

    1993-01-01

    IIIGlc is an 18.1-kDa signal-transducing phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system from Escherichia coli. The 1H, 15N, and 13C histidine ring NMR signals of both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of IIIGlc have been assigned using two-dimensional 1H-15N and 1H-13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments and a two-dimensional 13C-13C-1H correlation spectroscopy via JCC coupling experiment. The data were acquired on uniformly 15N-labeled and uniformly 15N/13C-labeled protein samples. The experiments rely on one-bond and two-bond J couplings that allowed for assignment of the signals without the need for the analysis of through-space (nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy) correlations. The 15N and 13C chemical shifts were used to determine that His-75 exists predominantly in the N epsilon 2-H tautomeric state in both the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of IIIGlc, and that His-90 exists primarily in the N delta 1-H state in the unphosphorylated protein. Upon phosphorylation of the N epsilon 2 nitrogen of His-90, the N delta 1 nitrogen remains protonated, resulting in the formation of a charged phospho-His-90 moiety. The 1H, 15N, and 13C signals of the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated proteins showed only minor shifts in the pH range from 6.0 to 9.0. These data indicate that the pK alpha values for both His-75 and His-90 in IIIGlc and His-75 in phospho-IIIGlc are less than 5.0, and that the pK alpha value for phospho-His-90 is greater than 10. The results are presented in relation to previously obtained structural data on IIIGlc, and implications for proposed mechanisms of phosphoryl transfer are discussed. PMID:8518729

  12. Synaptic activation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation occurs locally in activated dendritic domains.

    PubMed

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) induces phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in postsynaptic neurons, but the functional significance of rpS6 phosphorylation is poorly understood. Here, we show that synaptic stimulation that induces perforant path LTP triggers phosphorylation of rpS6 (p-rpS6) locally near active synapses. Using antibodies specific for phosphorylation at different sites (ser235/236 versus ser240/244), we show that strong synaptic activation led to dramatic increases in immunostaining throughout postsynaptic neurons with selectively higher staining for p-ser235/236 in the activated dendritic lamina. Following LTP induction, phosphorylation at ser235/236 was detectable by 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and was maintained for hours. Phosphorylation at both sites was completely blocked by local infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist, APV. Despite robust induction of p-rpS6 following high frequency stimulation, assessment of protein synthesis by autoradiography revealed no detectable increases. Exploration of a novel environment led to increases in the number of p-rpS6-positive neurons throughout the forebrain in a pattern reminiscent of immediate early gene induction and many individual neurons that were p-rpS6-positive coexpressed Arc protein. Our results constrain hypotheses about the possible role of rpS6 phosphorylation in regulating postsynaptic protein synthesis during induction of synaptic plasticity.

  13. Crystal structure of D-psicose 3-epimerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its complex with true substrate D-fructose: a pivotal role of metal in catalysis, an active site for the non-phosphorylated substrate, and its conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun; Cha, Sun-Shin; Rhee, Sangkee

    2006-09-01

    D-psicose, a rare sugar produced by the enzymatic reaction of D-tagatose 3-epimerase (DTEase), has been used extensively for the bioproduction of various rare carbohydrates. Recently characterized D-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was found to belong to the DTEase family and to catalyze the interconversion of D-fructose and D-psicose by epimerizing the C-3 position, with marked efficiency for D-psicose. The crystal structures of DPEase and its complex with the true substrate D-fructose were determined; DPEase is a tetramer and each monomer belongs to a TIM-barrel fold. The active site in each subunit is distinct from that of other TIM-barrel enzymes, which use phosphorylated ligands as the substrate. It contains a metal ion with octahedral coordination to two water molecules and four residues that are absolutely conserved across the DTEase family. Upon binding of D-fructose, the substrate displaces water molecules in the active site, with a conformation mimicking the intermediate cis-enediolate. Subsequently, Trp112 and Pro113 in the beta4-alpha4 loop undergo significant structural changes, sealing off the active site. Structural evidence and site-directed mutagenesis of the putative catalytic residues suggest that the metal ion plays a pivotal role in catalysis by anchoring the bound D-fructose, and Glu150 and Glu244 carry out an epimerization reaction at the C-3 position.

  14. Structural and Dynamic Features of F-recruitment Site Driven Substrate Phosphorylation by ERK2

    PubMed Central

    Piserchio, Andrea; Ramakrishan, Venkatesh; Wang, Hsin; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Arshava, Boris; Dutta, Kaushik; Dalby, Kevin N.; Ghose, Ranajeet

    2015-01-01

    The F-recruitment site (FRS) of active ERK2 binds F-site (Phe-x-Phe-Pro) sequences found downstream of the Ser/Thr phospho-acceptor on cellular substrates. Here we apply NMR methods to analyze the interaction between active ERK2 (ppERK2), and a 13-residue F-site-bearing peptide substrate derived from its cellular target, the transcription factor Elk-1. Our results provide detailed insight into previously elusive structural and dynamic features of FRS/F-site interactions and FRS-driven substrate phosphorylation. We show that substrate F-site engagement significantly quenches slow dynamics involving the ppERK2 activation-loop and the FRS. We also demonstrate that the F-site phenylalanines make critical contacts with ppERK2, in contrast to the proline whose cis-trans isomerization has no significant effect on F-site recognition by the kinase FRS. Our results support a mechanism where phosphorylation of the disordered N-terminal phospho-acceptor is facilitated by its increased productive encounters with the ppERK2 active site due to docking of the proximal F-site at the kinase FRS. PMID:26054059

  15. Phosphorylation of Serine422 increases the stability and transactivation activities of human Osterix.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuexin; Yao, Bing; Shi, Kaikai; Lu, Jianlei; Jin, Yucui; Qi, Bing; Li, Hongwei; Pan, Shiyang; Chen, Li; Ma, Changyan

    2015-03-24

    Osterix (Osx) is an essential regulator for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Although phosphorylation has been reported to be involved in the regulation of Osx activity, the precise underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we identified S422 as a novel phosphorylation site of Osx and demonstrated that GSK-3β interacted and co-localized with Osx. GSK-3β increased the stability and transactivation activity of Osx through phosphorylation of the newly identified site. These findings expanded our understanding of the mechanisms of posttranslational regulation of Osx and the role of GSK-3β in the control of Osx transactivation activity.

  16. Mass spectrometric phosphoproteome analysis of HIV-infected brain reveals novel phosphorylation sites and differential phosphorylation patterns

    PubMed Central

    Uzasci, Lerna; Auh, Sungyoung; Cotter, Robert J.; Nath, Avindra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To map the phosphoproteome and identify changes in the phosphorylation patterns in the HIV-infected and uninfected brain using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Experimental Design Parietal cortex from brain of individuals with and without HIV infection were lysed and trypsinized. The peptides were labeled with iTRAQ reagents, combined, phospho-enriched by titanium dioxide chromatography, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with high-resolution. Results Our phosphoproteomic workflow resulted in the identification of 112 phosphorylated proteins and 17 novel phosphorylation sites in all the samples that were analyzed. The phosphopeptide sequences were searched for kinase substrate motifs which revealed potential kinases involved in important signaling pathways. The site-specific phosphopeptide quantification showed that peptides from neurofilament medium polypeptide, myelin basic protein, and 2′–3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′ phosphodiesterase have relatively higher phosphorylation levels during HIV infection. Clinical Relevance This study has enriched the global phosphoproteome knowledge of the human brain by detecting novel phosphorylation sites on neuronal proteins and identifying differentially phosphorylated brain proteins during HIV infection. Kinases that lead to unusual phosphorylations could be therapeutic targets for the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). PMID:26033855

  17. Coarse-grained molecular simulation of epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase multi-site self-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Koland, John G

    2014-01-01

    Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in either of the two C-terminal (CT) domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in molecules such as EGFR

  18. Coarse-Grained Molecular Simulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinase Multi-Site Self-Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Koland, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in either of the two C-terminal (CT) domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in molecules such as EGFR

  19. Incorporating hidden Markov models for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tzeng, Shih-Wei; Wu, Li-Cheng; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Tsou, Ann-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Tsae

    2005-07-30

    Protein phosphorylation, which is an important mechanism in posttranslational modification, affects essential cellular processes such as metabolism, cell signaling, differentiation, and membrane transportation. Proteins are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. In this investigation, we develop a novel tool to computationally predict catalytic kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. The known phosphorylation sites from public domain data sources are categorized by their annotated protein kinases. Based on the concepts of profile Hidden Markov Models (HMM), computational models are trained from the kinase-specific groups of phosphorylation sites. After evaluating the trained models, we select the model with highest accuracy in each kinase-specific group and provide a Web-based prediction tool for identifying protein phosphorylation sites. The main contribution here is that we have developed a kinase-specific phosphorylation site prediction tool with both high sensitivity and specificity.

  20. Phosphorylation sites required for regulation of cardiac calcium channels in the fight-or-flight response.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2013-11-26

    L-type Ca(2+) currents conducted by CaV1.2 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. Their activity is increased by β-adrenergic/cAMP signaling via phosphorylation by PKA in the fight-or-flight response, but the sites of regulation are unknown. We describe the functional role of phosphorylation of Ser1700 and Thr1704-sites of phosphorylation by PKA and casein kinase II at the interface between the proximal and distal C-terminal regulatory domains. Mutation of both residues to Ala in STAA mice reduced basal L-type Ca(2+) currents, due to a small decrease in expression and a substantial decrease in functional activity. The increase in L-type Ca(2+) current caused by isoproterenol was markedly reduced at physiological levels of stimulation (3-10 nM). Maximal increases in calcium current at nearly saturating concentrations of isoproterenol (100 nM) were also significantly reduced, but the mutation effects were smaller, suggesting that alternative regulatory mechanisms are engaged at maximal levels of stimulation. The β-adrenergic increase in cell contraction was also diminished. STAA ventricular myocytes exhibited arrhythmic contractions in response to isoproterenol, and up to 20% of STAA cells failed to sustain contractions when stimulated at 1 Hz. STAA mice have reduced exercise capacity, and cardiac hypertrophy is evident at 3 mo. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser1700 and Thr1704 is essential for regulation of basal activity of CaV1.2 channels and for up-regulation by β-adrenergic signaling at physiological levels of stimulation. Disruption of phosphorylation at those sites leads to impaired cardiac function in vivo, as indicated by reduced exercise capacity and cardiac hypertrophy.

  1. Regulation of BRCA1 Function by DNA Damage-Induced Site-Specific Phosphorylation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Rad51p proteins, the lat - end-joining. BRCA-2 complexed with machinery. ter a member of the RAD-52 epi- RAD-51 is active in strand exchange BRCA- 1 has...AD Award Number: DAMD17-02- 1 -0584 TITLE: Regulation of BRCAl Function by DNA Damage-Induced Site- Specific Phosphorylation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...ApprovedREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of Information Is estimated to average 1 hour per

  2. Homo sapiens dullard protein phosphatase shows a preference for the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site of lipin1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Garland, Megan; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Allen, Karen N

    2011-04-19

    Human lipin1 catalyzes the highly regulated conversion of phosphatidic acids to diacylglycerides. Lipin's cellular location, protein partners, and biological function are directed by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events catalyzed by the phosphoserine phosphatase dullard. To define the determinants of dullard substrate recognition and catalysis, and hence, lipin regulation, steady-state kinetic analysis was performed on phosphoserine-bearing nonapeptides based on the phosphorylation sites of lipin. The results demonstrate that dullard shows specificity for the peptide corresponding to the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site (Ser106) of lipin with a k(cat)/K(m) of 2.9 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). These results are consistent with a coil-loop structure for the insulin-dependent phosphorylation site on human lipin1 and make unlikely the requirement for an adaptor protein to confer activity such as that proposed for the yeast homologue.

  3. Musite, a Tool for Global Prediction of General and Kinase-specific Phosphorylation Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianjiong; Thelen, Jay J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Xu, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most pervasive post-translational modifications, regulating diverse cellular processes in various organisms. High throughput experimental studies using mass spectrometry have identified many phosphorylation sites, primarily from eukaryotes. However, the vast majority of phosphorylation sites remain undiscovered, even in well studied systems. Because mass spectrometry-based experimental approaches for identifying phosphorylation events are costly, time-consuming, and biased toward abundant proteins and proteotypic peptides, in silico prediction of phosphorylation sites is potentially a useful alternative strategy for whole proteome annotation. Because of various limitations, current phosphorylation site prediction tools were not well designed for comprehensive assessment of proteomes. Here, we present a novel software tool, Musite, specifically designed for large scale predictions of both general and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. We collected phosphoproteomics data in multiple organisms from several reliable sources and used them to train prediction models by a comprehensive machine-learning approach that integrates local sequence similarities to known phosphorylation sites, protein disorder scores, and amino acid frequencies. Application of Musite on several proteomes yielded tens of thousands of phosphorylation site predictions at a high stringency level. Cross-validation tests show that Musite achieves some improvement over existing tools in predicting general phosphorylation sites, and it is at least comparable with those for predicting kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. In Musite V1.0, we have trained general prediction models for six organisms and kinase-specific prediction models for 13 kinases or kinase families. Although the current pretrained models were not correlated with any particular cellular conditions, Musite provides a unique functionality for training customized prediction models

  4. Hierarchical Disabled-1 Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Src family Kinase Activation and Neurite Formation

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Sachin; Gao, Zhihua; Monckton, Elizabeth; Glubrecht, Darryl; Godbout, Roseline

    2013-01-01

    There are two developmentally regulated alternatively spliced forms of Disabled-1 (Dab1) in the chick retina: an early form (Dab1-E) expressed in retinal precursor cells and a late form (Dab1-L) expressed in neuronal cells. The main difference between these two isoforms is the absence of two Src family kinase (SFK) recognition sites in Dab1-E. Both forms retain two Abl/Crk/Nck recognition sites implicated in the recruitment of SH2 domain-containing signaling proteins. One of the Dab1-L-specific SFK recognition sites, at tyrosine(Y)-198, has been shown to be phosphorylated in Reelin-stimulated neurons. Here, we use Reelin-expressing primary retinal cultures to investigate the role of the four Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation sites on overall tyrosine phosphorylation, Dab1 phosphorylation, SFK activation and neurite formation. We show that Y198 is essential but not sufficient for maximal Dab1 phosphorylation, SFK activation and neurite formation, with Y232 and Y220 playing particularly important roles in SFK activation and neuritogenesis, and Y185 having modifying effects secondary to Y232 and Y220. Our data support a role for all four Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation sites in mediating the spectrum of activities associated with Reelin-Dab1 signaling in neurons. PMID:17350651

  5. Phosphorylation of Human Choline Kinase Beta by Protein Kinase A: Its Impact on Activity and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching Ching; Few, Ling Ling; Konrad, Manfred; See Too, Wei Cun

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase beta (CKβ) is one of the CK isozymes involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. CKβ is important for normal mitochondrial function and muscle development as the lack of the ckβ gene in human and mice results in the development of muscular dystrophy. In contrast, CKα is implicated in tumorigenesis and has been extensively studied as an anticancer target. Phosphorylation of human CKα was found to regulate the enzyme’s activity and its subcellular location. This study provides evidence for CKβ phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro phosphorylation of CKβ by PKA was first detected by phosphoprotein staining, as well as by in-gel kinase assays. The phosphorylating kinase was identified as PKA by Western blotting. CKβ phosphorylation by MCF-7 cell lysate was inhibited by a PKA-specific inhibitor peptide, and the intracellular phosphorylation of CKβ was shown to be regulated by the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a PKA activator. Phosphorylation sites were located on CKβ residues serine-39 and serine-40 as determined by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation increased the catalytic efficiencies for the substrates choline and ATP about 2-fold, without affecting ethanolamine phosphorylation, and the S39D/S40D CKβ phosphorylation mimic behaved kinetically very similar. Remarkably, phosphorylation drastically increased the sensitivity of CKβ to hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibition by about 30-fold. These findings suggest that CKβ, in concert with CKα, and depending on its phosphorylation status, might play a critical role as a druggable target in carcinogenesis. PMID:27149373

  6. The plastid casein kinase 2 phosphorylates Rubisco activase at the Thr-78 site but is not essential for regulation of Rubisco activation state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubisco activase (RCA) is essential for the activation of Rubisco, the carboxylating enzyme of photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, RCA is encoded by a single gene (At2g39730) that is alternatively spliced to form a large alpha-RCA and small beta-RCA isoform. The activity of Rubisco is controlled in res...

  7. Phosphorylation Sites Identified in the NEIL1 DNA Glycosylase Are Potential Targets for the JNK1 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Cao, Vy Bao; Doublié, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The NEIL1 DNA glycosylase is one of eleven mammalian DNA glycosylases that partake in the first step of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. NEIL1 recognizes and cleaves mainly oxidized pyrimidines from DNA. The past decade has witnessed the identification of an increasing number of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in BER enzymes including phosphorylation, acetylation, and sumoylation, which modulate enzyme function. In this work, we performed the first comprehensive analysis of phosphorylation sites in human NEIL1 expressed in human cells. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed phosphorylation at three serine residues: S207, S306, and a third novel site, S61. We expressed, purified, and characterized phosphomimetic (glutamate) and phosphoablating (alanine) mutants of the three phosphorylation sites in NEIL1 revealed by the MS analysis. All mutant enzymes were active and bound tightly to DNA, indicating that phosphorylation does not affect DNA binding and enzyme activity at these three serine sites. We also characterized phosphomimetic mutants of two other sites of phosphorylation, Y263 and S269, reported previously, and observed that mutation of Y263 to E yielded a completely inactive enzyme. Furthermore, based on sequence motifs and kinase prediction algorithms, we identified the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) as the kinase involved in the phosphorylation of NEIL1. JNK1, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, was detected in NEIL1 immunoprecipitates, interacted with NEIL1 in vitro, and was able to phosphorylate the enzyme at residues S207, S306, and S61. PMID:27518429

  8. Differentiation of Opioid Drug Effects by Hierarchical Multi-Site Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Just, Sascha; Illing, Susann; Trester-Zedlitz, Michelle; Lau, Elaine K.; Kotowski, Sarah J.; Miess, Elke; Mann, Anika; Doll, Christian; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Burlingame, Alma L.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the ability of opioid drugs to promote regulated endocytosis of μ-opioid receptors are related to their tendency to produce drug tolerance and dependence. Here we show that drug-specific differences in receptor internalization are determined by a conserved, 10-residue sequence in the receptor’s carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Diverse opioids induce receptor phosphorylation at serine (S)375, present in the middle of this sequence, but opioids differ markedly in their ability to drive higher-order phosphorylation on flanking residues [threonine (T)370, T376, and T379]. Multi-phosphorylation is required for the endocytosis-promoting activity of this sequence and occurs both sequentially and hierarchically, with S375 representing the initiating site. Higher-order phosphorylation involving T370, T376, and T379 specifically requires GRK2/3 isoforms, and the same sequence controls opioid receptor internalization in neurons. These results reveal a biochemical mechanism differentiating the endocytic activity of opioid drugs. PMID:23239825

  9. Rho-associated kinase ROCK activates LIM-kinase 1 by phosphorylation at threonine 508 within the activation loop.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, K; Nagata, K; Maekawa, M; Ishizaki, T; Narumiya, S; Mizuno, K

    2000-02-04

    LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1) phosphorylates cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor, and regulates actin cytoskeletal reorganization. LIMK1 is activated by the small GTPase Rho and its downstream protein kinase ROCK. We now report the site of phosphorylation of LIMK1 by ROCK. In vitro kinase reaction revealed that the active forms of ROCK phosphorylated LIMK1 on the threonine residue and markedly increased its cofilin-phosphorylating activity. A LIMK1 mutant (T508A) with replacement of Thr-508 within the activation loop of the kinase domain by alanine was neither phosphorylated nor activated by ROCK. Replacement of Thr-508 by serine changed the ROCK-catalyzed phosphorylation residue from threonine to serine. A LIMK1 mutant with replacement of Thr-508 by two glutamates increased the kinase activity about 2-fold but was not further activated by ROCK. In addition, wild-type LIMK1, but not its T508A mutant, was activated by co-expression with ROCK in cultured cells. These results suggest that ROCK activates LIMK1 in vitro and in vivo by phosphorylation at Thr-508. Together with the recent finding that PAK1, a downstream effector of Rac, also activates LIMK1 by phosphorylation at Thr-508, these results suggest that activation of LIMK1 is one of the common targets for Rho and Rac to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton.

  10. Effects of kinase inhibitors and potassium phosphate (KPi) on site-specific phosphorylation of branched chain. cap alpha. -ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, M.J.; Shimomura, Y.; Ozawa, T.; Harris, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    BCKDH is phosphorylated by a copurifying kinase at two serine residues on the El..cap alpha.. subunit. Phosphorylation of both sites occurs at about the same rate initially, but inactivation is believed associated only with site 1 phosphorylation. The effects of KPi and known inhibitors of BCKDH kinase, ..cap alpha..-chloroisocaproate (CIC) and branched chain ..cap alpha..-ketoacids (BCKA), on the phosphorylation of purified rat liver BCKDH were studied. Site-specific phosphorylation was quantitated by thin-layer electrophoresis of tryptic peptides followed by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms. Addition of 5 mM KPi was found necessary to stabilize the BCKDH activity at 37/sup 0/C. Increasing the KPi to 50 mM dramatically increased the CIC and BCKA inhibition of site 1 and site 2 phosphorylation. The finding of enhanced sensitivity of inhibitors with 50 mM KPi may facilitate identification of physiologically important kinase effectors. Regardless of the KPi concentration, CIC and the BCKA showed much more effective inhibition of site 2 than site 1 phosphorylation. Although site 1 is the primary inactivating site, predominant inhibition of site 2 phosphorylation may provide a means of modulating kinase/phosphatase control of BCKDH activity under steady state conditions.

  11. Phosphorylation of GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 Alters Stimulation of Mg Chelatase Activity in Angiosperms1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hochheuser, Caroline; Fufezan, Christian; Heinze, Laura

    2016-01-01

    GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 (GUN4) is a positive regulator of light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis. GUN4 activates Mg chelatase (MgCh) that catalyzes the insertion of an Mg2+ ion into protoporphyrin IX. We show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GUN4 is phosphorylated at Ser 264 (S264), the penultimate amino acid residue at the C terminus. While GUN4 is preferentially phosphorylated in darkness, phosphorylation is reduced upon accumulation of Mg porphyrins. Expression of a phosphomimicking GUN4(S264D) results in an incomplete complementation of the white gun4-2 null mutant and a chlorotic phenotype comparable to gun4 knockdown mutants. Phosphorylated GUN4 has a reduced stimulatory effect on MgCh in vitro and in vivo but retains its protein stability and tetrapyrrole binding capacity. Analysis of GUN4 found in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms reveals the evolution of a C-terminal extension, which harbors the phosphorylation site of GUN4 expressed in angiosperms. Homologs of GUN4 from Synechocystis and Chlamydomonas lack the conserved phosphorylation site found in a C-terminal extension of angiosperm GUN4. Biochemical studies proved the importance of the C-terminal extension for MgCh stimulation and inactivation of GUN4 by phosphorylation in angiosperms. An additional mechanism regulating MgCh activity is proposed. In conjunction with the dark repression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis, GUN4 phosphorylation minimizes the flow of intermediates into the Mg branch of the tetrapyrrole metabolic pathway for chlorophyll biosynthesis. PMID:27688621

  12. Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase activity by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Karnam S

    2004-11-01

    The levels of the cGMP in smooth muscle of the gut reflect continued synthesis by soluble guanylate cyclase (GC) and breakdown by phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). Soluble GC is a haem-containing, heterodimeric protein consisting alpha- and beta-subunits: each subunit has N-terminal regulatory domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The haem moiety acts as an intracellular receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and determines the ability of NO to activate the enzyme and generate cGMP. In the present study the mechanism by which protein kinases regulate soluble GC in gastric smooth muscle was examined. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) acting as a NO donor stimulated soluble GC activity and increased cGMP levels. SNP induced soluble GC phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent fashion. SNP-induced soluble GC phosphorylation was abolished by the selective cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors, Rp-cGMPS and KT-5823. In contrast, SNP-stimulated soluble GC activity and cGMP levels were significantly enhanced by Rp-cGMPS and KT-5823. Phosphorylation and inhibition of soluble GC were PKG specific, as selective activator of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, Sp-5, 6-DCl-cBiMPS had no effect on SNP-induced soluble GC phosphorylation and activity. The ability of PKG to stimulate soluble GC phosphorylation was demonstrated in vitro by back phosphorylation technique. Addition of purified phosphatase 1 inhibited soluble GC phosphorylation in vitro, and inhibition was reversed by a high concentration (10 microM) of okadaic acid. In gastric smooth muscle cells, inhibition of phosphatase activity by okadaic acid increased soluble GC phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent fashion. The increase in soluble GC phosphorylation inhibited SNP-stimulated soluble GC activity and cGMP formation. The results implied the feedback inhibition of soluble GC activity by PKG-dependent phosphorylation impeded further formation of cGMP.

  13. Phosphorylation of the Consensus Sites of Protein Kinase A on α1D L-type Calcium Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Omar; Qu, Yongxia; Wadgaonkar, Raj; Baroudi, Ghayath; Karnabi, Eddy; Chahine, Mohamed; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The novel α1D L-type Ca2+ channel is expressed in supraventricular tissue and has been implicated in the pacemaker activity of the heart and in atrial fibrillation. We recently demonstrated that PKA activation led to increased α1D Ca2+ channel activity in tsA201 cells by phosphorylation of the channel protein. Here we sought to identify the phosphorylated PKA consensus sites on the α1 subunit of the α1D Ca2+ channel by generating GST fusion proteins of the intracellular loops, N terminus, proximal and distal C termini of the α1 subunit of α1D Ca2+ channel. An in vitro PKA kinase assay was performed for the GST fusion proteins, and their phosphorylation was assessed by Western blotting using either anti-PKA substrate or anti-phosphoserine antibodies. Western blotting showed that the N terminus and C terminus were phosphorylated. Serines 1743 and 1816, two PKA consensus sites, were phosphorylated by PKA and identified by mass spectrometry. Site directed mutagenesis and patch clamp studies revealed that serines 1743 and 1816 were major functional PKA consensus sites. Altogether, biochemical and functional data revealed that serines 1743 and 1816 are major functional PKA consensus sites on the α1 subunit of α1D Ca2+ channel. These novel findings provide new insights into the autonomic regulation of the α1D Ca2+ channel in the heart. PMID:19074150

  14. Site-directed spin labeling reveals a conformational switch in the phosphorylation domain of smooth muscle myosin.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Wendy D; Blakely, Sarah E; Nesmelov, Yuri E; Thomas, David D

    2005-03-15

    We have used site-directed spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy to detect structural changes within the regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle myosin upon phosphorylation. Smooth muscle contraction is activated by phosphorylation of S19 on RLC, but the structural basis of this process is unknown. There is no crystal structure containing a phosphorylated RLC, and there is no crystal structure for the N-terminal region of any RLC. Therefore, we have prepared single-Cys mutations throughout RLC, exchanged each mutant onto smooth muscle heavy meromyosin, verified normal regulatory function, and used EPR to determine dynamics and solvent accessibility at each site. A survey of spin-label sites throughout the RLC revealed that only the N-terminal region (first 24 aa) shows a significant change in dynamics upon phosphorylation, with most of the first 17 residues showing an increase in rotational amplitude. Therefore, we focused on this N-terminal region. Additional structural information was obtained from the pattern of oxygen accessibility along the sequence. In the absence of phosphorylation, little or no periodicity was observed, suggesting a lack of secondary structural order in this region. However, phosphorylation induced a strong helical pattern (3.6-residue periodicity) in the first 17 residues, while increasing accessibility throughout the first 24 residues. We have identified a domain within RLC, the N-terminal phosphorylation domain, in which phosphorylation increases helical order, internal dynamics, and accessibility. These results support a model in which this disorder-to-order transition within the phosphorylation domain results in decreased head-head interactions, activating myosin in smooth muscle.

  15. E2 superfamily of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes: constitutively active or activated through phosphorylation in the catalytic cleft

    PubMed Central

    Valimberti, Ilaria; Tiberti, Matteo; Lambrughi, Matteo; Sarcevic, Boris; Papaleo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a modification that offers a dynamic and reversible mechanism to regulate the majority of cellular processes. Numerous diseases are associated with aberrant regulation of phosphorylation-induced switches. Phosphorylation is emerging as a mechanism to modulate ubiquitination by regulating key enzymes in this pathway. The molecular mechanisms underpinning how phosphorylation regulates ubiquitinating enzymes, however, are elusive. Here, we show the high conservation of a functional site in E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. In catalytically active E2s, this site contains aspartate or a phosphorylatable serine and we refer to it as the conserved E2 serine/aspartate (CES/D) site. Molecular simulations of substrate-bound and -unbound forms of wild type, mutant and phosphorylated E2s, provide atomistic insight into the role of the CES/D residue for optimal E2 activity. Both the size and charge of the side group at the site play a central role in aligning the substrate lysine toward E2 catalytic cysteine to control ubiquitination efficiency. The CES/D site contributes to the fingerprint of the E2 superfamily. We propose that E2 enzymes can be divided into constitutively active or regulated families. E2s characterized by an aspartate at the CES/D site signify constitutively active E2s, whereas those containing a serine can be regulated by phosphorylation. PMID:26463729

  16. KinasePhos: a web tool for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tzeng, Shih-Wei; Horng, Jorng-Tzong

    2005-07-01

    KinasePhos is a novel web server for computationally identifying catalytic kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. The known phosphorylation sites from public domain data sources are categorized by their annotated protein kinases. Based on the profile hidden Markov model, computational models are learned from the kinase-specific groups of the phosphorylation sites. After evaluating the learned models, the model with highest accuracy was selected from each kinase-specific group, for use in a web-based prediction tool for identifying protein phosphorylation sites. Therefore, this work developed a kinase-specific phosphorylation site prediction tool with both high sensitivity and specificity. The prediction tool is freely available at http://KinasePhos.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/.

  17. PKCθ-Mediated PDK1 Phosphorylation Enhances T Cell Activation by Increasing PDK1 Stability

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ah; Choi, Hyunwoo; Yang, Taewoo; Cho, Steve K.; Park, Zee-Yong; Park, Sung-Gyoo

    2017-01-01

    PDK1 is essential for T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of NF-κB, and PDK1-induced phosphorylation of PKCθ is important for TCR-induced NF-κB activation. However, inverse regulation of PDK1 by PKCθ during T cell activation has not been investigated. In this study, we found that PKCθ is involved in human PDK1 phosphorylation and that its kinase activity is crucial for human PDK1 phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry analysis of wild-type PKCθ or of kinase-inactive form of PKCθ revealed that PKCθ induced phosphorylation of human PDK1 at Ser-64. This PKCθ-induced PDK1 phosphorylation positively regulated T cell activation and TCR-induced NF-κB activation. Moreover, phosphorylation of human PDK1 at Ser-64 increased the stability of human PDK1 protein. These results suggest that Ser-64 is an important phosphorylation site that is part of a positive feedback loop for human PDK1-PKCθ-mediated T cell activation. PMID:28152304

  18. An Extensive Survey of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Revealing New Sites in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heibeck, Tyler H.; Ding, Shi-Jian; Opresko, Lee K.; Zhao, Rui; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Yang, Feng; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. Steven; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation represents a central regulatory mechanism in cell signaling. Here we present an extensive survey of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in a normal-derived human mammary epithelial cell line by applying anti-phosphotyrosine peptide immunoaffinity purification coupled with high sensitivity capillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 481 tyrosine phosphorylation sites (covered by 716 unique peptides) from 285 proteins were confidently identified in HMEC following the analysis of both the basal condition and acute stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). The estimated false discovery rate was 1.0% as determined by searching against a scrambled database. Comparison of these data with existing literature showed significant agreement for previously reported sites. However, we observed 281 sites that were not previously reported for HMEC cultures and 29 of which have not been reported for any human cell or tissue system. The analysis showed that the majority of highly phosphorylated proteins were relatively low-abundance. Large differences in phosphorylation stoichiometry for sites within the same protein were also observed, raising the possibility of more important functional roles for such highly phosphorylated pTyr sites. By mapping to major signaling networks, such as the EGF receptor and insulin growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways, many known proteins involved in these pathways were revealed to be tyrosine phosphorylated, which provides interesting targets for future hypothesis-driven and targeted quantitative studies involving tyrosine phosphorylation in HMEC or other human systems. PMID:19534553

  19. Identification of kinases phosphorylating 13 sites in the nuclear, DNA-binding protein NUCKS.

    PubMed

    Grundt, Kirsten; Thiede, Bernd; Østvold, Anne Carine

    2017-03-01

    NUCKS is a vertebrate specific, nuclear and DNA-binding phospho protein. The protein is highly expressed in rapidly dividing cells, and is overexpressed in a number of cancer tissues. The phosphorylation of NUCKS is cell cycle and DNA-damage regulated, but little is known about the responsible kinases. By utilizing in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation assays using isolated NUCKS as well as synthetic NUCKS-derived peptides in combination with mass spectrometry, phosphopeptide mapping, phosphphoamino acid analyses, phosphospecific antibodies and the use of specific kinase inhibitors, we found that NUCKS is phosphorylated on 11 sites by CK2. At least 7 of the CK2 sites are phosphorylated in vivo. We also found that NUCKS is phosphorylated on two sites by ATM kinase and DNA-PK in vitro, and is phosphorylated in vivo by ATM kinase in γ-irradiated cells. All together, we identified three kinases phosphorylating 13 out of 39 in vivo phosphorylated sites in mammalian NUCKS. The identification of CK2 and PIKK kinases as kinases phosphorylating NUCKS in vivo provide further evidence for the involvement of NUCKS in cell cycle control and DNA repair.

  20. Identification and functional analysis of tomato BRI1 and BAK1 receptor kinase phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Vikramjit S; Wang, Xiaofeng; Blackburn, R Kevin; Goshe, Michael B; Mitra, Srijeet K; Williams, Elisabeth L; Bishop, Gerard J; Krasnyanski, Sergei; Allen, George; Huber, Steven C; Clouse, Steven D

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that are perceived at the cell surface by a membrane-bound receptor kinase, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1). BRI1 interacts with BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1) to initiate a signal transduction pathway in which autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation of BRI1 and BAK1, as well as phosphorylation of multiple downstream substrates, play critical roles. Detailed mechanisms of BR signaling have been examined in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the role of BRI1 and BAK1 phosphorylation in crop plants is unknown. As a foundation for understanding the mechanism of BR signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify multiple in vitro phosphorylation sites of the tomato BRI1 and BAK1 cytoplasmic domains. Kinase assays showed that both tomato BRI1 and BAK1 are active in autophosphorylation as well as transphosphorylation of each other and specific peptide substrates with a defined sequence motif. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the highly conserved kinase domain activation loop residue threonine-1054 was essential for tomato BRI1 autophosphorylation and peptide substrate phosphorylation in vitro. Furthermore, analysis of transgenic lines expressing full-length tomato BRI1-Flag constructs in the weak tomato bri1 allele, curl3(-abs1), demonstrated that threonine-1054 is also essential for normal BRI1 signaling and tomato growth in planta. Finally, we cloned the tomato ortholog of TGF-β Receptor Interacting Protein (TRIP1), which was previously shown to be a BRI1-interacting protein and kinase domain substrate in Arabidopsis, and found that tomato TRIP1 is a substrate of both tomato BRI1 and BAK1 kinases in vitro.

  1. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    PKCβII controls the pathologic features of diabetic nephropathy, including glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy. PKCβII contains the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif site Ser-660. Whether this hydrophobic motif phosphorylation contributes to high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy has not been determined. Here we show that, in mesangial cells, high glucose increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. Using siRNAs to downregulate PKCβII, dominant negative PKCβII, and PKCβII hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant, we found that PKCβII regulates activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. PKCβII via its phosphorylation at Ser-660 regulated phosphorylation of Akt at both catalytic loop and hydrophobic motif sites, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of its substrate PRAS40. Specific inhibition of mTORC2 increased mTORC1 activity and induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, inhibition of mTORC2 decreased the phosphorylation of PKCβII and Akt, leading to inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation and mTORC1 activity and prevented mesangial cell hypertrophy in response to high glucose; expression of constitutively active Akt or mTORC1 restored mesangial cell hypertrophy. Moreover, constitutively active PKCβII reversed the inhibition of high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by suppression of mTORC2. Finally, using renal cortexes from type 1 diabetic mice, we found that increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 was associated with enhanced Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation. Collectively, our findings identify a signaling route connecting PI3-kinase to mTORC2 to phosphorylate PKCβII at the hydrophobic motif site necessary for Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation, leading to mesangial cell hypertrophy.

  2. Phosphorylation at serine 331 is required for Aurora B activation

    PubMed Central

    Petsalaki, Eleni; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Black, Elizabeth J.; Gillespie, David A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Aurora B kinase activity is required for successful cell division. In this paper, we show that Aurora B is phosphorylated at serine 331 (Ser331) during mitosis and that phosphorylated Aurora B localizes to kinetochores in prometaphase cells. Chk1 kinase is essential for Ser331 phosphorylation during unperturbed prometaphase or during spindle disruption by taxol but not nocodazole. Phosphorylation at Ser331 is required for optimal phosphorylation of INCENP at TSS residues, for Survivin association with the chromosomal passenger complex, and for complete Aurora B activation, but it is dispensable for Aurora B localization to centromeres, for autophosphorylation at threonine 232, and for association with INCENP. Overexpression of Aurora BS331A, in which Ser331 is mutated to alanine, results in spontaneous chromosome missegregation, cell multinucleation, unstable binding of BubR1 to kinetochores, and impaired mitotic delay in the presence of taxol. We propose that Chk1 phosphorylates Aurora B at Ser331 to fully induce Aurora B kinase activity. These results indicate that phosphorylation at Ser331 is an essential mechanism for Aurora B activation. PMID:22024163

  3. Phosphorylation acts positively and negatively to regulate MRTF-A subcellular localisation and activity

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotou, Richard; Miralles, Francesc; Pawlowski, Rafal; Diring, Jessica; Flynn, Helen R; Skehel, Mark; Treisman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) regulate cytoskeletal genes through their partner transcription factor SRF. The MRTFs bind G-actin, and signal-regulated changes in cellular G-actin concentration control their nuclear accumulation. The MRTFs also undergo Rho- and ERK-dependent phosphorylation, but the function of MRTF phosphorylation, and the elements and signals involved in MRTF-A nuclear export are largely unexplored. We show that Rho-dependent MRTF-A phosphorylation reflects relief from an inhibitory function of nuclear actin. We map multiple sites of serum-induced phosphorylation, most of which are S/T-P motifs and show that S/T-P phosphorylation is required for transcriptional activation. ERK-mediated S98 phosphorylation inhibits assembly of G-actin complexes on the MRTF-A regulatory RPEL domain, promoting nuclear import. In contrast, S33 phosphorylation potentiates the activity of an autonomous Crm1-dependent N-terminal NES, which cooperates with five other NES elements to exclude MRTF-A from the nucleus. Phosphorylation thus plays positive and negative roles in the regulation of MRTF-A. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15460.001 PMID:27304076

  4. Analysis of acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation sites using antibodies to synthetic peptides and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Safran, A; Neumann, D; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    Three peptides corresponding to residues 354-367, 364-374, 373-387 of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) delta subunit were synthesized. These peptides represent the proposed phosphorylation sites of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, the tyrosine-specific protein kinase and the calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase respectively. Using these peptides as substrates for phosphorylation by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase it was shown that only peptides 354-367 was phosphorylated whereas the other two were not. These results verify the location of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site within the AChR delta subunit. Antibodies elicited against these peptides reacted with the delta subunit. The antipeptide antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies (7F2, 5.46) specific for the delta subunit were tested for their binding to non-phosphorylated receptor and to receptor phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Antibodies to peptide 354-367 were found to react preferentially with non-phosphorylated receptor whereas the two other anti-peptide antibodies bound equally to phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated receptors. Monoclonal antibody 7F2 reacted preferentially with the phosphorylated form of the receptor whereas monoclonal antibody 5.46 did not distinguish between the two forms. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3816758

  5. Uncoupling Stress-Inducible Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Factor 1 from Its Activation

    PubMed Central

    Budzyński, Marek A.; Puustinen, Mikael C.; Joutsen, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    In mammals the stress-inducible expression of genes encoding heat shock proteins is under the control of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Activation of HSF1 is a multistep process, involving trimerization, acquisition of DNA-binding and transcriptional activities, which coincide with several posttranslational modifications. Stress-inducible phosphorylation of HSF1, or hyperphosphorylation, which occurs mainly within the regulatory domain (RD), has been proposed as a requirement for HSF-driven transcription and is widely used for assessing HSF1 activation. Nonetheless, the contribution of hyperphosphorylation to the activity of HSF1 remains unknown. In this study, we generated a phosphorylation-deficient HSF1 mutant (HSF1Δ∼PRD), where the 15 known phosphorylation sites within the RD were disrupted. Our results show that the phosphorylation status of the RD does not affect the subcellular localization and DNA-binding activity of HSF1. Surprisingly, under stress conditions, HSF1Δ∼PRD is a potent transactivator of both endogenous targets and a reporter gene, and HSF1Δ∼PRD has a reduced activation threshold. Our results provide the first direct evidence for uncoupling stress-inducible phosphorylation of HSF1 from its activation, and we propose that the phosphorylation signature alone is not an appropriate marker for HSF1 activity. PMID:25963659

  6. Androgen receptor exon 1 mutation causes androgen insensitivity by creating phosphorylation site and inhibiting melanoma antigen-A11 activation of NH2- and carboxyl-terminal interaction-dependent transactivation.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, William H; Blackwelder, Amanda J; Minges, John T; Hnat, Andrew T; French, Frank S; Wilson, Elizabeth M

    2012-03-30

    Naturally occurring germ line mutations in the X-linked human androgen receptor (AR) gene cause incomplete masculinization of the external genitalia by disrupting AR function in males with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Almost all AR missense mutations that cause androgen insensitivity syndrome are located in the highly structured DNA and ligand binding domains. In this report we investigate the functional defect associated with an AR exon 1 missense mutation, R405S, that caused partial androgen insensitivity. The 46,XX heterozygous maternal carrier had a wild-type Arg-405 CGC allele but transmitted an AGC mutant allele coding for Ser-405. At birth, the 46,XY proband had a bifid scrotum, hypospadias, and micropenis consistent with clinical stage 3 partial androgen insensitivity. Androgen-dependent transcriptional activity of AR-R405S expressed in CV1 cells was less than wild-type AR and refractory in androgen-dependent AR NH(2)- and carboxyl interaction transcription assays that depend on the coregulator effects of melanoma antigen-A11. This mutation created a Ser-405 phosphorylation site evident by the gel migration of an AR-R405S NH(2)-terminal fragment as a double band that converted to the wild-type single band after treatment with λ-phosphatase. Detrimental effects of the R405S mutation were related to the proximity of the AR WXXLF motif (433)WHTLF(437) required for melanoma antigen-A11 and p300 to stimulate transcriptional activity associated with the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction. We conclude that the coregulator effects of melanoma antigen-A11 on the AR NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal interaction amplify the androgen-dependent transcriptional response to p300 required for normal human male sex development in utero.

  7. Hierarchical phosphorylation at N-terminal transformation-sensitive sites in c-Myc protein is regulated by mitogens and in mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lutterbach, B; Hann, S R

    1994-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the c-Myc protein has been reported to be critical for both the transactivation and biological functions of the c-Myc proteins. Through detailed phosphopeptide mapping analyses, we demonstrate that there is a cluster of four regulated and complex phosphorylation events on the N-terminal domain of Myc proteins, including Thr-58, Ser-62, and Ser-71. An apparent enhancement of Ser-62 phosphorylation occurs on v-Myc proteins having a mutation at Thr-58 which has previously been correlated with increased transforming ability. In contrast, phosphorylation of Thr-58 in cells is dependent on a prior phosphorylation of Ser-62. Hierarchical phosphorylation of c-Myc is also observed in vitro with a specific glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha, unlike the promiscuous phosphorylation observed with other glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha and 3 beta preparations. Although both p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cdc2 kinase specifically phosphorylate Ser-62 in vitro and cellular phosphorylation of Thr-58/Ser-62 is stimulated by mitogens, other in vivo experiments do not support a role for these kinases in the phosphorylation of Myc proteins. Unexpectedly, both the Thr-58 and Ser-62 phosphorylation events, but not other N-terminal phosphorylation events, can occur in the cytoplasm, suggesting that translocation of the c-Myc proteins to the nucleus is not required for phosphorylation at these sites. In addition, there appears to be an unusual block to the phosphorylation of Ser-62 during mitosis. Finally, although the enhanced transforming properties of Myc proteins correlates with the loss of phosphorylation at Thr-58 and an enhancement of Ser-62 phosphorylation, these phosphorylation events do not alter the ability of c-Myc to transactivate through the CACGTG Myc/Max binding site. Images PMID:8035827

  8. Phosphorylated nuclear receptor CAR forms a homodimer to repress its constitutive activity for ligand activation.

    PubMed

    Shizu, Ryota; Osabe, Makoto; Perera, Lalith; Moore, Rick; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2017-03-06

    Nuclear receptor CAR (NR1I3) regulates hepatic drug and energy metabolism as well as cell fate. Its activation can be a critical factor in drug-induced toxicity and disease development such as diabetes and tumors. CAR inactivates its constitutive activity by phosphorylation at threonine 38. Utilizing receptor for protein kinase 1 (RACK1) as the regulatory subunit, protein phosphatase PP2A dephosphorylates threonine 38 to activate CAR. Here we have demonstrated that CAR undergoes its homodimer-monomer conversion to regulate this dephosphorylation. By co-expressing two differently-tagged CAR proteins in Huh-7 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes and mouse livers, co-immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that CAR can form a homodimer in a configuration in which the PP2A/RACK1 binding site is buried within its dimer interface. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was found to stimulate CAR homo-dimerization, thus constraining CAR in its inactive form. The agonistic ligand CITCO binds directly to the CAR homodimer and dissociates phosphorylated CAR into its monomer, exposing the PP2A/RACK1 binding site for dephosphorylation. Phenobarbital, which is not a CAR ligand, binds the EGF receptor, reversing the EGF signal to monomerize CAR for its indirect activation. Thus, the homodimer-monomer conversion is the underlying molecular mechanism that regulates CAR activation, by placing phosphorylated threonine 38 as the common target for both direct and in direct activation of CAR.

  9. Mimicking the phosphorylation of Rsp5 in PKA site T761 affects its function and cellular localization.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebska, Zaneta; Kaminska, Joanna; Chelstowska, Anna; Domanska, Anna; Rzepnikowska, Weronika; Sitkiewicz, Ewa; Cholbinski, Piotr; Gourlay, Campbell; Plochocka, Danuta; Zoladek, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase belongs to the Nedd4 family of proteins, which affect a wide variety of processes in the cell. Here we document that Rsp5 shows several phosphorylated variants of different mobility and the migration of the phosphorylated forms of Rsp5 was faster for the tpk1Δ tpk3Δ mutant devoid of two alternative catalytic subunits of protein kinase A (PKA), indicating that PKA possibly phosphorylates Rsp5 in vivo. We demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of GFP-HA-Rsp5 protein using the anti-phospho PKA substrate antibody that Rsp5 is phosphorylated in PKA sites. Rsp5 contains the sequence 758-RRFTIE-763 with consensus RRXS/T in the catalytic HECT domain and four other sites with consensus RXXS/T, which might be phosphorylated by PKA. The strain bearing the T761D substitution in Rsp5 which mimics phosphorylation grew more slowly at 28°C and did not grow at 37°C, and showed defects in pre-tRNA processing and protein sorting. The rsp5-T761D strain also demonstrated a reduced ability to form colonies, an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitivity to ROS-generating agents. These results indicate that PKA may downregulate many functions of Rsp5, possibly affecting its activity. Rsp5 is found in the cytoplasm, nucleus, multivesicular body and cortical patches. The rsp5-T761D mutation led to a strongly increased cortical localization while rsp5-T761A caused mutant Rsp5 to locate more efficiently in internal spots. Rsp5-T761A protein was phosphorylated less efficiently in PKA sites under specific growth conditions. Our data suggests that Rsp5 may be phosphorylated by PKA at position T761 and that this regulation is important for its localization and function.

  10. Activation of the Lck tyrosine protein kinase by hydrogen peroxide requires the phosphorylation of Tyr-394.

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, J S; Sefton, B M

    1995-01-01

    Exposure of cells to H2O2 mimics many of the effects of treatment of cells with extracellular ligands. Among these is the stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation. In this study, we show that exposure of cells to H2O2 increases the catalytic activity of the lymphocyte-specific tyrosine protein kinase p56lck (Lck) and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Lck at Tyr-394, the autophosphorylation site. Using mutant forms of Lck, we found that Tyr-394 is required for H2O2-induced activation of Lck, suggesting that phosphorylation of this site may activate Lck. In addition, H2O2 treatment induced phosphorylation at Tyr-394 in a catalytically inactive mutant of Lck in cells that do not express endogenous Lck. This demonstrates that a kinase other than Lck itself is capable of phosphorylating Lck at the so-called autophosphorylation site and raises the possibility that this as yet unidentified tyrosine protein kinase functions as an activator of Lck. Such an activating enzyme could play an important role in signal transduction in T cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7538674

  11. Phosphorylation is an on/off switch for 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde O-methyltransferase activity in poplar monolignol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack P.; Chuang, Ling; Loziuk, Philip L.; Chen, Hao; Lin, Ying-Chung; Shi, Rui; Qu, Guan-Zheng; Muddiman, David C.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2015-01-01

    Although phosphorylation has long been known to be an important regulatory modification of proteins, no unequivocal evidence has been presented to show functional control by phosphorylation for the plant monolignol biosynthetic pathway. Here, we present the discovery of phosphorylation-mediated on/off regulation of enzyme activity for 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde O-methyltransferase 2 (PtrAldOMT2), an enzyme central to monolignol biosynthesis for lignification in stem-differentiating xylem (SDX) of Populus trichocarpa. Phosphorylation turned off the PtrAldOMT2 activity, as demonstrated in vitro by using purified phosphorylated and unphosphorylated recombinant PtrAldOMT2. Protein extracts of P. trichocarpa SDX, which contains endogenous kinases, also phosphorylated recombinant PtrAldOMT2 and turned off the recombinant protein activity. Similarly, ATP/Mn2+-activated phosphorylation of SDX protein extracts reduced the endogenous SDX PtrAldOMT2 activity by ∼60%, and dephosphorylation fully restored the activity. Global shotgun proteomic analysis of phosphopeptide-enriched P. trichocarpa SDX protein fractions identified PtrAldOMT2 monophosphorylation at Ser123 or Ser125 in vivo. Phosphorylation-site mutagenesis verified the PtrAldOMT2 phosphorylation at Ser123 or Ser125 and confirmed the functional importance of these phosphorylation sites for O-methyltransferase activity. The PtrAldOMT2 Ser123 phosphorylation site is conserved across 93% of AldOMTs from 46 diverse plant species, and 98% of the AldOMTs have either Ser123 or Ser125. PtrAldOMT2 is a homodimeric cytosolic enzyme expressed more abundantly in syringyl lignin-rich fiber cells than in guaiacyl lignin-rich vessel cells. The reversible phosphorylation of PtrAldOMT2 is likely to have an important role in regulating syringyl monolignol biosynthesis of P. trichocarpa. PMID:26109572

  12. Phosphorylation of human Jak3 at tyrosines 904 and 939 positively regulates its activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hanyin; Ross, Jeremy A; Frost, Jeffrey A; Kirken, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (Jak3) is essential for signaling by interleukin-2 (IL-2) family cytokines and proper immune function. Dysfunctional regulation of Jak3 may result in certain disease states. However, the molecular mechanisms governing Jak3 activation are not fully understood. In this study, we used a functional-proteomics approach to identify two novel tyrosine phosphorylation sites within Jak3, Y904 and Y939, which are conserved among Jak family proteins. By using phosphospecific antibodies, both residues were observed to be rapidly induced by stimulation of cells with IL-2 or other gammac cytokines. Mechanistic studies indicated that Y904 and Y939 regulate Jak3 activities. A phenylalanine substitution at either site greatly reduced Jak3 kinase activity in vitro and its ability to phosphorylate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) in vivo, suggesting that phosphorylation of these previously unrecognized residues positively regulates Jak3 activity. Y904 and Y939 were required for optimal ATP usage by Jak3, while phosphorylation of Y939 preferentially promoted Stat5 activity in intact cells. Together, these findings demonstrate positive functional roles for two novel Jak3 phosphoregulatory sites which may be similarly important for other Jak family members. Identification of these sites also provides new therapeutic opportunities to modulate Jak3 function.

  13. Phosphorylation of NLRC4 is critical for inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Misaghi, Shahram; Izrael-Tomasevic, Anita; Newton, Kim; Gilmour, Laurie L; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Louie, Salina; Kayagaki, Nobuhiko; Liu, Jinfeng; Kömüves, László; Cupp, James E; Arnott, David; Monack, Denise; Dixit, Vishva M

    2012-10-25

    NLRC4 is a cytosolic member of the NOD-like receptor family that is expressed in innate immune cells. It senses indirectly bacterial flagellin and type III secretion systems, and responds by assembling an inflammasome complex that promotes caspase-1 activation and pyroptosis. Here we use knock-in mice expressing NLRC4 with a carboxy-terminal 3×Flag tag to identify phosphorylation of NLRC4 on a single, evolutionarily conserved residue, Ser 533, following infection of macrophages with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (also known as Salmonella typhimurium). Western blotting with a NLRC4 phospho-Ser 533 antibody confirmed that this post-translational modification occurs only in the presence of stimuli known to engage NLRC4 and not the related protein NLRP3 or AIM2. Nlrc4(-/-) macrophages reconstituted with NLRC4 mutant S533A, unlike those reconstituted with wild-type NLRC4, did not activate caspase-1 and pyroptosis in response to S. typhimurium, indicating that S533 phosphorylation is critical for NLRC4 inflammasome function. Conversely, phosphomimetic NLRC4 S533D caused rapid macrophage pyroptosis without infection. Biochemical purification of the NLRC4-phosphorylating activity and a screen of kinase inhibitors identified PRKCD (PKCδ) as a candidate NLRC4 kinase. Recombinant PKCδ phosphorylated NLRC4 S533 in vitro, immunodepletion of PKCδ from macrophage lysates blocked NLRC4 S533 phosphorylation in vitro, and Prkcd(-/-) macrophages exhibited greatly attenuated caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion specifically in response to S. typhimurium. Phosphorylation-defective NLRC4 S533A failed to recruit procaspase-1 and did not assemble inflammasome specks during S. typhimurium infection, so phosphorylation of NLRC4 S533 probably drives conformational changes necessary for NLRC4 inflammasome activity and host innate immunity.

