Science.gov

Sample records for activating prior knowledge

  1. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  2. The Effects of Prior Knowledge Activation on Free Recall and Study Time Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machiels-Bongaerts, Maureen; And Others

    The effects of mobilizing prior knowledge on information processing were studied. Two hypotheses, the cognitive set-point hypothesis and the selective attention hypothesis, try to account for the facilitation effects of prior knowledge activation. These hypotheses predict different recall patterns as a result of mobilizing prior knowledge. In…

  3. The Effect of Prior Knowledge Activation on Text Recall: An Investigation of Two Conflicting Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machiels-Bongaerts, Maureen; And Others

    Two hypotheses, the cognitive capacity hypothesis and the selective attention hypothesis, try to account for the facilitation effects of prior knowledge activation. They appear to be mutually exclusive since they predict different recall patterns as a result of prior knowledge activation. This study was designed to determine whether the two…

  4. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Research Product 2015-01 Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide Gary M. Stallings Northrop Grumman Corporation Jean L...Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER W5J9CQ-11-D-0001 5b. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 633007 6. AUTHOR(S...instructors had a good understanding of what prior knowledge was relevant for their courses. The purpose of the guide documented in this report is

  5. Interest and Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund

    This paper selectively reviews research on the relationship between topic interest and prior knowledge, and discusses the optimal association between these variables. The paper points out that interest has a facilitating impact on learning, and at least part of this effect must be ascribed to prior knowledge. While the interest-knowledge…

  6. Impact of Activity-Based Mathematics Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yüksel, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of activity-based mathematics instruction on mathematics performance and investigate those factors, which contribute to the mathematics performance of a sample of children aged between 10 and 12 years. The study was designed to consider the impact of prior knowledge, self-regulation, prior attitude,…

  7. Effects of Activation of Prior Knowledge on the Recall of a Clinical Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    A study investigated the known phenomenon of "intermediate effect" in which medical students with an intermediate amount of knowledge and experience demonstrate higher amounts of recall of the text of a medical case than either experienced clinicians or novices. In this study the amount of activation of prior knowledge was controlled by…

  8. The Role of Specificity, Targeted Learning Activities, and Prior Knowledge for the Effects of Relevance Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelle, Julian; Lehmkuhl, Nina; Beyer, Martin-Uwe; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the role of (a) specificity, (b) the type of targeted learning activities, and (c) learners' prior knowledge for the effects of relevance instructions on learning from instructional explanations. In Experiment 1, we recruited novices regarding the topic of atomic structure (N = 80) and found that "specific"…

  9. Noticing relevant problem features: activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Noelle M; Alibali, Martha W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an "operations = answer" format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means "calculate the total", and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the equations.

  10. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  11. Making Connections in Math: Activating a Prior Knowledge Analogue Matters for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidney, Pooja G.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated analogical transfer of conceptual structure from a prior-knowledge domain to support learning in a new domain of mathematics: division by fractions. Before a procedural lesson on division by fractions, fifth and sixth graders practiced with a surface analogue (other operations on fractions) or a structural analogue (whole…

  12. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  13. Automatic Detection of Student Mental Models during Prior Knowledge Activation in MetaTutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rus, Vasile; Lintean, Mihai; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents several methods to automatically detecting students' mental models in MetaTutor, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches students self-regulatory processes during learning of complex science topics. In particular, we focus on detecting students' mental models based on student-generated paragraphs during prior knowledge…

  14. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were…

  15. Prior Knowledge Activation: How Different Concept Mapping Tasks Lead to Substantial Differences in Cognitive Processes, Learning Outcomes, and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurlitt, Johannes; Renkl, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of characteristic features of concept mapping used for prior knowledge activation. Characteristic demands of concept mapping include connecting lines representing the relationships between concepts and labeling these lines, specifying the type of the semantic relationships. In the first experiment,…

  16. Prior Knowledge Enhances the Category Dimensionality Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Aaron B.; Harris, Harlan D.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the combined influence of prior knowledge and stimulus dimensionality on category learning was conducted. Subjects learned category structures with the same number of necessary dimensions but more or fewer additional redundant dimensions, and with either knowledge-related or knowledge-unrelated features. Minimal-learning models predict that all subjects, regardless of condition, should learn either the same number of dimensions, or else should respond more slowly to each dimension. Despite similar learning rates and response times, subjects learned more features in the high-dimensional than in the low-dimensional condition. Furthermore, prior knowledge interacted with dimensionality, increasing what was learned especially in the high-dimensional case. A second experiment confirmed that the participants did in fact learn more features during the training phase, rather than simply inferring them at test. These effects can be explained by direct associations among features (representing prior knowledge) combined with feedback between features and the category label, as shown by simulations of the knowledge-resonance, or KRES, model of category learning. PMID:18426059

  17. Understanding the Complexities of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the kinds of prior knowledge students bring with them from high school as it relates to the conventions of writing that they are expected to follow in ARTS 1110 Introduction to University. The research questions were "Can first-year students taking the Arts 1110 Introduction to…

  18. Visual Treatment for Different Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that was conducted to examine the effectiveness of integrating different computerized visual-presentation strategies in learning different contents; the effect of identical presentation strategies on students possessing different levels of prior knowledge; and whether the use of different visual strategies…

  19. Student Models for Prior Knowledge Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nižnan, Juraj; Pelánek, Radek; Rihák, Jirí

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent behavior of adaptive educational systems is based on student models. Most research in student modeling focuses on student learning (acquisition of skills). We focus on prior knowledge, which gets much less attention in modeling and yet can be highly varied and have important consequences for the use of educational systems. We describe…

  20. Creating illusions of knowledge: learning errors that contradict prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Lisa K; Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2013-02-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks before they read stories that contained errors (e.g., "Franklin invented the light bulb"). On a later general-knowledge test, participants reproduced story errors despite previously answering the questions correctly. This misinformation effect was found even for questions that were answered correctly on the initial test with the highest level of confidence. Furthermore, prior knowledge offered no protection against errors entering the knowledge base; the misinformation effect was equivalent for previously known and unknown facts. Errors can enter the knowledge base even when learners have the knowledge necessary to catch the errors.

  1. Prior knowledge-based approach for associating ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluating the potential human health and/or ecological risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures in the ambient environment is one of the central challenges of chemical safety assessment and environmental protection. There is a need for approaches that can help to integrate chemical monitoring and bio-effects data to evaluate risks associated with chemicals present in the environment. We used prior knowledge about chemical-gene interactions to develop a knowledge assembly model for detected chemicals at five locations near two wastewater treatment plants. The assembly model was used to generate hypotheses about the biological impacts of the chemicals at each location. The hypotheses were tested using empirical hepatic gene expression data from fathead minnows exposed for 12 d at each location. Empirical gene expression data was also mapped to the assembly models to statistically evaluate the likelihood of a chemical contributing to the observed biological responses. The prior knowledge approach was able reasonably hypothesize the biological impacts at one site but not the other. Chemicals most likely contributing to the observed biological responses were identified at each location. Despite limitations to the approach, knowledge assembly models have strong potential for associating chemical occurrence with potential biological effects and providing a foundation for hypothesis generation to guide research and/or monitoring efforts relat

  2. Effects of Prior Knowledge on Memory: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shing, Yee Lee; Brod, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    The encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of events and facts form the basis for acquiring new skills and knowledge. Prior knowledge can enhance those memory processes considerably and thus foster knowledge acquisition. But prior knowledge can also hinder knowledge acquisition, in particular when the to-be-learned information is inconsistent with…

  3. How Prior Knowledge Affects Word Identification and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Sarah J.; Keenan, Janice M.; Miller, Amanda C.

    2012-01-01

    While prior knowledge of a passage topic is known to facilitate comprehension, little is known about how it affects word identification. We examined oral reading errors in good and poor readers when reading a passage where they either had prior knowledge of the passage topic or did not. Children who had prior knowledge of the topic were matched on…

  4. The Relevance of Prior Knowledge in Learning and Instructional Design

    PubMed Central

    Hailikari, Telle; Katajavuori, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine how different types of prior knowledge (declarative and procedural) impact student achievement and how prior-knowledge assessment can be used as an instructional design tool. Methods A questionnaire was developed based on the prior-knowledge model, which distinguishes between declarative and procedural knowledge. One hundred fifteen pharmacy students were tested prior to beginning 4 successive basic science courses and then prior to beginning a pharmaceutical chemistry course. Regression analysis was used to determine which type of knowledge was the best predictor of student achievement. The 4 course instructors were interviewed and their comments analyzed. Results Prior knowledge from previous courses significantly influenced student achievement. Procedural knowledge was especially related to student achievement. Instructors and students had mainly positive reactions towards the prior-knowledge tests. Conclusions Students' prior knowledge should be taken into consideration in instructional design and curriculum planning. Furthermore, the results of prior-knowledge assessments may be used as a tool for student support in addressing areas of deficiency. PMID:19214267

  5. Prior Conceptual Knowledge and Textbook Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, James P.; Guthrie, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The role of a subject's conceptual knowledge in the procedural task of searching a text for information was studied for 51 college undergraduates in 2 experiments involving knowledge of anatomy. Students with more anatomical information were able to search a text more quickly. Educational implications are discussed. (SLD)

  6. How Prior Knowledge Affects Word Identification and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Sarah J.; Keenan, Janice M.; Miller, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    While prior knowledge of a passage topic is known to facilitate comprehension, little is known about how it affects word identification. We examined oral reading errors in good and poor readers when reading a passage where they either had prior knowledge of the passage topic or did not. Children who had prior knowledge of the topic were matched on decoding skill to children who did not know the topic so that the groups differed only on knowledge of the passage topic. Prior knowledge of the passage topic was found to significantly increase fluency and reduce reading errors, especially errors based on graphic information, in poor readers. Two possible mechanisms of how prior knowledge might operate to facilitate word identification were evaluated using the pattern of error types, as was the relationship of errors to comprehension. Implications of knowledge effects for assessment and educational policy are discussed. PMID:21799586

  7. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  8. Prior knowledge is essential for the beneficial effect of targeted memory reactivation during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Groch, Sabine; Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn; Huber, Reto; Wilhelm, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Prior knowledge speeds up system consolidation and accelerates integration of newly acquired memories into existing neocortical knowledge networks. By using targeted memory reactivations, we demonstrate that prior knowledge is also essential for successful reactivation and consolidation of memories during sleep, both on the behavioral and oscillatory level (i.e., theta and fast spindle activity). Thus, prior knowledge is a prerequisite for new memories to enter processes of system consolidation during sleep. PMID:28051138

  9. Reading strategies and prior knowledge in learning from hypertext.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Ladislao; Kintsch, Walter; Cañas, José J

    2006-07-01

    In two experiments, we identified two main strategies followed by hypertext readers in selecting their reading orders. The first consisted in selecting the text semantically related to the previously read section (coherence strategy), and the second in choosing the most interesting text, delaying reading of less interesting sections (interest strategy). Comprehension data revealed that these strategies affected learning differently as a function of the reader's prior knowledge. For low-knowledge readers, the coherence strategy supported better learning of the content. This effect seems to rely on the improvement of reading order coherence induced by this strategy. By contrast, for intermediate-knowledge readers the coherence and the interest strategies benefited comprehension equally. In both cases, learning was supported through the active processing induced by these strategies. Discussion focuses on resolving inconsistencies in the literature concerning whether or not hypertext supports better comprehension than does traditional linear texts.

  10. Creating Illusions of Knowledge: Learning Errors that Contradict Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks…

  11. Novice and expert teachers' conceptions of learners' prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Helen

    2004-11-01

    This study presents comparative case studies of preservice and first-year teachers' and expert teachers' conceptions of the concept of prior knowledge. Kelly's (The Psychology of Personal Construct, New York: W.W. Norton, 1955) theory of personal constructs as discussed by Akerson, Flick, and Lederman (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2000, 37, 363-385) in relationship to prior knowledge underpins the study. Six teachers were selected to participate in the case studies based upon their level experience teaching science and their willingness to take part. The comparative case studies of the novice and expert teachers provide insights into (a) how novice and expert teachers understand the concept of prior knowledge and (b) how they use this knowledge to make instructional decisions. Data collection consisted of interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis. Findings suggest that novice teachers hold insufficient conceptions of prior knowledge and its role in instruction to effectively implement constructivist teaching practices. While expert teachers hold a complex conception of prior knowledge and make use of their students' prior knowledge in significant ways during instruction. A second finding was an apparent mismatch between the novice teachers' beliefs about their urban students' life experiences and prior knowledge and the wealth of knowledge the expert teachers found to draw upon.

  12. Prior Knowledge Moderates Instructional Effects on Conceptual Understanding of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppink, Jimmie; Broers, Nick J.; Imbos, Tjaart; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different teaching and learning methods for statistics for 2 levels of prior knowledge on cognitive load, propositional knowledge, and conceptual understanding. Teaching methods were whether or not to provide students with propositional information, and learning strategies were self-explaining the learning…

  13. Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning

    PubMed Central

    Ohst, Andrea; Fondu, Béatrice M. E.; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly) “incompatible” with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (re)organizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-)organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces. PMID:25071638

  14. Prior Knowledge Improves Decoding of Finger Flexion from Electrocorticographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Ji, Q.; Miller, K. J.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) use brain signals to convey a user’s intent. Some BCI approaches begin by decoding kinematic parameters of movements from brain signals, and then proceed to using these signals, in absence of movements, to allow a user to control an output. Recent results have shown that electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the brain in humans can give information about kinematic parameters (e.g., hand velocity or finger flexion). The decoding approaches in these studies usually employed classical classification/regression algorithms that derive a linear mapping between brain signals and outputs. However, they typically only incorporate little prior information about the target movement parameter. In this paper, we incorporate prior knowledge using a Bayesian decoding method, and use it to decode finger flexion from ECoG signals. Specifically, we exploit the constraints that govern finger flexion and incorporate these constraints in the construction, structure, and the probabilistic functions of the prior model of a switched non-parametric dynamic system (SNDS). Given a measurement model resulting from a traditional linear regression method, we decoded finger flexion using posterior estimation that combined the prior and measurement models. Our results show that the application of the Bayesian decoding model, which incorporates prior knowledge, improves decoding performance compared to the application of a linear regression model, which does not incorporate prior knowledge. Thus, the results presented in this paper may ultimately lead to neurally controlled hand prostheses with full fine-grained finger articulation. PMID:22144944

  15. When does prior knowledge disproportionately benefit older adults’ memory?

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Stephen P.; Hay, Mhairi; Foxon, Natasha; Kaur, Kiran; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Material consistent with knowledge/experience is generally more memorable than material inconsistent with knowledge/experience – an effect that can be more extreme in older adults. Four experiments investigated knowledge effects on memory with young and older adults. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar proverbs (Experiment 1) and for common and uncommon scenes (Experiment 2) showed similar knowledge effects across age groups. Memory for person-consistent and person-neutral actions (Experiment 3) showed a greater benefit of prior knowledge in older adults. For cued recall of related and unrelated word pairs (Experiment 4), older adults benefited more from prior knowledge only when it provided uniquely useful additional information beyond the episodic association itself. The current data and literature suggest that prior knowledge has the age-dissociable mnemonic properties of (1) improving memory for the episodes themselves (age invariant), and (2) providing conceptual information about the tasks/stimuli extrinsically to the actual episodic memory (particularly aiding older adults). PMID:26473767

  16. Language-Based Prior Knowledge and Transition to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide; Torres, Cristina; Chen, Fan

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides a college mathematics student's concept maps, definitions, and essays to support the thesis that language-based prior knowledge can influence students' cognitive processes of mathematical concepts. A group of intermediate algebra students who displayed terms mainly from the spoken language on the first and the second concept…

  17. Prior knowledge driven multiscale segmentation of brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Galun, Meirav; Gomori, John Moshe; Brandt, Achi; Basri, Ronen

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel automatic multiscale algorithm applied to segmentation of anatomical structures in brain MRI. The algorithm which is derived from algebraic multigrid, uses a graph representation of the image and performs a coarsening process that produces a full hierarchy of segments. Our main contribution is the incorporation of prior knowledge information into the multiscale framework through a Bayesian formulation. The probabilistic information is based on an atlas prior and on a likelihood function estimated from a manually labeled training set. The significance of our new approach is that the constructed pyramid, reflects the prior knowledge formulated. This leads to an accurate and efficient methodology for detection of various anatomical structures simultaneously. Quantitative validation results on gold standard MRI show the benefit of our approach.

  18. Predictive top-down integration of prior knowledge during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Sohoglu, Ediz; Peelle, Jonathan E; Carlyon, Robert P; Davis, Matthew H

    2012-06-20

    A striking feature of human perception is that our subjective experience depends not only on sensory information from the environment but also on our prior knowledge or expectations. The precise mechanisms by which sensory information and prior knowledge are integrated remain unclear, with longstanding disagreement concerning whether integration is strictly feedforward or whether higher-level knowledge influences sensory processing through feedback connections. Here we used concurrent EEG and MEG recordings to determine how sensory information and prior knowledge are integrated in the brain during speech perception. We manipulated listeners' prior knowledge of speech content by presenting matching, mismatching, or neutral written text before a degraded (noise-vocoded) spoken word. When speech conformed to prior knowledge, subjective perceptual clarity was enhanced. This enhancement in clarity was associated with a spatiotemporal profile of brain activity uniquely consistent with a feedback process: activity in the inferior frontal gyrus was modulated by prior knowledge before activity in lower-level sensory regions of the superior temporal gyrus. In parallel, we parametrically varied the level of speech degradation, and therefore the amount of sensory detail, so that changes in neural responses attributable to sensory information and prior knowledge could be directly compared. Although sensory detail and prior knowledge both enhanced speech clarity, they had an opposite influence on the evoked response in the superior temporal gyrus. We argue that these data are best explained within the framework of predictive coding in which sensory activity is compared with top-down predictions and only unexplained activity propagated through the cortical hierarchy.

  19. An investigation of prior knowledge in Automatic Music Transcription systems.

    PubMed

    Cazau, Dorian; Revillon, Guillaume; Krywyk, Julien; Adam, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Automatic transcription of music is a long-studied research field with many operational systems available commercially. In this paper, a generic transcription system able to host various prior knowledge parameters has been developed, followed by an in-depth investigation of their impact on music transcription. Explicit links between musical knowledge and algorithmic formalism have been made. Musical knowledge covers classes of timbre, musicology, and playing style of an instrument repertoire. An evaluation sound corpus gathering musical pieces played by human performers from three different instrument repertoires, namely, classical piano, steel-string acoustic guitar, and the marovany zither from Madagascar, has been developed. The different components of musical knowledge have been successively incorporated in a complete transcription system, consisting mainly of a Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis algorithm post-processed with a Hidden Markov Model, and their impact on transcription results have been comparatively evaluated.

  20. MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xieyu; Yang, Lingyu; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage. PMID:26180839

  1. Using Students' Prior Knowledge to Teach Social Penetration Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chornet-Roses, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bransford, Brown, and Cocking argue that acknowledging students' prior ideas and beliefs about a subject and incorporating them into the classroom enhances student learning. This article presents an activity which serves to hone three student learning outcomes: analysis of communication, inductive reasoning, and self-reflection. The goal of this…

  2. Dictionary learning based statistical interior reconstruction without a prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yongyi; Mou, Xuanqin

    2016-10-01

    Despite the significantly practical utilities of interior tomography, it still suffers from severe degradation of direct current (DC) shift artifact. Existing literature suggest to introducing prior information of object support (OS) constraint or the zeroth order image moment, i.e., the DC value into interior reconstruction to suppress the shift artifact, while the prior information is not always available in practice. Aimed at alleviating the artifacts without prior knowledge, in this paper, we reported an approach on the estimation of the object support which could be employed to estimate the zeroth order image moment, and hence facilitate the DC shift artifacts removal in interior reconstruction. Firstly, by assuming most of the reconstructed object consists of soft tissues that are equivalent to water, we reconstructed a virtual OS that is symmetrical about the interior region of interest (ROI) for the DC estimation. Hence the DC value can be estimated from the virtual reconstruction. Secondly, a statistical iterative reconstruction incorporated with the sparse representation in terms of learned dictionary and the constraint in terms of image DC value was adopted to solve the interior tomography. Experimental results demonstrate that the relative errors of the estimated zeroth order image moment are 4.7% and 7.6%, corresponding to the simulated data of a human thorax and the real data of a sheep lung, respectively. Reconstructed images with the constraint of the estimated DC value exhibit greatly superior image quality to that without DC value constraint.

  3. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Gender on Physics Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences on the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) have been extensively studied. Ten semesters (N=1621) of CSEM data is presented showing male students outperform female students on the CSEM posttest by 5 % (p < . 001). Male students also outperform female students on qualitative in-semester test questions by 3 % (p = . 004), but no significant difference between male and female students was found on quantitative test questions. Male students enter the class with superior prior preparation in the subject and score 4 % higher on the CSEM pretest (p < . 001). If the sample is restricted to students with little prior knowledge who answer no more than 8 of the 32 questions correctly (N=822), male and female differences on the CSEM and qualitative test questions cease to be significant. This suggests no intrinsic gender bias exists in the CSEM itself and that gender differences are the result of prior preparation measured by CSEM pretest score. Gender differences between male and female students increase with pretest score. Regression analyses are presented to further explore interactions between preparation, gender, and achievement.

  4. Subclonal variant calling with multiple samples and prior knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gerstung, Moritz; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Campbell, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Targeted resequencing of cancer genes in large cohorts of patients is important to understand the biological and clinical consequences of mutations. Cancers are often clonally heterogeneous, and the detection of subclonal mutations is important from a diagnostic point of view, but presents strong statistical challenges. Results: Here we present a novel statistical approach for calling mutations from large cohorts of deeply resequenced cancer genes. These data allow for precisely estimating local error profiles and enable detecting mutations with high sensitivity and specificity. Our probabilistic method incorporates knowledge about the distribution of variants in terms of a prior probability. We show that our algorithm has a high accuracy of calling cancer mutations and demonstrate that the detected clonal and subclonal variants have important prognostic consequences. Availability: Code is available as part of the Bioconductor package deepSNV. Contact: mg14@sanger.ac.uk; pc8@sanger.ac.uk PMID:24443148

  5. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  6. Experimentally superposing two pure states with partial prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Keren; Long, Guofei; Katiyar, Hemant; Xin, Tao; Feng, Guanru; Lu, Dawei; Laflamme, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    Superposition, arguably the most fundamental property of quantum mechanics, lies at the heart of quantum information science. However, how to create the superposition of any two unknown pure states remains as a daunting challenge. Recently, it was proved that such a quantum protocol does not exist if the two input states are completely unknown, whereas a probabilistic protocol is still available with some prior knowledge about the input states [M. Oszmaniec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.110403]. The knowledge is that both of the two input states have nonzero overlaps with some given referential state. In this work, we experimentally realize the probabilistic protocol of superposing two pure states in a three-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance system. We demonstrate the feasibility of the protocol by preparing a families of input states, and the average fidelity between the prepared state and expected superposition state is over 99%. Moreover, we experimentally illustrate the limitation of the protocol that it is likely to fail or yields very low fidelity, if the nonzero overlaps are approaching zero. Our experimental implementation can be extended to more complex situations and other quantum systems.

  7. Brief Report: Teachers' Awareness of the Relationship between Prior Knowledge and New Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The author examined the degree to which experienced teachers are aware of the relationship between prior knowledge and new learning. Interviews with teachers revealed that they were explicitly aware of when students made connections between prior knowledge and new learning, when they applied their prior knowledge to new contexts, and when they…

  8. Cognitive Theories, Prior Knowledge, and Anchored Instruction on Mathematical Problem Solving and Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafino, Kathleen; Cicchelli, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Tested the effects of prior knowledge and two instructional models--structured problem solving and guided generation (GG)--on mathematical problem solving and transfer to an analogous task. Data on students with high and low prior knowledge highlighted significant main effects for prior knowledge, significant differences on transfer to analogous…

  9. "Dare I Ask?": Eliciting Prior Knowledge and Its Implications for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This article examines high school teachers' engagement of newcomer English learner students' prior knowledge. Three central research questions guided this study: 1) To what extent do teachers function as mediators of their students' prior knowledge? 2) What goes into teachers' thinking about how and when to elicit prior knowledge? and 3) How do…

  10. Relations among Conceptual Knowledge, Procedural Knowledge, and Procedural Flexibility in Two Samples Differing in Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R.

    2011-01-01

    Competence in many domains rests on children developing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as procedural flexibility. However, research on the developmental relations between these different types of knowledge has yielded unclear results, in part because little attention has been paid to the validity of the measures or to the effects of…

  11. Temporal, but not Directional, Prior Knowledge Shortens Muscle Reflex Latency in Response to Sudden Transition of Support Surface During Walking.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Masahiro; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system takes advantage of prior knowledge about potential upcoming perturbations for modulating postural reflexes. There are two distinct aspects of prior knowledge: spatial and temporal. This study investigated how each of spatial and temporal prior knowledge contributes to the shortening of muscle response latency. Eleven participants walked on a split-belt treadmill and perturbed by sudden acceleration or deceleration of the right belt at right foot contact. Spatial prior knowledge was given by instruction of possible direction (e.g., only acceleration) of upcoming perturbation at the beginning of an experimental session. Temporal prior knowledge was given to subjects by warning tones at foot contact during three consecutive strides before the perturbation. In response to acceleration perturbation, reflexive muscle activity was observed in soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) muscles. Onset latency of the GAS response was shorter (72 ms vs. 58 ms) when subjects knew the timing of the upcoming perturbation, whereas the latency was independent of directional prior knowledge. SOL onset latency (44 ms) was not influenced by directional nor temporal prior knowledge. Although spinal neural circuit that mediates short-latency reflex was not influenced by the prior knowledge, excitability in supra-spinal neural circuit that mediates medium- and long-latency reflex might be enhanced by knowing the timing of the upcoming perturbation.

  12. Prior Knowledge Facilitates Mutual Gaze Convergence and Head Nodding Synchrony in Face-to-face Communication

    PubMed Central

    Thepsoonthorn, C.; Yokozuka, T.; Miura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Miyake, Y.

    2016-01-01

    As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none. The result shows that the interaction in prior knowledge condition establishes significantly higher mutual gaze convergence (t(15.03) = 6.72, p < 0.0001; α = 0.05, n = 20) and head nodding synchrony (t(16.67) = 1.83, p = 0.04; α = 0.05, n = 19) compared to non-prior knowledge condition. This study reveals that prior knowledge facilitates mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. Furthermore, the interaction with and without prior knowledge can be evaluated by measuring or observing mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. PMID:27910902

  13. The role of prior knowledge in error correction for younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Sitzman, Danielle M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K; Liceralde, Van Rynald T

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that, when given feedback, younger adults are more likely to correct high-confidence errors compared with low-confidence errors, a finding termed the hypercorrection effect. Research examining the hypercorrection effect in both older and younger adults has demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. Their results demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. However, recent work suggests that error correction is largely related to prior knowledge, while confidence may primarily serve as a proxy for prior knowledge. Prior knowledge generally remains stable or increases with age; thus, the current experiment explored how both confidence and prior knowledge contributed to error correction in younger and older adults. Participants answered general knowledge questions, rated how confident they were that their response was correct, received correct answer feedback, and rated their prior knowledge of the correct response. Overall, confidence was related to error correction for younger adults, but this relationship was much smaller for older adults. However, prior knowledge was strongly related to error correction for both younger and older adults. Confidence alone played little unique role in error correction after controlling for the role of prior knowledge. These data demonstrate that prior knowledge largely predicts error correction and suggests that both older and younger adults can use their prior knowledge to effectively correct errors in memory.

  14. Understanding the Role of Prior Knowledge in a Multimedia Learning Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rias, Riaza Mohd; Zaman, Halimah Badioze

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the effects that individual differences in prior knowledge have on student understanding in learning with multimedia in a computer science subject. Students were identified as having either low or high prior knowledge from a series of questions asked in a survey conducted at the Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences at…

  15. A Fuzzy-Based Prior Knowledge Diagnostic Model with Multiple Attribute Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2013-01-01

    Prior knowledge is a very important part of teaching and learning, as it affects how instructors and students interact with the learning materials. In general, tests are used to assess students' prior knowledge. Nevertheless, conventional testing approaches usually assign only an overall score to each student, and this may mean that students are…

  16. The Role of Prior Knowledge in Learning from Analogies in Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braasch, Jason L. G.; Goldman, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether inconsistent effects of analogies in promoting new content learning from text are related to prior knowledge of the analogy "per se." In Experiment 1, college students who demonstrated little understanding of weather systems and different levels of prior knowledge (more vs. less) of an analogous everyday…

  17. Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia: The Role of Prior Domain Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Think-aloud and pre-test data were collected from 49 undergraduates with varying levels of prior domain knowledge to examine the relationship between prior domain knowledge and self-regulated learning with hypermedia. During the experimental session, each participant individually completed a pretest on the circulatory system, and then one 40-min…

  18. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  19. Sleep Spindle Density Predicts the Effect of Prior Knowledge on Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Kempkes, Marleen; Cousins, James N.; Lewis, Penelope A.

    2016-01-01

    Information that relates to a prior knowledge schema is remembered better and consolidates more rapidly than information that does not. Another factor that influences memory consolidation is sleep and growing evidence suggests that sleep-related processing is important for integration with existing knowledge. Here, we perform an examination of how sleep-related mechanisms interact with schema-dependent memory advantage. Participants first established a schema over 2 weeks. Next, they encoded new facts, which were either related to the schema or completely unrelated. After a 24 h retention interval, including a night of sleep, which we monitored with polysomnography, participants encoded a second set of facts. Finally, memory for all facts was tested in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Behaviorally, sleep spindle density predicted an increase of the schema benefit to memory across the retention interval. Higher spindle densities were associated with reduced decay of schema-related memories. Functionally, spindle density predicted increased disengagement of the hippocampus across 24 h for schema-related memories only. Together, these results suggest that sleep spindle activity is associated with the effect of prior knowledge on memory consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memories are gradually assimilated into long-term memory and this process is strongly influenced by sleep. The consolidation of new information is also influenced by its relationship to existing knowledge structures, or schemas, but the role of sleep in such schema-related consolidation is unknown. We show that sleep spindle density predicts the extent to which schemas influence the consolidation of related facts. This is the first evidence that sleep is associated with the interaction between prior knowledge and long-term memory formation. PMID:27030764

  20. The Influence of Self-Regulated Learning and Prior Knowledge on Knowledge Acquisition in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how learners construct textbase and situation model knowledge in hypertext computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) and documented the influence of specific self-regulated learning (SRL) tactics, prior knowledge, and characteristics of the learner on posttest knowledge scores from exposure to a hypertext. A sample of 160…

  1. Tests of a Prior Marksmanship Knowledge Predictor Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Christopher L. Vowels, U.S. Army Research Institute Peter S. Schaefer, U.S. Army Research Institute NOTICES DISTRIBUTION: Primary...Duty 95 Active Guard Reserve ( AGR ) 6 * - One student left the service status blank. Note: PV2 = Private E-2; SFC = Sergeant First Class...2. Branch of Service (n = 102) Air Force Army 0 102 3. Current Service Status (n = 101) Active Duty Active Guard Reserve ( AGR ) 95 6

  2. Mind wandering during film comprehension: The role of prior knowledge and situational interest.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Kristopher; Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and factors that influence mind wandering (MW) in the domain of film comprehension. The cascading model of inattention assumes that a stronger mental representation (i.e., a situation model) during comprehension results in less MW. Accordingly, a suppression hypothesis suggests that MW would decrease as a function of having the knowledge of the plot of a film prior to viewing, because the prior-knowledge would help to strengthen the situation model during comprehension. Furthermore, an interest-moderation hypothesis would predict that the suppression effect of prior-knowledge would only emerge when there was interest in viewing the film. In the current experiment, 108 participants either read a short story that depicted the plot (i.e., prior-knowledge condition) or read an unrelated story of equal length (control condition) prior to viewing the short film (32.5 minutes) entitled The Red Balloon. Participants self-reported their interest in viewing the film immediately before the film was presented. MW was tracked using a self-report method targeting instances of MW with metacognitive awareness. Participants in the prior-knowledge condition reported less MW compared with the control condition, thereby supporting the suppression hypothesis. MW also decreased over the duration of the film, but only for those with prior-knowledge of the film. Finally, prior-knowledge effects on MW were only observed when interest was average or high, but not when interest was low.

  3. Activating event knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and objects (trip-luggage) commonly found at those events; (2) location nouns prime people/animals (hospital-doctor) and objects (barn-hay) commonly found at those locations; and (3) instrument nouns prime things on which those instruments are commonly used (key-door), but not the types of people who tend to use them (hose-gardener). The priming effects are not due to normative word association. On our account, facilitation results from event knowledge relating primes and targets. This has much in common with computational models like LSA or BEAGLE in which one word primes another if they frequently occur in similar contexts. LSA predicts priming for all six experiments, whereas BEAGLE correctly predicted that priming should not occur for the instrument-people relation but should occur for the other five. We conclude that event-based relations are encoded in semantic memory and computed as part of word meaning, and have a strong influence on language comprehension.

  4. Exploiting prior knowledge in compressed sensing wireless ECG systems.

    PubMed

    Polanía, Luisa F; Carrillo, Rafael E; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E

    2015-03-01

    Recent results in telecardiology show that compressed sensing (CS) is a promising tool to lower energy consumption in wireless body area networks for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, the performance of current CS-based algorithms, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality of the ECG, still falls short of the performance attained by state-of-the-art wavelet-based algorithms. In this paper, we propose to exploit the structure of the wavelet representation of the ECG signal to boost the performance of CS-based methods for compression and reconstruction of ECG signals. More precisely, we incorporate prior information about the wavelet dependencies across scales into the reconstruction algorithms and exploit the high fraction of common support of the wavelet coefficients of consecutive ECG segments. Experimental results utilizing the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database show that significant performance gains, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality, can be obtained by the proposed algorithms compared to current CS-based methods.

  5. Coherence Marking, Prior Knowledge, and Comprehension of Informative and Persuasive Texts: Sorting Things out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalski, Judith; Sanders, Ted; Lentz, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Coherence plays a central role when readers construct meaning from a text. Previous research has shown how coherence marking affects text processing and representation. However, this effect seems to depend on reader's prior knowledge of the text content: Low knowledge readers benefit from coherence marking, whereas high knowledge readers benefit…

  6. Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

  7. Prior knowledge is more predictive of error correction than subjective confidence.

    PubMed

    Sitzman, Danielle M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that, when given feedback, participants are more likely to correct confidently-held errors, as compared with errors held with lower levels of confidence, a finding termed the hypercorrection effect. Accounts of hypercorrection suggest that confidence modifies attention to feedback; alternatively, hypercorrection may reflect prior domain knowledge, with confidence ratings simply correlated with this prior knowledge. In the present experiments, we attempted to adjudicate among these explanations of the hypercorrection effect. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants answered general knowledge questions, rated their confidence, and received feedback either immediately after rating their confidence or after a delay of several minutes. Although memory for confidence judgments should have been poorer at a delay, the hypercorrection effect was equivalent for both feedback timings. Experiment 2 showed that hypercorrection remained unchanged even when the delay to feedback was increased. In addition, measures of recall for prior confidence judgments showed that memory for confidence was indeed poorer after a delay. Experiment 3 directly compared estimates of domain knowledge with confidence ratings, showing that such prior knowledge was related to error correction, whereas the unique role of confidence was small. Overall, our results suggest that prior knowledge likely plays a primary role in error correction, while confidence may play a small role or merely serve as a proxy for prior knowledge.

  8. Prior Knowledge and the Learning of Science. A Review of Ausubel's Theory of This Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, L. H. T.; Fensham, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines Ausubel's theory of learning as a model of the role concerning the influence of prior knowledge on how learning occurs. Research evidence for Ausubel's theory is presented and discussed. Implications of Ausubel's theory for teaching are summarized. (PEB)

  9. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Memory: A Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brod, Garvin; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2013-01-01

    Across ontogenetic development, individuals gather manifold experiences during which they detect regularities in their environment and thereby accumulate knowledge. This knowledge is used to guide behavior, make predictions, and acquire further new knowledge. In this review, we discuss the influence of prior knowledge on memory from both the psychology and the emerging cognitive neuroscience literature and provide a developmental perspective on this topic. Recent neuroscience findings point to a prominent role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and of the hippocampus (HC) in the emergence of prior knowledge and in its application during the processes of successful memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. We take the lateral PFC into consideration as well and discuss changes in both medial and lateral PFC and HC across development and postulate how these may be related to the development of the use of prior knowledge for remembering. For future direction, we argue that, to measure age differential effects of prior knowledge on memory, it is necessary to distinguish the availability of prior knowledge from its accessibility and use. PMID:24115923

  10. SU-E-J-71: Spatially Preserving Prior Knowledge-Based Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H; Xing, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prior knowledge-based treatment planning is impeded by the use of a single dose volume histogram (DVH) curve. Critical spatial information is lost from collapsing the dose distribution into a histogram. Even similar patients possess geometric variations that becomes inaccessible in the form of a single DVH. We propose a simple prior knowledge-based planning scheme that extracts features from prior dose distribution while still preserving the spatial information. Methods: A prior patient plan is not used as a mere starting point for a new patient but rather stopping criteria are constructed. Each structure from the prior patient is partitioned into multiple shells. For instance, the PTV is partitioned into an inner, middle, and outer shell. Prior dose statistics are then extracted for each shell and translated into the appropriate Dmin and Dmax parameters for the new patient. Results: The partitioned dose information from a prior case has been applied onto 14 2-D prostate cases. Using prior case yielded final DVHs that was comparable to manual planning, even though the DVH for the prior case was different from the DVH for the 14 cases. Solely using a single DVH for the entire organ was also performed for comparison but showed a much poorer performance. Different ways of translating the prior dose statistics into parameters for the new patient was also tested. Conclusion: Prior knowledge-based treatment planning need to salvage the spatial information without transforming the patients on a voxel to voxel basis. An efficient balance between the anatomy and dose domain is gained through partitioning the organs into multiple shells. The use of prior knowledge not only serves as a starting point for a new case but the information extracted from the partitioned shells are also translated into stopping criteria for the optimization problem at hand.

  11. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  12. The Relation between Prior Knowledge and Students' Collaborative Discovery Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijlers, Hannie; de Jong, Ton

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigate how prior knowledge influences knowledge development during collaborative discovery learning. Fifteen dyads of students (pre-university education, 15-16 years old) worked on a discovery learning task in the physics field of kinematics. The (face-to-face) communication between students was recorded and the interaction…

  13. Does Teaching Experience Matter? Examining Biology Teachers' Prior Knowledge for Teaching in an Alternative Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…

  14. Evaluating Background and Prior Knowledge: A Case Study on Engineering Graphics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobos-Moyano, Alfonso; Martin-Blas, Teresa; Onate-Gomez, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the results obtained by a group of freshmen students in a test of prior knowledge on technical drawing carried out before and after attending an introductory course on this subject. The aim of this course was to help students to gain knowledge necessary to take full advantage of the CAD software that is regularly used to…

  15. Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

  16. Memory integration in amnesia: prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-04-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM-LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit from two

  17. Nonnegative matrix factorization for hyperspectral unmixing using prior knowledge of spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Shi, Zhenwei; An, Zhenyu

    2012-08-01

    Hyperspectral unmixing is a process aiming at identifying the constituent materials and estimating the corresponding fractions from hyperspectral imagery of a scene. Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), an effective linear spectral mixture model, has been applied in hyperspectral unmixing during recent years. As the data of hyperspectral imagery analyzed deeper, prior knowledge of some signatures in the scene could be available. In several scenes such as mining areas, a few surface substances like copper and iron are easy to identify through field investigation. Thus, their spectral signatures can be used as prior knowledge to unmix hyperspectral data. In such a context, we propose an NMF based framework for hyperspectral unmixing using such prior knowledge, referred to as NMFupk. Specifically, our algorithm supposes that some spectral signatures in the scene are known and then utilizes the prior knowledge of the spectral signatures to unmix the hyperspectral data. In a series of experiments, we test NMFupk and NMF without prior knowledge on both synthetic and real data. Results achieved demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.

  18. The Instructional Effectiveness of Animated Signaling among Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shanshan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the instructional effectiveness of animated signals among learners with high and low prior knowledge. Each of the two treatments was presented with animated instruction either with signals or without signals on the content of how an airplane achieves lift. Subjects were eighty-seven undergraduate…

  19. The Impact of Learner's Prior Knowledge on Their Use of Chemistry Computer Simulations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Han-Chin; Andre, Thomas; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    It is complicated to design a computer simulation that adapts to students with different characteristics. This study documented cases that show how college students' prior chemistry knowledge level affected their interaction with peers and their approach to solving problems with the use of computer simulations that were designed to learn…

  20. Developing Conceptual Understanding of Natural Selection: The Role of Interest, Efficacy, and Basic Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Pugh, Kevin J.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in high school students' (n = 94) conceptions of natural selection were examined as a function of motivational beliefs (individual interest, academic self-efficacy), basic prior knowledge, and gender across three assessments (pre, post, follow-up). Results from variable-centered analyses suggested that these variables had relatively little…

  1. Untapped Cultural Support: The Influence of Culturally Bound Prior Knowledge on Comprehension Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth-McCullough, Ruanda

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the prior knowledge of African American students, this study explored the relationship between cultural orientation of literature and reading comprehension to determine its effect on low, mid, and high level readers. Over one hundred 8th grade students from four different public schools read short stories from three different cultural…

  2. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  3. Prior Knowledge, Text Coherence, and Interest: How They Interact in Learning from Instructional Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boscolo, Pietro; Mason, Lucia

    This paper describes a study aimed at expanding research on the interactive effect of readers' prior knowledge and text coherence on learning by introducing a third variable, topic interest, which is, the readers' relatively stable affective orientation toward a topic. The hypothesis was that the inferential processes required to fill in…

  4. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Viewing and Interpreting Graphics with Macroscopic and Molecular Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle; Wiebe, Eric N.; Carter, Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the use of multiple representations with macroscopic and molecular features can improve conceptual understanding; however, the influence of prior knowledge of the domain cannot be overlooked. Using eye-tracking technology and sequential analysis, this study investigated how high school students (n = 54) with…

  5. Effect of Prior Domain Knowledge and Headings on Processing of Informative Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surber, John R.; Schroeder, Mark

    2007-01-01

    College students with either high or low prior domain knowledge (PK) read a text chapter presented in short pages on a computer monitor. Half of the participants read with headings present and half with headings absent. The computer recorded time spent reading and rereading each short page. Learning was assessed through a structured recall task.…

  6. Interplay of Prior Knowledge, Self-Regulation and Motivation in Complex Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, H. S.; Kalet, A. L.; Plass, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect effects of medical clerkship students' prior knowledge, self-regulation and motivation on learning performance in complex multimedia learning environments. The data from 386 medical clerkship students from six medical schools were analysed using structural equation modeling. The structural model revealed…

  7. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Perception and Action: Relationships to Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Gavin; Michelakakis, Elizabeth Evgenia; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan

    2016-01-01

    Autism is characterised by a range of perceptual and sensorimotor deficits, which might be related to abnormalities in how autistic individuals use prior knowledge. We investigated this proposition in a large non-clinical population in the context of the size-weight illusion, where individual's expectations about object weight influence their…

  8. Teaching Practice: A Perspective on Inter-Text and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; West, Howard G.

    2012-01-01

    The use of teaching practices that involve intertextual relationship discovery in today's elementary classrooms is increasingly essential to the success of young learners of reading. Teachers must constantly strive to expand their perspective of how to incorporate the dialogue included in prior knowledge assessment. Teachers must also consider how…

  9. Effects of Prior Knowledge and Concept-Map Structure on Disorientation, Cognitive Load, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadieu, Franck; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Tricot, Andre; Marine, Claudette

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of prior knowledge (high vs. low; HPK and LPK) and concept-map structure (hierarchical vs. network; HS and NS) on disorientation, cognitive load, and learning from non-linear documents on "the infection process of a retrograde virus (HIV)". Participants in the study were 24 adults. Overall subjective ratings of…

  10. Relationship of Students' Prior Knowledge and Order of Questions on Tests to Students' Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Klara K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)

  11. Students' Achievement in Relation to Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated students' achievement regarding photosynthesis and respiration in plants in relation to reasoning ability, prior knowledge and gender. A total of 117 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of logical thinking and the two-tier multiple choice tests were administered to determine students' reasoning ability and…

  12. Building Knowledge through Portfolio Learning in Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    It is important for academic credibility that the process of prior learning assessment and recognition (PLAR) keeps learning and knowledge as its foundational tenets. Doing so ensures PLAR's recognition as a fertile ground for learners' cognitive and personal growth. In many postsecondary venues, PLAR is often misunderstood and confused with…

  13. Prior Knowledge and Online Inquiry-Based Science Reading: Evidence from Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Wang, Ching-Yeh; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This study employed eye-tracking technology to examine how students with different levels of prior knowledge process text and data diagrams when reading a web-based scientific report. Students' visual behaviors were tracked and recorded when they read a report demonstrating the relationship between the greenhouse effect and global climate…

  14. Case-based reasoning for space applications: Utilization of prior experience in knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James A.

    1987-01-01

    The goal is to explain Case-Based Reasoning as a vehicle to establish knowledge-based systems based on experimental reasoning for possible space applications. This goal will be accomplished through an examination of reasoning based on prior experience in a sample domain, and also through a presentation of proposed space applications which could utilize Case-Based Reasoning techniques.

  15. The Interpretation of Cellular Transport Graphics by Students with Low and High Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michelle; Carter, Glenda; Wiebe, Eric N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of cellular transport influenced how high school students in the USA viewed and interpreted graphic representations of this topic. The participants were Advanced Placement Biology students (n = 65); each participant had previously taken a biology course in high school. After assessing…

  16. Prior Knowledge, Text Features, and Idea Maps. Technical Report No. 608.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, James O.

    A study investigated the relationships among prior topic knowledge, information in elementary science text, and the construction of visual representation of key text ideas. Eight preservice elementary teachers were first interviewed on two topics in science ("how plants get their food" and "air and weather"); then they read…

  17. Feedback Both Helps and Hinders Learning: The Causal Role of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Emily R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Feedback can be a powerful learning tool, but its effects vary widely. Research has suggested that learners' prior knowledge may moderate the effects of feedback; however, no causal link has been established. In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned elementary school children (N = 108) to a condition based on a crossing of 2 factors: induced strategy…

  18. The Impacts of Virtual Manipulatives and Prior Knowledge on Geometry Learning Performance in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of virtual and physical manipulatives have failed to consider the impact of prior knowledge on the efficacy of manipulatives. This study focuses on the learning of plane geometry in junior high schools, including the sum of interior angles in polygons, the sum of exterior angles in polygons, and the properties of…

  19. The Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Situational Interest When Reading Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Mark Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between prior knowledge, situational interest, and recall, 34 college students read 15 paragraphs that contained varying amounts of fictional material, rated how interesting they found each paragraph, and were later assessed on how much of the information they retained. Five of the paragraphs contained fictional items…

  20. Finding out More about Teacher Candidates' Prior Knowledge: Implications for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ell, Fiona; Hill, Mary; Grudnoff, Lexie

    2012-01-01

    While it is recognised that prior knowledge is a key factor in determining future learning, its influence on learning to teach is less well known. This study investigates two cohorts of teacher candidates studying for a one-year, graduate qualification for primary teaching, who completed two tasks at entry to their initial teacher education…

  1. The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Viewing Repertoire on Learning from Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Jelle; Kommers, Piet A. M.; de Brock, Bert; Tolboom, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Video is increasingly used as an instructional tool. It is therefore becoming more important to improve learning of students from video. We investigated whether student learning effects are influenced through an instruction about other viewing behaviours, and whether these learning effects depend on their prior knowledge. In a controlled…

  2. The Effect of Instructional Modality and Prior Knowledge on Learning Point Group Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Kastner, Margaret E.

    2005-01-01

    Many topics in chemistry are difficult for learners to understand, including symmetry. Reasons for this difficulty include its multi-level content, instructional methodologies utilized, and learner variables. This study examined the effect of initial instructional modality and prior knowledge on learning of point group symmetry. Forty-four…

  3. The Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Interactive Overviews During Hypermedia-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Amy M.

    1999-01-01

    Uses interactive overviews (IOs), a type of advance organizer, to explore the effect of interaction between organizer structure and prior knowledge on novices' ability to meet learning goals. Participants were assigned to learn about ecosystems with a hypermedia program. Results indicated that the ecosystem IO aided learners in meeting an…

  4. Accuracy of extrapolated data as a function of prior knowledge and regularization.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Hsin M; Fiddy, Michael A

    2006-05-10

    The prior discrete Fourier transform (PDFT) is a linear spectral estimator that provides a solution that is both data consistent and of minimum weighted norm through the use of a suitably designed Hilbert space. The PDFT has been successfully used in imaging applications to improve resolution and overcome the nonuniqueness associated with having only finitely many spectral measurements. With the use of an appropriate prior function, the resolution of the reconstructed image can be improved dramatically. We explore the ways in which some significant parameters affect the PDFT estimate. A relationship between estimated spectral values, prior knowledge, and regularization was examined. It allows one to assess the reliability of the estimated spectral values for a given choice of prior estimate and provides a means for optimizing PDFT-based estimators.

  5. Surface and semantic processing of cellular transport representations by high school students with low and high prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prior knowledge of cell transport processes on how students viewed and interpreted visual representations related to that topic. The participants were high school students (n=65) enrolled in Advanced Placement biology. Prior knowledge was assessed using a modified version of the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (Odom & Barrow, 1995). Eye movements were measured to reveal how students distribute their visual attention as they perceive and interpret graphics; in addition, interviews and questionnaires were employed to provide more interpretive data sources. The first manuscript of the study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and students' ability to perceive salient features and interpret graphic representations of cellular transport. The results from eye tracking data, interviews, and questionnaire responses were triangulated and revealed differences in how high and low prior knowledge students attended to and interpreted various features of the graphic representations. Without adequate domain knowledge, low prior knowledge students focused on surface features of the graphics to build an understanding of the concepts represented. High prior knowledge students, with more abundant and better organized domain knowledge, were more likely to attend to thematically relevant content in the graphics and construct deeper understandings. The second manuscript of the study examines the influence of prior knowledge on how students transitioned among the macroscopic and molecular representations of selected graphics. Eye tracking and sequential analysis results indicated that high prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the molecular representations, where as low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the macroscopic representations. In addition, low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between macroscopic and molecular representations

  6. Reading Comprehension of Informative Texts in Secondary School: A Focus on Direct and Indirect Effects of Reader's Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarchi, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Text comprehension plays a fundamental role in the processes of acquisition, sharing, and construction of knowledge. Most definitions share the focus on the interaction between text and reader's prior knowledge. In this paper both direct and indirect effects of prior knowledge on reading comprehension have been analyzed, along with other…

  7. Leveraging students' prior knowledge in attaining deep structural understanding of domain general models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Hillary Lucille

    The Next Generation Science Standards charge U.S. teachers with the task of including patterns, as a crosscutting concept, in their science curricula. This study explores the learning processes and outcomes of a pattern-based curriculum that engages middle school students in the construction of models of particular patterns. These patterns are general behaviors or processes that can be found in a range of phenomena; examples of such patterns include threshold, equilibration, and oscillation. The study investigates 1) the development of students' pattern models in response to instruction, 2) the productivity of prior knowledge in students' construction of pattern models and 3) the features of instruction that support the process of pattern model construction. It addresses research questions through analysis of data collected during the implementation of a pattern-based curriculum. Findings show that students have a wealth of prior knowledge that can be leveraged by instruction toward their construction of models of threshold, equilibration, and oscillation patterns. These findings contribute to literatures concerned with deep structural and domain-general knowledge, the productive role of prior knowledge in conceptual change, and the design of constructivist instruction.

  8. DENSE: efficient and prior knowledge-driven discovery of phenotype-associated protein functional modules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Identifying cellular subsystems that are involved in the expression of a target phenotype has been a very active research area for the past several years. In this paper, cellular subsystem refers to a group of genes (or proteins) that interact and carry out a common function in the cell. Most studies identify genes associated with a phenotype on the basis of some statistical bias, others have extended these statistical methods to analyze functional modules and biological pathways for phenotype-relatedness. However, a biologist might often have a specific question in mind while performing such analysis and most of the resulting subsystems obtained by the existing methods might be largely irrelevant to the question in hand. Arguably, it would be valuable to incorporate biologist's knowledge about the phenotype into the algorithm. This way, it is anticipated that the resulting subsytems would not only be related to the target phenotype but also contain information that the biologist is likely to be interested in. Results In this paper we introduce a fast and theoretically guranteed method called DENSE (Dense and ENriched Subgraph Enumeration) that can take in as input a biologist's prior knowledge as a set of query proteins and identify all the dense functional modules in a biological network that contain some part of the query vertices. The density (in terms of the number of network egdes) and the enrichment (the number of query proteins in the resulting functional module) can be manipulated via two parameters γ and μ, respectively. Conclusion This algorithm has been applied to the protein functional association network of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, a hydrogen producing, acid-tolerant organism. The algorithm was able to verify relationships known to exist in literature and also some previously unknown relationships including those with regulatory and signaling functions. Additionally, we were also able to hypothesize that some uncharacterized

  9. Memory for Star Trek: the role of prior knowledge in recognition revisited.

    PubMed

    Long, Debra L; Prat, Chantel S

    2002-11-01

    Prior studies have found robust knowledge effects on recall of text ideas but have seldom found comparable effects on recognition. This inconsistency was examined in light of recent research on the component processes that underlie recognition memory. Using the remember/know paradigm, the authors found that experts made more remember judgments than novices, but only in response to text ideas relevant to their domain of expertise. Using the process-dissociation procedure, the authors found knowledge effects on recollection estimates, but not on familiarity estimates. The authors contend that knowledge effects have been difficult to detect in recognition because knowledge primarily affects recollection, whereas familiarity gives rise to good performance even among novices.

  10. Factors affecting learning of vector math from computer-based practice: Feedback complexity and prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Mikula, Brendon D.

    2016-06-01

    In experiments including over 450 university-level students, we studied the effectiveness and time efficiency of several levels of feedback complexity in simple, computer-based training utilizing static question sequences. The learning domain was simple vector math, an essential skill in introductory physics. In a unique full factorial design, we studied the relative effects of "knowledge of correct response" feedback and "elaborated feedback" (i.e., a general explanation) both separately and together. A number of other factors were analyzed, including training time, physics course grade, prior knowledge of vector math, and student beliefs about both their proficiency in and the importance of vector math. We hypothesize a simple model predicting how the effectiveness of feedback depends on prior knowledge, and the results confirm this knowledge-by-treatment interaction. Most notably, elaborated feedback is the most effective feedback, especially for students with low prior knowledge and low course grade. In contrast, knowledge of correct response feedback was less effective for low-performing students, and including both kinds of feedback did not significantly improve performance compared to elaborated feedback alone. Further, while elaborated feedback resulted in higher scores, the learning rate was at best only marginally higher because the training time was slightly longer. Training time data revealed that students spent significantly more time on the elaborated feedback after answering a training question incorrectly. Finally, we found that training improved student self-reported proficiency and that belief in the importance of the learned domain improved the effectiveness of training. Overall, we found that computer based training with static question sequences and immediate elaborated feedback in the form of simple and general explanations can be an effective way to improve student performance on a physics essential skill, especially for less prepared and low

  11. PRIOR-WK&E: Social Software for Policy Making in the Knowledge Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turón, Alberto; Aguarón, Juan; Escobar, María Teresa; Gallardo, Carolina; Moreno-Jiménez, José María; Salazar, José Luis

    This paper presents a social software application denominated as PRIOR-WK&E. It has been developed by the Zaragoza Multicriteria Decision Making Group (GDMZ) with the aim of responding to the challenges of policy making in the Knowledge Society. Three specific modules have been added to PRIOR, the collaborative tool used by the research group (GDMZ) for considering the multicriteria selection of a discrete set of alternatives. The first module (W), that deals with multiactor decision making through the Web, and the second (K), that concerns the extraction and diffusion of knowledge related to the scientific resolution of the problem, were explained in [1]. The new application strengthens securitization and includes a third module (E) that evaluates the effectiveness of public administrations policy making.

  12. Semantically-based priors and nuanced knowledge core for Big Data, Social AI, and language understanding.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Noise-resistant and nuanced, COGBASE makes 10 million pieces of commonsense data and a host of novel reasoning algorithms available via a family of semantically-driven prior probability distributions. Machine learning, Big Data, natural language understanding/processing, and social AI can draw on COGBASE to determine lexical semantics, infer goals and interests, simulate emotion and affect, calculate document gists and topic models, and link commonsense knowledge to domain models and social, spatial, cultural, and psychological data. COGBASE is especially ideal for social Big Data, which tends to involve highly implicit contexts, cognitive artifacts, difficult-to-parse texts, and deep domain knowledge dependencies.

  13. Using Genetic Programming with Prior Formula Knowledge to Solve Symbolic Regression Problem

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    A researcher can infer mathematical expressions of functions quickly by using his professional knowledge (called Prior Knowledge). But the results he finds may be biased and restricted to his research field due to limitation of his knowledge. In contrast, Genetic Programming method can discover fitted mathematical expressions from the huge search space through running evolutionary algorithms. And its results can be generalized to accommodate different fields of knowledge. However, since GP has to search a huge space, its speed of finding the results is rather slow. Therefore, in this paper, a framework of connection between Prior Formula Knowledge and GP (PFK-GP) is proposed to reduce the space of GP searching. The PFK is built based on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which can identify candidate formulas that are consistent with the features of experimental data. By using these candidate formulas as the seed of a randomly generated population, PFK-GP finds the right formulas quickly by exploring the search space of data features. We have compared PFK-GP with Pareto GP on regression of eight benchmark problems. The experimental results confirm that the PFK-GP can reduce the search space and obtain the significant improvement in the quality of SR. PMID:26819577

  14. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  15. Prior probability modulates anticipatory activity in category-specific areas.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Sabrina; Lepsien, Jöran; Kotz, Sonja A; Bar, Moshe

    2016-02-01

    Bayesian models are currently a dominant framework for describing human information processing. However, it is not clear yet how major tenets of this framework can be translated to brain processes. In this study, we addressed the neural underpinning of prior probability and its effect on anticipatory activity in category-specific areas. Before fMRI scanning, participants were trained in two behavioral sessions to learn the prior probability and correct order of visual events within a sequence. The events of each sequence included two different presentations of a geometric shape and one picture of either a house or a face, which appeared with either a high or a low likelihood. Each sequence was preceded by a cue that gave participants probabilistic information about which items to expect next. This allowed examining cue-related anticipatory modulation of activity as a function of prior probability in category-specific areas (fusiform face area and parahippocampal place area). Our findings show that activity in the fusiform face area was higher when faces had a higher prior probability. The finding of a difference between levels of expectations is consistent with graded, probabilistically modulated activity, but the data do not rule out the alternative explanation of a categorical neural response. Importantly, these differences were only visible during anticipation, and vanished at the time of stimulus presentation, calling for a functional distinction when considering the effects of prior probability. Finally, there were no anticipatory effects for houses in the parahippocampal place area, suggesting sensitivity to stimulus material when looking at effects of prediction.

  16. Effects of Prior Knowledge in Mathematics on Learner-Interface Interactions in a Learning-by-Teaching Intelligent Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.; Dela Cruz, Cecilio; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the influence of prior knowledge in mathematics of students on learner-interface interactions in a learning-by-teaching intelligent tutoring system. One hundred thirty-nine high school students answered a pretest (i.e., the prior knowledge in mathematics) and a posttest. In between the pretest and posttest, they…

  17. Does Learners' Prior Knowledge Moderate the Detrimental Effects of Seductive Details in Reading from Text? A 2 by 3 Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhe; Adesope, Olusola

    2016-01-01

    Previous work on seductive details has demonstrated that interesting but irrelevant messages hinder students' text learning. Considering that there is little evidence suggesting the relationship between seductive details and prior knowledge, the present study examined how seductive details affect learning in terms of prior knowledge to address the…

  18. An Investigation of the Effects of Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary Acquisition on Passage Comprehension. Program Report 84-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify the contributions of both prior knowledge and prereading vocabulary instruction to passage comprehension. In addition, semantic mapping and semantic feature analysis--instructional strategies that build upon students' prior knowledge--were compared with a modified basal approach for effectiveness as prereading…

  19. Using Prior Knowledge to Aid Teaching and Learning: What Do First-Year Psychology Students Know about Old Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2007-01-01

    Students attending a lecture usually have a wide range of prior knowledge about the topic in question. Rather than seeing this as a problem, lecturers can take advantage of such differences. This article shows how students' misconceptions about old age were used to inform a lecture on the topic. Prior knowledge can thus be used to aid teaching and…

  20. How to achieve synergy between medical education and cognitive neuroscience? An exercise on prior knowledge in understanding.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Dirk J; van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-05-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of prior knowledge in understanding plays a strategic role in both medical education and cognitive neuroscience it is used as a central element in our discussion. A critical condition for the acquisition of new knowledge is the existence of prior knowledge, which can be built in a mental model or schema. Formation of schemas is a central event in student-centered active learning, by which mental models are constructed and reconstructed. These theoretical considerations from cognitive psychology foster scientific discussions that may lead to salient issues and questions for research with cognitive neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience attempts to understand how knowledge, insight and experience are established in the brain and to clarify their neural correlates. Recently, evidence has been obtained that new information processed by the hippocampus can be consolidated into a stable, neocortical network more rapidly if this new information fits readily into a schema. Opportunities for medical education and medical education research can be created in a fruitful dialogue within an educational multidisciplinary platform. In this synergetic setting many questions can be raised by educational scholars interested in evidence-based education that may be highly relevant for integrative research and the further development of medical education.

  1. Age effects on spectral electroencephalogram activity prior to dream recall.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Sarah L; Münch, Mirjam; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Ageing is associated with marked changes in sleep timing, structure and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Older people exhibit less slow-wave and spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, together with attenuated levels of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as compared to young individuals. However, the extent to which these age-related changes in sleep impact on dream processing remains largely unknown. Here we investigated NREM and REM sleep EEG activity prior to dream recall and no recall in 17 young (20-31 years) and 15 older volunteers (57-74 years) during a 40 h multiple nap protocol. Dream recall was assessed immediately after each nap. During NREM sleep prior to dream recall, older participants displayed higher frontal EEG delta activity (1-3 Hz) and higher centro-parietal sigma activity (12-15 Hz) than the young volunteers. Conversely, before no recall, older participants had less frontal-central delta activity and less sigma activity in frontal, central and parietal derivations than the young participants. REM sleep was associated to age-related changes, such that older participants had less frontal-central alpha (10-12 Hz) and beta (16-19 Hz) activity, irrespective of dream recall and no recall. Our data indicate that age-related differences in dream recall seem to be directly coupled to specific frequency and topography EEG patterns, particularly during NREM sleep. Thus, the spectral correlates of dreaming can help to understand the cortical pathways of dreaming.

  2. Prior knowledge driven Granger causality analysis on gene regulatory network discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Shun; Yoo, Shinjae; Yu, Dantong

    2015-08-28

    Our study focuses on discovering gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data using the Granger causality (GC) model. However, the number of available time points (T) usually is much smaller than the number of target genes (n) in biological datasets. The widely applied pairwise GC model (PGC) and other regularization strategies can lead to a significant number of false identifications when n>>T. In this study, we proposed a new method, viz., CGC-2SPR (CGC using two-step prior Ridge regularization) to resolve the problem by incorporating prior biological knowledge about a target gene data set. In our simulation experiments, the propose new methodology CGC-2SPR showed significant performance improvement in terms of accuracy over other widely used GC modeling (PGC, Ridge and Lasso) and MI-based (MRNET and ARACNE) methods. In addition, we applied CGC-2SPR to a real biological dataset, i.e., the yeast metabolic cycle, and discovered more true positive edges with CGC-2SPR than with the other existing methods. In our research, we noticed a “ 1+1>2” effect when we combined prior knowledge and gene expression data to discover regulatory networks. Based on causality networks, we made a functional prediction that the Abm1 gene (its functions previously were unknown) might be related to the yeast’s responses to different levels of glucose. In conclusion, our research improves causality modeling by combining heterogeneous knowledge, which is well aligned with the future direction in system biology. Furthermore, we proposed a method of Monte Carlo significance estimation (MCSE) to calculate the edge significances which provide statistical meanings to the discovered causality networks. All of our data and source codes will be available under the link https://bitbucket.org/dtyu/granger-causality/wiki/Home.

  3. Prior knowledge driven Granger causality analysis on gene regulatory network discovery

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Shun; Yoo, Shinjae; Yu, Dantong

    2015-08-28

    Our study focuses on discovering gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data using the Granger causality (GC) model. However, the number of available time points (T) usually is much smaller than the number of target genes (n) in biological datasets. The widely applied pairwise GC model (PGC) and other regularization strategies can lead to a significant number of false identifications when n>>T. In this study, we proposed a new method, viz., CGC-2SPR (CGC using two-step prior Ridge regularization) to resolve the problem by incorporating prior biological knowledge about a target gene data set. In our simulation experiments, themore » propose new methodology CGC-2SPR showed significant performance improvement in terms of accuracy over other widely used GC modeling (PGC, Ridge and Lasso) and MI-based (MRNET and ARACNE) methods. In addition, we applied CGC-2SPR to a real biological dataset, i.e., the yeast metabolic cycle, and discovered more true positive edges with CGC-2SPR than with the other existing methods. In our research, we noticed a “ 1+1>2” effect when we combined prior knowledge and gene expression data to discover regulatory networks. Based on causality networks, we made a functional prediction that the Abm1 gene (its functions previously were unknown) might be related to the yeast’s responses to different levels of glucose. In conclusion, our research improves causality modeling by combining heterogeneous knowledge, which is well aligned with the future direction in system biology. Furthermore, we proposed a method of Monte Carlo significance estimation (MCSE) to calculate the edge significances which provide statistical meanings to the discovered causality networks. All of our data and source codes will be available under the link https://bitbucket.org/dtyu/granger-causality/wiki/Home.« less

  4. Learners' strategies for reconstructing cognitive frameworks and navigating conceptual change from prior conception to consensual genetics knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrott, Annette M.

    Problem. Science teachers are charged with preparing students to become scientifically literate individuals. Teachers are given curriculum that specifies the knowledge that students should come away with; however, they are not necessarily aware of the knowledge with which the student arrives or how best to help them navigate between the two knowledge states. Educators must be aware, not only of where their students are conceptually, but how their students move from their prior knowledge and naive theories, to scientifically acceptable theories. The understanding of how students navigate this course has the potential to revolutionize educational practices. Methods. This study explored how five 9th grade biology students reconstructed their cognitive frameworks and navigated conceptual change from prior conception to consensual genetics knowledge. The research questions investigated were: (1) how do students in the process of changing their naive science theories to accepted science theories describe their journey from prior knowledge to current conception, and (2) what are the methods that students utilize to bridge the gap between alternate and consensual science conceptions to effect conceptual change. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. In depth, semi-structured interviews formed the primary data for probing the context and details of students' conceptual change experience. Primary interview data was coded by thematic analysis. Results and discussion. This study revealed information about students' perceived roles in learning, the role of articulation in the conceptual change process, and ways in which a community of learners aids conceptual change. It was ascertained that students see their role in learning primarily as repeating information until they could add that information to their knowledge. Students are more likely to consider challenges to their conceptual frameworks and be more motivated to become active

  5. Effects of prior knowledge and expert statement on belief in recovered memories: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Nachson, Israel; Read, J Don; Seelau, Sheila M; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Lobb, Brenda; Davies, Graham; Glicksohn, Joseph; Lifschitz, Michal; Brimacombe, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that beliefs in the purported attributes of recovered memories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are associated with knowledge of the "recovered/false memory debate", and that such beliefs will be related to assessments of the credibility of statements made by participants in a vignette about CSA. Participants from five countries (the United States, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Israel) responded to a questionnaire regarding beliefs about recovered memory as well as self-reported exposure to and knowledge of the debate. In addition, they assessed the credibility of statements made by a daughter (reporting recovery of memories of sexual abuse by her father), her father (denying the allegation and accusing the daughter's therapist of implanting in her false "memories" of abuse), and two experts (each supporting one of the two protagonists). We found that prior knowledge of the debate across countries was linked to beliefs in specific attributes of recovered memories and to a subset of the credibility assessments of statements made by the protagonists and their experts. For individuals, however, credibility assessments were unrelated to knowledge of the debate, but they were related to beliefs about memory recovery. Finally, credibility of the protagonists' statements was differentially associated with those made by the daughter's and the father's experts. The results suggest that whereas familiarity with the debate does not affect the credibility of the statements made by the complainant and the accused, expert testimony does, as has been found in prior research. The psycholegal implications of this conclusion are discussed.

  6. Boosting probabilistic graphical model inference by incorporating prior knowledge from multiple sources.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Paurush; Fröhlich, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Inferring regulatory networks from experimental data via probabilistic graphical models is a popular framework to gain insights into biological systems. However, the inherent noise in experimental data coupled with a limited sample size reduces the performance of network reverse engineering. Prior knowledge from existing sources of biological information can address this low signal to noise problem by biasing the network inference towards biologically plausible network structures. Although integrating various sources of information is desirable, their heterogeneous nature makes this task challenging. We propose two computational methods to incorporate various information sources into a probabilistic consensus structure prior to be used in graphical model inference. Our first model, called Latent Factor Model (LFM), assumes a high degree of correlation among external information sources and reconstructs a hidden variable as a common source in a Bayesian manner. The second model, a Noisy-OR, picks up the strongest support for an interaction among information sources in a probabilistic fashion. Our extensive computational studies on KEGG signaling pathways as well as on gene expression data from breast cancer and yeast heat shock response reveal that both approaches can significantly enhance the reconstruction accuracy of Bayesian Networks compared to other competing methods as well as to the situation without any prior. Our framework allows for using diverse information sources, like pathway databases, GO terms and protein domain data, etc. and is flexible enough to integrate new sources, if available.

  7. Prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes and representations during text comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takatsugu

    2015-09-01

    Certain character locational stereotypes are expected to affect constructions of mental representations during text comprehension. The present study examined whether readers' prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes affects the construction of these character representations during text comprehension. Two short stories were presented to the participants. In one story, God, and two people wearing blue and green clothes, respectively, appeared in a room in that order (God condition). In the other, three people appeared in red, blue, and green clothes, respectively (three-people condition). The only difference between the two stories was the first character that appeared in the room. All participants were assigned to either the God or three-people condition. Participants read the story and provided an account of their own mental representation of where the three characters were located within the room, and explained the reasoning behind their descriptions. In the God condition, most participants stated that God was in the center (relative to the two people) because of locational stereotypes of God. In the three-people condition, most participants stated that the person in red was located in front of or closest to the participant because of the order in which the character appeared in the text. These results show that readers' prior knowledge of character locational stereotypes affects their mental representation of spatial relationships between characters during text comprehension.

  8. Bayesian network prior: network analysis of biological data using external knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Isci, Senol; Dogan, Haluk; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Otu, Hasan H.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Reverse engineering GI networks from experimental data is a challenging task due to the complex nature of the networks and the noise inherent in the data. One way to overcome these hurdles would be incorporating the vast amounts of external biological knowledge when building interaction networks. We propose a framework where GI networks are learned from experimental data using Bayesian networks (BNs) and the incorporation of external knowledge is also done via a BN that we call Bayesian Network Prior (BNP). BNP depicts the relation between various evidence types that contribute to the event ‘gene interaction’ and is used to calculate the probability of a candidate graph (G) in the structure learning process. Results: Our simulation results on synthetic, simulated and real biological data show that the proposed approach can identify the underlying interaction network with high accuracy even when the prior information is distorted and outperforms existing methods. Availability: Accompanying BNP software package is freely available for academic use at http://bioe.bilgi.edu.tr/BNP. Contact: hasan.otu@bilgi.edu.tr Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24215027

  9. Reputation Revision Method for Selecting Cloud Services Based on Prior Knowledge and a Market Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingtao; Zhang, Xulong; Zhang, Mingchuan; Lou, Ying; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wei, Wangyang

    2014-01-01

    The trust levels of cloud services should be evaluated to ensure their reliability. The effectiveness of these evaluations has major effects on user satisfaction, which is increasingly important. However, it is difficult to provide objective evaluations in open and dynamic environments because of the possibilities of malicious evaluations, individual preferences, and intentional praise. In this study, we propose a novel unfair rating filtering method for a reputation revision system. This method uses prior knowledge as the basis of similarity when calculating the average rating, which facilitates the recognition and filtering of unfair ratings. In addition, the overall performance is increased by a market mechanism that allows users and service providers to adjust their choice of services and service configuration in a timely manner. The experimental results showed that this method filtered unfair ratings in an effective manner, which greatly improved the precision of the reputation revision system. PMID:24696650

  10. Using prior knowledge from cellular pathways and molecular networks for diagnostic specimen classification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For many complex diseases, an earlier and more reliable diagnosis is considered a key prerequisite for developing more effective therapies to prevent or delay disease progression. Classical statistical learning approaches for specimen classification using omics data, however, often cannot provide diagnostic models with sufficient accuracy and robustness for heterogeneous diseases like cancers or neurodegenerative disorders. In recent years, new approaches for building multivariate biomarker models on omics data have been proposed, which exploit prior biological knowledge from molecular networks and cellular pathways to address these limitations. This survey provides an overview of these recent developments and compares pathway- and network-based specimen classification approaches in terms of their utility for improving model robustness, accuracy and biological interpretability. Different routes to translate omics-based multifactorial biomarker models into clinical diagnostic tests are discussed, and a previous study is presented as example. PMID:26141830

  11. Prior-knowledge-based feedforward network simulation of true boiling point curve of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, C W; Chen, D Z

    2001-11-01

    Theoretical results and practical experience indicate that feedforward networks can approximate a wide class of functional relationships very well. This property is exploited in modeling chemical processes. Given finite and noisy training data, it is important to encode the prior knowledge in neural networks to improve the fit precision and the prediction ability of the model. In this paper, as to the three-layer feedforward networks and the monotonic constraint, the unconstrained method, Joerding's penalty function method, the interpolation method, and the constrained optimization method are analyzed first. Then two novel methods, the exponential weight method and the adaptive method, are proposed. These methods are applied in simulating the true boiling point curve of a crude oil with the condition of increasing monotonicity. The simulation experimental results show that the network models trained by the novel methods are good at approximating the actual process. Finally, all these methods are discussed and compared with each other.