  14. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    PubMed

    Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Chiang, Chiu-Yun; Su, Min-Gang; Huang, Kai-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Weng, Shun-Long

    2012-01-01

    Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase-specific phosphorylation site

  15. Sites and roles of phosphorylation of the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase subunit UL44

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Laurie A.; Strang, Blair L.; Lin, Eric W.; Kamil, Jeremy P.; Coen, Donald M.

    2011-09-01

    The human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase subunit UL44 is a phosphoprotein, but its sites and roles of phosphorylation have not been investigated. We compared sites of phosphorylation of UL44 in vitro by the viral protein kinase UL97 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 with those in infected cells. Transient treatment of infected cells with a UL97 inhibitor greatly reduced labeling of two minor UL44 phosphopeptides. Viruses containing alanine substitutions of most UL44 residues that are phosphorylated in infected cells exhibited at most modest effects on viral DNA synthesis and yield. However, substitution of highly phosphorylated sites adjacent to the nuclear localization signal abolished viral replication. The results taken together are consistent with UL44 being phosphorylated directly by UL97 during infection, and a crucial role for phosphorylation-mediated nuclear localization of UL44 for viral replication, but lend little support to the widely held hypothesis that UL97-mediated phosphorylation of UL44 is crucial for viral DNA synthesis.

  16. Phosphorylated Rad18 directs DNA Polymerase η to sites of stalled replication

    PubMed Central

    Day, Tovah A.; Palle, Komariah; Barkley, Laura R.; Kakusho, Naoko; Zou, Ying; Tateishi, Satoshi; Verreault, Alain; Masai, Hisao

    2010-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase Rad18 guides DNA Polymerase eta (Polη) to sites of replication fork stalling and mono-ubiquitinates proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to facilitate binding of Y family trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases during TLS. However, it is unclear exactly how Rad18 is regulated in response to DNA damage and how Rad18 activity is coordinated with progression through different phases of the cell cycle. Here we identify Rad18 as a novel substrate of the essential protein kinase Cdc7 (also termed Dbf4/Drf1-dependent Cdc7 kinase [DDK]). A serine cluster in the Polη-binding motif of Rad18 is phosphorylated by DDK. Efficient association of Rad18 with Polη is dependent on DDK and is necessary for redistribution of Polη to sites of replication fork stalling. This is the first demonstration of Rad18 regulation by direct phosphorylation and provides a novel mechanism for integration of S phase progression with postreplication DNA repair to maintain genome stability. PMID:21098111

  17. Mitotic arrest-induced phosphorylation of Mcl-1 revisited using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and phosphoproteomics: nine phosphorylation sites identified

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Katherine; Kothari, Anisha; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Kovak, Matthew R.; Chambers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) characteristically promote phosphorylation and degradation of Mcl-1, and this represents a critical pro-apoptotic signal in mitotic death. While several phosphorylation sites and kinases have been implicated in mitotic arrest-induced Mcl-1 phosphorylation, a comprehensive biochemical analysis has been lacking. Contrary to previous reports suggesting that T92 phosphorylation by Cdk1 regulates Mcl-1 degradation, a T92A Mcl-1 mutant expressed in HeLa cells was phosphorylated and degraded with the same kinetics as wild-type Mcl-1 following vinblastine treatment. Similarly, when Mcl-1 with alanine replacements of all five putative Cdk sites (S64, T92, S121, S159, T163) was expressed, it was also phosphorylated and degraded in response to vinblastine. To analyze Mcl-1 phosphorylation in more detail, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) was performed. While untreated cells expressed mainly unphosphorylated Mcl-1 with two minor phosphorylated species, Mcl-1 from vinblastine treated cells migrated during 2D-PAGE as a train of acidic spots representing nine or more phosphorylated species. Immunopurification and mass spectrometry of phosphorylated Mcl-1 derived from mitotically arrested HeLa cells revealed nine distinct sites, including several previously unreported. Mcl-1 bearing substitutions of all nine sites had a longer half-life than wild-type Mcl-1 under basal conditions, but still underwent phosphorylation and degradation in response to vinblastine treatment, and, like wild-type Mcl-1, was unable to protect cells from MTA treatment. These results reveal an unexpected complexity in Mcl-1 phosphorylation in response to MTAs and indicate that previous work has severely underestimated the number of sites, and thus encourage major revisions to the current model. PMID:27738316

  18. Partially phosphorylated Pho4 activates transcription of a subset of phosphate-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Springer, Michael; Wykoff, Dennis D; Miller, Nicole; O'Shea, Erin K

    2003-11-01

    A cell's ability to generate different responses to different levels of stimulus is an important component of an adaptive environmental response. Transcriptional responses are frequently controlled by transcription factors regulated by phosphorylation. We demonstrate that differential phosphorylation of the budding yeast transcription factor Pho4 contributes to differential gene expression. When yeast cells are grown in high-phosphate growth medium, Pho4 is phosphorylated on four critical residues by the cyclin-CDK complex Pho80-Pho85 and is inactivated. When yeast cells are starved for phosphate, Pho4 is dephosphorylated and fully active. In intermediate-phosphate conditions, a form of Pho4 preferentially phosphorylated on one of the four sites accumulates and activates transcription of a subset of phosphate-responsive genes. This Pho4 phosphoform binds differentially to phosphate-responsive promoters and helps to trigger differential gene expression. Our results demonstrate that three transcriptional outputs can be generated by a pathway whose regulation is controlled by one kinase, Pho80-Pho85, and one transcription factor, Pho4. Differential phosphorylation of Pho4 by Pho80-Pho85 produces phosphorylated forms of Pho4 that differ in their ability to activate transcription, contributing to multiple outputs.

  19. Partially Phosphorylated Pho4 Activates Transcription of a Subset of Phosphate-Responsive Genes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    A cell's ability to generate different responses to different levels of stimulus is an important component of an adaptive environmental response. Transcriptional responses are frequently controlled by transcription factors regulated by phosphorylation. We demonstrate that differential phosphorylation of the budding yeast transcription factor Pho4 contributes to differential gene expression. When yeast cells are grown in high-phosphate growth medium, Pho4 is phosphorylated on four critical residues by the cyclin–CDK complex Pho80–Pho85 and is inactivated. When yeast cells are starved for phosphate, Pho4 is dephosphorylated and fully active. In intermediate-phosphate conditions, a form of Pho4 preferentially phosphorylated on one of the four sites accumulates and activates transcription of a subset of phosphate-responsive genes. This Pho4 phosphoform binds differentially to phosphate-responsive promoters and helps to trigger differential gene expression. Our results demonstrate that three transcriptional outputs can be generated by a pathway whose regulation is controlled by one kinase, Pho80–Pho85, and one transcription factor, Pho4. Differential phosphorylation of Pho4 by Pho80–Pho85 produces phosphorylated forms of Pho4 that differ in their ability to activate transcription, contributing to multiple outputs. PMID:14624238

  20. GPS 2.0, a Tool to Predict Kinase-specific Phosphorylation Sites in Hierarchy *S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yu; Ren, Jian; Gao, Xinjiao; Jin, Changjiang; Wen, Longping; Yao, Xuebiao

    2008-01-01

    Identification of protein phosphorylation sites with their cognate protein kinases (PKs) is a key step to delineate molecular dynamics and plasticity underlying a variety of cellular processes. Although nearly 10 kinase-specific prediction programs have been developed, numerous PKs have been casually classified into subgroups without a standard rule. For large scale predictions, the false positive rate has also never been addressed. In this work, we adopted a well established rule to classify PKs into a hierarchical structure with four levels, including group, family, subfamily, and single PK. In addition, we developed a simple approach to estimate the theoretically maximal false positive rates. The on-line service and local packages of the GPS (Group-based Prediction System) 2.0 were implemented in Java with the modified version of the Group-based Phosphorylation Scoring algorithm. As the first stand alone software for predicting phosphorylation, GPS 2.0 can predict kinase-specific phosphorylation sites for 408 human PKs in hierarchy. A large scale prediction of more than 13,000 mammalian phosphorylation sites by GPS 2.0 was exhibited with great performance and remarkable accuracy. Using Aurora-B as an example, we also conducted a proteome-wide search and provided systematic prediction of Aurora-B-specific substrates including protein-protein interaction information. Thus, the GPS 2.0 is a useful tool for predicting protein phosphorylation sites and their cognate kinases and is freely available on line. PMID:18463090

  1. Molecular modeling of phosphorylation sites in proteins using a database of local structure segments.

    PubMed

    Plewczynski, Dariusz; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Godzik, Adam; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Rychlewski, Leszek

    2005-11-01

    A new bioinformatics tool for molecular modeling of the local structure around phosphorylation sites in proteins has been developed. Our method is based on a library of short sequence and structure motifs. The basic structural elements to be predicted are local structure segments (LSSs). This enables us to avoid the problem of non-exact local description of structures, caused by either diversity in the structural context, or uncertainties in prediction methods. We have developed a library of LSSs and a profile--profile-matching algorithm that predicts local structures of proteins from their sequence information. Our fragment library prediction method is publicly available on a server (FRAGlib), at http://ffas.ljcrf.edu/Servers/frag.html . The algorithm has been applied successfully to the characterization of local structure around phosphorylation sites in proteins. Our computational predictions of sequence and structure preferences around phosphorylated residues have been confirmed by phosphorylation experiments for PKA and PKC kinases. The quality of predictions has been evaluated with several independent statistical tests. We have observed a significant improvement in the accuracy of predictions by incorporating structural information into the description of the neighborhood of the phosphorylated site. Our results strongly suggest that sequence information ought to be supplemented with additional structural context information (predicted with our segment similarity method) for more successful predictions of phosphorylation sites in proteins.

  2. Distinct Phosphorylation Sites on the β2-Adrenergic Receptor Establish a Barcode That Encodes Differential Functions of β-Arrestin

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Kelly N.; Xiao, Kunhong; Ahn, Seungkirl; Shukla, Arun K.; Lam, Christopher M.; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Strachan, Ryan T.; Huang, Teng-Yi; Bressler, Erin A.; Hara, Makoto R.; Shenoy, Sudha K.; Gygi, Steven P.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs, which are also known as seven-transmembrane spanning receptors) by GPCR kinases (GRKs) plays essential roles in the regulation of receptor function by promoting interactions of the receptors with β-arrestins. These multifunctional adaptor proteins desensitize GPCRs, by reducing receptor coupling to G proteins and facilitating receptor internalization, and mediate GPCR signaling through β-arrestin–specific pathways. Detailed mapping of the phosphorylation sites on GPCRs targeted by individual GRKs and an understanding of how these sites regulate the specific functional consequences of β-arrestin engagement may aid in the discovery of therapeutic agents targeting individual β-arrestin functions. The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has many serine and threonine residues in the carboxyl-terminal tail and the intracellular loops, which are potential sites of phosphorylation. We monitored the phosphorylation of the β2AR at specific sites upon stimulation with an agonist that promotes signaling by both G protein–mediated and β-arrestin–mediated pathways or with a biased ligand that promotes signaling only through β-arrestin–mediated events in the presence of the full complement of GRKs or when either GRK2 or GRK6 was depleted. We correlated the specific and distinct patterns of receptor phosphorylation by individual GRKs with the functions of β-arrestins and propose that the distinct phosphorylation patterns established by different GRKs establish a “barcode” that imparts distinct conformations to the recruited β-arrestin, thus regulating its functional activities. PMID:21868357

  3. Phosphorylation and Activation of RhoA by ERK in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Junfeng; Li, Laiji; Ballermann, Barbara; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA has been implicated in various cellular activities, including the formation of stress fibers, cell motility, and cytokinesis. In addition to the canonical GTPase cycle, recent findings have suggested that phosphorylation further contributes to the tight regulation of Rho GTPases. Indeed, RhoA is phosphorylated on serine 188 (188S) by a number of protein kinases. We have recently reported that Rac1 is phosphorylated on threonine 108 (108T) by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Here, we provide evidence that RhoA is phosphorylated by ERK on 88S and 100T in response to EGF stimulation. We show that ERK interacts with RhoA and that this interaction is dependent on the ERK docking site (D-site) at the C-terminus of RhoA. EGF stimulation enhanced the activation of the endogenous RhoA. The phosphomimetic mutant, GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E, when transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, displayed higher GTP-binding than wild type RhoA. Moreover, the expression of GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E increased actin stress fiber formation in COS-7 cells, which is consistent with its higher activity. In contrast to Rac1, phosphorylation of RhoA by ERK does not target RhoA to the nucleus. Finally, we show that regardless of the phosphorylation status of RhoA and Rac1, substitution of the RhoA PBR with the Rac1 PBR targets RhoA to the nucleus and substitution of Rac1 PBR with RhoA PBR significantly reduces the nuclear localization of Rac1. In conclusion, ERK phosphorylates RhoA on 88S and 100T in response to EGF, which upregulates RhoA activity. PMID:26816343

  4. Identification of key phosphorylation sites in PTH1R that determine arrestin3 binding and fine-tune receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zindel, Diana; Engel, Sandra; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Prézeau, Laurent; Tobin, Andrew B.; Bünemann, Moritz; Krasel, Cornelius; Butcher, Adrian J.

    2016-01-01

    The parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTH1R) is a member of family B of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), predominantly expressed in bone and kidney where it modulates extracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and bone turnover. It is well established that phosphorylation of GPCRs constitutes a key event in regulating receptor function by promoting arrestin recruitment and coupling to G-protein-independent signaling pathways. Mapping phosphorylation sites on PTH1R would provide insights into how phosphorylation at specific sites regulates cell signaling responses and also open the possibility of developing therapeutic agents that could target specific receptor functions. Here, we have used mass spectrometry to identify nine sites of phosphorylation in the C-terminal tail of PTH1R. Mutational analysis revealed identified two clusters of serine and threonine residues (Ser489–Ser495 and Ser501–Thr506) specifically responsible for the majority of PTH(1–34)-induced receptor phosphorylation. Mutation of these residues to alanine did not affect negatively on the ability of the receptor to couple to G-proteins or activate extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer to monitor PTH(1–34)-induced interaction of PTH1R with arrestin3, we show that the first cluster Ser489–Ser495 and the second cluster Ser501–Thr506 operated in concert to mediate both the efficacy and potency of ligand-induced arrestin3 recruitment. We further demonstrate that Ser503 and Thr504 in the second cluster are responsible for 70% of arrestin3 recruitment and are key determinants for interaction of arrestin with the receptor. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the pattern of C-terminal tail phosphorylation on PTH1R may determine the signaling outcome following receptor activation. PMID:27623777

  5. Phosphorylation sites in BubR1 that regulate kinetochore attachment, tension, and mitotic exit

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haomin; Hittle, James; Zappacosta, Francesca; Annan, Roland S.; Hershko, Avram; Yen, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    BubR1 kinase is essential for the mitotic checkpoint and also for kinetochores to establish microtubule attachments. In this study, we report that BubR1 is phosphorylated in mitosis on four residues that differ from sites recently reported to be phosphorylated by Plk1 (Elowe, S., S. Hummer, A. Uldschmid, X. Li, and E.A. Nigg. 2007. Genes Dev. 21:2205–2219; Matsumura, S., F. Toyoshima, and E. Nishida. 2007. J. Biol. Chem. 282:15217–15227). S670, the most conserved residue, is phosphorylated at kinetochores at the onset of mitosis and dephosphorylated before anaphase onset. Unlike the Plk1-dependent S676 phosphorylation, S670 phosphorylation is sensitive to microtubule attachments but not to kinetochore tension. Functionally, phosphorylation of S670 is essential for error correction and for kinetochores with end-on attachments to establish tension. Furthermore, in vitro data suggest that the phosphorylation status of BubR1 is important for checkpoint inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Finally, RNA interference experiments show that Mps1 is a major but not the exclusive kinase that specifies BubR1 phosphorylation in vivo. The combined data suggest that BubR1 may be an effector of multiple kinases that are involved in discrete aspects of kinetochore attachments and checkpoint regulation. PMID:19015317

  6. A role for Raptor phosphorylation in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Frey, John W; Jacobs, Brittany L; Goodman, Craig A; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-02-01

    The activation of mTOR signaling is necessary for mechanically-induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, but the mechanisms that regulate the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling remain poorly defined. In this study, we set out to determine if changes in the phosphorylation of Raptor contribute to the mechanical activation of mTOR. To accomplish this goal, mouse skeletal muscles were subjected to mechanical stimulation via a bout of eccentric contractions (EC). Using mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis, we found that ECs induced an increase in Raptor S696, T706, and S863 phosphorylation, and this effect was not inhibited by rapamycin. This observation suggested that changes in Raptor phosphorylation might be an upstream event in the pathway through which mechanical stimuli activate mTOR. To test this, we employed a phospho-defective mutant of Raptor (S696A/T706A/S863A) and found that the EC-induced activation of mTOR signaling was significantly blunted in muscles expressing this mutant. Furthermore, mutation of the three phosphorylation sites altered the interactions of Raptor with PRAS40 and p70(S6k), and it also prevented the EC-induced dissociation of Raptor from p70(S6k). Combined, these results suggest that changes in the phosphorylation of Raptor play an important role in the pathway through which mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling.

  7. CaMKII Phosphorylation of Na(V)1.5: Novel in Vitro Sites Identified by Mass Spectrometry and Reduced S516 Phosphorylation in Human Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Herren, Anthony W; Weber, Darren M; Rigor, Robert R; Margulies, Kenneth B; Phinney, Brett S; Bers, Donald M

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(V)1.5, drives the upstroke of the cardiac action potential and is a critical determinant of myocyte excitability. Recently, calcium (Ca(2+))/calmodulin(CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as a critical regulator of Na(V)1.5 function through phosphorylation of multiple residues including S516, T594, and S571, and these phosphorylation events may be important for the genesis of acquired arrhythmias, which occur in heart failure. However, phosphorylation of full-length human Na(V)1.5 has not been systematically analyzed and Na(V)1.5 phosphorylation in human heart failure is incompletely understood. In the present study, we used label-free mass spectrometry to assess phosphorylation of human Na(V)1.5 purified from HEK293 cells with full coverage of phosphorylatable sites and identified 23 sites that were phosphorylated by CaMKII in vitro. We confirmed phosphorylation of S516 and S571 by LC-MS/MS and found a decrease in S516 phosphorylation in human heart failure, using a novel phospho-specific antibody. This work furthers our understanding of the phosphorylation of Na(V)1.5 by CaMKII under normal and disease conditions, provides novel CaMKII target sites for functional validation, and provides the first phospho-proteomic map of full-length human Na(V)1.5.

  8. PhosCalc: A tool for evaluating the sites of peptide phosphorylation from Mass Spectrometer data

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Daniel; Burrell, Michael A; Studholme, David J; Jones, Alexandra ME

    2008-01-01

    Background We have created a software implementation of a published and verified method for assigning probabilities to potential phosphorylation sites on peptides using mass spectrometric data. Our tool, named PhosCalc, determines the number of possible phosphorylation sites and calculates the theoretical masses for the b and y fragment ions of a user-provided peptide sequence. A corresponding user-provided mass spectrum is examined to determine which putative b and y ions have support in the spectrum and a probability score is calculated for each combination of phosphorylation sites. Findings We test the implementation using spectra of phosphopeptides from bovine beta-casein and we compare the results from the implementation to those from manually curated and verified phosphopeptides from our own experiments. We find that the PhosCalc scores are capable of helping a user to identify phosphorylated sites and can remove a bottleneck in high throughput proteomics analyses. Conclusion PhosCalc is available as a web-based interface for examining up to 100 peptides and as a downloadable tool for examining larger numbers of peptides. PhosCalc can be used to speed up identification of phosphorylation sites and can be easily integrated into data handling pipelines making it a very useful tool for those involved in phosphoproteomic research. PMID:18710483

  9. Functional Implications of O-GlcNAcylation-dependent Phosphorylation at a Proximal Site on Keratin 18.

    PubMed

    Kakade, Poonam S; Budnar, Srikanth; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Vaidya, Milind M

    2016-06-03

    Keratins 8/18 (K8/18) are phosphoglycoproteins and form the major intermediate filament network of simple epithelia. The three O-GlcNAcylation (Ser(29), Ser(30), and Ser(48)) and two phosphorylation (Ser(33) and Ser(52)) serine sites on K18 are well characterized. Both of these modifications have been reported to increase K18 solubility and regulate its filament organization. In this report, we investigated the site-specific interplay between these two modifications in regulating the functional properties of K18, like solubility, stability, and filament organization. An immortalized hepatocyte cell line (HHL-17) stably expressing site-specific single, double, and triple O-GlcNAc and phosphomutants of K18 were used to identify the site(s) critical for regulating these functions. Keratin 18 mutants where O-GlcNAcylation at Ser(30) was abolished (K18-S30A) exhibited reduced phosphorylation induced solubility, increased stability, defective filament architecture, and slower migration. Interestingly, K18-S30A mutants also showed loss of phosphorylation at Ser(33), a modification known to regulate the solubility of K18. Further to this, the K18 phosphomutant (K18-S33A) mimicked K18-S30A in its stability, filament organization, and cell migration. These results indicate that O-GlcNAcylation at Ser(30) promotes phosphorylation at Ser(33) to regulate the functional properties of K18 and also impact cellular processes like migration. O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation on the same or adjacent sites on most proteins antagonize each other in regulating protein functions. Here we report a novel, positive interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation at adjacent sites on K18 to regulate its fundamental properties.

  10. Phosphorylation and truncation sites of bovine lens connexin 46 and connexin 50.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Schey, Kevin L

    2009-12-01

    Connexins 46 and 50 combine to form the gap junctions in ocular lens fiber cells. These proteins are known to be modified with fiber cell age; however, limited work has been done to characterize specific lens connexin modifications. In this report, bovine lens membrane proteins were isolated, digested by multiple enzymes, and analyzed by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Automated database searching revealed the locations of both phosphorylation and truncation sites. The results confirmed the full sequence of connexin 46 and 99% of the connexin 50 sequence. Eighteen phosphorylation sites on connexin 50 and nine phosphorylation sites on connexin 46 were identified, all on serine or threonine residues. All but three phosphorylation sites on connexin 50 were located the cytoplasmic C-terminus. All of the truncation sites of connexin 50 were localized in the cytoplasmic C-terminus (region 280-304). Truncation sites in connexin 46 were found in four different regions including: the N-terminus (residue G2), the cytoplasmic loop (residues 121-124), the cytoplasmic C-terminus (residues 251-285), and the distal C-terminus (residues 344-395). In an analysis of dissected lenses some truncation sites were specific to nucleus samples and others were detected in both nucleus and cortex samples.

  11. Glucose-activated RUNX2 phosphorylation promotes endothelial cell proliferation and an angiogenic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Adam D; Anglin, Ian E; Vitolo, Michele I; Mochin, Maria T; Underwood, Karen F; Goldblum, Simeon E; Kommineni, Sravya; Passaniti, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    The runt-related protein-2 (RUNX2) is a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates bone formation, tumor cell metastasis, endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, and angiogenesis. RUNX2 DNA binding is glucose and cell cycle regulated. We propose that glucose may activate RUNX2 through changes in post-translational phosphorylation that are cell cycle-specific and will regulate EC function. Glucose increased cell cycle progression in EC through both G2/M and G1 phases with entry into S-phase occurring only in subconfluent cells. In the absence of nutrients and growth factors (starvation), subconfluent EC were delayed in G1 when RUNX2 expression was reduced. RUNX2 phosphorylation, activation of DNA binding, and pRb phosphorylation were stimulated by glucose and were necessary to promote cell cycle progression. Glucose increased RUNX2 localization at focal subnuclear sites, which co-incided with RUNX2 occupancy of the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p21(Cip1) promoter, a gene normally repressed by RUNX2. Mutation of the RUNX2 cdk phosphorylation site in the C-terminal domain (S451A.RUNX2) reduced RUNX2 phosphorylation and DNA binding. Expression of this cdk site mutant in EC inhibited glucose-stimulated differentiation (in vitro tube formation), monolayer wound healing, and proliferation. These results define a novel relationship between glucose-activated RUNX2 phosphorylation, cell cycle progression, and EC differentiation. These data suggest that inhibition of RUNX2 expression or DNA binding may be a useful strategy to inhibit EC proliferation in tumor angiogenesis.

  12. Activation of purified calcium channels by stoichiometric protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Nunoki, K.; Florio, V.; Catterall, W.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Purified dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels from rabbit skeletal muscle were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles to evaluate the effect of phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) on their function. Both the rate and extent of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into vesicles containing reconstituted calcium channels were increased severalfold after incubation with ATP and PK-A. The degree of stimulation of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake was linearly proportional to the extent of phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the calcium channel up to a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol of phosphate incorporated into each subunit. The calcium channels activated by phosphorylation were determined to be incorporated into the reconstituted vesicles in the inside-out orientation and were completely inhibited by low concentrations of dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines, Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}. The results demonstrate a direct relationship between PK-A-catalyzed phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the purified calcium channel and activation of the ion conductance activity of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels.

  13. Phosphorylation of Daxx by ATM Contributes to DNA Damage-Induced p53 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Qu, Like; Brewer, Michael D.; Chen, Jiandong; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression. It does so by inducing anti-proliferative processes as a response to various tumor-promoting stresses. p53 is regulated by the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. The optimal function of Mdm2 requires Daxx, which stabilizes Mdm2 through the deubiquitinase Hausp/USP7 and also directly promotes Mdm2’s ubiquitin ligase activity towards p53. The Daxx-Mdm2 interaction is disrupted upon DNA damage. However, both the mechanisms and the consequence of the Daxx-Mdm2 dissociation are not understood. Here we show that upon DNA damage Daxx is phosphorylated in a manner that is dependent on ATM, a member of the PI 3-kinase family that orchestrates the DNA damage response. The main phosphorylation site of Daxx is identified to be Ser564, which is a direct target of ATM. Phosphorylation of endogenous Daxx at Ser564 occurs rapidly during the DNA damage response and precedes p53 activation. Blockage of this phosphorylation event prevents the separation of Daxx from Mdm2, stabilizes Mdm2, and inhibits DNA damage-induced p53 activation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Daxx by ATM upon DNA damage disrupts the Daxx-Mdm2 interaction and facilitates p53 activation. PMID:23405218

  14. HMMpTM: improving transmembrane protein topology prediction using phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction.

    PubMed

    Tsaousis, Georgios N; Bagos, Pantelis G; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades a large number of computational methods have been developed for predicting transmembrane protein topology. Current predictors rely on topogenic signals in the protein sequence, such as the distribution of positively charged residues in extra-membrane loops and the existence of N-terminal signals. However, phosphorylation and glycosylation are post-translational modifications (PTMs) that occur in a compartment-specific manner and therefore the presence of a phosphorylation or glycosylation site in a transmembrane protein provides topological information. We examine the combination of phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction with transmembrane protein topology prediction. We report the development of a Hidden Markov Model based method, capable of predicting the topology of transmembrane proteins and the existence of kinase specific phosphorylation and N/O-linked glycosylation sites along the protein sequence. Our method integrates a novel feature in transmembrane protein topology prediction, which results in improved performance for topology prediction and reliable prediction of phosphorylation and glycosylation sites. The method is freely available at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/HMMpTM.

  15. Characterization of the reversible phosphorylation and activation of ERK8

    PubMed Central

    Klevernic, Iva V.; Stafford, Margaret J.; Morrice, Nicholas; Peggie, Mark; Morton, Simon; Cohen, Philip

    2005-01-01

    ERK8 (extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase 8) expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells was catalytically active and phosphorylated at both residues of the Thr-Glu-Tyr motif. Dephosphorylation of the threonine residue by PP2A (protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A) decreased ERK8 activity by over 95% in vitro, whereas complete dephosphorylation of the tyrosine residue by PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) decreased activity by only 15–20%. Wild-type ERK8 expressed in HEK-293 cells was over 100-fold less active than the enzyme expressed in bacteria or insect cells, but activity could be increased by exposure to hydrogen peroxide, by incubation with the protein serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, or more weakly by osmotic shock. In unstimulated cells, ERK8 was monophosphorylated at Tyr-177, and exposure to hydrogen peroxide induced the appearance of ERK8 that was dually phosphorylated at both Thr-175 and Tyr-177. IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), EGF (epidermal growth factor), PMA or anisomycin had little effect on activity. In HEK-293 cells, phosphorylation of the Thr-Glu-Tyr motif of ERK8 was prevented by Ro 318220, a potent inhibitor of ERK8 in vitro. The catalytically inactive mutants ERK8[D154A] and ERK8[K42A] were not phosphorylated in HEK-293 cells or E. coli, whether or not the cells had been incubated with protein phosphatase inhibitors or exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Our results suggest that the activity of ERK8 in transfected HEK-293 cells depends on the relative rates of ERK8 autophosphorylation and dephosphorylation by one or more members of the PPP family of protein serine/threonine phosphatases. The major residue in myelin basic protein phosphorylated by ERK8 (Ser-126) was distinct from that phosphorylated by ERK2 (Thr-97), demonstrating that, although ERK8 is a proline-directed protein kinase, its specificity is distinct from ERK1/ERK2. PMID:16336213

  16. PPSP: prediction of PK-specific phosphorylation site with Bayesian decision theory

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yu; Li, Ao; Wang, Lirong; Feng, Huanqing; Yao, Xuebiao

    2006-01-01

    Background As a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, phosphorylation plays essential regulatory roles in a broad spectrum of the biological processes. Although many studies have been contributed on the molecular mechanism of phosphorylation dynamics, the intrinsic feature of substrates specificity is still elusive and remains to be delineated. Results In this work, we present a novel, versatile and comprehensive program, PPSP (Prediction of PK-specific Phosphorylation site), deployed with approach of Bayesian decision theory (BDT). PPSP could predict the potential phosphorylation sites accurately for ~70 PK (Protein Kinase) groups. Compared with four existing tools Scansite, NetPhosK, KinasePhos and GPS, PPSP is more accurate and powerful than these tools. Moreover, PPSP also provides the prediction for many novel PKs, say, TRK, mTOR, SyK and MET/RON, etc. The accuracy of these novel PKs are also satisfying. Conclusion Taken together, we propose that PPSP could be a potentially powerful tool for the experimentalists who are focusing on phosphorylation substrates with their PK-specific sites identification. Moreover, the BDT strategy could also be a ubiquitous approach for PTMs, such as sumoylation and ubiquitination, etc. PMID:16549034

  17. Regulation of Ci-SCFSlimb binding, Ci proteolysis and Hedgehog pathway activity by Ci phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Smelkinson, Margery G.; Zhou, Qianhe; Kalderon, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Hedgehog (Hh) proteins signal by inhibiting the proteolytic processing of Ci/Gli family transcription factors and by increasing Ci/Gli specific activity. In the absence of Hh, phosphorylation of Ci/Gli triggers binding to SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes and consequent proteolysis. Here we define the principal SCFSlimb binding site in Ci as an extended variant of a canonical Slimb/β-TRCP binding motif that can be created by PKA-priming of five successive CK1 sites. GSK3 enhances binding primarily through a nearby region of Ci, which may contact an SCF component other than Slimb. Studies of Ci variants with altered CK1 and GSK3 sites suggest that the large number of phosphorylation sites that direct SCFSlimb binding confers a Hh response that is both sensitive and graded, and that in the Drosophila wing disc, morphogenetic responses involve changes in both the level and specific activity of Ci. We also show that when Ci proteolysis is compromised, its specific activity is limited principally by Su(fu) and not by Cos2 cytoplasmic tethering or PKA phosphorylation. PMID:17925225

  18. Specific mixing facilitates the comparative quantification of phosphorylation sites with significant dysregulations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Bo; Liu, Zheyi; Dong, Mingming; Mao, Jiawei; Zhou, Ye; Chen, Jin; Wang, Fangjun; Zou, Hanfa

    2017-01-15

    Mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative analyses of proteome and proteome post-translational modifications (PTMs) play more and more important roles in biological, pharmaceutical and clinical studies. However, it is still a big challenge to accurately quantify the proteins or proteins PTM sites with extreme relative abundances in comparative protein samples, such as the significantly dysregulated ones. Herein, a novel quantification strategy, Mixing at Specific Ratio (MaSR) before isotope labeling, had been developed to improve the quantification accuracy and coverage of extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites. Briefly, the comparative protein samples were firstly mixed together at specific ratios of 9:1 and 1:9 (w/w), followed with mass differentiate light and heavy isotope labeling, respectively. The extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites, even if the newly expressed or disappeared ones, could be accurately quantified due to all of the proteins' relative abundances had been adjusted to 2 orders of magnitude (1/9-9) by this strategy. The number of quantified phosphorylation sites with more than 20 folds changes was improved about 10 times in comparative quantification of pervanadate stimulated phosphoproteome of HeLa cells, and 134 newly generated and 21 disappeared phosphorylation sites were solely quantified by the MaSR strategy. The significantly up-regulated phosphorylation sites were mainly involved in the key phosphoproteins regulating the insulin-related pathways, such as PI3K-AKT and RAS-MAPK pathways. Therefore, the MaSR strategy exhibits as a promising way in elucidating the biological processes with significant dysregulations.

  19. Multiple phosphorylation sites at the C-terminus regulate nuclear import of HCMV DNA polymerase processivity factor ppUL44

    SciTech Connect

    Alvisi, Gualtiero; Marin, Oriano; Pari, Gregory; Mancini, Manuela; Avanzi, Simone; Loregian, Arianna; Jans, David A.; Ripalti, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    The processivity factor of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase, phosphoprotein ppUL44, is essential for viral replication. During viral infection ppUL44 is phosphorylated by the viral kinase pUL97, but neither the target residues on ppUL44 nor the effect of phosphorylation on ppUL44's activity are known. We report here that ppUL44 is phosphorylated when transiently expressed in mammalian cells and coimmunoprecipitates with cellular kinases. Of three potential phosphorylation sites (S413, S415, S418) located upstream of ppUL44's nuclear localization signal (NLS) and one (T427) within the NLS itself, protein kinase CK2 (CK2) specifically phosphorylates S413, to trigger a cascade of phosphorylation of S418 and S415 by CK1 and CK2, respectively. Negative charge at the CK2/CK1 target serine residues facilitates optimal nuclear accumulation of ppUL44, whereas negative charge on T427, a potential cyclin-dependent 1 phosphorylation site, strongly decreases nuclear accumulation. Thus, nuclear transport of ppUL44 is finely tuned during viral infection through complex phosphorylation events.

  20. Identification of the In Vivo Casein Kinase II Phosphorylation Site within the Homeodomain of the Cardiac Tisue-Specifying Homeobox Gene Product Csx/Nkx2.5

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Hideko; Izumo, Seigo

    1999-01-01

    Csx/Nkx2.5, a member of the homeodomain-containing transcription factors, serves critical developmental functions in heart formation in vertebrates and nonvertebrates. In this study the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) of Csx/Nkx2.5 was identified by site-directed mutagenesis to the amino terminus of the homeodomain, which is conserved in almost all homeodomain proteins. When the putative NLS of Csx/Nkx2.5 was mutated a significant amount of the cytoplasmically localized Csx/Nkx2.5 was unphosphorylated, in contrast to the nuclearly localized Csx/Nkx2.5, which is serine- and threonine-phosphorylated, suggesting that Csx/Nkx2.5 phosphorylation is regulated, at least in part, by intracellular localization. Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping indicated that Csx/Nkx2.5 has at least five phosphorylation sites. Using in-gel kinase assays, we detected a Csx/Nkx2.5 kinase whose molecular mass is approximately 40 kDa in both cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts. Mutational analysis and in vitro kinase assays suggested that this 40-kDa Csx/Nkx2.5 kinase is a catalytic subunit of casein kinase II (CKII) that phosphorylates the serine residue between the first and second helix of the homeodomain. This CKII site is phosphorylated in vivo. CKII-dependent phosphorylation of the homeodomain increased Csx/Nkx2.5 DNA binding. Serine-to-alanine mutation at the CKII phosphorylation site reduced transcriptional activity when the carboxyl-terminal repressor domain was deleted. Although the precise biological function of Csx/Nkx2.5 phosphorylation by CKII remains to be determined, it may play an important role, as this CKII phosphorylation site within the homeodomain is fully conserved in all known members of the NK2 family of the homeobox genes. PMID:9858576

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Fate Is Controlled by Hrs Tyrosine Phosphorylation Sites That Regulate Hrs Degradation▿

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Kathryn A.; Visser Smit, Gina D.; Place, Trenton L.; Winistorfer, Stanley; Piper, Robert C.; Lill, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is an endosomal protein essential for the efficient sorting of activated growth factor receptors into the lysosomal degradation pathway. Hrs undergoes ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation on residues Y329 and Y334 downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. It has been difficult to investigate the functional roles of phosphoHrs, as only a small proportion of the cellular Hrs pool is detectably phosphorylated. Using an HEK 293 model system, we found that ectopic expression of the protein Cbl enhances Hrs ubiquitination and increases Hrs phosphorylation following cell stimulation with EGF. We exploited Cbl's expansion of the phosphoHrs pool to determine whether Hrs tyrosine phosphorylation controls EGFR fate. In structure-function studies of Cbl and EGFR mutants, the level of Hrs phosphorylation and rapidity of apparent Hrs dephosphorylation correlated directly with EGFR degradation. Differential expression of wild-type versus Y329,334F mutant Hrs in Hrs-depleted cells revealed that one or both tyrosines regulate ligand-dependent Hrs degradation, as well as EGFR degradation. By modulating Hrs ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and protein levels, Cbl may control the composition of the endosomal sorting machinery and its ability to target EGFR for lysosomal degradation. PMID:17101784

  2. List 9 - Active CERCLIS Sites:

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The List 9 displays the sequence of activities undertaken at active CERCLIS sites. An active site is one at which site assessment, removal, remedial, enforcement, cost recovery, or oversight activities are being planned or conducted.

  3. c-Src phosphorylation and activation of hexokinase promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Wang, Suili; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Lihong; Ji, Zhiliang; Li, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huamin; Han, Aidong; Chen, Ai; Wu, Yanan; Ma, Huanhuan; Zhao, Wentao; Zhao, Qingwen; Xie, Changchuan; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yanming; Huang, Huiying; Suleman, Muhammad; Lin, Furong; Zhou, Lin; Tian, Fang; Jin, Meijun; Cai, Yana; Zhang, Nan; Li, Qinxi

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that c-Src has important roles in tumorigenesis. However, it remains unclear whether c-Src contributes to metabolic reprogramming. Here we find that c-Src can interact with and phosphorylate hexokinases HK1 and HK2, the rate-limiting enzymes in glycolysis. Tyrosine phosphorylation dramatically increases their catalytic activity and thus enhances glycolysis. Mechanistically, c-Src phosphorylation of HK1 at Tyr732 robustly decreases its Km and increases its Vmax by disrupting its dimer formation. Mutation in c-Src phosphorylation site of either HK1 or HK2 remarkably abrogates the stimulating effects of c-Src on glycolysis, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Due to its lower Km for glucose, HK1 rather than HK2 is required for tumour cell survival when glucose is scarce. Importantly, HK1-Y732 phosphorylation level remarkably correlates with the incidence and metastasis of various clinical cancers and may serve as a marker to predict metastasis risk of primary cancers. PMID:28054552

  4. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, M.G.; Reimann, E.M.; Thysseril, T.J.; Schlender, K.K.

    1986-05-01

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting /sup 32/P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated /sup 32/P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor.

  5. Phosphorylation of CREB affects its binding to high and low affinity sites: implications for cAMP induced gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, M; Weih, F; Schmid, W; DeVack, C; Kowenz-Leutz, E; Luckow, B; Boshart, M; Schütz, G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP treatment of hepatoma cells leads to increased protein binding at the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene in vivo, as revealed by genomic footprinting, whereas no increase is observed at the CRE of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. Several criteria establish that the 43 kDa CREB protein is interacting with both of these sites. Two classes of CRE with different affinity for CREB are described. One class, including the TATCRE, is characterized by asymmetric and weak binding sites (CGTCA), whereas the second class containing symmetrical TGACGTCA sites shows a much higher binding affinity for CREB. Both classes show an increase in binding after phosphorylation of CREB by protein kinase A (PKA). An in vivo phosphorylation-dependent change in binding of CREB increases the occupancy of weak binding sites used for transactivation, such as the TATCRE, while high affinity sites may have constitutive binding of transcriptionally active and inactive CREB dimers, as demonstrated by in vivo footprinting at the PEPCK CRE. Thus, lower basal level and higher relative stimulation of transcription by cyclic AMP through low affinity CREs should result, allowing finely tuned control of gene activation. Images PMID:1354612

  6. Auto-phosphorylation Represses Protein Kinase R Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Die; de Weerd, Nicole A.; Willard, Belinda; Polekhina, Galina; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Sadler, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    The central role of protein kinases in controlling disease processes has spurred efforts to develop pharmaceutical regulators of their activity. A rational strategy to achieve this end is to determine intrinsic auto-regulatory processes, then selectively target these different states of kinases to repress their activation. Here we investigate auto-regulation of the innate immune effector protein kinase R, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α to inhibit global protein translation. We demonstrate that protein kinase R activity is controlled by auto-inhibition via an intra-molecular interaction. Part of this mechanism of control had previously been reported, but was then controverted. We account for the discrepancy and extend our understanding of the auto-inhibitory mechanism by identifying that auto-inhibition is paradoxically instigated by incipient auto-phosphorylation. Phosphor-residues at the amino-terminus instigate an intra-molecular interaction that enlists both of the N-terminal RNA-binding motifs of the protein with separate surfaces of the C-terminal kinase domain, to co-operatively inhibit kinase activation. These findings identify an innovative mechanism to control kinase activity, providing insight for strategies to better regulate kinase activity. PMID:28281686

  7. Differences in the sites of phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.F.; Takayama, S.; Kahn, C.R.

    1985-08-05

    Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor was studied in intact well differentiated hepatoma cells (Fao) and in a solubilized and partially purified receptor preparation obtained from these cells by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin agarose. Tryptic peptides containing the phosphorylation sites of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor were analyzed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Phosphoamino acid content of these peptides was determined by acid hydrolysis and high voltage electrophoresis. Separation of the phosphopeptides from unstimulated Fao cells revealed one major and two minor phosphoserine-containing peptides and a single minor phosphothreonine-containing peptide. Insulin (10(-7) M) increased the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor 3- to 4-fold in the intact Fao cell. After insulin stimulation, two phosphotyrosine-containing peptides were identified. Tyrosine phosphorylation reached a steady state within 20 s after the addition of insulin and remained nearly constant for 1 h. Under our experimental conditions, no significant change in the amount of (TSP)phosphoserine or (TSP)phosphothreonine associated with the beta-subunit was found during the initial response of cells to insulin. When the insulin receptor was extracted from the Fao cells and incubated in vitro with (gamma-TSP)ATP and MnS , very little phosphorylation occurred in the absence of insulin.

  8. ERK phosphorylation of MED14 in promoter complexes during mitogen-induced gene activation by Elk-1.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Matthew D; Saxton, Janice; Li, Li; Shelton, Samuel J; Zhang, Hongmei; Espinosa, Joaquin M; Shaw, Peter E

    2013-12-01

    The ETS domain transcription factor Elk-1 stimulates expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) in response to mitogens. These events require phosphorylation of Elk-1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphorylation-dependent interaction of Elk-1 with co-activators, including histone acetyltransferases and the Mediator complex. Elk-1 also recruits ERK to the promoters of its target genes, suggesting that ERK phosphorylates additional substrates in transcription complexes at mitogen-responsive promoters. Here we report that MED14, a core subunit of the Mediator, is a bona fide ERK substrate and identify serine 986 (S986) within a serine-proline rich region of MED14 as the major ERK phosphorylation site. Mitogens induced phosphorylation of MED14 on S986 at IEG promoters; RNAi knockdown of MED14 reduced CDK8 and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNAPII C-terminal domain phosphorylation and impaired activation of IEG transcription. A single alanine substitution at S986 reduced activation of an E26 (ETS)-responsive reporter by oncogenic Ras and mitogen-induced, Elk-1-dependent transcription, whereas activities of other transcriptional activators were unaffected. We also demonstrate that Elk-1 can associate with MED14 independently of MED23, which may facilitate phosphorylation of MED14 by ERK to impart a positive and selective impact on mitogen-responsive gene expression.

  9. Phosphorylation of TPX2 by Plx1 enhances activation of Aurora A.

    PubMed

    Eckerdt, Frank; Pascreau, Gaetan; Phistry, Meridee; Lewellyn, Andrea L; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Maller, James L

    2009-08-01

    Entry into mitosis requires the activation of mitotic kinases, including Aurora A and Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Increased levels of these kinases are frequently found associated with human cancers, and therefore it is imperative to understand the processes leading to their activation. We demonstrate that TPX2, but neither Ajuba nor Inhibitor-2, can activate Aurora A directly. Moreover, Plx1 can induce Aurora A T-loop phosphorylation indirectly in vivo during oocyte maturation. We identify Ser204 in TPX2 as a Plx1 phosphorylation site. Mutating Ser204 to alanine decreases activation of Aurora A, whereas a phosphomimetic Asp mutant exhibits enhanced activating ability. Finally, we show that phosphorylation of TPX2 with Plx1 increases its ability to activate Aurora A. Taken together, our data indicate that Plx1 promotes activation of Aurora A, most likely through TPX2. In light of the current literature, we propose a model in which Plx1 and Aurora A activate each other in a positive feedback loop.

  10. Negative regulation of NF-κB p65 activity by serine 536 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Pradère, Jean-Philippe; Hernandez, Céline; Koppe, Christiane; Friedman, Richard A; Luedde, Tom; Schwabe, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a master regulator of inflammation and cell death. Whereas most of the activity of NF-κB is regulated through the inhibitor of kB (IκB) kinase (IKK)–dependent degradation of IκB, IKK also phosphorylates subunits of NF-κB. Here, we investigated the contribution of the phosphorylation of the NF-κ B subunit p65 at the IKK phosphorylation site serine 536 (Ser536) in humans, which is thought to be required for the activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Through experiments with knock-in mice (S534A mice) expressing a mutant p65 with an alanine-to-serine substitution at position 534 (the murine homolog of human Ser536), we observed increased expression of NF-κ B–dependent genes after injection of mice with the inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or exposure to gamma irradiation, and the enhanced gene expression was most pronounced at late time points. Compared to wild-type mice, S534A mice displayed increased mortality after injection with LPS. Increased NF-κ B signaling in the S534A mice was at least in part explained by the increased stability of the S534A p65 protein compared to that of the Ser534-phosphorylated wild-type protein. Together, our results suggest that Ser534 phosphorylation of p65 in mice (and, by extension, Ser536 phosphorylation of human p65) is not required for its nuclear translocation, but instead inhibits NF-κ B signaling to prevent deleterious inflammation. PMID:27555662

  11. Membrane protein assembly: two cytoplasmic phosphorylated serine sites of Vpu from HIV-1 affect oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Pei; Lin, Meng-Han; Chan, Ya-Ting; Chen, Li-Chyong; Ma, Che; Fischer, Wolfgang B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral protein U (Vpu) encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a short integral membrane protein which is known to self-assemble within the lipid membrane and associate with host factors during the HIV-1 infectivity cycle. In this study, full-length Vpu (M group) from clone NL4-3 was over-expressed in human cells and purified in an oligomeric state. Various single and double mutations were constructed on its phosphorylation sites to mimic different degrees of phosphorylation. Size exclusion chromatography of wild-type Vpu and mutants indicated that the smallest assembly unit of Vpu was a dimer and over time Vpu formed higher oligomers. The rate of oligomerization increased when (i) the degree of phosphorylation at serines 52 and 56 was decreased and (ii) when the ionic strength was increased indicating that the cytoplasmic domain of Vpu affects oligomerization. Coarse-grained molecular dynamic simulations with models of wild-type and mutant Vpu in a hydrated lipid bilayer supported the experimental data in demonstrating that, in addition to a previously known role in downregulation of host factors, the phosphorylation sites of Vpu also modulate oligomerization. PMID:27353136

  12. Akt phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Choi, You Hee; Jeong, Hyung Min; Jin, Yun-Hye; Li, Hongyan; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang-Youl

    2011-08-05

    Osterix (Osx), a zinc-finger transcription factor is required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation during embryonic development. Akt is a member of the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and plays important roles in osteoblast differentiation. The function of Osterix can be also modulated by post-translational modification. But, the precise molecular signaling mechanisms between Osterix and Akt are not known. In this study, we investigated the potential regulation of Osterix function by Akt in osteoblast differentiation. We found that Akt phosphorylates Osterix and that Akt activation increases protein stability, osteogenic activity and transcriptional activity of Osterix. We also found that BMP-2 increases the protein level of Osterix in an Akt activity-dependent manner. These results suggest that Akt activity enhances the osteogenic function of Osterix, at least in part, through protein stabilization and that BMP-2 regulates the osteogenic function of Osterix, at least in part, through Akt.

  13. Phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 in human malonyl-CoA decarboxylase expressed in silkworm Bombyx mori regulates catalytic decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Wook; Makishima, Yu; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Sungjo; Terzic, Andre; Chung, Shin-Kyo; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-11-01

    Decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD; EC 4.1.1.9) is a vital catalytic reaction of lipid metabolism. While it is established that phosphorylation of MCD modulates the enzymatic activity, the specific phosphorylation sites associated with the catalytic function have not been documented due to lack of sufficient production of MCD with proper post-translational modifications. Here, we used the silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid system to express human MCD (hMCD) and mapped phosphorylation effects on enzymatic function. Purified MCD from silkworm displayed post-translational phosphorylation and demonstrated coherent enzymatic activity with high yield (-200 μg/silkworm). Point mutations in putative phosphorylation sites, Ser-204 or Tyr-405 of hMCD, identified by bioinformatics and proteomics analyses reduced the catalytic activity, underscoring the functional significance of phosphorylation in modulating decarboxylase-based catalysis. Identified phosphorylated residues are distinct from the decarboxylation catalytic site, implicating a phosphorylation-induced global conformational change of MCD as responsible in altering catalytic function. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 regulates the decarboxylase function of hMCD leveraging the silkworm-based BmNPV bacmid expression system that offers a fail-safe eukaryotic production platform implementing proper post-translational modification such as phosphorylation.

  14. PDGF-RECEPTOR ACTIVATION INDUCES p120-CATENIN PHOSPHORYLATION AT SERINE 879 VIA A PKCα-DEPENDENT PATHWAY

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith V.; Burnett, Patrick E.; Denning, Mitchell F.; Reynolds, Albert B.

    2010-01-01

    p120-catenin (p120) is required for cadherin stability and is thought to have a central role in modulating cell-cell adhesion. Several lines of evidence suggest that S/T phosphorylation may regulate p120 activity, but the upstream kinases involved have not been established, nor has a discreet measurable function been assigned to an individual site. To approach these issues, we have generated p120 phospho-specific monoclonal antibodies to several individual phosphorylation sites and are using them to pinpoint upstream kinases and signaling pathways that control p120 activity. Protein Kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as a signaling intermediate in several cadherin-associated cellular activities. Signaling events that activate PKC induce rapid phosphorylation at p120 Serine 879 (S879), suggesting that p120 activity is regulated, in part, by one or more PKC isoforms. Here, we find that physiologic activation of a G-protein coupled receptor (i.e., endothelin receptor), as well as several Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, induce rapid and robust p120 phosphorylation at S879, suggesting that these pathways crosstalk to cadherin complexes via p120. Using Va2 cells and PDGF stimulation, we show for the first time that PDGFR-mediated phosphorylation at this site is dependent on PKCα, a conventional PKC isoform implicated previously in disruption of adherens junctions. PMID:18950621

  15. Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in human Gab-1 protein by EGF receptor kinase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lehr, S; Kotzka, J; Herkner, A; Klein, E; Siethoff, C; Knebel, B; Noelle, V; Brüning, J C; Klein, H W; Meyer, H E; Krone, W; Müller-Wieland, D

    1999-01-05

    Grb2-associated binder-1 (Gab-1) has been identified recently in a cDNA library of glioblastoma tumors and appears to play a central role in cellular growth response, transformation, and apoptosis. Structural and functional features indicate that Gab-1 is a multisubstrate docking protein downstream in the signaling pathways of different receptor tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize the phosphorylation of recombinant human Gab-1 (hGab-1) protein by EGFR in vitro. Using the pGEX system to express the entire protein and different domains of hGab-1 as glutathione S-transferase proteins, kinetic data for phosphorylation of these proteins by wheat germ agglutinine-purified EGFR and the recombinant EGFR (rEGFR) receptor kinase domain were determined. Our data revealed similar affinities of hGab-1-C for both receptor preparations (KM = 2.7 microM for rEGFR vs 3.2 microM for WGA EGFR) as well as for the different recombinant hGab-1 domains. To identify the specific EGFR phosphorylation sites, hGab-1-C was sequenced by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. The entire protein was phosphorylated by rEGFR at eight tyrosine residues (Y285, Y373, Y406, Y447, Y472, Y619, Y657, and Y689). Fifty percent of the identified radioactivity was incorporated in tyrosine Y657 as the predominant peak in HPLC analysis, a site exhibiting features of a potential Syp (PTP1D) binding site. Accordingly, GST-pull down assays with A431 and HepG2 cell lysates showed that phosphorylated intact hGab-1 was able to bind Syp. This binding appears to be specific, because it was abolished by changing the Y657 of hGab-1 to F657. These results demonstrate that hGab-1 is a high-affinity substrate for the EGFR and the major tyrosine phosphorylation site Y657 in the C terminus is a specific binding site for the tyrosine phosphatase Syp.