  12. Cramer-Rao bound expressions for parametric estimation of overlapping peaks: influence of prior knowledge

    PubMed

    Cavassila; Deval; Huegen; van Ormondt D; Graveron-Demilly

    2000-04-01

    We have derived analytical expressions of the Cramer-Rao lower bounds on spectral parameters for singlet, doublet, and triplet peaks in noise. We considered exponential damping (Lorentzian lineshape) and white Gaussian noise. The expressions, valid if a sufficiently large number of samples is used, were derived in the time domain for algebraic convenience. They enable one to judge the precision of any unbiased estimator as a function of the spectral and experimental parameters, which is useful for quantitation objectives and experimental design. The influence of constraints (chemical prior knowledge) on parameters of the peaks of doublets and triplets is demonstrated both analytically and numerically and the inherent benefits for quantitation are shown. Our expressions also enable analysis of spectra comprising many peaks. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. How Prior Knowledge and Colour Contrast Interfere Visual Search Processes in Novice Learners: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Duygu; Altun, Arif; Mazman, Sacide Guzin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how prior content knowledge and prior exposure to microscope slides on the phases of mitosis effect students' visual search strategies and their ability to differentiate cells that are going through any phases of mitosis. Two different sets of microscope slide views were used for this purpose; with high and low colour…

  14. Forewarning of a Threat and Prior Knowledge of Outcome: Effects on Children's Emotional Responses to a Film Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia; Cantor, Joanne

    1990-01-01

    Examines the influence of prior information on children's emotional responses to a frightening program. Finds that forewarning of the threat increased anticipatory fear but did not affect emotional responses, and that prior knowledge of the happy outcome reduced anticipatory fear but had an inconsistent effect on fear during the threatening scene.…

  15. Efficient dynamic programming algorithm with prior knowledge for protein β-strand alignment.

    PubMed

    Sabzekar, Mostafa; Naghibzadeh, Mahmoud; Sadri, Javad

    2017-03-21

    One of the main tasks towards the prediction of protein β-sheet structure is to predict the native alignment of β-strands. The alignment of two β-strands defines similar regions that may reflect functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between them. Therefore, any improvement in β-strands alignment not only reduces the computational search space but also improves β-sheet structure prediction accuracy. To define the alignment scores, previous studies utilized predicted residue-residue contacts (contact maps). However, there are two serious problems using them. First, the precision of contact map prediction techniques, especially for long-range contacts (i.e., β-residues), is still not satisfactory. Second, the residue-residue contact predictors usually utilize general properties of amino acids and disregard the structural features of β-residues. In this paper, we consider β-structure information, which is estimated from protein β-sheet data sets, as alignment scores. However, the predicted contact maps are used as a prior knowledge about residues. They are used for strengthening or weakening the alignment scores in our algorithm. Thus, we can utilize both β-residues and β-structure information in alignment of β-strands. The structure of dynamic programming of the alignment algorithm is changed in order to work with our prior knowledge. Moreover, the Four Russians method is applied to the proposed alignment algorithm in order to reduce the time complexity of the problem. For evaluating the proposed method, we applied it to the state-of-the-art β-sheet structure prediction methods. The experimental results on the BetaSheet916 data set showed significant improvements in the execution time, the accuracy of β-strands' alignment and consequently β-sheet structure prediction accuracy. The results are available at http://conceptsgate.com/BetaSheet.

  16. Network reconstruction based on proteomic data and prior knowledge of protein connectivity using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Stavrakas, Vassilis; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways is instrumental for understanding cells' function. People have been tackling modeling of signaling pathways in order to accurately represent the signaling events inside cells' biochemical microenvironment in a way meaningful for scientists in a biological field. In this article, we propose a method to interrogate such pathways in order to produce cell-specific signaling models. We integrate available prior knowledge of protein connectivity, in a form of a Prior Knowledge Network (PKN) with phosphoproteomic data to construct predictive models of the protein connectivity of the interrogated cell type. Several computational methodologies focusing on pathways' logic modeling using optimization formulations or machine learning algorithms have been published on this front over the past few years. Here, we introduce a light and fast approach that uses a breadth-first traversal of the graph to identify the shortest pathways and score proteins in the PKN, fitting the dependencies extracted from the experimental design. The pathways are then combined through a heuristic formulation to produce a final topology handling inconsistencies between the PKN and the experimental scenarios. Our results show that the algorithm we developed is efficient and accurate for the construction of medium and large scale signaling networks. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGF/TNFA stimulation against made up experimental data. To avoid the possibility of erroneous predictions, we performed a cross-validation analysis. Finally, we validate that the introduced approach generates predictive topologies, comparable to the ILP formulation. Overall, an efficient approach based on graph theory is presented herein to interrogate protein-protein interaction networks and to provide meaningful biological insights.

  17. SU-E-T-527: Prior Knowledge Guided TomoTherapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, J; Yuan, L; Wu, Q; Zhu, X; Chera, B; Chang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quality and efficiency of radiotherapy treatment planning are highly planer dependent. Previously we have developed a statistical model to correlate anatomical features with dosimetry features of head and neck Tomotherapy treatment. The model enables us to predict the best achievable dosimetry for individual patient prior to treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to study if the prediction model can facilitate the treatment planning in both the efficiency and dosimetric quality. Methods: The anatomy-dosimetry correlation model was used to calculate the expected DVH for nine patients formerly treated. In Group A (3 patients), the model prediction agreed with the clinic plan; in Group B (3 patients), the model predicted lower larynx mean dose than the clinic plan; in Group C (3 patients), the model suggested the brainstem could be further spared. Guided by the prior knowledge, we re-planned all 9 cases. The number of interactions during the optimization process and dosimetric endpoints between the original clinical plan and model-guided re-plan were compared. Results: For Group A, the difference of target coverage and organs-at-risk sparing is insignificant (p>0.05) between the replan and the clinical plan. For Group B, the clinical plan larynx median dose is 49.4±4.7 Gy, while the prediction suggesting 40.0±6.2 Gy (p<0.05). The re-plan achieved 41.5±6.6 Gy, with similar dose on other structures as clinical plan. For Group C, the clinical plan brainstem maximum dose is 44.7±5.5 Gy. The model predicted lower value 32.2±3.8 Gy (p<0.05). The re-plans reduced brainstem maximum dose to 31.8±4.1 Gy without affecting the dosimetry of other structures. In the replanning of the 9 cases, the times operator interacted with TPS are reduced on average about 50% compared to the clinical plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the prior expert knowledge embedded model improved the efficiency and quality of Tomotherapy treatment planning.

  18. Utilizing knowledge from prior plans in the evaluation of quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanhope, Carl; Wu, Q. Jackie; Yuan, Lulin; Liu, Jianfei; Hood, Rodney; Yin, Fang-Fang; Adamson, Justus

    2015-06-01

    Increased interest regarding sensitivity of pre-treatment intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) to delivery errors has led to the development of dose-volume histogram (DVH) based analysis. This paradigm shift necessitates a change in the acceptance criteria and action tolerance for QA. Here we present a knowledge based technique to objectively quantify degradations in DVH for prostate radiotherapy. Using machine learning, organ-at-risk (OAR) DVHs from a population of 198 prior patients’ plans were adapted to a test patient’s anatomy to establish patient-specific DVH ranges. This technique was applied to single arc prostate VMAT plans to evaluate various simulated delivery errors: systematic single leaf offsets, systematic leaf bank offsets, random normally distributed leaf fluctuations, systematic lag in gantry angle of the mutli-leaf collimators (MLCs), fluctuations in dose rate, and delivery of each VMAT arc with a constant rather than variable dose rate. Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic suggests V75Gy dose limits of 15% for the rectum and 25% for the bladder, however the knowledge based constraints were more stringent: 8.48   ±   2.65% for the rectum and 4.90   ±   1.98% for the bladder. 19   ±   10 mm single leaf and 1.9   ±   0.7 mm single bank offsets resulted in rectum DVHs worse than 97.7% (2σ) of clinically accepted plans. PTV degradations fell outside of the acceptable range for 0.6   ±   0.3 mm leaf offsets, 0.11   ±   0.06 mm bank offsets, 0.6   ±   1.3 mm of random noise, and 1.0   ±   0.7° of gantry-MLC lag. Utilizing a training set comprised of prior treatment plans, machine learning is used to predict a range of achievable DVHs for the test patient’s anatomy. Consequently, degradations leading to statistical outliers may be identified

  19. Investigating the Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Wang, Yuh-Chao; Tai, Hsin-Jung; Chen, Wen-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the differential impacts of an inquiry-based instruction on conceptual changes across levels of prior knowledge and reading ability. The instrument emphasized four simultaneously important components: conceptual knowledge, reading ability, attitude toward science, and learning environment. Although the learning patterns and…

  20. Aerosol optical depth retrieval in the Arctic region using MODIS based on prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; de Leeuw, G.; Hou, T.; Guang, J.; Yang, L.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.; He, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is especially vulnerable to the long-term transport of aerosols and other pollutants because aerosols can affect the albedo of the surface by deposition on snow and ice. However, aerosol observations for this area are sparse and hence there is considerable uncertainty in the knowledge on the properties of the Arctic aerosol. Arctic aerosol observations are needed to fill this gap because these are among the basic and most important parameters for researching the Arctic environment. Atmospheric remote sensing using satellites offers us an opportunity to describe the aerosol distribution in terms of both local, regional and global coverage. However, AOD retrieval over a bright surface remains a difficult task because it is hard to separate and explicitly describe the contribution of the observed signal reflected by the variable surface and back scattering by the semi-transparent aerosols, especially with a large solar or sensor zenith angle. In this paper, an approach using a synergetic approach with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data based on prior knowledge is presented. The detailed analysis of the model demonstrates that it is suitable for Arctic region AOD retrieval. Six AERONET stations at high latitude (Andenes, Barrow, Ittoqqortoormiit, OPAL, Thule, and Tiksi) were used for validation, and the correlation coefficient between retrieved AODs and AERONET AODs was 0.75 and the retrieval absolute error is approximately 0.1, while the relative error is 20% (at some stations with clear skies as low as 10% was found). Furthermore, the Russian wildfires that occurred in late July of 2010 and their effect on the Arctic environment is presented; Satellite retrieved AODs in the Arctic increased to 1.0 during 1 August and 15 August 2010, even 2.0, during the burning phase, and subsequently returned to normal values (lower than 0.1), which was fully in line with the AERONET observations. This indicates that the fire plumes were

  1. Extraction of chemical-induced diseases using prior knowledge and textual information

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Ewoud; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Akhondi, Saber A.; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to the chemical–disease relation (CDR) task in the BioCreative V challenge. The CDR task consists of two subtasks: automatic disease-named entity recognition and normalization (DNER), and extraction of chemical-induced diseases (CIDs) from Medline abstracts. For the DNER subtask, we used our concept recognition tool Peregrine, in combination with several optimization steps. For the CID subtask, our system, which we named RELigator, was trained on a rich feature set, comprising features derived from a graph database containing prior knowledge about chemicals and diseases, and linguistic and statistical features derived from the abstracts in the CDR training corpus. We describe the systems that were developed and present evaluation results for both subtasks on the CDR test set. For DNER, our Peregrine system reached an F-score of 0.757. For CID, the system achieved an F-score of 0.526, which ranked second among 18 participating teams. Several post-challenge modifications of the systems resulted in substantially improved F-scores (0.828 for DNER and 0.602 for CID). RELigator is available as a web service at http://biosemantics.org/index.php/software/religator. PMID:27081155

  2. Gene network coherence based on prior knowledge using direct and indirect relationships.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Vela, Francisco; Lagares, José Antonio; Díaz-Díaz, Norberto

    2015-06-01

    Gene networks (GNs) have become one of the most important approaches for modeling biological processes. They are very useful to understand the different complex biological processes that may occur in living organisms. Currently, one of the biggest challenge in any study related with GN is to assure the quality of these GNs. In this sense, recent works use artificial data sets or a direct comparison with prior biological knowledge. However, these approaches are not entirely accurate as they only take into account direct gene-gene interactions for validation, leaving aside the weak (indirect) relationships. We propose a new measure, named gene network coherence (GNC), to rate the coherence of an input network according to different biological databases. In this sense, the measure considers not only the direct gene-gene relationships but also the indirect ones to perform a complete and fairer evaluation of the input network. Hence, our approach is able to use the whole information stored in the networks. A GNC JAVA-based implementation is available at: http://fgomezvela.github.io/GNC/. The results achieved in this work show that GNC outperforms the classical approaches for assessing GNs by means of three different experiments using different biological databases and input networks. According to the results, we can conclude that the proposed measure, which considers the inherent information stored in the direct and indirect gene-gene relationships, offers a new robust solution to the problem of GNs biological validation.

  3. Prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis for impervious surface mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinshui; He, Chunyang; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhu, Shuang; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2014-01-03

    In this study, we developed a prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis (PKSMA) to map impervious surfaces by using endmembers derived separately for high- and low-density urban regions. First, an urban area was categorized into high- and low-density urban areas, using a multi-step classification method. Next, in high-density urban areas that were assumed to have only vegetation and impervious surfaces (ISs), the Vegetation-Impervious model (V-I) was used in a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) with three endmembers: vegetation, high albedo, and low albedo. In low-density urban areas, the Vegetation-Impervious-Soil model (V-I-S) was used in an SMA analysis with four endmembers: high albedo, low albedo, soil, and vegetation. The fraction of IS with high and low albedo in each pixel was combined to produce the final IS map. The root mean-square error (RMSE) of the IS map produced using PKSMA was about 11.0%, compared to 14.52% using four-endmember SMA. Particularly in high-density urban areas, PKSMA (RMSE = 6.47%) showed better performance than four-endmember (15.91%). The results indicate that PKSMA can improve IS mapping compared to traditional SMA by using appropriately selected endmembers and is particularly strong in high-density urban areas.

  4. Medical student knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT prior to and after viewing ECT scenes from movies.

    PubMed

    Walter, Garry; McDonald, Andrew; Rey, Joseph M; Rosen, Alan

    2002-03-01

    We surveyed samples of medical students in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia, prior to their psychiatry placement, to ascertain views about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and the effect on those views of watching ECT scenes in movies. A 26-item questionnaire was constructed by the authors and administered to the students. At set times during the questionnaire, students were asked to view five movie clips showing, or making reference to, ECT. The clips were from Return to Oz, The Hudsucker Proxy, Ordinary People, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Beverly Hillbillies. Ninety-four students participated in the study. Levels of knowledge about the indications, side effects, and mode of administration were poor, and attitudes were generally negative. Viewing the ECT scenes influenced attitudes toward the treatment; after viewing, one-third of the students decreased their support for ECT, and the proportion of students who would dissuade a family member or friend from having ECT rose from less than 10% to almost 25%.

  5. Mechanisms underlying comprehension of health information in adulthood: the roles of prior knowledge and working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Soederberg Miller, Lisa M; Gibson, Tanja N; Applegate, Elizabeth A; de Dios, Jeannette

    2011-07-01

    Prior knowledge, working memory capacity (WMC), and conceptual integration (attention allocated to integrating concepts in text) are critical within many contexts; however, their impact on the acquisition of health information (i.e. learning) is relatively unexplored.We examined how these factors impact learning about nutrition within a cross-sectional study of adults ages 18 to 81. Results showed that conceptual integration mediated the effects of knowledge and WMC on learning, confirming that attention to concepts while reading is important for learning about health. We also found that when knowledge was controlled, age declines in learning increased, suggesting that knowledge mitigates the effects of age on learning about nutrition.

  6. DBCP: a web server for disulfide bonding connectivity pattern prediction without the prior knowledge of the bonding state of cysteines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsuan-Hung; Tseng, Lin-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The proper prediction of the location of disulfide bridges is efficient in helping to solve the protein folding problem. Most of the previous works on the prediction of disulfide connectivity pattern use the prior knowledge of the bonding state of cysteines. The DBCP web server provides prediction of disulfide bonding connectivity pattern without the prior knowledge of the bonding state of cysteines. The method used in this server improves the accuracy of disulfide connectivity pattern prediction (Qp) over the previous studies reported in the literature. This DBCP server can be accessed at http://120.107.8.16/dbcp or http://140.120.14.136/dbcp. PMID:20530534

  7. GO-PCA: An Unsupervised Method to Explore Gene Expression Data Using Prior Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Method Genome-wide expression profiling is a widely used approach for characterizing heterogeneous populations of cells, tissues, biopsies, or other biological specimen. The exploratory analysis of such data typically relies on generic unsupervised methods, e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical clustering. However, generic methods fail to exploit prior knowledge about the molecular functions of genes. Here, I introduce GO-PCA, an unsupervised method that combines PCA with nonparametric GO enrichment analysis, in order to systematically search for sets of genes that are both strongly correlated and closely functionally related. These gene sets are then used to automatically generate expression signatures with functional labels, which collectively aim to provide a readily interpretable representation of biologically relevant similarities and differences. The robustness of the results obtained can be assessed by bootstrapping. Results I first applied GO-PCA to datasets containing diverse hematopoietic cell types from human and mouse, respectively. In both cases, GO-PCA generated a small number of signatures that represented the majority of lineages present, and whose labels reflected their respective biological characteristics. I then applied GO-PCA to human glioblastoma (GBM) data, and recovered signatures associated with four out of five previously defined GBM subtypes. My results demonstrate that GO-PCA is a powerful and versatile exploratory method that reduces an expression matrix containing thousands of genes to a much smaller set of interpretable signatures. In this way, GO-PCA aims to facilitate hypothesis generation, design of further analyses, and functional comparisons across datasets. PMID:26575370

  8. Aging and memory as discrimination: Influences of encoding specificity, cue overload, and prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Poirier, Marie; Gandhi, Navina; Hadjivassiliou, Anna; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue's relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue's capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue-target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue-target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults' associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates-hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue’s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue’s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue–target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue–target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults’ associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates—hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. PMID:27831714

  10. What You Know Can Hurt You: Effects of Age and Prior Knowledge on the Accuracy of Judgments of Learning

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Jeffrey P.; Daniels, Karen A.; Solinger, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    How do aging and prior knowledge affect memory and metamemory? We explored this question in the context of a dual-process approach to Judgments of Learning (JOLs) which require people to predict their ability to remember information at a later time. Young and older adults (n's = 36, mean ages = 20.2 & 73.1) studied the names of actors that were famous in the 1950s or 1990s, providing a JOL for each. Recognition memory for studied and unstudied actors was then assessed using a Recollect/Know/No-Memory (R/K/N) judgment task. Results showed that prior knowledge increased recollection in both age groups such that older adults recollected significantly more 1950s actors than younger adults. Also, for both age groups and both decades, actors judged R at test garnered significantly higher JOLs at study than actors judged K or N. However, while the young showed benefits of prior knowledge on relative JOL accuracy, older adults did not, showing lower levels of JOL accuracy for 1950s actors despite having higher recollection for, and knowledge about, those actors. Overall, the data suggest that prior knowledge can be a double-edged sword, increasing the availability of details that can support later recollection, but also increasing non-diagnostic feelings of familiarity that can reduce the accuracy of memory predictions. PMID:21480715

  11. Littoral Combat Ship: Knowledge of Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    its business case for LCS and conduct a number of operational test events on both variants prior to making a decision to contract for more ships...of Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions Why GAO Did This Study GAO has reported extensively on...Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions , GAO-15-361C (Washington, D.C.: July 7, 2015) (S//NF). 5H.R. Rep

  12. Helping Preservice Teachers with Inaccurate and Fragmentary Prior Knowledge to Acquire Conceptual Understanding of Psychological Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohst, Andrea; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research on learning has brought forth many insights that are relevant for teachers (for example, knowledge about learning strategies). However, teachers sometimes have intuitive fragmentary knowledge that is partly incorrect. Such knowledge hinders the acquisition of psychological knowledge. Tried-and-tested interventions dealing…

  13. GRISOTTO: A greedy approach to improve combinatorial algorithms for motif discovery with prior knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Position-specific priors (PSP) have been used with success to boost EM and Gibbs sampler-based motif discovery algorithms. PSP information has been computed from different sources, including orthologous conservation, DNA duplex stability, and nucleosome positioning. The use of prior information has not yet been used in the context of combinatorial algorithms. Moreover, priors have been used only independently, and the gain of combining priors from different sources has not yet been studied. Results We extend RISOTTO, a combinatorial algorithm for motif discovery, by post-processing its output with a greedy procedure that uses prior information. PSP's from different sources are combined into a scoring criterion that guides the greedy search procedure. The resulting method, called GRISOTTO, was evaluated over 156 yeast TF ChIP-chip sequence-sets commonly used to benchmark prior-based motif discovery algorithms. Results show that GRISOTTO is at least as accurate as other twelve state-of-the-art approaches for the same task, even without combining priors. Furthermore, by considering combined priors, GRISOTTO is considerably more accurate than the state-of-the-art approaches for the same task. We also show that PSP's improve GRISOTTO ability to retrieve motifs from mouse ChiP-seq data, indicating that the proposed algorithm can be applied to data from a different technology and for a higher eukaryote. Conclusions The conclusions of this work are twofold. First, post-processing the output of combinatorial algorithms by incorporating prior information leads to a very efficient and effective motif discovery method. Second, combining priors from different sources is even more beneficial than considering them separately. PMID:21513505

  14. Identifying Context-Specific Transcription Factor Targets from Prior Knowledge and Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Elana J; Favorov, Alexander V; Ochs, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Numerous methodologies, assays, and databases presently provide candidate targets of transcription factors (TFs). However, TFs rarely regulate their targets universally. The context of activation of a TF can change the transcriptional response of targets. Direct multiple regulation typical to mammalian genes complicates direct inference of TF targets from gene expression data. We present a novel statistic that infers context-specific TF regulation based upon the CoGAPS algorithm, which infers overlapping gene expression patterns resulting from coregulation. Numerical experiments with simulated data showed that this statistic correctly inferred targets that are common to multiple TFs, except in cases where the signal from a TF is negligible relative to noise level and signal from other TFs. The statistic is robust to moderate levels of error in the simulated gene sets, identifying fewer false positives than false negatives. Significantly, the regulatory statistic refines the number of TF targets relevant to cell signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) to genes consistent with the phosphorylation patterns of TFs identified in previous studies. As formulated, the proposed regulatory statistic has wide applicability to inferring set membership in integrated datasets. This statistic could be naturally extended to account for prior probabilities of set membership or to add candidate gene targets. PMID:23694699

  15. Identifying context-specific transcription factor targets from prior knowledge and gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Fertig, Elana J; Favorov, Alexander V; Ochs, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Numerous methodologies, assays, and databases presently provide candidate targets of transcription factors (TFs). However, TFs rarely regulate their targets universally. The context of activation of a TF can change the transcriptional response of targets. Direct multiple regulation typical to mammalian genes complicates direct inference of TF targets from gene expression data. We present a novel statistic that infers context-specific TF regulation based upon the CoGAPS algorithm, which infers overlapping gene expression patterns resulting from coregulation. Numerical experiments with simulated data showed that this statistic correctly inferred targets that are common to multiple TFs, except in cases where the signal from a TF is negligible relative to noise level and signal from other TFs. The statistic is robust to moderate levels of error in the simulated gene sets, identifying fewer false positives than false negatives. Significantly, the regulatory statistic refines the number of TF targets relevant to cell signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) to genes consistent with the phosphorylation patterns of TFs identified in previous studies. As formulated, the proposed regulatory statistic has wide applicability to inferring set membership in integrated datasets. This statistic could be naturally extended to account for prior probabilities of set membership or to add candidate gene targets.

  16. Effects of Prior Knowledge of Topics and the Instructional Objectives on Students' Achievement in Literature-in-English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of prior knowledge of topics with their instructional objectives on senior secondary school class two (SS II) students. The study was carried out in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The design of the study is quasi experimental of pretest-posttest of non-equivalent control group. Two research…

  17. "She Has to Drink Blood of the Snake": Culture and Prior Knowledge in Science|Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Leah A.; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In this analysis, we argue that science education should attend more deeply to youths' cultural resources and practices (e.g. material, social, and intellectual). Inherent in our argument is a call for revisiting conceptions of "prior knowledge" to theorize how people make sense of the complex ecologies of experience, ideas, and cultural…

  18. The Relationship between Students' Approaches to Studying, Formal Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge, and Gender and Their Achievement in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma B.; Giuliano, Frank J.

    The main purposes of this study were to investigate the relationships among approaches to studying, prior knowledge, logical thinking ability, attitude, and performance in college freshman chemistry and to explore the effect of gender on the same variables. Subjects were 199 students (114 females, 85 males) enrolled in the second semester of a…

  19. Prior Knowledge Influence on Self-Explanation Effectiveness when Solving Problems: An Exploratory Study in Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionas, Ioan Gelu; Cernusca, Dan; Collier, Harvest L.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study presents the outcomes of using self-explanation to improve learners' performance in solving basic chemistry problems. The results of the randomized experiment show the existence of a moderation effect between prior knowledge and the level of support self-explanation provides to learners, suggestive of a synergistic effect…

  20. Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

  1. Temporal Learning in 4 1/2- and 6-Year-Old Children: Role of Instructions and Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit, Sylvie; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined the role of prior temporal knowledge of 4 1/2- and 6-year-olds through the use of high-rate, interval, and minimal instructions in a fixed-interval training schedule. Determined that the subjects' learning depended on their verbal self-control skills. (BC)

  2. The Mediation Effect of In-Game Performance between Prior Knowledge and Posttest Score. CRESST Report 819

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Though video games are commonly considered to hold great potential as learning environments, their effectiveness as a teaching tool has yet to be determined. One reason for this is that researchers often run into the problem of multicollinearity between prior knowledge, in-game performance, and posttest scores, thereby making the determination of…

  3. The Effectiveness of Worked Examples Associated with Presentation Format and Prior Knowledge: A Web-Based Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, E-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether presentation format and prior knowledge affect the effectiveness of worked examples. The experiment was conducted through a specially designed online instrument. A 2X2X3 factorial before-and-after design was conducted. Three-way ANOVA was employed for data analysis. The result showed first, that prior…

  4. When Relationships Depicted Diagrammatically Conflict with Prior Knowledge: An Investigation of Students' Interpretations of Evolutionary Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Science is an important domain for investigating students' responses to information that contradicts their prior knowledge. In previous studies of this topic, this information was communicated verbally. The present research used diagrams, specifically trees (cladograms) depicting evolutionary relationships among taxa. Effects of college…

  5. Role of prior knowledge in implicit and explicit learning of artificial grammars.

    PubMed

    Ziori, Eleni; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Dienes, Zoltán

    2014-08-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) performance reflects both implicit and explicit processes and has typically been modeled without incorporating any influence from general world knowledge. Our research provides a systematic investigation of the implicit vs. explicit nature of general knowledge and its interaction with knowledge types investigated by past AGL research (i.e., rule- and similarity-based knowledge). In an AGL experiment, a general knowledge manipulation involved expectations being either congruent or incongruent with training stimulus structure. Inconsistent observations paradoxically led to an advantage in structural knowledge and in the use of general world knowledge in both explicit (conscious) and implicit (unconscious) cases (as assessed by subjective measures). The above findings were obtained under conditions of reduced processing time and impaired executive resources. Key findings from our work are that implicit AGL can clearly be affected by general knowledge, and implicit learning can be enhanced by the violation of expectations.

  6. SparseNCA: Sparse Network Component Analysis for Recovering Transcription Factor Activities with Incomplete Prior Information.

    PubMed

    Noor, Amina; Ahmad, Aitzaz; Serpedin, Erchin

    2015-10-27

    Network component analysis (NCA) is an important method for inferring transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) and recovering transcription factor activities (TFAs) using gene expression data, and the prior information about the connectivity matrix. The algorithms currently available crucially depend on the completeness of this prior information. However, inaccuracies in the measurement process may render incompleteness in the available knowledge about the connectivity matrix. Hence, computationally efficient algorithms are needed to overcome the possible incompleteness in the available data. We present a sparse network component analysis algorithm (sparseNCA), which incorporates the effect of incompleteness in the estimation of TRNs by imposing an additional sparsity constraint using the `1 norm, which results in a greater estimation accuracy. In order to improve the computational efficiency, an iterative re-weighted `2 method is proposed for the NCA problem which not only promotes sparsity but is hundreds of times faster than the `1 norm based solution. The performance of sparseNCA is rigorously compared to that of FastNCA and NINCA using synthetic data as well as real data. It is shown that sparseNCA outperforms the existing state-of-the-art algorithms both in terms of estimation accuracy and consistency with the added advantage of low computational complexity. The performance of sparseNCA compared to its predecessors is particularly pronounced in case of incomplete prior information about the sparsity of the network. Subnetwork analysis is performed on the E.coli data which reiterates the superior consistency of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Pull-push level sets: a new term to encode prior knowledge for the segmentation of teeth images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luis Garcia, Rodrigo; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Alberola-Lopez, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a novel level set method for contour detection in multiple-object scenarios applied to the segmentation of teeth images. Teeth segmentation from 2D images of dental plaster cast models is a difficult problem because it is necessary to independently segment several objects that have very badly defined borders between them. Current methods for contour detection which only employ image information cannot successfully segment such structures. Being therefore necessary to use prior knowledge about the problem domain, current approaches in the literature are limited to the extraction of shape information of individual objects, whereas the key factor in such a problem are the relative positions of the different objects composing the anatomical structure. Therefore, we propose a novel method for introducing such information into a level set framework. This results in a new energy term which can be explained as a regional term that takes into account the relative positions of the different objects, and consequently creates an attraction or repulsion force that favors a determined configuration. The proposed method is compared with balloon and GVF snakes, as well as with the Geodesic Active Regions model, showing accurate results.

  8. Accreditation or Validation of Prior Experiential Learning: Knowledge and "Savoirs" in France-A Different Perspective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouget, Mireille; Osborne, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article stems from the study of the process and application of Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) in the French higher education system, in France referred to as VAP (Validation des Acquis Professionnels ). The paper seeks to review not only the context in which the concepts underpinning VAP in France have developed, but also…

  9. The Role of Prior Knowledge and Problem Contexts in Students' Explanations of Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren April

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study students' competencies in generating scientific explanations within the domain of complex systems, an interdisciplinary area in which students tend to have difficulties. While considering students' developing explanations of how complex systems work, I investigate the role of prior knowledge…

  10. Activating Background Knowledge in Reading Comprehension Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Rayford, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a broad age range of students can use some purpose questions as cues to activate background knowledge. Suggest topic familiarity, amount of information presented, and the presence of genre clues as text features affecting schema activation. (NKA)

  11. Shift toward prior knowledge confers a perceptual advantage in early psychosis and psychosis-prone healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Christoph; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dobler, Veronika; Perez, Jesus; Finnemann, Johanna; Mehta, Puja R.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with psychosis, i.e., hallucinations (perceptions in the absence of causative stimuli) and delusions (irrational, often bizarre beliefs). Current models of brain function view perception as a combination of two distinct sources of information: bottom-up sensory input and top-down influences from prior knowledge. This framework may explain hallucinations and delusions. Here, we characterized the balance between visual bottom-up and top-down processing in people with early psychosis (study 1) and in psychosis-prone, healthy individuals (study 2) to elucidate the mechanisms that might contribute to the emergence of psychotic experiences. Through a specialized mental-health service, we identified unmedicated individuals who experience early psychotic symptoms but fall below the threshold for a categorical diagnosis. We observed that, in early psychosis, there was a shift in information processing favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. In the complementary study, we capitalized on subtle variations in perception and belief in the general population that exhibit graded similarity with psychotic experiences (schizotypy). We observed that the degree of psychosis proneness in healthy individuals, and, specifically, the presence of subtle perceptual alterations, is also associated with stronger reliance on prior knowledge. Although, in the current experimental studies, this shift conferred a performance benefit, under most natural viewing situations, it may provoke anomalous perceptual experiences. Overall, we show that early psychosis and psychosis proneness both entail a basic shift in visual information processing, favoring prior knowledge over incoming sensory evidence. The studies provide complementary insights to a mechanism by which psychotic symptoms may emerge. PMID:26460044

  12. Building dynamical models from data and prior knowledge: The case of the first period-doubling bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Furtado, Edgar Campos

    2007-10-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of nonlinear model building from data with (gray box) and without (black box) prior knowledge. The model class is very important because it determines two aspects of the final model, namely (i) the type of nonlinearity that can be accurately approximated and (ii) the type of prior knowledge that can be taken into account. Such features are usually in conflict when it comes to choosing the model class. The problem of model structure selection is also reviewed. It is argued that such a problem is philosophically different depending on the model class and it is suggested that the choice of model class should be performed based on the type of a priori available. A procedure is proposed to build polynomial models from data on a Poincaré section and prior knowledge about the first period-doubling bifurcation, for which the normal form is also polynomial. The final models approximate dynamical data in a least-squares sense and, by design, present the first period-doubling bifurcation at a specified value of parameters. The procedure is illustrated by means of simulated examples.

  13. An Alternative Time for Telling: When Conceptual Instruction Prior to Problem Solving Improves Mathematical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Emily R.; DeCaro, Marci S.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    Background: The sequencing of learning materials greatly influences the knowledge that learners construct. Recently, learning theorists have focused on the sequencing of instruction in relation to solving related problems. The general consensus suggests explicit instruction should be provided; however, when to provide instruction remains unclear.…

  14. INCORPORATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING: RANKED SET SAMPLING AND OTHER DOUBLE SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental sampling can be difficult and expensive to carry out. Those taking the samples would like to integrate their knowledge of the system of study or their judgment about the system into the sample selection process to decrease the number of necessary samples. However,...

  15. The Role of Initial Learning, Problem Features, Prior Knowledge, and Pattern Recognition on Transfer Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Daniel L.; Baggetta, Peter; Doyle, Stephanie; Loughlin, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that transfer ability (positive and negative) varies depending on the nature of the problems, using the knowledge transfer matrix, as well as being dependent on the individual differences of the learner. A total of 178 participants from the United States and New Zealand completed measures of prior…

  16. Connecting Learning: Brain-Based Strategies for Linking Prior Knowledge in the Library Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt, Kathi L.

    2005-01-01

    The brain is a complex organ and learning is a complex process. While there is not complete agreement among researchers about brain-based learning and its direct connection to neuroscience, knowledge about the brain as well as the examination of cognitive psychology, anthropology, professional experience, and educational research can provide…

  17. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students' problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students' divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the…

  18. Learning a Mathematical Concept from Comparing Examples: The Importance of Variation and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jian-peng; Pang, Ming Fai

    2011-01-01

    In experiment 1, novice fourth-grade students (N = 92) who compared multiple examples that separately varied each critical aspect and then simultaneously varied all critical aspects developed better conceptual knowledge about the "altitude of a triangle" than students who compared multiple examples that did not separately vary each critical aspect…

  19. The Leisure Activities of Mental Patients Prior to Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babow, Irving; Simkin, Sol

    To study the leisure activities, social participation, and organizational participation of mental patients before hospital admission, a three-part research instrument was developed consisting of a structured interview schedule requesting information on the patient's leisure activities, a self-administered questionnaire entitled Survey of Opinions…

  20. Computational discovery of cis-regulatory modules in Drosophila without prior knowledge of motifs

    PubMed Central

    Ivan, Andra; Halfon, Marc S; Sinha, Saurabh

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting cis-regulatory modules without knowledge of motifs. We formulate this problem in a pragmatic setting, and create over 30 new data sets, using Drosophila modules, to use as a 'benchmark'. We propose two new methods for the problem, and evaluate these, as well as two existing methods, on our benchmark. We find that the challenge of predicting cis-regulatory modules ab initio, without any input of relevant motifs, is a realizable goal. PMID:18226245

  1. Investigating the impact of prior knowledge and interest on aquarium visitor learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, John H.; Adelman, Leslie M.

    2003-02-01

    Most free-choice science learning institutions, in particular science centers, zoos, aquariums, and natural history museums, define themselves as educational institutions. However, to what extent, and for which visitors, do these free-choice learning settings accomplish their educational mission? Answering this question has proven challenging, in large part because of the inherent variability of visitors to such settings. We hypothesize that the challenges of measuring free-choice science learning might be diminished if it were possible to pool populations during analysis in ways that reduced this variability. Specifically, we propose grouping learners according to their entering understanding and attitudes, using qualitative categories such as minimal, moderate, and extensive. In this article, we use data collected at the National Aquarium in Baltimore to determine whether grouping makes it possible to discern more readily the nature of changes in aquarium visitors' conservation knowledge and attitudes. Although analysis revealed that there were significant changes in both conservation knowledge and attitudes, entry to exit, for all 100 visitors studied, a more detailed analysis revealed that gains were not evenly distributed across all visitors. The results support the hypothesis that the grouping of learners into minimal, moderate, and extensive conservation knowledge and attitude categories enabled a more fine-grained and accurate understanding of changes in aquarium visitor's conservation learning.

  2. Using prior knowledge in SVD-based parameter estimation for magnetic resonance spectroscopy--the ATP example.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Petre; Selén, Yngve; Sandgren, Niclas; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2004-09-01

    We introduce the knowledge-based singular value decomposition (KNOB-SVD) method for exploiting prior knowledge in magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy based on the SVD of the data matrix. More specifically, we assume that the MR data are well modeled by the superposition of a given number of exponentially damped sinusoidal components and that the dampings alphakappa, frequencies omegakappa, and complex amplitudes rhokappa of some components satisfy the following relations: alphakappa = alpha (alpha = unknown), omegakappa = omega + (kappa- 1)delta (omega = unknown, delta = known), and rhokappa = Ckapparho (rho = unknown, ckappa = known real constants). The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) complex, which has one triple peak and two double peaks whose dampings, frequencies, and amplitudes may in some cases be known to satisfy the above type of relations, is used as a vehicle for describing our SVD-based method throughout the paper. By means of numerical examples, we show that our method provides more accurate parameter estimates than a commonly used general-purpose SVD-based method and a previously suggested prior knowledge-based SVD method.

  3. Fundamentals of microfluidics for high school students with no prior knowledge of fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Vishal; Peck, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Three microfluidics-based laboratory exercises were developed and implemented in a high school science classroom setting. The first exercise demonstrated ways in which flows are characterized, including viscosity, turbulence, shear stress, reversibility, compressibility, and hydrodynamic resistance. Students characterized flows in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices in the other two exercises, where they observed the mixing characteristics of laminar flows, and conservation of volumetric flow rate for incompressible flows. In surveys, the students self-reported increased knowledge of microfluidics, and an improved attitude toward science and nanotechnology.

  4. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity.

  5. Minnesota Pharmacists and Medical Cannabis: A Survey of Knowledge, Concerns, and Interest Prior to Program Launch

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joy; Arneson, Tom; St. Peter, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess Minnesota pharmacists’ preparedness for the state’s medical cannabis program in terms of professional competency in policies and regulations and in pharmacotherapy, as well as their concerns and perceptions about the impact on their practice. The secondary objective was to identify pharmacists’ perceptions about ways to reduce potential gaps in knowledge. Methods A Web-based 14-item questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists whose email addresses were registered with the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy. Results Pharmacists reported limited knowledge of Minnesota state-level cannabis policies and regulations and felt that they were inadequately trained in cannabis pharmacotherapy. Most pharmacists were unprepared to counsel patients on medical cannabis and had many concerns regarding its availability and usage. Only a small proportion felt that the medical cannabis program would impact their practice. Pharmacists’ leading topics of interest for more education included Minnesota’s regulations on the medical cannabis program, cannabis pharmacotherapy, and the types and forms of cannabis products available for commercialization. Preferred modes of receiving information were electronic-based, including email and online continuing education credit. Since the survey’s completion, educational presentations have been provided to pharmacists and health professionals in Minnesota. Conclusion Pharmacists need more training and education on the regulatory and clinical aspects of cannabis in preparation for their work with patients in the medical cannabis program. PMID:27904305

  6. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students’ problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students’ divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the area of Earth science. Two hundred and sixty tenth graders who were enrolled in six Earth science classes at a public senior high school located in the eastern region of Taiwan were participants. Major findings are as follows: (a) A significantly positive correlation existed between students’ PSA and their DSK and RS, approaching large effect sizes; (b) Both students’ DSK and RS significantly explained the variance of their PSA with large effect sizes; (c) Students’ RS could more significantly explain the variance of their DTA subscale with medium effect size while DSK might more significantly explain the variance of their CTA, approaching large effect size. The research suggests that more emphasis should be placed on the reasoning skills when developing students’ divergent-thinking abilities, while stressing more domain-specific knowledge when students’ convergent-thinking ability is considered.

  7. A technique for estimating 4D-CBCT using prior knowledge and limited-angle projections

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei; Segars, W. Paul

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate onboard 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy.Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation from one selected phase (prior volume) of the planning 4D-CT. The deformation field maps (DFMs) are solved using a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique. In the MM-FD technique, the DFMs are estimated using a motion model which is extracted from planning 4D-CT based on principal component analysis (PCA). The motion model parameters are optimized by matching the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the deformed volumes to the limited-angle onboard projections (data fidelity constraint). Afterward, the estimated DFMs are fine-tuned using a FD model based on data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso phantom was used to evaluate the MM-FD technique. A lung patient with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume, including changes of respiration amplitude, lesion size and lesion average-position, and phase shift between lesion and body respiratory cycle. The lesions were contoured in both the estimated and “ground-truth” onboard 4D-CBCT for comparison. 3D volume percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass shift (COMS) were calculated to evaluate the estimation accuracy of three techniques: MM-FD, MM-only, and FD-only. Different onboard projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy.Results: For all simulated patient and projection acquisition scenarios, the mean VPD (±S.D.)/COMS (±S.D.) between lesions in prior images and “ground-truth” onboard images were 136.11% (±42.76%)/15.5 mm (±3.9 mm). Using orthogonal-view 15°-each scan angle, the mean VPD/COMS between the lesion

  8. Pupil segmentation using active contour with shape prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukpai, Charles O.; Dlay, Satnam S.; Woo, Wai L.

    2015-03-01

    Iris segmentation is the process of defining the valid part of the eye image used for further processing (feature extraction, matching and decision making). Segmentation of the iris mostly starts with pupil boundary segmentation. Most pupil segmentation techniques are based on the assumption that the pupil is circular shape. In this paper, we propose a new pupil segmentation technique which combines shape, location and spatial information for accurate and efficient segmentation of the pupil. Initially, the pupil's position and radius is estimated using a statistical approach and circular Hough transform. In order to segment the irregular boundary of the pupil, an active contour model is initialized close to the estimated boundary using information from the first step and segmentation is achieved using energy minimization based active contour. Pre-processing and post-processing were carried out to remove noise and occlusions respectively. Experimental results on CASIA V1.0 and 4.0 shows that the proposed method is highly effective at segmenting irregular boundaries of the pupil.

  9. Absolute Thickness Measurements on Coatings Without Prior Knowledge of Material Properties Using Terahertz Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Harder, Bryan; Zhu, Dongming; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of a novel noncontact single-sided terahertz electromagnetic measurement method for measuring thickness in dielectric coating systems having either dielectric or conductive substrate materials. The method does not require knowledge of the velocity of terahertz waves in the coating material. The dielectric coatings ranged from approximately 300 to 1400 m in thickness. First, the terahertz method was validated on a bulk dielectric sample to determine its ability to precisely measure thickness and density variation. Then, the method was studied on simulated coating systems. One simulated coating consisted of layered thin paper samples of varying thicknesses on a ceramic substrate. Another simulated coating system consisted of adhesive-backed Teflon adhered to conducting and dielectric substrates. Alumina samples that were coated with a ceramic adhesive layer were also investigated. Finally, the method was studied for thickness measurement of actual thermal barrier coatings (TBC) on ceramic substrates. The unique aspects and limitations of this method for thickness measurements are discussed.

  10. The influence of visual feedback and prior knowledge about feedback on vertical aiming strategies.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Dutoy, Chris; Andrew, Matthew; Burkitt, James J; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Lyons, James L; Hayes, Spencer J; Bennett, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine time and energy optimization strategies for movements made with and against gravity. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated concurrent visual feedback, and knowledge about feedback. When vision was eliminated upon movement initiation, participants exhibited greater undershooting, both with their primary submovement and their final endpoint, than when vision was available. When aiming downward, participants were more likely to terminate their aiming following the primary submovement or complete a lower amplitude corrective submovement. This strategy reduced the frequency of energy-consuming corrections against gravity. In Experiment 2, the authors eliminated vision of the hand and the target at the end of the movement. This procedure was expected to have its greatest impact under no-vision conditions where no visual feedback was available for subsequent planning. As anticipated, direction and concurrent visual feedback had a profound impact on endpoint bias. Participants exhibited pronounced undershooting when aiming downward and without vision. Differences in undershooting between vision and no vision were greater under blocked feedback conditions. When performers were uncertain about the impending feedback, they planned their movements for the worst-case scenario. Thus movement planning considers the variability in execution, and avoids outcomes that require time and energy to correct.

  11. Rethinking temporal contiguity and the judgement of causality: effects of prior knowledge, experience, and reinforcement procedure.

    PubMed

    Buehner, Marc J; May, Jon

    2003-07-01

    Time plays a pivotal role in causal inference. Nonetheless most contemporary theories of causal induction do not address the implications of temporal contiguity and delay, with the exception of associative learning theory. Shanks, Pearson, and Dickinson (1989) and several replications (Reed, 1992, 1999) have demonstrated that people fail to identify causal relations if cause and effect are separated by more than two seconds. In line with an associationist perspective, these findings have been interpreted to indicate that temporal lags universally impair causal induction. This interpretation clashes with the richness of everyday causal cognition where people apparently can reason about causal relations involving considerable delays. We look at the implications of cause-effect delays from a computational perspective and predict that delays should generally hinder reasoning performance, but that this hindrance should be alleviated if reasoners have knowledge of the delay. Two experiments demonstrated that (1) the impact of delay on causal judgement depends on participants' expectations about the timeframe of the causal relation, and (2) the free-operant procedures used in previous studies are ill-suited to study the direct influences of delay on causal induction, because they confound delay with weaker evidence for the relation in question. Implications for contemporary causal learning theories are discussed.

  12. Cross Curriculum: Awakening and Building Prior Knowledge with Primary Sources: See, Think, Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontichiaro, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The basics of this lesson can be used with students at different levels, helping them to identify what they already know and to build interest in and curiosity for the inquiry work to come. It also guides them to develop questions about things they are curious about and want to know before they begin the research process. In this activity, the…

  13. A prior-knowledge-based threshold segmentation method of forward-looking sonar images for underwater linear object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixin; Bian, Hongyu; Yagi, Shin-ichi; Yang, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Raw sonar images may not be used for underwater detection or recognition directly because disturbances such as the grating-lobe and multi-path disturbance affect the gray-level distribution of sonar images and cause phantom echoes. To search for a more robust segmentation method with a reasonable computational cost, a prior-knowledge-based threshold segmentation method of underwater linear object detection is discussed. The possibility of guiding the segmentation threshold evolution of forward-looking sonar images using prior knowledge is verified by experiment. During the threshold evolution, the collinear relation of two lines that correspond to double peaks in the voting space of the edged image is used as the criterion of termination. The interaction is reflected in the sense that the Hough transform contributes to the basis of the collinear relation of lines, while the binary image generated from the current threshold provides the resource of the Hough transform. The experimental results show that the proposed method could maintain a good tradeoff between the segmentation quality and the computational time in comparison with conventional segmentation methods. The proposed method redounds to a further process for unsupervised underwater visual understanding.

  14. Learning Using Dynamic and Static Visualizations: Students' Comprehension, Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Status of a Biotechnological Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2010-05-01

    The importance of biotechnology education at the high-school level has been recognized in a number of international curriculum frameworks around the world. One of the most problematic issues in learning biotechnology has been found to be the biotechnological methods involved. Here, we examine the unique contribution of an animation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in promoting conceptual learning of the biotechnological method among 12th-grade biology majors. All of the students learned about the PCR using still images ( n = 83) or the animation ( n = 90). A significant advantage to the animation treatment was identified following learning. Students’ prior content knowledge was found to be an important factor for students who learned PCR using still images, serving as an obstacle to learning the PCR method in the case of low prior knowledge. Through analysing students’ discourse, using the framework of the conceptual status analysis, we found that students who learned about PCR using still images faced difficulties in understanding some mechanistic aspects of the method. On the other hand, using the animation gave the students an advantage in understanding those aspects.

  15. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  16. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832

  17. Active Tools for Better Knowledge Dissemination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Peter; Mikulecka, Jaroslava

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that a solution to the inadequacy and passivity problems with push and pull technologies could be in a combination of both, with an active component, adding more intelligence to the whole process of information and knowledge dissemination and supply. Describes basic principles of activity components in intelligent systems, and some…

  18. 78 FR 30911 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Prior Notice Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Prior Notice Activity Under Blanket Certificate On May 8, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), filed a prior notice request pursuant to Sections 157.205, 157.213,...

  19. 78 FR 13657 - Southwest Gas Storage Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    .... Southwest seeks authorization to construct, modify and abandon certain natural gas storage facilities at the... Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Gas Storage Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On February 8, 2013, Southwest Gas Storage Company (Southwest) filed a prior notice...

  20. 5 CFR 4501.103 - Prior approval for certain outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prior approval for certain outside activities. 4501.103 Section 4501.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT § 4501.103 Prior...

  1. 5 CFR 4501.103 - Prior approval for certain outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prior approval for certain outside activities. 4501.103 Section 4501.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT § 4501.103 Prior...

  2. Effect of Adopters' Lifestyles and Animal-Care Knowledge on Their Expectations Prior to Companion-Animal Guardianship.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rachel; Coe, Jason B; Niel, Lee; Jones-Bitton, Andria

    2016-01-01

    Human expectations can greatly affect the human-companion animal relationship, sometimes putting nonhuman animals at risk for relinquishment. At 20 animal shelters in Southern Ontario, Canada, potential adopters (N = 234) completed a questionnaire regarding their lifestyle, companion animal-care knowledge, and preadoption expectations of their adopted companion animals. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations of adopters' lifestyles and companion animal-care knowledge with their expectations for animal behavior, the human-companion animal relationship, and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship. Dog adopters had higher expectations than cat adopters for their companion animal's behavior (p < .001), the human-companion animal relationship (p < .001), and the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). Adopters' human relationship statuses were also associated with expectations for the human-companion animal relationship (p = .002). As adopters' companion animal-care knowledge increased, so did their expectations for the effort required in companion-animal guardianship (p < .001). An understanding of adopters' expectations prior to adoption will help animal shelters better match, educate, and prepare adopters for their lives with companion animals.

  3. Fast muscle responses to an unexpected foot-in-hole scenario, evoked in the context of prior knowledge of the potential perturbation.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Masahiro; Masahiro, Shinya; Oda, Shingo; Shingo, Oda

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of prior knowledge of the potential loss of support during walking on muscle responses to the potential perturbation. Four conditions were tested; non-instructed control (NC), non-instructed perturbed (NP), instructed control (IC) and instructed perturbed (IP). Participants were perturbed by having them step into a hidden hole (8.5 cm) in a walkway during the NP and IP trials. Participants had no prior knowledge of the potential perturbation under the NC and NP conditions, but under the instructed conditions, participants were informed that there might be a hole in the walkway. A cautious landing strategy was observed in the IC trials. The participants exhibited flat-footed landings (plantar angle: NC: 13.7 +/- 2.8 degrees; IC: 8.5 +/- 5.2 degrees) and a prolonged double support phase (NC: 138 +/- 18 ms; IC: 161 +/- 17 ms) when they had prior knowledge of the possible hole. When the participants encountered a hole, we saw triggering of fast muscle responses in the ipsilateral plantarflexors and knee extensor, as well as in the contralateral dorsiflexors and knee flexors. This pattern was interpreted as a stop walking synergy. The opposite muscle activation pattern, which was thought of as a resume walking synergy, was induced when no hole was presented and actual foot contact occurred at the expected instant. The latencies between the onsets of muscle responses and the expected heel contact were shorter under the IP condition than under the NP condition (ipsilateral soleus: NP: 78 +/- 13 ms, IP: 64 +/- 14 ms; contralateral biceps femoris: NP: 94 +/- 25 ms; IP: 76 +/- 17 ms). Our results demonstrate that reactive muscle responses to perturbations depend on the anticipatory state with respect to potential perturbations.

  4. Prior pallidotomy reduces and modifies neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, A; Moran, A; Marjan, G; Bergman, H; Israel, Z

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with prior radio-frequency lesions in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi, pallidotomy), whose symptoms have deteriorated, may be candidates for further invasive treatment such as subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). Six patients with prior pallidotomy (five unilaterally; one bilaterally) underwent bilateral STN DBS. The microelectrode recordings (MERs, used intraoperatively for STN verification), ipsilateral and contralateral to pallidotomy, and MERs from 11 matched PD patients who underwent bilateral STN DBS without prior pallidotomy were compared. For each trajectory, average, variance and mean successive difference (MSD, a measure of irregularity) of the root mean square (RMS) of the STN MER were calculated. The RMS in trajectories ipsilateral to pallidotomy showed significant reduction of the mean average and MSD of STN activity when compared with trajectories from patients without prior pallidotomy. The RMS parameters contralateral to pallidotomy tend to lie between those ipsilateral to pallidotomy and those without prior pallidotomy. The average STN power spectral density of oscillatory activity was notably lower ipsilateral to pallidotomy than contralateral, or without prior pallidotomy. The finding that pallidotomy reduces STN activity and changes firing characteristics, in conjunction with the effectiveness of STN DBS despite prior pallidotomy, calls for reappraisal and modification of the current model of the basal ganglia (BG) cortical network. It highlights the critical role of direct projections from the BG to brain-stem structures and suggests a possible GPi-STN reciprocal positive-feedback mechanism.

  5. Novel joint TOA/RSSI-based WCE location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takahiro; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel joint time of arrival (TOA)/received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human tissues. Generally, TOA-based localization can achieve much higher localization accuracy than other radio frequency-based localization techniques, whereas wireless signals transmitted from a WCE pass through various kinds of human body tissues, as a result, the propagation velocity inside a human body should be different from one in free space. Because the variation of propagation velocity is mainly affected by the relative permittivity of human body tissues, instead of pre-measurement for the relative permittivity in advance, we simultaneously estimate not only the WCE location but also the relative permittivity information. For this purpose, this paper first derives the relative permittivity estimation model with measured RSSI information. Then, we pay attention to a particle filter algorithm with the TOA-based localization and the RSSI-based relative permittivity estimation. Our computer simulation results demonstrates that the proposed tracking methods with the particle filter can accomplish an excellent localization accuracy of around 2 mm without prior information of the relative permittivity of the human body tissues.

  6. Folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential introduction of mandatory fortification.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Simonette R; Houghton, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the risk of neural tube defects, the New Zealand Ministry of Health recommends women take supplemental folic acid from at least one month preconception until the end of the twelfth week of pregnancy, as well as consume folate-rich foods. A postpartum survey was conducted to describe folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification of bread in May 2012. Increasing knowledge of folic acid recommendations was associated with higher supplement uptake among women who planned their pregnancies (p=0.001 for linear trend). Folic acid information failed to adequately reach some socio-demographic subgroups before conception, even when pregnancy was planned, including: indigenous Maori, Pacific and Asian women, younger women, women with large families, and women with lower educational attainment and income. Only half of all women surveyed knew some bread contained added folic acid, and among these women, less than 2% consistently chose voluntarily fortified bread during the periconceptional period by inspecting labels. Sixty-one percent of women indicated they were either in favour of mandatory fortification, or held no opinion on the matter, while 4% were opposed to the addition of folic acid to bread. Approximately one-third (35%) of women agreed with voluntary fortification. Future health promotion initiatives should be tailored toward women who are younger, less educated, with lower income, multiparous or of minority ethnicity status. Nonetheless, mandatory folic acid fortification may be required to attain the desired degree of equity.

  7. The Effects of Local Ecological Knowledge, Minimum-Impact Knowledge, and Prior Experience on Visitor Perceptions of the Ecological Impacts of Backcountry Recreation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Ashley; Monz, Christopher; Newman, Peter; Lawson, Steve; Taff, Derrick

    2012-10-01

    An on-site visitor survey instrument was developed to examine visitor perceptions of resource impacts resulting from backcountry hiking activities. The survey was conducted in the Bear Lake Corridor of Rocky Mountain National Park, CO and examined visitor characteristics that may influence visitor perceptions of specific resource conditions. Findings indicate that visitors are more perceptive of recreation-related resource impacts that are the result of undesirable behavior and, while visitors do perceive resource impacts, visitors tend to be more affected by crowding. Factors such as local ecological knowledge and knowledge of minimal-impact practices positively influence visitor perceptions of resource impacts. These findings support the use of visitor education on ecological knowledge and minimum-impact as a means of increasing visitor awareness of recreation impact issues.

  8. The Interpretation of a Knowledge Claim in the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and the Impact of This on RPL Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Frederika

    2014-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is: what does a knowledge claim consist of in the context of the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)? The research comprises a case study of RPL applicants' entry into a postgraduate diploma (a fourth-year programme) in project management. The focus is on the knowledge claims made as part of the RPL application…

  9. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning. Part I: Development, Application and Evaluation of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Mariana G.

    Reported is the development, use, and evaluation of an instructional technique based upon: (1) the assessment of students' prior knowledge; and (2) a theoretical perspective advocated by Ausubel and others which emphasizes the importance of existing knowledge in influencing subsequent concept learning. The experimental group of 46 South African…

  10. Changing ideas about others' intentions: updating prior expectations tunes activity in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Pierre O; Roy, Alice C; Chambon, Valérian; Borghi, Anna M; Salemme, Roméo; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T

    2016-05-31

    Predicting intentions from observing another agent's behaviours is often thought to depend on motor resonance - i.e., the motor system's response to a perceived movement by the activation of its stored motor counterpart, but observers might also rely on prior expectations, especially when actions take place in perceptually uncertain situations. Here we assessed motor resonance during an action prediction task using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe corticospinal excitability (CSE) and report that experimentally-induced updates in observers' prior expectations modulate CSE when predictions are made under situations of perceptual uncertainty. We show that prior expectations are updated on the basis of both biomechanical and probabilistic prior information and that the magnitude of the CSE modulation observed across participants is explained by the magnitude of change in their prior expectations. These findings provide the first evidence that when observers predict others' intentions, motor resonance mechanisms adapt to changes in their prior expectations. We propose that this adaptive adjustment might reflect a regulatory control mechanism that shares some similarities with that observed during action selection. Such a mechanism could help arbitrate the competition between biomechanical and probabilistic prior information when appropriate for prediction.

  11. Changing ideas about others’ intentions: updating prior expectations tunes activity in the human motor system

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Pierre O.; Roy, Alice C.; Chambon, Valérian; Borghi, Anna M.; Salemme, Roméo; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting intentions from observing another agent’s behaviours is often thought to depend on motor resonance – i.e., the motor system’s response to a perceived movement by the activation of its stored motor counterpart, but observers might also rely on prior expectations, especially when actions take place in perceptually uncertain situations. Here we assessed motor resonance during an action prediction task using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe corticospinal excitability (CSE) and report that experimentally-induced updates in observers’ prior expectations modulate CSE when predictions are made under situations of perceptual uncertainty. We show that prior expectations are updated on the basis of both biomechanical and probabilistic prior information and that the magnitude of the CSE modulation observed across participants is explained by the magnitude of change in their prior expectations. These findings provide the first evidence that when observers predict others’ intentions, motor resonance mechanisms adapt to changes in their prior expectations. We propose that this adaptive adjustment might reflect a regulatory control mechanism that shares some similarities with that observed during action selection. Such a mechanism could help arbitrate the competition between biomechanical and probabilistic prior information when appropriate for prediction. PMID:27243157

  12. Gamete activation: basic knowledge and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Ménézo, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The first clues to the process of gamete activation date back to nearly 60 years ago. The mutual activation of gametes is a crucial event during fertilization. In the testis and ovaries, spermatozoa and oocytes are in a state of meiotic and metabolic quiescence and require reciprocal signals in order to undergo functional changes that lead to competence for fertilization. First, the oocyte activates sperm by triggering motility, chemoattraction, binding and the acrosome reaction, culminating with the fusion of the two plasma membranes. At the end of this cascade of events, collectively known as sperm capacitation, sperm-induced oocyte activation occurs, generating electrical, morphological and metabolic modifications in the oocyte. Objective and rationale The aim of this review is to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the entire process of gamete activation in selected specific animal models that have contributed to our understanding of fertilization in mammals, including humans. Here we describe in detail the reciprocal induction of the two activation processes, the molecules involved and the mechanisms of cell interaction and signal transduction that ultimately result in successful embryo development and creation of a new individual. Search methods We carried out a literature survey with no restrictions on publication date (from the early 1950s to March 2016) using PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge by utilizing common keywords applied in the field of fertilization and embryo development. We also screened the complete list of references published in the most recent research articles and relevant reviews published in English (both animal and human studies) on the topics investigated. Outcomes Literature on the principal animal models demonstrates that gamete activation is a pre-requisite for successful fertilization, and is a process common to all species studied to date. We provide a detailed description of the dramatic

  13. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-based earthquakes instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits designed to teach the 'Principles of Earthquakes.' Each subunit consisted of three modules: evaluation of prior knowledge with/without in-time feedback; animation-based instruction; and evaluation of learning outcomes with feedback. The 153 participants consisted of 10th grade high-school students. Seventy-eight students participated in the animation-based instruction, involving assessment of prior knowledge and appropriate feedback mechanism (APA group). A total of 75 students participated in animation-based learning that did not take into account their prior knowledge (ANPA group). The effectiveness of the instruction was then evaluated by using a Science Conception Test (SCT), a self-rating cognitive load questionnaire (CLQ), as well as a structured interview. The results indicated that: (1) Students' perceived cognitive load was reduced effectively through improving their prior knowledge by providing appropriate feedback. (2) When students perceived lower levels of cognitive load, they showed better learning outcome. The result of this study revealed that students of the APA group showed better performance than those of the ANPA group in an open-ended question. Furthermore, students' perceived cognitive load was negatively associated with their learning outcomes.

  14. Use of Assessments in College Chemistry Courses: Examining Students' Prior Conceptual Knowledge, Chemistry Self-efficacy, and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafane-Garcia, Sachel M.

    Students' retention in STEM-related careers is of great concern for educators and researchers, especially the retention of underrepresented groups such as females, Hispanics, and Blacks in these careers. Therefore it is important to study factors that could potentially influence students' decision to stay in STEM. The work described in this dissertation involved three research studies where assessments have been used in college chemistry courses to assess students' prior content knowledge, chemistry-self-efficacy, and attitude toward science. These three factors have been suggested to have an influence on students' performance in a course and could eventually be a retention factor. The first research study involved the development and use of an instrument to measure biochemistry prior knowledge of foundational concepts from chemistry and biology that are considered important for biochemistry learning. This instrument was developed with a parallel structure where three items were used to measure a concept and common incorrect ideas were used as distractors. The specific structure of this instrument allows the identification of common incorrect ideas that students have when entering biochemistry and that can hinder students' learning of biochemistry concepts. This instrument was given as pre/posttest to students enrolled in introductory biochemistry courses. The findings indicated that some incorrect ideas are persistent even after instruction, as is the case for bond energy and the structure of the alpha helix concepts. This study highlights the importance of measuring prior conceptual knowledge; so that instructors can plan interventions to help students overcome their incorrect ideas. For the second research study, students' chemistry self-efficacy was measured five times during a semester of preparatory college chemistry. Chemistry self-efficacy beliefs have been linked to students' achievement, and students with stronger self-efficacy are more likely to try

  15. Prior knowledge transfer across transcriptional data sets and technologies using compositional statistics yields new mislabelled ovarian cell line

    PubMed Central

    Blayney, Jaine K.; Davison, Timothy; McCabe, Nuala; Walker, Steven; Keating, Karen; Delaney, Thomas; Greenan, Caroline; Williams, Alistair R.; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Harkin, D. Paul; Gourley, Charlie; Kennedy, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe gene expression compositional assignment (GECA), a powerful, yet simple method based on compositional statistics that can validate the transfer of prior knowledge, such as gene lists, into independent data sets, platforms and technologies. Transcriptional profiling has been used to derive gene lists that stratify patients into prognostic molecular subgroups and assess biomarker performance in the pre-clinical setting. Archived public data sets are an invaluable resource for subsequent in silico validation, though their use can lead to data integration issues. We show that GECA can be used without the need for normalising expression levels between data sets and can outperform rank-based correlation methods. To validate GECA, we demonstrate its success in the cross-platform transfer of gene lists in different domains including: bladder cancer staging, tumour site of origin and mislabelled cell lines. We also show its effectiveness in transferring an epithelial ovarian cancer prognostic gene signature across technologies, from a microarray to a next-generation sequencing setting. In a final case study, we predict the tumour site of origin and histopathology of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. In particular, we identify and validate the commonly-used cell line OVCAR-5 as non-ovarian, being gastrointestinal in origin. GECA is available as an open-source R package. PMID:27353327

  16. Reasoning strategies used by students to solve stoichiometry problems and its relationship to alternative conceptions, prior knowledge, and cognitive variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Astudillo, Luisa Rojas; Niaz, Mansoor

    1996-06-01

    Achievement in science depends on a series of factors that characterize the cognitive abilities of the students and the complex interactions between these factors and the environment that intervenes in the formation of students' background. The objective of this study is to: a) investigate reasoning strategies students use in solving stoichiometric problems; b) explore the relation between these strategies and alternative conceptions, prior knowledge and cognitive variables; and c) interpret the results within an epistemological framework. Results obtained show how stoichiometric relations produce conflicting situations for students, leading to conceptual misunderstanding of concepts, such as mass, atoms and moles. The wide variety of strategies used by students attest to the presence of competing and conflicting frameworks (progressive transitions, cf. Lakatos, 1970), leading to greater conceptual understanding. It is concluded that the methodology developed in this study (based on a series of closely related probing questions, generally requiring no calculations, that elicit student conceptual understanding to varying degrees within an intact classroom context) was influential in improving student performance. This improvement in performance, however, does not necessarily affect students' hard core of beliefs.

  17. Lack of knowledge of physical activity guidelines: can physical activity promotion campaigns do better?

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Emily C L; Esliger, Dale W; Biddle, Stuart J H; Sherar, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the prevalence of knowledge of the current UK physical activity guidelines which were introduced in 2011 and prior physical activity guidelines (30 min on 5 days each week) within two large samples of UK adult's. To investigate whether knowledge of physical activity guidelines differs according to demographics such as ethnicity, age, education and employment status. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study comparing two distinctive adult samples. Setting National survey and online-administered survey conducted in England. Participants The 2007 Health Survey for England provides data on knowledge of physical activity guidelines from 2860 UK adults (56% women, 89% white, 63% under 45 years old). In 2013, an online survey was disseminated and data were collected from 1797 UK adults on knowledge of the most recent physical activity guidelines. The 2013 sample was 70% women, 92% white and 57% under 45 years old. All adults in both samples were >18 years old and without illnesses/disorders likely to restrict physical activity. Main outcomes Knowledge of physical activity guidelines in 2007 and 2013. Demographic correlates of knowledge of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity guidelines. Results 18% of the 2013 sample accurately recalled the current physical activity guidelines compared with 11% of the 2007 sample who accurately recalled the previous guidelines. The differences in knowledge of physical activity guidelines existed for marital status, gender, age, education and employment status within both 2007 and 2013 samples (p<0.05). Men with lower education and employment status (unemployed including student and retired) and older adults were less likely to know physical activity guidelines (p<0.05). Knowledge of physical activity guidelines remained higher in the 2013 sample after controlling for demographic differences (p<0.05). Conclusions Disadvantaged population groups are less knowledgeable about physical activity guidelines

  18. How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.

    PubMed

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students.

  19. 40 CFR 1611.7 - Testimony by current CSB employees regarding prior activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testimony by current CSB employees regarding prior activity. 1611.7 Section 1611.7 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 1611.7 Testimony by current CSB...

  20. 78 FR 76827 - Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On December 4, 2013, Midwestern Gas Transmission Company (Midwestern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  1. 75 FR 12549 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prior Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  2. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an “invisible brain”? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an “invisible brain” or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  3. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Spadea, Maria Francesca; Fassi, Aurora; Zaffino, Paolo; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Depauw, Nicolas; Seco, Joao

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  4. Adolescents’ emotions prior to sexual activity and associations with sexual risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Houck, Christopher; Swenson, Rebecca; Donenberg, Geri; Papino, Andrew; Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the link between the emotional context of sexual situations and sexual risk, specifically by examining the relationship of teens’ recall of their affective states prior to sex with their sexual risk behaviors and attitudes. Adolescents (ages 13-19) attending therapeutic schools due to emotional and behavioral difficulties (n=247) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews regarding sexual behavior, including ratings of their emotions prior to last sexual activity. Positive emotions were most commonly endorsed (43-57% of participants), however, significant proportions (8-23%) also endorsed negative emotions prior to last sex. Both positive and negative emotions were significantly related to risk attitudes and behavior in regression analyses. The affective contexts of sexual experiences may be important predictors of risk in adolescence. PMID:24558097

  5. Mephedrone interactions with cocaine: prior exposure to the 'bath salt' constituent enhances cocaine-induced locomotor activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Ryan A; Tallarida, Christopher S; Reitz, Allen B; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-12-01

    Concurrent use of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; MEPH) and established drugs of abuse is now commonplace, but knowledge about interactions between these drugs is sparse. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that prior MEPH exposure enhances the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine and methamphetamine (METH). For cocaine experiments, rats pretreated with saline, cocaine (15 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) for 5 days were injected with cocaine after 10 days of drug absence. For METH experiments, rats pretreated with saline, METH (2 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) were injected with METH after 10 days of drug absence. Cocaine challenge produced greater locomotor activity after pretreatment with cocaine or MEPH than after pretreatment with saline. METH challenge produced greater locomotor activity after METH pretreatment than after saline pretreatment; however, locomotor activity in rats pretreated with MEPH or saline and then challenged with METH was not significantly different. The locomotor response to MEPH (15 mg/kg) was not significantly affected by pretreatment with cocaine (15 mg/kg) or METH (0.5, 2 mg/kg). The present demonstration that cocaine-induced locomotor activation is enhanced by prior MEPH exposure suggests that MEPH cross-sensitizes to cocaine and increases cocaine efficacy. Interestingly, MEPH cross-sensitization was not bidirectional and did not extend to METH, suggesting that the phenomenon is sensitive to specific psychostimulants.

  6. Effects of Type of Exploratory Strategy and Prior Knowledge on Middle School Students' Learning of Chemical Formulas from a 3D Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…

  7. Effects of Process-Oriented and Product-Oriented Worked Examples and Prior Knowledge on Learner Problem Solving and Attitude: A Study in the Domain of Microeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Christopher Darren

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of process-oriented and product-oriented worked example strategies and the mediating effect of prior knowledge (high versus low) on problem solving and learner attitude in the domain of microeconomics. In addition, the effect of these variables on learning efficiency as well as the…

  8. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-Based Earthquakes Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits…

  9. How Word Decoding, Vocabulary and Prior Topic Knowledge Predict Reading Comprehension. A Study of Language-Minority Students in Norwegian Fifth Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Fulland, Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global…

  10. Effects of Topic Interest and Prior Knowledge on Text Recall and Annotation Use in Reading a Hypermedia Text in the L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercetin, Gulcan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topic interest and prior knowledge on text recall and annotation use of second language learners engaged in reading a hypermedia text. The participants were proficient learners of English enrolled in an undergraduate English Language Teaching programme. They were asked to read a hypermedia text that…

  11. A Computer Game as a Context for Non-Routine Mathematical Problem Solving: The Effects of Type of Question Prompt and Level of Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Puu.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of type of question prompt and level of prior knowledge on non-routine mathematical problem solving. A computer game was blended within the pattern reasoning tasks, along with question prompts, in order to demonstrate and enhance the connections between viable problem-solving strategies and…

  12. Effects of Examiners' Prior Knowledge of Subjects' Ethnicity and Intelligence on the Scoring of Responses to the Stanford-Binet Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Shitala P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether scoring of Stanford-Binet test items might be influenced by the examiner's prior knowledge of subjects' ethnicity and IQ. Stanford-Binet protocols (N=36) of subjects from five to eight years old were divided into four groups and assigned four groups of examiners. Results suggested no bias. (Author/JAC)

  13. Unsupervised Cardiac Image Segmentation via Multiswarm Active Contours with a Shape Prior

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Aceves, I.; Avina-Cervantes, J. G.; Lopez-Hernandez, J. M.; Garcia-Hernandez, M. G.; Ibarra-Manzano, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new unsupervised image segmentation method based on particle swarm optimization and scaled active contours with shape prior. The proposed method uses particle swarm optimization over a polar coordinate system to perform the segmentation task, increasing the searching capability on medical images with respect to different interactive segmentation techniques. This method is used to segment the human heart and ventricular areas from datasets of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, where the shape prior is acquired by cardiologists, and it is utilized as the initial active contour. Moreover, to assess the performance of the cardiac medical image segmentations obtained by the proposed method and by the interactive techniques regarding the regions delineated by experts, a set of validation metrics has been adopted. The experimental results are promising and suggest that the proposed method is capable of segmenting human heart and ventricular areas accurately, which can significantly help cardiologists in clinical decision support. PMID:24198850

  14. Bayesian active learning of neural firing rate maps with transformed gaussian process priors.

    PubMed

    Park, Mijung; Weller, J Patrick; Horwitz, Gregory D; Pillow, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    A firing rate map, also known as a tuning curve, describes the nonlinear relationship between a neuron's spike rate and a low-dimensional stimulus (e.g., orientation, head direction, contrast, color). Here we investigate Bayesian active learning methods for estimating firing rate maps in closed-loop neurophysiology experiments. These methods can accelerate the characterization of such maps through the intelligent, adaptive selection of stimuli. Specifically, we explore the manner in which the prior and utility function used in Bayesian active learning affect stimulus selection and performance. Our approach relies on a flexible model that involves a nonlinearly transformed gaussian process (GP) prior over maps and conditionally Poisson spiking. We show that infomax learning, which selects stimuli to maximize the information gain about the firing rate map, exhibits strong dependence on the seemingly innocuous choice of nonlinear transformation function. We derive an alternate utility function that selects stimuli to minimize the average posterior variance of the firing rate map and analyze the surprising relationship between prior parameterization, stimulus selection, and active learning performance in GP-Poisson models. We apply these methods to color tuning measurements of neurons in macaque primary visual cortex.

  15. The influence of prior knowledge, a science methods course, and student teaching on preservice teachers' developing philosophy and practice of teaching science in elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toolin, Regina Elizabeth

    This study was designed to examine preservice teachers' knowledge, experiences, and beliefs about science, teaching, learning and the social conditions of schools in the context of a science methods course and student teaching in 1994. Interviews and reflective journals served as the primary data sources for this study. The interviews were developed to elicit and examine the influence of prior knowledge and experiences of the preservice teachers as students learning science and to determine the influence of the methods course, practicum, and student teaching on the preservice teachers' knowledge, experiences, and beliefs about science, teaching science and the social conditions of schools. The journals were designed to elicit and examine the influence of prior knowledge and experiences of science and science teaching and to determine the influence of the methods course curriculum on the knowledge, experiences, and beliefs of the preservice teachers. Methods class observation notes and student assignments also served as valuable data for determining the influence of the methods class. Case studies were developed of Anna and Beth, two preservice teachers in the methods class, to illustrate the impact of these influences. Analysis of the data resulted in descriptive case studies where the major themes of the study were presented from Anna's and Beth's perspectives. These themes were categorized under the major topics of: (1) The Influence of Prior Knowledge and Experiences; (2) The Influence of the Elementary Education Program; (3) The Influence of Student Teaching. Specific factors that appeared to have the most significant influence on Anna's and Beth's knowledge, experiences, and beliefs were identified, discussed, and interpreted for each major topic. Finally, case studies were compared and inferences were drawn to highlight the factors that significantly influenced Anna's and Beth's developing knowledge, experiences, and beliefs about teaching science in

  16. Active contour segmentation using level set function with enhanced image from prior intensity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunhee; Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Deukhee; Park, Sehyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new active contour segmentation model using a level set function that can correctly capture both the strong and the weak boundaries of a target enclosed by bright and dark regions at the same time. We introduce an enhanced image obtained from prior information about the intensity of the target. The enhanced image emphasizes the regions where pixels have intensities close to the prior intensity. This enables a desirable segmentation of an image having a partially low contrast with the target surrounded by regions that are brighter or darker than the target. We define an edge indicator function on an original image, and local and regularization forces on an enhanced image. An edge indicator function and two forces are incorporated in order to identify the strong and weak boundaries, respectively. We established an evolution equation of contours in the level set formulation and experimented with several medical images to show the performance of the proposed method.