  16. Protein kinase A activation of the surfactant protein B gene is mediated by phosphorylation of thyroid transcription factor 1.

    PubMed

    Yan, C; Whitsett, J A

    1997-07-11

    Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a homeodomain-containing nuclear transcription factor expressed in epithelial cells of the lung and thyroid. TTF-1 binds to and activates the transcription of genes expressed selectively in the respiratory epithelium including pulmonary surfactant A, B, C and Clara cell secretory protein. Transfection with a plasmid encoding the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A; PKA) catalytic subunit, Cat-beta, stimulated the phosphorylation of a TTF-1-flag fusion protein 6-7-fold in H441 pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells. Recombinant TTF-1 was phosphorylated by purified PKA catalytic subunit in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. PKA catalytic subunit family members, Cat-alpha and Cat-beta, markedly enhanced the transcriptional activation of surfactant B gene promoters by TTF-1 in vitro. Peptide mapping was used to identify a PKA phosphorylation site at the NH2 terminus of TTF-1. A 17-amino acid synthetic peptide comprising this site completely inhibited the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of TTF-1 in vitro. A substitution mutation of TTF-1 (Thr9 two head right arrow Ala) abolished phosphorylation by PKA and reduced transactivation of the surfactant B gene promoter. Transfection with a plasmid encoding the cAMP regulatory element binding factor inhibited transcriptional activity of the surfactant protein B gene promoter. Phosphorylation of TTF-1 mediates PKA-dependent activation of surfactant protein B gene transcription.

  17. Mass spectrometry-based identification of native cardiac Nav1.5 channel α subunit phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Marionneau, Céline; Lichti, Cheryl F; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Charpentier, Flavien; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Townsend, R Reid; Mérot, Jean

    2012-12-07

    Cardiac voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels are key determinants of action potential waveforms, refractoriness and propagation, and Nav1.5 is the main Nav pore-forming (α) subunit in the mammalian heart. Although direct phosphorylation of the Nav1.5 protein has been suggested to modulate various aspects of Nav channel physiology and pathophysiology, native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites have not been identified. In the experiments here, a mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach was developed to identify native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites directly. Using an anti-NavPAN antibody, Nav channel complexes were immunoprecipitated from adult mouse cardiac ventricles. The MS analyses revealed that this antibody immunoprecipitates several Nav α subunits in addition to Nav1.5, as well as several previously identified Nav channel associated/regulatory proteins. Label-free comparative and data-driven phosphoproteomic analyses of purified cardiac Nav1.5 protein identified 11 phosphorylation sites, 8 of which are novel. All the phosphorylation sites identified except one in the N-terminus are in the first intracellular linker loop, suggesting critical roles for this region in phosphorylation-dependent cardiac Nav channel regulation. Interestingly, commonly used prediction algorithms did not reliably predict these newly identified in situ phosphorylation sites. Taken together, the results presented provide the first in situ map of basal phosphorylation sites on the mouse cardiac Nav1.5 α subunit.

  18. PhosphoGRID: a database of experimentally verified in vivo protein phosphorylation sites from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stark, Chris; Su, Ting-Cheng; Breitkreutz, Ashton; Lourenco, Pedro; Dahabieh, Matthew; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Tyers, Mike; Sadowski, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a central role in cellular regulation. Recent proteomics strategies for identifying phosphopeptides have been developed using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and consequently, when combined with studies of individual gene products, the number of reported specific phosphorylation sites for this organism has expanded enormously. In order to systematically document and integrate these various data types, we have developed a database of experimentally verified in vivo phosphorylation sites curated from the S. cerevisiae primary literature. PhosphoGRID (www.phosphogrid.org) records the positions of over 5000 specific phosphorylated residues on 1495 gene products. Nearly 900 phosphorylated residues are reported from detailed studies of individual proteins; these in vivo phosphorylation sites are documented by a hierarchy of experimental evidence codes. Where available for specific sites, we have also noted the relevant protein kinases and/or phosphatases, the specific condition(s) under which phosphorylation occurs, and the effect(s) that phosphorylation has on protein function. The unique features of PhosphoGRID that assign both function and specific physiological conditions to each phosphorylated residue will provide a valuable benchmark for proteome-level studies and will facilitate bioinformatic analysis of cellular signal transduction networks. Database URL: http://phosphogrid.org/

  19. Structural Characterizations of Glycerol Kinase: Unraveling Phosphorylation-Induced Long-Range Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Kettering, Regina; Saxl, Ruth; Bourand, Alexa; Darbon, Emmanuelle; Joly, Nathalie; Briozzo, Pierre; Deutscher, Josef

    2009-09-11

    Glycerol metabolism provides a central link between sugar and fatty acid catabolism. In most bacteria, glycerol kinase plays a crucial role in regulating channel/facilitator-dependent uptake of glycerol into the cell. In the firmicute Enterococcus casseliflavus, this enzyme's activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of the histidine residue (His232) located in its activation loop, approximately 25 A from its catalytic cleft. We reported earlier that some mutations of His232 altered enzyme activities; we present here the crystal structures of these mutant GlpK enzymes. The structure of a mutant enzyme with enhanced enzymatic activity, His232Arg, reveals that residues at the catalytic cleft are more optimally aligned to bind ATP and mediate phosphoryl transfer. Specifically, the position of Arg18 in His232Arg shifts by approximately 1 A when compared to its position in wild-type (WT), His232Ala, and His232Glu enzymes. This new conformation of Arg18 is more optimally positioned at the presumed gamma-phosphate location of ATP, close to the glycerol substrate. In addition to structural changes exhibited at the active site, the conformational stability of the activation loop is decreased, as reflected by an approximately 35% increase in B factors ('thermal factors') in a mutant enzyme displaying diminished activity, His232Glu. Correlating conformational changes to alteration of enzymatic activities in the mutant enzymes identifies distinct localized regions that can have profound effects on intramolecular signal transduction. Alterations in pairwise interactions across the dimer interface can communicate phosphorylation states over 25 A from the activation loop to the catalytic cleft, positioning Arg18 to form favorable interactions at the beta,gamma-bridging position with ATP. This would offset loss of the hydrogen bonds at the gamma-phosphate of ATP during phosphoryl transfer to glycerol, suggesting that appropriate alignment of the second substrate of glycerol kinase

  20. The role of phosphorylation in activation of the alpha 6A beta 1 laminin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, F; Kuikman, I; Noteboom, E; Sonnenberg, A

    1993-09-05

    The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces phosphorylation of serine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 6A integrin subunit, as well as activation of the alpha 6A beta 1 laminin receptor. We examined whether phosphorylation correlates with the induction of high affinity binding of laminin by the alpha 6A beta 1 receptor. Two potential phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, serine 1041 and serine 1048, are present in the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 6A subunit. We introduced point mutations into the alpha 6A cDNA, replacing either one or both of the serine residues with alanine. Wild-type and mutant alpha 6A cDNAs were transfected into K562 cells. All alpha 6A subunit mutants were expressed at levels similar to those of wild-type alpha 6A and formed heterodimers with endogenous beta 1. Analysis of the phosphorylation state of wild-type and mutant alpha 6A subunits in resting K562 cells and after treatment with PMA showed that serine 1041, but not serine 1048, is the target residue of PMA-induced phosphorylation. Cells expressing alpha 6A mutant subunits or wild-type alpha 6A transfectants all bound laminin in the presence, but not in the absence of PMA; however, the extent of binding differed. Cells transfected with alpha 6A containing the serine to alanine mutation showed a 2-3-fold higher binding to laminin than cells transfected with alpha 6A containing serine 1041. The results indicate that phosphorylation of the alpha 6A cytoplasmic domain is not required for the induction of high affinity of the alpha 6A beta 1 receptor by PMA, and suggest that, in contrast, it may reduce the affinity of this integrin for ligand.

  1. Featured Article: Differential regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation by protease-activated receptors in adult human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tillery, Lakeisha C; Epperson, Tenille A; Eguchi, Satoru; Motley, Evangeline D

    2016-03-01

    Protease-activated receptors have been shown to regulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase through the phosphorylation of specific sites on the enzyme. It has been established that PAR-2 activation phosphorylates eNOS-Ser-1177 and leads to the production of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide, while PAR-1 activation phosphorylates eNOS-Thr-495 and decreases nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In this study, we hypothesize a differential coupling of protease-activated receptors to the signaling pathways that regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in primary adult human coronary artery endothelial cells. Using Western Blot analysis, we showed that thrombin and the PAR-1 activating peptide, TFLLR, lead to the phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser-1177 in human coronary artery endothelial cells, which was blocked by SCH-79797 (SCH), a PAR-1 inhibitor. Using the nitrate/nitrite assay, we also demonstrated that the thrombin- and TFLLR-induced production of nitric oxide was inhibited by SCH and L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. In addition, we observed that TFLLR, unlike thrombin, significantly phosphorylated eNOS-Thr-495, which may explain the observed delay in nitric oxide production in comparison to that of thrombin. Activation of PAR-2 by SLIGRL, a PAR-2 specific ligand, leads to dual phosphorylation of both catalytic sites but primarily regulated eNOS-Thr-495 phosphorylation with no change in nitric oxide production in human coronary artery endothelial cells. PAR-3, known as the non-signaling receptor, was activated by TFRGAP, a PAR-3 mimicking peptide, and significantly induced the phosphorylation of eNOS-Thr-495 with minimal phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser-1177 with no change in nitric oxide production. In addition, we confirmed that PAR-mediated eNOS-Ser-1177 phosphorylation was Ca(2+)-dependent using the Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA, while eNOS-Thr-495 phosphorylation was mediated via Rho kinase using the ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632

  2. An unbiased approach to identifying tau kinases that phosphorylate tau at sites associated with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Annalisa; Brewerton, Suzanne; Bell, Amanda; Sargent, Samantha; Glover, Sarah; Hardy, Clare; Moore, Roger; Calley, John; Ramachandran, Devaki; Poidinger, Michael; Karran, Eric; Davies, Peter; Hutton, Michael; Szekeres, Philip; Bose, Suchira

    2013-08-09

    Neurofibrillary tangles, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD), are composed of paired helical filaments of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau. The accumulation of these proteinaceous aggregates in AD correlates with synaptic loss and severity of dementia. Identifying the kinases involved in the pathological phosphorylation of tau may identify novel targets for AD. We used an unbiased approach to study the effect of 352 human kinases on their ability to phosphorylate tau at epitopes associated with AD. The kinases were overexpressed together with the longest form of human tau in human neuroblastoma cells. Levels of total and phosphorylated tau (epitopes Ser(P)-202, Thr(P)-231, Ser(P)-235, and Ser(P)-396/404) were measured in cell lysates using AlphaScreen assays. GSK3α, GSK3β, and MAPK13 were found to be the most active tau kinases, phosphorylating tau at all four epitopes. We further dissected the effects of GSK3α and GSK3β using pharmacological and genetic tools in hTau primary cortical neurons. Pathway analysis of the kinases identified in the screen suggested mechanisms for regulation of total tau levels and tau phosphorylation; for example, kinases that affect total tau levels do so by inhibition or activation of translation. A network fishing approach with the kinase hits identified other key molecules putatively involved in tau phosphorylation pathways, including the G-protein signaling through the Ras family of GTPases (MAPK family) pathway. The findings identify novel tau kinases and novel pathways that may be relevant for AD and other tauopathies.

  3. Improved localization of phosphorylation sites in simian virus 40 large T antigen.

    PubMed Central

    van Roy, F; Fransen, L; Fiers, W

    1983-01-01

    The location of phosphorylation sites in the large T antigen of simian virus 40 has been studied both by partial chemical cleavage and by partial proteolysis of various forms of large T. These included the full-size wild-type molecule with an apparent molecular weight of 88,000, deleted molecules coded for by the mutants dl1265 and dl1263, and several shortened derivatives generated by the action of a cellular protease. These molecules differed from each other by variations in the carboxy-terminal end. In contrast, a ubiquitous but minor large T form with a molecular weight of 91,000 was found to be modified in the amino-terminal half of the molecule. In addition to the phosphorylation of threonine at position 701 (K.-H. Scheidtmann et al., J. Virol. 38:59-69, 1981), two other discrete domains of phosphorylation were recognized, one at either side of the molecule. The amino-terminal region was located between positions 81 and 124 and contained both phosphothreonine and phosphoserine residues. The carboxy-terminal region was located between approximate positions 500 and 640 and contained at least one phosphoserine residue but no phosphothreonine. The presence in the phosphorylated domains of large T of known recognition sequences for different types of protein kinases is discussed, together with possible functions of large T associated with these domains. Images PMID:6296439

  4. Endothelin-1 stimulates catalase activity through the PKCδ-mediated phosphorylation of serine 167.

    PubMed

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Hou, Yali; Kangath, Archana; Pardo, Daniel; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Black, Stephen M

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulates catalase activity in endothelial cells and in lambs with acute increases in pulmonary blood flow (PBF), without altering gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which this occurs. Exposing pulmonary arterial endothelial cells to ET-1 increased catalase activity and decreased cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. These changes correlated with an increase in serine-phosphorylated catalase. Using the inhibitory peptide δV1.1, this phosphorylation was shown to be protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) dependent. Mass spectrometry identified serine 167 as the phosphorylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a phospho-mimic (S167D) catalase. Activity assays using recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli or transiently transfected COS-7 cells demonstrated that S167D catalase had an increased ability to degrade H2O2 compared to the wild-type enzyme. Using a phospho-specific antibody, we were able to verify that pS167 catalase levels are modulated in lambs with acute increases in PBF in the presence and absence of the ET receptor antagonist tezosentan. S167 is located on the dimeric interface, suggesting it could be involved in regulating the formation of catalase tetramers. To evaluate this possibility we utilized analytical gel filtration to examine the multimeric structure of recombinant wild-type and S167D catalase. We found that recombinant wild-type catalase was present as a mixture of monomers and dimers, whereas S167D catalase was primarily tetrameric. Further, the incubation of wild-type catalase with PKCδ was sufficient to convert wild-type catalase into a tetrameric structure. In conclusion, this is the first report indicating that the phosphorylation of catalase regulates its multimeric structure and activity.

  5. Subcellular Localization and Ser-137 Phosphorylation Regulate Tumor-suppressive Activity of Profilin-1*

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Marc I.; Cai, Shirong; Boudreau, Aaron; Carey, Clifton J.; Lyle, Nicholas; Pappu, Rohit V.; Swamidass, S. Joshua; Bissell, Mina; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Shao, Jieya

    2015-01-01

    The actin-binding protein profilin-1 (Pfn1) inhibits tumor growth and yet is also required for cell proliferation and survival, an apparent paradox. We previously identified Ser-137 of Pfn1 as a phosphorylation site within the poly-l-proline (PLP) binding pocket. Here we confirm that Ser-137 phosphorylation disrupts Pfn1 binding to its PLP-containing ligands with little effect on actin binding. We find in mouse xenografts of breast cancer cells that mimicking Ser-137 phosphorylation abolishes cell cycle arrest and apoptotic sensitization by Pfn1 and confers a growth advantage to tumors. This indicates a previously unrecognized role of PLP binding in Pfn1 antitumor effects. Spatial restriction of Pfn1 to the nucleus or cytoplasm indicates that inhibition of tumor cell growth by Pfn1 requires its nuclear localization, and this activity is abolished by a phosphomimetic mutation on Ser-137. In contrast, cytoplasmic Pfn1 lacks inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth but rescues morphological and proliferative defects of PFN1 null mouse chondrocytes. These results help reconcile seemingly opposed cellular effects of Pfn1, provide new insights into the antitumor mechanism of Pfn1, and implicate Ser-137 phosphorylation as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:25681442

  6. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1

    PubMed Central

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1–3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4–9 did not influence the cell cycle–regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4–9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1. PMID:27226481

  7. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1.

    PubMed

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1.

  8. Role of phospholemman phosphorylation sites in mediating kinase-dependent regulation of the Na+-K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Bossuyt, Julie; Martin, Jody L; Despa, Sanda; Bers, Donald M

    2010-12-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is a major target for phosphorylation mediated by both PKA (at Ser68) and PKC (at both Ser63 and Ser68) in the heart. In intact cardiac myocytes, PLM associates with and inhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA), mainly by reducing its affinity for internal Na(+). The inhibition is relieved upon PLM phosphorylation by PKA or PKC. The aim here was to distinguish the role of the Ser63 and Ser68 PLM phosphorylation sites in mediating kinase-induced modulation of NKA function. We expressed wild-type (WT) PLM and S63A, S68A, and AA (Ser63 and Ser68 to alanine double mutant) PLM mutants in HeLa cells that stably express rat NKA-α(1) and we measured the effect of PKA and PKC activation on NKA-mediated intracellular Na(+) concentration decline. PLM expression (WT or mutant) significantly decreased the apparent NKA affinity for internal Na(+) and had no significant effect on the maximum pump rate (V(max)). PKA activation with forskolin (20 μM) restored NKA Na(+) affinity in cells expressing WT but not AA PLM and did not affect V(max) in either case. Similarly, PKC activation with 300 nM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate increased NKA Na(+) affinity in cells expressing WT, S63A, and S68A PLM and had no effect in cells expressing AA PLM. Neither forskolin nor phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate affected NKA function in the absence of PLM. We conclude that PLM phosphorylation at either Ser63 or Ser68 is both necessary and sufficient for completely relieving the PLM-induced NKA inhibition.

  9. Regulation of Smoothened Phosphorylation and High-Level Hedgehog Signaling Activity by a Plasma Membrane Associated Kinase.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangxi; Li, Shuang; Han, Yuhong; Tong, Chao; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yongbin; Jiang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-family protein Smoothened (Smo). Upon stimulation, Smo accumulates on the cell surface in Drosophila or primary cilia in vertebrates, which is thought to be essential for its activation and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Hh stimulates the binding of Smo to a plasma membrane-associated kinase Gilgamesh (Gish)/CK1γ and that Gish fine-tunes Hh pathway activity by phosphorylating a Ser/Thr cluster (CL-II) in the juxtamembrane region of Smo carboxyl-terminal intracellular tail (C-tail). We find that CL-II phosphorylation is promoted by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Smo C-tail and depends on cell surface localization of both Gish and Smo. Consistent with CL-II being critical for high-threshold Hh target gene expression, its phosphorylation appears to require higher levels of Hh or longer exposure to the same level of Hh than PKA-site phosphorylation on Smo. Furthermore, we find that vertebrate CK1γ is localized at the primary cilium to promote Smo phosphorylation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation. Our study reveals a conserved mechanism whereby Hh induces a change in Smo subcellular localization to promote its association with and activation by a plasma membrane localized kinase, and provides new insight into how Hh morphogen progressively activates Smo.

  10. Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites: the EPLYA and EGLYA motifs have a key role in tyrosine phosphorylation and Csk binding, and are substrates of the Abl kinase.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Sharma, Nanaocha; Grasso, Silvia; Russo, Isabella; Jensen, Ole N; Cabodi, Sara; Turco, Emilia; Di Stefano, Paola; Defilippi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation tightly regulates specific binding of effector proteins that control many diverse biological functions of cells (e. g. signaling, migration and proliferation). p140Cap is an adaptor protein, specifically expressed in brain, testis and epithelial cells, that undergoes phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant protein, in which both EPLYA/EGLYA tyrosines were converted to phenylalanine, was no longer tyrosine phosphorylated, despite the presence of other tyrosine residues in p140Cap sequence. Moreover, this mutant lost its ability to bind the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), previously shown to interact with p140Cap by Far Western analysis. In addition, we found that in vitro and in HEK-293 cells, the Abelson kinase is the major kinase involved in p140Cap tyrosine phosphorylation on the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences. Overall, these data represent an original attempt to in vivo characterise phosphorylated residues of p140Cap. Elucidating the function of p140Cap will provide novel insights into its biological activity not only in normal cells, but also in tumors.

  11. Assessment of current mass spectrometric workflows for the quantification of low abundant proteins and phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Manuel; Ahrné, Erik; Baron, Anna P.; Glatter, Timo; Fava, Luca L.; Santamaria, Anna; Nigg, Erich A.; Schmidt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The data described here provide a systematic performance evaluation of popular data-dependent (DDA) and independent (DIA) mass spectrometric (MS) workflows currently used in quantitative proteomics. We assessed the limits of identification, quantification and detection for each method by analyzing a dilution series of 20 unmodified and 10 phosphorylated synthetic heavy labeled reference peptides, respectively, covering six orders of magnitude in peptide concentration with and without a complex human cell digest background. We found that all methods performed very similarly in the absence of background proteins, however, when analyzing whole cell lysates, targeted methods were at least 5–10 times more sensitive than directed or DDA methods. In particular, higher stage fragmentation (MS3) of the neutral loss peak using a linear ion trap increased dynamic quantification range of some phosphopeptides up to 100-fold. We illustrate the power of this targeted MS3 approach for phosphopeptide monitoring by successfully quantifying 9 phosphorylation sites of the kinetochore and spindle assembly checkpoint component Mad1 over different cell cycle states from non-enriched pull-down samples. The data are associated to the research article ‘Evaluation of data-dependent and data-independent mass spectrometric workflows for sensitive quantification of proteins and phosphorylation sites׳ (Bauer et al., 2014) [1]. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000964. PMID:26550600

  12. Non-canonical Smads phosphorylation induced by the glutamate release inhibitor, riluzole, through GSK3 activation in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Abushahba, Walid; Olabisi, Oyenike O; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Boregowda, Rajeev K; Wen, Yu; Liu, Fang; Goydos, James S; Lasfar, Ahmed; Cohen-Solal, Karine A

    2012-01-01

    Riluzole, an inhibitor of glutamate release, has shown the ability to inhibit melanoma cell xenograft growth. A phase 0 clinical trial of riluzole as a single agent in patients with melanoma resulted in involution of tumors associated with inhibition of both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phophoinositide-3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) pathways in 34% of patients. In the present study, we demonstrate that riluzole inhibits AKT-mediated glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) phosphorylation in melanoma cell lines. Because we have demonstrated that GSK3 is involved in the phosphorylation of two downstream effectors of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), Smad2 and Smad3, at their linker domain, our aim was to determine whether riluzole could induce GSK3β-mediated linker phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. We present evidence that riluzole increases Smad2 and Smad3 linker phosphorylation at the cluster of serines 245/250/255 and serine 204 respectively. Using GSK3 inhibitors and siRNA knock-down, we demonstrate that the mechanism of riluzole-induced Smad phosphorylation involved GSK3β. In addition, GSK3β could phosphorylate the same linker sites in vitro. The riluzole-induced Smad linker phosphorylation is mechanistically different from the Smad linker phosphorylation induced by TGFβ. We also demonstrate that riluzole-induced Smad linker phosphorylation is independent of the expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1), which is one of the glutamate receptors whose involvement in human melanoma has been documented. We further show that riluzole upregulates the expression of INHBB and PLAU, two genes associated with the TGFβ signaling pathway. The non-canonical increase in Smad linker phosphorylation induced by riluzole could contribute to the modulation of the pro-oncogenic functions of Smads in late stage melanomas.

  13. Acute renal ischemia rapidly activates the energy sensor AMPK but does not increase phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser1177.

    PubMed

    Mount, Peter F; Hill, Rebecca E; Fraser, Scott A; Levidiotis, Vicki; Katsis, Frosa; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A

    2005-11-01

    A fundamental aspect of acute renal ischemia is energy depletion, manifest as a falling level of ATP that is associated with a simultaneous rise in AMP. The energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by a rising AMP-to-ATP ratio, but its role in acute renal ischemia is unknown. AMPK is activated in the ischemic heart and is reported to phosphorylate both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. To study activation of AMPK in acute renal ischemia, the renal pedicle of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was cross-clamped for increasing time intervals. AMPK was strongly activated within 1 min and remained so after 30 min. However, despite the robust activation of AMPK, acute renal ischemia did not increase phosphorylation of the AMPK phosphorylation sites eNOS-Ser(1177) or acetyl-CoA carboxylase-Ser(79). Activation of AMPK in bovine aortic endothelial cells by the ATP-depleting agent antimycin A and the antidiabetic drug phenformin also did not increase phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser(1177), confirming that AMPK activation and phosphorylation of eNOS are dissociated in some situations. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the dissociation between AMPK activation and phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser(1177) was not due to changes in the physical associations between AMPK, eNOS, or heat shock protein 90. In conclusion, acute renal ischemia rapidly activates the energy sensor AMPK, which is known to maintain ATP reserves during energy stress. The substrates it phosphorylates, however, are different from those in other organs such as the heart.

  14. Fyn-phosphorylated PIKE-A binds and inhibits AMPK signaling, blocking its tumor suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Qi, Q; Chan, C B; Zhou, W; Chen, J; Luo, H R; Appin, C; Brat, D J; Ye, K

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, has a critical role in metabolic disorders and cancers. AMPK is mainly regulated by cellular AMP and phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Here, we show that PIKE-A binds to AMPK and blocks its tumor suppressive actions, which are mediated by tyrosine kinase Fyn. PIKE-A directly interacts with AMPK catalytic alpha subunit and impairs T172 phosphorylation, leading to repression of its kinase activity on the downstream targets. Mutation of Fyn phosphorylation sites on PIKE-A, depletion of Fyn, or pharmacological inhibition of Fyn blunts the association between PIKE-A and AMPK, resulting in loss of its inhibitory effect on AMPK. Cell proliferation and oncogenic assays demonstrate that PIKE-A antagonizes tumor suppressive actions of AMPK. In human glioblastoma samples, PIKE-A expression inversely correlates with the p-AMPK levels, supporting that PIKE-A negatively regulates AMPK activity in cancers. Thus, our findings provide additional layer of molecular regulation of the AMPK signaling pathway in cancer progression.

  15. Protein Kinase D Regulates RhoA Activity via Rhotekin Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Pusapati, Ganesh V.; Eiseler, Tim; Rykx, An; Vandoninck, Sandy; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Van Lint, Johan; von Wichert, Götz; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The members of the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine kinases are major targets for tumor-promoting phorbol esters, G protein-coupled receptors, and activated protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs). The expanding list of cellular processes in which PKDs exert their function via phosphorylation of various substrates include proliferation, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, and vesicle trafficking. Therefore, identification of novel PKD substrates is necessary to understand the profound role of this kinase family in signal transduction. Here, we show that rhotekin, an effector of RhoA GTPase, is a novel substrate of PKD. We identified Ser-435 in rhotekin as the potential site targeted by PKD in vivo. Expression of a phosphomimetic S435E rhotekin mutant resulted in an increase of endogenous active RhoA GTPase levels. Phosphorylation of rhotekin by PKD2 modulates the anchoring of the RhoA in the plasma membrane. Consequently, the S435E rhotekin mutant displayed enhanced stress fiber formation when expressed in serum-starved fibroblasts. Our data thus identify a novel role of PKD as a regulator of RhoA activity and actin stress fiber formation through phosphorylation of rhotekin. PMID:22228765

  16. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system.

  17. Rice_Phospho 1.0: a new rice-specific SVM predictor for protein phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shoukai; Song, Qi; Tao, Huan; Wang, Wei; Wan, Weifeng; Huang, Jian; Xu, Chaoqun; Chebii, Vivien; Kitony, Justine; Que, Shufu; Harrison, Andrew; He, Huaqin

    2015-01-01

    Experimentally-determined or computationally-predicted protein phosphorylation sites for distinctive species are becoming increasingly common. In this paper, we compare the predictive performance of a novel classification algorithm with different encoding schemes to develop a rice-specific protein phosphorylation site predictor. Our results imply that the combination of Amino acid occurrence Frequency with Composition of K-Spaced Amino Acid Pairs (AF-CKSAAP) provides the best description of relevant sequence features that surround a phosphorylation site. A support vector machine (SVM) using AF-CKSAAP achieves the best performance in classifying rice protein phophorylation sites when compared to the other algorithms. We have used SVM with AF-CKSAAP to construct a rice-specific protein phosphorylation sites predictor, Rice_Phospho 1.0 (http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/rice_phospho1.0). We measure the Accuracy (ACC) and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of Rice_Phospho 1.0 to be 82.0% and 0.64, significantly higher than those measures for other predictors such as Scansite, Musite, PlantPhos and PhosphoRice. Rice_Phospho 1.0 also successfully predicted the experimentally identified phosphorylation sites in LOC_Os03g51600.1, a protein sequence which did not appear in the training dataset. In summary, Rice_phospho 1.0 outputs reliable predictions of protein phosphorylation sites in rice, and will serve as a useful tool to the community. PMID:26149854

  18. PKG II reverses HGF-triggered cellular activities by phosphorylating serine 985 of c-Met in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Miaolin; Qian, Hai; Jiang, Lu; Lan, Ting; Wu, Min; Pang, Ji; Chen, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG II) could inhibit the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Both c-Met and EGFR belong to family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and have high molecular analogy. However, the effect of PKG II on c-Met activation is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of PKG II on the activation of c-Met and consequent biological activities. The results from CCK8 assay, Transwell assay and TUNEL assay showed that HGF enhanced cell proliferation and migration, and decreased cell apoptosis. Activated PKG II reversed the above changes caused by HGF. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting results showed that PKG II could bind with c-Met and phosphorylate its Ser985, and thereby inhibited HGF-induced activation of c-Met and MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR mediated signal transduction. When Ser985 of c-Met was mutated to Alanine for preventing phosphorylation of this site, the blocking effect of PKG II on c-Met activation was annulled. When Ser985 of c-Met was mutated to Aspartic acid for mimicking phosphorylation of this site, HGF-induced activation of c-Met was prevented. In conclusion, the results indicated that PKG II could block c-Met activation via phosphorylating Ser985 of this RTK. PMID:27147579

  19. Zn2+-dependent Activation of the Trk Signaling Pathway Induces Phosphorylation of the Brain-enriched Tyrosine Phosphatase STEP

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Rajagopal, Sathyanarayanan; Shuttleworth, C. William; Paul, Surojit

    2016-01-01

    Excessive release of Zn2+ in the brain is implicated in the progression of acute brain injuries. Although several signaling cascades have been reported to be involved in Zn2+-induced neurotoxicity, a potential contribution of tyrosine phosphatases in this process has not been well explored. Here we show that exposure to high concentrations of Zn2+ led to a progressive increase in phosphorylation of the striatal-enriched phosphatase (STEP), a component of the excitotoxic-signaling pathway that plays a role in neuroprotection. Zn2+-mediated phosphorylation of STEP61 at multiple sites (hyperphosphorylation) was induced by the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) signaling, and activation of cAMP-dependent PKA (protein kinase A). Mutational studies further show that differential phosphorylation of STEP61 at the PKA sites, Ser-160 and Ser-221 regulates the affinity of STEP61 toward its substrates. Consistent with these findings we also show that BDNF/Trk/PKA mediated signaling is required for Zn2+-induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), a substrate of STEP that is involved in Zn2+-dependent neurotoxicity. The strong correlation between the temporal profile of STEP61 hyperphosphorylation and ERK2 phosphorylation indicates that loss of function of STEP61 through phosphorylation is necessary for maintaining sustained ERK2 phosphorylation. This interpretation is further supported by the findings that deletion of the STEP gene led to a rapid and sustained increase in ERK2 phosphorylation within minutes of exposure to Zn2+. The study provides further insight into the mechanisms of regulation of STEP61 and also offers a molecular basis for the Zn2+-induced sustained activation of ERK2. PMID:26574547

  20. Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization but partially affects its apoptotic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-H.; Cheng, C.-M.; Chang, Y.-F.; Wang, T.-Y.; Yuo, C.-Y.; E-mail: m815006@kmu.edu.tw

    2007-03-09

    Apoptin, a chicken anemia virus-encoded protein, induces apoptosis in human tumor cells but not in normal cells. In addition, Apoptin also exhibits tumor-specific nuclear localization and tumor-specific phosphorylation on threonine 108 (T108). Here, we studied the effects of T108 phosphorylation on the tumor-specific nuclear localization and apoptotic activity of Apoptin. We first showed that a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Apoptin, but not the green fluorescent protein-fused Apoptin used in many previous studies, exhibited the same intracellular distribution pattern as native Apoptin. We then made and analyzed an HA-Apoptin mutant with its T108 phosphorylation site abolished. We found that Apoptin T108 phosphorylation is not required for its tumor-specific nuclear localization and abolishing the T108 phosphorylation of Apoptin does affect its apoptotic activity in tumor cells but only partially. Our results support the previous finding that Apoptin contains two distinct apoptosis domains located separately at the N- and C-terminal regions and suggest that the T108 phosphorylation may only be required for the apoptotic activity mediated through the C-terminal apoptosis domain.

  1. Involvement of novel autophosphorylation sites in ATM activation.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Graham, Mark E; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Philip; Robinson, Phillip J; Lavin, Martin F

    2006-08-09

    ATM kinase plays a central role in signaling DNA double-strand breaks to cell cycle checkpoints and to the DNA repair machinery. Although the exact mechanism of ATM activation remains unknown, efficient activation requires the Mre11 complex, autophosphorylation on S1981 and the involvement of protein phosphatases and acetylases. We report here the identification of several additional phosphorylation sites on ATM in response to DNA damage, including autophosphorylation on pS367 and pS1893. ATM autophosphorylates all these sites in vitro in response to DNA damage. Antibodies against phosphoserine 1893 revealed rapid and persistent phosphorylation at this site after in vivo activation of ATM kinase by ionizing radiation, paralleling that observed for S1981 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation was dependent on functional ATM and on the Mre11 complex. All three autophosphorylation sites are physiologically important parts of the DNA damage response, as phosphorylation site mutants (S367A, S1893A and S1981A) were each defective in ATM signaling in vivo and each failed to correct radiosensitivity, genome instability and cell cycle checkpoint defects in ataxia-telangiectasia cells. We conclude that there are at least three functionally important radiation-induced autophosphorylation events in ATM.

  2. Myosin 3A Kinase Activity Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Activation Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Omar A.; Unrath, William C.; Stevens, Stanley M.; Manor, Uri; Kachar, Bechara; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Class III myosins are unique members of the myosin superfamily in that they contain both a motor and kinase domain. We have found that motor activity is decreased by autophosphorylation, although little is known about the regulation of the kinase domain. We demonstrate by mass spectrometry that Thr-178 and Thr-184 in the kinase domain activation loop and two threonines in the loop 2 region of the motor domain are autophosphorylated (Thr-908 and Thr-919). The kinase activity of MYO3A 2IQ with the phosphomimic (T184E) or phosphoblock (T184A) mutations demonstrates that kinase activity is reduced 30-fold as a result of the T184A mutation, although the Thr-178 site only had a minor impact on kinase activity. Interestingly, the actin-activated ATPase activity of MYO3A 2IQ is slightly reduced as a result of the T178A and T184A mutations suggesting coupling between motor and kinase domains. Full-length GFP-tagged T184A and T184E MYO3A constructs transfected into COS7 cells do not disrupt the ability of MYO3A to localize to filopodia structures. In addition, we demonstrate that T184E MYO3A reduces filopodia elongation in the presence of espin-1, whereas T184A enhances filopodia elongation in a similar fashion to kinase-dead MYO3A. Our results suggest that as MYO3A accumulates at the tips of actin protrusions, autophosphorylation of Thr-184 enhances kinase activity resulting in phosphorylation of the MYO3A motor and reducing motor activity. The differential regulation of the kinase and motor activities allows for MYO3A to precisely self-regulate its concentration in the actin bundle-based structures of cells. PMID:24214986

  3. Newly identified phosphorylation site in the vesicular stomatitis virus P protein is required for viral RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Arindam; Victor, Ken G; Pudupakam, R S; Lyons, Charles E; Wertz, Gail W

    2014-02-01

    The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase consists of two viral proteins; the large (L) protein is the main catalytic subunit, and the phosphoprotein (P) is an essential cofactor for polymerase function. The P protein interacts with the L protein and the N-RNA template, thus connecting the polymerase to the template. P protein also binds to free N protein to maintain it in a soluble, encapsidation-competent form. Previously, five sites of phosphorylation were identified on the P protein and these sites were reported to be differentially important for mRNA synthesis or genomic replication. The previous studies were carried out by biochemical analysis of portions of the authentic viral P protein or by analysis of bacterium-expressed, exogenously phosphorylated P protein by mutagenesis. However, there has been no systematic biochemical search for phosphorylation sites on authentic, virus-expressed P protein. In this study, we analyzed the P protein isolated from VSV-infected cells for sites of phosphorylation by mass spectrometry. We report the identification of Tyr14 as a previously unidentified phosphorylation site of VSV P and show that it is essential for viral transcription and replication. However, our mass spectral analysis failed to observe the phosphorylation of previously reported C-terminal residues Ser226 and Ser227 and mutagenic analyses did not demonstrate a role for these sites in RNA synthesis.

  4. Phosphorylation and recruitment of Syk by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-based phosphorylation of tamalin.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masayuki; Kitano, Jun; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Moriyoshi, Koki; Yanagi, Shigeru; Yamamura, Hirohei; Muto, Takanori; Jingami, Hisato; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2004-07-30

    Tamalin is a scaffold protein that forms a multiple protein assembly including metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and several postsynaptic and protein-trafficking scaffold proteins in distinct mode of protein-protein association. In the present investigation, we report that tamalin possesses a typical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), which enables Syk kinase to be recruited and phosphorylated by the Src family kinases. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis of rat brain membrane fractions showed that tamalin is present in a multimolecular protein assembly comprising not only mGluR1 but also c-Src, Fyn, and a protein phosphatase, SHP-2. The protein association of both tamalin and c-Src, as determined by truncation analysis of mGluR1 in COS-7 cells, occurred at the carboxyl-terminal tail of mGluR1. Mutation analysis of tyrosine with phenylalanine in COS-7 cells revealed that paired tyrosines at the ITAM sequence of tamalin are phosphorylated preferentially by c-Src and Fyn, and this phosphorylation can recruit Syk kinase and enables it to be phosphorylated by the Src family kinases. The phosphorylated tyrosines at the ITAM sequence of tamalin were highly susceptible to dephosphorylation by protein-tyrosine phosphatases in COS-7 cells. Importantly, tamalin was endogenously phosphorylated and associated with Syk in retinoic acid-treated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells that undergo neuron-like differentiation. The present investigation demonstrates that tamalin is a novel signaling molecule that possesses a PDZ domain and a PDZ binding motif and mediates Syk signaling in an ITAM-based fashion.

  5. Structures of KaiC Circadian Clock Mutant Proteins: A New Phosphorylation Site at T426 and Mechanisms of Kinase, ATPase and Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Mori, Tetsuya; Xu, Yao; Pattanayek, Sabuj; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin

    2010-09-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. Homo-hexameric KaiC displays kinase, phosphatase and ATPase activities; KaiA enhances KaiC phosphorylation and KaiB antagonizes KaiA. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the two known sites in the C-terminal half of KaiC subunits, T432 and S431, follow a strict order (TS {yields} pTS {yields} pTpS {yields} TpS {yields} TS) over the daily cycle, the origin of which is not understood. To address this void and to analyze the roles of KaiC active site residues, in particular T426, we determined structures of single and double P-site mutants of S. elongatus KaiC. The conformations of the loop region harboring P-site residues T432 and S431 in the crystal structures of six KaiC mutant proteins exhibit subtle differences that result in various distances between Thr (or Ala/Asn/Glu) and Ser (or Ala/Asp) residues and the ATP {gamma}-phosphate. T432 is phosphorylated first because it lies consistently closer to P{gamma}. The structures of the S431A and T432E/S431A mutants reveal phosphorylation at T426. The environments of the latter residue in the structures and functional data for T426 mutants in vitro and in vivo imply a role in dephosphorylation. We provide evidence for a third phosphorylation site in KaiC at T426. T426 and S431 are closely spaced and a KaiC subunit cannot carry phosphates at both sites simultaneously. Fewer subunits are phosphorylated at T426 in the two KaiC mutants compared to phosphorylated T432 and/or S431 residues in the structures of wt and other mutant KaiCs, suggesting that T426 phosphorylation may be labile. The structures combined with functional data for a host of KaiC mutant proteins help rationalize why S431 trails T432 in the loss of its phosphate and shed light on the mechanisms of the KaiC kinase, ATPase and phosphatase activities.

  6. Slack sodium-activated potassium channel membrane expression requires p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Sushmitha; Fleites, John; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2016-04-01

    p38 MAPK has long been understood as an inducible kinase under conditions of cellular stress, but there is now increasing evidence to support its role in the regulation of neuronal function. Several phosphorylation targets have been identified, an appreciable number of which are ion channels, implicating the possible involvement of p38 MAPK in neuronal excitability. The KNa channel Slack is an important protein to be studied as it is highly and ubiquitously expressed in DRG neurons and is important in the maintenance of their firing accommodation. We sought to examine if the Slack channel could be a substrate of p38 MAPK activity. First, we found that the Slack C-terminus contains two putative p38 MAPK phosphorylation sites that are highly conserved across species. Second, we show via electrophysiology experiments that KNa currents and further, Slack currents, are subject to tonic modulation by p38 MAPK. Third, biochemical approaches revealed that Slack channel regulation by p38 MAPK occurs through direct phosphorylation at the two putative sites of interaction, and mutating both sites prevented surface expression of Slack channels. Based on these results, we conclude that p38 MAPK is an obligate regulator of Slack channel function via the trafficking of channels into the membrane. The present study identifies Slack KNa channels as p38 MAPK substrates.

  7. AMPK Phosphorylation Modulates Pain by Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Bullón, Pedro; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Carrión, Angel M.; Marín-Aguilar, Fabiola; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Román-Malo, Lourdes; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus; Culic, Ognjen; Ryffel, Bernhard; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Battino, Maurizio; Sánchez-Alcazar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Impairment in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation are associated with several metabolic and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of AMPK/NLRP3 inflammasome axis in the molecular mechanism underlying pain perception. Results: Impairment in AMPK activation induced by compound C or sunitinib, two AMPK inhibitors, provoked hyperalgesia in mice (p<0.001) associated with marked NLRP3 inflammasome protein activation and increased serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (24.56±0.82 pg/ml) and IL-18 (23.83±1.882 pg/ml) compared with vehicle groups (IL-1β: 8.15±0.44; IL-18: 4.92±0.4). This effect was rescued by increasing AMPK phosphorylation via metformin treatment (p<0.001), caloric restriction diet (p<0.001), or NLRP3 inflammasome genetic inactivation using NLRP3 knockout (nlrp3−/−) mice (p<0.001). Deficient AMPK activation and overactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome axis were also observed in blood cells from patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a prevalent human chronic pain disease. In addition, metformin treatment (200 mg/daily), which increased AMPK activation, restored all biochemical alterations examined by us in blood cells and significantly improved clinical symptoms, such as, pain, fatigue, depression, disturbed sleep, and tender points, in patients with FM. Innovation and Conclusions: These data suggest that AMPK/NLRP3 inflammasome axis participates in chronic pain and that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition by AMPK modulation may be a novel therapeutic target to fight against chronic pain and inflammatory diseases as FM. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 157–170. PMID:26132721

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W; Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  9. A Kinase-Independent Function of c-Src Mediates p130Cas Phosphorylation at the Serine-639 Site in Pressure Overloaded Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Arun P; Suryakumar, Geetha; Panneerselvam, Kavin; Willey, Christopher D; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2015-12-01

    Early work in pressure overloaded (PO) myocardium shows that integrins mediate focal adhesion complex formation by recruiting the adaptor protein p130Cas (Cas) and nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Src. To explore c-Src role in Cas-associated changes during PO, we used a feline right ventricular in vivo PO model and a three-dimensional (3D) collagen-embedded adult cardiomyocyte in vitro model that utilizes a Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGD) peptide for integrin stimulation. Cas showed slow electrophoretic mobility (band-shifting), recruitment to the cytoskeleton, and tyrosine phosphorylation at 165, 249, and 410 sites in both 48 h PO myocardium and 1 h RGD-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Adenoviral mediated expression of kinase inactive (negative) c-Src mutant with intact scaffold domains (KN-Src) in cardiomyocytes did not block the RGD stimulated changes in Cas. Furthermore, expression of KN-Src or kinase active c-Src mutant with intact scaffold function (A-Src) in two-dimensionally (2D) cultured cardiomyocytes was sufficient to cause Cas band-shifting, although tyrosine phosphorylation required A-Src. These data indicate that c-Src's adaptor function, but not its kinase function, is required for a serine/threonine specific phosphorylation(s) responsible for Cas band-shifting. To explore this possibility, Chinese hamster ovary cells that stably express Cas were infected with either β-gal or KN-Src adenoviruses and used for Cas immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry analysis. In the KN-Src expressing cells, Cas showed phosphorylation at the serine-639 (human numbering) site. A polyclonal antibody raised against phospho-serine-639 detected Cas phosphorylation in 24-48 h PO myocardium. Our studies indicate that c-Src's adaptor function mediates serine-639 phosphorylation of Cas during integrin activation in PO myocardium.

  10. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B

    PubMed Central

    Johanns, M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Hsu, M.-F.; Jacobs, R.; Vertommen, D.; Van Sande, J.; Dumont, J. E.; Woods, A.; Carling, D.; Hue, L.; Viollet, B.; Foretz, M; Rider, M H

    2016-01-01

    Biguanides such as metformin have previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. Here we show that incubation of hepatocytes with the small-molecule AMPK activator 991 decreases glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and downstream PKA target phosphorylation. Moreover, incubation of hepatocytes with 991 increases the Vmax of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) without affecting intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations. The effects of 991 to decrease glucagon-stimulated cAMP concentrations and activate PDE4B are lost in hepatocytes deleted for both catalytic subunits of AMPK. PDE4B is phosphorylated by AMPK at three sites, and by site-directed mutagenesis, Ser304 phosphorylation is important for activation. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism by which AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation. PMID:26952277

  11. Small-Molecule Inhibition and Activation-Loop Trans-Phosphorylation of the IGF1 Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,J.; Li, W.; Craddock, B.; Foreman, K.; Mulvihill, M.; Ji, Q.; Miller, W.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that has a critical role in mitogenic signalling during embryogenesis and an antiapoptotic role in the survival and progression of many human tumours. Here, we present the crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of IGF1R (IGF1RK), in its unphosphorylated state, in complex with a novel compound, cis-3-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-l-yl)-cyclobutyl]-1-(2-phenyl-quinolin-7-yl)-imidazo[1, 5-a]pyrazin-8-ylamine (PQIP), which we show is a potent inhibitor of both the unphosphorylated (basal) and phosphorylated (activated) states of the kinase. PQIP interacts with residues in the ATP-binding pocket and in the activation loop, which confers specificity for IGF1RK and the highly related insulin receptor (IR) kinase. In this crystal structure, the IGF1RK active site is occupied by Tyr1135 from the activation loop of an symmetry (two-fold)-related molecule. This dimeric arrangement affords, for the first time, a visualization of the initial trans-phosphorylation event in the activation loop of an RTK, and provides a molecular rationale for a naturally occurring mutation in the activation loop of the IR that causes type II diabetes mellitus.

  12. Tandem phosphorylation of Ser-911 and Thr-912 at the C terminus of yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase leads to glucose-dependent activation.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Silvia; Nelson, Clark J; Allen, Kenneth E; Swaney, Danielle L; Thompson, Katie L; Coon, Joshua J; Sussman, Michael R; Slayman, Carolyn W

    2007-12-07

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the post-translational regulation of P-type ATPases by protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Pma1 H(+)-ATPase, which is responsible for H(+)-dependent nutrient uptake in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is one such example, displaying a rapid 5-10-fold increase in activity when carbon-starved cells are exposed to glucose. Activation has been linked to Ser/Thr phosphorylation in the C-terminal tail of the ATPase, but the specific phosphorylation sites have not previously been mapped. The present study has used nanoflow high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry to identify Ser-911 and Thr-912 as two major phosphorylation sites that are clearly related to glucose activation. In carbon-starved cells with low Pma1 activity, peptide 896-918, which was derived from the C terminus upon Lys-C proteolysis, was found to be singly phosphorylated at Thr-912, whereas in glucose-metabolizing cells with high ATPase activity, the same peptide was doubly phosphorylated at Ser-911 and Thr-912. Reciprocal (14)N/(15)N metabolic labeling of cells was used to measure the relative phosphorylation levels at the two sites. The addition of glucose to carbon-starved cells led to a 3-fold reduction in the singly phosphorylated form and an 11-fold increase in the doubly phosphorylated form. These results point to a mechanism in which the stepwise phosphorylation of two tandemly positioned residues near the C terminus mediates glucose-dependent activation of the H(+)-ATPase.

  13. Jun Dimerization Protein 2 Activates Mc2r Transcriptional Activity: Role of Phosphorylation and SUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chiung-Min; Wang, Raymond X.; Liu, Runhua; Yang, Wei-Hsiung

    2017-01-01

    Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, is involved in numerous biological and cellular processes such as cancer development and regulation, cell-cycle regulation, skeletal muscle and osteoclast differentiation, progesterone receptor signaling, and antibacterial immunity. Though JDP2 is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, its function in gonads and adrenals (such as regulation of steroidogenesis and adrenal development) is largely unknown. Herein, we find that JDP2 mRNA and proteins are expressed in mouse adrenal gland tissues. Moreover, overexpression of JDP2 in Y1 mouse adrenocortical cancer cells increases the level of melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) protein. Notably, Mc2r promoter activity is activated by JDP2 in a dose-dependent manner. Next, by mapping the Mc2r promoter, we show that cAMP response elements (between −1320 and −720-bp) are mainly required for Mc2r activation by JDP2 and demonstrate that −830-bp is the major JDP2 binding site by real-time chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis. Mutations of cAMP response elements on Mc2r promoter disrupts JDP2 effect. Furthermore, we demonstrate that removal of phosphorylation of JDP2 results in attenuated transcriptional activity of Mc2r. Finally, we show that JDP2 is a candidate for SUMOylation and SUMOylation affects JDP2-mediated Mc2r transcriptional activity. Taken together, JDP2 acts as a novel transcriptional activator of the mouse Mc2r gene, suggesting that JDP2 may have physiological functions as a novel player in MC2R-mediated steroidogenesis as well as cell signaling in adrenal glands. PMID:28146118

  14. PKA modulates GSK-3β- and cdk5-catalyzed phosphorylation of tau in site- and kinase-specific manners

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Liang, Zhihou; Shi, Jianhua; Yin, Dongmei; El-Akkad, Ezzat; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation of tau protein is regulated by several kinases, especially glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (cdk5) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Phosphorylation of tau by PKA primes it for phosphorylation by GSK-3β, but the site-specific modulation of GSK-3β–catalyzed tau phosphorylation by the prephosphorylation has not been well investigated. Here, we found that prephosphorylation by PKA promotes GSK-3β–catalyzed tau phosphorylation at Thr181, Ser199, Ser202, Thr205, Thr217, Thr231, Ser396 and Ser422, but inhibits its phosphorylation at Thr212 and Ser404. In contrast, the prephosphorylation had no significant effect on its subsequent phosphorylation by cdk5 at Thr181, Ser199, Thr205, Thr231 and Ser422; inhibited it at Ser202, Thr212, Thr217 and Ser404; and slightly promoted it at Ser396. These studies reveal the nature of the inter-regulation of tau phosphorylation by the three major tau kinases. PMID:17078951

  15. Prolactin decreases epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity via a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Quijano, V J; Sheffield, L G

    1998-01-09

    Previously, we have shown that prolactin inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced mitogenesis in mouse mammary epithelial cells without altering the response to other growth promoting agents. This effect has been associated with reduced EGF-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine phosphorylation, Grb-2 association, and Ras activation. Our current hypothesis is that prolactin induces an alteration in EGFR kinase activity via a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we treated normal murine mammary gland cells with or without 100 ng/ml prolactin. EGFR isolated by wheat germ agglutinin affinity chromatography from nontreated cells exhibited substantial ligand-induced phosphorylation, and EGFR isolated from prolactin-treated cells displayed minimal EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation, as well as decreased kinase activity toward exogenous substrates. The observed decrease in ligand-induced EGFR phosphorylation could not be attributed to either differential amounts of EGFR, decreased EGF binding affinity, or the presence of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase or ATPase. EGFR isolated from prolactin-treated cells exhibited increased phosphorylation on threonine. Removal of this phosphorylation with alkaline phosphatase restored EGFR kinase activity to levels observed in nontreated cells. Therefore, these results suggest that prolactin antagonizes EGF signaling by increasing EGFR threonine phosphorylation and decreasing EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation.

  16. PhosphoSVM: prediction of phosphorylation sites by integrating various protein sequence attributes with a support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yongchao; Yao, Bo; Zhang, Chi

    2014-06-01

    Phosphorylation is one of the most essential post-translational modifications in eukaryotes. Studies on kinases and their substrates are important for understanding cellular signaling networks. Because of the cost in time and labor associated with large-scale wet-bench experiments, computational prediction of phosphorylation sites becomes important and many computational tools have been developed in the recent decades. The prediction tools can be grouped into two categories: kinase-specific and non-kinase-specific tools. With more kinases being discovered by the new sequencing technologies, accurate non-kinase-specific prediction tools are highly desirable for whole-genome annotation in a wider variety of species. In this manuscript, a support vector machine is used to combine eight different sequence level scoring functions to predict phosphorylation sites. The attributes used by this work, including Shannon entropy, relative entropy, predicted protein secondary structure, predicted protein disorder, solvent accessible area, overlapping properties, averaged cumulative hydrophobicity, and k-nearest neighbor, were able to obtain better results than the previously used attributes by other similar methods. This method achieved AUC values of 0.8405/0.8183/0.7383 for serine (S), threonine (T), and tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation sites, respectively, in animals with a tenfold cross-validation. The model trained by the animal phosphorylation sites was also applied to a plant phosphorylation site dataset as an independent test. The AUC values for the independent test dataset were 0.7761/0.6652/0.5958 for S/T/Y phosphorylation sites, which compared favorably with those of several existing methods. A web server based on our method was constructed for public use. The server, trained model, and all datasets used in the current study are available at http://sysbio.unl.edu/PhosphoSVM .

  17. Influence of S100A6 on CacyBP/SIP Phosphorylation and Elk-1 Transcriptional Activity in Neuroblastoma NB2a Cells.

    PubMed

    Wasik, Urszula; Kadziolka, Beata; Kilanczyk, Ewa; Filipek, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have found that casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylates the CacyBP/SIP protein under in vitro conditions and have mapped the phosphorylation site to threonine 184. Moreover, we present evidence that S100A6, a CacyBP/SIP interacting protein, inhibits this phosphorylation in the presence of Ca(2+). CacyBP/SIP phosphorylation by CKII was also observed in neuroblastoma NB2a cells. Interestingly, we have found that the effect of DRB, a CKII inhibitor, on CacyBP/SIP phosphorylation state is similar to that of S100A6 overexpression. Phosphorylation at threonine 184 seems to have an effect on CacyBP/SIP phosphatase activity since the T184E phosphorylation mimic mutant overexpressed in NB2a cells has lower phosphatase activity toward p-ERK1/2 when compared to the non-phosphorylable T184A mutant or to the wild-type protein. In conclusion, our data suggest that S100A6 and Ca(2+), through inhibiting CacyBP/SIP phosphorylation on threonine 184, are important regulators of CacyBP/SIP phosphatase activity and of ERK1/2-Elk-1 signaling pathway.

  18. Phosphorylation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1a by protein kinase A (PKA) regulates transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qingming; Giorgianni, Francesco; Deng, Xiong; Beranova-Giorgianni, Sarka; Bridges, Dave; Park, Edwards A; Raghow, Rajendra; Elam, Marshall B

    2014-07-11

    The counter-regulatory hormone glucagon inhibits lipogenesis via downregulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1). The effect of glucagon is mediated via protein kinase A (PKA). To determine if SREBP-1 is a direct phosphorylation target of PKA, we conducted mass spectrometry analysis of recombinant n-terminal SREBP-1a following PKA treatment in vitro. This analysis identified serines 331/332 as bona-fide phosphorylation targets of PKA. To determine the functional consequences of phosphorylation at these sites, we constructed mammalian expression vector for both nSREBP-1a and 1c isoforms in which the candidate PKA phosphorylation sites were mutated to active phosphomimetic or non-phosphorylatable amino acids. The transcriptional activity of SREBP was reduced by the phosphomimetic mutation of S332 of nSREBP-1a and the corresponding serine (S308) of nSREBP-1c. This site is a strong candidate for mediating the negative regulatory effect of glucagon on SREBP-1 and lipogenesis.

  19. Purification of catalytic domain of rat spleen p72syk kinase and its phosphorylation and activation by protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, P; Heiland, M; Kornetzky, L; Medem, S; Laufs, R

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic domain of p72(syk) kinase (CDp72(syk)) was purified from a 30000 g particulate fraction of rat spleen. The purification procedure employed sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-Sephacel and Superdex-200, and elution from HA-Ultrogel by chloride. The analysis of the final CDp72(syk) preparation by SDS/PAGE revealed a major silver-stained 40 kDa protein. The kinase was identified by covalent modification of its ATP-binding site with [14C]5'-fluorosulphonylbenzoyladenosine and by immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against the 'linker' region of p72(syk). By using poly(Glu4, Tyr1) as a substrate, the specific activity of the enzyme was determined as 18.5 nmol Pi/min per mg. Casein, histones H1 and H2B and myelin basic protein were efficiently phosphorylated by CDp72(syk). The kinase exhibited a limited ability to phosphorylate random polymers containing tyrosine residues. CDp72(syk) autophosphorylation activity was associated with an activation of the kinase towards exogenous substrates. The extent of activation was dependent on the substrates added. CDp72(syk) was phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) on serine and threonine residues. With a newly developed assay method, we demonstrated that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation had a strong activating effect on the tyrosine kinase activity of CDp72(syk). Studies extended to conventional PKC isoforms revealed an isoform-dependent manner (alpha > betaI = betaII > gamma) of CDp72(syk) phosphorylation. The different phosphorylation efficiencies of the PKC isoforms closely correlated with the ability to enhance the tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:9531509

  20. Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. A novel mechanism for regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Carrey, E A; Campbell, D G; Hardie, D G

    1985-01-01

    The trifunctional protein CAD, which contains the first three enzyme activities of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis (carbamyl phosphate synthetase II, aspartate transcarbamylase and dihydro-orotase), is phosphorylated stoichiometrically by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation activates the ammonia-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase activity of the complex by reducing the apparent Km for ATP. This effect is particularly marked in the presence of the allosteric feedback inhibitor, UTP, when the apparent Km is reduced by greater than 4-fold. Inhibition by physiological concentrations of UTP is substantially relieved by phosphorylation. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates two serine residues on the protein termed sites 1 and 2, and the primary structures of tryptic peptides containing these sites have been determined: Site 1: Arg-Leu-Ser(P)-Ser-Phe-Val-Thr-Lys Site 2: Ile-His-Arg-Ala-Ser(P)-Asp-Pro-Gly-Leu-Pro-Ala-Glu-Glu-Pro-Lys During the phosphorylation reaction, activation of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase shows a better correlation with occupancy of site 1 rather than site 2. Both phosphorylation and activation can be reversed using purified preparations of the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatases 1- and -2A, and inactivation also correlates better with dephosphorylation of site 1 rather than site 2. We believe this to be the first report that a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis is regulated in a significant manner by reversible covalent modification. The physiological role of this phosphorylation in the stimulation of cell proliferation by growth factors and other mitogens is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. PMID:4092695

  1. Protein Phosphorylation in Amyloplasts Regulates Starch Branching Enzyme Activity and Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tetlow, Ian J.; Wait, Robin; Lu, Zhenxiao; Akkasaeng, Rut; Bowsher, Caroline G.; Esposito, Sergio; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Morell, Matthew K.; Emes, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts and chloroplasts of Triticum aestivum (wheat) was investigated after the incubation of intact plastids with γ-32P-ATP. Among the soluble phosphoproteins detected in plastids, three forms of starch branching enzyme (SBE) were phosphorylated in amyloplasts (SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb), and both forms of SBE in chloroplasts (SBEI and SBEIIa) were shown to be phosphorylated after sequencing of the immunoprecipitated 32P-labeled phosphoproteins using quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the phosphorylated SBE forms indicated that the proteins are all phosphorylated on Ser residues. Analysis of starch granule–associated phosphoproteins after incubation of intact amyloplasts with γ-32P-ATP indicated that the granule-associated forms of SBEII and two granule-associated forms of starch synthase (SS) are phosphorylated, including SSIIa. Measurement of SBE activity in amyloplasts and chloroplasts showed that phosphorylation activated SBEIIa (and SBEIIb in amyloplasts), whereas dephosphorylation using alkaline phosphatase reduced the catalytic activity of both enzymes. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation had no effect on the measurable activity of SBEI in amyloplasts and chloroplasts, and the activities of both granule-bound forms of SBEII in amyloplasts were unaffected by dephosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments using peptide-specific anti-SBE antibodies showed that SBEIIb and starch phosphorylase each coimmunoprecipitated with SBEI in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, suggesting that these enzymes may form protein complexes within the amyloplast in vivo. Conversely, dephosphorylation of immunoprecipitated protein complex led to its disassembly. This article reports direct evidence that enzymes of starch metabolism (amylopectin synthesis) are regulated by protein phosphorylation and indicate a wider role for protein phosphorylation and protein

  2. Preorganized Peptide Scaffolds as Mimics of Phosphorylated Proteins Binding Sites with a High Affinity for Uranyl.

    PubMed

    Starck, Matthieu; Sisommay, Nathalie; Laporte, Fanny A; Oros, Stéphane; Lebrun, Colette; Delangle, Pascale

    2015-12-07

    Cyclic peptides with two phosphoserines and two glutamic acids were developed to mimic high-affinity binding sites for uranyl found in proteins such as osteopontin, which is believed to be a privileged target of this ion in vivo. These peptides adopt a β-sheet structure that allows the coordination of the latter amino acid side chains in the equatorial plane of the dioxo uranyl cation. Complementary spectroscopic and analytical methods revealed that these cyclic peptides are efficient uranyl chelating peptides with a large contribution from the phosphorylated residues. The conditional affinity constants were measured by following fluorescence tryptophan quenching and are larger than 10(10) at physiological pH. These compounds are therefore promising models for understanding uranyl chelation by proteins, which is relevant to this actinide ion toxicity.

  3. Cellular progesterone receptor phosphorylation in response to ligands activating protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.V.; Peralta, W.D.; Greene, G.L.; Fox, C.F.

    1987-08-14

    Progesterone receptors were immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies KD68 from lysates of human breast carcinoma T47D cells labelled to steady state specific activity with /sup 32/Pi. The 120 kDa /sup 32/P-labelled progesterone receptor band was resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by autoradiography. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed serine phosphorylation, but no threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of the /sup 32/Pi-labelled cells with EGF, TPA or dibutyryl cAMP had no significant quantitative effect on progesterone receptor phosphorylation, though the EGF receptor and the cAMP-dependent protein kinases have been reported to catalyze phosphorylation of purified avian progesterone receptor preparations in cell free systems. Progesterone receptor phosphorylation on serine residues was increased by 2-fold in cells treated with 10 nM progesterone; EGF had no effect on progesterone-mediated progesterone receptor phosphorylation.

  4. Distinct phosphorylation sites on the ghrelin receptor, GHSR1a, establish a code that determines the functions of ß-arrestins

    PubMed Central

    Bouzo-Lorenzo, Monica; Santo-Zas, Icía; Lodeiro, Maria; Nogueiras, Rubén; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Castro, Marian; Pazos, Yolanda; Tobin, Andrew B; Butcher, Adrian J.; Camiña, Jesús P.

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR1a, mediates the biological activities of ghrelin, which includes the secretion of growth hormone, as well as the stimulation of appetite, food intake and maintenance of energy homeostasis. Mapping phosphorylation sites on GHSR1a and knowledge of how these sites control specific functional consequences unlocks new strategies for the development of therapeutic agents targeting individual functions. Herein, we have identified the phosphorylation of different sets of sites within GHSR1a which engender distinct functionality of ß-arrestins. More specifically, the Ser362, Ser363 and Thr366 residues at the carboxyl-terminal tail were primarily responsible for ß-arrestin 1 and 2 binding, internalization and ß-arrestin-mediated proliferation and adipogenesis. The Thr350 and Ser349 are not necessary for ß-arrestin recruitment, but are involved in the stabilization of the GHSR1a-ß-arrestin complex in a manner that determines the ultimate cellular consequences of ß-arrestin signaling. We further demonstrated that the mitogenic and adipogenic effect of ghrelin were mainly dependent on the ß-arrestin bound to the phosphorylated GHSR1a. In contrast, the ghrelin function on GH secretion was entirely mediated by G protein signaling. Our data is consistent with the hypothesis that the phosphorylation pattern on the C terminus of GHSR1a determines the signaling and physiological output. PMID:26935831

  5. Mitochondrial ATP-Pi exchange complex and the site of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hatefi, Y; Hanstein, W G; Galante, Y; Stiggall, D L

    1975-07-01

    Five enzyme complexes, which are concerned with electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, have been isolated from beef heart mitochondria. Enzyme complexes I, II, III and IV are the electron transfer complexes discovered in 1961. Complex V is an energy-conserving complex. It catalyzes ATP-Pi exchange and ATP hydrolysis. The exchange reaction is sensitive to uncouplers, rutamycin, valinomycin plus K-+, dicyclorexylcarboditmide, arsenate, azide, and adenylyl imidodiphosphate. It is also specific for ATP; ITP, GTP and UTP are essentially ineffective. Studies with the photoaffinity labeling uncoupler, 2-azido-4-nitrophenol (NPA), have shown that the mitochondrial uncoupler-binding sites are located exclusively in complex V. Complexes I, III and IV, which carry the three coupling sites of the respiratory chain, had negligible capacity for the binding of NPA, whereas the uncoupler-binding capacity of complex V appeared to be increased two- to threefold as compared to mitochondria. Complexes I, II, III, IV and V are obtained from the same batch of mitochondria by a simple fractionation procedure, which employs cholate, deoxycholate, ammonium acetate and ammonium sulfate. Studies with NPA have shown that mitochondria contain per milligram protein about 0.6 nmole of uniformly reacting uncoupler binding site. All of the uncouplers tested appeared to interact competitively with this site. Photoaffinity labeling with tritiated NPA has shown that a major portion of NPA binds to a polypeptide of molecular weight between 26,000 and 30,000. Other studies on the mechanism of uncoupling have shown that picrate is a membrane-impermeable uncoupler. It cannot uncouple mitochondria. However, it is an effective uncoupler of ATP synthesis and ATP-induced transhydrogenation or reverse electron transfer when used in conjunction with sonicated submitochondrial particles, which have an inside-out orientation of the inner membrane with respect to the medium. In these particles, picrate

  6. Potential regulatory phosphorylation sites in a Medicago truncatula plasma membrane proton pump implicated during early symbiotic signaling in roots.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Volkening, Jeremy D; Rose, Christopher M; Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Ané, Jean-Michel; Sussman, Michael R

    2015-08-04

    In plants and fungi the plasma membrane proton pump generates a large proton-motive force that performs essential functions in many processes, including solute transport and the control of cell elongation. Previous studies in yeast and higher plants have indicated that phosphorylation of an auto-inhibitory domain is involved in regulating pump activity. In this report we examine the Medicago truncatula plasma membrane proton pump gene family, and in particular MtAHA5. Yeast complementation assays with phosphomimetic mutations at six candidate sites support a phosphoregulatory role for two residues, suggesting a molecular model to explain early Nod factor-induced changes in the plasma membrane proton-motive force of legume root cells.

  7. Adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide reduces phosphorylation and toxicity of the polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor in spinobulbar muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Maria Josè; Parodi, Sara; Piol, Diana; Stack, Conor; Chivet, Mathilde; Contestabile, Andrea; Miranda, Helen C; Lievens, Patricia M-J; Espinoza, Stefano; Jochum, Tobias; Rocchi, Anna; Grunseich, Christopher; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Cato, Andrew C B; Lieberman, Andrew P; La Spada, Albert R; Sambataro, Fabio; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Gozes, Illana; Pennuto, Maria

    2016-12-21

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA belongs to the family of polyQ diseases, which are fatal neurodegenerative disorders mainly caused by protein-mediated toxic gain-of-function mechanisms and characterized by deposition of misfolded proteins in the form of aggregates. The neurotoxicity of the polyQ proteins can be modified by phosphorylation at specific sites, thereby providing the rationale for the development of disease-specific treatments. We sought to identify signaling pathways that modulate polyQ-AR phosphorylation for therapy development. We report that cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) phosphorylates polyQ-AR specifically at Ser(96) Phosphorylation of polyQ-AR by CDK2 increased protein stabilization and toxicity and is negatively regulated by the adenylyl cyclase (AC)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. To translate these findings into therapy, we developed an analog of pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), a potent activator of the AC/PKA pathway. Chronic intranasal administration of the PACAP analog to knock-in SBMA mice reduced Ser(96) phosphorylation, promoted polyQ-AR degradation, and ameliorated disease outcome. These results provide proof of principle that noninvasive therapy based on the use of PACAP analogs is a therapeutic option for SBMA.

  8. Cdk2-dependent phosphorylation of Id2 modulates activity of E2A-related transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Hara, E; Hall, M; Peters, G

    1997-01-01

    The helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein Id2 is thought to affect the balance between cell growth and differentiation by negatively regulating the function of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. Id2 acts by forming heterodimers that are unable to bind to specific (E-box) DNA sequences. Here we show that this activity can be overcome by phosphorylation of a serine residue within a consensus target site for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). In vitro, Id2 can be phosphorylated by either cyclin E-Cdk2 or cyclin A-Cdk2 but not by cyclin D-dependent kinases. Analogous phosphorylation occurs in serum-stimulated human diploid fibroblasts at a time in late G1 consistent with the appearance of active cyclin E-Cdk2. The phosphorylation of Id2 in these cells correlates with the restoration of a distinct E-box-dependent DNA-binding complex, suggesting that the levels of this complex are modulated by both the abundance and phosphorylation status of Id2. These data provide a link between cyclin-dependent kinases and bHLH transcription factors that may be critical for the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:9029153

  9. Cdk5/p35 phosphorylates lemur tyrosine kinase-2 to regulate protein phosphatase-1C phosphorylation and activity.

    PubMed

    Manser, Catherine; Vagnoni, Alessio; Guillot, Florence; Davies, Jennifer; Miller, Christopher C J

    2012-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk5)/p35 and protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) are two major enzymes that control a variety of physiological processes within the nervous system including neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity and axonal transport. Defective cdk5/p35 and PP1 function are also implicated in several major human neurodegenerative diseases. Cdk5/p35 and the catalytic subunit of PP1 (PP1C) both bind to the brain-enriched, serine-threonine kinase lemur tyrosine kinase-2 (LMTK2). Moreover, LMTK2 phosphorylates PP1C on threonine-320 (PP1Cthr³²⁰) to inhibit its activity. Here, we demonstrate that LMTK2 is phosphorylated on serine-1418 (LMTK2ser¹⁴¹⁸) by cdk5/p35 and present evidence that this regulates its ability to phosphorylate PP1Cthr³²⁰. We thus describe a new signalling pathway within the nervous system that links cdk5/p35 with PP1C and which has implications for a number of neuronal functions and neuronal dysfunction.

  10. Functional regulation of PVBV Nuclear Inclusion protein-a protease activity upon interaction with Viral Protein genome-linked and phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, C.; Jimsheena, V.K.; Banerjee, S.; Makinen, K.; Gowda, L.R.; Savithri, H.S.

    2012-01-20

    Regulation of NIa-Pro is crucial for polyprotein processing and hence, for successful infection of potyviruses. We have examined two novel mechanisms that could regulate NIa-Pro activity. Firstly, the influence of VPg domain on the proteolytic activity of NIa-Pro was investigated. It was shown that the turnover number of the protease increases when these two domains interact (cis: two-fold; trans: seven-fold) with each other. Secondly, the protease activity of NIa-Pro could also be modulated by phosphorylation at Ser129. A mutation of this residue either to aspartate (phosphorylation-mimic) or alanine (phosphorylation-deficient) drastically reduces the protease activity. Based on these observations and molecular modeling studies, we propose that interaction with VPg as well as phosphorylation of Ser129 could relay a signal through Trp143 present at the protein surface to the active site pocket by subtle conformational changes, thus modulating protease activity of NIa-Pro.

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates CtBP1 and down-regulates its activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Youn; Kang, Byung-Hee; Lee, Soon-Min; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► AMPK phosphorylates CtBP1 on serine 158. ► AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 causes the ubiquitination and nuclear export of CtBP1. ► AMPK downregulates the CtBP1-mediated repression of Bax transcription. -- Abstract: CtBP is a transcriptional repressor which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. It was reported that glucose withdrawal causes induction of Bax due to the dissociation of CtBP from the Bax promoter. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of CtBP still remains unclear. In this study, we found that an activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates CtBP1 on Ser-158 upon metabolic stresses. Moreover, AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 (S158) attenuates the repressive function of CtBP1. We also confirmed that triggering activation of AMPK by various factors resulted in an increase of Bax gene expression. These findings provide connections of AMPK with CtBP1-mediated regulation of Bax expression for cell death under metabolic stresses.

  12. Comparison of CID, ETD and metastable atom-activated dissociation (MAD) of doubly and triply charged phosphorylated tau peptides.

    PubMed

    Cook, Shannon L; Zimmermann, Carolyn M; Singer, David; Fedorova, Maria; Hoffmann, Ralf; Jackson, Glen P

    2012-06-01

    The fragmentation behavior of the 2+ and 3+ charge states of eleven different phosphorylated tau peptides was studied using collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and metastable atom-activated dissociation (MAD). The synthetic peptides studied contain up to two known phosphorylation sites on serine or threonine residues, at least two basic residues, and between four and eight potential sites of phosphorylation. CID produced mainly b-/y-type ions with abundant neutral losses of the phosphorylation modification. ETD produced c-/z-type ions in highest abundance but also showed numerous y-type ions at a frequency about 50% that of the z-type ions. The major peaks observed in the ETD spectra correspond to the charge-reduced product ions and small neutral losses from the charge-reduced peaks. ETD of the 2+ charge state of each peptide generally produced fewer backbone cleavages than the 3+ charge state, consistent with previous reports. Regardless of charge state, MAD achieved more extensive backbone cleavage than CID or ETD, while retaining the modification(s) in most cases. In all but one case, unambiguous modification site determination was achieved with MAD. MAD produced 15-20% better sequence coverage than CID and ETD for both the 2+ and 3+ charge states and very different fragmentation products indicating that the mechanism of fragmentation in MAD is unique and complementary to CID and ETD.

  13. Enhancement of BACE1 Activity by p25/Cdk5-Mediated Phosphorylation in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Won; Seo, Hyemyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Chung, Sul-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The activity of beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is elevated during aging and in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms of this change are not well understood. p25/Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Here, we describe a potential mechanism by which BACE activity is increased in AD brains. First, we show that BACE1 is phosphorylated by the p25/Cdk5 complex at Thr252 and that this phosphorylation increases BACE1 activity. Then, we demonstrate that the level of phospho-BACE1 is increased in the brains of AD patients and in mammalian cells and transgenic mice that overexpress p25. Furthermore, the fraction of p25 prepared from iodixanol gradient centrifugation was unexpectedly protected by protease digestion, suggesting that p25/Cdk5-mediated BACE1 phosphorylation may occur in the lumen. These results reveal a link between p25 and BACE1 in AD brains and suggest that upregulated Cdk5 activation by p25 accelerates AD pathogenesis by enhancing BACE1 activity via phosphorylation. PMID:26317805

  14. Activation of the yeast Hippo pathway by phosphorylation-dependent assembly of signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Rock, Jeremy M; Lim, Daniel; Stach, Lasse; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W; Keck, Jamie M; Jones, Michele H; Wong, Catherine C L; Yates, John R; Winey, Mark; Smerdon, Stephen J; Yaffe, Michael B; Amon, Angelika

    2013-05-17

    Scaffold-assisted signaling cascades guide cellular decision-making. In budding yeast, one such signal transduction pathway called the mitotic exit network (MEN) governs the transition from mitosis to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The MEN is conserved and in metazoans is known as the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. We found that signaling through the MEN kinase cascade was mediated by an unusual two-step process. The MEN kinase Cdc15 first phosphorylated the scaffold Nud1. This created a phospho-docking site on Nud1, to which the effector kinase complex Dbf2-Mob1 bound through a phosphoserine-threonine binding domain, in order to be activated by Cdc15. This mechanism of pathway activation has implications for signal transmission through other kinase cascades and might represent a general principle in scaffold-assisted signaling.

  15. Potential sites of CFTR activation by tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Billet, Arnaud; Jia, Yanlin; Jensen, Timothy J.; Hou, Yue-Xian; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Riordan, John R.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The CFTR chloride channel is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple serine residues. Recently it has been proposed that its activity is also regulated by tyrosine kinases, however the tyrosine phosphorylation sites remain to be identified. In this study we examined 2 candidate tyrosine residues near the boundary between the first nucleotide binding domain and the R domain, a region which is important for channel function but devoid of PKA consensus sequences. Mutating tyrosines at positions 625 and 627 dramatically reduced responses to Src or Pyk2 without altering the activation by PKA, suggesting they may contribute to CFTR regulation. PMID:26645934

  16. Effects of targeted phosphorylation site mutations in the DNA-PKcs phosphorylation domain on low and high LET radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Ian M; Bell, Justin J; Maeda, Junko; Genet, Matthew D; Romero, Ashley; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamuta, Hisashi; Kamada, Tadashi; Chen, David J; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of targeted mutations in the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and phosphorylation domains on the survival of cells in response to different qualities of ionizing radiation. Mutated Chinese hamster ovary V3 cells were exposed to 500 MeV/nucleon initial energy and 200 keV/μm monoenergetic Fe ions; 290 MeV/nucleon initial energy and average 50 keV/μm spread-out Bragg peak C ions; 70 MeV/nucleon initial energy and 1 keV/μm monoenergetic protons; and 0.663 MeV initial energy and 0.3 keV/μm Cs(137) γ radiation. The results demonstrated that sensitivity to high linear energy transfer radiation is increased when both S2056 and T2609 clusters each contain a point mutation or multiple mutations are present in either cluster, whereas the phosphoinositide 3 kinase cluster only requires a single mutation to induce the sensitized phenotype of V3 cells. Additionally, the present study demonstrated that sensitivity to DNA cross-linking damage by cisplatin only requires a single mutation in one of the three clusters and that additional point mutations do not increase cell sensitivity.

  17. Structure-activity approach in the reactivation of tabun-phosphorylated human acetylcholinesterase with bispyridinium para-aldoximes.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Calić, Maja; Sinko, Goran; Bosak, Anita

    2007-06-01

    We investigated interactions of bispyridinium para-aldoximes N,N'-(propano)bis(4-hydroxyiminomethyl) pyridinium bromide (TMB-4), N,N'-(ethano)bis(4-hydroxyiminomethyl)pyridinium methanosulphonate (DMB-4), and N,N'-(methano)bis(4-hydroxyiminomethyl)pyridinium chloride (MMB-4) with human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase phosphorylated by tabun. We analysed aldoxime conformations to determine the flexibility of aldoxime as an important feature for binding to the acetylcholinesterase active site. Tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase was completely reactivated only by the most flexible bispyridinium aldoxime - TMB-4 with a propylene chain between two rings. Shorter linkers than propylene (methylene or ethylene) as in MMB-4 and DMB-4 did not allow appropriate orientation in the active site, and MMB-4 and DMB-4 were not efficient reactivators of tabun-phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase. Since aldoximes are also reversible inhibitors of native acetylcholinesterase, we determined dissociation constants and their protective index against acetylcholinesterase inactivation by tabun.

  18. A molecular model of phosphorylation-based activation and potentiation of tarantula muscle thick filaments

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Reicy; Alamo, Lorenzo; Lundberg, Ulf; Guerrero, José R.; Pinto, Antonio; Sulbarán, Guidenn; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; Craig, Roger; Padrón, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    Myosin filaments from many muscles are activated by phosphorylation of their regulatory light chains (RLCs). To elucidate the structural mechanism of activation, we have studied RLC phosphorylation in tarantula thick filaments, whose high resolution structure is known. In the relaxed state, tarantula RLCs are ~50% non- and 50% mono-phosphorylated, while on activation mono-phosphorylation increases and some RLCs become bi-phosphorylated. Mass spectrometry shows that relaxed-state mono-phosphorylation occurs on Ser35 while Ca2+-activated phosphorylation is on Ser45, both located near the RLC N-terminus. The sequences around these serines suggest they are the targets for protein kinase C (PKC) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) respectively. The atomic model of the tarantula filament shows that the two myosin heads (“free” and “blocked”) are in different environments, with only the free head serines readily accessible to kinases. Thus PKC Ser35 mono-phosphorylation in relaxed filaments would occur only on the free heads. Structural considerations suggest these heads are less strongly bound to the filament backbone, and may oscillate occasionally between attached and detached states (“swaying” heads). These heads would be available for immediate actin interaction upon Ca2+-activation of the thin filaments. Once MLCK becomes activated, it phosphorylates free heads on Ser45. These heads become fully mobile, exposing blocked-head Ser45 to MLCK. This would release the blocked-heads, allowing their interaction with actin. On this model, twitch force would be produced by rapid interaction of swaying free heads with activated thin filaments, while prolonged exposure to Ca2+ on tetanus would recruit new, MLCK-activated heads, resulting in force potentiation. PMID:21959262

  19. Activation of Helicobacter pylori CagA by tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for dephosphorylation of host cell proteins in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Püls, Jurgen; Fischer, Wolfgang; Haas, Rainer

    2002-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori type I strains harbour the cag pathogenicity island (cag-PAI), a 37 kb sequence,which encodes the components of a type IV secretion system. CagA, the first identified effector protein of the cag-PAI, is translocated into eukaryotic cells and tyrosine phosphorylated (CagAP-tyr) by a host cell tyrosine kinase. Translocation of CagA induces the dephosphorylation of a set of phosphorylated host cell proteins of unknown identity. CagA proteins of independent H. pylori strains vary in sequence and thus in the number and composition of putative tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs). The CagA protein of H. pylori strain J99 (CagAJ99) does not carry any of three putative tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPM-A, TPM-B or TPM-C) predicted by the MOTIF algorithm in CagA proteins. CagA,n is not tyrosine phosphorylated and is inactive in the dephosphorylation of host cell proteins. By site-specific mutagenesis,we introduced a TPM-C into CagA,. by replacing a single lysine with a tyrosine. This slight modification resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of CagAJ99 and host cell protein dephosphorylation. In contrast, the removal of the indigenous TPM-C from CagAP12 did not abolish its tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that further phosphorylated sites are present in CagAP12. By generation of hybrid CagA proteins, a phosphorylation of the most N-terminal TPM-A could be excluded. Our data suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation at TPM-C is sufficient, but not exclusive,to activate translocated CagA. Activated CagAPtr might either convert into a phosphatase itself or activate a cellular phosphatase to dephosphorylate cellular phosphoproteins and modulate cellular signalling cascades of the host.

  20. Lectin-induced activation of platelets may require only limited phosphorylation of the 47K protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, C.; Chelladurai, M.; Ganguly, P.

    1986-05-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is an N-acetylglucosamine (Glc-NAc) specific lectin which can activate platelets. Like thrombin, stimulation of platelets by WGA is accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of two polypeptides of M/sub r/ 47K and 20K. Addition of GlcNAc at different time intervals arrested that aggregation of platelets by WGA and paralleled the modification of phosphorylation of the 47K polypeptide. So, the phosphorylation of the 47K polypeptide may regulate the WGA-receptor mediated stimulation of platelets. However, the ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine in the 47K protein was markedly different in WGA-activated than thrombin-stimulated platelets. Thus, the molecular mechanism of action of thrombin and WGA could be different. To explore this idea, /sup 32/P/sub i/-labeled platelets were stimulated with WGA and the activation arrested with N-acetyl-glucosamine at different times. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of total protein at 5s showed only two phosphorylated species of 47K protein. At 60s, maximally four phosphorylated species were noted. In contrast, with thrombin using the same technique, seven to nine phosphorylated components have been reported. These results suggest that the different activators of platelets may act by different mechanisms. In addition, activation of platelets may require only limited levels of phosphorylation of the 47K polypeptide.

  1. Phosphorylation of human hnRNP protein A1 abrogates in vitro strand annealing activity.

    PubMed Central

    Cobianchi, F; Calvio, C; Stoppini, M; Buvoli, M; Riva, S

    1993-01-01

    In HeLa cells metabolically labeled in vivo with [32P] orthophosphate in the presence of okadaic acid the concentration of phosphorylated A1 protein was increased significantly as compared to controls. Purified recombinant hnRNP protein A1 served as an excellent substrate in vitro for the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and for casein kinase II (CKII). Thin layer electrophoresis of A1 acid hydrolysates showed the protein to be phosphorylated exclusively on serine residue by both kinases. V8 phosphopeptide maps revealed that the target site(s) of in vitro phosphorylation are located in the C-terminal region of A1. Phosphoamino acid sequence analysis and site directed mutagenesis identified Ser 199 as the sole phosphoamino acid in the protein phosphorylated by PKA. Phosphorylation introduced by PKA resulted in the suppression of the ability of protein A1 to promote strand annealing in vitro, without any detectable effect on its nucleic acid binding capacity. This finding indicates that phosphorylation of a single serine residue in the C-terminal domain may significantly alter the properties of protein A1. Images PMID:8451194

  2. Cyclin D activates the Rb tumor suppressor by mono-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Narasimha, Anil M; Kaulich, Manuel; Shapiro, Gary S; Choi, Yoon J; Sicinski, Piotr; Dowdy, Steven F

    2014-06-04

    The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, to release E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. In this study, we find that Rb is exclusively mono-phosphorylated in early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but show preferential E2F binding patterns. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by quantum hyper-phosphorylation. Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription, whereas cells undergoing differentiation utilize un-phosphorylated Rb. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that mono-phosphorylated Rb, generated by cyclin D:Cdk4/6, is the only Rb isoform in early G1 phase.

  3. Serine 649 phosphorylation within the protein kinase C-regulated domain down-regulates CARMA1 activity in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Miguel E; Sommer, Karen; Haftmann, Claudia; Sontheimer, Clayton; Andrews, Sarah F; Rawlings, David J

    2009-12-01

    Phosphorylation of CARMA1 is a crucial event initiating the assembly of IkappaB kinase and JNK signaling complexes downstream of activated Ag receptors. We previously mapped three protein kinase C (PKC) target sites in murine CARMA1 in vitro, and demonstrated that mutation of two of these serines (S564 and S657) resulted in reduced NF-kappaB activation, whereas mutation of the third serine (S649) had no clear effect. In this study, we report that when low concentrations of Ag receptor activators are used, loss of S649 (by mutation to alanine) promotes enhanced IkappaB kinase and JNK activation in both B and T cell lines. Reconstitution of CARMA1(-/-) DT40 B cells with CARMA1 S649A leads to increased cell death and reduced cell growth in comparison to wild-type CARMA1, likely a result of enhanced JNK activation. To directly determine whether S649 is modified in vivo, we generated phospho-specific Abs recognizing phospho-S649, and phospho-S657 as a positive control. Although phospho-S657 peaked and declined rapidly after Ag receptor stimulation, phospho-S649 occurred later and was maintained for a significantly longer period poststimulation in both B and T cells. Interestingly, phospho-S657 was completely abolished in PKCbeta-deficient B cells, whereas delayed phosphorylation at S649 was partially intact and depended, in part, upon novel PKC activity. Thus, distinct PKC-mediated CARMA1 phosphorylation events exert opposing effects on the activation status of CARMA1. We propose that early phosphorylation events at S657 and S564 promote the initial assembly of the CARMA1 signalosome, whereas later phosphorylation at S649 triggers CARMA1 down-regulation.

  4. Fyn phosphorylates AMPK to inhibit AMPK activity and AMP-dependent activation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Eijiro; Okada, Shuichi; Bastie, Claire C.; Vatish, Manu; Nakajima, Yasuyo; Shibusawa, Ryo; Ozawa, Atsushi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Yamada, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that proto-oncogene Fyn decreased energy expenditure and increased metabolic phenotypes. Also Fyn decreased autophagy-mediated muscle mass by directly inhibiting LKB1 and stimulating STAT3 activities, respectively. AMPK, a downstream target of LKB1, was recently identified as a key molecule controlling autophagy. Here we identified that Fyn phosphorylates the α subunit of AMPK on Y436 and inhibits AMPK enzymatic activity without altering the assembly state of the AMPK heterotrimeric complex. As pro-inflammatory mediators are reported modulators of the autophagy processes, treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα resulted in 1) increased Fyn activity 2) stimulated Fyn-dependent AMPKα tyrosine phosphorylation and 3) decreased AICAR-dependent AMPK activation. Importantly, TNFα induced inhibition of autophagy was not observed when AMPKα was mutated on Y436. 4) These data demonstrate that Fyn plays an important role in relaying the effects of TNFα on autophagy and apoptosis via phosphorylation and inhibition of AMPK. PMID:27626315

  5. Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activated by Prostaglandin E2 Phosphorylates Connexin 43 and Closes Osteocytic Hemichannels in Response to Continuous Flow Shear Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Manuel A.; Burra, Sirisha; Kar, Rekha; Lampe, Paul D.; Jiang, Jean X.

    2015-01-01

    Cx43 hemichannels serve as a portal for the release of prostaglandins, a critical process in mediating biological responses of mechanical loading on bone formation and remodeling. We have previously observed that fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) opens hemichannels; however, sustained FFSS results in hemichannel closure, as continuous opening of hemichannels is detrimental to cell viability and bone remodeling. However, the mechanism that regulates the closure of the hemichannels is unknown. Here, we show that activation of p44/42 ERK upon continuous FFSS leads to Cx43 phosphorylation at Ser279-Ser282, sites known to be phosphorylated sites by p44/42 MAPK. Incubation of osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells with conditioned media (CM) collected after continuous FFSS increased MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of Cx43. CM treatment inhibited hemichannel opening and this inhibition was reversed when cells were pretreated with the MAPK pathway inhibitor. We found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) accumulates in the CM in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with PGE2 increased phospho-p44/42 ERK levels and also Cx43 phosphorylation at Ser279-Ser282 sites. Depletion of PGE2 from CM, and pre-treatment with a p44/42 ERK pathway-specific inhibitor, resulted in a complete inhibition of ERK-dependent Cx43 phosphorylation and attenuated the inhibition of hemichannels by CM and PGE2. Consistently, the opening of hemichannels by FFSS was blocked by PGE2 and CM and this blockage was reversed by U0126 and the CM depleted of PGE2. A similar observation was also obtained in isolated primary osteocytes. Together, results from this study suggest that extracellular PGE2 accumulated after continuous FFSS is responsible for activation of p44/42 ERK signaling and subsequently, direct Cx43 phosphorylation by activated ERK leads to hemichannel closure. PMID:26442583

  6. Fenofibrate activates AMPK and increases eNOS phosphorylation in HUVEC

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Hisashi; Murakami, Ryuichiro . E-mail: ryuichi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kambe, Fukushi; Cao, Xia; Takahashi, Ryotaro; Asai, Toru; Hirai, Toshihisa; Numaguchi, Yasushi; Okumura, Kenji; Seo, Hisao; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2006-03-24

    Fenofibrate improves endothelial function by lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects. Additionally, fenofibrate has been demonstrated to upregulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported to phosphorylate eNOS at Ser-1177 and stimulate vascular endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) production. We report here that fenofibrate activates AMPK and increases eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Incubation of HUVEC with fenofibrate increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Fenofibrate simultaneously increased eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. Inhibitors of protein kinase A and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase failed to suppress the fenofibrate-induced eNOS phosphorylation. Neither bezafibrate nor WY-14643 activated AMPK in HUVEC. Furthermore, fenofibrate activated AMPK without requiring any transcriptional activities. These results indicate that fenofibrate stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production through AMPK activation, which is suggested to be a novel characteristic of this agonist and unrelated to its effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}.

  7. Identification of a phosphorylation site within the P protein important for mRNA transcription and growth of parainfluenza virus 5.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dengyun; Luthra, Priya; Xu, Pei; Yoon, Haeyoung; He, Biao

    2011-08-01

    The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) of paramyxovirus consists of the large (L) protein and the phosphoprotein (P). P is heavily phosphorylated, and it is thought that the phosphorylation of P plays a role in regulating viral RNA synthesis. However, no phosphorylation site within the P protein in paramyxovirus has been identified as playing a positive role in viral RNA synthesis in virus infection. Using mass spectrometry analysis, the threonine residue at position 286 of P of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) was found phosphorylated. Mutation of T286 to alanine (T286A), aspartic acid (T286D), or glutamic acid (T286E) reduced minigenome activity. Recombinant virus containing a mutation at the T286 position (rPIV5-P-T286A) grew slower than wild-type virus; viral mRNA synthesis and protein expression of rPIV5-P-T286A were delayed. Biochemical studies showed that the binding of NP or L protein with the P mutants or tetramer formation by the mutant P proteins was unaltered from that for wild-type P. While we failed to rescue rPIV5-P-T286E virus, several revertant viruses were obtained. All non-wild-type revertants had mutations at T286 and showed defects in both minigenome activity and viral growth. This is the first time that a phosphorylation site within the P protein in paramyxovirus has been found to play a positive role in viral mRNA synthesis and virus growth.

  8. Phosphorylation-Regulated Transitions in an Oligomeric State Control the Activity of the Sae2 DNA Repair Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiong; Chow, Julia; Bernstein, Kara A.; Makharashvili, Nodar; Arora, Sucheta; Lee, Chia-Fang; Person, Maria D.; Rothstein, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    In the DNA damage response, many repair and signaling molecules mobilize rapidly at the sites of DNA double-strand breaks. This network of immediate responses is regulated at the level of posttranslational modifications that control the activation of DNA processing enzymes, protein kinases, and scaffold proteins to coordinate DNA repair and checkpoint signaling. Here we investigated the DNA damage-induced oligomeric transitions of the Sae2 protein, an important enzyme in the initiation of DNA double-strand break repair. Sae2 is a target of multiple phosphorylation events, which we identified and characterized in vivo in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both cell cycle-dependent and DNA damage-dependent phosphorylation sites in Sae2 are important for the survival of DNA damage, and the cell cycle-regulated modifications are required to prime the damage-dependent events. We found that Sae2 exists in the form of inactive oligomers that are transiently released into smaller active units by this series of phosphorylations. DNA damage also triggers removal of Sae2 through autophagy and proteasomal degradation, ensuring that active Sae2 is present only transiently in cells. Overall, this analysis provides evidence for a novel type of protein regulation where the activity of an enzyme is controlled dynamically by posttranslational modifications that regulate its solubility and oligomeric state. PMID:24344201

  9. How Phosphorylation and ATPase Activity Regulate Anion Flux though the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Zwick, Matthias; Esposito, Cinzia; Hellstern, Manuel; Seelig, Anna

    2016-07-08

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, ABCC7), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis, belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family and works as a channel for small anions, such as chloride and bicarbonate. Anion channel activity is known to depend on phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and CFTR-ATPase activity. Whereas anion channel activity has been extensively investigated, phosphorylation and CFTR-ATPase activity are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the two processes can be measured in a label-free and non-invasive manner in real time in live cells, stably transfected with CFTR. This study reveals three key findings. (i) The major contribution (≥90%) to the total CFTR-related ATP hydrolysis rate is due to phosphorylation by PKA and the minor contribution (≤10%) to CFTR-ATPase activity. (ii) The mutant CFTR-E1371S that is still conductive, but defective in ATP hydrolysis, is not phosphorylated, suggesting that phosphorylation requires a functional nucleotide binding domain and occurs in the post-hydrolysis transition state. (iii) CFTR-ATPase activity is inversely related to CFTR anion flux. The present data are consistent with a model in which CFTR is in a closed conformation with two ATPs bound. The open conformation is induced by ATP hydrolysis and corresponds to the post-hydrolysis transition state that is stabilized by phosphorylation and binding of chloride channel potentiators.

  10. Protein kinase C phosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase α1 Ser487

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Helen R.; Mancini, Sarah J.; Strembitska, Anastasiya; Jamal, Kunzah; Reihill, James A.; Palmer, Timothy M.; Gould, Gwyn W.; Salt, Ian P.

    2016-01-01

    The key metabolic regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is reported to be down-regulated in metabolic disorders, but the mechanisms are poorly characterised. Recent studies have identified phosphorylation of the AMPKα1/α2 catalytic subunit isoforms at Ser487/491, respectively, as an inhibitory regulation mechanism. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates AMPK and protein kinase B (Akt) in cultured human endothelial cells. As Akt has been demonstrated to be an AMPKα1 Ser487 kinase, the effect of VEGF on inhibitory AMPK phosphorylation in cultured primary human endothelial cells was examined. Stimulation of endothelial cells with VEGF rapidly increased AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation in an Akt-independent manner, without altering AMPKα2 Ser491 phosphorylation. In contrast, VEGF-stimulated AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation was sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and PKC activation using phorbol esters or overexpression of PKC-stimulated AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation. Purified PKC and Akt both phosphorylated AMPKα1 Ser487 in vitro with similar efficiency. PKC activation was associated with reduced AMPK activity, as inhibition of PKC increased AMPK activity and phorbol esters inhibited AMPK, an effect lost in cells expressing mutant AMPKα1 Ser487Ala. Consistent with a pathophysiological role for this modification, AMPKα1 Ser487 phosphorylation was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in human muscle. These data indicate a novel regulatory role of PKC to inhibit AMPKα1 in human cells. As PKC activation is associated with insulin resistance and obesity, PKC may underlie the reduced AMPK activity reported in response to overnutrition in insulin-resistant metabolic and vascular tissues. PMID:27784766

  11. Regulation of RNA polymerase II activity by CTD phosphorylation and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Oelgeschläger, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of mammalian RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) consists of 52 repeats of a consensus heptapeptide and is subject to phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events during each round of transcription. RNAP II activity is regulated during the cell cycle and cell cycle-dependend changes in RNAP II activity correlate well with CTD phosphorylation. In addition, global changes in the CTD phosphorylation status are observed in response to mitogenic or cytostatic signals such as growth factors, mitogens and DNA-damaging agents. Several CTD kinases are members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) superfamily and associate with transcription initiation complexes. Other CTD kinases implicated in cell cycle regulation include the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1/2 and the c-Abl tyrosine kinase. These observations suggest that reversible RNAP II CTD phosphorylation may play a key role in linking cell cycle regulatory events to coordinated changes in transcription.

  12. Phosphorylation Sites in the Hook Domain of CaVβ Subunits Differentially Modulate CaV1.2 Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Sylvain; Emrick, Michelle A.; Sadilek, Martin; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of L-type calcium current is critical for the development, function, and regulation of many cell types. CaV1.2 channels that conduct L-type calcium currents are regulated by many protein kinases, but the sites of action of these kinases remain unknown in most cases. We combined mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and whole-cell patch clamp techniques in order to identify sites of phosphorylation of CaVβ subunits in vivo and test the impact of mutations of those sites on CaV1.2 channel function in vitro. Using the CaV1.1 channel purified from rabbit skeletal muscle as a substrate for phosphoproteomic analysis, we found that Ser193 and Thr205 in the HOOK domain of CaVβ1a subunits were both phosphorylated in vivo. Ser193 is located in a potential consensus sequence for casein kinase II, but it was not phosphorylated in vitro by that kinase. In contrast, Thr205 is located in a consensus sequence for cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, and it was robustly phosphorylated in vitro by PKA. These two sites are conserved in multiple CaVβ subunit isoforms, including the principal CaVβ subunit of cardiac CaV1.2 channels, CaVβ2b. In order to assess potential modulatory effects of phosphorylation at these sites separately from effects of phosphorylation of the α11.2 subunit, we inserted phosphomimetic or phosphoinhibitory mutations in CaVβ2b and analyzed their effects on CaV1.2 channel function in transfected nonmuscle cells. The phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2bS152E decreased peak channel currents and shifted the voltage dependence of both activation and inactivation to more positive membrane potentials. The phosphoinhibitory mutation CaVβ2bS152A had opposite effects. There were no differences in peak CaV1.2 currents or voltage dependence between the phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2bT164D and the phosphoinhibitory mutation CaVβ2bT164A. However, calcium-dependent inactivation was significantly increased for the phosphomimetic mutation CaVβ2bT164D. This effect was subunit

  13. Sequential Myosin Phosphorylation Activates Tarantula Thick Filament via a Disorder-Order Transition

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza-Fonseca, L. Michel; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Thomas, David D.; Padrón, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) N-terminal extension (NTE) activates myosin in thick filaments. RLC phosphorylation plays a primary regulatory role in smooth muscle and a secondary (modulatory) role in striated muscle, which is regulated by Ca2+ via TnC/TM on the thin filament. Tarantula striated muscle exhibits both regulatory systems: one switches on/off contraction through thin filament regulation, and another through PKC constitutively Ser35 phosphorylated swaying free heads in the thick filaments that produces quick force on twitches regulated from 0 to 50% and modulation is accomplished recruiting additional force-potentiating free and blocked heads via Ca2+4-CaM-MLCK Ser45 phosphorylation. We have used microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of tarantula RLC NTE to understand the structural basis for phosphorylation-based regulation in tarantula thick filament activation. Trajectories analysis revealed that an inter-domain salt bridges network (R39/E58,E61) facilitates formation of a stable helix-coil-helix (HCH) motif made up by helices P and A in the unphosphorylated NTE of both myosin heads. Phosphorylation of blocked head on Ser45 does not induce any substantial structural change. However, phosphorylation of free head on Ser35 disrupts this salt bridge network and induces a partial extension of helix P along RLC helix A. While not directly participating in the HCH inter-domain folding, phosphorylation of Ser35 unlocks compact structure and allows the NTE to spontaneously undergo coil-helix transitions. The modest structural change induced by subsequent Ser45 diphosphorylation monophosphorylated Ser35 free head, facilitates full helix P extension into a single structurally stable α-helix through a network of intra-domain salt bridges (pS35/R38,R39,R42). We conclude that tarantula thick filament activation is controlled by sequential Ser35-Ser45 phosphorylation via a conserved disorder-to-order transition. PMID:26038232

  14. Phosphorylation of SKAP by GSK3β ensures chromosome segregation by a temporal inhibition of Kif2b activity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bo; Cao, Dan; Wu, Huihui; Mo, Fei; Shao, Hengyi; Chu, Jane; Powell, Michael; Aikhionbare, Felix; Wang, Dongmei; Fu, Chuanhai; He, Ping; Pan, Weijun; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xing; Yao, Xuebiao

    2016-12-16

    Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by the dynamic interactions between the kinetochore and spindle microtubules. Our recent study shows SKAP is an EB1-dependent, microtubule plus-end tracking protein essential for kinetochore oscillations during mitosis. Here we show that phosphorylation of SKAP by GSK3β regulates Kif2b depolymerase activity by competing Kif2b for microtubule plus-end binding. SKAP is a bona fide substrate of GSK3β in vitro and the phosphorylation is essential for an accurate kinetochore-microtubule attachment in cells. The GSK3β-elicited phosphorylation sites were mapped by mass spectrometry and the phosphomimetic mutant of SKAP can rescue the phenotype of chromosome missegregation in SKAP-suppressed cells. Importantly, GSK3β-elicited phosphorylation promotes SKAP binding to Kif2b to regulate its depolymerase activity at the microtubule plus-ends. Based on those findings, we reason that GSK3β-SKAP-Kif2b signaling axis constitutes a dynamic link between spindle microtubule plus-ends and mitotic chromosomes to achieve faithful cell division.

  15. Phosphorylation of SKAP by GSK3β ensures chromosome segregation by a temporal inhibition of Kif2b activity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bo; Cao, Dan; Wu, Huihui; Mo, Fei; Shao, Hengyi; Chu, Jane; Powell, Michael; Aikhionbare, Felix; Wang, Dongmei; Fu, Chuanhai; He, Ping; Pan, Weijun; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xing; Yao, Xuebiao

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by the dynamic interactions between the kinetochore and spindle microtubules. Our recent study shows SKAP is an EB1-dependent, microtubule plus-end tracking protein essential for kinetochore oscillations during mitosis. Here we show that phosphorylation of SKAP by GSK3β regulates Kif2b depolymerase activity by competing Kif2b for microtubule plus-end binding. SKAP is a bona fide substrate of GSK3β in vitro and the phosphorylation is essential for an accurate kinetochore-microtubule attachment in cells. The GSK3β-elicited phosphorylation sites were mapped by mass spectrometry and the phosphomimetic mutant of SKAP can rescue the phenotype of chromosome missegregation in SKAP-suppressed cells. Importantly, GSK3β-elicited phosphorylation promotes SKAP binding to Kif2b to regulate its depolymerase activity at the microtubule plus-ends. Based on those findings, we reason that GSK3β-SKAP-Kif2b signaling axis constitutes a dynamic link between spindle microtubule plus-ends and mitotic chromosomes to achieve faithful cell division. PMID:27982129

  16. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. • Lithium enhances GSK-3β activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3β phosphorylation. • Lithium suppresses GSK-3β activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P{sub 3} production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity.

  17. Molecular Insights of p47phox Phosphorylation Dynamics in the Regulation of NADPH Oxidase Activation and Superoxide Production*

    PubMed Central

    Meijles, Daniel N.; Fan, Lampson M.; Howlin, Brendan J.; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47phox is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47phox phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47phox protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47phox is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22phox binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47phox−/− coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47phox cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47phox membrane translocation, binding to p22phox and endothelial O2⨪ production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47phox C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47phox conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells. PMID:24970888

  18. Molecular insights of p47phox phosphorylation dynamics in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activation and superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Meijles, Daniel N; Fan, Lampson M; Howlin, Brendan J; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-08-15

    Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47(phox) is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47(phox) phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47(phox) protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47(phox) is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22(phox) binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47(phox-/-) coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47(phox) cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47(phox) membrane translocation, binding to p22(phox) and endothelial O2(·-) production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47(phox) C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47(phox) conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells.

  19. The conserved dual phosphorylation sites of the Candida albicans Hog1 protein are crucial for white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Han; Liang, Shen-Huan; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has a unique morphological transition between white and opaque phases. These two cells differ in virulence, mating capability, biofilm formation, and host-cell interaction. Previous studies revealed that deletion of the SSK2, PBS2, or HOG1 gene resulted in 100% opaque cell formation and suppressed the mating response. Thr-174 and Tyr-176 of the Hog1 protein are important phosphoacceptors and can be activated in response to stimuli. In this study, we first demonstrated the importance of two conserved phosphorylation sites in white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion. Six Hog1 point-mutated strains were generated, including nonphosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174A), Hog1(Y176F), and Hog1(T174A,Y176F)) and negatively charged phosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174D), Hog1(Y176D), and Hog1(T174D,Y176D)). Point mutation on Thr-174, Tyr-176 or in combination with the Hog1 protein in C. albicans MTL homozygous strains stimulated opaque cell formation at a frequency of 100%. Furthermore, mating projections of point-mutated strains were significantly shorter and their mating efficiencies and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesive numbers were lower than those of the wild-type. By investigating the effects of Hog1 phosphorylation in ssk1Δ and sln1Δ, we also demonstrate that the phosphorylation intensity of Hog1p is directly involved in the white-opaque switching. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate that dual phosphorylation sites of C. albicans are crucial for white-opaque transition, sexual mating, and pheromone-induced cell adhesion.