  17. Changes in leisure time physical activity during pregnancy compared to the prior year.

    PubMed

    Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jímenez-Mejías, Eladio; Hurtado-Sánchez, Francisca; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José J

    2013-05-01

    To quantify changes in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) type, frequency, duration and intensity during the first half of pregnancy as compared with the year prior to pregnancy. A cross sectional study was conducted at the Maternal University Hospital in Granada, Spain. A total of 1,175 healthy pregnant women attending a scheduled visit during the 20-22nd gestational week were enrolled in the study. Information about socio-demographic, obstetric and life-style variables during the previous year and the first half of pregnancy were collected. LTPA was quantified by assigning metabolic equivalents to each activity according to frequency, intensity and duration. The prevalence of women who met the optimal physical activity recommendations before and during pregnancy was calculated, and the McNemar-Bowker symmetry test was used to assess changes in type, frequency, intensity and duration of activities between the two periods. Some sort of LTPA was performed before and during pregnancy by 68.6% of the pregnant women. Respectively, just 27.5% and 19.4% of women fulfilled LTPA recommendations prior to pregnancy and during pregnancy; 12.6% of the women meeting recommendations prior to pregnancy later did not meet those recommendations during gestation, and 4.5% showed the reverse trend. A light increase in walking as a LTPA, and a decrease in the rest of the LTPA type activities, were seen during pregnancy. Some 13.4% of women changed from moderate--the year before- to light LTPA- during pregnancy. Pregnancy involved a decrease in LTPA, not only regarding frequency, but also duration and intensity.

  18. 5 CFR 9201.102 - Prior approval for outside employment and other outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the rendering of advice or consultation, which requires advanced knowledge in a field of science or... organization; (ii) The nature of the legal activity or other work to be performed; (iii) The title of the... nature or scope of the outside employment or in the employee's official position within the SIGIR,...

  19. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  20. Generalized Event Knowledge Activation during Online Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P.; Hare, Mary; McRae, Ken; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that knowledge of real-world events plays an important role in guiding online language comprehension. The present study addresses the scope of event knowledge activation during the course of comprehension, specifically investigating whether activation is limited to those knowledge elements that align with the local…

  1. Values of Sleep/Wake, Activity/Rest, Circadian Rhythms, and Fatigue Prior to Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Ann M.; Farr, Lynne A.; Kuhn, Brett R.; Fischer, Patricia; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue is the most prevalent and distressing symptom experienced by patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer. Higher fatigue levels have been related to sleep maintenance problems and low daytime activity in patients who have received chemotherapy, but knowledge is sparse describing these relationships prior to chemotherapy. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model© guided this study, which describes sleep/wake, activity/rest, circadian rhythms and fatigue, and how they inter-relate in women with Stage I, II or IIIA breast cancer during the 48 hours prior to the first adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The present report describes these variables in 130 females, mean age = 51.4 years; the majority were married and employed. Subjective sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and fatigue was measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS). Wrist actigraphy was used to objectively measure sleep/wake, activity/rest, and circadian rhythms. Mean PSQI score was 6.73 ±3.4, indicating poor sleep. Objective sleep/wake results were within limits of normal (WNL) established for healthy individuals, except for the number and length of night awakenings. Objective activity/rest results were WNL except for low mean daytime activity. Circadian rhythm mesor was 132.3(24.6) and amplitude was 97.2(22.8). Mean PFS score was 2.56 ±2.0, with 72% reporting mild fatigue. There were significant relationships between subjective and objective sleep, but no consistent patterns. Higher total and subscale fatigue scores were correlated with most components of poorer subjective sleep quality (r= 0.25 to 0.42, P = <0.005). PMID:17397701

  2. Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients' preferences for and beliefs about physical activity prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Vallance, Jeff; Walker, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity has been found to have a number of benefits for lung cancer patients yet very little information is available concerning physical activity beliefs and preferences for this population. The purpose of the study was to explore physical activity programming and counseling preferences and beliefs about physical activity in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. A total of 43 new diagnosed lung cancer patients completed a researcher-administered survey prior to commencing chemotherapy. Results indicated that only 7 participants (17%) reported meeting public health recommendations for physical activity yet the majority of participants (n = 28) indicated interest or possible interest in physical activity counseling. Many participants also indicated interest or possible interest in an exercise program (n = 29) for lung cancer survivors, preferring it to start during chemotherapy (n = 20), for it to be home based (n = 21), and moderate in intensity (n = 22). The most common behavioral belief (advantage) of physical activity was to build/maintain strength (n = 26) and the most common control belief (barrier) was fatigue (n = 11). These data suggest that physical activity counseling and programming may be well received by newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Information about physical activity and programming preferences and beliefs from this study may be useful for the design of optimal physical activity interventions for lung cancer patients.

  3. High-wavenumber solar f-mode strengthening prior to active region formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nishant; Raichur, Harsha; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-05-01

    We report a systematic strengthening of the local solar surface mode, i.e. the f-mode, 1-2 days prior to the emergence of an active region (AR) in the same (corotating) location while no indication can yet be seen in the magnetograms. Our study is motivated by earlier numerical findings of Singh et al. (2014) which showed that, in the presence of a nonuniform magnetic field that is concentrated a few scale heights below the surface, the f-mode fans out in the diagnostic kΩ diagram at high wavenumbers. Here we explore this possibility using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and show for four ARs 11130, 11158, 11768, and 12051, that at large latitudinal wavenumbers (corresponding to horizontal scales of around 3000 km), the f-mode displays strengthening about two days prior to AR formation and thus provides a new precursor for AR formation. The idea that the f-mode is perturbed days before any visible magnetic activity occurs on the surface can be important in constraining dynamo models aimed at understanding the global magnetic activity of the Sun.

  4. Learning to Be (In)variant: Combining Prior Knowledge and Experience to Infer Orientation Invariance in Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Austerweil, Joseph L; Griffiths, Thomas L; Palmer, Stephen E

    2016-12-21

    How does the visual system recognize images of a novel object after a single observation despite possible variations in the viewpoint of that object relative to the observer? One possibility is comparing the image with a prototype for invariance over a relevant transformation set (e.g., translations and dilations). However, invariance over rotations (i.e., orientation invariance) has proven difficult to analyze, because it applies to some objects but not others. We propose that the invariant transformations of an object are learned by incorporating prior expectations with real-world evidence. We test this proposal by developing an ideal learner model for learning invariance that predicts better learning of orientation dependence when prior expectations about orientation are weak. This prediction was supported in two behavioral experiments, where participants learned the orientation dependence of novel images using feedback from solving arithmetic problems.

  5. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  6. Prior fear conditioning does not impede enhanced active avoidance in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Pieter; Henckens, Marloes J A G; Borghans, Bart; Hiemstra, Marlies; Kozicz, Tamas; Homberg, Judith R

    2017-03-07

    Stressors can be actively or passively coped with, and adequate adaption of the coping response to environmental conditions can reduce their potential deleterious effects. One major factor influencing stress coping behaviour is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability. Abolishment of 5-HTT is known to impair fear extinction but facilitates acquisition of signalled active avoidance (AA), a behavioural task in which an animal learns to avoid an aversive stimulus that is predicted by a cue. Flexibility in adapting coping behaviour to the nature of the stressor shapes resilience to stress-related disorders. Therefore, we investigated the relation between 5-HTT expression and ability to adapt a learned coping response to changing environmental conditions. To this end, we first established and consolidated a cue-conditioned passive fear response in 5-HTT(-/-) and wildtype rats. Next, we used the conditioned stimulus (CS) to signal oncoming shocks during signalled AA training in 5-HTT(-/-) and wildtype rats to study their capability to acquire an active coping response to the CS following fear conditioning. Finally, we investigated the behavioural response to the CS in a novel environment and measured freezing, exploration and self-grooming, behaviours reflective of stress coping strategy. We found that fear conditioned and sham conditioned 5-HTT(-/-) animals acquired the signalled AA response faster than wildtypes, while prior conditioning briefly delayed AA learning similarly in both genotypes. Subsequent exposure to the CS in the novel context reduced freezing and increased locomotion in 5-HTT(-/-) compared to wildtype rats. This indicates that improved AA performance in 5-HTT(-/-) rats resulted in a weaker residual passive fear response to the CS in a novel context. Fear conditioning prior to AA training did not affect freezing upon re-encountering the CS, although it did reduce locomotion in 5-HTT(-/-) rats. We conclude that independent of 5-HTT signalling, prior

  7. Management of Knowledge Representation Standards Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patil, Ramesh S.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the mid-seventies, researchers have recognized that capturing knowledge is the key to building large and powerful AI systems. In the years since, we have also found that representing knowledge is difficult and time consuming. In spite of the tools developed to help with knowledge acquisition, knowledge base construction remains one of the major costs in building an Al system: For almost every system we build, a new knowledge base must be constructed from scratch. As a result, most systems remain small to medium in size. Even if we build several systems within a general area, such as medicine or electronics diagnosis, significant portions of the domain must be represented for every system we create. The cost of this duplication of effort has been high and will become prohibitive as we attempt to build larger and larger systems. To overcome this barrier we must find ways of preserving existing knowledge bases and of sharing, re-using, and building on them. This report describes the efforts undertaken over the last two years to identify the issues underlying the current difficulties in sharing and reuse, and a community wide initiative to overcome them. First, we discuss four bottlenecks to sharing and reuse, present a vision of a future in which these bottlenecks have been ameliorated, and describe the efforts of the initiative's four working groups to address these bottlenecks. We then address the supporting technology and infrastructure that is critical to enabling the vision of the future. Finally, we consider topics of longer-range interest by reviewing some of the research issues raised by our vision.

  8. The Effects of Learners' Prior Knowledge, Self-Regulation, and Motivation on Learning Performance in Complex Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyuksoon S.

    2010-01-01

    Many medical schools have developed computer-based, multimedia learning environments to fill the knowledge gap and provide common cases and resources to students. However, considering that multimedia in education may impede effective learning if the characteristics of learners and tasks are not considered thoroughly in instructional design, it is…

  9. Anatomical Knowledge Retention in Third-Year Medical Students Prior to Obstetrics and Gynecology and Surgery Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M.; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F.; Krapf, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an…

  10. Comprehension Challenges in the Fourth Grade: The Roles of Text Cohesion, Text Genre, and Readers' Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Danielle S.; Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Floyd, Randy G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined young readers' comprehension as a function of text genre (narrative, science), text cohesion (high, low), and readers' abilities (reading decoding skills and world knowledge). The overarching purpose of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the "fourth grade slump". Children in grade 4 read four texts,…

  11. Supporting Students' Knowledge Transfer in Modeling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piksööt, Jaanika; Sarapuu, Tago

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates ways to enhance secondary school students' knowledge transfer in complex science domains by implementing question prompts. Two samples of students applied two web-based models to study molecular genetics--the model of genetic code (n = 258) and translation (n = 245). For each model, the samples were randomly divided into…

  12. Active Data/Knowledge Base Dictionary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    maintenance of integrity asser- tions using redundant aggregate. In Proceedings of the 6th Int’l Conf. on Very Large Databases, pages 126-136, Alfonso ...Minker. Logic and Databases. Plenum Press, New York, 1978. [GM83] Hector Garcia- Molina . Using semantic knowledge for transaction processing in a dis

  13. High-wavenumber Solar f-mode Strengthening Prior to Active Region Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nishant K.; Raichur, Harsha; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-12-01

    We report a systematic strengthening of the local solar surface or fundamental f-mode one to two days prior to the emergence of an active region (AR) in the same (corotating) location. Except for a possibly related increase in the kurtosis of the magnetic field, no indication can be seen in the magnetograms at that time. Our study is motivated by earlier numerical findings of Singh et al., which showed that, in the presence of a nonuniform magnetic field that is concentrated a few scale heights below the surface, the f-mode fans out in the diagnostic kω diagram at high wavenumbers. Here we explore this possibility using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and show for six isolated ARs, 11130, 11158, 11242, 11105, 11072, and 11768, that at large latitudinal wavenumbers (corresponding to horizontal scales of around 3000 {km}), the f-mode displays strengthening about two days prior to AR formation and thus provides a new precursor for AR formation. Furthermore, we study two ARs, 12051 and 11678, apart from a magnetically quiet patch lying next to AR 12529, to demonstrate the challenges in extracting such a precursor signal when a newly forming AR emerges in a patch that lies in close proximity to one or several already existing ARs, which are expected to pollute neighboring patches. We then discuss plausible procedures for extracting precursor signals from regions with crowded environments. The idea that the f-mode is perturbed days before any visible magnetic activity occurs at the surface can be important in constraining dynamo models aimed at understanding the global magnetic activity of the Sun.

  14. Changes in animal activity prior to a major (M = 7) earthquake in the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Raulin, Jean Pierre; Freund, Friedemann T.

    During earthquake preparation geophysical processes occur over varying temporal and spatial scales, some leaving their mark on the surface environment, on various biota, and even affecting the ionosphere. Reports on pre-seismic changes in animal behaviour have been greeted with scepticism by the scientific community due to the necessarily anecdotal nature of much of the evidence and a lack of consensus over possible causal mechanisms. Here we present records of changes in the abundance of mammals and birds obtained over a 30 day period by motion-triggered cameras at the Yanachaga National Park, Peru, prior to the 2011 magnitude 7.0 Contamana earthquake. In addition we report on ionospheric perturbations derived from night-time very low frequency (VLF) phase data along a propagation paths passing over the epicentral region. Animal activity declined significantly over a 3-week period prior to the earthquake compared to periods of low seismic activity. Night-time ionospheric phase perturbations of the VLF signals above the epicentral area, fluctuating over the course of a few minutes, were observed, starting 2 weeks before the earthquake. The concurrent observation of two widely different and seemingly unconnected precursory phenomena is of interest because recently, it has been proposed that the multitude of reported pre-earthquake phenomena may arise from a single underlying physical process: the stress-activation of highly mobile electronic charge carriers in the Earth's crust and their flow to the Earth's surface. The flow of charge carriers through the rock column constitutes an electric current, which is expected to fluctuate and thereby emit electromagnetic radiation in the ultralow frequency (ULF) regime. The arrival of the charge carriers can lead to air ionization at the ground-to-air interface and the injection of massive amounts of positive airborne ions, known to be aversive to animals.

  15. Early gene activation initiates neuroinflammation prior to VSV neuroinvasion: Impact on antiviral responses and sleep.

    PubMed

    Ciavarra, Richard P; Lundberg, Patric; Machida, Mayumi; Ambrozewicz, Marta A; Wellman, Laurie L; Breving, Kimberly; Steel, Christina; Sanford, Larry D

    2017-02-15

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is rapidly and persistently suppressed during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encephalitis in C57Bl/6J (B6) mice. REM sleep suppression was associated with a complex global brain chemokine/cytokine response with bimodal kinetics although regionally distinct cytokine profiles were readily identified. Cytokine mRNA was translated either immediately or suppressed until the pathogen was cleared from the CNS. Innate signaling pathway (TLRs, RIG-I) activation occurred rapidly and sequentially prior to VSV neuroinvasion suggesting that antiviral states are quickly established in the CNS in advance of viral pathogen penetration. Il1β suppressed REM sleep mimicking aspects of VSV-induced sleep alterations whereas some robustly induced chemokines may be protective of REM. Thus, multiple brain chemokines may mediate sleep across VSV encephalitis via differential somnogenic effects.

  16. Automatic change detection of buildings in urban environment from very high spatial resolution images using existing geodatabase and prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouziani, Mourad; Goïta, Kalifa; He, Dong-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The updating of geodatabases (GDB) in urban environments is a difficult and expensive task. It may be facilitated by an automatic change detection method. Several methods have been developed for medium and low spatial resolution images. This study proposes a new method for change detection of buildings in urban environments from very high spatial resolution images (VHSR) and using existing digital cartographic data. The proposed methodology is composed of several stages. The existing knowledge on the buildings and the other urban objects are first modelled and saved in a knowledge base. Some change detection rules are defined at this stage. Then, the image is segmented. The parameters of segmentation are computed thanks to the integration between the image and the geodatabase. Thereafter, the segmented image is analyzed using the knowledge base to localize the segments where the change of building is likely to occur. The change detection rules are then applied on these segments to identify the segments that represent the changes of buildings. These changes represent the updates of buildings to be added to the geodatabase. The data used in this research concern the city of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) and the city of Rabat (Morocco). For Sherbrooke, we used an Ikonos image acquired in October 2006 and a GDB at the scale of 1:20,000. For Rabat, a QuickBird image acquired in August 2006 has been used with a GDB at the scale of 1:10,000. The rate of good detection is 90%. The proposed method presents some limitations on the detection of the exact contours of the buildings. It could be improved by including a shape post-analysis of detected buildings. The proposed method could be integrated into a cartographic update process or as a method for the quality assessment of a geodatabase. It could be also be used to identify illegal building work or to monitor urban growth.

  17. Brain activation during music listening in individuals with or without prior music training.

    PubMed

    Seung, Yunhee; Kyong, Jeong-Sug; Woo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Byeong-Taek; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2005-08-01

    The present study investigated activation during listening to music with and without a task in female musicians and non-musicians. Five subjects with long musical training for a mean period of 19+/-1 years (musician group) and five subjects with no training in musical instruments (non-musician group) were imaged in a 1.5T scanner, while they simply listened to short segments of piano pieces (LIS), and while they performed a distorted tune test, designed using the same pieces (DTT). A significant group effect with higher signals in the musician group was observed in the right superior and middle temporal gyri, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the left supramarginal gyrus. A task effect with higher signals during DTT was observed in the left sensorimotor cortex, where the interaction between the task and group effects was also significant. Thus, the pattern of brain activation differed depending on tasks when identical music stimuli were used, and more importantly, comparable music tasks activated the brain differently depending on prior musical training of subjects.

  18. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R.; Lucieer, Vanessa L.; Nichol, Scott L.; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve’s IUCN zone IV, and

  19. Self-configurable radio receiver system and method for use with signals without prior knowledge of signal defining characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Tkacenko, Andre (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, radio receiver, and system to autonomously receive and decode a plurality of signals having a variety of signal types without a priori knowledge of the defining characteristics of the signals is disclosed. The radio receiver is capable of receiving a signal of an unknown signal type and, by estimating one or more defining characteristics of the signal, determine the type of signal. The estimated defining characteristic(s) is/are utilized to enable the receiver to determine other defining characteristics. This in turn, enables the receiver, through multiple iterations, to make a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate for each of the defining characteristics. After the type of signal is determined by its defining characteristics, the receiver selects an appropriate decoder from a plurality of decoders to decode the signal.

  20. Precursory signals around epicenters and local active faults prior to inland or coastal earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valizadeh Alvan, Habibeh

    Although earthquakes are still considered as unpredictable phenomenon but scientific efforts during the past decade have revealed some pronounced changes in the quality and quantity of some materials and natural phenomenon on and above the earth’s surface taking place before strong shakes. Pre-earthquake physical and chemical interactions in the earth’s ground may cause anomalies in temperature, surface latent heat flux (SLHF), relative humidity, upwelling index and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration on the ground or sea surface. Earthquakes are triggered when the energy accumulated in rocks releases causing ruptures in place of faults. The main purpose of this study is to explore and demonstrate possibility of any changes in surface temperature or latent heat flux before, during and after earthquakes. We expect that variations in these factors are accompanied with the increase of Chl-a concentration on the sea surface and upwelling events prior to coastal earthquake events. For monitoring the changes in surface temperature we used NOAA-AVHRR and microwave radiometers like AMSR-E/Aqua data. SLHF data and upwelling indices are provided by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis Project and Pacific Fisheries Environmental Laboratory (PFEL) respectively. Chl-a concentration is also available in MODIS website. Our detailed analyses show significant increase of SLHF and upwelling of nutrient-rich water prior to the main events which is attributed to the raise in surface temperature and Chl-a concentration at that time. Meaningful increases in temperature, relative humidity and SLHF variations from weeks before the earthquakes in epicentral areas and along local active faults are revealed. In addition, considerable anomalies in Chl-a concentration are also attributed to the raise in upwelling index.

  1. Molecular crowding drives active Pin1 into nonspecific complexes with endogenous proteins prior to substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Luh, Laura M; Hänsel, Robert; Löhr, Frank; Kirchner, Donata K; Krauskopf, Katharina; Pitzius, Susanne; Schäfer, Birgit; Tufar, Peter; Corbeski, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Dötsch, Volker

    2013-09-18

    Proteins and nucleic acids maintain the crowded interior of a living cell and can reach concentrations in the order of 200-400 g/L which affects the physicochemical parameters of the environment, such as viscosity and hydrodynamic as well as nonspecific strong repulsive and weak attractive interactions. Dynamics, structure, and activity of macromolecules were demonstrated to be affected by these parameters. However, it remains controversially debated, which of these factors are the dominant cause for the observed alterations in vivo. In this study we investigated the globular folded peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in native-like crowded oocyte extract by in-cell NMR spectroscopy. We show that active Pin1 is driven into nonspecific weak attractive interactions with intracellular proteins prior to substrate recognition. The substrate recognition site of Pin1 performs specific and nonspecific attractive interactions. Phosphorylation of the WW domain at Ser16 by PKA abrogates both substrate recognition and the nonspecific interactions with the endogenous proteins. Our results validate the hypothesis formulated by McConkey that the majority of globular folded proteins with surface charge properties close to neutral under physiological conditions reside in macromolecular complexes with other sticky proteins due to molecular crowding. In addition, we demonstrate that commonly used synthetic crowding agents like Ficoll 70 are not suitable to mimic the intracellular environment due to their incapability to simulate biologically important weak attractive interactions.

  2. Effects of Prior Knowledge Activation through Small-Group Discussion on the Processing of Science Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Patel, Vimla L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which problem analysis facilitated the subsequent processing of expository text, both for novices and a comparison group. A text on osmosis consisted of six-pages and was used as reading material. The ninth-grade students were considered novices because they were unfamiliar with the…

  3. Fostering Active Processing of Instructional Explanations of Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuna, Santiago R.; Garcia Rodicio, Hector; Sanchez, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential advantages of instructional explanations, evidence indicates that they are usually ineffective. Subsequent work has shown that in order to make instructional explanations effective indeed, one successful strategy is to combine them with indications of the limitations in learners' understanding that they are intended to…

  4. CABS-dock web server for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins without prior knowledge of the binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kurcinski, Mateusz; Jamroz, Michal; Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Protein–peptide interactions play a key role in cell functions. Their structural characterization, though challenging, is important for the discovery of new drugs. The CABS-dock web server provides an interface for modeling protein–peptide interactions using a highly efficient protocol for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins. While other docking algorithms require pre-defined localization of the binding site, CABS-dock does not require such knowledge. Given a protein receptor structure and a peptide sequence (and starting from random conformations and positions of the peptide), CABS-dock performs simulation search for the binding site allowing for full flexibility of the peptide and small fluctuations of the receptor backbone. This protocol was extensively tested over the largest dataset of non-redundant protein–peptide interactions available to date (including bound and unbound docking cases). For over 80% of bound and unbound dataset cases, we obtained models with high or medium accuracy (sufficient for practical applications). Additionally, as optional features, CABS-dock can exclude user-selected binding modes from docking search or to increase the level of flexibility for chosen receptor fragments. CABS-dock is freely available as a web server at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock. PMID:25943545

  5. CABS-dock web server for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins without prior knowledge of the binding site.

    PubMed

    Kurcinski, Mateusz; Jamroz, Michal; Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Protein-peptide interactions play a key role in cell functions. Their structural characterization, though challenging, is important for the discovery of new drugs. The CABS-dock web server provides an interface for modeling protein-peptide interactions using a highly efficient protocol for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins. While other docking algorithms require pre-defined localization of the binding site, CABS-dock does not require such knowledge. Given a protein receptor structure and a peptide sequence (and starting from random conformations and positions of the peptide), CABS-dock performs simulation search for the binding site allowing for full flexibility of the peptide and small fluctuations of the receptor backbone. This protocol was extensively tested over the largest dataset of non-redundant protein-peptide interactions available to date (including bound and unbound docking cases). For over 80% of bound and unbound dataset cases, we obtained models with high or medium accuracy (sufficient for practical applications). Additionally, as optional features, CABS-dock can exclude user-selected binding modes from docking search or to increase the level of flexibility for chosen receptor fragments. CABS-dock is freely available as a web server at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock.

  6. Learning about Bones at a Science Museum: Examining the Alternate Hypotheses of Ceiling Effect and Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Groups of children at a science museum were pre- and post-assessed with a type of concept map, known as personal meaning maps, to determine what new understandings, if any, they were gaining from participation in a series of structured hands-on activities about bones and the process of bones healing. Close examination was made regarding whether…

  7. Health and Physical Activity Content Knowledge of Pima Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela H.; Cothran, Donetta J.

    2011-01-01

    This study grounded in constructivist theory and the public health literature investigated Native American children's knowledge related to physical activity and healthy behavior concepts. Learning tends to be more meaningful and relevant when teachers take into consideration the students' knowledge and experiences. Therefore it is important to…

  8. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  9. Integration of Humanitarian Knowledge in Art and Design Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamzina, Nadezhda Enovna; Mazina, Julia Ilyinichna; Turganbayeva, Shakhizada Sainbekovna

    2016-01-01

    The process of integration of humanitarian knowledge is being examined in the article and the development of the project activities and a special outlook on the examples of famous artists, designers and architects are investigated. The forms of creative thinking are systematized and the factors modifying the borders of design knowledge are formed…

  10. Organizational Learning from the Perspective of Knowledge Maturing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschig, A.; Maier, R.; Sandow, A.; Lazoi, M.; Schmidt, A.; Barnes, S.-A.; Bimrose, J.; Brown, A.; Bradley, C.; Kunzmann, C.; Mazarakis, A.

    2013-01-01

    The level of similarity of knowledge work across occupations and industries allows for the design of supportive information and communication technology (ICT) that can be widely used. In a previous ethnographically informed study, we identified activities that can be supported to increase knowledge maturing, conceptualized as goal-oriented…

  11. Joint surface reconstruction and 4D deformation estimation from sparse data and prior knowledge for marker-less Respiratory motion tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Berkels, Benjamin; Rumpf, Martin; Bauer, Sebastian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The intraprocedural tracking of respiratory motion has the potential to substantially improve image-guided diagnosis and interventions. The authors have developed a sparse-to-dense registration approach that is capable of recovering the patient's external 3D body surface and estimating a 4D (3D + time) surface motion field from sparse sampling data and patient-specific prior shape knowledge.Methods: The system utilizes an emerging marker-less and laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is recovered, which describes the spatio-temporal 4D deformation of the complete patient body surface, depending on the type and state of respiration. It yields both a reconstruction of the instantaneous patient shape and a high-dimensional respiratory surrogate for respiratory motion tracking. The method is validated on a 4D CT respiration phantom and evaluated on both real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured-light scanner.Results: In the experiments, the authors estimated surface motion fields with the proposed algorithm on 256 datasets from 16 subjects and in different respiration states, achieving a mean surface reconstruction accuracy of ±0.23 mm with respect to ground truth data—down from a mean initial surface mismatch of 5.66 mm. The 95th percentile of the local residual mesh-to-mesh distance after registration did not exceed 1.17 mm for any subject. On average, the total runtime of our proof of concept CPU implementation is 2.3 s per frame, outperforming related work substantially.Conclusions: In external beam radiation therapy, the approach holds potential for patient monitoring during treatment using the reconstructed surface, and for motion-compensated dose delivery using

  12. Unhealthy Alcohol Use is Associated with Monocyte Activation Prior to Starting Anti-Retroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Adam W.; Hunt, Peter W.; Emenyonu, Nneka I.; Muyindike, Winnie; Ngabirano, Christine; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael R.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Hahn, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use may accelerate HIV disease progression, but the plausible biological mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. Methods HIV-positive persons who were not on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) completed the baseline assessment for a longitudinal study examining the association of alcohol use with HIV disease markers. Oversampling drinkers, baseline samples were tested for markers of monocyte activation (sCD14), inflammation (IL-6), and coagulation (D-dimer). We defined “unhealthy alcohol use” as testing positive using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption (AUDIT-C; ≥ 3 for women and ≥ 4 for men) in the past 3 months or testing positive using a biomarker of heavy drinking, phophatidylethanol (PEth; ≥ 50 ng/ml). Multiple linear regression was used to examine the associations of unhealthy alcohol use with sCD14, Log10 IL-6, and D-dimer. Results Compared to those who were abstinent from alcohol, unhealthy drinkers had significantly higher sCD14 levels (mean = 1,676 vs. 1,387 ng/ml; mean difference (95% CI) = 289 (83, 495), p < 0.01). In analyses adjusted for demographic factors, current cigarette smoking, and HIV disease markers, unhealthy drinkers continued to display significantly higher sCD14 levels compared to those who were abstinent from alcohol (adjusted mean = 1,670 vs. 1,406 ng/ml; adjusted mean difference (95% CI) = 264 (47, 480), p = 0.02). Unhealthy alcohol use was not significantly associated with IL-6 or D-dimer levels. Conclusions unhealthy alcohol use was independently associated with a marker of monocyte activation (i.e., higher sCD14) that predicts mortality in treated HIV infection. Longitudinal research should examine if unhealthy alcohol use predicts changes in sCD14 prior to and following ART initiation. PMID:26509359

  13. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form ER02JY09.000 ER02JY09.001... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form Appendix to Part 1253 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING...

  14. Camera trap records of animal activity prior to a M=7 earthquake in Northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, R.; Raulin, J.; Freund, F.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake (EQ) preparation is associated with geophysical changes occurring over many scales. Some pre-earthquake (pre-EQ) processes affect the ionosphere, others leave their mark on biota. We report (i) on ionospheric anomalies recorded prior to the M=7 Contamana EQ [1] in North-Eastern Peru, 134 km deep, associated with the subduction of the Nazca plate underneath the Northern Andes, (ii) on changes in animal activity recorded in the Yanachaga National Park, about 320 km from the EQ epicentre, over a 30 day period leading up to the M=7 seismic event. Night-time Very Low Frequency (VLF) phase data were analyzed for the period 01 June to 31 Oct. 2011 using propagation paths passing close to the Yanachaga Park from the NAA emitter (USA) to receivers PIU in Piura and PLO in Lima (Peru). Ionospheric phase perturbations were observed starting 2 weeks before the EQ with periodicities from few tens of secs to few minutes. Animal activity data were obtained by evaluating the images of a cluster of 10 motion-triggered cameras of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network www.teamnetwork.org. We analyzed 1359 photographic records for the pre-EQ period and 1491 photographic records for a control period with low seismicity. Animal activity started to noticeably decline 3 weeks before the EQ. Different animal species were found to react differently. The number of rodents declined to zero about one week before the EQ and so did the number of tapirs. Armadillos, a burrowing animal, were recorded in larger numbers. Though the armadillos were presumably also flushed out of their holes, they apparently did not hide like the rodents. We discuss the results in the context of recent advances in solid state physics, which provide plausible mechanisms for pre-EQ ionospheric anomalies and for changes in animal behavior. [1] Tavera, H. (2012), Report on the 24 Aug. 2011 M 7.0 Contamana, Peru, Intermediate Depth Earthquake Seismological Research Letters, 83, 1007-1013, doi: 10.1785/0220120005

  15. Creating a Learning Continuum: A Critical Look at the Intersection of Prior Knowledge, Outdoor Education, and Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlobohm, Trisha Leigh

    Outdoor School is a cherished educational tradition in the Portland, OR region. This program's success is attributed to its presumed ability to positively impact affective and cognitive student outcomes. Residential programs such as Outdoor School are considered to be an important supplement to the classroom model of learning because they offer an authentic, contextually rich learning environment. References to relevant literature support the idea that student gains in affective and cognitive domains occur as a result of the multi-sensory, enjoyable, hands-on nature of outdoor learning. The sample population for this study was 115 sixth graders from a demographically diverse Portland, OR school district. This study used an instrument developed by the Common Measures System that was administered to students as part of Outdoor School's professional and program development project. The affective student outcome data measured by the Common Measures instrument was complemented by a formative assessment probe ascertaining prior knowledge of the definition of plants and field notes detailing Field Study instructor lesson content. This first part of this study examined the changes that take place in students' attitudes toward science as a result of attending Outdoor School. The second part took a look at how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants field study aligned with NGSS MS-LS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices. The third section of the study compared how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants Field Study and students' prior knowledge of what defines a plant aligned with NGSS MS-LS DCIs. The intent of the research was to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of how students' attitudes toward science are influenced by participating in an outdoor education program and contribute to the development of a continuum between classroom and outdoor school learning using Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices as a framework. Results of

  16. A modulated closed form solution for quantitative susceptibility mapping--a thorough evaluation and comparison to iterative methods based on edge prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khabipova, Diana; Wiaux, Yves; Gruetter, Rolf; Marques, José P

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study is to perform a thorough comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques and their dependence on the assumptions made. The compared methodologies were: two iterative single orientation methodologies minimizing the l2, l1TV norm of the prior knowledge of the edges of the object, one over-determined multiple orientation method (COSMOS) and a newly proposed modulated closed-form solution (MCF). The performance of these methods was compared using a numerical phantom and in-vivo high resolution (0.65 mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7 T using a new coil combination method. For all QSM methods, the relevant regularization and prior-knowledge parameters were systematically changed in order to evaluate the optimal reconstruction in the presence and absence of a ground truth. Additionally, the QSM contrast was compared to conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnitude and R2* maps obtained from the same dataset. The QSM reconstruction results of the single orientation methods show comparable performance. The MCF method has the highest correlation (corr MCF=0.95, r(2)MCF=0.97) with the state of the art method (COSMOS) with additional advantage of extreme fast computation time. The L-curve method gave the visually most satisfactory balance between reduction of streaking artifacts and over-regularization with the latter being overemphasized when the using the COSMOS susceptibility maps as ground-truth. R2* and susceptibility maps, when calculated from the same datasets, although based on distinct features of the data, have a comparable ability to distinguish deep gray matter structures.

  17. Generalized event knowledge activation during online sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P.; Hare, Mary; McRae, Ken; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that knowledge of real-world eventsplays an important role inguiding online language comprehension. The present study addresses the scope of event knowledge activation during the course of comprehension, specifically investigating whether activation is limited to those knowledge elements that align with the local linguistic context.The present study addresses this issue by analyzing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded as participants read brief scenariosdescribing typical real-world events. Experiment 1 demonstratesthat a contextually anomalous word elicits a reduced N400 if it is generally related to the described event, even when controlling for the degree of association of this word with individual words in the preceding context and with the expected continuation. Experiment 2 shows that this effect disappears when the discourse context is removed.These findings demonstrate that during the course of incremental comprehension, comprehenders activate general knowledge about the described event, even at points at which this knowledge would constitute an anomalous continuation of the linguistic stream. Generalized event knowledge activationcontributes to mental representations of described events, is immediately available to influence language processing, and likely drives linguistic expectancy generation. PMID:22711976

  18. 78 FR 65670 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prior Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism... the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002--21 CFR 1.278 to 1.285 (OMB Control Number 0910-0520)--Revision The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism...

  19. Using a Preflective Activity to Identify Faculty Beliefs Prior to an International Professional Development Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Lamm, Alexa; Roberts, T. Grady; Navarro, Maria; Ricketts, John

    2012-01-01

    Today's college graduates in agricultural and life sciences must be prepared to work in a global society. Increasing the integration of international content into on-campus courses requires globally competent faculty members. This study reports faculty's initial attitudes and beliefs about Latin American culture prior to participating in a 12-day…

  20. 75 FR 7474 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate February 3, 2010. On January 26, 2010 CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company... Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) regulations under the Natural Gas Act, and CEGT's...

  1. 5 CFR 9201.102 - Prior approval for outside employment and other outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the rendering of advice or consultation, which requires advanced knowledge in a field of science or... employee, including the rendering of advice or consultation, which involves application of the skills of...

  2. Knowledge of pediatricians regarding physical activity in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gordia, Alex Pinheiro; de Quadros, Teresa Maria Bianchini; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; dos Santos, Gilton Marques

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and guidance given by pediatricians regarding physical activity in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of pediatricians (n=210) who participated in a national pediatrics congress in 2013. Sociodemographic and professional data and data regarding habitual physical activity and pediatricians’ knowledge and instructions for young people regarding physical activity were collected using a questionnaire. Absolute and relative frequencies and means and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Most pediatricians were females, had graduated from medical school more than 15 years ago, and had residency in pediatrics. More than 70% of the participants reported to include physical activity guidance in their prescriptions. On the other hand, approximately two-thirds of the pediatricians incorrectly reported that children should not work out and less than 15% answered the question about physical activity barriers correctly. With respect to the two questions about physical activity to tackle obesity, incorrect answers were marked by more than 50% of the pediatricians. Most participants incorrectly reported that 30 min should be the minimum daily time of physical activity in young people. Less than 40% of the pediatricians correctly indicated the maximum time young people should spend in front of a screen. Conclusions: In general, the pediatricians reported that they recommend physical activity to their young patients, but specific knowledge of this topic was limited. Programs providing adequate information are needed. PMID:26298654

  3. SU-D-17A-01: Geometric and Dosimetric Evaluation of a 4D-CBCT Reconstruction Technique Using Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a 4D-CBCT reconstruction technique both geometrically and dosimetrically Methods: A prior-knowledge guided 4DC-BCT reconstruction method named the motion-modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) has been developed. MM-FD views each phase of the 4D-CBCT as a deformation of a prior CT volume. The deformation field is first solved by principal component analysis based motion modeling, followed by constrained free-form deformation.The 4D digital extended-cardiac- torso (XCAT) phantom was used for comprehensive evaluation. Based on a simulated 4D planning CT of a lung patient, 8 different scenarios were simulated to cover the typical on-board anatomical and respiratory variations: (1) synchronized and (2) unsynchronized motion amplitude change for body and tumor; tumor (3) shrinkage and (4) expansion; tumor average position shift in (5) superior-inferior (SI) direction, (6) anterior-posterior (AP) direction and (7) SI, AP and lateral directions altogether; and (8) tumor phase shift relative to the respiratory cycle of the body. Orthogonal-view 30° projections were simulated based on the eight patient scenarios to reconstruct on-board 4D-CBCTs. For geometric evaluation, the volume-percentage-difference (VPD) was calculated to assess the volumetric differences between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumor.For dosimetric evaluation, a gated treatment plan was designed for the prior 4D-CT. The dose distributions were calculated on the reconstructed 4D-CBCTs and the ground-truth images for comparison. The MM-FD technique was compared with MM-only and FD-only techniques. Results: The average (±s.d.) VPD values of reconstructed tumors for MM-only, FDonly and MM-FD methods were 59.16%(± 26.66%), 75.98%(± 27.21%) and 5.22%(± 2.12%), respectively. The average min/max/mean dose (normalized to prescription) of the reconstructed tumors by MM-only, FD-only, MM-FD methods and ground-truth tumors were 78.0%/122.2%/108.2%, 13%/117.7%/86%, 58

  4. Enhancing Academic Engagement in Knowledge Transfer Activity in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis-Smythe, Jan

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing call in the UK over the last decade for universities to become more entrepreneurial with a strengthening of university and industry/community links to contribute more significantly to the knowledge economy., and for UK higher education institutions (HEIs) to consider ways in which they can more actively engage in…

  5. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  6. Verb Aspect and the Activation of Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as…

  7. Instructional Design for Teaching Physical Activities: A Knowledge Structures Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Joan N.