  20. Interleukin-1 activates a novel protein kinase cascade that results in the phosphorylation of Hsp27.

    PubMed

    Freshney, N W; Rawlinson, L; Guesdon, F; Jones, E; Cowley, S; Hsuan, J; Saklatvala, J

    1994-09-23

    An IL-1-stimulated protein kinase cascade resulting in phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein hsp27 has been identified in KB cells. It is distinct from the p42 MAP kinase cascade. An upstream activator kinase phosphorylated a 40 kDa kinase (p40) upon threonine and tyrosine residues, which in turn phosphorylated a 50 kDa kinase (p50) upon threonine (and some serine) residues. p50 phosphorylated hsp27 upon serine. p40 and p50 were purified to near homogeneity. All three components were inactivated by protein phosphatase 2A, and p40 was inactivated by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. The substrate specificity of p40 differed from that of p42 and p54 MAP kinases. The upstream activator was not a MAP kinase kinase. p50 resembled MAPKAPK-2 and may be identical.

  1. Phosphorylation and protonation of neighboring MiRP2 sites: function and pathophysiology of MiRP2-Kv3.4 potassium channels in periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Geoffrey W; Butler, Margaret H; Goldstein, Steve A N

    2006-02-01

    MinK-related peptide 2 (MiRP2) and Kv3.4 subunits assemble in skeletal muscle to create subthreshold, voltage-gated potassium channels. MiRP2 acts on Kv3.4 to shift the voltage dependence of activation, speed recovery from inactivation, suppress cumulative inactivation and increase unitary conductance. We previously found an R83H missense mutation in MiRP2 that segregated with periodic paralysis in two families and diminished the effects of MiRP2 on Kv3.4. Here we show that MiRP2 has a single, functional PKC phosphorylation site at serine 82 and that normal MiRP2-Kv3.4 function requires phosphorylation of the site. The R83H variant does not prevent PKC phosphorylation of neighboring S82; rather, the change shifts the voltage dependence of activation and endows MiRP2-Kv3.4 channels with sensitivity to changes in intracellular pH across the physiological range. Thus, current passed by single R83H channels decreases as internal pH is lowered (pK(a) approximately 7.3, consistent with histidine protonation) whereas wild-type channels are largely insensitive. These findings identify a key regulatory domain in MiRP2 and suggest a mechanistic link between acidosis and episodes of periodic paralysis.

  2. Ser-634 and Ser-636 of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus RTA are Involved in Transactivation and are Potential Cdk9 Phosphorylation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wan-Hua; Wang, Pei-Wen; Lin, Shu-Yu; Wu, I-Lin; Ko, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Lian; Li, Mengtao; Lin, Su-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The replication and transcription activator (RTA) of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), K-RTA, is a lytic switch protein that moderates the reactivation process of KSHV latency. By mass spectrometric analysis of affinity purified K-RTA, we showed that Thr-513 or Thr-514 was the primary in vivo phosphorylation site. Thr-513 and Thr-514 are proximal to the nuclear localization signal (527KKRK530) and were previously hypothesized to be target sites of Ser/Thr kinase hKFC. However, substitutions of Thr with Ala at 513 and 514 had no effect on K-RTA subcellular localization or transactivation activity. By contrast, replacement of Ser with Ala at Ser-634 and Ser-636 located in a Ser/Pro-rich region of K-RTA, designated as S634A/S636A, produced a polypeptide with ∼10 kDa shorter in molecular weight and reduced transactivation in a luciferase reporter assay relative to the wild type. In contrast to prediction, the decrease in molecular weight was not due to lack of phosphorylation because the overall Ser and Thr phosphorylation state in K-RTA and S634A/S636A were similar, excluding that Ser-634 or Ser-636 motif served as docking sites for consecutive phosphorylation. Interestingly, S634A/S636A lost ∼30% immuno-reactivity to MPM2, an antibody specific to pSer/pThr-Pro motif, indicating that 634SPSP637 motif was in vivo phosphorylated. By in vitro kinase assay, we showed that K-RTA is a substrate of CDK9, a Pro-directed Ser/Thr kinase central to transcriptional regulation. Importantly, the capability of K-RTA in associating with endogenous CDK9 was reduced in S634A/S636A, which suggested that Ser-634 and Ser-636 may be involved in CDK9 recruitment. In agreement, S634A/S636A mutant exhibited ∼25% reduction in KSHV lytic cycle reactivation relative to that by the wild type K-RTA. Taken together, our data propose that Ser-634 and Ser-636 of K-RTA are phosphorylated by host transcriptional kinase CDK9 and such a process contributes to a full

  3. Structure of BRCA1-BRCT/Abraxas Complex Reveals Phosphorylation-Dependent BRCT Dimerization at DNA Damage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qian; Paul, Atanu; Su, Dan; Mehmood, Shahid; Foo, Tzeh Keong; Ochi, Takashi; Bunting, Emma L.; Xia, Bing; Robinson, Carol V.; Wang, Bin; Blundell, Tom L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair. BRCA1-BRCT domains bind to proteins containing the phosphorylated serine-proline-x-phenylalanine (pSPxF) motif including Abraxas, Bach1/FancJ, and CtIP. In this study, we demonstrate that ionizing radiation (IR)-induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of serine 404 (S404) next to the pSPxF motif. Crystal structures of BRCT/Abraxas show that phosphorylation of S404 is important for extensive interactions through the N-terminal sequence outside the pSPxF motif and leads to formation of a stable dimer. Mutation of S404 leads to deficiency in BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites and cellular sensitivity to IR. In addition, two germline mutations of BRCA1 are found to disrupt the dimer interface and dimer formation. Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism involving IR-induced phosphorylation and dimerization of the BRCT/Abraxas complex for regulating Abraxas-mediated recruitment of BRCA1 in response to IR. PMID:26778126

  4. Structure of BRCA1-BRCT/Abraxas Complex Reveals Phosphorylation-Dependent BRCT Dimerization at DNA Damage Sites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Paul, Atanu; Su, Dan; Mehmood, Shahid; Foo, Tzeh Keong; Ochi, Takashi; Bunting, Emma L; Xia, Bing; Robinson, Carol V; Wang, Bin; Blundell, Tom L

    2016-02-04

    BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair. BRCA1-BRCT domains bind to proteins containing the phosphorylated serine-proline-x-phenylalanine (pSPxF) motif including Abraxas, Bach1/FancJ, and CtIP. In this study, we demonstrate that ionizing radiation (IR)-induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation of serine 404 (S404) next to the pSPxF motif. Crystal structures of BRCT/Abraxas show that phosphorylation of S404 is important for extensive interactions through the N-terminal sequence outside the pSPxF motif and leads to formation of a stable dimer. Mutation of S404 leads to deficiency in BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites and cellular sensitivity to IR. In addition, two germline mutations of BRCA1 are found to disrupt the dimer interface and dimer formation. Thus, we demonstrate a mechanism involving IR-induced phosphorylation and dimerization of the BRCT/Abraxas complex for regulating Abraxas-mediated recruitment of BRCA1 in response to IR.

  5. Putative phosphorylation sites on WCA domain of HA2 is essential for Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yi-pin; Wang, Qian; Wu, Chun-chen; Pei, Rong-juan; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Chen, Xin-wen

    2011-08-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common post-translational modification processes that play an essential role in regulating protein functionality. The Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) orf2-encoded nucleocapsid protein HA2 participates in orchestration of virus-induced actin polymerization through its WCA domain, in which phosphorylation status are supposed to be critical in respect to actin polymerization. In the present study, two putative phosphorylation sites ((232)Thr and (250)Ser) and a highly conserved Serine ((245)Ser) on the WCA domain of HA2 were mutated, and their phenotypes were characterized by reintroducing the mutated HA2 into the HearNPV genome. Viral infectivity assays demonstrated that only the recombinant HearNPV bearing HA2 mutation at (245)Ser can produce infectious virions, both (232)Thr and (250)Ser mutations were lethal to the virus. However, actin polymerization assay demonstrated that all the three viruses bearing HA2 mutations were still capable of initiating actin polymerization in the host nucleus, which indicated the putative phosphorylation sites on HA2 may contribute to HearNPV replication through another unidentified pathway.

  6. Nerve Agent Exposure Elicits Site-Specific Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongwen; O’Brien, Jennifer J.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Miller, Diane B.; Zhang, Qiang; Rana, Minal; Tsui, Tiffany; Peng, Youyi; Tomesch, John; Hendrick, Joseph P.; Wennogle, Lawrence P; Snyder, Gretchen L.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds cause toxic symptoms, including convulsions, coma, and death, as the result of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The development of effective treatments to block these effects and attenuate long-term cognitive and motor disabilities that result from OP intoxication is hampered by a limited understanding of the CNS pathways responsible for these actions. We employed a candidate method (called CNSProfile™) to identify changes in the phosphorylation state of key neuronal phosphoproteins evoked by the OP compound, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Focused microwave fixation was used to preserve the phosphorylation state of phosphoproteins in brains of DFP-treated mice; hippocampus and striatum were analyzed by immunoblotting with a panel of phospho-specific antibodies. DFP exposure elicited comparable effects on phosphorylation of brain phosphoproteins in both C57BL/6 and FVB mice. DFP treatment significantly altered phosphorylation at regulatory residues on glutamate receptors, including Serine897 (S897) of the NR1 NMDA receptor. NR1 phosphorylation was bi-directionally regulated after DFP in striatum versus hippocampus. NR1 phosphorylation was reduced in striatum, but elevated in hippocampus, compared with controls. DARPP-32 phosphorylation in striatum was selectively increased at the Cdk5 kinase substrate, Threonine75 (T75). Phencynonate hydrochloride, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, prevented seizure-like behaviors and the observed changes in phosphorylation induced by DFP. The data reveal region-specific effects of nerve agent exposure on intracellular signaling pathways that correlate with seizure-like behavior and which are reversed by the muscarinic receptor blockade. This approach identifies specific targets for nerve agents, including substrates for Cdk5 kinase, which may be the basis for new anti-convulsant therapies. PMID:20423708

  7. Multisite phosphorylation of c-Jun at threonine 91/93/95 triggers the onset of c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity in cerebellar granule neurons

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, C E; Albanito, L; De Marco, P; Aiello, D; Maggiolini, M; Napoli, A; Musti, A M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cell (CGC) apoptosis by trophic/potassium (TK) deprivation is a model of election to study the interplay of pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways in neuronal cell death. In this model, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induces pro-apoptotic genes through the c-Jun/activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor. On the other side, a survival pathway initiated by lithium leads to repression of pro-apoptotic c-Jun/AP-1 target genes without interfering with JNK activity. Yet, the mechanism by which lithium inhibits c-Jun activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we used this model system to study the regulation and function of site-specific c-Jun phosphorylation at the S63 and T91/T93 JNK sites in neuronal cell death. We found that TK-deprivation led to c-Jun multiphosphorylation at all three JNK sites. However, immunofluorescence analysis of c-Jun phosphorylation at single cell level revealed that the S63 site was phosphorylated in all c-Jun-expressing cells, whereas the response of T91/T93 phosphorylation was more sensitive, mirroring the switch-like apoptotic response of CGCs. Conversely, lithium prevented T91T93 phosphorylation and cell death without affecting the S63 site, suggesting that T91T93 phosphorylation triggers c-Jun pro-apoptotic activity. Accordingly, a c-Jun mutant lacking the T95 priming site for T91/93 phosphorylation protected CGCs from apoptosis, whereas it was able to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Vice versa, a c-Jun mutant bearing aspartate substitution of T95 overwhelmed lithium-mediate protection of CGCs from TK-deprivation, validating that inhibition of T91/T93/T95 phosphorylation underlies the effect of lithium on cell death. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed multiphosphorylation of c-Jun at T91/T93/T95 in cells. Moreover, JNK phosphorylated recombinant c-Jun at T91/T93 in a T95-dependent manner. On the basis of our results, we propose that T91/T93/T95 multiphosphorylation of c-Jun functions as a

  8. 3'-Phosphorylated nucleotides are tight binding inhibitors of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y W; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1998-10-30

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxyribonucleosides diphosphates into triphosphates. NDP kinase is also involved in malignant tumors and was shown to activate in vitro transcription of the c-myc oncogene by binding to its NHE sequence. The structure of the complex of NDP kinase with bound ADP shows that the nucleotide adopts a different conformation from that observed in other phosphokinases with an internal H bond between the 3'-OH and the beta-O made free by the phosphate transfer. We use intrinsic protein fluorescence to investigate the inhibitory and binding potential of nucleotide analogues phosphorylated in 3'-OH position of the ribose to both wild type and F64W mutant NDP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Due to their 3'-phosphate, 5'-phosphoadenosine 3'-phosphate (PAP) and adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) can be regarded as structural analogues of enzyme-bound ADP. The KD of PAPS (10 microM) is three times lower than the KD of ADP. PAPS also acts as a competitive inhibitor toward natural substrates during catalysis, with a KI in agreement with binding data. The crystal structure of the binary complex between Dictyostelium NDP kinase and PAPS was solved at 2.8-A resolution. It shows a new mode of nucleotide binding at the active site with the 3'-phosphate of PAPS located near the catalytic histidine, at the same position as the gamma-phosphate in the transition state. The sulfate group is directed toward the protein surface. PAPS will be useful for the design of high affinity drugs targeted to NDP kinases.

  9. Identification of kinases, phosphatases, and phosphorylation sites in human and porcine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Brett R; Gray, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Multiple inter-connected signaling pathways, involving kinases and phosphatases, form a framework that controls sperm motility, function, and fertilizing ability. Methods that give a broad view of the proteomic landscape may prove valuable in uncovering new crosstalk connections, as well as in discovering new proteins within this regulatory framework. A multi-immunoblotting strategy was utilized to evaluate this concept on human and porcine spermatozoa samples. In human and porcine spermatozoa, a diversity of kinases were identified including protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase B (PKB), isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), calmodulin-dependent kinases (CAMK), casein kinase (CK), and isoforms of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3). Several phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase (PP)-1, PP2A, PP2C, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (MKP-1), were identified in human spermatozoa. The phosphorylation epitopes recognized belonged to members of the MAPK family, in addition to α and β isoforms of GSK3 and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Proteomic approaches that allow a broad view may aid in understanding the crosstalk between signaling systems in spermatozoal physiology.

  10. Serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity: implications for adrenarche and the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L H; Rodriguez, H; Ohno, S; Miller, W L

    1995-01-01

    Microsomal cytochrome P450c17 catalyzes both steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity and scission of the C17-C20 steroid bond (17,20-lyase) on the same active site. Adrenal 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity is needed to produce cortisol throughout life, but 17,20-lyase activity appears to be controlled independently in a complex, age-dependent pattern. We show that human P450c17 is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation of P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity, while dephosphorylation virtually eliminates this activity. Hormonally regulated serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 suggests a possible mechanism for human adrenarche and may be a unifying etiologic link between the hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance that characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479852

  11. Low dose cadmium poisoning results in sustained ERK phosphorylation and caspase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Patrick . E-mail: pmartin@unice.fr; Poggi, Marie Christine . E-mail: poggi@unice.fr; Chambard, Jean Claude . E-mail: chambard@unice.fr; Boulukos, Kim E. . E-mail: boulukos@unice.fr; Pognonec, Philippe . E-mail: pognonec@unice.fr

    2006-11-24

    Cadmium poisoning has been known to result in a wide variety of cellular responses, including oxidative stress and kinase activation. It has been reported that ERK is activated following acute cadmium exposure, and this response is commonly seen as a classical ERK survival mechanism. Here, we analyzed different cell types for their responses to low concentrations of cadmium poisoning. We found that there is an association between cell susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and ERK activation. This activation is atypical, since it consists of a sustained ERK phosphorylation, that lasts up to 6 days post stimulation. This activation is associated with the appearance of cleaved caspases 8 and 3, processed PARP, and irreversible damage. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK phosphorylation results in the ability of cells to resist cadmium poisoning. Our data indicate that low cadmium concentrations result in an unconventional ERK sustained phosphorylation, which in turn leads to death signaling.

  12. The transcriptional activity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha is inhibited via phosphorylation by ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Vető, Borbála; Bojcsuk, Dóra; Bacquet, Caroline; Kiss, Judit; Sipeki, Szabolcs; Martin, Ludovic; Buday, László; Bálint, Bálint L; Arányi, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) nuclear receptor is a master regulator of hepatocyte development, nutrient transport and metabolism. HNF4α is regulated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels by different mechanisms. Several kinases (PKA, PKC, AMPK) were shown to phosphorylate and decrease the activity of HNF4α. Activation of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway, inducing proliferation and survival, inhibits the expression of HNF4α. However, based on our previous results we hypothesized that HNF4α is also regulated at the post-transcriptional level by ERK1/2. Here we show that ERK1/2 is capable of directly phosphorylating HNF4α in vitro at several phosphorylation sites including residues previously shown to be targeted by other kinases, as well. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that phosphorylation of HNF4α leads to a reduced trans-activational capacity of the nuclear receptor in luciferase reporter gene assay. We confirm the functional relevance of these findings by demonstrating with ChIP-qPCR experiments that 30-minute activation of ERK1/2 leads to reduced chromatin binding of HNF4α. Accordingly, we have observed decreasing but not disappearing binding of HNF4α to the target genes. In addition, 24-hour activation of the pathway further decreased HNF4α chromatin binding to specific loci in ChIP-qPCR experiments, which confirms the previous reports on the decreased expression of the HNF4a gene due to ERK1/2 activation. Our data suggest that the ERK1/2 pathway plays an important role in the regulation of HNF4α-dependent hepatic gene expression.

  13. The transcriptional activity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha is inhibited via phosphorylation by ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Bacquet, Caroline; Kiss, Judit; Sipeki, Szabolcs; Martin, Ludovic; Buday, László; Bálint, Bálint L.; Arányi, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) nuclear receptor is a master regulator of hepatocyte development, nutrient transport and metabolism. HNF4α is regulated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels by different mechanisms. Several kinases (PKA, PKC, AMPK) were shown to phosphorylate and decrease the activity of HNF4α. Activation of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway, inducing proliferation and survival, inhibits the expression of HNF4α. However, based on our previous results we hypothesized that HNF4α is also regulated at the post-transcriptional level by ERK1/2. Here we show that ERK1/2 is capable of directly phosphorylating HNF4α in vitro at several phosphorylation sites including residues previously shown to be targeted by other kinases, as well. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that phosphorylation of HNF4α leads to a reduced trans-activational capacity of the nuclear receptor in luciferase reporter gene assay. We confirm the functional relevance of these findings by demonstrating with ChIP-qPCR experiments that 30-minute activation of ERK1/2 leads to reduced chromatin binding of HNF4α. Accordingly, we have observed decreasing but not disappearing binding of HNF4α to the target genes. In addition, 24-hour activation of the pathway further decreased HNF4α chromatin binding to specific loci in ChIP-qPCR experiments, which confirms the previous reports on the decreased expression of the HNF4a gene due to ERK1/2 activation. Our data suggest that the ERK1/2 pathway plays an important role in the regulation of HNF4α-dependent hepatic gene expression. PMID:28196117

  14. The CLK family kinases, CLK1 and CLK2, phosphorylate and activate the tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-1B.

    PubMed

    Moeslein, F M; Myers, M P; Landreth, G E

    1999-09-17

    The protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B is an important regulator of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and is itself regulated by phosphorylation. We report that PTP-1B and its yeast analog, YPTP, are phosphorylated and activated by members of the CLK family of dual specificity kinases. CLK1 and CLK2 phosphorylation of PTP-1B in vitro activated the phosphatase activity approximately 3-5-fold using either p-nitrophenol phosphate, or tyrosine-phosphorylated myelin basic protein as substrates. Co-expression of CLK1 or CLK2 with PTP-1B in HEK 293 cells led to a 2-fold stimulation of phosphatase activity in vivo. Phosphorylation of PTP-1B at Ser(50) by CLK1 or CLK2 is responsible for its enzymatic activation. These findings suggest that phosphorylation at Ser(50) by serine threonine kinases may regulate the activation of PTP-1B in vivo. We also show that CLK1 and CLK2 phosphorylate and activate the S. cerevisiae PTP-1B family member, YPTP1. CLK1 phosphorylation of YPTP1 led to a 3-fold stimulation of phosphatase activity in vitro. We demonstrate that CLK phosphorylation of Ser(83) on YPTP1 is responsible for the activation of this enzyme. These findings demonstrate that the CLK kinases activate PTP-1B family members, and this phosphatase may be an important cellular target for CLK action.

  15. Activation of NF-kappa B in vivo is regulated by multiple phosphorylations.

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, M; Scheidereit, C

    1994-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) in intact cells is mechanistically not well understood. Therefore we investigated the modifications imposed on NF-kappa B/I kappa B components following stimulation and show that the final step of NF-kappa B induction in vivo involves phosphorylation of several members of the NF-kappa B/I kappa B protein families. In HeLa cells as well as in B cells, TNF-alpha rapidly induced nuclear translocation primarily of p50-p65, but not of c-rel. Both NF-kappa B precursors and I kappa B alpha became strongly phosphorylated with the same kinetics. In addition to the inducible phosphorylation after stimulation, B lymphocytes containing constitutive nuclear NF-kappa B revealed constitutively phosphorylated p65 and I kappa B alpha. Phosphorylation was accompanied by induced processing of the precursors p100 and p105 and by degradation of I kappa B alpha. As an in vitro model we show that phosphorylation of p105 impedes its ability to interact with NF-kappa B, as has been shown before for I kappa B alpha. Surprisingly, even p65, but not c-rel, was phosphorylated after induction in vivo, suggesting that TNF-alpha selectively activates only specific NF-kappa B heteromers and that modifications regulate not only I kappa B molecules but also NF-kappa B molecules. In fact, cellular NF-kappa B activity was phosphorylation-dependent and the DNA binding activity of p65-containing NF-kappa B was enhanced by phosphorylation in vitro. Furthermore, we found that the induction by hydrogen peroxide of NF-kappa B translocation to the nucleus, which is assumed to be triggered by reactive oxygen intermediates, also coincided with incorporation of phosphate into the same subunits that were modified after stimulation by TNF-alpha. Thus, phosphorylation appears to be a general mechanism for activation of NF-kappa B in vivo. Images PMID:7925300

  16. CASEIN KINASE-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF SERINE 839 IS NECESSARY FOR BASOLATERAL LOCALIZATION OF THE Ca2+-ACTIVATED NON-SELECTIVE CATION CHANNEL TRPM4

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Oscar; Cáceres, Mónica; Park, Kang-Sik; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Romero, Aníbal; Varela, Diego

    2014-01-01

    TRPM4 is a Ca2+-activated non-selective cation channel expressed in a wide range of human tissues. TRPM4 participates in a variety of physiological processes such as T cell activation, myogenic vasoconstriction and allergic reactions. TRPM4 Ca2+ sensitivity is enhanced by calmodulin (CaM) and phosphathydilinositol 4, 5-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) binding, as well as, under certain conditions, PKC activation. However, information as to the mechanisms of modulation of this channel remain unknown, including direct identification of phosphorylation sites on TRPM4 and their role in channel features. Here, we use mass-spectrometric-based proteomic approaches (immunoprecipitation and tandem mass spectrometry), to unambiguously identify S839 as a phosphorylation site present on human TRPM4 expressed in a human cell line. Site-directed mutagenesis employing a serine to alanine mutation to eliminate phosphorylation, and a phospho-mimetic aspartate mutation, as well as biochemical and immunocytochemical experiments, revealed a role for S839 phosphorylation in the basolateral expression of TRPM4 channels in epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that casein kinase 1 (CK1) phosphorylates S839 and is responsible for the basolateral localization of TRPM4. PMID:25231975

  17. Re-examination of the roles of PEP and Mg2+ in the reaction catalysed by the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from leaves of Zea mays. Effects of the activators glucose 6-phosphate and glycine.

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Méndez, A; Rodríguez-Sotres, R; López-Valentín, D M; Muñoz-Clares, R A

    1998-01-01

    To study the effects of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and Mg2+ on the activity of the non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from Zea mays leaves, steady-state measurements have been carried out with the free forms of PEP (fPEP) and Mg2+ (fMg2+), both in a near-physiological concentration range. At pH 7.3, in the absence of activators, the initial velocity data obtained with both forms of the enzyme are consistent with the exclusive binding of MgPEP to the active site and of fPEP to an activating allosteric site. At pH 8.3, and in the presence of saturating concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) or Gly, the free species also combined with the active site in the free enzyme, but with dissociation constants at least 35-fold that estimated for MgPEP. The latter dissociation constant was lowered to the same extent by saturating Glc6P and Gly, to approx. one-tenth and one-sixteenth in the non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated enzymes respectively. When Glc6P is present, fPEP binds to the active site in the free enzyme better than fMg2+, whereas the metal ion binds better in the presence of Gly. Saturation of the enzyme with Glc6P abolished the activation by fPEP, consistent with a common binding site, whereas saturation with Gly increased the affinity of the allosteric site for fPEP. Under all the conditions tested, our results suggest that fPEP is not able to combine with the allosteric site in the free enzyme, i.e. it cannot combine until after MgPEP, fPEP or fMg2+ are bound at the active site. The physiological role of Mg2+ in the regulation of the enzyme is only that of a substrate, mainly as part of the MgPEP complex. The kinetic properties of maize leaf PEPC reported here are consistent with the enzyme being well below saturation under the physiological concentrations of fMg2+ and PEP, particularly during the dark period; it is therefore suggested that the basal PEPC activity in vivo is very low, but highly

  18. Structure of phosphorylated UBL domain and insights into PINK1-orchestrated parkin activation.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Jacob D; Dunkerley, Karen M; Mercier, Pascal; Shaw, Gary S

    2017-01-10

    Mutations in PARK2 and PARK6 genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary Parkinson's disease cases. These genes encode the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and the protein kinase PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), respectively. Together, parkin and PINK1 regulate the mitophagy pathway, which recycles damaged mitochondria following oxidative stress. Native parkin is inactive and exists in an autoinhibited state mediated by its ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain. PINK1 phosphorylation of serine 65 in parkin's UBL and serine 65 of ubiquitin fully activate ubiquitin ligase activity; however, a structural rationale for these observations is not clear. Here, we report the structure of the phosphorylated UBL domain from parkin. We find that destabilization of the UBL results from rearrangements to hydrophobic core packing that modify its structure. Altered surface electrostatics from the phosphoserine group disrupt its intramolecular association, resulting in poorer autoinhibition in phosphorylated parkin. Further, we show that phosphorylation of both the UBL domain and ubiquitin are required to activate parkin by releasing the UBL domain, forming an extended structure needed to facilitate E2-ubiquitin binding. Together, the results underscore the importance of parkin activation by the PINK1 phosphorylation signal and provide a structural picture of the unraveling of parkin's ubiquitin ligase potential.

  19. Structure of phosphorylated UBL domain and insights into PINK1-orchestrated parkin activation

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Jacob D.; Dunkerley, Karen M.; Mercier, Pascal; Shaw, Gary S.

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in PARK2 and PARK6 genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary Parkinson’s disease cases. These genes encode the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and the protein kinase PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), respectively. Together, parkin and PINK1 regulate the mitophagy pathway, which recycles damaged mitochondria following oxidative stress. Native parkin is inactive and exists in an autoinhibited state mediated by its ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain. PINK1 phosphorylation of serine 65 in parkin’s UBL and serine 65 of ubiquitin fully activate ubiquitin ligase activity; however, a structural rationale for these observations is not clear. Here, we report the structure of the phosphorylated UBL domain from parkin. We find that destabilization of the UBL results from rearrangements to hydrophobic core packing that modify its structure. Altered surface electrostatics from the phosphoserine group disrupt its intramolecular association, resulting in poorer autoinhibition in phosphorylated parkin. Further, we show that phosphorylation of both the UBL domain and ubiquitin are required to activate parkin by releasing the UBL domain, forming an extended structure needed to facilitate E2–ubiquitin binding. Together, the results underscore the importance of parkin activation by the PINK1 phosphorylation signal and provide a structural picture of the unraveling of parkin’s ubiquitin ligase potential. PMID:28007983

  20. Direct analysis of phosphorylation sites on the Rpb1 C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyunsuk; Ficarro, Scott B.; Kang, Un-Beom; Chun, Yujin; Marto, Jarrod A.; Buratowski, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dynamic interactions between RNA polymerase II and various mRNA processing and chromatin modifying enzymes are mediated by the changing phosphorylation pattern on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of polymerase subunit Rpb1 during different stages of transcription. Phosphorylations within the repetitive heptamer sequence (YSPTSPS) of CTD have primarily been defined using antibodies, but these do not distinguish different repeats or allow comparative quantitation. Using a CTD modified for mass spectrometry (msCTD), we show that Ser5-P and Ser2-P occur throughout the length of CTD and are far more abundant than other phosphorylation sites. msCTD extracted from cells mutated in several CTD kinases or phosphatases showed the expected changes in phosphorylation. Furthermore, msCTD associated with capping enzyme was enriched for Ser5-P while that bound to the transcription termination factor Rtt103 had higher levels of Ser2-P. These results suggest a relatively sparse and simple "CTD code". PMID:26799764

  1. Carboxyl-terminal multi-site phosphorylation regulates internalization and desensitization of the human sst2 somatostatin receptor.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Andreas; Kliewer, Andrea; Schütz, Dagmar; Nagel, Falko; Stumm, Ralf; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-04-25

    The somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2) is the pharmacological target of somatostatin analogs that are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of human neuroendocrine tumors. We have recently shown that the stable somatostatin analogs octreotide and pasireotide (SOM230) stimulate distinct patterns of sst2 receptor phosphorylation and internalization. Like somatostatin, octreotide promotes the phosphorylation of at least six carboxyl-terminal serine and threonine residues namely S341, S343, T353, T354, T356 and T359, which in turn leads to a robust receptor endocytosis. Unlike somatostatin, pasireotide stimulates a selective phosphorylation of S341 and S343 of the human sst2 receptor followed by a partial receptor internalization. Here, we show that exchange of S341 and S343 by alanine is sufficient to block pasireotide-driven internalization, whereas mutation of T353, T354, T356 and T359 to alanine is required to strongly inhibited both octreotide- and somatostatin-induced internalization. Yet, combined mutation of T353, T354, T356 and T359 is not sufficient to prevent somatostatin-driven β-arrestin mobilization and receptor desensitization. Replacement of all fourteen carboxyl-terminal serine and threonine residues by alanine completely abrogates sst2 receptor internalization and β-arrestin mobilization in HEK293 cells. Together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that agonist-selective sst2 receptor internalization is regulated by multi-site phosphorylation of its carboxyl-terminal tail.

  2. Access Denied: Snf1 Activation Loop Phosphorylation Is Controlled by Availability of the Phosphorylated Threonine 210 to the PP1 Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Eric M.; McCartney, Rhonda R.; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan M.; Shirra, Margaret K.; Arndt, Karen M.; Schmidt, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 kinase activation loop is determined by the integration of two reaction rates: the rate of phosphorylation by upstream kinases and the rate of dephosphorylation by Glc7. The activities of the Snf1-activating kinases do not appear to be glucose-regulated, since immune complex kinase assays with each of the three Snf1-activating kinases show similar levels of activity when prepared from cells grown in either high or low glucose. In contrast, the dephosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop was strongly regulated by glucose. When de novo phosphorylation of Snf1 was inhibited, phosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop was found to be stable in low glucose but rapidly lost upon the addition of glucose. A greater than 10-fold difference in the rates of Snf1 activation loop dephosphorylation was detected. However, the activity of the Glc7-Reg1 phosphatase may not itself be directly regulated by glucose, since the Glc7-Reg1 enzyme was active in low glucose toward another substrate, the transcription factor Mig1. Glucose-mediated regulation of Snf1 activation loop dephosphorylation is controlled by changes in the ability of the Snf1 activation loop to act as a substrate for Glc7. PMID:17991748

  3. Epileptogenesis and epileptic maturation in phosphorylation site-specific SNAP-25 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamori, Saori; Otsuka, Shintaro; Saito, Masanori; Suzuki, Eiji; Kataoka, Masakazu; Miyaoka, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masami

    2015-09-01

    Snap25(S187A/S187A) mouse is a knock-in mouse with a single amino acid substitution at a protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation site of the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), which is a target-soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (t-SNARE) protein essential for neurotransmitter release. Snap25(S187A/S187A) mice exhibit several distinct phenotypes, including reductions in dopamine and serotonin release in the brain, anxiety-like behavior, and cognitive dysfunctions. Homozygous mice show spontaneous epileptic convulsions, and about 15% of the mice die around three weeks after birth. The remaining mice survive for almost two years and exhibit spontaneous recurrent seizures throughout their lifetime. Here, we conducted long-term continuous video electroencephalogram recording of the mice and analyzed the process of epileptogenesis and epileptic maturation in detail. Spikes and slow-wave discharges (SWDs) were observed in the cerebral cortex and thalamus before epileptic convulsions began. SWDs showed several properties similar to those observed in absence seizures including (1) lack of in the hippocampus, (2) movement arrest during SWDs, and (3) inhibition by ethosuximide. Multiple generalized seizures occurred in all homozygous mice around three weeks after birth. However, seizure generation stopped within several days, and a seizure-free latent period began. Following a spike-free quiet period, the number of spikes increased gradually, and epileptic seizures reappeared. Subsequently, spontaneous seizures occurred cyclically throughout the life of the mice, and several progressive changes in seizure frequency, seizure duration, seizure cycle interval, seizure waveform, and the number and waveform of epileptic discharges during slow-wave sleep occurred with different time courses over 10 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviors appeared suddenly within three days after epileptic seizures began and were delayed markedly by oral administration of

  4. Synaptic Activation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation Occurs Locally in Activated Dendritic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) induces phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in postsynaptic neurons, but the functional significance of rpS6 phosphorylation is poorly understood. Here, we show that synaptic stimulation that induces perforant path LTP triggers phosphorylation of rpS6 (p-rpS6)…

  5. Hedgehog-regulated atypical PKC promotes phosphorylation and activation of Smoothened and Cubitus interruptus in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kai; Liu, Yajuan; Fan, Junkai; Epperly, Garretson; Gao, Tianyan; Jiang, Jin; Jia, Jianhang

    2014-01-01

    Smoothened (Smo) is essential for transduction of the Hedgehog (Hh) signal in both insects and vertebrates. Cell surface/cilium accumulation of Smo is thought to play an important role in Hh signaling, but how the localization of Smo is controlled remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that atypical PKC (aPKC) regulates Smo phosphorylation and basolateral accumulation in Drosophila wings. Inactivation of aPKC by either RNAi or a mutation inhibits Smo basolateral accumulation and attenuates Hh target gene expression. In contrast, expression of constitutively active aPKC elevates basolateral accumulation of Smo and promotes Hh signaling. The aPKC-mediated phosphorylation of Smo at Ser680 promotes Ser683 phosphorylation by casein kinase 1 (CK1), and these phosphorylation events elevate Smo activity in vivo. Moreover, aPKC has an additional positive role in Hh signaling by regulating the activity of Cubitus interruptus (Ci) through phosphorylation of the Zn finger DNA-binding domain. Finally, the expression of aPKC is up-regulated by Hh signaling in a Ci-dependent manner. Our findings indicate a direct involvement of aPKC in Hh signaling beyond its role in cell polarity. PMID:25349414

  6. Phosphorylation of the mitochondrial protein Sab by stress-activated protein kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Court, Naomi W; Kuo, Ivana; Quigley, Oonagh; Bogoyevitch, Marie A

    2004-06-18

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) transduce extracellular signals into responses such as growth, differentiation, and death through their phosphorylation of specific substrate proteins. Early studies showed the consensus sequence (Pro/X)-X-(Ser/Thr)-Pro to be phosphorylated by MAPKs. Docking domains such as the "kinase interaction motif" (KIM) also appear to be crucial for efficient substrate phosphorylation. Here, we show that stress-activated protein kinase-3 (SAPK3), a p38 MAPK subfamily member, localizes to the mitochondria. Activated SAPK3 phosphorylates the mitochondrial protein Sab, an in vitro substrate of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Sab phosphorylation by SAPK3 was dependent on the most N-terminal KIM (KIM1) of Sab and occurred primarily on Ser321. This appeared to be dependent on the position of Ser321 within Sab and the sequence immediately surrounding it. Our results suggest that SAPK3 and JNK may share a common target at the mitochondria and provide new insights into the substrate recognition by SAPK3.

  7. Roles of the CDK phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdc6 in chromatin binding and rereplication.

    PubMed

    Honey, Sangeet; Futcher, Bruce

    2007-04-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc6 protein is crucial for DNA replication. In the absence of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity, Cdc6 binds to replication origins, and loads Mcm proteins. In the presence of CDK activity, Cdc6 does not bind to origins, and this helps prevent rereplication. CDK activity affects Cdc6 function by multiple mechanisms: CDK activity affects transcription of CDC6, degradation of Cdc6, nuclear import of Cdc6, and binding of Cdc6 to Clb2. Here we examine some of these mechanisms individually. We find that when Cdc6 is forced into the nucleus during late G1 or S, it will not substantially reload onto chromatin no matter whether its CDK sites are present or not. In contrast, at a G2/M nocodazole arrest, Cdc6 will reload onto chromatin if and only if its CDK sites have been removed. Trace amounts of nonphosphorylatable Cdc6 are dominant lethal in strains bearing nonphosphorylatable Orc2 and Orc6, apparently because of rereplication. This synthetic dominant lethality occurs even in strains with wild-type MCM genes. Nonphosphorylatable Cdc6, or Orc2 and Orc6, sensitize cells to rereplication caused by overexpression of various replication initiation proteins such as Dpb11 and Sld2.

  8. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 correlates with JNK activity in atrophic skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilder, Thomas L.; Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.; Graves, Lee M.

    2003-01-01

    c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to negatively regulate insulin signaling through serine phosphorylation of residue 307 within the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in adipose and liver tissue. Using a rat hindlimb suspension model for muscle disuse atrophy, we found that JNK activity was significantly elevated in atrophic soleus muscle and that IRS-1 was phosphorylated on Ser(307) prior to the degradation of the IRS-1 protein. Moreover, we observed a corresponding reduction in Akt activity, providing biochemical evidence for the development of insulin resistance in atrophic skeletal muscle.

  9. Repression of the heat shock factor 1 transcriptional activation domain is modulated by constitutive phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Kline, M P; Morimoto, R I

    1997-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) is constitutively expressed in mammalian cells and negatively regulated for DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Upon exposure to heat shock and other forms of chemical and physiological stress, these activities of HSF1 are rapidly induced. In this report, we demonstrate that constitutive phosphorylation of HSF1 at serine residues distal to the transcriptional activation domain functions to repress transactivation. Tryptic phosphopeptide analysis of a collection of chimeric GAL4-HSF1 deletion and point mutants identified a region of constitutive phosphorylation encompassing serine residues 303 and 307. The significance of phosphorylation at serines 303 and 307 in the regulation of HSF1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by transient transfection and assay of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct. Whereas the transfected wild-type GAL4-HSF1 chimera is repressed for transcriptional activity and derepressed by heat shock, mutation of serines 303 and 307 to alanine results in derepression to a high level of constitutive activity. Similar results were obtained with mutation of these serine residues in the context of full-length HSF1. These data reveal that constitutive phosphorylation of serines 303 and 307 has an important role in the negative regulation of HSF1 transcriptional activity at control temperatures. PMID:9121459

  10. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Quantitative encoding of a partial agonist effect on individual opioid receptors by multi-site phosphorylation and threshold detection

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Elaine K.; Trester-Zedlitz, Michelle; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Kotowski, Sarah J.; Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Burlingame, Alma L.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs act as partial agonists of seven-transmembrane signaling receptors when compared to endogenous ligands. Partial agonism is well described as a 'macroscopic' property manifest at the level of physiological systems or cell populations, but it is not known whether partial agonists encode discrete regulatory information at the 'microscopic' level of individual receptors. We addressed this question by focusing on morphine, a partial agonist drug for µ-type opioid peptide receptors, and combining quantitative mass spectrometry with cell biological analysis to investigate morphine's reduced efficacy for promoting receptor endocytosis when compared to a peptide full agonist. We show that these chemically distinct ligands produce a complex, and qualitatively similar mixture of phosphorylated opioid receptor forms in intact cells. Quantitatively, however, the agonists promote markedly disproportional production of multi-site phosphorylation involving a specific Ser/Thr motif, whose modification at more than one residue is essential for efficient recruitment of the adaptor protein β-arrestin to clathrin-coated pits that mediate subsequent endocytosis of MORs. These results reveal quantitative encoding of agonist-selective endocytosis at the level of individual opioid receptors, based on the conserved biochemical principles of multi-site phosphorylation and threshold detection. PMID:21868358

  12. aPKC Phosphorylation of HDAC6 Results in Increased Deacetylation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yifeng; Seibenhener, Michael L.; Yan, Jin; Jiang, Jianxiong; Wooten, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The Class II histone deacetylase, HDAC6, has been shown to be involved in cell motility, aggresome formation and mitochondria transport. HDAC6 deacetylase activity regulates α-tubulin acetylation levels and thus plays a critical role in these processes. In turn, HDAC6 activity can be regulated by interaction with various proteins including multiple kinases. Kinase mediated phosphorylation of HDAC6 can lead to either increased or reduced activity. Our previous research has shown that sequestosome1/p62 (SQSTM1/p62) interacts with HDAC6 and regulates its activity. As SQSTM1/p62 is a scaffolding protein known to interact directly with the zeta isoform of Protein Kinase C (PKCζ), we sought to examine if HDAC6 could be a substrate for PKCζ phosphorylation and if so, how its activity might be regulated. Our data demonstrate that HDAC6 is not only present in a protein complex with PKCζ but can also be phosphorylated by PKCζ. We also show that specific phosphorylation of HDAC6 by PKCζ increases HDAC6 deacetylase activity resulting in reduced acetylated tubulin levels. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which HDAC6, PKCζ and SQSTM1/p62 function together in protein aggregate clearance. These results also highlight a new research direction which may prove fruitful for understanding the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25860570

  13. aPKC phosphorylation of HDAC6 results in increased deacetylation activity.

    PubMed

    Du, Yifeng; Seibenhener, Michael L; Yan, Jin; Jiang, Jianxiong; Wooten, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    The Class II histone deacetylase, HDAC6, has been shown to be involved in cell motility, aggresome formation and mitochondria transport. HDAC6 deacetylase activity regulates α-tubulin acetylation levels and thus plays a critical role in these processes. In turn, HDAC6 activity can be regulated by interaction with various proteins including multiple kinases. Kinase mediated phosphorylation of HDAC6 can lead to either increased or reduced activity. Our previous research has shown that sequestosome1/p62 (SQSTM1/p62) interacts with HDAC6 and regulates its activity. As SQSTM1/p62 is a scaffolding protein known to interact directly with the zeta isoform of Protein Kinase C (PKCζ), we sought to examine if HDAC6 could be a substrate for PKCζ phosphorylation and if so, how its activity might be regulated. Our data demonstrate that HDAC6 is not only present in a protein complex with PKCζ but can also be phosphorylated by PKCζ. We also show that specific phosphorylation of HDAC6 by PKCζ increases HDAC6 deacetylase activity resulting in reduced acetylated tubulin levels. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which HDAC6, PKCζ and SQSTM1/p62 function together in protein aggregate clearance. These results also highlight a new research direction which may prove fruitful for understanding the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Defective cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of intact T lymphocytes in active systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, P; Schultz, L A; Kammer, G M

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish whether cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of endogenous substrates is impaired in T lymphocytes from subjects with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In normal human T lymphocytes, the cell-permeable cAMP analog, N6,O2'-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, induced phosphorylation of substrates with molecular masses of 17.5, 23/25, 33.5 kDa on one-dimensional SDS/PAGE. Maximal phosphorylation occurred at 60 min. In contrast to healthy T cells, the extent of substrate phosphorylation achieved in active SLE T cells (n = 8) was only 15% at 60 min in the 17.5-kDa substrate, 21% in the 23/25-kDa substrate, and 9% in the 33.5-kDa substrate. The rheumatic disease controls (rheumatoid arthritis; primary Sjögren syndrome; n = 8) exhibited a mean 72%, 124%, and 85%, respectively, of phosphorylation observed in healthy T cells. Because the only known mechanism by which cAMP acts is via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A), these data raise the possibility of a defect at the level of this kinase in SLE T lymphocytes. Images PMID:2155428

  15. Regulation of Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity in smooth muscle: inhibitory phosphorylation of PLC-β3 by PKA and PKG and stimulatory phosphorylation of Gαi-GTPase-activating protein RGS2 by PKG.

    PubMed

    Nalli, Ancy D; Kumar, Divya P; Al-Shboul, Othman; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S

    2014-11-01

    In gastrointestinal smooth muscle, agonists that bind to Gi-coupled receptors activate preferentially PLC-β3 via Gβγ to stimulate phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) leading to IP3-dependent Ca(2+) release and muscle contraction. In the present study, we identified the mechanism of inhibition of PLC-β3-dependent PI hydrolysis by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, caused an increase in PI hydrolysis in a concentration-dependent fashion; stimulation was blocked by expression of the carboxyl-terminal sequence of GRK2(495-689), a Gβγ-scavenging peptide, or Gαi minigene but not Gαq minigene. Isoproterenol and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) induced phosphorylation of PLC-β3 and inhibited CPA-induced PI hydrolysis, Ca(2+) release, and muscle contraction. The effect of isoproterenol on all three responses was inhibited by PKA inhibitor, myristoylated PKI, or AKAP inhibitor, Ht-31, whereas the effect of GSNO was selectively inhibited by PKG inhibitor, Rp-cGMPS. GSNO, but not isoproterenol, also phosphorylated Gαi-GTPase-activating protein, RGS2, and enhanced association of Gαi3-GTP and RGS2. The effect of GSNO on PI hydrolysis was partly reversed in cells (i) expressing constitutively active GTPase-resistant Gαi mutant (Q204L), (ii) phosphorylation-site-deficient RGS2 mutant (S46A/S64A), or (iii) siRNA for RGS2. We conclude that PKA and PKG inhibit Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity by direct phosphorylation of PLC-β3. PKG, but not PKA, also inhibits PI hydrolysis indirectly by a mechanism involving phosphorylation of RGS2 and its association with Gαi-GTP. This allows RGS2 to accelerate Gαi-GTPase activity, enhance Gαβγi trimer formation, and inhibit Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity.

  16. Biphasic regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase modulates intestinal smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ji; Pham, Ngoc T; Olate, Nicole; Kislitsyna, Karina; Day, Mary-Clare; LeTourneau, Phillip A; Kots, Alexander; Stewart, Randolph H; Laine, Glen A; Cox, Charles S; Uray, Karen

    2013-01-11

    Supraphysiological mechanical stretching in smooth muscle results in decreased contractile activity. However, the mechanism is unclear. Previous studies indicated that intestinal motility dysfunction after edema development is associated with increased smooth muscle stress and decreased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in vivo, providing an ideal model for studying mechanical stress-mediated decrease in smooth muscle contraction. Primary human intestinal smooth muscle cells (hISMCs) were subjected to either control cyclical stretch (CCS) or edema (increasing) cyclical stretch (ECS), mimicking the biophysical forces in non-edematous and edematous intestinal smooth muscle in vivo. ECS induced significant decreases in phosphorylation of MLC and MLC phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and a significant increase in p21-activated kinase (PAK) activity compared with CCS. PAK regulated MLC phosphorylation in an activity-dependent biphasic manner. PAK activation increased MLC and MYPT1 phosphorylation in CCS but decreased MLC and MYPT1 phosphorylation in hISMCs subjected to ECS. PAK inhibition had the opposite results. siRNA studies showed that PAK1 plays a critical role in regulating MLC phosphorylation in hISMCs. PAK1 enhanced MLC phosphorylation via phosphorylating MYPT1 on Thr-696, whereas PAK1 inhibited MLC phosphorylation via decreasing MYPT1 on both Thr-696 and Thr-853. Importantly, in vivo data indicated that PAK activity increased in edematous tissue, and inhibition of PAK in edematous intestine improved intestinal motility. We conclude that PAK1 positively regulates MLC phosphorylation in intestinal smooth muscle through increasing inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 under physiologic conditions, whereas PAK1 negatively regulates MLC phosphorylation via inhibiting MYPT1 phosphorylation when PAK activity is increased under pathologic conditions.

  17. Phorbol ester-induced serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor decreases its tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Takayama, S; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1988-03-05

    The effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the function of the insulin receptor was examined in intact hepatoma cells (Fao) and in solubilized extracts purified by wheat germ agglutinin chromatography. Incubation of ortho[32P]phosphate-labeled Fao cells with TPA increased the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor 2-fold after 30 min. Analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides from the beta-subunit of the receptor by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and determination of their phosphoamino acid composition suggested that TPA predominantly stimulated phosphorylation of serine residues in a single tryptic peptide. Incubation of the Fao cells with insulin (100 nM) for 1 min stimulated 4-fold the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor. Prior treatment of the cells with TPA inhibited the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation by 50%. The receptors extracted with Triton X-100 from TPA-treated Fao cells and purified on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin retained the alteration in kinase activity and exhibited a 50% decrease in insulin-stimulated tyrosine autophosphorylation and phosphotransferase activity toward exogenous substrates. This was due primarily to a decrease in the Vmax for these reactions. TPA treatment also decreased the Km of the insulin receptor for ATP. Incubation of the insulin receptor purified from TPA-treated cells with alkaline phosphatase decreased the phosphate content of the beta-subunit to the control level and reversed the inhibition, suggesting that the serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit was responsible for the decreased tyrosine kinase activity. Our results support the notion that the insulin receptor is a substrate for protein kinase C in the Fao cell and that the increase in serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the receptor produced by TPA treatment inhibited tyrosine kinase activity in vivo and in vitro. These data suggest that protein kinase C may regulate the function

  18. Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koji; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-06-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a major regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and development. The ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB) auxin receptor family, has recently been demonstrated to be critical for auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. Early-phase auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, on the other hand, has long been explained by the acid-growth theory, for which proton extrusion by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a functional prerequisite. However, the mechanism by which auxin mediates H(+)-ATPase activation has yet to be elucidated. Here, we present direct evidence for H(+)-ATPase activation in etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by auxin through phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine during early-phase hypocotyl elongation. Application of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to endogenous auxin-depleted hypocotyl sections induced phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the H(+)-ATPase and increased H(+)-ATPase activity without altering the amount of the enzyme. Changes in both the phosphorylation level of H(+)-ATPase and IAA-induced elongation were similarly concentration dependent. Furthermore, IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation occurred in a tir1-1 afb2-3 double mutant, which is severely defective in auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. In addition, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, the auxin antagonist specific for the nuclear auxin receptor TIR1/AFBs, had no effect on IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. These results suggest that the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor family is not involved in auxin-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. Our results define the activation mechanism of H(+)-ATPase by auxin during early-phase hypocotyl elongation; this is the long-sought-after mechanism that is central to the acid-growth theory.

  19. Phosphorylation of tau is regulated by PKN.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, T; Kawamata, T; Mukai, H; Hasegawa, H; Isagawa, T; Yasuda, M; Hashimoto, T; Terashima, A; Nakai, M; Mori, H; Ono, Y; Tanaka, C

    2001-03-30

    For the phosphorylation state of microtubule-associated protein, tau plays a pivotal role in regulating microtubule networks in neurons. Tau promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules. The potential for tau to bind to microtubules is down-regulated after local phosphorylation. When we investigated the effects of PKN activation on tau phosphorylation, we found that PKN triggers disruption of the microtubule array both in vitro and in vivo and predominantly phosphorylates tau in microtubule binding domains (MBDs). PKN has a catalytic domain highly homologous to protein kinase C (PKC), a kinase that phosphorylates Ser-313 (= Ser-324, the number used in this study) in MBDs. Thus, we identified the phosphorylation sites of PKN and PKC subtypes (PKC-alpha, -betaI, -betaII, -gamma, -delta, -epsilon, -zeta, and -lambda) in MBDs. PKN phosphorylates Ser-258, Ser-320, and Ser-352, although all PKC subtypes phosphorylate Ser-258, Ser-293, Ser-324, and Ser-352. There is a PKN-specific phosphorylation site, Ser-320, in MBDs. HIA3, a novel phosphorylation-dependent antibody recognizing phosphorylated tau at Ser-320, showed immunoreactivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing tau and the active form of PKN, but not in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing tau and the inactive form of PKN. The immunoreactivity for phosphorylated tau at Ser-320 increased in the presence of a phosphatase inhibitor, FK506 treatment, which means that calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B) may be involved in dephosphorylating tau at Ser-320 site. We also noted that PKN reduces the phosphorylation recognized by the phosphorylation-dependent antibodies AT8, AT180, and AT270 in vivo. Thus PKN serves as a regulator of microtubules by specific phosphorylation of tau, which leads to disruption of tubulin assembly.

  20. Design of phosphorylated dendritic architectures to promote human monocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Poupot, Mary; Griffe, Laurent; Marchand, Patrice; Maraval, Alexandrine; Rolland, Olivier; Martinet, Ludovic; L'Faqihi-Olive, Fatima-Ezzahra; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Poupot, Rémy

    2006-11-01

    As first defensive line, monocytes are a pivotal cell population of innate immunity. Monocyte activation can be relevant to a range of immune conditions and responses. Here we present new insights into the activation of monocytes by a series of phosphonic acid-terminated, phosphorus-containing dendrimers. Various dendritic or subdendritic structures were synthesized and tested, revealing the basic structural requirements for monocyte activation. We showed that multivalent character and phosphonic acid capping of dendrimers are crucial for monocyte targeting and activation. Confocal videomicroscopy showed that a fluorescein-tagged dendrimer binds to isolated monocytes and gets internalized within a few seconds. We also found that dendrimers follow the phagolysosomial route during internalization by monocytes. Finally, we performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments between a specifically designed fluorescent dendrimer and phycoerythrin-coupled antibodies. We showed that the typical innate Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 is clearly involved, but not alone, in the sensing of dendrimers by monocytes. In conclusion, phosphorus-containing dendrimers appear as precisely tunable nanobiotools able to target and activate human innate immunity and thus prove to be good candidates to develop new drugs for immunotherapies.