    This text uses the unique Knowledge Structures (KS) Model developed specifically for those who teach and coach complex physical skills. The KS Model provides the framework for constructing a sport-specific curriculum based on all of the pertinent information needed to perform a sport or activity. The model is cross-disciplinary, integrating…

  8. Knowledge Activation, Integration, and Validation during Narrative Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Anne E.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous text comprehension studies using the contradiction paradigm primarily tested assumptions of the activation mechanism involved in reading. However, the nature of the contradiction in such studies relied on validation of information in readers' general world knowledge. We directly tested this validation process by varying the strength of…

  9. Segmenting multiple overlapping objects via a hybrid active contour model incorporating shape priors: applications to digital pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-03-01

    Active contours and active shape models (ASM) have been widely employed in image segmentation. A major limitation of active contours, however, is in their (a) inability to resolve boundaries of intersecting objects and to (b) handle occlusion. Multiple overlapping objects are typically segmented out as a single object. On the other hand, ASMs are limited by point correspondence issues since object landmarks need to be identified across multiple objects for initial object alignment. ASMs are also are constrained in that they can usually only segment a single object in an image. In this paper, we present a novel synergistic boundary and region-based active contour model that incorporates shape priors in a level set formulation. We demonstrate an application of these synergistic active contour models using multiple level sets to segment nuclear and glandular structures on digitized histopathology images of breast and prostate biopsy specimens. Unlike previous related approaches, our model is able to resolve object overlap and separate occluded boundaries of multiple objects simultaneously. The energy functional of the active contour is comprised of three terms. The first term comprises the prior shape term, modeled on the object of interest, thereby constraining the deformation achievable by the active contour. The second term, a boundary based term detects object boundaries from image gradients. The third term drives the shape prior and the contour towards the object boundary based on region statistics. The results of qualitative and quantitative evaluation on 100 prostate and 14 breast cancer histology images for the task of detecting and segmenting nuclei, lymphocytes, and glands reveals that the model easily outperforms two state of the art segmentation schemes (Geodesic Active Contour (GAC) and Roussons shape based model) and resolves up to 92% of overlapping/occluded lymphocytes and nuclei on prostate and breast cancer histology images.

  10. 5 CFR 3601.107 - Prior approval for outside employment and business activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... business activities. 3601.107 Section 3601.107 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SUPPLEMENTAL... outside employment and business activities. (a) A DoD employee, other than a special Government employee... from the agency designee before engaging in a business activity or compensated outside employment...

  11. Adaptive energy selective active contour with shape priors for nuclear segmentation and gleason grading of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Veltri, Robert; Epstein, Jonathan I; Christudass, Christhunesa; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-01-01

    Shape based active contours have emerged as a natural solution to overlap resolution. However, most of these shape-based methods are computationally expensive. There are instances in an image where no overlapping objects are present and applying these schemes results in significant computational overhead without any accompanying, additional benefit. In this paper we present a novel adaptive active contour scheme (AdACM) that combines boundary and region based energy terms with a shape prior in a multi level set formulation. To reduce the computational overhead, the shape prior term in the variational formulation is only invoked for those instances in the image where overlaps between objects are identified; these overlaps being identified via a contour concavity detection scheme. By not having to invoke all 3 terms (shape, boundary, region) for segmenting every object in the scene, the computational expense of the integrated active contour model is dramatically reduced, a particularly relevant consideration when multiple objects have to be segmented on very large histopathological images. The AdACM was employed for the task of segmenting nuclei on 80 prostate cancer tissue microarray images. Morphological features extracted from these segmentations were found to able to discriminate different Gleason grade patterns with a classification accuracy of 84% via a Support Vector Machine classifier. On average the AdACM model provided 100% savings in computational times compared to a non-optimized hybrid AC model involving a shape prior.

  12. Prior high corticosterone exposure reduces activation of immature neurons in the ventral hippocampus in response to spatial and nonspatial memory.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Chan, Melissa Y T; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-03-01

    Chronic stress or chronically high glucocorticoids attenuate adult hippocampal neurogenesis by reducing cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in male rodents. Neurons are still produced in the dentate gyrus during chronically high glucocorticoids, but it is not known whether these new neurons are appropriately activated in response to spatial memory. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether immature granule neurons generated during chronically high glucocorticoids (resulting in a depressive-like phenotype) are differentially activated by spatial memory retrieval. Male Sprague Dawley rats received either 40 mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle for 18 days prior to behavioral testing. Rats were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and then tested in a spatial (hippocampus-dependent) or cued (hippocampus-independent) Morris Water Maze. Tissue was then processed for doublecortin (DCX) to identify immature neurons and zif268, an immediate early gene product. As expected, CORT increased depressive-like behavior (greater immobility in the FST) however, prior CORT modestly enhanced spatial learning and memory compared with oil. Prior CORT reduced the number of DCX-expressing cells and proportion of DCX-expressing cells colabeled for zif268, but only in the ventral hippocampus. Prior CORT shifted the proportion of cells in the ventral hippocampus away from postmitotic cells and toward immature, proliferative cells, likely due to the fact that postmitotic cells were produced and matured during CORT exposure but proliferative cells were produced after high CORT exposure ceased. Compared with cue training, spatial training slightly increased DCX-expressing cells and shifted cells toward the postmitotic stage in the ventral hippocampus. These data suggest that the effects of CORT and spatial training on immature neurons are more pronounced in the ventral hippocampus. Further, high CORT reduced activation of immature neurons, suggesting that exposure

  13. 5 CFR 9303.102 - Prior approval for certain outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., employee, agent, attorney, consultant, contractor, or active participant for a prohibited source, except... activity; and (iii) The employee has read subpart H (“Outside Activities”) of 5 CFR part 2635. (3) Upon a... employee shall submit a revised request for approval. (c) Approval of requests. Approval shall be...

  14. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2015-11-30

    Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used.Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion.Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated

  15. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  16. 5 CFR 4501.103 - Prior approval for certain outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., director, trustee, general partner, employee, agent, attorney, consultant, contractor, or active... States is a party; (B) In which the United States has a direct and substantial interest; or (C) If the...) The employee has read subpart H (“Outside Activities”) of 5 CFR part 2635. (3) Upon a...

  17. 5 CFR 4501.103 - Prior approval for certain outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., director, trustee, general partner, employee, agent, attorney, consultant, contractor, or active... States is a party; (B) In which the United States has a direct and substantial interest; or (C) If the...) The employee has read subpart H (“Outside Activities”) of 5 CFR part 2635. (3) Upon a...

  18. ASCORBIC ACID REDUCTION ON RESIDUAL ACTIVE CHLORINE IN POTABLE WATER PRIOR TO HALOCARBOXYLATE DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In studies on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), it is necessary to scavenge residual active (odxidizing) chlorine in order to fix the chlorination byproducts (such as haloethanoates) at a point in time . Such research projects often have distinct needs from requi...

  19. ASCORBIC ACID REDUCTION OF RESIDUAL ACTIVE CHLORINE IN POTABLE WATER PRIOR TO HALOCARBOXYLATE DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In studies on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), it is necessary to scavenge residual active (oxidizing) chlorine in order to fix the chlorination byproducts (such as haloethanoates) at a point in time. Thus, methods designed for compliance monitoring are not alway...

  20. 5 CFR 3601.107 - Prior approval for outside employment and business activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or other financial relationship not involving the provision of personal services by the DoD employee... or business relationship involving the provision of personal services by the DoD employee. It... business activities. 3601.107 Section 3601.107 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  1. 5 CFR 3601.107 - Prior approval for outside employment and business activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or other financial relationship not involving the provision of personal services by the DoD employee... or business relationship involving the provision of personal services by the DoD employee. It... business activities. 3601.107 Section 3601.107 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  2. Patterns of acoustical activity of bats prior to and following White-nose Syndrome occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Johnson, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS), a wildlife health concern that has decimated cave-hibernating bat populations in eastern North America since 2006, began affecting source-caves for summer bat populations at Fort Drum, a U.S. Army installation in New York in the winter of 2007–2008. As regional die-offs of bats became evident, and Fort Drum's known populations began showing declines, we examined whether WNS-induced change in abundance patterns and seasonal timing of bat activity could be quantified using acoustical surveys, 2003–2010, at structurally uncluttered riparian–water habitats (i.e., streams, ponds, and wet meadows). As predicted, we observed significant declines in overall summer activity between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for little brown bats Myotis lucifugus, northern bats M. septentrionalis, and Indiana bats M. sodalis. We did not observe any significant change in activity patterns between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for big brown bats Eptesicus fuscus, eastern red bats Lasiurus borealis, or the small number of tri-colored bats Perimyotis subflavus. Activity of silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans increased from pre-WNS to post-WNS years. Activity levels of hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus significantly declined between pre- and post-WNS years. As a nonhibernating, migratory species, hoary bat declines might be correlated with wind-energy development impacts occurring in the same time frame rather than WNS. Intraseason activity patterns also were affected by WNS, though the results were highly variable among species. Little brown bats showed an overall increase in activity from early to late summer pre-WNS, presumably due to detections of newly volant young added to the local population. However, the opposite occurred post-WNS, indicating that reproduction among surviving little brown bats may be declining. Our data suggest that acoustical monitoring during the summer season can provide insights into species' relative abundance on the

  3. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  4. Verb aspect and the activation of event knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Todd R; Kutas, Marta; McRae, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The authors show that verb aspect influences the activation of event knowledge with 4 novel results. First, common locations of events (e.g., arena) are primed following verbs with imperfective aspect (e.g., was skating) but not verbs with perfect aspect (e.g., had skated). Second, people generate more locative prepositional phrases as completions to sentence fragments with imperfective than those with perfect aspect. Third, the amplitude of the N400 component to location nouns varies as a function of aspect and typicality, being smallest for imperfective sentences with highly expected locations and largest for imperfective sentences with less expected locations. Fourth, the amplitude of a sustained frontal negativity spanning prepositional phrases is larger following perfect than following imperfective aspect. Taken together, these findings suggest a dynamic interplay between event knowledge and the linguistic stream.

  5. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract.

  6. Does motor interference arise from mirror system activation? The effect of prior visuo-motor practice on automatic imitation.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Marshall, Peter J; Shipley, Thomas F; Salesse, Robin N; Bouquet, Cédric A

    2011-03-01

    Action perception may involve a mirror-matching system, such that observed actions are mapped onto the observer's own motor representations. The strength of such mirror system activation should depend on an individual's experience with the observed action. The motor interference effect, where an observed action interferes with a concurrently executed incongruent action, is thought to arise from mirror system activation. However, this view was recently challenged. If motor interference arises from mirror system activation, this effect should be sensitive to prior sensorimotor experience with the observed action. To test this prediction, we measured motor interference in two groups of participants observing the same incongruent movements. One group had received brief visuo-motor practice with the observed incongruent action, but not the other group. Action observation induced a larger motor interference in participants who had practiced the observed action. This result thus supports a mirror system account of motor interference.

  7. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses) do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group). Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers) who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot). In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes). Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs. PMID:22385499

  8. Ab initio X-ray structural characterization of an inclusion compound with a compositionally disordered chiral guest: no prior knowledge of the crystal composition.

    PubMed

    Guzei, Ilia A; Miles, Kelsey C

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structure and absolute configuration of a molecular host/guest/impurity inclusion complex were established unequivocally in spite of our having no prior knowledge of its chemical composition. The host (4R,5R)-4,5-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane, (I), displays expected conformational features. The crystal-disordered chiral guest 4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one, (II), is present in the crystal 85.1 (4)% of the time. It shares a common site with 4a-hydroperoxymethyl-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one, (III), present 14.9 (4)% of the time, which is the product of autoxidation of (II). This minor peroxide impurity was isolated, and the results of nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and X-ray fluorescence studies are consistent with the proposed structure of (III). The complete structure was therefore determined to be (4R,5R)-4,5-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one-4a-hydroperoxymethyl-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one (1/0.85/0.15), C31H30O4·0.85C10H14O·0.15C10H14O3, (IV). There are host-host, host-guest, and host-impurity hydrogen-bonding interactions of types S and D in the solid state. We believe that the crystals of (IV) were originally prepared to establish the chirality of the guest (II) by means of X-ray diffraction analysis of host/guest crystals obtained in the course of chiral resolution during cocrystallization of (II) with (I). In spite of the absence of `heavy' elements, the absolute configurations of all anomeric centres in the structure are assigned as R based on resonant scattering effects.

  9. SU-C-204-04: Patient Specific Proton Stopping Powers Estimation by Combining Proton Radiography and Prior-Knowledge X-Ray CT Information

    SciTech Connect

    Collins-Fekete, CA; Brousmiche, S; Hansen, D; Beaulieu, L; Seco, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The material relative stopping power (RSP) uncertainty is the highest contributor to the range uncertainty in proton therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a robust and systematic method that yields accurate, patient specific, RSP by combining 1) pre-treatment x-ray CT and 2) daily proton radiograph of the patient. Methods: The method is formulated as a linear least-square optimization problem (min||Ax-B||2). The parameter A represents the pathlength crossed by the proton in each material. The RSPs for the materials (water equivalent thickness (WET)/physical thickness) are denoted by x. B is the proton radiograph expressed as WET crossed. The problem is minimized using a convex-conic optimization algorithm with xiprior knowledge x-ray CT demonstrates serious potential to increase the accuracy of present RSP estimates.

  10. E2F6 Impairs Glycolysis and Activates BDH1 Expression Prior to Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Major, Jennifer L.; Dewan, Aaraf; Salih, Maysoon; Leddy, John J.; Tuana, Balwant S.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale The E2F pathway plays a critical role in cardiac growth and development, yet its role in cardiac metabolism remains to be defined. Metabolic changes play important roles in human heart failure and studies imply the ketogenic enzyme β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase I (BDH1) is a potential biomarker. Objective To define the role of the E2F pathway in cardiac metabolism and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with a focus on BDH1. Methods and Results We previously developed transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the transcriptional repressor, E2F6, to interfere with the E2F/Rb pathway in post-natal myocardium. These Tg mice present with an E2F6 dose dependent DCM and deregulated connexin-43 (CX-43) levels in myocardium. Using the Seahorse platform, a 22% decrease in glycolysis was noted in neonatal cardiomyocytes isolated from E2F6-Tg hearts. This was associated with a 39% reduction in the glucose transporter GLUT4 and 50% less activation of the regulator of glucose metabolism AKT2. The specific reduction of cyclin B1 (70%) in Tg myocardium implicates its importance in supporting glycolysis in the postnatal heart. No changes in cyclin D expression (known to regulate mitochondrial activity) were noted and lipid metabolism remained unchanged in neonatal cardiomyocytes from Tg hearts. However, E2F6 induced a 40-fold increase of the Bdh1 transcript and 890% increase in its protein levels in hearts from Tg pups implying a potential impact on ketolysis. By contrast, BDH1 expression is not activated until adulthood in normal myocardium. Neonatal cardiomyocytes from Wt hearts incubated with the ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) showed a 100% increase in CX-43 protein levels, implying a role for ketone signaling in gap junction biology. Neonatal cardiomyocyte cultures from Tg hearts exhibited enhanced levels of BDH1 and CX-43 and were not responsive to β-OHB. Conclusions The data reveal a novel role for the E2F pathway in regulating glycolysis in the developing myocardium

  11. Prior history of FDI muscle contraction: different effect on MEP amplitude and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Talis, V L; Kazennikov, O V; Castellote, J M; Grishin, A A; Ioffe, M E

    2014-03-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation of left motor cortex were assessed in ten healthy subjects during maintenance of a fixed FDI contraction level. Subjects maintained an integrated EMG (IEMG) level with visual feedback and reproduced this level by memory afterwards in the following tasks: stationary FDI muscle contraction at the level of 40 ± 5 % of its maximum voluntary contraction (MVC; 40 % task), at the level of 20 ± 5 % MVC (20 % task), and also when 20 % MVC was preceded by either no contraction (0-20 task), by stronger muscle contraction (40-20 task) or by no contraction with a previous strong contraction (40-0-20 task). The results show that the IEMG level was within the prescribed limits when 20 and 40 % stationary tasks were executed with and without visual feedback. In 0-20, 40-20, and 40-0-20 tasks, 20 % IEMG level was precisely controlled in the presence of visual feedback, but without visual feedback the IEMG and force during 20 % IEMG maintenance were significantly higher in the 40-0-20 task than those in 0-20 and 40-20 tasks. That is, without visual feedback, there were significant variations in muscle activity due to different prehistory of contraction. In stationary tasks, MEP amplitudes in 40 % task were higher than in 20 % task. MEPs did not differ significantly during maintenance of the 20 % level in tasks with different prehistory of muscle contraction with and without visual feedback. Thus, in spite of variations in muscle background activity due to different prehistory of contraction MEPs did not vary significantly. This dissociation suggests that the voluntary maintenance of IEMG level is determined not only by cortical mechanisms, as reflected by corticospinal excitability, but also by lower levels of CNS, where afferent signals and influences from other brain structures and spinal cord are convergent.

  12. Conditional Reasoning in Autism: Activation and Integration of Knowledge and Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Rebecca; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Handley, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday conditional reasoning is typically influenced by prior knowledge and belief in the form of specific exceptions known as counterexamples. This study explored whether adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 26) were less influenced by background knowledge than typically developing adolescents (N = 38) when engaged in conditional…

  13. Retinal Structures and Visual Cortex Activity are Impaired Prior to Clinical Vision Loss in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Matthew C.; Conner, Ian P.; Teng, Cindy Y.; Lawrence, Jesse D.; Safiullah, Zaid; Wang, Bo; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kim, Seong-Gi; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.; Chan, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we measured the structure, metabolism and function of the visual system by optical coherence tomography and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects and glaucoma patients with different degrees of vision loss. We found that inner retinal layer thinning, optic nerve cupping and reduced visual cortex activity occurred before patients showed visual field impairment. The primary visual cortex also exhibited more severe functional deficits than higher-order visual brain areas in glaucoma. Within the visual cortex, choline metabolism was perturbed along with increasing disease severity in the eye, optic radiation and visual field. In summary, this study showed evidence that glaucoma deterioration is already present in the eye and the brain before substantial vision loss can be detected clinically using current testing methods. In addition, cortical cholinergic abnormalities are involved during trans-neuronal degeneration and can be detected non-invasively in glaucoma. The current results can be of impact for identifying early glaucoma mechanisms, detecting and monitoring pathophysiological events and eye-brain-behavior relationships, and guiding vision preservation strategies in the visual system, which may help reduce the burden of this irreversible but preventable neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27510406

  14. Cancer mortality in a Texas county with prior uranium mining and milling activities, 1950-2001.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Mumma, Michael; Schweitzer, Sarah; Blot, William J

    2003-09-01

    Uranium was discovered in Karnes County, Texas, in 1954 and the first uranium mill began operating in 1961 near Falls City. Uranium milling and surface and in situ mining continued in Karnes County until the early 1990s. Remediation of uranium tailings ponds was completed in the 1990s. There were three mills and over 40 mines operating in Karnes County over these years and potential exposure to the population was from possible environmental releases into the air and ground water. From time to time concerns have been raised in Karnes County about potential increased cancer risk from these uranium mining and milling activities. To evaluate the possibility of increased cancer deaths associated with these uranium operations, a mortality survey was conducted. The numbers and rates of cancer deaths were determined for Karnes County and for comparison for four 'control' counties in the same region with similar age, race, urbanisation and socioeconomic distributions reported in the 1990 US Census. Comparisons were also made with US and Texas general population rates. Following similar methods to those used by the National Cancer Institute, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed as the ratio of observed numbers of cancers in the study and control counties compared to the expected number derived from general population rates for the United States. Relative risks (RRs) were computed as the ratios of the SMRs for the study and the control counties. Overall, 1223 cancer deaths occurred in the population residing in Karnes County from 1950 to 2001 compared with 1392 expected based on general population rates for the US. There were 3857 cancer deaths in the four control counties during the same 52 year period compared with 4389 expected. There was no difference between the total cancer mortality rates in Karnes County and those in the control counties (RR = 1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.9-1.1). There were no significant increases in Karnes County for any cancer when

  15. Understanding and Describing Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: Knowledge about Proof for Engaging Students in the Activity of Proving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Andreas J.; Ball, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    This article is situated in the research domain that investigates what mathematical knowledge is useful for, and usable in, mathematics teaching. Specifically, the article contributes to the issue of understanding and describing what knowledge about proof is likely to be important for teachers to have as they engage students in the activity of…

  16. Prior Knowledge Base of Constellations and Bright Stars among Non-Science Majoring Undergraduates and 14-15 Year Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Eric G.; Hintz, Maureen L.; Lawler, M. Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve students' knowledge of constellations and bright stars in an introductory level descriptive astronomy survey course, we measured the baseline knowledge that students bring to the class and how their score evolve over the course of the semester. This baseline is needed by the broader astronomy education research…

  17. Inferring Knowledge from Active Learning Simulators for Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguez, Julieta; Neri, Luis; Robledo-Rella, Víctor; Muñoz, Karla

    Active Learning Simulators (ALS) allow students to practice and carry out experiments in a safe environment - at any time, and in any place. Furthermore, well-designed simulations may enhance learning, and provide the bridge from conceptual to practical understanding. By adding an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), it is possible to provide personal guidance to students. The main objective of this work is to present an ALS suited for a Physics scenario in which we incorporate elements from ITS, and where a Probabilistic Relational Model (PRM) based on a Bayesian Network is used to infer student knowledge, taking advantage of relational models. A discussion of the methodology is addressed and preliminary results are presented. Ours first results go in the right direction as proved by a relative learning gain.

  18. Teachers' scientific knowledge, teaching practice, and students' learning activities: Cases of three elementary classroom teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Shinho

    The purposes of this dissertation study are to better understand what specific types of scientific knowledge and practice three elementary teachers exhibit, and to examine how they use their scientific knowledge in their classroom teaching practice to provide students' opportunities to learn science when teaching condensation in the context of a unit on the water cycle. By comparing and contrasting three cases of elementary classroom teaching, this study discusses what kinds of scientific knowledge and practice are fundamental for teaching elementary science for scientific understanding. The data include structured interviews (content, pre- and post- observation, and stimulated recall), videotaped classroom observations, and collections of teachers' and students' written artifacts. Data were collected prior to, during, and after the three teachers taught condensation to fifth grade students. The data were analyzed in three contexts: interviews, teaching practices, and students' classroom activities. This made it possible to clarify which characteristics of teacher's scientific knowledge influenced which aspects of their teaching practice. Data analysis shows that teachers' scientific knowledge were closely associated with their teaching practice and students' classroom activities. Two characteristics of the teachers' scientific reasoning emerged as especially important. The first concerned how teachers connected observations of condensation with patterns in those observations (e.g., condensation occurs when warm moist air cools) and with explanations for those patterns (e.g., condensation is water vapor that changes to liquid water). Two teachers were careful to connect observations with patterns in their own thinking and in their classroom teaching. One of those teachers also connected the observations and patterns to scientific explanations. In contrast, the third teacher focused on listing scientific terms with little elaboration with specific observations and

  19. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  20. WE-G-BRD-06: Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Estimated Based On Prior Knowledge for On-Board Target Localization

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to generate on-board VC-MRI using patient prior 4D-MRI, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI for real-time 3D target verification of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-expiration phase images of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation are used as patient prior images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract 3 major respiratory deformation patterns from the Deformation Field Maps (DFMs) generated between end-expiration phase and all other phases. On-board 2D-cine MRI images are acquired in the axial view. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI at the end-expiration phase. The DFM is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by matching the corresponding 2D slice of the estimated VC-MRI with the acquired single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT (a computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from a real liver cancer patient. The 3D-MRI at every phase except end-expiration phase was used to simulate the ground-truth on-board VC-MRI at different instances, and the center-tumor slice was selected to simulate the on-board 2D-cine images. Results: Image subtraction of ground truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground truth with prior image. Excellent agreement between profiles was achieved. The normalized cross correlation coefficients between the estimated and ground-truth in the axial, coronal and sagittal views for each time step were >= 0.982, 0.905, 0.961 for XCAT data and >= 0.998, 0.911, 0.9541 for patient data. For XCAT data, the maximum-Volume-Percent-Difference between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes was 1.6% and the maximum-Center-of-Mass-Shift was 0.9 mm. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrated the feasibility to estimate real-time VC-MRI for on

  1. Cone beam CT imaging with limited angle of projections and prior knowledge for volumetric verification of non-coplanar beam radiation therapy: a proof of concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Bowen; Xing, Lei; Han, Bin; Koong, Albert; Chang, Daniel; Cheng, Jason; Li, Ruijiang

    2013-11-01

    Non-coplanar beams are important for treatment of both cranial and noncranial tumors. Treatment verification of such beams with couch rotation/kicks, however, is challenging, particularly for the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). In this situation, only limited and unconventional imaging angles are feasible to avoid collision between the gantry, couch, patient, and on-board imaging system. The purpose of this work is to develop a CBCT verification strategy for patients undergoing non-coplanar radiation therapy. We propose an image reconstruction scheme that integrates a prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) technique with image registration. Planning CT or CBCT acquired at the neutral position is rotated and translated according to the nominal couch rotation/translation to serve as the initial prior image. Here, the nominal couch movement is chosen to have a rotational error of 5° and translational error of 8 mm from the ground truth in one or more axes or directions. The proposed reconstruction scheme alternates between two major steps. First, an image is reconstructed using the PICCS technique implemented with total-variation minimization and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction. Second, the rotational/translational setup errors are corrected and the prior image is updated by applying rigid image registration between the reconstructed image and the previous prior image. The PICCS algorithm and rigid image registration are alternated iteratively until the registration results fall below a predetermined threshold. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is evaluated with an anthropomorphic digital phantom and physical head phantom. The proposed algorithm provides useful volumetric images for patient setup using projections with an angular range as small as 60°. It reduced the translational setup errors from 8 mm to generally <1 mm and the rotational setup errors from 5° to <1°. Compared with the PICCS algorithm alone, the integration of rigid

  2. Three Forms of Assessment of Prior Knowledge, and Improved Performance Following an Enrichment Programme, of English Second Language Biology Students within the Context of a Marine Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the assessment of student background knowledge along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Examines improved student performance in each of the respective assessments on the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to English as Second Language (ESL)…

  3. The Incremental Variance of Morphological Knowledge to Reading Comprehension in Grades 3-10 beyond Prior Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Text Reading Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Bishop, M. Denise

    2012-01-01

    We know that knowledge of word structure--morphology--relates to reading, but there is limited research on its unique contribution to reading comprehension, especially with students in middle and high schools and with the nesting of students within classrooms taken into account. In this study with 4780 students in grades 3 to 10, we examined how…

  4. Non-Bayesian noun generalization in 3- to 5-year-old children: Probing the role of prior knowledge in the suspicious coincidence effect

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Gavin W.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Jodi R.; Spencer, John P.

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as “Labrador,” “dog,” and “animal.” Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and adults. Here, we report data testing a developmental prediction of the Bayesian model—that more knowledge should lead to narrower category inferences when presented with multiple subordinate examples. Two experiments did not support this prediction. Children with more category knowledge showed broader generalization when presented with multiple subordinate examples, compared to less knowledgeable children and adults. This implies a U-shaped developmental trend. The Bayesian model was not able to account for these data, even with inputs that reflected the similarity judgments of children. We discuss implications for the Bayesian model including a combined Bayesian/morphological knowledge account that could explain the demonstrated U-shaped trend. PMID:24961497

  5. Development of Bilingual Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Roles of Vocabulary, Letter Knowledge, and Prior Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Solari, Emily J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Schoger, Kimberly D.; Zhang, Zhou; Branum-Martin, Lee; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158…

  6. The relationship between beginning college chemistry achievement and prior knowledge, number of college mathematics courses completed, GPA of college mathematics courses completed, levels of Piagetian intellectual development, mathematics ACT score, science ACT score, and composite ACT score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Margaret Gorjanc

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between achievement in Chem 33 (a third semester general chemistry course) and the following predictor variables: prior knowledge (Chem 32 grade), level of Piagetian intellectual development, number of college mathematics courses previously completed, grades received in prior college mathematics courses, science ACT scores, mathematics ACT scores, and composite ACT scores. During the winter semester of the 1994--1995 school year, the students who were enrolled in two sections of Chem 33, taught by the same professor, were given the TOLT test. In addition, their student records were examined in order to determine the grade they received in Chem 32, the number of mathematics courses Completed in college, the GPA for the mathematics courses completed in college, the science ACT score, mathematics ACT score, and the composite ACT score. A Pearson Correlation was performed on these variables to determine to what extent they were able to predict the student's achievement, measured by the grade in Chem 33. What was found in respect to achievement in Chem 33 was: prior knowledge was r = 0.67, GPA of mathematics courses completed in college was r = 0.58, mathematics ACT was r = 0.50, composite ACT was r = 0.40, and TOLT was r = 0.33. A stepwise multiple regression was also performed to see what interactions could be found between the variables themselves. There was no single predictor variable that adequately serves as a dominant predictor variable for success in Chem 33. It can be concluded that the Chem 32 grade (prior knowledge) coupled with the GPA of the college mathematics courses completed in college as well as the mathematics ACT score are the best predictors for achievement in Chem 33.

  7. Sparse Representation of Electrodermal Activity With Knowledge-Driven Dictionaries

    PubMed Central

    Tsiartas, Andreas; Stein, Leah I.; Cermak, Sharon A.; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2015-01-01

    Biometric sensors and portable devices are being increasingly embedded into our everyday life, creating the need for robust physiological models that efficiently represent, analyze, and interpret the acquired signals. We propose a knowledge-driven method to represent electrodermal activity (EDA), a psychophysiological signal linked to stress, affect, and cognitive processing. We build EDA-specific dictionaries that accurately model both the slow varying tonic part and the signal fluctuations, called skin conductance responses (SCR), and use greedy sparse representation techniques to decompose the signal into a small number of atoms from the dictionary. Quantitative evaluation of our method considers signal reconstruction, compression rate, and information retrieval measures, that capture the ability of the model to incorporate the main signal characteristics, such as SCR occurrences. Compared to previous studies fitting a predetermined structure to the signal, results indicate that our approach provides benefits across all aforementioned criteria. This paper demonstrates the ability of appropriate dictionaries along with sparse decomposition methods to reliably represent EDA signals and provides a foundation for automatic measurement of SCR characteristics and the extraction of meaningful EDA features. PMID:25494494

  8. Bone mineral density in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected men with hypogonadism prior to highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Alterations of bone metabolism have been observed in numerous studies of HIV-infected patients. Sex steroids are known to profoundly influence bone mass and bone turnover. Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infection. Therefore, we performed a cross sectional study of 80 male HIV-infected patients without wasting syndrome, and 20 healthy male controls, in whom we analyzed urine and serum samples for both calciotropic hormones and markers of bone metabolism and of endocrine testicular function. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry both in the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle of the left hip. None of the patients received highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART). Compared to eugonadal HIV-infected patients, subjects with hypogonadism (n = 32; 40%) showed statistically significant decrease of serum osteocalcin (p < 0.05) and elevated urinary excretion of crosslinks (p < 0.05). However, we found 13 and 15, respectively, patients with osteopenia (t-score -1.0 to -2.5 SD below normal) of the lumbar spine. The dissociation between bone formation and resorption and the reduction of of BMD (p < 0.05) is stronger expressed in patients with hypogonadism. Habitual hypogonadism appears to be of additional relevance for bone metabolism of male HIV-positive patients prior to HAART. PMID:19258214

  9. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language biology students within the context of a marine theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-02-01

    The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) was launched in 1991 at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa in an attempt to equip a selected number of matriculants from historically disadvantaged schools with the skills, resources and self-confidence needed to embark on their tertiary studies. Previous research within the SFP biology component suggests that a major contributor to poor achievement and low retention rates among English second language (ESL) students in the Life Sciences is the inadequate background knowledge in natural history. In this study, SFP student background knowledge was assessed along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Improved student performance in each of the respective assessments examined the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to ESL proficiency. Student profiles and attitudes to biology were also examined. Results indicated that students did not perceive language to be a problem in biology. However, analysis of the student performance in the assessment probes indicated that, although the marine course provided the students with the background knowledge that they were initially lacking, they continued to perform better in the drawing and MCQ tools in the post-tests, suggesting that it is their inability to express themselves in the written form that hampers their development. These results have implications for curriculum development within the constructivist framework of the SFP.

  10. Supplementary polio immunization activities and prior use of routine immunization services in non-polio-endemic sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Frimpong, Jemima A; Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Asuming, Patrick; Touré, Hamadassalia; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Abachie, Thomas; Guidetti, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine participation in polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in sub-Saharan Africa among users and non-users of routine immunization services and among users who were compliant or non-compliant with the routine oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) immunization schedule. Methods Data were obtained from household-based surveys in non-polio-endemic sub-Saharan African countries. Routine immunization service users were children (aged < 5 years) who had ever had a health card containing their vaccination history; non-users were children who had never had a health card. Users were considered compliant with the OPV routine immunization schedule if, by the SIA date, their health card reflected receipt of required OPV doses. Logistic regression measured associations between SIA participation and use of both routine immunization services and compliance with routine OPV among users. Findings Data from 21 SIAs conducted between 1999 and 2010 in 15 different countries met inclusion criteria. Overall SIA participation ranged from 70.2% to 96.1%. It was consistently lower among infants than among children aged 1–4 years. In adjusted analyses, participation among routine immunization services users was > 85% in 12 SIAs but non-user participation was > 85% in only 5 SIAs. In 18 SIAs, participation was greater among users (P < 0.01 in 16, 0.05 in 1 and < 0.10 in 1) than non-users. In 14 SIAs, adjusted analyses revealed lower participation among non-compliant users than among compliant users (P < 0.01 in 10, < 0.05 in 2 and < 0.10 in 2). Conclusion Large percentages of children participated in SIAs. Prior use of routine immunization services and compliance with the routine OPV schedule showed a strong positive association with SIA participation. PMID:22807595

  11. Effects of Biology Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Cognitive Activation on Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Förtsch, Christian; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teachers' biology-specific dimensions of professional knowledge--pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK)--and cognitively activating biology instruction, as a feature of instructional quality, on students' learning. The sample comprised 39 German secondary school teachers whose lessons on…

  12. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  13. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  14. A Case Study Analysis of a Constructionist Knowledge Building Community with Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Chee S.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Wilson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its…

  15. "We Know but We Don't Really Know": Diet, Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Knowledge and Beliefs Among Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Beckham, A Jenna; Urrutia, Rachel Peragallo; Sahadeo, Latoya; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Nicholson, Wanda

    2015-08-01

    To describe the knowledge of underserved pregnant women related to diet, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Underserved pregnant women from the University of North Carolina and Pitt County, North Carolina participated in 9 focus group interviews. Focus group questions focused on knowledge of CVD risk factors, lifestyle prevention strategies such as diet and physical activity, and the sources of such knowledge. Data were analyzed with the constant comparative method. Prior to the focus group, each woman was invited to complete a telephone survey to collect demographic information and responses to a 13-item CVD knowledge questionnaire. Means and frequency procedures were used to analyze demographic information. Fifty women participated in nine focus group interviews. Participants possessed basic knowledge of CVD risk factors and preventive strategies, such as basic guidelines and recommendations for healthy diet and physical activity in pregnancy. However, women often receive incomplete guidance from obstetric providers, and women, therefore, desired more information on these topics. Some gaps were filled by nurses and nutritionists. Women also sought information from female friends and relatives. Incorrect knowledge was demonstrated in all groups and led to less healthful behaviors in some cases. Underserved pregnant women have basic knowledge about healthy lifestyle and CVD prevention behaviors; however important gaps and misinformation exist.

  16. Prior Knowledge of Rules in Concept Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, Charles J.

    This paper briefly reviews the literature concerning the Paiget-Burner debate over the roles of identify and reversibility rules in conservation acquisition, and describes an experiment designed to determine whether one group of rules is more closely related to conservation than the other. A group of children, aged 4-6 years, received tests of…

  17. Knowledge Integration While Interacting with an Online Troubleshooting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Puterkovsky, Menashe; Bagno, Esther

    2013-01-01

    A troubleshooting activity was carried out by an e-tutor in two steps. First, students diagnosed a mistaken statement and then compared their diagnosis to a teacher's diagnosis provided by the e-tutor. The mistaken statement involved a widespread tendency to over-generalize Ohm's law. We studied the discourse between pairs of students…

  18. Treatment of invasive fungal infections in high risk hematological patients. The outcome with liposomal amphotericin B is not negatively affected by prior administration of mold-active azoles.