  1. Arabidopsis Receptor of Activated C Kinase1 Phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE

    DOE PAGES

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; ...

    2014-12-08

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. In this paper, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1more » acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1AS122A/T162A, but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1AS122D/T162E, rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1AS122D/T162E accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1S122A/T162A. However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1AS122A/T162A protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1AS122D/T162E protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. In conclusion, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability.« less

  2. Arabidopsis Receptor of Activated C Kinase1 Phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE

    SciTech Connect

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; Jones, Alan M.; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2014-12-08

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. In this paper, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1 acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1AS122A/T162A, but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1AS122D/T162E, rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1AS122D/T162E accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1S122A/T162A. However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1AS122A/T162A protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1AS122D/T162E protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. In conclusion, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability.

  3. Arabidopsis Receptor of Activated C Kinase1 Phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2015-01-01

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. Here, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1 acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1AS122A/T162A, but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1AS122D/T162E, rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1AS122D/T162E accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1S122A/T162A. However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1AS122A/T162A protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1AS122D/T162E protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability. PMID:25489024

  4. Arabidopsis receptor of activated C kinase1 phosphorylation by WITH NO LYSINE8 KINASE.

    PubMed

    Urano, Daisuke; Czarnecki, Olaf; Wang, Xiaoping; Jones, Alan M; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2015-02-01

    Receptor of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that binds to numerous proteins to regulate diverse cellular pathways in mammals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), RACK1 has been shown to regulate plant hormone signaling, stress responses, and multiple processes of growth and development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. Here, we show that an atypical serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE8 (WNK8), phosphorylates RACK1. WNK8 physically interacted with and phosphorylated RACK1 proteins at two residues: Ser-122 and Thr-162. Genetic epistasis analysis of rack1 wnk8 double mutants indicated that RACK1 acts downstream of WNK8 in the glucose responsiveness and flowering pathways. The phosphorylation-dead form, RACK1A(S122A/T162A), but not the phosphomimetic form, RACK1A(S122D/T162E), rescued the rack1a null mutant, implying that phosphorylation at Ser-122 and Thr-162 negatively regulates RACK1A function. The transcript of RACK1A(S122D/T162E) accumulated at similar levels as those of RACK1(S122A/T162A). However, although the steady-state level of the RACK1A(S122A/T162A) protein was similar to wild-type RACK1A protein, the RACK1A(S122D/T162E) protein was nearly undetectable, suggesting that phosphorylation affects the stability of RACK1A proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that RACK1 is phosphorylated by WNK8 and that phosphorylation negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability.

  5. c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation Is a Biomarker of Plitidepsin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Alonso, María J.; Álvarez, Enrique; Guillén-Navarro, María José; Pollán, Marina; Avilés, Pablo; Galmarini, Carlos M.; Muñoz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Plitidepsin is an antitumor drug of marine origin currently in Phase III clinical trials in multiple myeloma. In cultured cells, plitidepsin induces cell cycle arrest or an acute apoptotic process in which sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a crucial role. With a view to optimizing clinical use of plitidepsin, we have therefore evaluated the possibility of using JNK activation as an in vivo biomarker of response. In this study, we show that administration of a single plitidepsin dose to mice xenografted with human cancer cells does indeed lead to increased phosphorylation of JNK in tumors at 4 to 12 h. By contrast, no changes were found in other in vitro plitidepsin targets such as the levels of phosphorylated-ERK, -p38MAPK or the protein p27KIP1. Interestingly, plitidepsin also increased JNK phosphorylation in spleens from xenografted mice showing similar kinetics to those seen in tumors, thereby suggesting that normal tissues might be useful for predicting drug activity. Furthermore, plitidepsin administration to rats at plasma concentrations comparable to those achievable in patients also increased JNK phosphorylation in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. These findings suggest that changes in JNK activity provide a reliable biomarker for plitidepsin activity and this could be useful for designing clinical trials and maximizing the efficacy of plitidepsin. PMID:23697951

  6. Anesthetic Isoflurane Increases Phosphorylated Tau Levels Mediated by Caspase Activation and Aβ Generation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanlin; Wu, Xu; Xu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2012-01-01

    Anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to promote Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathogenesis by inducing caspase activation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ). Phosphorylation of tau protein is another important feature of AD neuropathogenesis. However, the effects of isoflurane on phosphorylated tau levels remain largely to be determined. We therefore set out to determine whether isoflurane can increase phosphorylated tau levels. 5 to 8 month-old wild-type and AD transgenic mice [B6.Cg-Tg (APPswe, PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J] were treated with 1.4% isoflurane for two hours. The mice brain tissues were harvested at six, 12 and 24 hours after the anesthesia. For the in vitro studies, primary neurons from wild-type and the AD transgenic mice were exposed to 2% isoflurane for six hours, and were harvested at the end of anesthesia. The harvested brain tissues and neurons were subjected to Western blot analysis by which the levels of phosphorylated tau protein at Serine 262 (Tau-PS262) were determined. Here we show that the isoflurane anesthesia increased Tau-PS262 levels in brain tissues and primary neurons from the wild-type and AD transgenic mice. Moreover, the isoflurane anesthesia may induce a greater increase in Tau-PS262 levels in primary neurons and brain tissues from the AD transgenic mice. Finally, caspase activation inhibitor Z-VAD and Aβ generation inhibitor L-685,458 attenuated the isoflurane-induced increases in Tau-PS262 levels. In conclusion, clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia increases phosphorylated tau levels, which may result from the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and Aβ generation. These findings will promote more studies to determine the effects of anesthetics on tau phosphorylation. PMID:22745746

  7. Site-directed spectroscopy of cardiac myosin-binding protein C reveals effects of phosphorylation on protein structural dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Brett A.; Thompson, Andrew R.; Espinoza-Fonseca, L. Michel; Thomas, David D.

    2016-01-01

    We have used the site-directed spectroscopies of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and double electron–electron resonance (DEER), combined with complementary molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to resolve the structure and dynamics of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C), focusing on the N-terminal region. The results have implications for the role of this protein in myocardial contraction, with particular relevance to β-adrenergic signaling, heart failure, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N-terminal cMyBP-C domains C0–C2 (C0C2) contain binding regions for potential interactions with both thick and thin filaments. Phosphorylation by PKA in the MyBP-C motif regulates these binding interactions. Our spectroscopic assays detect distances between pairs of site-directed probes on cMyBP-C. We engineered intramolecular pairs of labeling sites within cMyBP-C to measure, with high resolution, the distance and disorder in the protein’s flexible regions using TR-FRET and DEER. Phosphorylation reduced the level of molecular disorder and the distribution of C0C2 intramolecular distances became more compact, with probes flanking either the motif between C1 and C2 or the Pro/Ala-rich linker (PAL) between C0 and C1. Further insight was obtained from microsecond MD simulations, which revealed a large structural change in the disordered motif region in which phosphorylation unmasks the surface of a series of residues on a stable α-helix within the motif with high potential as a protein–protein interaction site. These experimental and computational findings elucidate structural transitions in the flexible and dynamic portions of cMyBP-C, providing previously unidentified molecular insight into the modulatory role of this protein in cardiac muscle contractility. PMID:26908877

  8. Site-directed spectroscopy of cardiac myosin-binding protein C reveals effects of phosphorylation on protein structural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Colson, Brett A; Thompson, Andrew R; Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Thomas, David D

    2016-03-22

    We have used the site-directed spectroscopies of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and double electron-electron resonance (DEER), combined with complementary molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to resolve the structure and dynamics of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C), focusing on the N-terminal region. The results have implications for the role of this protein in myocardial contraction, with particular relevance to β-adrenergic signaling, heart failure, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N-terminal cMyBP-C domains C0-C2 (C0C2) contain binding regions for potential interactions with both thick and thin filaments. Phosphorylation by PKA in the MyBP-C motif regulates these binding interactions. Our spectroscopic assays detect distances between pairs of site-directed probes on cMyBP-C. We engineered intramolecular pairs of labeling sites within cMyBP-C to measure, with high resolution, the distance and disorder in the protein's flexible regions using TR-FRET and DEER. Phosphorylation reduced the level of molecular disorder and the distribution of C0C2 intramolecular distances became more compact, with probes flanking either the motif between C1 and C2 or the Pro/Ala-rich linker (PAL) between C0 and C1. Further insight was obtained from microsecond MD simulations, which revealed a large structural change in the disordered motif region in which phosphorylation unmasks the surface of a series of residues on a stable α-helix within the motif with high potential as a protein-protein interaction site. These experimental and computational findings elucidate structural transitions in the flexible and dynamic portions of cMyBP-C, providing previously unidentified molecular insight into the modulatory role of this protein in cardiac muscle contractility.

  9. Phosphorylation regulates human OCT4.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, Justin; Hou, Zhonggang; Russell, Jason D; Howden, Sara E; Yu, Pengzhi; Ledvina, Aaron R; Coon, Joshua J; Thomson, James A

    2012-05-08

    The transcription factor OCT4 is fundamental to maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal. To better understand protein-level regulation of OCT4, we applied liquid chromatography-MS to identify 14 localized sites of phosphorylation, 11 of which were previously unknown. Functional analysis of two sites, T234 and S235, suggested that phosphorylation within the homeobox region of OCT4 negatively regulates its activity by interrupting sequence-specific DNA binding. Mutating T234 and S235 to mimic constitutive phosphorylation at these sites reduces transcriptional activation from an OCT4-responsive reporter and decreases reprogramming efficiency. We also cataloged 144 unique phosphopeptides on known OCT4 interacting partners, including SOX2 and SALL4, that copurified during immunoprecipitation. These proteins were enriched for phosphorylation at motifs associated with ERK signaling. Likewise, OCT4 harbored several putative ERK phosphorylation sites. Kinase assays confirmed that ERK2 phosphorylated these sites in vitro, providing a direct link between ERK signaling and the transcriptional machinery that governs pluripotency.

  10. Phosphorylation regulates human OCT4

    PubMed Central

    Brumbaugh, Justin; Russell, Jason D.; Howden, Sara E.; Yu, Pengzhi; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Coon, Joshua J.; Thomson, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor OCT4 is fundamental to maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal. To better understand protein-level regulation of OCT4, we applied liquid chromatography–MS to identify 14 localized sites of phosphorylation, 11 of which were previously unknown. Functional analysis of two sites, T234 and S235, suggested that phosphorylation within the homeobox region of OCT4 negatively regulates its activity by interrupting sequence-specific DNA binding. Mutating T234 and S235 to mimic constitutive phosphorylation at these sites reduces transcriptional activation from an OCT4-responsive reporter and decreases reprogramming efficiency. We also cataloged 144 unique phosphopeptides on known OCT4 interacting partners, including SOX2 and SALL4, that copurified during immunoprecipitation. These proteins were enriched for phosphorylation at motifs associated with ERK signaling. Likewise, OCT4 harbored several putative ERK phosphorylation sites. Kinase assays confirmed that ERK2 phosphorylated these sites in vitro, providing a direct link between ERK signaling and the transcriptional machinery that governs pluripotency. PMID:22474382

  11. Regulation of Xenopus laevis DNA topoisomerase I activity by phosphorylation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiserman, H.B.; Ingebritsen, T.S.; Benbow, R.M.

    1988-05-03

    DNA topoisomerase I has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from ovaries of the frog Xenopus laevis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the most purified fraction revealed a single major band at 110 kDa and less abundant minor bands centered at 62 kDa. Incubation of the most purified fraction with immobilized calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase abolished all DNA topoisomerase enzymatic activity in a time-dependent reaction. Treatment of the dephosphorylated X. laevis DNA topoisomerase I with a X. laevis casein kinase type II activity and ATP restored DNA topoisomerase activity to a level higher than that observed in the most purified fraction. In vitro labeling experiments which employed the most purified DNA topoisomerase I fraction, (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP, and the casein kinase type II enzyme showed that both the 110- and 62-kDa bands became phosphorylated in approximately molar proportions. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that only serine residues became phosphorylated. Phosphorylation was accompanied by an increase in DNA topoisomerase activity in vitro. Dephosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase I appears to block formation of the initial enzyme-substrate complex on the basis of the failure of the dephosphorylated enzyme to nick DNA in the presence of camptothecin. The authors conclude that X. laevis DNA topoisomerase I is partially phosphorylated as isolated and that this phosphorylation is essential for expression of enzymatic activity in vitro. On the basis of the ability of the casein kinase type II activity to reactivate dephosphorylated DNA topoisomerase I, they speculate that this kinase may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity.

  12. Phosphorylation and activation of a transducible recombinant form of human HSP20 in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Charles R.; Smoke, Christopher C.; Furnish, Elizabeth; Komalavilas, Padmini; Thresher, Jeffrey; Yi, Zhengping; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Brophy, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Protein based cellular therapeutics have been limited by getting the molecules into cells and the fact that many proteins require post-translational modifications for activation. Protein transduction domains (PTDs), including that from the HIV TAT protein (TAT), are small arginine rich peptides that carry molecules across the cell membrane. We have shown that the heat shock-related protein, HSP20 is a downstream mediator of cyclic nucleotide-dependent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and is activated by phosphorylation. In this study, we co-expressed in E. coli the cDNAs encoding the catalytic subunit of protein kinase G and a TAT-HSP20 fusion protein composed of the TAT PTD (-YGRKKRRQRRR-) fused to the N-terminus of human HSP20. Immunoblot and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the purified TAT-HSP20 demonstrated that it was phosphorylated at serine 40 (equivalent to serine 16 in wild-type human HSP20). This phosphorylated TAT-HSP20 was physiologically active in intact smooth muscles in that it inhibited 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contractions by 57% ± 4.5. The recombinant phosphorylated protein also led to changes in actin cytoskeletal morphology in 3T3 cells. These results delineate strategies for the expression and activation of therapeutic molecules for intracellular protein based therapeutics. PMID:17084643

  13. Transcriptional regulation by post-transcriptional modification--role of phosphorylation in Sp1 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shijian

    2012-10-15

    Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor involved in the regulation of a large number of genes including housekeeping genes as well as actively regulated genes. Although Sp1 was discovered nearly three decades ago, its functional diversity is still not completely understood. One of the ways that make Sp1 versatile in transcriptional regulation is its post-transcriptional modification, which alters Sp1 structure in different cells and at different times. Compared to other types of modifications of the Sp1 protein, phosphorylation has been studied far more extensively. This review focuses on the inducers, pathways, enzymes, and biological effects of Sp1 phosphorylation. Recent data are beginning to reveal the biological significance and universal presence of Sp1 phosphorylation-related cell/molecular responses. Studies in this field provide a quick glance at how a simple chemical modification of a transcription factor could produce significant functional diversity of the protein.

  14. PKA phosphorylation reshapes the pharmacological kinetics of BmK AS, a unique site-4 sodium channel-specific modulator

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z. R.; Zhang, H.; Wu, J. Q.; Zhou, J. J.; Ji, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Although modulation of the activity of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) by protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation has been investigated in multiple preparations, the pharmacological sensitivity of VGSCs to scorpion toxins after PKA phosphorylation has rarely been approached. In this study, the effects of BmK AS, a sodium channel-specific modulator from Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, on the voltage-dependent activation and inactivation of Nav1.2 were examined before and after PKA activation. After PKA phosphorylation, the pattern of dose-dependent modulation of BmK AS, on both Nav1.2α and Nav1.2 (α + β1) was reshaped. Meanwhile, the shifts in voltage-dependency of activation and inactivation induced by BmK AS were attenuated. The results suggested that PKA might play a role in different patterns how β-like toxins such as BmK AS modulate gating properties and peak currents of VGSCs. PMID:24430351

  15. Dioxin-dependent activation of murine Cyp1a-1 gene transcription requires protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, F; Owens, R A; Nebert, D W; Puga, A

    1992-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of the murine Cyp1a-1 (cytochrome P(1)450) gene by inducers such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (dioxin) requires the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor and the interaction of an inducer-receptor complex with one or more of the Ah-responsive elements (AhREs) located about 1 kb upstream from the transcriptional initiation site. We find that treatment of mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cells with 2-aminopurine, an inhibitor of protein kinase activity, inhibits CYP1A1 mRNA induction by TCDD as well as the concomitant increase in CYP1A1 enzyme activity. Formation of DNA-protein complexes between the Ah receptor and its AhRE target is also inhibited by 2-aminopurine, as determined by gel mobility shift assays. Phosphorylation is required for the formation of Ah receptor-specific complexes, since in vitro dephosphorylation of nuclear extracts from TCDD-treated Hepa-1 cells abolishes the capacity of the Ah receptor to form specific complexes with its cognate AhRE sequences. To determine whether any one of several known protein kinases was involved in the transcriptional regulation of the Cyp1a-1 gene, we treated Hepa-1 cells with nine other protein kinase inhibitors prior to induction with TCDD; nuclear extracts from these cells were analyzed for their capacity to form specific DNA-protein complexes. Only extracts from cells treated with staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, were unable to form these complexes. In addition, staurosporine completely inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA induction by TCDD. Depletion of protein kinase C by prolonged treatment with phorbol ester led to the complete suppression of CYP1A1 mRNA induction by TCDD. We conclude that (i) phosphorylation is necessary for the formation of a transcriptional complex and for transcriptional activation of the Cyp1a-1 gene; (ii) the phosphorylation site(s) exists on at least one of the proteins constituting the transcriptional complex, possibly the Ah receptor itself; and (iii) the

  16. PGRMC1 regulation by phosphorylation: potential new insights in controlling biological activity!

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Michael A.; Jazayeri, Jalal A.; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R.

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is a multifunctional protein implicated in multiple pathologies, including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The recently published structure of PGRMC1 revealed heme-mediated dimerization that directed the PGRMC1-dependent cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification of doxorubicin. We describe here how the PGRMC1 structure also enables important new insights into the possible regulation of PGRMC1 function by phosphorylation. Predicted regulatory interaction sites for SH2- and SH3-domain proteins are in non-structured regions that could be available to cytoplasmic enzymes. Further to the published interpretation, we suggest that phosphorylation of PGRMC1 at position Y113 may promote the attested membrane trafficking function of PGRMC1. To stimulate further experimentation, we also discuss that heme-mediated dimerization of PGRMC1 and membrane trafficking may be mutually exclusive functions. These roles could potentially be reciprocally regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation at Y113. It follows that the phosphorylation status of PGRMC1 should be further explored in order to better understand many of its proposed biological functions. PMID:27448967

  17. Smad3 linker phosphorylation attenuates Smad3 transcriptional activity and TGF-β1/Smad3-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Seong-Jin; Hong, Suntaek; Liu, Fang; Ooshima, Akira

    2012-10-26

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has a distinct role in renal fibrosis associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the renal tubules and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Smad3 plays an essential role in fibrosis initiated by EMT. Phosphorylation of Smad3 in the C-terminal SSXS motif by type I TGF-β receptor kinase is essential for mediating TGF-β response. Smad3 activity is also regulated by phosphorylation in the linker region. However, the functional role of Smad3 linker phosphorylation is not well characterized. We now show that Smad3 EPSM mutant, which mutated the four phosphorylation sites in the linker region, markedly enhanced TGF-β1-induced EMT of Smad3-deficient primary renal tubular epithelial cells, whereas Smad3 3S-A mutant, which mutated the C-terminal phosphorylation sites, was unable to induce EMT in response to TGF-β1. Furthermore, immunoblotting and RT-PCR analysis showed a marked induction of fibrogenic gene expression with a significant reduction in E-cadherin in HK2 human renal epithelial cells expressing Smad3 EPSM. TGF-β1 could not induce the expression of α-SMA, vimentin, fibronectin and PAI-1 or reduce the expression of E-cadherin in HK2 cells expressing Smad3 3S-A in response to TGF-β1. Our results suggest that Smad3 linker phosphorylation has a negative regulatory role on Smad3 transcriptional activity and TGF-β1/Smad3-induced renal EMT. Elucidation of mechanism regulating the Smad3 linker phosphorylation can provide a new strategy to control renal fibrosis.

  18. Brd4 activates P-TEFb for RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Itzen, Friederike; Greifenberg, Ann Katrin; Bösken, Christian A.; Geyer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The bromodomain protein Brd4 regulates the transcription of signal-inducible genes. This is achieved by recruiting the positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb to promoters by its P-TEFb interaction domain (PID). Here we show that Brd4 stimulates the kinase activity of P-TEFb for phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II over basal levels. The CTD phosphorylation saturation levels, the preferences for pre-phosphorylated substrates, and the phosphorylation specificity for Ser5 of the CTD however remain unchanged. Inhibition of P-TEFb by Hexim1 is relieved by Brd4, although no mutual displacement with the Cyclin T-binding domain of Hexim1 was observed. Brd4 PID shows a surprising sequence motif similarity to the trans-activating Tat protein from HIV-1, which includes a core RxL motif, a polybasic cluster known as arginine-rich motif, and a C-terminal leucine motif. Mutation of these motifs to alanine significantly diminished the stimulatory effect of Brd4 and fully abrogated its activation potential in presence of Hexim1. Yet the protein was not found to bind Cyclin T1 as Tat, but only P-TEFb with a dissociation constant of 0.5 μM. Our data suggest a model where Brd4 acts on the kinase subunit of P-TEFb to relieve inhibition and stimulate substrate recognition. PMID:24860166

  19. Telmisartan activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Myojo, Masahiro; Nagata, Daisuke; Fujita, Daishi; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Takahashi, Masao; Satonaka, Hiroshi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Akimoto, Tetsu; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2014-01-01

    Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177) in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172) and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling.

  20. Telmisartan Activates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase via Ser1177 Phosphorylation in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Myojo, Masahiro; Nagata, Daisuke; Fujita, Daishi; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Takahashi, Masao; Satonaka, Hiroshi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Akimoto, Tetsu; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2014-01-01

    Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177) in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172) and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:24827148

  1. P2X-mediated AMPA receptor internalization and synaptic depression is controlled by two CaMKII phosphorylation sites on GluA1 in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pougnet, Johan-Till; Compans, Benjamin; Martinez, Audrey; Choquet, Daniel; Hosy, Eric; Boué-Grabot, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Plasticity at excitatory synapses can be induced either by synaptic release of glutamate or the release of gliotransmitters such as ATP. Recently, we showed that postsynaptic P2X2 receptors activated by ATP released from astrocytes downregulate synaptic AMPAR, providing a novel mechanism by which glial cells modulate synaptic activity. ATP- and lNMDA-induced depression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus are additive, suggesting distinct molecular pathways. AMPARs are homo-or hetero-tetramers composed of GluA1-A4. Here, we first show that P2X2-mediated AMPAR inhibition is dependent on the subunit composition of AMPAR. GluA3 homomers are insensitive and their presence in heteromers alters P2X-mediated inhibition. Using a mutational approach, we demonstrate that the two CaMKII phosphorylation sites S567 and S831 located in the cytoplasmic Loop1 and C-terminal tail of GluA1 subunits, respectively, are critical for P2X2-mediated AMPAR inhibition recorded from co-expressing Xenopus oocytes and removal of surface AMPAR at synapses of hippocampal neurons imaged by the super-resolution dSTORM technique. Finally, using phosphorylation site-specific antibodies, we show that P2X-induced depression in hippocampal slices produces a dephosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit at S567, contrary to NMDAR-mediated LTD. These findings indicate that GluA1 phosphorylation of S567 and S831 is critical for P2X2-mediated AMPAR internalization and ATP-driven synaptic depression. PMID:27624155

  2. Pin1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 increases Sp1 stability and decreases its DNA-binding activity during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang-Che; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-16

    We have shown that Sp1 phosphorylation at Thr739 decreases its DNA-binding activity. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Thr739 alone is necessary, but not sufficient for the inhibition of its DNA-binding activity during mitosis. We demonstrated that Pin1 could be recruited to the Thr739(p)-Pro motif of Sp1 to modulate the interaction between phospho-Sp1 and CDK1, thereby facilitating CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 at Ser720, Thr723 and Thr737 during mitosis. Loss of the C-terminal end of Sp1 (amino acids 741-785) significantly increased Sp1 phosphorylation, implying that the C-terminus inhibits CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation. Binding analysis of Sp1 peptides to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that Pin1 interacts with Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide but not with Thr739-Sp1 peptide. X-ray crystallography data showed that the Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide occupies the active site of Pin1. Increased Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 during mitosis not only stabilized Sp1 levels by decreasing interaction with ubiquitin E3-ligase RNF4 but also caused Sp1 to move out of the chromosomes completely by decreasing its DNA-binding activity, thereby facilitating cell cycle progression. Thus, Pin1-mediated conformational changes in the C-terminal region of Sp1 are critical for increased CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation to facilitate cell cycle progression during mitosis.

  3. Protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for regulation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.L.A.; Huber, S.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation has been identified as a mechanism for the light-dark regulation of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, previously shown to involve some type of covalent modification of the enzyme. The 120 kD subunit of SPS in extracts of light-treated leaves was labeled with {sup 32}P in the presence of ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP. In this in vitro system, {sup 32}P incorporation into light-activated SPS was dependent upon ATP and magnesium concentrations as well as time, and was closely paralleled by inactivation of the enzyme. The soluble protein kinase involved in the interconversion of SPS between activated and deactivated forms may be specific for SPS as it co-purifies with SPS during partial purification of the enzyme. The kinase appears not to be calcium activated and no evidence has been obtained for metabolite control of SPS phosphorylation/inactivation.

  4. Phosphorylation of Complexin by PKA Regulates Activity-dependent Spontaneous Neurotransmitter Release and Structural Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Richard W.; Buhl, Lauren K.; Volfson, Dina; Tran, Adrienne; Li, Feng; Akbergenova, Yulia; Littleton, J. Troy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Synaptic plasticity is a fundamental feature of the nervous system that allows adaptation to changing behavioral environments. Most studies of synaptic plasticity have examined the regulated trafficking of postsynaptic glutamate receptors that generates alterations in synaptic transmission. Whether and how changes in the presynaptic release machinery contribute to neuronal plasticity is less clear. The SNARE complex mediates neurotransmitter release in response to presynaptic Ca++ entry. Here we show that the SNARE fusion clamp Complexin undergoes activity-dependent phosphorylation that alters the basic properties of neurotransmission in Drosophila. Retrograde signaling following stimulation activates PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the Complexin C-terminus that selectively and transiently enhances spontaneous release. Enhanced spontaneous release is required for activity-dependent synaptic growth. These data indicate that SNARE-dependent fusion mechanisms can be regulated in an activity-dependent manner and highlight the key role of spontaneous neurotransmitter release as a mediator of functional and structural plasticity. PMID:26590346

  5. Characterization of a Mn sup 2+ -dependent membrane serine kinase that is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, T.J. )

    1991-03-11

    It is hypothesized that the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase may directly phosphorylate and activate one or more serine kinases. The identities of such serine kinases as well as their modes of activation are unclear. The authors have described a serine kinase from rat liver membranes that copurifies with the IR on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-sepharose. The kinase is activated after phosphorylation of the WGA-sepharose-purified fraction by casein kinase-1, casein kinase-2, or casein kinase-3. A tyrosine kinase, possibly IR tyrosine kinase, also participates in the activation process since a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor such as vanadate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, or phosphotyrosine is required in reaction mixtures for activation to be observed. By contrast, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine do not support activation. The activated kinase can use IR {beta}-subunit, myelin basic protein (MBP), and histones as substrates. IR {beta}-subunit phosphorylation was stimulated by MBP, histones, and polylysine, and inhibited by heparin and poly(glu, tyr). The kinase prefers Mn{sup 2+} over Mg{sup 2+} as a metal cofactor.

  6. Oxidative stress–dependent phosphorylation activates ZNRF1 to induce neuronal/axonal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wakatsuki, Shuji; Furuno, Akiko; Ohshima, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known inducer of neuronal apoptosis and axonal degeneration. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF1 promotes Wallerian degeneration by degrading AKT to induce GSK3B activation. We now demonstrate that oxidative stress serves as an activator of the ubiquitin ligase activity of ZNRF1 by inducing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mediated phosphorylation at the 103rd tyrosine residue and that the up-regulation of ZNRF1 activity by oxidative stress leads to neuronal apoptosis and Wallerian degeneration. We also show that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–reduced oxidase activity is required for the EGFR-dependent phosphorylation-induced activation of ZNRF1 and resultant AKT degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system to induce Wallerian degeneration. These results indicate the pathophysiological significance of the EGFR–ZNRF1 pathway induced by oxidative stress in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis and Wallerian degeneration. A deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanism for ZNRF1 catalytic activity via phosphorylation will provide a potential therapeutic avenue for neurodegeneration. PMID:26572622

  7. Phosphorylation of histone H3 is functionally linked to retinoic acid receptor β promoter activation

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Bruno; Ozato, Keiko; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) is a multistep process culminating in the formation of a multimeric co-activator complex on regulated promoters. Several co-activator complexes harbor an acetyl transferase activity, which is required for retinoid-induced transcription of reporter genes. Using murine P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, we examined the relationship between histone post-translational modifications and activation of the endogenous RARβ2 promoter, which is under the control of a canonical retinoic acid response element and rapidly induced upon retinoid treatment. While histones H3 and H4 were constitutively acetylated at this promoter, retinoid agonists induced a rapid phosphorylation at Ser10 of histone H3. A retinoid antagonist, whose activity was independent of co-repressor binding to RAR, could oppose this agonist-induced H3 phosphorylation. Since such post-translational modifications were not observed at several other promoters, we conclude that histone H3 phosphorylation may be a molecular signature of the activated, retinoid-controlled mRARβ2 gene promoter. PMID:11897660

  8. Phosphorylation of Dok1 by Abl family kinases inhibits CrkI transforming activity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Khong Y.; Yin, Taofei; Machida, Kazuya; Wu, Yi I.; Mayer, Bruce J.

    2014-01-01

    The Crk SH2/SH3 adaptor and the Abl nonreceptor tyrosine kinase were first identified as oncoproteins, and both can induce tumorigenesis when overexpressed or mutationally activated. We previously reported the surprising finding that inhibition or knockdown of Abl family kinases enhanced transformation of mouse fibroblasts by CrkI. Abl family inhibitors are currently used or are being tested for treatment of human malignancies, and our finding raised concerns that such inhibitors might actually promote the growth of tumors overexpressing CrkI. Here, we identify the Dok1 adaptor as the key effector for the enhancement of CrkI transformation by Abl inhibition. We show that phosphorylation of tyrosines 295 and 361 of Dok1 by Abl family kinases suppresses CrkI transforming activity, and that upon phosphorylation these tyrosines bind the SH2 domains of the Ras inhibitor p120 RasGAP. Knockdown of RasGAP resulted in a similar enhancement of CrkI transformation, consistent with a critical role for Ras activity. Imaging studies using a FRET sensor of Ras activation revealed alterations in the localization of activated Ras in CrkI-transformed cells. Our results support a model in which Dok1 phosphorylation normally suppresses localized Ras pathway activity in Crk-transformed cells via recruitment and/or activation of RasGAP, and that preventing this negative feedback mechanism by inhibiting Abl family kinases leads to enhanced transformation by Crk. PMID:25043303

  9. Immunoprecipitation of Plasma Membrane Receptor-Like Kinases for Identification of Phosphorylation Sites and Associated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Macho, Alberto P; Zipfel, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are difficult to study for numerous reasons. The surface of membrane proteins is relatively hydrophobic and sometimes very unstable, additionally requiring detergents for their extraction from the membrane. This leads to challenges at all levels, including expression, solubilization, purification, identification of associated proteins, and the identification of post-translational modifications. However, recent advances in immunoprecipitation technology allow to isolate membrane proteins efficiently, facilitating the study of protein-protein interactions, the identification of novel associated proteins, and to identify post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation. Here, we describe an optimized immunoprecipitation protocol for plant plasma membrane receptor-like kinases.

  10. AKT-phosphorylated FOXO1 suppresses ERK activation and chemoresistance by disrupting IQGAP1-MAPK interaction.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chun-Wu; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Yu; Pan, Yunqian; Yang, Jing; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liguo; Huang, Haojie

    2017-03-09

    Nuclear FOXO proteins act as tumor suppressors by transcriptionally activating genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and these anticancer functions are inhibited by AKT-induced phosphorylation and cytoplasmic sequestration of FOXOs. We found that, after AKT-mediated phosphorylation at serine 319, FOXO1 binds to IQGAP1, a hub for activation of the MAPK pathway, and impedes IQGAP1-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2). Conversely, decreased FOXO1 expression increases pERK1/2 in cancer cell lines and correlates with increased pERK1/2 levels in patient specimens and disease progression. Treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors or taxane causes FOXO1 localization in the nucleus, increased expression of pERK1/2, and drug resistance. These effects are reversed by administering a small FOXO1-derived phospho-mimicking peptide inhibitor in vitro and in mice. Our results show a tumor suppressor role of AKT-phosphorylated FOXO1 in the cytoplasm and suggest that this function of FOXO1 can be harnessed to overcome chemoresistance in cancer.

  11. Phosphorylation is the major mechanism regulating isocitrate lyase activity in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Aline H da Silva; Brock, Matthias; Zambuzzi-Carvalho, Patrícia F; Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Troian, Rogério F; Góes, Alfredo M; Soares, Célia M de Almeida; Pereira, Maristela

    2011-07-01

    The glyoxylate cycle plays an essential role for anaplerosis of oxaloacetate during growth of microorganisms on carbon sources such as acetate or fatty acids and has been shown to contribute to virulence of several pathogens. Here, we investigated the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of the glyoxylate cycle key enzyme isocitrate lyase (PbICL) in the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Although sequence analyses on fungal isocitrate lyases revealed a high phylogenetic conservation, their regulation seems to differ significantly. Closely related Aspergillus species regulate the glyoxylate cycle at the transcriptional level, whereas Pbicl was constitutively expressed in yeast cells. However, only low PbICL activity was detected when cells were grown in the presence of glucose. Two-dimensional gel analyses with subsequent antibody hybridization revealed constitutive production of PbICL, but low PbICL activity on glucose coincided with extensive protein phosphorylation. Since an in vitro dephosphorylation of PbICL from glucose grown cells strongly increased ICL activity and resembled the phosphorylation pattern of highly active acetate grown cells, post-translational modification seems the main mechanism regulating PbICL activity in yeast cells. In agreement, a transfer of yeast cells from glucose to acetate medium increased PbICL activity without requirement of de novo protein synthesis. Thus, inactivation of PbICL by phosphorylation is reversible, denoting a new strategy for the rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions.

  12. Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases.

    PubMed

    Walkup, Ward G; Washburn, Lorraine; Sweredoski, Michael J; Carlisle, Holly J; Graham, Robert L; Hess, Sonja; Kennedy, Mary B

    2015-02-20

    synGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentrations in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from the mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here, we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAP's HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity; CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1, and CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802. Phosphorylation at Ser-773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802, is an increase in GAP activity. synGAP is phosphorylated at Ser-773 and Ser-802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons.

  13. Phosphorylation of Synaptic GTPase-activating Protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII) and Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5) Alters the Ratio of Its GAP Activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases*

    PubMed Central

    Walkup, Ward G.; Washburn, Lorraine; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Carlisle, Holly J.; Graham, Robert L.; Hess, Sonja; Kennedy, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    synGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentrations in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from the mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here, we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAP's HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity; CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1, and CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802. Phosphorylation at Ser-773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802, is an increase in GAP activity. synGAP is phosphorylated at Ser-773 and Ser-802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons. PMID:25533468

  14. The potential protein kinase A (Pka) phosphorylation site is required for the function of FgSge1 in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Meng-Hao; Yin, Yan-Ni; Ma, Zhong-Hua

    2015-09-01

    The new transcription factor Sge1 has garnered much attention in filamentous fungi recently, which highlights its role in pathogenicity, conidiation, and the production of secondary metabolites. In this study, we demonstrated that FgSge1 is localized in the nucleus in Fusarium graminearum using fluorescent protein GFP. Mutants containing a T67A mutation within the potential protein kinase A (Pka) phosphorylation site of FgSge1 exhibited a significant decrease in conidiation and dramatically impaired virulence on both wheat head and non-host tomato. These results indicated that the Pka phosphorylation site is required for the function of FgSge1 in F. graminearum. In addition, we characterized the FgSGE1 deletion mutants and found that the mutants showed increased sensitivity to osmotic stress mediated by NaCl or KCl, and to cell wall damaging agent congo red (CR). Real-time PCR assays revealed increased transcription levels of FgSGE1 with the treatment of NaCl or CR, and decreased FgSGE1 transcription in the FgOS-2 deletion mutant ΔFgOs-2. Based on the transcription levels, it can be concluded that FgSge1 is a downstream target of the mitogen-activated protein kinase FgOs-2.

  15. Importance of a Potential Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation Site of Na+,K+-ATPase and Its Interaction Network for Na+ Binding.

    PubMed

    Einholm, Anja P; Nielsen, Hang N; Holm, Rikke; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-05-13

    The molecular mechanism underlying PKA-mediated regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was explored in mutagenesis studies of the potential PKA site at Ser-938 and surrounding charged residues. The phosphomimetic mutations S938D/E interfered with Na(+) binding from the intracellular side of the membrane, whereas Na(+) binding from the extracellular side was unaffected. The reduction of Na(+) affinity is within the range expected for physiological regulation of the intracellular Na(+) concentration, thus supporting the hypothesis that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-938 regulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in vivo Ser-938 is located in the intracellular loop between transmembrane segments M8 and M9. An extended bonding network connects this loop with M10, the C terminus, and the Na(+) binding region. Charged residues Asp-997, Glu-998, Arg-1000, and Lys-1001 in M10, participating in this bonding network, are crucial to Na(+) interaction. Replacement of Arg-1005, also located in the vicinity of Ser-938, with alanine, lysine, methionine, or serine resulted in wild type-like Na(+) and K(+) affinities and catalytic turnover rate. However, when combined with the phosphomimetic mutation S938E only lysine substitution of Arg-1005 was compatible with Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function, and the Na(+) affinity of this double mutant was reduced even more than in single mutant S938E. This result indicates that the positive side chain of Arg-1005 or the lysine substituent plays a mechanistic role as interaction partner of phosphorylated Ser-938, transducing the phosphorylation signal into a reduced affinity of Na(+) site III. Electrostatic interaction of Glu-998 is of minor importance for the reduction of Na(+) affinity by phosphomimetic S938E as revealed by combining S938E with E998A.

  16. Tyrosine phosphorylation and protein degradation control the transcriptional activity of WRKY involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIQ) are among the most structurally diverse and pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. A plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, was isolated from Coptis japonica and identified as a transcriptional activator of BIQ biosynthesis. However, the expression of CjWRKY1 gene alone was not sufficient for the activation of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Here, we report the importance of post-translational regulation of CjWRKY1 in BIQ biosynthesis. First, we detected the differential accumulation of CjWRKY1 protein in two cell lines with similar CjWRKY1 gene expression but different levels of accumulated alkaloids. Further investigation of the WRKY protein identified the phosphorylation of the WRKYGQK core domain at Y115. The CjWRKYY115E phosphorylation-mimic mutant showed loss of nuclear localization, DNA-binding activity, and transactivation activity compared to wild-type CjWRKY1. Rapid degradation of the CjWRKY1 protein was also confirmed following treatment with inhibitors of the 26S proteasome and protease inhibitors. The existence of two independent degradation pathways as well as protein phosphorylation suggests the fine-tuning of CjWRKY1 activities is involved in the regulation of biosynthesis of BIQs. PMID:27552928

  17. Head and rod 1 interactions in vimentin: identification of contact sites, structure, and changes with phosphorylation using site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Atya; Hess, John F; Budamagunta, Madhu S; FitzGerald, Paul G; Voss, John C

    2009-03-13

    We have used site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to identify residues 17 and 137 as sites of interaction between the head domain and rod domain 1A of the intermediate filament protein vimentin. This interaction was maximal when compared with the spin labels placed at up- and downstream positions in both head and rod regions, indicating that residues 17 and 137 were the closest point of interaction in this region. SDSL EPR characterization of residues 120-145, which includes the site of head contact with rod 1A, reveals that this region exhibits the heptad repeat pattern indicative of alpha-helical coiled-coil structure, but that this heptad repeat pattern begins to decay near residue 139, suggesting a transition out of coiled-coil structure. By monitoring the spectra of spin labels placed at the 17 and 137 residues during in vitro assembly, we show that 17-137 interaction occurs early in the assembly process. We also explored the effect of phosphorylation on the 17-137 interaction and found that phosphorylation-induced changes affected the head-head interaction (17-17) in the dimer, without significantly influencing the rod-rod (137-137) and head-rod (17-137) interactions in the dimer. These data provide the first direct evidence for, and location of, head-rod interactions in assembled intermediate filaments, as well as direct evidence of coiled-coil structure in rod 1A. Finally, the data identify changes in the structure in this region following in vitro phosphorylation.

  18. Dopamine-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B (Tyr1472) is essential for ERK1/2 activation and processing of novel taste information.

    PubMed

    David, Orit; Barrera, Iliana; Chinnakkaruppan, Adaikkan; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the heterosynaptic interaction between glutamatergic and neuromodulatory synapses is highly important for revealing brain function in health and disease. For instance, the interaction between dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission is vital for memory and synaptic plasticity consolidation, and it is known to converge on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-MAPK signaling in neurons. Previous studies suggest that dopamine induces N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor phosphorylation at the NR2B Y1472 subunit, influencing receptor internalization at the synaptic plasma membrane. However, it is unclear whether this phosphorylation is upstream to and/or necessary for ERK1/2 activation, which is known to be crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B at Y1472 is correlated with ERK1/2 activation by dopamine and necessary for it as well. We find that dopamine receptor D1, but not D2, activates ERK1/2 and leads to NR2BY1472 phosphorylation in the mature hippocampus and cortex. Moreover, our results indicate that NR2B Y1472 phosphorylation is necessary for ERK1/2 activation. Importantly, application of dopamine or the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 to hippocampal slices from NR2B F1472 mutant mice did not result in ERK1/2 activation, suggesting this site is not only correlated with ERK1/2 activation by dopamine stimulation, but also necessary for it. In addition, NR2B F1472 mice show impairment in learning of attenuation of taste neophobia but not associative taste learning. Our study shows that the dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission converge on the NMDA receptor itself, at the Y1472 site of the NR2B subunit, and that this convergence is essential for ERK1/2 activation in the mature brain and for processing new sensory information in the cortex.

  19. Phosphorylation of the growth factors bFGF, NGF and BDNF: a prerequisite for their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Susanne; Kriha, Dorothee; Bechmann, Gunther; Maassen, Alexander; Maier, Sandra; Pallast, Stefanie; Hoell, Patrick; Krieglstein, Josef

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test whether growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) undergo autophosphorylation and whether this affects their biological activity. Incubation of those growth factors with [gamma-(32)P]ATP resulted in phosphorylation in vitro. The phosphate bond was resistant to alkaline pH, yet acid-labile. Addition of alkaline phosphatase resulted in time and protein dependent dephosphorylation. Concomitantly, alkaline phosphatase abolished the neuroprotective effect of those growth factors upon oxygen and glucose deprivation and upon staurosporine-induced cell death. For those studies, we were using primary cultures of cortical and hippocampal neurons from embryonic and neonatal rats. Incubation of bFGF with non-hydrolyzable ATP-gammaS resulted in phosphorylation and in neuroprotection resistant to alkaline phosphatase. We conclude that bFGF, NGF and BDNF undergo autophosphorylation on site(s) other than serine, threonine, tyrosine and/or ATP-binding, and that this binding of phosphate is essential for neuroprotection in vivo.

  20. The M3 Phosphorylation Site Is Required for Trafficking and Biological Roles of PIN-FORMED1, 2, and 7 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Daeeun; Sasayama, Daisuke; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetrically localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers play key roles in regulating directional intercellular auxin movement, generating local auxin gradients, and diverse auxin-mediated growth and development. The polar localization of PINs is controlled by phosphorylation in the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs. Although the M3 phosphorylation site, including phosphorylatable 5 Ser/Thr residues, is conserved among long HL-PINs, its native role has only been characterized in PIN3. In this study, we examined the role of M3 phosphorylation site of PIN1, PIN2, and PIN7 in intracellular trafficking, phosphorylation, and biological functions of those PINs in their native expressing tissues. Phosphorylation-defective mutations of the phosphorylatable residues in the M3 site of PIN1-HL led to alteration in subcellular polarity of PIN1 and caused defects in PIN1-mediated biological functions such as cotyledon development, phyllotaxy of vegetative leaves, and development of reproductive organs. The M3 mutations of PIN7 interfered with its polar recycling in the root columella cell in response to gravity stimulus and partially disrupted root gravitropism. On the other hand, the M3 site of PIN2 was shown to be necessary for its targeting to the plasma membrane. In vitro phosphorylation assay showed that the M3 phosphorylation residues of PIN1 are the partial targets by PINOID kinase. Our data suggest that the M3 phosphorylation site is functionally conserved among long HL-PINs by playing roles for their subcellular trafficking and auxin-mediated developmental processes. PMID:27733863

  1. KinasePhos 2.0: a web server for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites based on sequences and coupling patterns.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yung-Hao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Liang, Han-Kuen; Huang, Chia-Mao; Wang, Ting-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Huan; Chu, Chia-Huei; Huang, Hsien-Da; Ko, Ming-Tat; Hwang, Jenn-Kang

    2007-07-01

    Due to the importance of protein phosphorylation in cellular control, many researches are undertaken to predict the kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. Referred to our previous work, KinasePhos 1.0, incorporated profile hidden Markov model (HMM) with flanking residues of the kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. Herein, a new web server, KinasePhos 2.0, incorporates support vector machines (SVM) with the protein sequence profile and protein coupling pattern, which is a novel feature used for identifying phosphorylation sites. The coupling pattern [XdZ] denotes the amino acid coupling-pattern of amino acid types X and Z that are separated by d amino acids. The differences or quotients of coupling strength C(XdZ) between the positive set of phosphorylation sites and the background set of whole protein sequences from Swiss-Prot are computed to determine the number of coupling patterns for training SVM models. After the evaluation based on k-fold cross-validation and Jackknife cross-validation, the average predictive accuracy of phosphorylated serine, threonine, tyrosine and histidine are 90, 93, 88 and 93%, respectively. KinasePhos 2.0 performs better than other tools previously developed. The proposed web server is freely available at http://KinasePhos2.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/.

  2. Aquaporin inhibition changes protein phosphorylation pattern following sperm motility activation in fish.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Loredana; Beirão, José; Schiavone, Roberta; Herraez, Maria Paz; Cabrita, Elsa; Storelli, Carlo; Vilella, Sebastiano

    2011-09-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that osmolality is the key signal in sperm motility activation in Sparus aurata spermatozoa. In particular, we have proposed that the hyper-osmotic shock triggers water efflux from spermatozoa via aquaporins. This water efflux determines the cell volume reduction and, in turn, the rise in the intracellular concentration of ions. This increase could lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase and of the cAMP-signaling pathway, causing the phosphorylation of sperm proteins and then the initiation of sperm motility. This study confirms the important role of sea bream AQPs (Aqp1a and Aqp10b) in the beginning of sperm motility. In fact, when these proteins are inhibited by HgCl(2), the phosphorylation of some proteins (174 kDa protein of head; 147, 97 and 33 kDa proteins of flagella), following the hyper-osmotic shock, was inhibited (totally or partially). However, our results also suggest that more than one transduction pathways could be activated when sea bream spermatozoa were ejaculated in seawater, since numerous proteins showed an HgCl(2)(AQPs)-independent phosphorylation state after motility activation. The role played by each different signal transduction pathways need to be clarified.

  3. Microglia activation regulates GluR1 phosphorylation in chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchao; Li, Juan; Dai, Peng; Zhao, Fang; Zheng, Gang; Jing, Jinfei; Wang, Jiye; Luo, Wenjing; Chen, Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is considered to be a major risk factor in the development of psychopathological syndromes in humans. Cognitive impairments and long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments are increasingly recognized as major components of depression, anxiety disorders and other stress-related chronic psychological illnesses. It seems timely to systematically study the potentially underlying neurobiological mechanisms of altered cognitive and synaptic plasticity in the course of chronic stress. In the present study, a rat model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced a cognitive impairment in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and a hippocampal LTP impairment. CUS also induced hippocampal microglial activation and attenuated phosphorylation of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1 or GluA1). Moreover, chronic treatment with the selective microglial activation blocker, minocycline (120 mg/kg per day), beginning 3 d before CUS treatment and continuing through the behavioral testing period, prevented the CUS-induced impairments of spatial memory and LTP induction. Additional studies showed that minocycline-induced inhibition of microglia activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of GluR1. These results suggest that hippocampal microglial activation modulates the level of GluR1 phosphorylation and might play a causal role in CUS-induced cognitive and LTP disturbances.

  4. Antidepressants activate CaMKII in neuron cell body by Thr286 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tiraboschi, Ettore; Giambelli, Roberto; D'Urso, Giordano; Galietta, Antonio; Barbon, Alessandro; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Gennarelli, Massimo; Barlati, Sergio; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2004-10-25

    CaM kinase II, a regulator of synaptic plasticity, is implicated in pathophysiology and pharmacology of psychiatric disorders. Chronic treatment with antidepressants desipramine and reboxetine up-regulated CaM kinase II in neuronal cell bodies of hippocampus. mRNA/protein expression for alphaCaM kinase II was unchanged, whereas Thr phosphorylation was increased in pyramidal/granular cell bodies, suggesting that increased phosphorylation is responsible for kinase activation. Short-term treatment of neuronal cultures with reboxetine reduced kinase activation in a concentration-dependent manner. The short-term inhibitory effect of reboxetine suggests that kinase up-regulation during antidepressant drug treatment is an adaptive response compensating for initial functional down-regulation.

  5. Basal aurora kinase B activity is sufficient for histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase.

    PubMed

    Le, Ly-Thuy-Tram; Vu, Hong-Lien; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Molla, Annie

    2013-04-15

    Histone H3 phosphorylation is the hallmark of mitosis deposited by aurora kinase B. Benzo[e]pyridoindoles are a family of potent, broad, ATP-competitive aurora kinase inhibitors. However, benzo[e]pyridoindole C4 only inhibits histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase but not in metaphase. Under the C4 treatment, the cells enter into mitosis with dephosphorylated histone H3, assemble chromosomes normally and progress to metaphase, and then to anaphase. C4 also induces lagging chromosome in anaphase but we demonstrated that these chromosome compaction defects are not related to the absence of H3 phosphorylation in prophase. As a result of C4 action, mitosis lasts longer and the cell cycle is slowed down. We reproduced the mitotic defects with reduced concentrations of potent pan aurora kinase as well as with a specific aurora B ATP-competitive inhibitor; we therefore propose that histone H3 phosphorylation and anaphase chromosome compaction involve the basal activity of aurora kinase B. Our data suggest that aurora kinase B is progressively activated at mitosis entry and at anaphase onset. The full activation of aurora kinase B by its partners, in prometaphase, induces a shift in the catalytic domain of aurora B that modifies its affinity for ATP. These waves of activation/deactivation of aurora B correspond to different conformations of the chromosomal complex revealed by FRAP. The presence of lagging chromosomes may have deleterious consequences on the daughter cells and, unfortunately, the situation may be encountered in patients receiving treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.

  6. Mek1 Down Regulates Rad51 Activity during Yeast Meiosis by Phosphorylation of Hed1

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Tracy L.; Laljee, Saif; Zhou, Sai; Suhandynata, Ray T.; Gaines, William A.; Kwon, YoungHo; Börner, G. Valentin; Nicolas, Alain; Neiman, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    During meiosis, programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired preferentially between homologs to generate crossovers that promote proper chromosome segregation at Meiosis I. In many organisms, there are two strand exchange proteins, Rad51 and the meiosis-specific Dmc1, required for interhomolog (IH) bias. This bias requires the presence, but not the strand exchange activity of Rad51, while Dmc1 is responsible for the bulk of meiotic recombination. How these activities are regulated is less well established. In dmc1Δ mutants, Rad51 is actively inhibited, thereby resulting in prophase arrest due to unrepaired DSBs triggering the meiotic recombination checkpoint. This inhibition is dependent upon the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1 and occurs through two different mechanisms that prevent complex formation with the Rad51 accessory factor Rad54: (i) phosphorylation of Rad54 by Mek1 and (ii) binding of Rad51 by the meiosis-specific protein Hed1. An open question has been why inhibition of Mek1 affects Hed1 repression of Rad51. This work shows that Hed1 is a direct substrate of Mek1. Phosphorylation of Hed1 at threonine 40 helps suppress Rad51 activity in dmc1Δ mutants by promoting Hed1 protein stability. Rad51-mediated recombination occurring in the absence of Hed1 phosphorylation results in a significant increase in non-exchange chromosomes despite wild-type levels of crossovers, confirming previous results indicating a defect in crossover assurance. We propose that Rad51 function in meiosis is regulated in part by the coordinated phosphorylation of Rad54 and Hed1 by Mek1. PMID:27483004

  7. Truncation and Activation of Dual Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation-regulated Kinase 1A by Calpain I

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Nana; Yin, Xiaomin; Gu, Jianlan; Zhang, Xinhua; Shi, Jianhua; Qian, Wei; Ji, Yuhua; Cao, Maohong; Gu, Xiaosong; Ding, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Hyperphosphorylation and dysregulation of exon 10 splicing of Tau are pivotally involved in pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and/or other tauopathies. Alternative splicing of Tau exon 10, which encodes the second microtubule-binding repeat, generates Tau isoforms containing three and four microtubule-binding repeats, termed 3R-Taus and 4R-Taus, respectively. Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) lies at the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21. Overexpression of this kinase may contribute to the early Tau pathology in Down syndrome via phosphorylation of Tau and dysregulation of Tau exon 10. Here, we report that Dyrk1A was truncated at the C terminus and was associated with overactivation of calpain I in AD brain. Calpain I proteolyzed Dyrk1A in vitro first at the C terminus and further at the N terminus and enhanced its kinase activity toward Tau via increased Vmax but not Km. C-terminal truncation of Dyrk1A resulted in stronger activity than its full-length protein in promotion of exon 10 exclusion and phosphorylation of Tau. Dyrk1A was truncated in kainic acid-induced excitotoxic mouse brains and coincided with an increase in 3R-Tau expression and phosphorylation of Tau via calpain activation. Moreover, truncation of Dyrk1A was correlated with an increase in the ratio of 3R-Tau/4R-Tau and Tau hyperphosphorylation in AD brain. Collectively, these findings suggest that truncation/activation of Dyrk1A by Ca2+/calpain I might contribute to Tau pathology via promotion of exon 10 exclusion and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in AD brain. PMID:25918155

  8. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation, and meat tenderization in beef.

    PubMed

    Li, C B; Li, J; Zhou, G H; Lametsch, R; Ertbjerg, P; Brüggemann, D A; Huang, H G; Karlsson, A H; Hviid, M; Lundström, K

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine LM to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES; 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at an early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of creatine kinase M chain, fructose bisphosphate aldolase C-A, β-enolase, and pyruvate kinase at 3 h postmortem. Zymography indicated an earlier (P < 0.05) activation of μ-calpain in ES muscles. Free lysosomal cathepsin B and L activity increased faster (P < 0.05) in ES muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at an early postmortem time. Electrical stimulation also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P < 0.05) the depletion of ATP, creatine phosphate, and glycogen, as well as a pH decline and the more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization, resulting in lesser (P < 0.05) shear force values than the control over the testing time. A possible relationship was suggested between a change in the phosphorylation of energy metabolic enzymes and the postmortem tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of the activation of μ-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins, and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle.

  9. Phosphorylation of Opaque2 changes diurnally and impacts its DNA binding activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ciceri, P; Gianazza, E; Lazzari, B; Lippoli, G; Genga, A; Hoscheck, G; Schmidt, R J; Viotti, A

    1997-01-01

    In the maize endosperm, the Opaque2 (O2) basic leucine zipper transcriptional activator regulates the expression of a subset of the zein seed storage protein gene family. Immunodetection of wild-type or mutant O2 polypeptides fractionated by SDS-PAGE resolved a closely spaced doublet migrating in the 68- to 72-kD range, whereas by using isoelectric focusing, seven to nine isoforms were detected for each allele. Phosphatase treatment simplified the protein patterns to a single band corresponding to the nonphosphorylated component. In vivo and in vitro labeling confirmed that O2 can be phosphorylated. In protein gel blots probed with DNA, only the nonphosphorylated and hypophosphorylated O2 polypeptides were able to bind an oligonucleotide containing the O2 binding sequence. Upon in situ dephosphorylation of the focused isoforms by phosphatase treatment of the isoelectric focusing filter, the hyperphosphorylated forms acquired DNA binding activity. The ratio among the various isoforms remained constant throughout the developmental stages of endosperm growth but changed from daytime to nighttime, with a significant increase of the hyperphosphorylated forms during the night period. These results indicate that O2 exists in vivo as a pool of differently phosphorylated polypeptides and demonstrate that O2 DNA binding activity is modulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanism that appears to be influenced by environmental conditions. PMID:9014367

  10. Promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity in corn microsomal membranes by calcium and protein phosphorylation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paliyath, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of beta-glucan synthase was studied using microsomal preparations from corn coleoptiles. The specific activity as measured by the incorporation of glucose from uridine diphospho-D-[U-14C]glucose varied between 5 to 15 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. Calcium promoted beta-glucan synthase activity and the promotion was observed at free calcium concentrations as low as 1 micromole. Kinetic analysis of substrate-velocity curve showed an apparent Km of 1.92 x 10(-4) M for UDPG. Calcium increased the Vmax from 5.88 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 in the absence of calcium to 9.52 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 and 1.66 x 10(-6) mol liter-1 min-1 in the presence of 0.5 mM and 1 mM calcium, respectively. The Km values remained the same under these conditions. Addition of ATP further increased the activity above the calcium-promoted level. Sodium fluoride, a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, promoted glucan synthase activity indicating that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity. Increasing the concentration of sodium fluoride from 0.25 mM to 10 mM increased glucan synthase activity five-fold over the + calcium + ATP control. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins also showed a similar increase under these conditions. Calmodulin, in the presence of calcium and ATP stimulated glucan synthase activity substantially, indicating that calmodulin could be involved in the calcium-dependent phosphorylation and promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity. The role of calcium in mediating auxin action is discussed.

  11. Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtr1 reveals an active site for an atypical phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Irani, Seema; Yogesha, S D; Mayfield, Joshua; Zhang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yong; Matthews, Wendy L; Nie, Grace; Prescott, Nicholas A; Zhang, Yan Jessie

    2016-03-01

    Changes in the phosphorylation status of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) correlate with the process of eukaryotic transcription. The yeast protein regulator of transcription 1 (Rtr1) and the human homolog RNAPII-associated protein 2 (RPAP2) may function as CTD phosphatases; however, crystal structures of Kluyveromyces lactis Rtr1 lack a consensus active site. We identified a phosphoryl transfer domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtr1 by obtaining and characterizing a 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure. We identified a putative substrate-binding pocket in a deep groove between the zinc finger domain and a pair of helices that contained a trapped sulfate ion. Because sulfate mimics the chemistry of a phosphate group, this structural data suggested that this groove represents the phosphoryl transfer active site. Mutagenesis of the residues lining this groove disrupted catalytic activity of the enzyme assayed in vitro with a fluorescent chemical substrate, and expression of the mutated Rtr1 failed to rescue growth of yeast lacking Rtr1. Characterization of the phosphatase activity of RPAP2 and a mutant of the conserved putative catalytic site in the same chemical assay indicated a conserved reaction mechanism. Our data indicated that the structure of the phosphoryl transfer domain and reaction mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer activity of Rtr1 is distinct from those of other phosphatase families.

  12. Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtr1 reveals an active site for an atypical phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Joshua; Zhang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yong; Matthews, Wendy L.; Nie, Grace; Prescott, Nicholas A.; Zhang, Yan Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the phosphorylation status of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) correlate with the process of eukaryotic transcription. The yeast protein regulator of transcription 1 (Rtr1) and the human homolog RNAPII-associated protein 2 (RPAP2) may function as CTD phosphatases; however, crystal structures of Kluyveromyces lactis Rtr1 lack a consensus active site. We identified a phosphoryl transfer domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtr1 by obtaining and characterizing a 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure. We identified a putative substrate-binding pocket in a deep groove between the zinc finger domain and a pair of helices that contained a trapped sulfate ion. Because sulfate mimics the chemistry of a phosphate group, this structural data suggested that this groove represents the phosphoryl transfer active site. Mutagenesis of the residues lining this groove disrupted catalytic activity of the enzyme assayed in vitro with a fluorescent chemical substrate, and expression of the mutated Rtr1 failed to rescue growth of yeast lacking Rtr1. Characterization of the phosphatase activity of RPAP2 and a mutant of the conserved putative catalytic site in the same chemical assay indicated a conserved reaction mechanism. Our data indicated that the structure of the phosphoryl transfer domain and reaction mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer activity of Rtr1 is distinct from those of other phosphatase families. PMID:26933063

  13. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 by lipoxygenase metabolites depends on PKC phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Hazan, Adina; Geron, Matan; Steinberg, Rebbeca; Livni, Lital; Matzner, Henry; Priel, Avi

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral neuronal activation by inflammatory mediators is a multifaceted physiological response that involves a multitude of regulated cellular functions. One key pathway that has been shown to be involved in inflammatory pain is Gq/GPCR, whose activation by inflammatory mediators is followed by the regulated response of the cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). However, the mechanism that underlies TRPV1 activation downstream of the Gq/GPCR pathway has yet to be fully defined. In this study, we employ pharmacological and molecular biology tools to dissect this activation mechanism via perforated-patch recordings and calcium imaging of both neurons and a heterologous system. We showed that TRPV1 activity downstream of Gq/GPCR activation only produced a subdued current, which was noticeably different from the robust current that is typical of TRPV1 activation by exogenous stimuli. Moreover, we specifically demonstrated that 2 pathways downstream of Gq/GPCR signaling, namely endovanilloid production by lipoxygenases and channel phosphorylation by PKC, converge on TRPV1 to evoke a tightly regulated response. Of importance, we show that only when both pathways are acting on TRPV1 is the inflammatory-mediated response achieved. We propose that the requirement of multiple signaling events allows subdued TRPV1 activation to evoke regulated neuronal response during inflammation.-Kumar R., Hazan, A., Geron, M., Steinberg, R., Livni, L., Matzner, H., Priel, A. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 by lipoxygenase metabolites depends on PKC phosphorylation.

  14. EP2 Induces p38 Phosphorylation via the Activation of Src in HEK 293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Shim, Minsub

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major product of cyclooxygenase, binds to four different prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) which are G-protein coupled transmembrane receptors (GPCRs). Although GPCRs including EP receptors have been shown to be associated with their specific G proteins, recent evidences suggest that GPCRs can regulate MAPK signaling via non-G protein coupled pathways including Src. EP2 is differentially expressed in various tissues and the expression of EP2 is induced by extracellular stimuli. We hypothesized that an increased level of EP2 expression may affect MAPK signaling. The overexpression of EP2 in HEK 293 cells resulted in significant increase in intracellular cAMP levels response to treatment with butaprost, a specific EP2 agonist, while overexpression of EP2 alone did not increase intracellular cAMP levels. However, EP2 overexpression in the absence of PGE2 induced an increase in the level of p38 phosphorylation as well as the kinase activity of p38, suggesting that up-regulation of EP2 may promote p38 activation via non-G protein coupled pathway. Inhibition of Src completely blocked EP2-induced p38 phosphorylation and overexpression of Src increased the level of p38 phosphorylation, indicating that Src is upstream kinase for EP2-induced p38 phosphorylation. EP2 overexpression also increased the Src activity and EP2 protein was co-immunoprecipitated with Src. Furthermore, sequential co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that EP2, Src, and β-arrestin can form a complex. Our study found a novel pathway in which EP2 is associated with Src, regulating p38 pathway. PMID:26535079

  15. Cardiac Myosin-binding Protein C and Troponin-I Phosphorylation Independently Modulate Myofilament Length-dependent Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mohit; Govindan, Suresh; Zhang, Mengjie; Khairallah, Ramzi J.; Martin, Jody L.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; de Tombe, Pieter P.

    2015-01-01

    β-Adrenergic stimulation in heart leads to increased contractility and lusitropy via activation of protein kinase A (PKA). In the cardiac sarcomere, both cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) and troponin-I (cTnI) are prominent myofilament targets of PKA. Treatment of permeabilized myocardium with PKA induces enhanced myofilament length-dependent activation (LDA), the cellular basis of the Frank-Starling cardiac regulatory mechanism. It is not known, however, which of these targets mediates the altered LDA and to what extent. Here, we employed two genetic mouse models in which the three PKA sites in cMyBP-C were replaced with either phospho-mimic (DDD) or phospho-null (AAA) residues. AAA- or DDD-permeabilized myocytes (n = 12–17) were exchanged (∼93%) for recombinant cTnI in which the two PKA sites were mutated to either phospho-mimic (DD) or phospho-null (AA) residues. Force-[Ca2+] relationships were determined at two sarcomere lengths (SL = 1.9 μm and SL = 2.3 μm). Data were fit to a modified Hill equation for each individual cell preparation at each SL. LDA was indexed as ΔEC50, the difference in [Ca2+] required to achieve 50% force activation at the two SLs. We found that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and cTnI each independently contribute to enhance myofilament length-dependent activation properties of the cardiac sarcomere, with relative contributions of ∼67 and ∼33% for cMyBP-C for cTnI, respectively. We conclude that β-adrenergic stimulation enhances the Frank-Starling regulatory mechanism predominantly via cMyBP-C PKA-mediated phosphorylation. We speculate that this molecular mechanism enhances cross-bridge formation at long SL while accelerating cross-bridge detachment and relaxation at short SLs. PMID:26453301

  16. The internalization signal and the phosphorylation site of transferrin receptor are distinct from the main basolateral sorting information.

    PubMed Central

    Dargemont, C; Le Bivic, A; Rothenberger, S; Iacopetta, B; Kühn, L C

    1993-01-01

    Wild-type human transferrin receptor (hTfR), like endogenous canine receptor, is expressed almost exclusively (97%) at the basolateral membrane of transfected Madin-Darbey canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We investigated the role of two distinct features of the hTfR cytoplasmic domain, namely the endocytic signal and the unique phosphorylation site, in polarized cell surface delivery. Basolateral location was not altered by point mutation of Ser24-->Ala24, indicating that phosphorylation is not involved in vectorial sorting of hTfR. The steady state distribution of hTfR was partially affected by a deletion of 36 cytoplasmic residues encompassing the internalization sequence. However, 80% of the receptors were still basolateral. As assessed by pulse-chase experiments in combination with biotinylation, newly synthesized wild-type and deletion mutant receptors were directly sorted to the domain of their steady state residency. Although both receptors could bind human transferrin, endocytosis of the deletion mutant was strongly impaired at either surface. These data indicate that the predominant basolateral targeting signal of hTfR is independent of the internalization sequence. Images PMID:8467813

  17. Predikin and PredikinDB: a computational framework for the prediction of protein kinase peptide specificity and an associated database of phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Neil FW; Brinkworth, Ross I; Huber, Thomas; Kemp, Bruce E; Kobe, Bostjan

    2008-01-01

    Background We have previously described an approach to predicting the substrate specificity of serine-threonine protein kinases. The method, named Predikin, identifies key conserved substrate-determining residues in the kinase catalytic domain that contact the substrate in the region of the phosphorylation site and so determine the sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site. Predikin was implemented originally as a web application written in Javascript. Results Here, we describe a new version of Predikin, completely revised and rewritten as a modular framework that provides multiple enhancements compared with the original. Predikin now consists of two components: (i) PredikinDB, a database of phosphorylation sites that links substrates to kinase sequences and (ii) a Perl module, which provides methods to classify protein kinases, reliably identify substrate-determining residues, generate scoring matrices and score putative phosphorylation sites in query sequences. The performance of Predikin as measured using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) graph analysis equals or surpasses that of existing comparable methods. The Predikin website has been redesigned to incorporate the new features. Conclusion New features in Predikin include the use of SQL queries to PredikinDB to generate predictions, scoring of predictions, more reliable identification of substrate-determining residues and putative phosphorylation sites, extended options to handle protein kinase and substrate data and an improved web interface. The new features significantly enhance the ability of Predikin to analyse protein kinases and their substrates. Predikin is available at . PMID:18501020

  18. Phosphorylation of a constrained azacyclic FTY720 analog enhances anti-leukemic activity without inducing S1P receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Alison N.; McMonigle, Ryan J.; Tessier, Jérémie; Fransson, Rebecca; Perryman, Michael S.; Chen, Bin; Keebaugh, Andrew; Selwan, Elizabeth; Barr, Sarah A.; Kim, Seong M.; Roy, Saurabh G.; Liu, Gang; Fallegger, Daniel; Sernissi, Lorenzo; Brandt, Cordelia; Moitessier, Nicolas; Snider, Ashley J.; Clare, Simon; Müschen, Markus; Huwiler, Andrea; Kleinman, Michael T.; Hanessian, Stephen; Edinger, Aimee L.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of poor outcomes in relapsed leukemia patients underscores the need for novel therapeutic approaches. The FDA-approved immunosuppressant FTY720 limits leukemia progression by activating protein phosphatase 2A and restricting nutrient access. Unfortunately, FTY720 cannot be re-purposed for use in cancer patients due to on-target toxicity associated with S1P receptor activation at the elevated, anti-neoplastic dose. Here we show that the constrained azacyclic FTY720 analog SH-RF-177 lacks S1P receptor activity but maintains anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo. SH-RF-177 was not only more potent than FTY720, but killed via a distinct mechanism. Phosphorylation is dispensable for FTY720’s anti-leukemic actions. However, chemical biology and genetic approaches demonstrated that the sphingosine kinase 2- (SPHK2) mediated phosphorylation of SH-RF-177 led to engagement of a pro-apoptotic target and increased potency. The cytotoxicity of membrane-permeant FTY720 phosphonate esters suggests that the enhanced potency of SH-RF-177 stems from its more efficient phosphorylation. The tight inverse correlation between SH-RF-177 IC50 and SPHK2 mRNA expression suggests a useful biomarker for SH-RF-177 sensitivity. In summary, these studies indicate that FTY720 analogs that are efficiently phosphorylated but fail to activate S1P receptors may be superior anti-leukemic agents compared to compounds that avoid cardiotoxicity by eliminating phosphorylation. PMID:27573555

  19. Inhibition of Rb Phosphorylation Leads to mTORC2-Mediated Activation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfang; Xu, Kai; Liu, Pengda; Geng, Yan; Wang, Bin; Gan, Wenjian; Guo, Jianping; Wu, Fei; Chin, Y Rebecca; Berrios, Christian; Lien, Evan C; Toker, Alex; DeCaprio, James A; Sicinski, Piotr; Wei, Wenyi

    2016-06-16

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein exerts its tumor suppressor function primarily by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors that govern cell-cycle progression. However, it remains largely elusive whether the hyper-phosphorylated, non-E2F1-interacting form of Rb has any physiological role. Here we report that hyper-phosphorylated Rb directly binds to and suppresses the function of mTORC2 but not mTORC1. Mechanistically, Rb, but not p107 or p130, interacts with Sin1 and blocks the access of Akt to mTORC2, leading to attenuated Akt activation and increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. As such, inhibition of Rb phosphorylation by depleting cyclin D or using CDK4/6 inhibitors releases Rb-mediated mTORC2 suppression. This, in turn, leads to elevated Akt activation to confer resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in Rb-proficient cells, which can be attenuated with Akt inhibitors. Therefore, our work provides a molecular basis for the synergistic usage of CDK4/6 and Akt inhibitors in treating Rb-proficient cancer.

  20. Grb2 negatively regulates epidermal growth factor-induced phospholipase C-gamma1 activity through the direct interaction with tyrosine-phosphorylated phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Hong, Won-Pyo; Yun, Sanguk; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Lee, Jong-Ryul; Park, Jong Bae; Bae, Yun Soo; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-10-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation. Upon the stimulation of growth factors and hormones, PLC-gamma1 is rapidly phosphorylated at three known sites; Tyr771, Tyr783 and Tyr1254 and its enzymatic activity is up-regulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that Grb2, an adaptor protein, specifically interacts with tyrosine-phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783. The association of Grb2 with PLC-gamma1 was induced by the treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Replacement of Tyr783 with Phe completely blocked EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Grb2, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783 is essential for the interaction with Grb2. Interestingly, the depletion of Grb2 from HEK-293 cells by RNA interference significantly enhanced increased EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity and mobilization of the intracellular Ca2+, while it did not affect EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1. Furthermore, overexpression of Grb2 inhibited PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, these results suggest Grb2, in addition to its key function in signaling through Ras, may have a negatively regulatory role on EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  1. FT-IR analysis of phosphorylated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshihashi, Sachiko S.; Chihara, Kunihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are the most remarkable posttranslational modifications, are considered to be important chemical reactions that control the activation of proteins. We examine the phosphorylation analysis method by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group that observed at about 1070cm-1 (9.4μm) with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR). This study indicates that it is possible to identify a phosphorylation by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group observed at about 1070 cm-1 with FT-IR method. As long as target peptides have the same amino acid sequence, it is possible to identify the phosphorylated sites (threonine, serine and tyrosine).

  2. Normal Modes Expose Active Sites in Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Glantz-Gashai, Yitav; Samson, Abraham O.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of active sites is an important tool in bioinformatics. Here we present an improved structure based technique to expose active sites that is based on large changes of solvent accessibility accompanying normal mode dynamics. The technique which detects EXPOsure of active SITes through normal modEs is named EXPOSITE. The technique is trained using a small 133 enzyme dataset and tested using a large 845 enzyme dataset, both with known active site residues. EXPOSITE is also tested in a benchmark protein ligand dataset (PLD) comprising 48 proteins with and without bound ligands. EXPOSITE is shown to successfully locate the active site in most instances, and is found to be more accurate than other structure-based techniques. Interestingly, in several instances, the active site does not correspond to the largest pocket. EXPOSITE is advantageous due to its high precision and paves the way for structure based prediction of active site in enzymes. PMID:28002427

  3. Simultaneous quantification of protein phosphorylation sites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics: a linear algebra approach for isobaric phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feifei; Yang, Ting; Sheng, Yuan; Zhong, Ting; Yang, Mi; Chen, Yun

    2014-12-05

    As one of the most studied post-translational modifications (PTM), protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in almost all cellular processes. Current methods are able to predict and determine thousands of phosphorylation sites, whereas stoichiometric quantification of these sites is still challenging. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted proteomics is emerging as a promising technique for site-specific quantification of protein phosphorylation using proteolytic peptides as surrogates of proteins. However, several issues may limit its application, one of which relates to the phosphopeptides with different phosphorylation sites and the same mass (i.e., isobaric phosphopeptides). While employment of site-specific product ions allows for these isobaric phosphopeptides to be distinguished and quantified, site-specific product ions are often absent or weak in tandem mass spectra. In this study, linear algebra algorithms were employed as an add-on to targeted proteomics to retrieve information on individual phosphopeptides from their common spectra. To achieve this simultaneous quantification, a LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was first developed and validated for each phosphopeptide. Given the slope and intercept of calibration curves of phosphopeptides in each transition, linear algebraic equations were developed. Using a series of mock mixtures prepared with varying concentrations of each phosphopeptide, the reliability of the approach to quantify isobaric phosphopeptides containing multiple phosphorylation sites (≥ 2) was discussed. Finally, we applied this approach to determine the phosphorylation stoichiometry of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) at Ser78 and Ser82 in breast cancer cells and tissue samples.

  4. Cyclin A-dependent phosphorylation of the ETS-related protein, MEF, restricts its activity to the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Y; Boccuni, P; Mao, S; Zhang, J; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Kiyokawa, H; Nimer, S D

    2001-11-02

    MEF, a recently identified member of the E74 family of ETS-related transcription factors, is a strong transcriptional activator of cytokine gene expression. Using a green fluorescent protein gene reporter plasmid regulated by an MEF-responsive promoter, we determined that the transcriptional activity of MEF is largely restricted to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. MEF-dependent transcription was suppressed by the expression of cyclin A but not by cyclin D or cyclin E. This effect was due to the kinase activity generated by cyclin A expression, as co-expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 or p27, or a dominant negative form of CDK2 (DNK2), abrogated the reduction of MEF transcriptional activity by cyclin A. Cyclin A-CDK2 phosphorylated MEF protein in vitro more efficiently than cyclin D-CDK4 or cyclin E-CDK2, and phosphorylation of MEF by cyclin A-CDK2 reduced its ability to bind DNA. We determined one site of phosphorylation by cyclin A-CDK2 at the C terminus of MEF, using mass-spectrometry; mutation of three serine or threonine residues in this region significantly reduced phosphorylation of MEF by cyclin A and reduced cyclin A-mediated suppression of its transactivating activity. These amino acid substitutions also reduced the restriction of MEF activity to G1. Phosphorylation of MEF by the cyclin A-CDK2 complex controls its transcriptional activity during the cell cycle, establishing a novel link between the ETS family of proteins and the cell cycle machinery.

  5. Cardiac myosin light chain is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and -independent kinase activities

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Pravin; Knapp, Stefan; Barton, Hannah; Sweeney, H. Lee; Kamm, Kristine E.; Stull, James T.

    2016-01-01

    The well-known, muscle-specific smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) (smMLCK) and skeletal muscle MLCK (skMLCK) are dedicated protein kinases regulated by an autoregulatory segment C terminus of the catalytic core that blocks myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binding and phosphorylation in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM). Although it is known that a more recently discovered cardiac MLCK (cMLCK) is necessary for normal RLC phosphorylation in vivo and physiological cardiac performance, information on cMLCK biochemical properties are limited. We find that a fourth uncharacterized MLCK, MLCK4, is also expressed in cardiac muscle with high catalytic domain sequence similarity with other MLCKs but lacking an autoinhibitory segment. Its crystal structure shows the catalytic domain in its active conformation with a short C-terminal “pseudoregulatory helix” that cannot inhibit catalysis as a result of missing linker regions. MLCK4 has only Ca2+/CaM-independent activity with comparable Vmax and Km values for different RLCs. In contrast, the Vmax value of cMLCK is orders of magnitude lower than those of the other three MLCK family members, whereas its Km (RLC and ATP) and KCaM values are similar. In contrast to smMLCK and skMLCK, which lack activity in the absence of Ca2+/CaM, cMLCK has constitutive activity that is stimulated by Ca2+/CaM. Potential contributions of autoregulatory segment to cMLCK activity were analyzed with chimeras of skMLCK and cMLCK. The constitutive, low activity of cMLCK appears to be intrinsic to its catalytic core structure rather than an autoinhibitory segment. Thus, RLC phosphorylation in cardiac muscle may be regulated by two different protein kinases with distinct biochemical regulatory properties. PMID:27325775

  6. Enzyme Activities of the Ceramide Synthases CERS2–6 Are Regulated by Phosphorylation in the C-terminal Region*

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Takayuki; Hirayama, Taisuke; Kihara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide and complex sphingolipids regulate important cellular functions including cell growth, apoptosis, and signaling. Dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism leads to pathological consequences such as sphingolipidoses and insulin resistance. Ceramides in mammals vary greatly in their acyl-chain composition: six different ceramide synthase isozymes (CERS1–6) that exhibit distinct substrate specificity and tissue distribution account for this diversity. In the present study, we demonstrated that CERS2–6 were phosphorylated at the cytoplasmic C-terminal regions. Most of the phosphorylated residues conformed to a consensus motif for phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 (CK2), and treatment of cells with the CK2-specific inhibitor CX-4945 lowered the phosphorylation levels of CERS2, -4, -5, and -6. Phosphorylation of CERS2 was especially important for its catalytic activity, acting mainly by increasing its Vmax value. Phosphorylation modestly increased the catalytic activities of CERS4 and -5 and mildly increased those of CERS3 and -6. Dephosphorylation of endogenous ceramide synthases in the mouse brain led to severely reduced activity toward the Cers2 substrates C22:0/C24:0-CoAs and modestly reduced activity toward the Cers5/6 substrate C16:0-CoA. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of ceramide synthases may be a key regulatory point in the control of the distribution and levels of sphingolipids of various acyl-chain lengths. PMID:26887952

  7. Casein kinase 1 α phosphorylates the Wnt regulator Jade-1 and modulates its activity.

    PubMed

    Borgal, Lori; Rinschen, Markus M; Dafinger, Claudia; Hoff, Sylvia; Reinert, Matthäus J; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Lienkamp, Soeren S; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard

    2014-09-19

    Tight regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for vertebrate development and tissue maintenance, and deregulation can lead to a host of disease phenotypes, including developmental disorders and cancer. Proteins associated with primary cilia and centrosomes have been demonstrated to negatively regulate canonical Wnt signaling in interphase cells. The plant homeodomain zinc finger protein Jade-1 can act as an E3 ubiquitin ligase-targeting β-catenin for proteasomal degradation and concentrates at the centrosome and ciliary basal body in addition to the nucleus in interphase cells. We demonstrate that the destruction complex component casein kinase 1α (CK1α) phosphorylates Jade-1 at a conserved SLS motif and reduces the ability of Jade-1 to inhibit β-catenin signaling. Consistently, Jade-1 lacking the SLS motif is more effective than wild-type Jade-1 in reducing β-catenin-induced secondary axis formation in Xenopus laevis embryos in vivo. Interestingly, CK1α also phosphorylates β-catenin and the destruction complex component adenomatous polyposis coli at a similar SLS motif to the effect that β-catenin is targeted for degradation. The opposing effect of Jade-1 phosphorylation by CK1α suggests a novel example of the dual functions of CK1α activity to either oppose or promote canonical Wnt signaling in a context-dependent manner.

  8. Combined top-down and bottom-up proteomics identifies a phosphorylation site in stem-loop-binding proteins that contributes to high-affinity RNA binding.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Christoph H; Thapar, Roopa; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Torres, Matthew P; Speir, J Paul; Easterling, Michael; Dominski, Zbigniew; Marzluff, William F

    2006-02-28

    The stem-loop-binding protein (SLBP) is involved in multiple aspects of histone mRNA metabolism. To characterize the modification status and sites of SLBP, we combined mass spectrometric bottom-up (analysis of peptides) and top-down (analysis of intact proteins) proteomic approaches. Drosophilia SLBP is heavily phosphorylated, containing up to seven phosphoryl groups. Accurate M(r) determination by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MS and FTICR-MS top-down experiments using a variety of dissociation techniques show there is removal of the initiator methionine and acetylation of the N terminus in the baculovirus-expressed protein, and that T230 is stoichiometrically phosphorylated. T230 is highly conserved; we have determined that this site is also completely phosphorylated in baculovirus-expressed mammalian SLBP and extensively phosphorylated in both Drosophila and mammalian cultured cells. Removal of the phosphoryl group from T230 by either dephosphorylation or mutation results in a 7-fold reduction in the affinity of SLBP for the stem-loop RNA.

  9. Protein kinase CK2-mediated phosphorylation of HDAC2 regulates co-repressor formation, deacetylase activity and acetylation of HDAC2 by cigarette smoke and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Adenuga, David; Rahman, Irfan

    2010-06-01

    Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) mediates the repression of pro-inflammatory genes by deacetylating core histones, RelA/p65 and the glucocorticoid receptor. Reduced level of HDAC2 is associated with steroid resistant inflammation caused by cigarette smoke (CS)-derived oxidants and aldehydes. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating HDAC2 in response to CS and aldehydes is not known. Here, we report that CS extract, and aldehyde acrolein induced phosphorylation of HDAC2 which was abolished by mutations at serine sites S(394), S(411), S(422) and S(424). HDAC2 phosphorylation required direct interaction with serine-phosphorylated protein kinase CK2alpha and involved reduced HDAC2 deacetylase activity. Furthermore, HDAC2 phosphorylation was required for HDAC2 interaction with transcription factors, co-repressor complex formation, CBP recruitment, acetylation on lysine residues and modulates transrepression activity. Thus, phospho-acetylation of HDAC2 negatively regulates its deacetylase activity which has implications in steroid resistance in chronic inflammatory conditions.

  10. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant human choline acetyltransferase: phosphorylation of the enzyme regulates catalytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dobransky, T; Davis, W L; Xiao, G H; Rylett, R J

    2000-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase synthesizes acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons and, in humans, may be produced in 82- and 69-kDa forms. In this study, recombinant choline acetyltransferase from baculovirus and bacterial expression systems was used to identify protein isoforms by two-dimensional SDS/PAGE and as substrate for protein kinases. Whereas hexa-histidine-tagged 82- and 69-kDa enzymes did not resolve as individual isoforms on two-dimensional gels, separation of wild-type choline acetyltransferase expressed in insect cells revealed at least nine isoforms for the 69-kDa enzyme and at least six isoforms for the 82-kDa enzyme. Non-phosphorylated wild-type choline acetyltransferase expressed in Escherichia coli yielded six (69 kDa) and four isoforms (82 kDa) respectively. Immunofluorescent labelling of insect cells expressing enzyme showed differential subcellular localization with the 69-kDa enzyme localized adjacent to plasma membrane and the 82-kDa enzyme being cytoplasmic at 24 h. By 64 h, the 69-kDa form was in cytoplasm and the 82-kDa form was only present in nucleus. Studies in vitro showed that recombinant 69-kDa enzyme was a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC), casein kinase II (CK2) and alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaM kinase), but not for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); phosphorylation by PKC and CK2 enhanced enzyme activity. The 82-kDa enzyme was a substrate for PKC and CK2 but not for PKA or alpha-CaM kinase, with only PKC yielding increased enzyme activity. Dephosphorylation of both forms of enzyme by alkaline phosphatase decreased enzymic activity. These studies are of functional significance as they report for the first time that phosphorylation enhances choline acetyltransferase catalytic activity. PMID:10861222

  11. Syk-dependent phosphorylation of CLEC-2: a novel mechanism of hem-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling.

    PubMed

    Séverin, Sonia; Pollitt, Alice Y; Navarro-Nuñez, Leyre; Nash, Craig A; Mourão-Sá, Diego; Eble, Johannes A; Senis, Yotis A; Watson, Steve P

    2011-02-11

    The C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC-2 signals via phosphorylation of a single cytoplasmic YXXL sequence known as a hem-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM). In this study, we show that phosphorylation of CLEC-2 by the snake toxin rhodocytin is abolished in the absence of the tyrosine kinase Syk but is not altered in the absence of the major platelet Src family kinases, Fyn, Lyn, and Src, or the tyrosine phosphatase CD148, which regulates the basal activity of Src family kinases. Further, phosphorylation of CLEC-2 by rhodocytin is not altered in the presence of the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2, even though PLCγ2 phosphorylation and platelet activation are abolished. A similar dependence of phosphorylation of CLEC-2 on Syk is also seen in response to stimulation by an IgG mAb to CLEC-2, although interestingly CLEC-2 phosphorylation is also reduced in the absence of Lyn. These results provide the first definitive evidence that Syk mediates phosphorylation of the CLEC-2 hemITAM receptor with Src family kinases playing a critical role further downstream through the regulation of Syk and other effector proteins, providing a new paradigm in signaling by YXXL-containing receptors.

  12. Protein phosphorylation and photorespiration.

    PubMed

    Hodges, M; Jossier, M; Boex-Fontvieille, E; Tcherkez, G

    2013-07-01

    Photorespiration allows the recycling of carbon atoms of 2-phosphoglycolate produced by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) oxygenase activity, as well as the removal of potentially toxic metabolites. The photorespiratory pathway takes place in the light, encompasses four cellular compartments and interacts with several other metabolic pathways and functions. Therefore, the regulation of this cycle is probably of paramount importance to plant metabolism, however, our current knowledge is poor. To rapidly respond to changing conditions, proteins undergo a number of different post-translational modifications that include acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation, but protein phosphorylation is probably the most common. The reversible covalent addition of a phosphate group to a specific amino acid residue allows the modulation of protein function, such as activity, subcellular localisation, capacity to interact with other proteins and stability. Recent data indicate that many photorespiratory enzymes can be phosphorylated, and thus it seems that the photorespiratory cycle is, in part, regulated by protein phosphorylation. In this review, the known phosphorylation sites of each Arabidopsis thaliana photorespiratory enzyme and several photorespiratory-associated proteins are described and discussed. A brief account of phosphoproteomic protocols is also given since the published data compiled in this review are the fruit of this approach.

  13. Deoxycholate induced tetramer of αA-crystallin and sites of phosphorylation: Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and femtosecond solvation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Aritra; Mojumdar, Supratik Sen; Choudhury, Aparajita; Banerjee, Rajat; Das, Kali Pada; Sasmal, Dibyendu Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2012-04-01

    Structure and dynamics of acrylodan labeled αA-crystallin tetramer formed in the presence of a bile salt (sodium deoxycholate, NaDC) has been studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and femtosecond up-conversion techniques. Using FCS it is shown that, the diffusion constant (Dt) of the αA-crystallin oligomer (mass ˜800 kDa) increases from ˜35 μm2 s-1 to ˜68 μm2 s-1. This corresponds to a decrease in hydrodynamic radius (rh) from ˜6.9 nm to ˜3.3 nm. This corresponds to about 10-fold decrease in molecular mass to ˜80 kDa and suggests formation of a tetramer (since mass of αA-crystallin monomer is ˜20 kDa). The steady state emission maximum and average solvation time (<τs>) of acrylodan labeled at cysteine 131 position of αA-crystallin is markedly affected on addition of NaDC, while the tryptophan (trp-9) becomes more exposed. This suggests that NaDC binds near the cys-131 and makes the terminal region of αA-crystallin exposed. This may explain the enhanced auto-phosphorylation activity of αA-crystallin near the terminus of the 173 amino acid protein (e.g., at the threonine 13, serine 45, or serine 169 and 172) and suggests that phosphorylation at ser-122 (close to cys-131) is relatively less important.

  14. High inorganic phosphate causes DNMT1 phosphorylation and subsequent fibrotic fibroblast activation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoying; Xu, Xingbo; Zeisberg, Elisabeth M; Zeisberg, Michael

    2016-04-08

    Phosphate is an essential constituent of critical cellular functions including energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis and phosphorylation-dependent cell signaling. Increased plasma phosphate levels are an independent risk factor for lowered life-expectancy as well as for heart and kidney failure. Nevertheless, direct cellular effects of elevated phosphate concentrations within the microenvironment are poorly understood and have been largely neglected in favor of phosphor-regulatory hormones. Because interstitial fibrosis is the common determinant of chronic progressive kidney disease, and because fibroblasts are major mediators of fibrogenesis, we here explored the effect of high extracellular phosphate levels on renal fibroblasts. We demonstrate that high inorganic phosphate directly induces fibrotic fibroblast activation associated with increased proliferative activity, increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and increased synthesis of type I collagen. We further demonstrate that such fibroblast activation is dependent on phosphate influx, aberrant phosphorylation of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 and aberrant CpG island promoter methylation. In summary, our studies demonstrate that elevated phosphate concentrations induce pro-fibrotic fibroblast activation independent of phospho-regulatory hormones.

  15. Tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase CK2 by Src-related tyrosine kinases correlates with increased catalytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Donella-Deana, Arianna; Cesaro, Luca; Sarno, Stefania; Ruzzene, Maria; Brunati, Anna Maria; Marin, Oriano; Vilk, Greg; Doherty-Kirby, Amanda; Lajoie, Gilles; Litchfield, David W; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2003-01-01

    Casein kinase-2 (CK2) is a pleiotropic and constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta-subunits, whose regulation is still not well understood. In the present study, we show that the catalytic subunits of human CK2, but not the regulatory beta-subunits, are readily phosphorylated by the Src family protein tyrosine kinases Lyn and c-Fgr to a stoichiometry approaching 2 mol phosphotyrosine/mol CK2alpha with a concomitant 3-fold increase in catalytic activity. We also show that endogenous CK2alpha becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in pervanadate-treated Jurkat cells. Both tyrosine phosphorylation and stimulation of activity are suppressed by the specific Src inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d ]pyrimidine. By comparison, mutations giving rise to inactive forms of CK2alpha do not abrogate and, in some cases, stimulate Lyn and c-Fgr-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of CK2. Several radiolabelled phosphopeptides could be resolved by HPLC, following tryptic digestion of CK2alpha that had been phosphoradiolabelled by incubation with [(32)P]ATP and c-Fgr. The most prominent phosphopeptide co-migrates with a synthetic peptide encompassing the 248-268 sequence, phosphorylated previously by c-Fgr at Tyr(255) in vitro. The identification of Tyr(255) as a phosphorylated residue was also supported by MS sequencing of both the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated 248-268 tryptic fragments from CK2alpha and by on-target phosphatase treatment. A CK2alpha mutant in which Tyr(255) was replaced by phenylalanine proved less susceptible to phosphorylation and refractory to stimulation by c-Fgr. PMID:12628006

  16. Phosphorylation of Nrf2 in the transcription activation domain by casein kinase 2 (CK2) is critical for the nuclear translocation and transcription activation function of Nrf2 in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Apopa, Patrick L; He, Xiaoqing; Ma, Qiang

    2008-02-01

    The antioxidant-activated transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the induction of cytoprotective genes against chemical toxicity and oxidative injuries. The role of phosphorylation in Nrf2 activation has been suggested but remains elusive. We report that phenolic antioxidant/pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) induced two forms of the Nrf2 protein in neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32), which migrated as distinctive bands on SDS-PAGE. In vitro treatment with lambda phosphatase eliminated the slower migrating form and increased the amount of the faster migrating form of Nrf2. In vivo (32)Pi-phosphorylation resulted in (32)Pi-labeling of the Nrf2 protein in the presence of tBHQ that can be dephosphorylated by lambda phosphotase, indicating that the slower migrating form is a phosphorylated Nrf2 protein and the faster form an unphosphorylated Nrf2. Unphosphorylated Nrf2 predominated in the cytoplasm, whereas the phosphorylated form preferentially localized in the nucleus. Nuclear Nrf2 can be dephosphorylated by lambda phosphotase in vitro and be converted to the faster migrating form, implicating phosphorylation of Nrf2 in the cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of the protein. Deletional analyses from both the carboxyl- and amino-ends revealed the transcription activation (TA) domains Neh4 (Nrf2-ECH homology 4) and Neh5 (Nrf2-ECH homology 5) as a major region necessary for the phosphorylation. The TA domains are characterized by the presence of multiple phosphorylation sites of casein kinase 2 (CK2). Moreover, CK2 phosphorylated the TA domains in vitro. Treatment with CK2 inhibitor 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7,-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT) blocked the induction of endogenous target genes of Nrf2 in cells and inhibited the TA activities of both the full length and the TA domains of Nrf2 to a large extent. Finally, phosphorylation of the TA domains correlated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 that was inhibited by DMAT in a

  17. Antioxidant activity of phosphorylated exopolysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuxing; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Xin, Lingying; Li, Hua; Zeng, Xiaoqun

    2013-09-12

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was isolated and purified from MRS culture broth. Phosphorylated exopolysaccharide (P-EPS) was synthesized by using the purified EPS and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP). The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of EPS and P-EPS was analyzed. Both EPS and P-EPS displayed superoxide anion (O(2-•)), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and DPPH scavenging activity. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity increased in serum and the livers of mice treated with EPS and P-EPS, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased. P-EPS was shown to prevent the progression of D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in hepatocytes in vivo. P-EPS showed stronger in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity than EPS.

  18. Phosphorylation and activation of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) during osmotic cell shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Rigor, Robert R; Damoc, Catalina; Phinney, Brett S; Cala, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    The Na(+)/H(+)Exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a highly versatile, broadly distributed and precisely controlled transport protein that mediates volume and pH regulation in most cell types. NHE1 phosphorylation contributes to Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity in response to phorbol esters, growth factors or protein phosphatase inhibitors, but has not been observed during activation by osmotic cell shrinkage (OCS). We examined the role of NHE1 phosphorylation during activation by OCS, using an ideal model system, the Amphiuma tridactylum red blood cell (atRBC). Na(+)/H(+) exchange in atRBCs is mediated by an NHE1 homolog (atNHE1) that is 79% identical to human NHE1 at the amino acid level. NHE1 activity in atRBCs is exceptionally robust in that transport activity can increase more than 2 orders of magnitude from rest to full activation. Michaelis-Menten transport kinetics indicates that either OCS or treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin-A (CLA) increase Na(+) transport capacity without affecting transport affinity (K(m)=44 mM) in atRBCs. CLA and OCS act non-additively to activate atNHE1, indicating convergent, phosphorylation-dependent signaling in atNHE1 activation. In situ(32)P labeling and immunoprecipitation demonstrates that the net phosphorylation of atNHE1 is increased 4-fold during OCS coinciding with a more than 2-order increase in Na(+) transport activity. This is the first reported evidence of increased NHE1 phosphorylation during OCS in any vertebrate cell type. Finally, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of atNHE1 immunoprecipitated from atRBC membranes reveals 9 phosphorylated serine/threonine residues, suggesting that activation of atNHE1 involves multiple phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation events.

  19. Modulation of Receptor Phosphorylation Contributes to Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Other Peroxisome Proliferators

    PubMed Central

    Tamasi, Viola; Miller, Kristy K. Michael; Ripp, Sharon L.; Vila, Ermin; Geoghagen, Thomas E.; Prough, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 human adrenal steroid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in vivo but does not ligand-activate PPARα in transient transfection experiments. We demonstrate that DHEA regulates PPARα action by altering both the levels and phosphorylation status of the receptor. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with the expression plasmid encoding PPARα and a plasmid containing two copies of fatty acyl coenzyme oxidase (FACO) peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor responsive element consensus oligonucleotide in a luciferase reporter gene. Nafenopin treatment increased reporter gene activity in this system, whereas DHEA treatment did not. Okadaic acid significantly decreased nafenopin-induced reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Okadaic acid treatment of primary rat hepatocytes decreased both DHEA- and nafenopin-induced FACO activity in primary rat hepatocytes. DHEA induced both PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as PP2A message in primary rat hepatocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the serines at positions 12 and 21 were rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment with DHEA and nafenopin. Results using specific protein phosphatase inhibitors suggested that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for DHEA action, and protein phosphatase 1 might be involved in nafenopin induction. Mutation of serines at position 6, 12, and 21 to an uncharged alanine residue significantly increased transcriptional activity, whereas mutation to negative charged aspartate residues (mimicking receptor phosphorylation) decreased transcriptional activity. DHEA action involves induction of PPARα mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPARα transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region. PMID:18079279

  20. The phosphorylation targets of p47phox, a subunit of the respiratory burst oxidase. Functions of the individual target serines as evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Faust, L R; el Benna, J; Babior, B M; Chanock, S J

    1995-01-01

    The respiratory burst oxidase of phagocytes and B lymphocytes catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to O2- at the expense of NADPH. Dormant in resting cells, the oxidase is activated by exposing the cells to appropriate stimuli. During activation, p47phox, a cytosolic oxidase subunit, becomes extensively phosphorylated on a number of serines located between S303 and S379. To determine whether this phosphorylation is necessary for oxidase activation, we examined phorbol-elicited oxidase activity in EBV-transformed B lymphoblasts deficient in p47phox after transfection with plasmids expressing various S-->A mutants of p47phox. The mutant containing S-->A mutations involving all serines between S303 and S379 [S(303-379)A] was not phosphorylated, did not translocate to plasma membrane during activation and was almost devoid of function. As to individual serines, S379 was of special interest because (a) p47 phox S379 was phosphorylated in phorbol-activated lymphoblasts expressing wild-type p47phox, and (b) p47phox S379A failed to translocate to the membrane, and was as functionless as p47phox S(303-379)A; other single S-->A mutations had little effect on oxidase activity. These findings suggest that the phosphorylation of S379 may be important for oxidase activation in whole cells. Images PMID:7657821

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B non-canonical pathway requires BCL10 serine 138 and NIK phosphorylations

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2010-11-15

    Background and aims: B-cell lymphoma/leukemia (BCL)-10 and reactive oxygen species mediate two pathways of NF-{kappa}B (RelA) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The pathway for LPS activation of RelB by the non-canonical pathway (RelB) in non-myeloid cells was not yet reported, but important for understanding the range of potential microbial LPS-induced effects in inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Experiments were performed in human colonic epithelial cells and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in components of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalosome, in order to detect mediators of the non-canonical pathway of NF-{kappa}B activation, including nuclear RelB and p52 and phospho- and total NF-{kappa}B inducing kinase (NIK). BCL10 was silenced by siRNA and effects of mutations of specific phosphorylation sites of BCL10 (Ser138Gly and Ser218Gly) were determined. Results: By the non-canonical pathway, LPS exposure increased nuclear RelB and p52, and phospho-NIK, with no change in total NIK. Phosphorylation of BCL10 serine 138 was required for NIK phosphorylation, since mutation of this residue eliminated the increases in phospho-NIK and nuclear RelB and p52. Mutations of either serine 138 or serine 218 reduced RelA, p50, and phospho-I{kappa}B{alpha} of the canonical pathway. Effects of LPS stimulation and BCL10 silencing on NIK phosphorylation were demonstrated in confocal images. Conclusions: LPS induces activation of both canonical and non-canonical pathways of NF-{kappa}B in human colonic epithelial cells, and the non-canonical pathway requires phosphorylations of BCL10 (serine 138) and NIK. These findings demonstrate the important role of BCL10 in mediating LPS-induced inflammation in human colonic epithelial cells and may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

  2. Stimulation of the DNA unwinding activity of human DNA helicase II/Ku by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ochem, Alexander E; Rechreche, Hocine; Skopac, Doris; Falaschi, Arturo

    2008-02-01

    The Ku autoantigen is a heterodimeric protein of 70- and 83-kDa subunits, endowed with duplex DNA end-binding capacity and DNA helicase activity (Human DNA Helicase II, HDH II). HDH II/Ku is well established as the DNA binding component, the regulatory subunit as well as a substrate for the DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PK, a complex involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and in V(D)J recombination in eukaryotes. The effects of phosphorylation by this kinase on the helicase activity of Escherichia coli-produced HDH II/Ku were studied. The rate of DNA unwinding by recombinant HDH II/Ku heterodimer is stimulated at least fivefold upon phosphorylation by DNA-PK(cs). This stimulation is due to the effective transfer of phosphate residues to the helicase rather than the mere presence of the complex. In vitro dephosphorylation of HeLa cellular HDH II/Ku caused a significant decrease in the DNA helicase activity of this enzyme.

  3. Activation of proacrosin accompanies upregulation of sp32 protein tyrosine phosphorylation in pig sperm.

    PubMed

    Sun, P L; Yang, L X; Cui, J-J; Tian, Y; Liu, Y; Jin, Y

    2013-12-11

    This study investigated the relationship between acrosin activation and pig sperm proacrosin binding protein (sp32) phosphorylation levels. Differently processed pig spermatozoa (fresh semen sperm, capacitation sperm, acrosome reaction sperm, capacitation-like sperm, and thawed sperm) were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. The fresh semen and capacitation sperm groups both produced proacrosin protein bands of 55 kDa; however, the result of the fresh semen sperm group was clearer than that of the capacitation sperm group. The thawed sperm group showed a shallow strip at 55 kDa. The capacitation and acrosome reaction sperm groups produced obvious proacrosin protein bands at 35 kDa, and the strips of the capacitation sperm group were again clearer. A faint band was visible at 32 kDa in the acrosome reaction sperm group. The capacitation, thawed, and acrosome reaction sperm groups showed significant strips in sp32, and the bands of the acrosome reaction sperm group were shallower than those of the 2 other groups. The capacitation and thawed sperm groups produced significant strips at 40 kDa, and the capacitation sperm group produced an additional strip at 55 kDa. In conclusion, sp32 phosphorylation levels can promote proacrosin activation into the active acrosin.

  4. Rck1 promotes pseudohyphal growth via the activation of Ubp3 phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Min; Chang, Miwha; Park, Yong-Sung; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2016-01-15

    Previously, we reported that Rck1 up-regulates Ras2 and pseudohyphal growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we further investigate the involvement of Rck1 in the activation of pseudohyphal growth. Rck1 activated phosphorylation of the deubiquitinase Ubp3 through a direct protein interaction between Rck1 and Ubp3. The N-terminal Bre5 binding region of Ubp3 physically interacted with Rck1, and Ubp3 and Rck1 co-precipitated. Overexpression of UBP3 using a high-copy plasmid resulted in the upregulation of Ras2, and deletion of UBP3 blocked the upregulation of Ras2 by RCK1 overexpression. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 resulted in accumulation of Ras2, indicating that Rck1 is involved in Ras2 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Furthermore, deletion of UBP3 blocked the upregulation of FLO11, a flocculin required for pseudohyphal and invasive growth induced by RCK1 overexpression in S. cerevisiae. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Rck1 promotes S. cerevisiae pseudohyphal growth via the activation of Ubp3 phosphorylation.

  5. Active and regulatory sites of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Pesi, Rossana; Allegrini, Simone; Careddu, Maria Giovanna; Filoni, Daniela Nicole; Camici, Marcella; Tozzi, Maria Grazia

    2010-12-01

    Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase (cN-II), which acts preferentially on 6-hydroxypurine nucleotides, is essential for the survival of several cell types. cN-II catalyses both the hydrolysis of nucleotides and transfer of their phosphate moiety to a nucleoside acceptor through formation of a covalent phospho-intermediate. Both activities are regulated by a number of phosphorylated compounds, such as diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap₄A), ADP, ATP, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) and phosphate. On the basis of a partial crystal structure of cN-II, we mutated two residues located in the active site, Y55 and T56. We ascertained that the ability to catalyse the transfer of phosphate depends on the presence of a bulky residue in the active site very close to the aspartate residue that forms the covalent phospho-intermediate. The molecular model indicates two possible sites at which adenylic compounds may interact. We mutated three residues that mediate interaction in the first activation site (R144, N154, I152) and three in the second (F127, M436 and H428), and found that Ap₄A and ADP interact with the same site, but the sites for ATP and BPG remain uncertain. The structural model indicates that cN-II is a homotetrameric protein that results from interaction through a specific interface B of two identical dimers that have arisen from interaction of two identical subunits through interface A. Point mutations in the two interfaces and gel-filtration experiments indicated that the dimer is the smallest active oligomerization state. Finally, gel-filtration and light-scattering experiments demonstrated that the native enzyme exists as a tetramer, and no further oligomerization is required for enzyme activation.

  6. Transforming growth factor-{beta}-inducible phosphorylation of Smad3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guannan; Matsuura, Isao; He, Dongming; Liu, Fang

    2009-04-10

    Smad proteins transduce the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signal at the cell surface into gene regulation in the nucleus. Upon TGF-beta treatment, the highly homologous Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptor at the SSXS motif in the C-terminal tail. Here we show that in addition to the C-tail, three (S/T)-P sites in the Smad3 linker region, Ser(208), Ser(204), and Thr(179) are phosphorylated in response to TGF-beta. The linker phosphorylation peaks at 1 h after TGF-beta treatment, behind the peak of the C-tail phosphorylation. We provide evidence suggesting that the C-tail phosphorylation by the TGF-beta receptor is necessary for the TGF-beta-induced linker phosphorylation. Although the TGF-beta receptor is necessary for the linker phosphorylation, the receptor itself does not phosphorylate these sites. We further show that ERK is not responsible for TGF-beta-dependent phosphorylation of these three sites. We show that GSK3 accounts for TGF-beta-inducible Ser(204) phosphorylation. Flavopiridol, a pan-CDK inhibitor, abolishes TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of Thr(179) and Ser(208), suggesting that the CDK family is responsible for phosphorylation of Thr(179) and Ser(208) in response to TGF-beta. Mutation of the linker phosphorylation sites to nonphosphorylatable residues increases the ability of Smad3 to activate a TGF-beta/Smad-target gene as well as the growth-inhibitory function of Smad3. Thus, these observations suggest that TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 linker sites inhibits its antiproliferative activity.