    PubMed

    De la Serna, Javier; Jarque, Isidro; López-Jiménez, Javier; Fernández-Navarro, Jose María; Gómez, Valle; Jurado, Manuel; Pascual, Adriana; Serrano, Josefina; Romero, Mónica; Vallejo, Carlos

    2013-03-01

    There are concerns of a reduced effect of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) given sequentially after mold-active azoles due to a possible antagonism in their antifungal mechanism. To investigate this possible effect in the clinic, we retrospectively studied 182 high risk hematologic patients with invasive fungal infections (IFI) who were treated with L-AmB. Overall, 96 patients (52.7%) had possible, 52 (28.6%) probable and 34 (18.7%) proven IFI according to EORTC classification. Most had suspected or proven invasive aspergillosis. We compared patients with prior exposure to mold-active azoles (n=100) to those having not (n=82). The group with prior mold-active azoles included more patients with poor risk features for IFI as acute myeloid leukemia (p<0.05) and prolonged neutropenia (p<0.05). A favorable response in the IFI, defined as a complete or partial response, was achieved in 75% and 74.4% of patients in the whole cohort, and in 66% and 74.4% of patients with probable or proven IFI in the two groups. None of these differences were significant. Multivariate analysis showed that refractory baseline disease and renal dysfunction were adverse factors for response in the IFI (p<0.05). Survival was poorer for patients with prior broad spectrum azoles (p<0.05), and for those who did not recover from neutropenia (p<0.05). In conclusion, the effectiveness of treatment of breakthrough fungal infection with L-AmB is not likely to be affected by prior exposure to mold-active azoles prophylaxis, but survival largely depends on host and disease factors.

  19. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  20. Using Theory Elaboration and Activity Theory for Building a Knowledge Management Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.; Kazlauskas, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports ongoing developmental research at the Department of Agriculture to build a high-performance knowledge base for four agencies within the Department. Describes data gathering for the information system; planning to support knowledge management practices; theory elaboration through qualitative case analysis; and use of an activity theory…

  1. Case Study of Severe Lightning Activity Prior to and During the Outbreak of the June 1st Greenbelt Tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, B. H.; Badesha, S.; Shishineh, A.; Adams, N. H.

    2012-12-01

    Surges in lightning activity have been known to be associated with the outbreak of tornado activity. We present a case study of a tornado that touched down near Greenbelt Maryland during the evening of June 1st 2012. Preceding the tornado touchdown, two single point lightning detection systems, a Boltek LD-250 and Vaisala SA20, recorded very high lightning activity rates. An electric field mill (EFM) was also making measurements and recorded large, rapid amplitude oscillations in the vertical electric fields. These electric field oscillations quickly subsided after the initial tornado touchdown. The lightning activity also generated significant RF interference in the S-band dish antenna operated at the Applied Physics Laboratory. It was somewhat surprising that the lightning activity produced enough radiation at these frequencies to cause measured levels of interference which could potentially impair satellite communications. Our interpretation of the EFM data is that intensive vertical forcing and rotation in the thunderstorm during the tornado formation caused the observed rapid electric field oscillations. At the same time, the vertical mixing in the storm caused a surge in lightning activity rates recorded by the Boltek and Vaisala sensors. Following the tornado touchdown, there was a rapid decrease in the lightning rates from the sensors. The EFM oscillations also abruptly ceased and went to a more normal slow-varying pattern typically observed during other thunderstorms without associated tornado activity. It is suggested that a network of field mills could provide realtime warning of imminent tornado activity.

  2. Results of screening activities in salt states prior to the enactment of the Nationall Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most promising potential sites, and general studies of all the sites, in anticipation of the siting guidelines specified in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The screening work completed prior to the passage of the Act allowed the Secretary of Energy to identify seven salt sites as potentially acceptable under the provisions of Section 116(a) of the Act. These sites were formally identified by letters from Secretary Hodel to the states of Texas, Utah, Mississippi, and Louisiana on February 2, 1983. The potentially acceptable salt sites were in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties in Texas; Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Gibson Dome location in Utah; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Further screening will include comparison of each potentially acceptable site against disqualification factors and selection of a preferred site in each of the three geohydrologic settings from those remaining, in accordance with the siting guidelines. These steps will be documented in statutory Environmental Assessments prepared for each site to be nominated for detailed characterization. 9 references.

  3. Geochemical evidence for volcanic activity prior to and enhanced terrestrial weathering during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Rebecca; Fantle, Matthew S.; Kump, Lee R.; Ravizza, Gregory

    2013-10-01

    The Re-Os and major element geochemistry of an expanded gray shale sequence from the Central Basin in Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago (Norway) over the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is presented. The data suggest that a significant volcanic episode, as indicated primarily by a large drop in 187Os/188Os, occurred just prior to or coincident with the onset of the PETM. The distinct geochemistry of the inferred ash component is consistent with the geochemistry of contemporaneous ashes previously sampled in Denmark, and persists in the sedimentary record for ∼8 ka. Based on the substantial size of the 187Os/188Os decrease (Δ187Os/188Os ∼-0.23), the volcanic event must have involved widespread ash deposition in the local catchment. The terrestrially deposited ash weathered rapidly, shifting the 187Os/188Os of the basin water column to <0.5. Temporally, the volcanic event coincides with (or predates by a few thousand years) the onset of the PETM, suggesting northwest European shelf volcanism as the trigger for the PETM. As the planet warmed, both dissolved and detrital indicators of weathering indicate a <10 ka pulse of more weathered material to the basin, shifting authigenic 187Os/188Os to more radiogenic values and depositing clastic materials with higher Chemical Index of Alteration and lower Na/Ti. Persistently anoxic sedimentary pore fluids, interpreted to reflect bottom water anoxia, initiated close to the onset of the PETM. Anoxic, mainly euxinic, conditions persisted for ∼50 ka, ending abruptly ∼55.77 Ma. Anoxia appears related to enhanced high-latitude hydrological cycling and consequent basinal stratification during the PETM.

  4. Responses to startling acoustic stimuli indicate that movement-related activation is constant prior to action: a replication with an alternate interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Maslovat, Dana; Franks, Ian M; Leguerrier, Alexandra; Carlsen, Anthony N

    2015-01-01

    A recent study by Marinovic et al. (J. Neurophysiol., 2013, 109: 996–1008) used a loud acoustic stimulus to probe motor preparation in a simple reaction time (RT) task. Based on decreasing RT latency and increases in motor output measures as the probe stimulus approached the “go” stimulus, the authors concluded that response-related activation increased abruptly 65 ms prior to the imperative stimulus, a result in contrast to previous literature. However, this study did not measure reflexive startle activity in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, which has been used to delineate between response triggering by a loud acoustic stimuli and effects of stimulus intensity and/or intersensory facilitation. Due to this methodological limitation, it was unclear if the data accurately represented movement-related activation changes. In order to provide a measure as to whether response triggering occurred on each trial, the current experiment replicated the study by Marinovic et al., with the collection of muscle activation in the SCM. While the replication analyses involving all trials confirmed similar results to those reported by Marinovic et al., when data were limited to those in which startle-related SCM activation occurred, the results indicated that movement-related activation is constant in the 65 ms prior to action initiation. The difference between analyses suggests that when SCM activation is not considered, results may be confounded by trials in which the probe stimulus does not trigger the prepared response. Furthermore, these results provide additional confirmation that reflexive startle activation in the SCM is a robust indicator of response triggering by a loud acoustic stimulus. PMID:25663524

  5. The predominance of alternatively activated macrophages following challenge with cell wall peptide-polysaccharide after prior infection with Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Alegranci, Pamela; de Abreu Ribeiro, Livia Carolina; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Negrini, Thais de Cássia; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Tansini, Aline; Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. This disease generally occurs within the skin and subcutaneous tissues, causing lesions that can spread through adjacent lymphatic vessels and sometimes leading to systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients. Macrophages are crucial for proper immune responses against a variety of pathogens. Furthermore, macrophages can play different roles in response to different microorganisms and forms of activation, and they can be divided into "classic" or "alternatively" activated populations, as also known as M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 cells can lead to tissue injury and contribute to pathogenesis, whereas M2 cells promote angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of M1 and M2 macrophages in a sporotrichosis model. Toward this end, we performed phenotyping of peritoneal exudate cells and evaluated the concomitant production of several immunomediators, including IL-12, IL-10, TGF-β, nitric oxide, and arginase-I activity, which were stimulated ex vivo with cell wall peptide-polysaccharide. Our results showed the predominance of the M2 macrophage population, indicated by peaks of arginase-I activity as well as IL-10 and TGF-β production during the 6th and 8th weeks after infection. These results were consistent with cellular phenotyping that revealed increases in CD206-positive cells over this period. This is the first report of the participation of M2 macrophages in sporotrichosis infections.

  6. East-west type precursor activity prior to the auroral onset: Ground-based and THEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovchanskaya, I. V.; Kornilov, I. A.; Kornilova, T. A.

    2015-02-01

    Using ground-based optical observations, we study an auroral breakup event, focusing on the wave-like signatures of the east-west (E-W) type auroral activities which appear before breakup. By conjunction with the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) P2 and P5 measurements, it is shown that the underlying wave mode can be identified as the ballooning mode. Considering the similarity of the wave-like characteristics derived from ground-based auroral and THEMIS spacecraft observations, we argue that the E-W activities under study may be related to ballooning waves propagating in the plasma sheet. The implications for mechanisms of substorm triggering are discussed.

  7. Sequestration of CDH1 by MAD2L2 prevents premature APC/C activation prior to anaphase onset.

    PubMed

    Listovsky, Tamar; Sale, Julian E

    2013-10-14

    The switch from activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) by CDC20 to CDH1 during anaphase is crucial for accurate mitosis. APC/C(CDC20) ubiquitinates a limited set of substrates for subsequent degradation, including Cyclin B1 and Securin, whereas APC/C(CDH1) has a broader specificity. This switch depends on dephosphorylation of CDH1 and the APC/C, and on the degradation of CDC20. Here we show, in human cells, that the APC/C inhibitor MAD2L2 also contributes to ensuring the sequential activation of the APC/C by CDC20 and CDH1. In prometaphase, MAD2L2 sequestered free CDH1 away from the APC/C. At the onset of anaphase, MAD2L2 was rapidly degraded by APC/C(CDC20), releasing CDH1 to activate the dephosphorylated APC/C. Loss of MAD2L2 led to premature association of CDH1 with the APC/C, early destruction of APC/C(CDH1) substrates, and accelerated mitosis with frequent mitotic aberrations. Thus, MAD2L2 helps to ensure a robustly bistable switch between APC/C(CDC20) and APC/C(CDH1) during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, thereby contributing to mitotic fidelity.

  8. Current Situation and Analysis of Geography Teachers' Active Learning Knowledge and Usage in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuna, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    In parallel to the developments in the approach to education, the secondary education geography curriculum in Turkey was renewed in 2005. This new programme encourages the use of active learning methods and techniques in the classroom by adopting the idea that students should construct and interpret knowledge by actively participating in the…

  9. Active and Passive Spatial Learning in Human Navigation: Acquisition of Graph Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R.; Warren, William H.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that active exploration of a new environment leads to better spatial learning than does passive visual exposure. We ask whether specific components of active learning differentially contribute to particular forms of spatial knowledge--the "exploration-specific learning hypothesis". Previously, we found that idiothetic…

  10. Active and Passive Spatial Learning in Human Navigation: Acquisition of Survey Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R.; Warren, William H.

    2013-01-01

    It seems intuitively obvious that active exploration of a new environment would lead to better spatial learning than would passive visual exposure. It is unclear, however, which components of active learning contribute to spatial knowledge, and previous literature is decidedly mixed. This experiment tests the contributions of 4 components to…

  11. Examining the Knowledge and Capacity of Elementary Teachers to Implement Classroom Physical Activity Breaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkel, Danae M.; Lee, Jung-Min; Schaffer, Connie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined teachers' zone of proximal development for classroom physical activity breaks by assessing teachers' knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks. Five school districts of various sizes (n = 346 teachers) took part in a short online survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square…

  12. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  13. Muscle Activity Onset Prior to Landing in Patients after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Daniel; Rada, Isabel; Brau, Amélie; Gette, Paul; Seil, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Muscle activation during landing is paramount to stabilise lower limb joints and avoid abnormal movement patterns. Delayed muscle activity onset measured by electromyography (EMG) has been suggested to be associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to test the hypothesis if ACL-injured patients display different results for muscle onset timing during standard deceleration tasks compared to healthy control participants. PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases were systematically searched over the period from January 1980 to February 2015, yielding a total of 1461 citations. Six studies meeting inclusion criteria underwent quality assessment, data extraction and re-computing procedures for the meta-analysis. The quality was rated “moderate” for 2 studies and “poor” for 4. Patients included and procedures used were highly heterogeneous. The tasks investigated were single leg hopping, decelerating from running or walking, tested on a total of 102 ACL-injured participants and 86 controls. EMG analyses of the muscles vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, lateral and medial hamstrings revealed trivial and non-significant standardised mean differences (SMD<0.20; p>0.05) between patients and control participants. Furthermore, no differences were found between the contralateral leg of patients and controls for muscle activity onset of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (SMD<0.20; p>0.05). Based on 3 studies, the involved legs of ACL-injured patients showed overall earlier muscle activity onset compared to control participants for the medial gastrocnemius (SMD = 0.5; p = 0.05). Similar results were found for the lateral gastrocnemius (SMD = 2.1; p<0.001), with a greater effect size but based only on a single study. We conclude that there are no differences between leg muscles of ACL-injured patients and healthy controls regarding the muscle activity onset during landing. However

  14. The Effectiveness of WhatsApp Mobile Learning Activities Guided by Activity Theory on Students' Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barhoumi, Chokri

    2015-01-01

    This research paper explores the effectiveness of using mobile technologies to support a blended learning course titled Scientific Research Methods in Information Science. Specifically, it discusses the effects of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students' knowledge Management (KM). During the 2014 academic year,…

  15. Activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis is increased prior to the onset of spawning migration of chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Sato, Shunpei; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Makino, Keita; Hu, Weiwei; Jodo, Aya; Davis, Nancy D; Dickey, Jon T; Ban, Masatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Swanson, Penny; Urano, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    The activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis (PG axis) in pre-migratory and homing chum salmon was examined because endocrine mechanisms underlying the onset of spawning migration remain unknown. Pre-migratory fish were caught in the central Bering Sea in June, July and September 2001, 2002 and 2003, and in the Gulf of Alaska in February 2006. They were classified into immature and maturing adults on the basis of gonadal development. The maturing adults commenced spawning migration to coastal areas by the end of summer, because almost all fish in the Bering Sea were immature in September. In the pituitaries of maturing adults, the copy numbers of FSHbeta mRNA and the FSH content were 2.5- to 100-fold those of the immature fish. Similarly, the amounts of LHbeta mRNA and LH content in the maturing adults were 100- to 1000-fold those of immature fish. The plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol were higher than 10 nmol l(-1) in maturing adults, but lower than 1.0 nmol l(-1) in immature fish. The increase in the activity of the PG-axis components had already initiated in the maturing adults while they were still in the Gulf of Alaska in winter. In the homing adults, the pituitary contents and the plasma levels of gonadotropins and plasma sex steroid hormones peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. The present results thus indicate that the seasonal increase in the activity of the PG axis is an important endocrine event that is inseparable from initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon.

  16. Early, anti-immunoglobulin induced events prior to Na+-K+ pump activation: an analysis in a monoclonal human B-lymphoma cell population.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, R; Iversen, J G; Godal, T

    1983-10-01

    Events following F(ab)2 anti-delta immunoglobulin stimulation of monoclonal (leukemic) human B cells prior to Na+-K+ pump activation were investigated in vitro. This pump activation, measured by ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, appeared susceptible to the phospholipid-interacting drugs tetracaine and quinacrine, to the antioxydant nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), and to the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine, while much less susceptible to the methylation inhibitor-3-deazaadenosine. The Ca++ ionophore A 23187 appeared to induce pump activation in a way similar to anti-delta, as it was susceptible to the same drugs and as anti-delta had no additional stimulating effect on A 23187-stimulated cells. However, whereas the anti-delta-induced activations appeared independent of the extracellular Ca++ activity, [Ca++]e, the activation by A 23187 was potentiated by addition of the Ca++ chelator ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N, N'-tetracetic acid (EGTA). Estimations by fluorescent chelator method (quin 2) showed anti-delta to increase the intracellular Ca++ activity, [Ca++]i both in the absence and presence of EGTA. A 23187 increased [Ca++]i strongly in Ca++ medium, but was weaker, more similar to the anti-delta response, in EGTA medium. It is suggested that Na+-K+ pump activation after anti-Ig stimulation in B cells may follow Ca++ mobilization from internal stores. The trifluoperazine susceptibility suggests that calmodulin regulation is involved.

  17. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.

  18. Daily Parental Knowledge of Youth Activities Is Linked to Youth Physical Symptoms and HPA functioning

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, Mean Age Youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on eight consecutive evenings. On four study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multi-level models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own eight-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757

  19. Effect of knowledge integration activities on students' perception of the earth's crust as a cyclic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2003-08-01

    Systems thinking is regarded as a high-order thinking skill required in scientific, technological, and everyday domains. However, little is known about systems thinking in the context of science education. In the current research, students' understanding of the rock cycle system after a learning program was characterized, and the effect of a concluding knowledge integration activity on their systems thinking was studied. Answers to an open-ended test were interpreted using a systems thinking continuum, ranging from a completely static view of the system to an understanding of the system's cyclic nature. A meaningful improvement in students' views of the rock cycle toward the higher side of the systems thinking continuum was found after the knowledge integration activity. Students became more aware of the dynamic and cyclic nature of the rock cycle, and their ability to construct sequences of processes representing material transformation in relatively large chunks significantly improved. Success of the knowledge integration activity stresses the importance of postknowledge acquisition activities, which engage students in a dual process of differentiation of their knowledge and reintegration in a systems context. We suggest including such activities in curricula involving systems-based contents, particularly in earth science, in which systems thinking can bring about environmental literacy.

  20. Active perspective taking induces flexible use of self-knowledge during social inference.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew R; Simpson, Austin J; Tamir, Diana I

    2016-12-01

    Social life hinges on the ability to infer others' mental states. By default, people often recruit self-knowledge during social inference, particularly for others who are similar to oneself. How do people's active perspective-taking efforts-deliberately imagining another's perspective-affect self-knowledge use? In 2 experiments, we test the flexible self-application hypothesis: that the application of self-knowledge to a perspective-taking target differs based on that person's similarity to oneself. We found consistent evidence that, when making inferences about dissimilar others, perspective taking increased the projection of one's own traits and preferences to those targets, relative to a control condition. When making inferences about similar others, however, perspective taking decreased projection. These findings suggest that self-target similarity critically shapes the inferential processes triggered by active perspective-taking efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Magnetic activated cell sorting: an effective method for reduction of sperm DNA fragmentation in varicocele men prior to assisted reproductive techniques.

    PubMed

    Degheidy, T; Abdelfattah, H; Seif, A; Albuz, F K; Gazi, S; Abbas, S

    2015-10-01

    Semen parameters of varicocele men have been usually suspected to exhibit higher levels of abnormalities including DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic markers. Negative correlation between increased level of DNA fragmentation and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) outcome has been studied by several authors. In the current study, we aim to evaluate the possible value of magnetic activated cell sorting (MACs) technology in reduction of DNA fragmentation in infertile varicocele patients prior to ART. Semen samples, collected from 36 varicocele patients, were prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Every sample was subsequently divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was kept untouched as pre-MACs control while the other aliquot was subjected to MACs technique, for depletion of apoptotic spermatozoa, and serves as post-MACs test. Sperm count, motility and DNA fragmentations were evaluated for both control and test samples. Post-MACs samples showed no deleterious reduction in total sperm motility (80.64 ± 6.97%) compared with control samples (80.97 ± 7.74%) while sperm DNA fragmentations were significantly reduced in post-MACs samples (9.61 ± 5.62%) compared with pre-MACs controls (12.43 ± 6.29%) (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that MACs technique is a simple, noninvasive, technique that can efficiently reduce DNA fragmentation in infertile varicocele patients prior to ART.

  2. The effects of video-based and activity-based instruction on high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to seat belt use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Tudor Griffith, III

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of video-based science instruction and accompanying activity-based instruction on the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school students' use of seat belts. Secondarily, the purpose was to determine order effects and interactions between the two treatments used in the study: video-based instruction and hands-on activity-based instruction. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to investigate the factors influencing high school students' behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. This study used a pretest-posttest-posttest treatment design. Data were collected on 194 students in high school introductory biology and chemistry classes in Gainesville, Florida. Ten intact high school science classes (eight treatment and two control) took pretests and posttests measuring physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to and after participating in the two treatments. The treatment group students participated in at least 500 minutes of instructional time divided among five lessons over 10 instructional days. All participants were pretested on physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to two treatments. Treatment A was defined as participating in one 50-minute video-based instructional lesson. Treatment B was defined as participating in four hands-on science activities regarding crash-related physics concepts. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < .004) revealed that students who participated in either treatment showed significant differences in knowledge gains on 75% of the test items. The sequence of treatments did not produce significant differences in groups' posttest 2 knowledge mean scores. Combining the treatments resulted in higher mean knowledge scores than either

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Clinicians in Promoting Physical Activity to Prostate Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…

  4. Physical Activity and Fitness Knowledge Learning in Physical Education: Seeking a Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang; Sun, Haichun; Zhu, Xihe

    2013-01-01

    Motivation to learn is a disposition developed through exposure to learning opportunities. Guided by the expectancy-value theory of Eccles and Wigfield (1995), this study examined the extent to which expectancy belief and task value influenced elementary school students' physical activity and knowledge learning in physical education (PE).…

  5. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  6. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  7. Post-Knowledge of Results Delay: Effects of Interpolated Activity on Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Carol; McCullagh, Penny

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence strongly supports the assumption that knowledge of results (KR) is necessary for learning to occur. This study compares the effects of KR or no-KR with the effects of an interpolated verbal activity on learning and performance of a timed motor task. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  8. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  9. Investigating Acceptance toward Mobile Learning to Assist Individual Knowledge Management: Based on Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…

  10. Effect of Knowledge Integration Activities on Students' Perception of the Earth's Crust as a Cyclic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2003-01-01

    Characterizes students' understanding of the rock cycle system. Examines effects of a knowledge integration activity on their system thinking. Interprets answers to an open-ended test using a systems thinking continuum ranging from a completely static view of the system to an understanding of the system's cyclic nature. Reports meaningful…

  11. Development of Positive Racial Attitudes, Knowledges, and Activities in Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Lamb, Morris L.

    Information on aspects of social studies teachers' racial attitudes, knowledges, and skill in implementing relevant ethnic-racial activities in the classroom are presented. Major research studies that have examined teacher attitudes toward black and other minority group children are discussed along with information on programs that have attempted…

  12. Close, but no garlic: Perceptuomotor and event knowledge activation during language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Amsel, Ben D.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that language comprehension is guided by knowledge about the organization of objects and events in long-term memory. We use event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine the extent to which perceptuomotor object knowledge and event knowledge are immediately activated during incremental language processing. Event-related but anomalous sentence continuations preceded by single-sentence event descriptions elicited reduced N400s, despite their poor fit within local sentence contexts. Anomalous words sharing particular sensory or motor attributes with contextually expected words also elicited reduced N400s, despite being inconsistent with global context (i.e., event information). We rule out plausibility as an explanation for both relatedness effects. We show that perceptuomotor-related facilitation is not due to lexical priming between words in the local context and the target or to associative or categorical relationships between expected and unexpected targets. Overall our results are consistent with the immediate and incremental activation of perceptual and motor object knowledge and generalized event knowledge during sentence processing. PMID:25897182

  13. Prior heavy exercise elevates pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and speeds O2 uptake kinetics during subsequent moderate-intensity exercise in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gurd, B J; Peters, S J; Heigenhauser, G J F; LeBlanc, P J; Doherty, T J; Paterson, D H; Kowalchuk, J M

    2006-01-01

    The adaptation of pulmonary oxygen uptake V˙O2 during the transition to moderate-intensity exercise (Mod) is faster following a prior bout of heavy-intensity exercise. In the present study we examined the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHa) during Mod both with and without prior heavy-intensity exercise. Subjects (n = 9) performed a Mod1–heavy-intensity–Mod2 exercise protocol preceded by 20 W baseline. Breath-by-breath V˙O2 kinetics and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle oxygenation were measured continuously, and muscle biopsy samples were taken at specific times during the transition to Mod. In Mod1, PDHa increased from baseline (1.08 ± 0.2 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1) to 30 s (2.05 ± 0.2 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1), with no additional change at 6 min exercise (2.07 ± 0.3 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1). In Mod2, PDHa was already elevated at baseline (1.88 ± 0.3 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1) and was greater than in Mod1, and did not change at 30 s (1.96 ± 0.2 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1) but increased at 6 min exercise (2.70 ± 0.3 mmol min−1 (kg wet wt)−1). The time constant of V˙O2 was lower in Mod2 (19 ± 2 s) than Mod1 (24 ± 3 s). Phosphocreatine (PCr) breakdown from baseline to 30 s was greater (P < 0.05) in Mod1 (13.6 ± 6.7 mmol (kg dry wt)−1) than Mod2 (6.5 ± 6.2 mmol (kg dry wt)−1) but total PCr breakdown was similar between conditions (Mod1, 14.8 ± 7.4 mmol (kg dry wt)−1; Mod2, 20.1 ± 8.0 mmol (kg dry wt)−1). Both oxyhaemoglobin and total haemoglobin were elevated prior to and throughout Mod2 compared with Mod1. In conclusion, the greater PDHa at baseline prior to Mod2 compared with Mod1 may have contributed in part to the faster V˙O2 kinetics in Mod2. That oxyhaemoglobin and total haemoglobin were elevated prior to Mod2 suggests that greater muscle perfusion may also have contributed to the observed faster V˙O2 kinetics. These findings are consistent with metabolic inertia, via delayed activation of PDH

  14. Constrained noninformative priors

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Jeffreys noninformative prior distribution for a single unknown parameter is the distribution corresponding to a uniform distribution in the transformed model where the unknown parameter is approximately a location parameter. To obtain a prior distribution with a specified mean but with diffusion reflecting great uncertainty, a natural generalization of the noninformative prior is the distribution corresponding to the constrained maximum entropy distribution in the transformed model. Examples are given.

  15. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women.

    PubMed

    Veasey, Rachel C; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Kennedy, David O; Tiplady, Brian; Stevenson, Emma J

    2015-07-14

    Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05). In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS) and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal) or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  16. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, Rachel C.; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F.; Kennedy, David O.; Tiplady, Brian; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05). In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS) and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal) or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings. PMID:26184302

  17. Knowledge Management Activity within the Satellite Domain in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateshita, Hiroaki; Soga, Midori; Fukuda, Takao; Miyoshi, Hiroshi

    Previously, each satellite project in JAXA had individually its own way of managing technical information (e.g. technical documents for planning, requirements, specifications, design, test, and operation). Although there was an information sharing environment in JAXA, no project actively submitted its own information due to a lack of functions for access control and for rapid acquisition of information, which are required by satellite projects. These situations made it very difficult for users to gather information on other projects. Additionally, there was the risk of losing significant knowledge of satellite projects upon their termination. In order to resolve these issues, minimum standard rules, including user-friendly classification rules, were established from the point of view of leveraging knowledge through long discussions with each project. An information system with appropriate access control was developed to implement the standard rules. Since April 2007, the rules and the system have been applied to each project. The risk of losing knowledge has been reduced by enabling the terminated projects to smoothly transfer their technical information to the system. This paper presents an overview of our current knowledge-management activity within the satellite domain including the remaining issues and the proposed solutions to these issues.

  18. Temporal dynamics of activation of thematic and functional knowledge during conceptual processing of manipulable artifacts.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Mirman, Daniel; Middleton, Erica L; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2012-09-01

    The current research aimed at specifying the activation time course of different types of semantic information during object conceptual processing and the effect of context on this time course. We distinguished between thematic and functional knowledge and the specificity of functional similarity. Two experiments were conducted with healthy older adults using eye tracking in a word-to-picture matching task. The time course of gaze fixations was used to assess activation of distractor objects during the identification of manipulable artifact targets (e.g., broom). Distractors were (a) thematically related (e.g., dustpan), (b) related by a specific function (e.g., vacuum cleaner), or (c) related by a general function (e.g., sponge). Growth curve analyses were used to assess competition effects when target words were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and embedded in contextual sentences of different generality levels (Experiment 2). In the absence of context, there was earlier and shorter lasting activation of thematically related as compared to functionally related objects. The time course difference was more pronounced for general functions than specific functions. When contexts were provided, functional similarities that were congruent with context generality level increased in salience with earlier activation of those objects. Context had little impact on thematic activation time course. These data demonstrate that processing a single manipulable artifact concept implicitly activates thematic and functional knowledge with different time courses and that context speeds activation of context-congruent functional similarity.

  19. Physical priors in virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaz, Hassan; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Liang, Jianming

    2009-02-01

    Electronic colon cleansing (ECC) aims to remove the contrast agent from the CT abdominal images so that a virtual model of the colon can be constructed. Virtual colonoscopy requires either liquid or solid preparation of the colon before CT imaging. This paper has two parts to address ECC in both preparation methods. In the first part, meniscus removal in the liquid preparation is studied. The meniscus is the curve seen at the top of a liquid in response to its container. Left on the colon wall, the meniscus can decrease the sensitivity and specificity of virtual colonoscopy. We state the differential equation that governs the profile of the meniscus and propose an algorithm for calculating the boundary of the contrast agent. We compute the surface tension of the liquid-colon wall contact using in-vivo CT data. Our results show that the surface tension can be estimated with an acceptable degree of uncertainty. Such an estimate, along with the meniscus profile differential equation will be used as an a priori knowledge to aid meniscus segmentation. In the second part, we study ECC in solid preparation of colon. Since the colon is pressurized with air before acquisition of the CT images, a prior on the shape of the colon wall can be obtained. We present such prior and investigate it using patient data. We show the shape prior is held in certain parts of the colon and propose a method that uses this prior to ease pseudoenhancement correction.

  20. CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE RECEPTORS IN THE MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX REGULATE HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL ACTIVITY AND ANXIETY-RELATED BEHAVIOR REGARDLESS OF PRIOR STRESS EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Jaferi, Azra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2007-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis habituates, or gradually decreases its activity, with repeated exposure to the same stressor. During habituation, the HPA axis likely requires input from cortical and limbic regions involved in processing of cognitive information that is important in coping to stress. Brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are recognized as important in mediating these processes. The mPFC modulates stress-related behavior and some evidence suggests that the mPFC regulates acute and repeated stress-induced HPA responses. Interestingly, corticotropin releasing hormone(CRH)-1 receptors, which integrate neuroendocrine, behavioral and autonomic responses to stress, are localized in the mPFC but have not been specifically examined with respect to HPA regulation. We hypothesized that CRH receptor activity in the mPFC contributes to stress-induced regulation of HPA activity and anxiety-related behavior, and that CRH release in the mPFC may differentially regulate HPA responses in acutely- compared to repeatedly-stressed animals. In the present experiments, we found that blockade of CRH receptors in the mPFC with the non-selective receptor antagonist, D-Phe-CRH (50ng or 100ng) significantly inhibited HPA responses compared to vehicle regardless of whether animals were exposed to a single, acute 30min restraint or to the eighth 30min restraint. We also found that intra-mPFC injections of CRH (20ng) significantly increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze in both acutely- and repeatedly-restrained groups compared to vehicle. Together, these results suggest an excitatory influence of CRH in the mPFC on stress-induced HPA activity and anxiety-related behavior regardless of prior stress experience. PMID:18001698

  1. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Control Activities in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olamiju, Olatunwa J.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Adeniran, Adebiyi A.; Mba, Ifeanyi C.; Ukwunna, Chidera C.; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Ekpo, Uwem F.

    2014-01-01

    The need to engage the public in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) control activities has become imperative in the context of morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy and community participation. Therefore, a survey was conducted among the general public to assess their knowledge and awareness of NTDs control activities in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire was administered to the general public attending a job fair in Abuja, Nigeria. Of the 461 respondents, a significant proportion 337 (73.1%) have heard of NTD before, but only 291 (63.1%) have good knowledge about NTDs. However, among the specific NTDs, only the control of onchocerciasis (50.8%) was of average public awareness in Nigeria, while all the other NTDs control activities were significantly less known to the general public. 397 (87.1%) stated that government support for NTD control activities is poor and were willing to assist to advocate for NTDs control. This survey demonstrates that despite government's numerous activities towards the control of NTDs in Nigeria, there is little sensitization of the general public. There is a need for policy changes that would raise the participation and involvement of the general public in NTDs control activities for sustainability. PMID:25254362

  2. Voluntary active euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide: knowledge and attitudes of Dutch medical students.

    PubMed

    Muller, M T; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D; Kriegsman, D M; van der Wal, G

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the study was to gain insight into the knowledge of and attitudes towards voluntary active euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide (EEDAS) of Dutch medical students, and to determine whether knowledge and attitudes change after a 1-day informative conference about EDAS. Data were collected by means of two self-administered questionnaires. Questionnaire 1 had to be completed before the start of the conference and questionnaire 2 after the conference. In both questionnaires, students were asked by means of two open-ended questions to define euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide. They were also asked to indicate which of eight statements met with the requirements for prudent practice. Finally, the students were asked to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of seven statements about attitudes towards EDAS. To determine if a selection occurred among students who returned both questionnaires, their background characteristics, and knowledge and attitudes towards EDAS were compared with those who returned only the first questionnaire. Forty-seven students returned only the first questionnaire, while both questionnaires were returned by 137 students. No differences were found between students who returned both questionnaires and those who returned only the first questionnaire with regard to age, religion, knowledge of and attitudes towards EDAS. Students' knowledge of the definitions of EDAS and the requirements for prudent practice improved significantly. Students' reactions to the statements on attitudes towards EDAS showed that a large majority had a fairly positive attitude towards EDAS. There was no significant difference before and after the conference. Male students and students with a religion were more opposed to EDAS than female students and students without a religion. The fact that the students' knowledge of EDAS improved after a 1-day conference does not imply sufficient understanding of the issue. Because EDAS is allowed only under

  3. Changes in Primary School Children's Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environments Related to Nutrition and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Magarey, Anthea Margaret; Pettman, Tahna Lee; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Rigorous evaluation of large-scale community-based obesity interventions can provide important guidance to policy and decision makers. The eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs, a five-year multilevel, multistrategy community-based obesity intervention targeting children in a range of settings, was delivered in two communities. A comprehensive mixed-methods evaluation using a quasiexperimental design with nonmatched comparison communities was undertaken. This paper describes the changes in primary school children's attitudes, behaviours, knowledge, and environments associated with healthy eating and physical activity, based on data from six questionnaires completed pre- and postintervention by students, parents, and school representatives. As self-reported by students in years from five to seven there were few significant improvements over time in healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, attitudes, knowledge, and perceived environments, and there were few changes in the home environment (parent report). Overall there were considerably more improvements in intervention compared with comparison schools affecting all environmental areas, namely, policy, physical, financial, and sociocultural, in addition to improvements in teacher skill and knowledge. These improvements in children's learning environments are important and likely to be sustainable as they reflect a change of school culture. More sensitive evaluation tools may detect behaviour changes. PMID:24555153

  4. Superior temporal activation as a function of linguistic knowledge: insights from deaf native signers who speechread.

    PubMed

    Capek, Cheryl M; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairéad; Waters, Dafydd; McGuire, Philip K; David, Anthony S; Brammer, Michael J; Campbell, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. This region is also reliably activated by observation of meaningless oral and manual actions. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic knowledge irrespective of differences in language form. We used a novel cross-linguistic approach in two groups of volunteers who differed in their language experience. Using fMRI, we compared deaf native signers of British Sign Language (BSL), who were also proficient speechreaders of English (i.e., two languages) with hearing people who could speechread English, but knew no BSL (i.e., one language). Both groups were presented with BSL signs and silently spoken English words, and were required to respond to a signed or spoken target. The interaction of group and condition revealed activation in the superior temporal cortex, bilaterally, focused in the posterior superior temporal gyri (pSTG, BA 42/22). In hearing people, these regions were activated more by speech than by sign, but in deaf respondents they showed similar levels of activation for both language forms - suggesting that posterior superior temporal regions are highly sensitive to language knowledge irrespective of the mode of delivery of the stimulus material.

  5. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.

  6. Making priors a priority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, Matthew; Chadwick, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    When we build a predictive model of a drug property we rigorously assess its predictive accuracy, but we are rarely able to address the most important question, "How useful will the model be in making a decision in a practical context?" To answer this requires an understanding of the prior probability distribution ("the prior") and hence prevalence of negative outcomes due to the property being assessed. In this perspective, we illustrate the importance of the prior to assess the utility of a model in different contexts: to select or eliminate compounds, to prioritise compounds for further investigation using more expensive screens, or to combine models for different properties to select compounds with a balance of properties. In all three contexts, a better understanding of the prior probabilities of adverse events due to key factors will improve our ability to make good decisions in drug discovery, finding higher quality molecules more efficiently.

  7. Automated compromised right lung segmentation method using a robust atlas-based active volume model with sparse shape composition prior in CT.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinghao; Yan, Zhennan; Lasio, Giovanni; Huang, Junzhou; Zhang, Baoshe; Sharma, Navesh; Prado, Karl; D'Souza, Warren

    2015-12-01

    To resolve challenges in image segmentation in oncologic patients with severely compromised lung, we propose an automated right lung segmentation framework that uses a robust, atlas-based active volume model with a sparse shape composition prior. The robust atlas is achieved by combining the atlas with the output of sparse shape composition. Thoracic computed tomography images (n=38) from patients with lung tumors were collected. The right lung in each scan was manually segmented to build a reference training dataset against which the performance of the automated segmentation method was assessed. The quantitative results of this proposed segmentation method with sparse shape composition achieved mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of (0.72, 0.81) with 95% CI, mean accuracy (ACC) of (0.97, 0.98) with 95% CI, and mean relative error (RE) of (0.46, 0.74) with 95% CI. Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons suggest that this proposed method can achieve better segmentation accuracy with less variance than other atlas-based segmentation methods in the compromised lung segmentation.