  7. Site-specific phosphorylation of Tau protein is associated with deacetylation of microtubules in mouse spermatogenic cells during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroki; Hiradate, Yuuki; Shirakata, Yoshiki; Kanai, Kenta; Kosaka, Keita; Gotoh, Aina; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka; Uchida, Takafumi; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2014-05-29

    Tau is one of the microtubule-associated proteins and a major component of paired helical filaments, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Its expression has also been indicated in the testis. However, its function and modification in the testis have not been established. Here, we analyzed the dynamics of phosphorylation patterns during spermatogenesis. The expression of Tau protein and its phosphorylation were shown in the mouse testis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the phosphorylation was strongly detected during meiosis. Correspondingly, the expression of acetylated tubulin was inversely weakened during meiosis. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Tau protein contributes to spermatogenesis, especially in meiosis.

  8. Phosphorylated heat shock protein 27 promotes lipid clearance in hepatic cells through interacting with STAT3 and activating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Qi, Zhilin; Zhu, Yanyan; Song, Xiaomeng; Xuan, Chunxia; Ben, Peiling; Lan, Lei; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2016-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the major liver disease worldwide. Recently, several studies have identified that the activation of autophagy attenuates hepatic steatosis. Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is involved in autophagy in response to various stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that phosphorylated Hsp27 stimulates autophagy and lipid droplet clearance and interacts with STAT3. In vivo study showed that high fat diet (HFD) feeding increased Hsp25 (mouse orthology of Hsp27) phosphorylation and autophagy in mouse livers. Inhibition of Hsp25 phosphorylation exacerbated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. In vitro study showed that palmitate-induced lipid overload in hepatic cells was enhanced by Hsp27 knockdown, KRIBB3 treatment and Hsp27-3A (non-phosphorylatable) overexpression but was prevented by Hsp27-WT (wild type) and Hsp27-3D (phosphomimetic) overexpression. Mechanism analysis demonstrated that palmitate could induce Hsp27 phosphorylation which promoted palmitate-induced autophagy. Phosphorylated Hsp27 interacted with STAT3 in response to palmitate treatment, and disrupted the STAT3/PKR complexes, facilitated PKR-dependent eIF2α phosphorylation, and thus stimulated autophagy. To conclude, our study provides a novel mechanism by which the phosphorylated Hsp27 promotes hepatic lipid clearance and suggests a new insight for therapy of steatotic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

  9. Nucleophilic activation by positioning in phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Admiraal, S J; Schneider, B; Meyer, P; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D; Herschlag, D

    1999-04-13

    The nonenzymatic reaction of ATP with a nucleophile to generate ADP and a phosphorylated product proceeds via a dissociative transition state with little bond formation to the nucleophile. Consideration of the dissociative nature of the nonenzymatic transition state leads to the following question: To what extent can the nucleophile be activated in enzymatic phosphoryl transfer? We have addressed this question for the NDP kinase reaction. A mutant form of the enzyme lacking the nucleophilic histidine (H122G) can be chemically rescued for ATP attack by imidazole or other exogenous small nucleophiles. The ATP reaction is 50-fold faster with the wild-type enzyme, which has an imidazole nucleophile positioned for reaction by a covalent bond, than with H122G, which employs a noncovalently bound imidazole nucleophile [(kcat/KM)ATP]. Further, a 4-fold advantage for imidazole positioned in the nucleophile binding pocket created by the mutation is suggested from comparison of the reaction of H122G and ATP with an imidazole versus a water nucleophile, after correction for the intrinsic reactivities of imidazole and water toward ATP in solution. X-ray structural analysis shows no detectable rearrangement of the residues surrounding His 122 upon mutation to Gly 122. The overall rate effect of approximately 10(2)-fold for the covalent imidazole nucleophile relative to water is therefore attributed to positioning of the nucleophile with respect to the reactive phosphoryl group. This is underscored by the more deleterious effect of replacing ATP with AlphaTauPgammaS in the wild-type reaction than in the imidazole-rescued mutant reaction, as follows. For the wild-type, AlphaTauPgammaS presumably disrupts positioning between nucleophile and substrate, resulting in a large thio effect of 300-fold, whereas precise alignment is already disrupted in the mutant because there is no covalent bond to the nucleophile, resulting in a smaller thio effect of 10-fold. In summary, the results

  10. Axl Phosphorylates Elmo Scaffold Proteins To Promote Rac Activation and Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Thuraia, Afnan; Gauthier, Rosemarie; Chidiac, Rony; Fukui, Yoshinori; Screaton, Robert A.; Gratton, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl contributes to cell migration and invasion. Expression of Axl correlates with metastatic progression in cancer patients, yet the specific signaling events promoting invasion downstream of Axl are poorly defined. Herein, we report Elmo scaffolds to be direct substrates and binding partners of Axl. Elmo proteins are established to interact with Dock family guanine nucleotide exchange factors to control Rac-mediated cytoskeletal dynamics. Proteomics and mutagenesis studies reveal that Axl phosphorylates Elmo1/2 on a conserved carboxyl-terminal tyrosine residue. Upon Gas6-dependent activation of Axl, endogenous Elmo2 becomes phosphorylated on Tyr-713 and enters into a physical complex with Axl in breast cancer cells. Interfering with Elmo2 expression prevented Gas6-induced Rac1 activation in breast cancer cells. Similarly to blocking of Axl, Elmo2 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Dock1 abolishes breast cancer cell invasion. Interestingly, Axl or Elmo2 knockdown diminishes breast cancer cell proliferation. Rescue of Elmo2 knockdown cells with the wild-type protein but not with Elmo2 harboring Tyr-713-Phe mutations restores cell invasion and cell proliferation. These results define a new mechanism by which Axl promotes cell proliferation and invasion and identifies inhibition of the Elmo-Dock pathway as a potential therapeutic target to stop Axl-induced metastases. PMID:25332238

  11. Selective phosphorylation of the Dlg1AB variant is critical for TCR-induced p38 activation and induction of proinflammatory cytokines in CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Jillian; Silva, Oscar; Humphries, Lisa A; Tibbs, Michelle D; Miceli, M Carrie

    2014-09-15

    CD8(+) T cells respond to TCR stimulation by producing proinflammatory cytokines, and destroying infected or malignant cells through the production and release of cytotoxic granules. Scaffold protein Discs large homolog 1 (Dlg1) specifies TCR-dependent functions by channeling proximal signals toward the activation of p38-dependent proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and/or p38-independent cytotoxic granule release. Two Dlg1 variants are expressed in CD8(+) T cells via alternative splicing, Dlg1AB and Dlg1B, which have differing abilities coordinate TCR-dependent functions. Although both variants facilitate p38-independent cytotoxicity, only Dlg1AB coordinates p38-dependent proinflammatory cytokine expression. In this study, we identify TCR-induced Dlg1 tyrosine phosphorylation as a key regulatory step required for Dlg1AB-mediated p38-dependent functions, including proinflammatory cytokine expression. We find that Dlg1AB but not Dlg1B is tyrosine phosphorylated by proximal tyrosine kinase Lck in response to TCR stimulation. Furthermore, we identify Dlg1 tyrosine 222 (Y222) as a major site of Dlg1 phosphorylation required for TCR-triggered p38 activation and NFAT-dependent expression of proinflammatory cytokines, but not for p38-independent cytotoxicity. Taken together, our data support a model where TCR-induced phosphorylation of Dlg1 Y222 is a key point of control that endows Dlg1AB with the ability to coordinate p38 activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. We propose blocking Dlg1AB phosphorylation as a novel therapeutic target to specifically block proinflammatory cytokine production but not cytotoxicity.

  12. The effects of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of brain myosin on its actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase and contractile activities.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, S; Takashima, T; Ohmori, H; Kumon, A

    1988-02-01

    Purified bovine brain myosin contained approximately 1 and 3 mol of protein-bound phosphate/mol myosin in the light chains and heavy chains, respectively. Large portions of this light chain- and heavy chain-bound phosphate (about 0.8 and 2.4 mol, respectively) were removed by incubation with a brain phosphoprotein phosphatase and potato acid phosphatase, respectively. Upon phosphorylation of the dephosphorylated brain myosin with myosin light chain kinase and casein kinase II, about 1.6 and 3.0 mol of phosphate was incorporated into the light chains and heavy chains, respectively, while much lower levels of phosphate were incorporated into the non-dephosphorylated brain myosin under the same conditions. The actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of brain myosin rephosphorylated with myosin light chain kinase was about twice as high as that of dephosphorylated brain myosin (about 30 and 15 nmol phosphate/mg/min, respectively). On the other hand, whereas the rephosphorylated brain myosin superprecipitated rapidly with F-actin, the rate of superprecipitation of the dephosphorylated brain myosin was extremely low. Under appropriate conditions, a loose network of tiny superprecipitates, which formed initially throughout the solution, contracted to form eventually a large and dense particle. These results indicate that phosphorylation of the light chains of brain myosin is a prerequisite for the contraction of brain actomyosin. The role of phosphorylation of the heavy chains by casein kinase II remains to be elucidated.

  13. A cytoplasmic negative regulator isoform of ATF7 impairs ATF7 and ATF2 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Diring, Jessica; Camuzeaux, Barbara; Donzeau, Mariel; Vigneron, Marc; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Kedinger, Claude; Chatton, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing and post-translational modifications are processes that give rise to the complexity of the proteome. The nuclear ATF7 and ATF2 (activating transcription factor) are structurally homologous leucine zipper transcription factors encoded by distinct genes. Stress and growth factors activate ATF2 and ATF7 mainly via sequential phosphorylation of two conserved threonine residues in their activation domain. Distinct protein kinases, among which mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphorylate ATF2 and ATF7 first on Thr71/Thr53 and next on Thr69/Thr51 residues respectively, resulting in transcriptional activation. Here, we identify and characterize a cytoplasmic alternatively spliced isoform of ATF7. This variant, named ATF7-4, inhibits both ATF2 and ATF7 transcriptional activities by impairing the first phosphorylation event on Thr71/Thr53 residues. ATF7-4 indeed sequesters the Thr53-phosphorylating kinase in the cytoplasm. Upon stimulus-induced phosphorylation, ATF7-4 is poly-ubiquitinated and degraded, enabling the release of the kinase and ATF7/ATF2 activation. Our data therefore conclusively establish that ATF7-4 is an important cytoplasmic negative regulator of ATF7 and ATF2 transcription factors.

  14. A Cytoplasmic Negative Regulator Isoform of ATF7 Impairs ATF7 and ATF2 Phosphorylation and Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Diring, Jessica; Camuzeaux, Barbara; Donzeau, Mariel; Vigneron, Marc; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Kedinger, Claude; Chatton, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing and post-translational modifications are processes that give rise to the complexity of the proteome. The nuclear ATF7 and ATF2 (activating transcription factor) are structurally homologous leucine zipper transcription factors encoded by distinct genes. Stress and growth factors activate ATF2 and ATF7 mainly via sequential phosphorylation of two conserved threonine residues in their activation domain. Distinct protein kinases, among which mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphorylate ATF2 and ATF7 first on Thr71/Thr53 and next on Thr69/Thr51 residues respectively, resulting in transcriptional activation. Here, we identify and characterize a cytoplasmic alternatively spliced isoform of ATF7. This variant, named ATF7-4, inhibits both ATF2 and ATF7 transcriptional activities by impairing the first phosphorylation event on Thr71/Thr53 residues. ATF7-4 indeed sequesters the Thr53-phosphorylating kinase in the cytoplasm. Upon stimulus-induced phosphorylation, ATF7-4 is poly-ubiquitinated and degraded, enabling the release of the kinase and ATF7/ATF2 activation. Our data therefore conclusively establish that ATF7-4 is an important cytoplasmic negative regulator of ATF7 and ATF2 transcription factors. PMID:21858082

  15. Detection of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase in the developing spinal cord of the mouse embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Miura, Kenji

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in developing spinal cord. {yields} We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs by an improved method. {yields} p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 were detected in the marginal layer and the dorsal horn. {yields} p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 might play critical roles in the developing spinal cord. {yields} Constructing phosphoprotein atlases will be possible if expanding this work. -- Abstract: Global understanding of the proteome is a major research topic. The comprehensive visualization of the distribution of proteins in vivo or the construction of in situ protein atlases may be a valuable strategy for proteomic researchers. Information about the distribution of various proteins under physiological and pathological conditions should be extremely valuable for the basic and clinical sciences. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays an essential role in intracellular signaling in organisms. This cascade also regulates biological processes involving development, differentiation, and proliferation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are integral reactions in regulating the activity of MAPKs. Changes in the phosphorylation state of MAPKs are rapid and reversible; therefore, the localizations of physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo are difficult to accurately detect. Furthermore, phosphorylated MAPKs are likely to change phosphorylated states through commonly used experimental manipulations. In the present study, as a step toward the construction of in situ phosphoprotein atlases, we attempted to detect physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo in developing spinal cords of mice. We previously reported an improved immunohistochemical method for detecting unstable phosphorylated MAPKs. The distribution patterns of phosphorylated MAPKs in the spinal cords of embryonic mice from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 were observed with an improved immunohistochemical method. Phosphorylated

  16. CK2 phosphorylation of SAG at Thr10 regulates SAG stability, but not its E3 ligase activity.

    PubMed

    He, Hongbin; Tan, Mingjia; Pamarthy, Deepika; Wang, Guixia; Ahmed, Khalil; Sun, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene (SAG), a RING component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase, was shown to be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 at the Thr10 residue. It is, however, unknown whether this phosphorylation is stress-responsive or whether the phosphorylation changes its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. To address these, we made a specific antibody against the phosphor-SAG(Thr10). Transient transfection experiment showed that SAG was phosphorylated at Thr10 which can be significantly inhibited by TBB, a relatively specific inhibitor of protein kinase CK2. To determine whether this SAG phosphorylation is stress-responsive, we defined a chemical-hypoxia condition in which SAG and CK2 were both induced. Under this condition, we failed to detect SAG phosphorylation at Thr10, which was readily detected, however, in the presence of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that the phosphorylated SAG has undergone a rapid degradation. To further define this, we made two SAG mutants, SAG-T10A which abolishes the SAG phosphorylation and SAG-T10E, which mimics the constitutive SAG phosphorylation. The half-life study revealed that indeed, SAG-T10E has a much shorter protein half-life (2 h), as compared to wild-type SAG (10 h). Again, rapid degradation of SAG-T10E in cells can be blocked by MG132. Thus, it appears that CK2-induced SAG phosphorylation at Thr10 regulates its stability through a proteasome-dependent pathway. Immunocytochemistry study showed that SAG as well as its phosphorylation mutants, was mainly localized in nucleus and lightly in cytoplasm. Hypoxia condition did not change their sub-cellular localization. Finally, an in vitro ubiqutination assay showed that SAG mutation at Thr10 did not change its E3 ligase activity when complexed with cullin-1. These studies suggested that CK2 might regulate SAG-SCF E3 ligase activity through modulating SAG's stability, rather than its enzymatic activity directly.

  17. Asymmetrical phosphorylation and function of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif tyrosines in B cell antigen receptor signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Pao, L I; Famiglietti, S J; Cambier, J C

    1998-04-01

    CD79a and CD79b function as transducers of B cell antigen receptor signals via a cytoplasmic sequence, termed the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). ITAMs contain two conserved tyrosines that may become phosphorylated upon receptor aggregation and bind distinct effectors by virtue of the distinct preference of phosphotyrosyl-containing sequences for SH2 domains. To explore the function of CD79a and CD79b ITAM tyrosines, we created membrane molecules composed of MHC class II I-Ak extracellular and transmembrane domains, and CD79a or CD79b cytoplasmic domains in which one or both of the ITAM tyrosines were mutated to phenylalanine. Functional analysis revealed that both ITAM tyrosines are required for ligand-induced Syk phosphorylation. However CD79a-ITAM and CD79b-ITAM tyrosine phosphorylations were asymmetrical, with >80% of phosphorylation occurring on the N-terminal tyrosine (Y-E-G-L). Thus, these findings suggest that following receptor ligation, only a minor proportion of phosphorylated ITAMs are doubly phosphorylated and thus can engage Syk. Only the N-terminal ITAM tyrosine of CD79a was required for ligand-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor and a subset of downstream substrates, including p62, p110, and Shc, and for Ca2+ mobilization. However, responses mediated through CD79b exhibited a greater dependence on the presence of both tyrosines. Neither tyrosine in CD79a or CD79b appeared absolutely essential for Src family kinase phosphorylation. These results indicate that phosphorylations of the tyrosines in CD79a and CD79b occur with very different stoichiometry, and the respective tyrosyl residues have distinct functions.

  18. Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Shailly; Shrivastav, Anuraag; Changela, Sheena; Khandelwal, Ramji L.

    2008-04-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-{alpha} (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity.

  19. “Scanning mutagenesis” of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1alpha subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated...

  20. Fisetin stimulates autophagic degradation of phosphorylated tau via the activation of TFEB and Nrf2 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunhyo; Choi, Ki Ju; Cho, Sun-Jung; Yun, Sang-Moon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Koh, Young Ho; Song, Jihyun; Johnson, Gail V W; Jo, Chulman

    2016-04-26

    The neuronal accumulation of phosphorylated tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we examined the effect of fisetin, a flavonol, on tau levels. Treatment of cortical cells or primary neurons with fisetin resulted in significant decreases in the levels of phosphorylated tau. In addition, fisetin decreased the levels of sarkosyl-insoluble tau in an active GSK-3β-induced tau aggregation model. However, there was no difference in activities of tau kinases and phosphatases such as protein phosphatase 2A, irrespective of fisetin treatment. Fisetin activated autophagy together with the activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) and Nrf2 transcriptional factors. The activation of autophagy including TFEB is likely due to fisetin-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibition, since the phosphorylation levels of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 were decreased in the presence of fisetin. Indeed, fisetin-induced phosphorylated tau degradation was attenuated by chemical inhibitors of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Together the results indicate that fisetin reduces levels of phosphorylated tau through the autophagy pathway activated by TFEB and Nrf2. Our result suggests fisetin should be evaluated further as a potential preventive and therapeutic drug candidate for AD.

  1. Fisetin stimulates autophagic degradation of phosphorylated tau via the activation of TFEB and Nrf2 transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunhyo; Choi, Ki Ju; Cho, Sun-Jung; Yun, Sang-Moon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Koh, Young Ho; Song, Jihyun; Johnson, Gail V. W.; Jo, Chulman

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal accumulation of phosphorylated tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we examined the effect of fisetin, a flavonol, on tau levels. Treatment of cortical cells or primary neurons with fisetin resulted in significant decreases in the levels of phosphorylated tau. In addition, fisetin decreased the levels of sarkosyl-insoluble tau in an active GSK-3β-induced tau aggregation model. However, there was no difference in activities of tau kinases and phosphatases such as protein phosphatase 2A, irrespective of fisetin treatment. Fisetin activated autophagy together with the activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) and Nrf2 transcriptional factors. The activation of autophagy including TFEB is likely due to fisetin-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibition, since the phosphorylation levels of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 were decreased in the presence of fisetin. Indeed, fisetin-induced phosphorylated tau degradation was attenuated by chemical inhibitors of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Together the results indicate that fisetin reduces levels of phosphorylated tau through the autophagy pathway activated by TFEB and Nrf2. Our result suggests fisetin should be evaluated further as a potential preventive and therapeutic drug candidate for AD. PMID:27112200

  2. Bovine papillomavirus with a mutation in the E2 serine 301 phosphorylation site replicates at a high copy number.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, A A; Howley, P M

    1991-01-01

    The E2 open reading frame of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) encodes at least three proteins with transcriptional regulatory properties. The full-length E2 open reading frame encodes a transcriptional transactivator, and the 3' region encodes two smaller polypeptides that repress E2-mediated transactivation. The full-length gene product is also required for viral DNA replication. We have demonstrated that the BPV-1 E2 polypeptides are phosphorylated primarily on two serine residues at a site adjacent to the carboxy-terminal DNA binding domain, which is common to all three E2 proteins (A. A. McBride, J. B. Bolen, and P. M. Howley, J. Virol. 63:5076-5085, 1989). These serine residues, at amino acid positions 298 and 301, were substituted with alanine residues in the context of the entire BPV-1 genome. The mutated BPV-1 genomes were introduced into rodent cell lines and assayed for focus formation, viral gene expression, and extrachromosomal viral DNA replication. Viral DNAs containing the E2 serine-to-alanine substitution mutants transformed C127 cells with efficiencies comparable to that of wild-type BPV-1. However, the viral genome containing the serine-to-alanine substitution at position 301 of the E2 polypeptide replicated to a copy number 20-fold higher than that of wild-type DNA. Images PMID:1658358

  3. KCC2 Gates Activity-Driven AMPA Receptor Traffic through Cofilin Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chevy, Quentin; Heubl, Martin; Goutierre, Marie; Backer, Stéphanie; Moutkine, Imane; Eugène, Emmanuel; Bloch-Gallego, Evelyne; Lévi, Sabine; Poncer, Jean Christophe

    2015-12-02

    Expression of the neuronal K/Cl transporter KCC2 is tightly regulated throughout development and by both normal and pathological neuronal activity. Changes in KCC2 expression have often been associated with altered chloride homeostasis and GABA signaling. However, recent evidence supports a role of KCC2 in the development and function of glutamatergic synapses through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here we show that suppressing KCC2 expression in rat hippocampal neurons precludes long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synapses specifically by preventing activity-driven membrane delivery of AMPA receptors. This effect is independent of KCC2 transporter function and can be accounted for by increased Rac1/PAK- and LIMK-dependent cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization in dendritic spines. Our results demonstrate that KCC2 plays a critical role in the regulation of spine actin cytoskeleton and gates long-term plasticity at excitatory synapses in cortical neurons.

  4. Cooperation between the two heads of smooth muscle myosin is essential for full activation of the motor function by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong-Na; Mabuchi, Katsuhide; Li, Jing; Lu, Zekuan; Wang, Chih-Lueh Albert; Li, Xiang-dong

    2013-09-10

    The motor function of smooth muscle myosin (SmM) is regulated by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) bound to the neck region of the SmM heavy chain. It is generally accepted that unphosphorylated RLC induces interactions between the two heads and between the head and the tail, thus inhibiting the motor activity of SmM, whereas phosphorylation of RLC interrupts those interactions, thus reversing the inhibition and restoring the motor activity to the maximal value. One assumption of this model is that single-headed SmM is fully active regardless of phosphorylation. To re-evaluate this model, we produced a number of SmM constructs with coiled coils of various lengths and examined their structure and regulation. With these constructs we identified the segment in the coiled-coil key for the formation of a stable double-headed structure. In agreement with the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of unphosphorylated SmM increased with shortening of the coiled-coil. However, contrary to the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of phosphorylated SmM decreased with shortening coiled-coil and only the stable double-headed SmM was fully activated by phosphorylation. These results indicate that single-headed SmM is neither fully active nor fully inhibited. Based on our findings, we propose that cooperation between the two heads is essential, not only for the inhibition of unphosphorylated SmM, but also for the activation of phosphorylated SmM.

  5. Phosphorylation of ezrin on Thr567 is required for the synergistic activation of cell spreading by EPAC1 and protein kinase A in HEK293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Euan; Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela; Cameron, Ryan T.; Baillie, George S.; Baillie, Gemma L.; Porter, Alison; McElroy, Stuart P.; Yarwood, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the actin binding protein, ezrin, and the cAMP-sensor, EPAC1, cooperate to induce cell spreading in response to elevations in intracellular cAMP. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects we generated a model of EPAC1-dependent cell spreading based on the stable transfection of EPAC1 into HEK293T (HEK293T–EPAC1) cells. We found that direct activation of EPAC1 with the EPAC-selective analogue, 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP (007), promoted cell spreading in these cells. In addition, co-activation of EPAC1 and PKA, with a combination of the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram, was found to synergistically enhance cell spreading, in association with cortical actin bundling and mobilisation of ezrin to the plasma membrane. PKA activation was also associated with phosphorylation of ezrin on Thr567, as detected by an electrophoretic band mobility shift during SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of PKA activity blocked ezrin phosphorylation and reduced the cell spreading response to cAMP elevation to levels induced by EPAC1-activation alone. Transfection of HEK293T–EPAC1 cells with inhibitory ezrin mutants lacking the key PKA phosphorylation site, ezrin-Thr567Ala, or the ability to associate with actin, ezrin-Arg579Ala, promoted cell arborisation and blocked the ability of EPAC1 and PKA to further promote cell spreading. The PKA phospho-mimetic mutants of ezrin, ezrin-Thr567Asp had no effect on EPAC1-driven cell spreading. Our results indicate that association of ezrin with the actin cytoskeleton and phosphorylation on Thr567 are required, but not sufficient, for PKA and EPAC1 to synergistically promote cell spreading following elevations in intracellular cAMP. PMID:25913012

  6. Modification in hydrophobic packing of HAMP domain induces a destabilization of the auto-phosphorylation site in the histidine kinase CpxA.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marlet; Duclert-Savatier, Nathalie; Betton, Jean-Michel; Alzari, Pedro M; Nilges, Michael; Malliavin, Thérèse E

    2016-10-01

    The histidine kinases belong to the family of two-component systems, which serves in bacteria to couple environmental stimuli to adaptive responses. Most of the histidine kinases are homodimers, in which the HAMP and DHp domains assemble into an elongated helical region flanked by two CA domains. Recently, X-ray crystallographic structures of the cytoplasmic region of the Escherichia coli histidine kinase CpxA were determined and a phosphotransferase-defective mutant, M228V, located in HAMP, was identified. In the present study, we recorded 1 μs molecular dynamics trajectories to compare the behavior of the WT and M228V protein dimers. The M228V modification locally induces the appearance of larger voids within HAMP as well as a perturbation of the number of voids within DHp, thus destabilizing the HAMP and DHp hydrophobic packing. In addition, a disruption of the stacking interaction between F403 located in the lid of the CA domain involved in the auto-phosphorylation and R296 located in the interacting DHp region, is more often observed in the presence of the M228V modification. Experimental modifications R296A and R296D of CpxA have been observed to reduce also the CpxA activity. These observations agree with the destabilization of the R296/F403 stacking, and could be the sign of the transmission of a conformational event taking place in HAMP to the auto-phosphorylation site of histidine kinase. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 670-682, 2016.

  7. Phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) at Tyr-15 is inhibited by Cdk5 activators and does not contribute to the activation of Cdk5.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Taro; Sato, Ko; Furusawa, Kotaro; Hosokawa, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Koji; Asada, Akiko; Kamada, Shinji; Ohshima, Toshio; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi

    2014-07-11

    Cdk5 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) family. In contrast to other Cdks that promote cell proliferation, Cdk5 plays a role in regulating various neuronal functions, including neuronal migration, synaptic activity, and neuron death. Cdks responsible for cell proliferation need phosphorylation in the activation loop for activation in addition to binding a regulatory subunit cyclin. Cdk5, however, is activated only by binding to its activator, p35 or p39. Furthermore, in contrast to Cdk1 and Cdk2, which are inhibited by phosphorylation at Tyr-15, the kinase activity of Cdk5 is reported to be stimulated when phosphorylated at Tyr-15 by Src family kinases or receptor-type tyrosine kinases. We investigated the activation mechanism of Cdk5 by phosphorylation at Tyr-15. Unexpectedly, however, it was found that Tyr-15 phosphorylation occurred only on monomeric Cdk5, and the coexpression of activators, p35/p25, p39, or Cyclin I, inhibited the phosphorylation. In neuron cultures, too, the activation of Fyn tyrosine kinase did not increase Tyr-15 phosphorylation of Cdk5. Further, phospho-Cdk5 at Tyr-15 was not detected in the p35-bound Cdk5. In contrast, expression of active Fyn increased p35 in neurons. These results indicate that phosphorylation at Tyr-15 is not an activation mechanism of Cdk5 but, rather, indicate that tyrosine kinases could activate Cdk5 by increasing the protein amount of p35. These results call for reinvestigation of how Cdk5 is regulated downstream of Src family kinases or receptor tyrosine kinases in neurons, which is an important signaling cascade in a variety of neuronal activities.

  8. Reversible phosphorylation controls the activity of cyclosome-associated cyclin-ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed Central

    Lahav-Baratz, S; Sudakin, V; Ruderman, J V; Hershko, A

    1995-01-01

    Cyclin B/cdc2 is responsible both for driving cells into mitosis and for activating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of mitotic cyclins near the end of mitosis, an event required for the completion of mitosis and entry into interphase of the next cell cycle. Previous work with cell-free extracts of rapidly dividing clam embryos has identified two specific components required for the ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins: E2-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein that is constitutively active during the cell cycle, and E3-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase that purifies as part of a approximately 1500-kDa complex, termed the cyclosome, and which is active only near the end of mitosis. Here, we have separated the cyclosome from its ultimate upstream activator, cdc2. The mitotic, active form of the cyclosome can be inactivated by incubation with a partially purified, endogenous okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatase; addition of cdc2 restores activity to the cyclosome after a lag that reproduces that seen previously in intact cells and in crude extracts. These results demonstrate that activity of cyclin-ubiquitin ligase is controlled by reversible phosphorylation of the cyclosome complex. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7568122

  9. Insulin receptor phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity are decreased in intact skeletal muscle strips from obese subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, L J; Giorgino, F; Sherman, L A; Carey, J; Smith, R J; Dohm, G L

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether the impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in obese individuals is associated with altered insulin receptor signaling, we measured both glucose uptake and early steps in the insulin action pathway in intact strips of human skeletal muscle. Biopsies of rectus abdominus muscle were taken from eight obese and eight control subjects undergoing elective surgery (body mass index 52.9 +/- 3.6 vs 25.7 +/- 0.9). Insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was 53% lower in muscle strips from obese subjects. Additional muscle strips were incubated in the basal state or with 10(-7) M insulin for 2, 15, or 30 min. In the lean subjects, tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), measured by immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, was significantly increased by insulin at all time points. In the skeletal muscle from the obese subjects, insulin was less effective in stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation (maximum receptor and IRS-1 phosphorylation decreased by 35 and 38%, respectively). Insulin stimulation of IRS-1 immunoprecipitable phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity also was markedly lower in obese subjects compared with controls (10- vs 35-fold above basal, respectively). In addition, the obese subjects had a lower abundance of the insulin receptor, IRS-1, and the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase (55, 54, and 64% of nonobese, respectively). We conclude that impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle from severely obese subjects is accompanied by a deficiency in insulin receptor signaling, which may contribute to decreased insulin action. Images PMID:7537758

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Rab7 by Src kinase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaosi; Zhang, Jiaming; Chen, Lingqiu; Chen, Yongjun; Xu, Xiaohui; Hong, Wanjin; Wang, Tuanlao

    2017-03-20

    The small molecular weight GTPase Rab7 is a key regulator for late endosomal/lysosomal membrane trafficking, it was known that Rab7 is phosphorylated, but the corresponding kinase and the functional regulation of Rab7 phosphorylation remain unclear. We provide evidence here that Rab7 is a substrate of Src kinase, and is tyrosine-phosphorylated by Src, withY183 residue of Rab7 being the optimal phosphorylation site for Src. Further investigations demonstrated that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Rab7 depends on the guanine nucleotide binding activity of Rab7 and the activity of Src kinase. The tyrosine phosphorylation of Rab7 is physiologically induced by EGF, and impairs the interaction of Rab7 with RILP, consequently inhibiting EGFR degradation and sustaining Akt signaling. These results suggest that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Rab7 may be involved in coordinating membrane trafficking and cell signaling.

  11. Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 reduces bortezomib-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C; Chao, A; Tsai, C L; Lin, C Y; Chuang, W C; Chen, H W; Yen, T C; Wang, T H; Lai, C H; Wang, H S

    2013-01-01

    The potent and selective proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has shown remarkable antitumor activity and is now entering clinical trials for several cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms by which bortezomib induces cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells still remain unclear. In this study, we show that bortezomib induced apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the downregulation of antiapoptotic molecules (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, p-Bad, and p-AKT) and the upregulation of proapoptotic proteins (p21, p27, and cleaved-Bid) in ovarian cancer cell lines. Moreover, bortezomib stimulates Janus kinase (JAK) phosphorylation and activates heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), ultimately leading to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation. Phosphorylated STAT1 partially counteracted apoptosis induced by bortezomib in cancer cells. These findings suggest that the antitumor activity of bortezomib in ovarian cancer can be improved by inhibiting bortezomib-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. This effect can be achieved by STAT1 knockdown, HSP70 knockdown, JAK inhibition, or the addition of cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs. These results provide the first evidence that STAT1 phosphorylation can play a role in bortezomib resistance by exerting antiapoptotic effects. They also suggest the possibility to abolish or reduce bortezomib chemoresistance in ovarian cancer by the addition of cisplatin or JAK inhibitors. PMID:23449448

  12. Novel iodoacetamido benzoheterocyclic derivatives with potent antileukemic activity are inhibitors of STAT5 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Prencipe, Filippo; Lopez-Cara, Carlota; Rondanin, Riccardo; Simoni, Daniele; Hamel, Ernest; Grimaudo, Stefania; Pipitone, Rosaria Maria; Meli, Maria; Tolomeo, Manlio

    2015-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) protein, a component of the STAT family of signaling proteins, is considered to be an attractive therapeutic target because of its involvement in the progression of acute myeloid leukemia. In an effort to discover potent molecules able to inhibit the phosphorylation-activation of STAT5, twenty-two compounds were synthesized and evaluated on the basis of our knowledge of the activity of 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3-iodoacetamido-6-methoxybenzo[b]furan derivative 1 as a potent STAT5 inhibitor. Most of these molecules, structurally related to compound 1, were characterized by the presence of a common 3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl moiety at the 2-position of different benzoheterocycles such as benzo[b]furan, benzo[b]thiophene, indole and N-methylindole. Effects on biological activity of the iodoacetamido group and of different moieties (methyl and methoxy) at the C-3 to C-7 positions were examined. In the series of benzo[b]furan derivatives, moving the iodoacetylamino group from the C-4 to the C-5 or C-6 positions did not significantly affect antiproliferative activity. Compounds 4, 15, 20 and 23 blocked STAT5 signals and induced apoptosis of K562 BCR–ABL positive cells. For compound 23, the trimethoxybenzoyl moiety at the 2-position of the benzo[b]furan core was not essential for potent inhibition of STAT5 activation. PMID:26629859

  13. Signal transduction activated by the cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanates: cleavage of BID protein, tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Xu, K; Thornalley, P J

    2001-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate and allyl isothiocyanate induce apoptosis of human leukaemia HL60 cells in vitro. Apoptosis was associated with cleavage of p22 BID protein to p15, p13 and p11 fragments and activation of JNK and tyrosine phosphorylation (18 kDa and 45 kDa proteins). All these effects and apoptosis were prevented by exogenous glutathione (15 mM). Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity was unchanged. The general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk prevented apoptosis but not JNK activation – excluding a role for caspases in JNK activation, whereas curcumin prevented JNK activation but only delayed apoptosis. This suggests that in isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis, the caspase pathway has an essential role, the JNK pathway a supporting role, and inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases is not involved. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11237388

  14. B55α PP2A Holoenzymes Modulate the Phosphorylation Status of the Retinoblastoma-related Protein p107 and Its Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Jayadeva, Girish; Kurimchak, Alison; Garriga, Judit; Sotillo, Elena; Davis, Anthony J.; Haines, Dale S.; Mumby, Marc; Graña, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Pocket proteins negatively regulate transcription of E2F-dependent genes and progression through the G0/G1 transition and the cell cycle restriction point in G1. Pocket protein repressor activities are inactivated via phosphorylation at multiple Pro-directed Ser/Thr sites by the coordinated action of G1 and G1/S cyclin-dependent kinases. These phosphorylations are reversed by the action of two families of Ser/Thr phosphatases: PP1, which has been implicated in abrupt dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) in mitosis, and PP2A, which plays a role in an equilibrium that counteracts cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) action throughout the cell cycle. However, the identity of the trimeric PP2A holoenzyme(s) functioning in this process is unknown. Here we report the identification of a PP2A trimeric holoenzyme containing B55α, which plays a major role in restricting the phosphorylation state of p107 and inducing its activation in human cells. Our data also suggest targeted selectivity in the interaction of pocket proteins with distinct PP2A holoenzymes, which is likely necessary for simultaneous pocket protein activation. PMID:20663872

  15. Adrenergic regulation and diurnal rhythm of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Chik, C L; Mackova, M; Price, D; Ho, A K

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we investigated adrenergic and photoneural regulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland. Norepinephrine (NE), the endogenous neurotransmitter, dose-dependently increased the levels of phosphorylated MAPK kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6) and p38MAPK in rat pinealocytes. Time-course studies showed a gradual increase in MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation that peaked between 1 and 2 h and persisted for 4 h post NE stimulation. In cells treated with NE for 2 and 4 h, the inclusion of prazosin or propranolol reduced NE-induced MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation, indicating involvement of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors for the sustained response. Whereas treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or ionomycin mimicked the NE-induced MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation, neither dibutyryl cGMP nor 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had an effect. The NE-induced increase in MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation was blocked by KT5720 (a protein kinase A inhibitor) and KN93 (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), but not by KT5823 (a protein kinase G inhibitor) or calphostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor). In animals housed under a lighting regimen with 12 h of light, MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation increased in the rat pineal gland at zeitgeber time 18. The nocturnal increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation was blocked by exposing the animal to constant light and reduced by treatment with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker. Together, our results indicate that activation of p38MAPK is under photoneural control in the rat pineal gland and that protein kinase A and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling pathways are involved in NE regulation of p38MAPK.

  16. Bordetella pertussis fim3 gene regulation by BvgA: phosphorylation controls the formation of inactive vs. active transcription complexes.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Alice; Moon, Kyung; Decker, Kimberly B; Chen, Qing; Knipling, Leslie; Stibitz, Scott; Hinton, Deborah M

    2015-02-10

    Two-component systems [sensor kinase/response regulator (RR)] are major tools used by microorganisms to adapt to environmental conditions. RR phosphorylation is typically required for gene activation, but few studies have addressed how and if phosphorylation affects specific steps during transcription initiation. We characterized transcription complexes made with RNA polymerase and the Bordetella pertussis RR, BvgA, in its nonphosphorylated or phosphorylated (BvgA∼P) state at P(fim3), the promoter for the virulence gene fim3 (fimbrial subunit), using gel retardation, potassium permanganate and DNase I footprinting, cleavage reactions with protein conjugated with iron bromoacetamidobenzyl-EDTA, and in vitro transcription. Previous work has shown that the level of nonphosphorylated BvgA remains high in vivo under conditions in which BvgA is phosphorylated. Our results here indicate that surprisingly both BvgA and BvgA∼P form open and initiating complexes with RNA polymerase at P(fim3). However, phosphorylation of BvgA is needed to generate the correct conformation that can transition to competent elongation. Footprints obtained with the complexes made with nonphosphorylated BvgA are atypical; while the initiating complex with BvgA synthesizes short RNA, it does not generate full-length transcripts. Extended incubation of the BvgA/RNA polymerase initiated complex in the presence of heparin generates a stable, but defective species that depends on the initial transcribed sequence of fim3. We suggest that the presence of nonphosphorylated BvgA down-regulates P(fim3) activity when phosphorylated BvgA is present and may allow the bacterium to quickly adapt to the loss of inducing conditions by rapidly eliminating P(fim3) activation once the signal for BvgA phosphorylation is removed.

  17. CaMKII regulates proteasome phosphorylation and activity and promotes memory destabilization following retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jarome, Timothy J; Ferrara, Nicole C; Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that memories "destabilize" and require de novo protein synthesis in order to reconsolidate following retrieval, but very little is known about how this destabilization process is regulated. Recently, ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation has been identified as a critical regulator of memory trace destabilization following retrieval, though the specific mechanisms controlling retrieval-induced changes in ubiquitin-proteasome activity remain equivocal. Here, we found that proteasome activity is increased in the amygdala in a CaMKII-dependent manner following the retrieval of a contextual fear memory. We show that in vitro inhibition of CaMKII reversed retrieval-induced increases in proteasome activity. Additionally, in vivo pharmacological blockade of CaMKII abolished increases in proteolytic activity and activity related regulatory phosphorylation in the amygdala following retrieval, suggesting that CaMKII was "upstream" of protein degradation during the memory reconsolidation process. Consistent with this, while inhibiting CaMKII in the amygdala did not impair memory following retrieval, it completely attenuated the memory impairments that resulted from post-retrieval protein synthesis blockade. Collectively, these results suggest that CaMKII controls the initiation of the memory reconsolidation process through regulation of the proteasome.

  18. Akt-phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-activating death domain protein (MADD) inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis by blocking Fas-associated death domain (FADD) association with death receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Li, Peifeng; Jayarama, Shankar; Ganesh, Lakshmy; Mordi, David; Carr, Ryan; Kanteti, Prasad; Hay, Nissim; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2010-07-16

    MADD plays an essential role in cancer cell survival. Abrogation of endogenous MADD expression results in significant spontaneous apoptosis and enhanced susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. However, the regulation of MADD function is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous MADD is phosphorylated at three highly conserved sites by Akt, and only the phosphorylated MADD can directly interact with the TRAIL receptor DR4 thereby preventing Fas-associated death domain recruitment. However, in cells susceptible to TRAIL treatment, TRAIL induces a reduction in MADD phosphorylation levels resulting in MADD dissociation from, and Fas-associated death domain association with DR4, which allows death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation leading to apoptosis. Thus, the pro-survival function of MADD is dependent upon its phosphorylation by Akt. Because Akt is active in most cancer cells and phosphorylated MADD confers resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, co-targeting Akt-MADD axis is likely to increase efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies.

  19. ERK1/2 phosphorylate GEF-H1 to enhance its guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward RhoA

    SciTech Connect

    Fujishiro, Shuh-hei; Tanimura, Susumu; Mure, Shogo; Kashimoto, Yuji; Watanabe, Kazushi; Kohno, Michiaki

    2008-03-28

    Rho GTPases play an essential role in the regulation of many cellular processes. Although various guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are involved in the activation of Rho GTPases, the precise mechanism regulating such activity remains unclear. We have examined whether ERK1/2 are involved in the phosphorylation of GEF-H1, a GEF toward RhoA, to modulate its activity. Expression of GEF-H1 in HT1080 cells with constitutive ERK1/2 activation induced its phosphorylation at Thr{sup 678}, which was totally abolished by treating the cells with PD184352, an ERK pathway inhibitor. Stimulation of HeLa S3 cells with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate induced the phosphorylation of GEF-H1 in an ERK-dependent manner. ERK1/2-mediated Thr{sup 678}-phosphorylation enhanced the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of GEF-H1 toward RhoA. These results suggest that the ERK pathway, by enhancing the GEF-H1 activity, contributes to the activation of RhoA to regulate the actin assembly, a necessary event for the induction of cellular responses including proliferation and motility.

  20. Regulation of the actin-activated MgATPase activity of Acanthamoeba myosin II by phosphorylation of serine 639 in motor domain loop 2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Cai, Shutao; Yu, Shuhua; Shu, Shi; Levine, Rodney L; Korn, Edward D

    2013-01-02

    It had been proposed previously that only filamentous forms of Acanthamoeba myosin II have actin-activated MgATPase activity and that this activity is inhibited by phosphorylation of up to four serine residues in a repeating sequence in the C-terminal nonhelical tailpiece of the two heavy chains. We have reinvestigated these issues using recombinant WT and mutant myosins. Contrary to the earlier proposal, we show that two nonfilamentous forms of Acanthamoeba myosin II, heavy meromyosin and myosin subfragment 1, have actin-activated MgATPase that is down-regulated by phosphorylation. By mass spectroscopy, we identified five serines in the heavy chains that can be phosphorylated by a partially purified kinase preparation in vitro and also are phosphorylated in endogenous myosin isolated from the amoebae: four serines in the nonhelical tailpiece and Ser639 in loop 2 of the motor domain. S639A mutants of both subfragment 1 and full-length myosin had actin-activated MgATPase that was not inhibited by phosphorylation of the serines in the nonhelical tailpiece or their mutation to glutamic acid or aspartic acid. Conversely, S639D mutants of both subfragment 1 and full-length myosin were inactive, irrespective of the phosphorylation state of the serines in the nonhelical tailpiece. To our knowledge, this is the first example of regulation of the actin-activated MgATPase activity of any myosin by modification of surface loop 2.

  1. Validated ligand mapping of ACE active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Daniel J.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2005-08-01

    Crystal structures of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) complexed with three inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril) provided experimental data for testing the validity of a prior active site model predicting the bound conformation of the inhibitors. The ACE active site model - predicted over 18 years ago using a series of potent ACE inhibitors of diverse chemical structure - was recreated using published data and commercial software. Comparison between the predicted structures of the three inhibitors bound to the active site of ACE and those determined experimentally yielded root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 0.43-0.81 Å, among the distances defining the active site map. The bound conformations of the chemically relevant atoms were accurately deduced from the geometry of ligands, applying the assumption that the geometry of the active site groups responsible for binding and catalysis of amide hydrolysis was constrained. The mapping of bound inhibitors at the ACE active site was validated for known experimental compounds, so that the constrained conformational search methodology may be applied with confidence when no experimentally determined structure of the enzyme yet exists, but potent, diverse inhibitors are available.

  2. p21-activated Kinases (PAKs) Mediate the Phosphorylation of PREX2 Protein to Initiate Feedback Inhibition of Rac1 GTPase.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Douglas; Schoenfeld, Sarah M; Hodakoski, Cindy; Silkov, Antonina; Honig, Barry; Couvillon, Anthony; Shymanets, Aliaksei; Nürnberg, Bernd; Asara, John M; Parsons, Ramon

    2015-11-27

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchanger 2 (PREX2) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) GTPase, facilitating the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rac1. GTP-bound Rac1 then activates its downstream effectors, including p21-activated kinases (PAKs). PREX2 and Rac1 are frequently mutated in cancer and have key roles within the insulin-signaling pathway. Rac1 can be inactivated by multiple mechanisms; however, negative regulation by insulin is not well understood. Here, we show that in response to being activated after insulin stimulation, Rac1 initiates its own inactivation by decreasing PREX2 GEF activity. Following PREX2-mediated activation of Rac1 by the second messengers PIP3 or Gβγ, we found that PREX2 was phosphorylated through a PAK-dependent mechanism. PAK-mediated phosphorylation of PREX2 reduced GEF activity toward Rac1 by inhibiting PREX2 binding to PIP3 and Gβγ. Cell fractionation experiments also revealed that phosphorylation prevented PREX2 from localizing to the cellular membrane. Furthermore, the onset of insulin-induced phosphorylation of PREX2 was delayed compared with AKT. Altogether, we propose that second messengers activate the Rac1 signal, which sets in motion a cascade whereby PAKs phosphorylate and negatively regulate PREX2 to decrease Rac1 activation. This type of regulation would allow for transient activation of the PREX2-Rac1 signal and may be relevant in multiple physiological processes, including diseases such as diabetes and cancer when insulin signaling is chronically activated.

  3. p21-activated Kinases (PAKs) Mediate the Phosphorylation of PREX2 Protein to Initiate Feedback Inhibition of Rac1 GTPase*

    PubMed Central

    Barrows, Douglas; Schoenfeld, Sarah M.; Hodakoski, Cindy; Silkov, Antonina; Honig, Barry; Couvillon, Anthony; Shymanets, Aliaksei; Nürnberg, Bernd; Asara, John M.; Parsons, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchanger 2 (PREX2) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) GTPase, facilitating the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rac1. GTP-bound Rac1 then activates its downstream effectors, including p21-activated kinases (PAKs). PREX2 and Rac1 are frequently mutated in cancer and have key roles within the insulin-signaling pathway. Rac1 can be inactivated by multiple mechanisms; however, negative regulation by insulin is not well understood. Here, we show that in response to being activated after insulin stimulation, Rac1 initiates its own inactivation by decreasing PREX2 GEF activity. Following PREX2-mediated activation of Rac1 by the second messengers PIP3 or Gβγ, we found that PREX2 was phosphorylated through a PAK-dependent mechanism. PAK-mediated phosphorylation of PREX2 reduced GEF activity toward Rac1 by inhibiting PREX2 binding to PIP3 and Gβγ. Cell fractionation experiments also revealed that phosphorylation prevented PREX2 from localizing to the cellular membrane. Furthermore, the onset of insulin-induced phosphorylation of PREX2 was delayed compared with AKT. Altogether, we propose that second messengers activate the Rac1 signal, which sets in motion a cascade whereby PAKs phosphorylate and negatively regulate PREX2 to decrease Rac1 activation. This type of regulation would allow for transient activation of the PREX2-Rac1 signal and may be relevant in multiple physiological processes, including diseases such as diabetes and cancer when insulin signaling is chronically activated. PMID:26438819

  4. The development of structure-activity relationships for mitochondrial dysfunction: uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Naven, Russell T; Swiss, Rachel; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn; Will, Yvonne; Greene, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the development of idiosyncratic organ toxicity. An ability to predict mitochondrial dysfunction early in the drug development process enables the deselection of those drug candidates with potential safety liabilities, allowing resources to be focused on those compounds with the highest chance of success to the market. A database of greater than 2000 compounds was analyzed to identify structural and physicochemical features associated with the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (herein defined as an increase in basal respiration). Many toxicophores associated with potent uncoupling activity were identified, and these could be divided into two main mechanistic classes, protonophores and redox cyclers. For the protonophores, potent uncoupling activity was often promoted by high lipophilicity and apparent stabilization of the anionic charge resulting from deprotonation of the protonophore. The potency of redox cyclers did not appear to be prone to variations in lipophilicity. Only 11 toxicophores were of sufficient predictive performance that they could be incorporated into a structural-alert model. Each alert was associated with one of three confidence levels (high, medium, and low) depending upon the lipophilicity-activity profile of the structural class. The final model identified over 68% of those compounds with potent uncoupling activity and with a value for specificity above 99%. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this approach and conclude that although structural alert methodology is useful for identifying toxicophores associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, they are not a replacement for the mitochondrial dysfunction assays in early screening paradigms.

  5. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  6. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G; Beazely, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

  7. Stress-induced nuclear translocation of CDK5 suppresses neuronal death by downregulating ERK activation via VRK3 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haengjin; Kim, Wanil; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Dohyun; Park, Choon-Ho; Kim, Sangjune; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Although extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) activity is generally associated with cell survival, prolonged ERK activation induced by oxidative stress also mediates neuronal cell death. Here we report that oxidative stress-induced cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activation stimulates neuroprotective signaling via phosphorylation of vaccinia-related kinase 3 (VRK3) at Ser 108. The binding of vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase to phosphorylated VRK3 increased its affinity for phospho-ERK and subsequently downregulated ERK activation. Overexpression of VRK3 protected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. However the CDK5 was unable to phosphorylate mutant VRK3, and thus the mutant forms of VRK3 could not attenuate apoptotic process. Suppression of CDK5 activity results in increase of ERK activation and elevation of proapoptotic protein Bak expression in mouse cortical neurons. Results from VRK3-deficient neurons were further confirmed the role of VRK3 phosphorylation in H2O2-evoked ERK regulation. Importantly, we showed an association between phospho-VRK3 levels and the progression of human Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Together our work reveals endogenous protective mechanism against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death and suggest VRK3 as a potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27346674

  8. Mad linker phosphorylations control the intensity and range of the BMP-activity gradient in developing Drosophila tissues

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Abigail; Rios, Marlyn; Juarez, Matthew; Lee, Daniel; Chen, Annan; Eivers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The BMP ligand Dpp, operates as a long range morphogen to control many important functions during Drosophila development from tissue patterning to growth. The BMP signal is transduced intracellularly via C-terminal phosphorylation of the BMP transcription factor Mad, which forms an activity gradient in developing embryonic tissues. Here we show that Cyclin dependent kinase 8 and Shaggy phosphorylate three Mad linker serines. We demonstrate that linker phosphorylations control the peak intensity and range of the BMP signal across rapidly developing embryonic tissues. Shaggy knockdown broadened the range of the BMP-activity gradient and increased high threshold target gene expression in the early embryo, while expression of a Mad linker mutant in the wing disc resulted in enhanced levels of C-terminally phosphorylated Mad, a 30% increase in wing tissue, and elevated BMP target genes. In conclusion, our results describe how Mad linker phosphorylations work to control the peak intensity and range of the BMP signal in rapidly developing Drosophila tissues. PMID:25377173

  9. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals system-wide signaling pathways regulated by site-specific phosphorylation on Keratin-8 in skin squamous cell carcinoma derived cell- line.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Richa; Sahu, Indrajit; Soni, Bihari Lal; Sathe, Gajanan J; Datta, Keshava K; Thapa, Pankaj; Sinha, Shruti; Vadivel, Chella Krishna; Dhaka, Bharti; Gowda, Harsha; Vaidya, Milind M

    2017-02-07

    Keratin 8/18, a simple epithelia specific keratin pair, is often aberrantly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) where its expression is correlated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. Majority of Keratin 8 (K8) functions are governed by its phosphorylation at Serine(73) (head-domain) and Serine(431) (tail-domain) residues. Although, deregulation of K8 phosphorylation is associated with progression of different carcinomas, its role in skin-SCC and the underlying me