  8. Constructing priors in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M

    2014-01-01

    A new theoretical framework (PPSMC) applicable to synesthesia has been proposed, in which the discrepancy between the perceptual reality of (some) synesthetic concurrents and their subjective non-veridicality is being explained. The PPSMC framework stresses the relevance of the phenomenology of synesthesia for synesthesia research-and beyond. When describing the emergence and persistence of synesthetic concurrents under PPSMC, it is proposed that precise, high-confidence priors are crucial in synesthesia. I discuss the construction of priors in synesthesia.

  9. Advanced mercury removal from gold leachate solutions prior to gold and silver extraction: a field study from an active gold mine in Peru.

    PubMed

    Matlock, Matthew M; Howerton, Brock S; Van Aelstyn, Mike A; Nordstrom, Fredrik L; Atwood, David A

    2002-04-01

    Mercury contamination in the Gold-Cyanide Process (GCP) is a serious health and environmental problem. Following the heap leaching of gold and silver ores with NaCN solutions, portions of the mercury-cyano complexes often adhere to the activated carbon (AC) used to extract the gold. During the electrowinning and retorting steps, mercury can be (and often is) emitted to the air as a vapor. This poses a severe health hazard to plant workers and the local environment. Additional concerns relate to the safety of workers when handling the mercury-laden AC. Currently, mercury treatment from the heap leach solution is nonexistent. This is due to the fact that chelating ligands which can effectively work under the adverse pH conditions (as present in the heap leachate solutions) do not exist. In an effort to economically and effectively treat the leachate solution prior to passing over the AC, a dipotassium salt of 1,3-benzenediamidoethanethiol (BDET2-) has been developed to irreversibly bind and precipitate the mercury. The ligand has proven to be highly effective by selectively reducing mercury levels from average initial concentrations of 34.5 ppm (parts per million) to 0.014 ppm within 10 min and to 0.008 ppm within 15 min. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Raman, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy demonstrate the formation of a mercury-ligand compound, which remains insoluble over pH ranges of 0.0-14.0. Leachate samples from an active gold mine in Peru have been analyzed using cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAF) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for metal concentrations before and after treatment with the BDET2- ligand.

  10. Using a combined population-based and kinetic modelling approach to assess timescales and durations of magma migration activities prior to the 1669 flank eruption of Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, M.; Morgan, D. J.; Viccaro, M.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The March-July eruption of Mt. Etna in 1669 is ranked as one of the most destructive and voluminous eruptions of Etna volcano in historical times. To assess threats from future eruptions, a better understanding of how and over what timescales magma moved underground prior to and during the 1669 eruption is required. We present a combined population based and kinetic modelling approach [1-2] applied to 185 olivine crystals that erupted during the 1669 eruption. By means of this approach we provide, for the first time, a dynamic picture of magma mixing and magma migration activity prior to and during the 1669 flank eruption of Etna volcano. Following the work of [3] we have studied 10 basaltic lava samples (five SET1 and five SET2 samples) that were erupted from different fissures that opened between 950 and 700 m a.s.l. Following previous work [1-2] we were able to classify different populations of olivine based on their overall core and rim compositional record and the prevalent zoning type (i.e. normal vs. reverse). The core plateau compositions of the SET1 and SET2 olivines range from Fo70 up to Fo83 with a single peak at Fo75-76. The rims differ significantly and can be distinguished into two different groups. Olivine rims from the SET1 samples are generally more evolved and range from Fo50 to Fo64 with a maximum at Fo55-57. SET2 olivine rims vary between Fo65-75 with a peak at Fo69. SET1 and SET2 olivines display normal zonation with cores at Fo75-76 and diverging rim records (Fo55-57 and Fo65-75). The diverging core and rim compositions recorded in the SET1 and SET2 olivines can be attributed to magma evolution possibly in three different magmatic environments (MEs): M1 (=Fo75-76), M2 (=Fo69) and M3 (=Fo55-57) with magma transfer and mixing amongst them. The MEs established in this study differ slightly from those identified in previous works [1-2]. We note the relative lack of olivines with Fo-rich core and rim compositions indicating a major mafic magma

  11. Frequent Surfing on Social Health Networks is Associated With Increased Knowledge and Patient Health Activation

    PubMed Central

    Grosberg, Dafna; Grinvald, Haya; Reuveni, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of the Internet has driven a technological revolution that has changed our lives. As part of this phenomenon, social networks have attained a prominent role in health care. A variety of medical services is provided over the Internet, including home monitoring, interactive communications between the patient and service providers, and social support, among others. This study emphasizes some of the practical implications of Web-based health social networks for patients and for health care systems. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how participation in a social network among individuals with a chronic condition contributed to patient activation, based on the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Methods A prospective, cross-sectional survey with a retrospective component was conducted. Data were collected from Camoni, a Hebrew-language Web-based social health network, participants in the diabetes mellitus, pain, hypertension, and depression/anxiety forums, during November 2012 to 2013. Experienced users (enrolled at least 6 months) and newly enrolled received similar versions of the same questionnaire including sociodemographics and PAM. Results Among 686 participants, 154 of 337 experienced and 123 of 349 newly enrolled completed the questionnaire. Positive correlations (P<.05) were found between frequency and duration of site visits and patient activation, social relationships, and chronic disease knowledge. Men surfed longer than women (χ²3=10.104, P<.05). Experienced users with diabetes surfed more than those with other illnesses and had significantly higher PAM scores (mean, M=69.3, standard deviation, SD=19.1, PAM level 4; Z=−4.197, P<.001) than new users (M=62.8, SD=18.7, PAM level 3). Disease knowledge directly predicted PAM for all users (β=.26 and .21, respectively). Frequency and duration of social health network use were correlated with increased knowledge about a chronic disease. Experienced surfers had higher PAM

  12. Fostering nurses' political knowledges and practices: education and political activation in relation to lesbian health.

    PubMed

    MacDonnell, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context.

  13. Virk: an active learning-based system for bootstrapping knowledge base development in the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Ambert, Kyle H; Cohen, Aaron M; Burns, Gully A P C; Boudreau, Eilis; Sonmez, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    The frequency and volume of newly-published scientific literature is quickly making manual maintenance of publicly-available databases of primary data unrealistic and costly. Although machine learning (ML) can be useful for developing automated approaches to identifying scientific publications containing relevant information for a database, developing such tools necessitates manually annotating an unrealistic number of documents. One approach to this problem, active learning (AL), builds classification models by iteratively identifying documents that provide the most information to a classifier. Although this approach has been shown to be effective for related problems, in the context of scientific databases curation, it falls short. We present Virk, an AL system that, while being trained, simultaneously learns a classification model and identifies documents having information of interest for a knowledge base. Our approach uses a support vector machine (SVM) classifier with input features derived from neuroscience-related publications from the primary literature. Using our approach, we were able to increase the size of the Neuron Registry, a knowledge base of neuron-related information, by a factor of 90%, a knowledge base of neuron-related information, in 3 months. Using standard biocuration methods, it would have taken between 1 and 2 years to make the same number of contributions to the Neuron Registry. Here, we describe the system pipeline in detail, and evaluate its performance against other approaches to sampling in AL.

  14. Prior stimulation of the endocannabinoid system prevents methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum through activation of CB2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Joëlle; Rapino, Cinzia; Gennequin, Benjamin; Chavant, Francois; Francheteau, Maureen; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Duranti, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine toxicity is associated with cell death and loss of dopamine neuron terminals in the striatum similar to what is found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been suggested to be neuroprotective in the brain, and new pharmacological tools have been developed to increase their endogenous tone. In this study, we evaluated whether ECS stimulation could reduce the neurotoxicity of high doses of methamphetamine on the dopamine system. We found that methamphetamine alters the levels of the major endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in the striatum, suggesting that the ECS participates in the brain responses to methamphetamine. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabis-derived agonist of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, or inhibitors of the main enzymes responsible for the degradation of AEA and 2-AG (URB597 and JZL184, respectively), blunted the decrease in striatal protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase induced by methamphetamine. In addition, antagonists of CB2, but not of CB1, blocked the preventive effects of URB597 and JZL184, suggesting that only the former receptor subtype is engaged in neuroprotection exerted by ECS stimulation. Finally, we found that methamphetamine increases striatal levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha, an effect that was blocked by ECS stimulation. Altogether, our results indicate that stimulation of ECS prior to the administration of an overdose of meth-amphetamine considerably reduces the neurotoxicity of the drug through CB2 receptor activation and highlight a protective function for the ECS against the toxicity induced by drugs and other external insults to the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘CNS Stimulants’. PMID:24709540

  15. Prior stimulation of the endocannabinoid system prevents methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum through activation of CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nader, Joëlle; Rapino, Cinzia; Gennequin, Benjamin; Chavant, Francois; Francheteau, Maureen; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Duranti, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie

    2014-12-01

    Methamphetamine toxicity is associated with cell death and loss of dopamine neuron terminals in the striatum similar to what is found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been suggested to be neuroprotective in the brain, and new pharmacological tools have been developed to increase their endogenous tone. In this study, we evaluated whether ECS stimulation could reduce the neurotoxicity of high doses of methamphetamine on the dopamine system. We found that methamphetamine alters the levels of the major endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in the striatum, suggesting that the ECS participates in the brain responses to methamphetamine. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabis-derived agonist of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, or inhibitors of the main enzymes responsible for the degradation of AEA and 2-AG (URB597 and JZL184, respectively), blunted the decrease in striatal protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase induced by methamphetamine. In addition, antagonists of CB2, but not of CB1, blocked the preventive effects of URB597 and JZL184, suggesting that only the former receptor subtype is engaged in neuroprotection exerted by ECS stimulation. Finally, we found that methamphetamine increases striatal levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha, an effect that was blocked by ECS stimulation. Altogether, our results indicate that stimulation of ECS prior to the administration of an overdose of methamphetamine considerably reduces the neurotoxicity of the drug through CB2 receptor activation and highlight a protective function for the ECS against the toxicity induced by drugs and other external insults to the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  16. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  17. Left prefrontal cortex activation during sentence comprehension covaries with grammatical knowledge in children.

    PubMed

    Knoll, L J; Obleser, J; Schipke, C S; Friederici, A D; Brauer, J

    2012-08-01

    Children's language skills develop rapidly with increasing age, and several studies indicate that they use language- and age-specific strategies to understand complex sentences. In the present experiment, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral measures were used to investigate the acquisition of case-marking cues for sentence interpretation in the developing brain of German preschool children with a mean age of 6 years. Short sentences were presented auditorily, consisting of a transitive verb and two case-marked arguments with canonical subject-initial or non canonical object-initial word order. Overall group results revealed mainly left hemispheric activation in the perisylvian cortex with increased activation in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for object-initial compared to subject-initial sentences. However, single-subject analysis suggested two distinct activation patterns within the group which allowed a classification into two subgroups. One subgroup showed the predicted activation increase in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the more difficult object-initial compared to subject-initial sentences, while the other group showed the reverse effect. This activation in the left IFG can be taken to reflect the degree to which adult-like sentence processing strategies, necessary to integrate case-marking information, are applied. Additional behavioral data on language development tests show that these two subgroups differ in their grammatical knowledge. Together with these behavioral findings, the results indicate that the use of a particular processing strategy is not dependent on age as such, but rather on the child's individual grammatical knowledge and the ability to use specific language cues for successful sentence comprehension.

  18. The Truth Before and After: Brain Potentials Reveal Automatic Activation of Event Knowledge during Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nieuwland, Mante S

    2015-11-01

    How does knowledge of real-world events shape our understanding of incoming language? Do temporal terms like "before" and "after" impact the online recruitment of real-world event knowledge? These questions were addressed in two ERP experiments, wherein participants read sentences that started with "before" or "after" and contained a critical word that rendered each sentence true or false (e.g., "Before/After the global economic crisis, securing a mortgage was easy/harder"). The critical words were matched on predictability, rated truth value, and semantic relatedness to the words in the sentence. Regardless of whether participants explicitly verified the sentences or not, false-after-sentences elicited larger N400s than true-after-sentences, consistent with the well-established finding that semantic retrieval of concepts is facilitated when they are consistent with real-world knowledge. However, although the truth judgments did not differ between before- and after-sentences, no such sentence N400 truth value effect occurred in before-sentences, whereas false-before-sentences elicited an enhanced subsequent positive ERPs. The temporal term "before" itself elicited more negative ERPs at central electrode channels than "after." These patterns of results show that, irrespective of ultimate sentence truth value judgments, semantic retrieval of concepts is momentarily facilitated when they are consistent with the known event outcome compared to when they are not. However, this inappropriate facilitation incurs later processing costs as reflected in the subsequent positive ERP deflections. The results suggest that automatic activation of event knowledge can impede the incremental semantic processes required to establish sentence truth value.

  19. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  20. The Active Role of Instruments in Articulating Knowing and Knowledge: The Case of Animal Qualification Practices in Breeding Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labatut, Julie; Aggeri, Franck; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Bibe, Bernard; Girard, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of instruments defined as artefacts, rules, models or norms, in the articulation between knowing-in-practice and knowledge, in learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on a distributed, knowledge-intensive and instrumented activity at the core of any collective…

  1. A Dyadic Approach to Understanding the Relationship of Maternal Knowledge of Youths' Activities to Youths' Problem Behavior among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies that explore parental knowledge of youths' activities utilize parents' and youths' reports separately. Using a sample of 938 rural early adolescents (53% female; 84% White), we explore congruence between mothers' and youths' perceptions of maternal knowledge and its association with youth problem behaviors (delinquency, substance use,…

  2. Articulating Knowledge, How Adults Learn and the Role of the Prior Learning Assessment Professional. Proceedings of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning (Princeton, New Jersey, June 13-16, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagavarian, Debra A., Ed.

    This publication highlights three topics from the 1992 National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. "Computer Conferencing at the National Institute: The Articulation of Knowledge and Writing Ability in the Assessment of Experiential Learning" (Evelyn F. Spradley) discusses the electronic conference held concurrently with the…

  3. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Held, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  4. Social studies of volcanology: knowledge generation and expert advice on active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Amy; Oppenheimer, Clive; Bravo, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the philosophy and evolution of volcanological science in recent years, particularly in relation to the growth of volcanic hazard and risk science. It uses the lens of Science and Technology Studies to examine the ways in which knowledge generation is controlled and directed by social forces, particularly during eruptions, which constitute landmarks in the development of new technologies and models. It also presents data from a survey of volcanologists carried out during late 2008 and early 2009. These data concern the felt purpose of the science according to the volcanologists who participated and their impressions of the most important eruptions in historical time. It demonstrates that volcanologists are motivated both by the academic science environment and by a social concern for managing the impact of volcanic hazards on populations. Also discussed are the eruptions that have most influenced the discipline and the role of scientists in policymaking on active volcanoes. Expertise in volcanology can become the primary driver of public policy very suddenly when a volcano erupts, placing immense pressure on volcanologists. In response, the epistemological foundations of volcanology are on the move, with an increasing volume of research into risk assessment and management. This requires new, integrated methodologies for knowledge collection that transcend scientific disciplinary boundaries.

  5. New strategies to strengthen the soil science knowledge of student during field activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Marta; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá; Masaguer, Alberto; Diéguez, Carmen; Almorox, Javier; Pérez, Juana; Santano, Jesús; Mariscal, Ignacio; Gutiérrez, Jesús; Moliner, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Soil Science can be considered a discipline that serves as a fundamental base for other disciplines such as ecology, agronomy, plant production, etc. In order to demonstrate the relevance and connection to real world it is important to develop field and practical activities. Field activities help student to comprehend soil as part of the landscape and the natural ecosystems. These activities also help them to realize the importance of historical soil use on the quality of todaýs soil and landscapes. It is well known that fieldwork practices are essential to strengthen the soil science knowledge of students and their learning process. These fieldwork practices involve doing a physical activity rather than passively attending lectures or watching demonstrations. The simple visual and tactile observations in the field could be used to predict soil behavior and these direct observations are best made in the field. Students who learned in the field using an active work are more motivated, have more positive attitudes, and place more value in their work than those that learn passively. Therefore, when scheduling the coursework an important time is assigned to field work, which sometimes is not sufficiently profited from the standpoint of student learning taking into consideration the economic effort involved. We are aware that part of the students are simple spectators in the field so we encourage their participation by making them responsible for obtaining part of the information about the place and the types of soils that will be visited. On the other hand, we will invite the students to do some game based exercises, which are fun and force them to work in groups and to pay attention to explanations. Our objective is to present the information in a more attractive way, making the learning of soil profile description and easier task. The exercises that we propose are both field and problem-based learning to make sure that the knowledge is more memorable (non

  6. Social construction of physical knowledge of shadows: A study of five preoperational children's perceptions, collaborative experiences, and activities across knowledge domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Amy M.

    The first purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the process of social construction of physical knowledge of shadows among preoperational thinkers by examining collaborative behaviors that may lead to new knowledge. The second purpose was to understand children's perspectives concerning the connection between social interaction and learning. The study focused on group collaboration and physical knowledge building as they relate to preoperational thought, a phase of cognitive development in early childhood. The case study consisted of five kindergarten children enrolled in a private, laboratory school at a southern, urban university. Across the eight-week data collection period, the children explored shadows through planned activities on 10 occasions and were interviewed three times in a focus group context. Primary methods for collecting data included videotaping the interviews and participant observations. Data were transcribed and coded inductively to discover emerging patterns while relating these patterns to existing constructivist theories. In addition, field notes, artifacts, and interviews with the children's teacher served to verify the findings. The findings revealed four major themes. Firstly, in terms of collaborative learning, children, while exhibiting a focus on the self, were attracted to learning with each other. Secondly, interactions seldom involved dialogic complexity, revealing minimal rationale, even during conflict. Thirdly, negative behaviors, such as tattling and exclusion, and prosocial behaviors, such as helping, were perceived as integral to the success of social construction of knowledge. The children considered each of these moral behaviors from the personal standpoint of how it affected them emotionally and in accomplishing a learning-related task. Fourthly, in terms of knowledge building, the findings indicated children's knowledge of shadows evolved over time as they participated in a developing scientific community

  7. Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Cognitive Activation in the Classroom, and Student Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Kunter, Mareike; Blum, Werner; Brunner, Martin; Voss, Thamar; Jordan, Alexander; Klusmann, Uta; Krauss, Stefan; Neubrand, Michael; Tsai, Yi-Miau

    2010-01-01

    In both the United States and Europe, concerns have been raised about whether preservice and in-service training succeeds in equipping teachers with the professional knowledge they need to deliver consistently high-quality instruction. This article investigates the significance of teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge for…

  8. Building and Activating Students' Background Knowledge: It's What They Already Know That Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Students enter the middle grades with varying amounts of background knowledge. Teachers must assess student background knowledge for gaps or misconceptions and then provide instruction to build on that base. This article discusses effective strategies for assessing and developing students' background knowledge so they can become independent…

  9. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  10. Behaviors and Knowledge of Healthcorps New York City High School Students: Nutrition, Mental Health, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E.; Lounsbury, David W.; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Methods: Pre- and postsurvey data were…

  11. Integrating Social Activity Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multilayered Methodological Model for Examining Knowledge Mediation in Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becher, Ayelet; Orland-Barak, Lily

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests an integrative qualitative methodological framework for capturing complexity in mentoring activity. Specifically, the model examines how historical developments of a discipline direct mentors' mediation of professional knowledge through the language that they use. The model integrates social activity theory and a framework of…

  12. Active Learning Applications in the History of Chemistry: Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Level of Knowledge and Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendur, Gülten; Polat, Merve; Toku, Abdullah; Kazanci, Coskun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a History and Philosophy of Chemistry-I course based on active learning applications on the level of knowledge of pre-service chemistry teachers about the history of chemistry. The views of pre-service chemistry teachers about these activities were also investigated. The study was carried out with 38…

  13. Expanding current knowledge on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the genus Lactarius.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-12-10

    Despite the presence of toxic compounds in inedible mushrooms, the question whether the chemical nutrients and non-nutrients compositions in edible and inedible Lactarius species are similar remains unanswered. To answer this question, Lactarius citriolens Pouzar and Lactarius turpis (Weinm.) Fr., two inedible species, were studied in order to obtain information about their chemical composition and bioactivity. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. L. citriolens and L. turpis methanolic extracts were tested regarding antioxidant potential (reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition). The composition of macronutrients varied among the two species, but the profiles were similar between them and among other Lactarius species; L. citriolens gave the highest energy contribution, saturated fatty acids and organic acids, while the L. turpis sample was richer in free sugars, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. L. turpis methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. The absence of hepatoxicity of the methanolic extracts was confirmed in porcine liver primary cells (in vitro conditions). The present study provided new information about wild L. citriolens and L. turpis, comparing their chemical composition and antioxidant properties with other Lactarius species, and expanding the knowledge about this genus.

  14. Hemispheric Asymmetry in Event Knowledge Activation During Incremental Language Comprehension: A Visual Half-Field ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P.; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    During incremental language comprehension, the brain activates knowledge of described events, including knowledge elements that constitute semantic anomalies in their linguistic context. The present study investigates hemispheric asymmetries in this process, with the aim of advancing our understanding of the neural basis and functional properties of event knowledge activation during incremental comprehension. In a visual half-field event-related brain potential (ERP) experiment, participants read brief discourses in which the third sentence contained a word that was either highly expected, semantically anomalous but related to the described event, or semantically anomalous but unrelated to the described event. For both visual fields of target word presentation, semantically anomalous words elicited N400 ERP components of greater amplitude than did expected words. Crucially, event-related anomalous words elicited a reduced N400 relative to event-unrelated anomalous words only with left visual field/right hemisphere presentation. This result suggests that right hemisphere processes are critical to the activation of event knowledge elements that violate the linguistic context, and in doing so informs existing theories of hemispheric asymmetries in semantic processing during language comprehension. Additionally, this finding coincides with past research suggesting a crucial role for the right hemisphere in elaborative inference generation, raises interesting questions regarding hemispheric coordination in generating event-specific linguistic expectancies, and more generally highlights the possibility of functional dissociation between event knowledge activation for the generation of elaborative inferences and for linguistic expectancies. PMID:26878980

  15. Hemispheric asymmetry in event knowledge activation during incremental language comprehension: A visual half-field ERP study.

    PubMed

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P; Elman, Jeffrey L

    2016-04-01

    During incremental language comprehension, the brain activates knowledge of described events, including knowledge elements that constitute semantic anomalies in their linguistic context. The present study investigates hemispheric asymmetries in this process, with the aim of advancing our understanding of the neural basis and functional properties of event knowledge activation during incremental comprehension. In a visual half-field event-related brain potential (ERP) experiment, participants read brief discourses in which the third sentence contained a word that was either highly expected, semantically anomalous but related to the described event (Event-Related), or semantically anomalous but unrelated to the described event (Event-Unrelated). For both visual fields of target word presentation, semantically anomalous words elicited N400 ERP components of greater amplitude than did expected words. Crucially, Event-Related anomalous words elicited a reduced N400 relative to Event-Unrelated anomalous words only with left visual field/right hemisphere presentation. This result suggests that right hemisphere processes are critical to the activation of event knowledge elements that violate the linguistic context, and in doing so informs existing theories of hemispheric asymmetries in semantic processing during language comprehension. Additionally, this finding coincides with past research suggesting a crucial role for the right hemisphere in elaborative inference generation, raises interesting questions regarding hemispheric coordination in generating event-specific linguistic expectancies, and more generally highlights the possibility of functional dissociation of event knowledge activation for the generation of elaborative inferences and for linguistic expectancies.

  16. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  17. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  18. Tracking real-time neural activation of conceptual knowledge using single-trial event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Amsel, Ben D

    2011-04-01

    Empirically derived semantic feature norms categorized into different types of knowledge (e.g., visual, functional, auditory) can be summed to create number-of-feature counts per knowledge type. Initial evidence suggests several such knowledge types may be recruited during language comprehension. The present study provides a more detailed understanding of the timecourse and intensity of influence of several such knowledge types on real-time neural activity. A linear mixed-effects model was applied to single trial event-related potentials for 207 visually presented concrete words measured on total number of features (semantic richness), imageability, and number of visual motion, color, visual form, smell, taste, sound, and function features. Significant influences of multiple feature types occurred before 200ms, suggesting parallel neural computation of word form and conceptual knowledge during language comprehension. Function and visual motion features most prominently influenced neural activity, underscoring the importance of action-related knowledge in computing word meaning. The dynamic time courses and topographies of these effects are most consistent with a flexible conceptual system wherein temporally dynamic recruitment of representations in modal and supramodal cortex are a crucial element of the constellation of processes constituting word meaning computation in the brain.

  19. Prior Acute Mental Exertion in Exercise and Sport

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Júnior, Fernando Lopes e; Emanuel, Patrick; Sousa, Jordan; Silva, Matheus; Teixeira, Silmar; Pires, Flávio; Machado, Sérgio; Arias-Carrion, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mental exertion is a psychophysiological state caused by sustained and prolonged cognitive activity. The understanding of the possible effects of acute mental exertion on physical performance, and their physiological and psychological responses are of great importance for the performance of different occupations, such as military, construction workers, athletes (professional or recreational) or simply practicing regular exercise, since these occupations often combine physical and mental tasks while performing their activities. However, the effects of implementation of a cognitive task on responses to aerobic exercise and sports are poorly understood. Our narrative review aims to provide information on the current research related to the effects of prior acute mental fatigue on physical performance and their physiological and psychological responses associated with exercise and sports. Methods: The literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo using the following terms and their combinations: “mental exertion”, “mental fatigue”, “mental fatigue and performance”, “mental exertion and sports” “mental exertion and exercise”. Results: We concluded that prior acute mental exertion affects effectively the physiological and psychophysiological responses during the cognitive task, and performance in exercise. Conclusion: Additional studies involving prior acute mental exertion, exercise/sports and physical performance still need to be carried out in order to analyze the physiological, psychophysiological and neurophysiological responses subsequently to acute mental exertion in order to identify cardiovascular factors, psychological, neuropsychological associates. PMID:27867415

  20. Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections on Awareness and Knowledge Following Active Learning in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the pre-service teachers' reflection on an environmental knowledge questionnaire administered in an introductory environmental education course. Reflection sheets that addressed pre-/post-course knowledge questionnaires were collected from 75 students who took the course in three consecutive years. The students represented…

  1. Behaviors and Knowledge of HealthCorps New York City High School Students: Nutrition, Mental Health and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moonseong, Heo; Erica, Irvin; Natania, Ostrovsky; Carmen, Isasi; Shawn, Hayes; Judith, Wylie-Rosett

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health and physical activity knowledge and behavior. METHODS Pre- and post-survey data were collected (N = 2255) during the 2012-13 academic year from 14 New York City public high schools. An 18-item knowledge questionnaire addressed 3 domains; 26 behavioral items were analyzed by factor analysis to identify 6 behavior domains, breakfast being a seventh one-item domain. We examined the effects stratified by sex, applying mixed-effects models to take into account clustering effects of schools and participants adjusted for age. RESULTS The HealthCorps program significantly increased all 3 knowledge domains (p < .05), and significantly changed several key behavioral domains. Boys significantly increased fruits/vegetables intake (p = .03). Girls increased acceptance of new fruits/vegetables (p = .03) and breakfast consumption (p = .04), and decreased sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food intake (p = .03). The associations between knowledge and behavior were stronger in boys than girls. CONCLUSION The HealthCorps program significantly increased participants’ knowledge on nutrition, mental health and physical activity. It also improved several key behavioral domains, which are targets of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to address obesity in youth. PMID:26762819

  2. Cognitive bias modification for interpretation with and without prior repetitive negative thinking to reduce worry and rumination in generalised anxiety disorder and depression: protocol for a multisession experimental study with an active control condition

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Andrew; Whyte, Jessica; Hirsch, Colette R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worry and rumination are two forms of repetitive thinking characterised by their negative content and apparently uncontrollable nature. Although worry and rumination share common features and have been conceptualised as part of a transdiagnostic repetitive negative thinking (RNT) process, it remains unclear whether they share the same underlying cognitive mechanisms. This multisession experimental study investigates the tendency to make negative interpretations regarding ambiguous information as a cognitive mechanism underlying RNT. We compare multisession cognitive bias modification for interpretations (CBM-I) with an active control condition to examine whether repeatedly training positive interpretations reduces worry and rumination in individuals with generalised anxiety disorder or depression, respectively. Further, we examine the potential modulatory effects of engaging in RNT immediately prior to CBM-I. Design, methods and analysis A community sample of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for either generalised anxiety disorder (n=60) or current major depressive episode (n=60) will be randomly allocated to CBM-I with prior RNT, CBM-I without prior RNT (ie, standard CBM-I), or an active control (no resolution of ambiguity) condition. All conditions receive a 3-week internet-based intervention consisting of one initial session at the first study visit and nine home-based sessions of CBM-I training (or active control). We will assess and compare the effects of CBM-I with and without prior RNT on ‘near-transfer’ measures of interpretation bias closely related to the training as well as ‘far-transfer’ outcomes related to RNT and emotional distress. Impact on questionnaire measures will additionally be assessed at 1-month follow-up. Multigroup analyses will be conducted to assess the impact of CBM-I on near-transfer and far-transfer outcome measures. PMID:27986741

  3. Heat stress acutely activates insulin-independent glucose transport and 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase prior to an increase in HSP72 protein in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Ayumi; Egawa, Tatsuro; Sakon, Ichika; Oshima, Rieko; Ito, Kanata; Serizawa, Yasuhiro; Sekine, Keiichi; Tsuda, Satoshi; Goto, Katsumasa; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) stimulates heat shock protein (HSP) 72 mRNA expression, and the period after an increase in HSP72 protein is characterized by enhanced glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. We have hypothesized that, prior to an increase in the level of HSP72 protein, HS activates glucose metabolism by acutely stimulating 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Rat epitrochlearis muscle was isolated and incubated either with or without HS (42°C) for 10 and 30 min. HS for 30 min led to an increase in the level of Hspa1a and Hspa1b mRNA but did not change the amount of HSP72 protein. However, HS for both 10 and 30 min led to a significant increase in the rate of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (3MG) transport, and the stimulatory effect of 3MG transport was completely blocked by cytochalasin B. HS-stimulated 3MG transport was also inhibited by dorsomorphin but not by wortmannin. HS led to a decrease in the concentration of ATP, phosphocreatine, and glycogen, to an increase in the level of phosphorylation of AMPKα Thr172, and to an increase in the activity of both AMPKα1 and AMPKα2. HS did not affect the phosphorylation status of insulin receptor signaling or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. These results suggest that HS acts as a rapid stimulator of insulin-independent glucose transport, at least in part by stimulating AMPK via decreased energy status. Although further research is warranted, heat treatment of skeletal muscle might be a promising method to promote glucose metabolism acutely. PMID:26542263

  4. Prior cold water swim stress alters immobility in the forced swim test and associated activation of serotonergic neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Drugan, R C; Hibl, P T; Kelly, K J; Dady, K F; Hale, M W; Lowry, C A

    2013-12-03

    Prior adverse experience alters behavioral responses to subsequent stressors. For example, exposure to a brief swim increases immobility in a subsequent swim test 24h later. In order to determine if qualitative differences (e.g. 19°C versus 25°C) in an initial stressor (15-min swim) impact behavioral, physiological, and associated neural responses in a 5-min, 25°C swim test 24h later, rats were surgically implanted with biotelemetry devices 1 week prior to experimentation then randomly assigned to one of six conditions (Day 1 (15 min)/Day 2 (5 min)): (1) home cage (HC)/HC, (2) HC/25°C swim, (3) 19°C swim/HC, (4) 19°C swim/25°C swim, (5) 25°C swim/HC, (6) 25°C swim/25°C swim. Core body temperature (Tb) was measured on Days 1 and 2 using biotelemetry; behavior was measured on Day 2. Rats were transcardially perfused with fixative 2h following the onset of the swim on Day 2 for analysis of c-Fos expression in midbrain serotonergic neurons. Cold water (19°C) swim on Day 1 reduced Tb, compared to both 25°C swim and HC groups on Day 1, and, relative to rats exposed to HC conditions on Day 1, reduced the hypothermic response to the 25°C swim on Day 2. The 19°C swim on Day 1, relative to HC exposure on Day 1, increased immobility during the 5-min swim on Day 2. Also, 19°C swim, relative to HC conditions, on Day 1 reduced swim (25°C)-induced increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons within the dorsal and interfascicular parts of the dorsal raphe nucleus. These results suggest that exposure to a 5-min 19°C cold water swim, but not exposure to a 5-min 25°C swim alters physiological, behavioral and serotonergic responses to a subsequent stressor.

  5. Knowledge and awareness of Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines: a synthesis of existing evidence.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to consolidate and synthesize existing evidence regarding current knowledge and awareness of the Canadian Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behaviour (SB) Guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed publications pertaining to the guidelines. Content experts, key organizations (i.e., ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute), journal Web sites, and service organizations (i.e., the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and the Public Health Agency of Canada) were consulted for additional evidence. Scientific publications (n = 6) and research from ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute reported that awareness of the guidelines is low, especially with respect to the SB guidelines. Less than 10% of survey respondents from the Canadian population were aware of the PA guidelines, and less than 5% were aware of the SB guidelines. Information on the guidelines was available on 51% of public health unit and CSEP partner Web sites. Online metrics (e.g., downloads, site accessions) from CSEP, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and journal Web sites showed that online accession of the guidelines was high (e.g., all "highly accessed" on journal Web sites). This review showed that awareness of the Canadian PA and SB Guidelines is low among the general population but higher among the scientific and stakeholder communities. Governmental, nongovernmental, and stakeholder organizations should collaborate in creating sustained, long-term, and well-resourced communication plans to reach the Canadian population to raise awareness of PA and SB guidelines and should implement programs to facilitate their uptake.

  6. Development of Knowledge about Electricity and Magnetism during a Visit to a Science Museum and Related Post-Visit Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David; Lucas, Keith B.; Ginns, Ian S.; Dierking, Lynn D.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on part of a larger study of how 11- and 12-year-old students construct knowledge of electricity and magnetism by drawing on aspects of their experiences during the course of a school visit to an interactive science museum and subsequent classroom activities linked to the science museum exhibits. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  8. The Effects of an Infant-Feeding Classroom Activity on the Breast-Feeding Knowledge and Intentions of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Audrey; Moseley, Jane; Jackson, Winston

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents living in Nova Scotia, Canada. One hundred twenty-one students attending two high schools were administered one pretest and two posttest questionnaires. Students were arbitrarily assigned to a control or intervention…

  9. The Relationship of Oral Reading, Dramatic Activities, and Theatrical Production to Student Communication Skills, Knowledge, Comprehension, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…

  10. Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Knowledge, Perceptions and Experiences of Promoting Healthy, Active Lifestyles in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher education (PETE) offers a context for students to learn about the promotion of active lifestyles in secondary schools through their interactions and experiences during the teacher education process. However, previous studies have found low levels of health-related fitness knowledge amongst PETE students,…

  11. Gender Differences in Osteoporosis Health Beliefs and Knowledge and Their Relation to Vigorous Physical Activity in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, Kimberley L.; Gasparotto, Jennifer; Mack, Diane E.; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine (1) gender differences in osteoporosis-related knowledge and beliefs and (2) if these beliefs could predict vigorous physical activity behavior in university students. Participants: Male (n = 176) and female (n = 351) university students participated in the study. Methods:…

  12. Suppression of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase prior to traumatic brain injury improves cytochrome c oxidase activity and normalizes cellular energy levels.

    PubMed

    Hüttemann, M; Lee, I; Kreipke, C W; Petrov, T

    2008-01-02

    We have previously shown that the observed immediate increase in nitric oxide (NO) plays a significant role in the control of the cerebral microcirculation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, a second consequence of increased NO production after TBI may be impaired mitochondrial function, due to the fact that NO is a well-known inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). CcO is a key enzyme of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) machinery, which creates cellular energy in the form of ATP. NO competes with oxygen at the heme a(3)-Cu(B) reaction center of CcO. We thus hypothesized that TBI triggers inhibition of CcO, which would in turn lead to a decreased energy production by OxPhos at a time of an elevated energy demand for tissue remodeling. Here we show that TBI as induced by an acceleration weight drop model of diffuse brain injury in rats leads to CcO inhibition and dramatically decreased ATP levels in brain cortex. CcO inhibition can be partially restored by application of iNOS antisense oligonucleotides prior to TBI, which leads to a normalization of ATP levels similar to the controls. We propose that a lack of energy after TBI caused by inhibition of CcO is an important aspect of trauma pathology.

  13. Knowledge of and preferred sources of assistance for physical activity in a sample of urban Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alison L; Hunt, Julian; Jenkins, David

    2008-01-01

    Background To examine urban Indigenous Australians' knowledge of the current Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) and identify their preferred sources of assistance or advice regarding physical activity. Method Self-completed questionnaire data were collected from 194 participants; the questionnaires sought information on standard demographics including an assessment of their perceived physical activity level relative to peers. Outcome measures were agreement with five statements from the current PAG and indicators of preferred sources of assistance or advice regarding physical activity. Results Most participants demonstrated excellent knowledge of the current PAG, with 92% to 88% of participants agreeing with the statements. Significantly more older participants (> 44 years) identified that 'blocks of 10 minutes of activity are OK' compared to younger participants (aged 18–44 years: 60%; X2 = 6.23; p = .04). Significantly more higher educated participants agreed (96%) that 'brisk walking for half an hour most days was good for health' compared to the less educated participants (85%; X2 = 8.08; p = .02). The most preferred source of physical activity advice identified by men was the GP/health professional (62% vs. 53%; men and women respectively, NS), while for women it was a group to be active with (60% vs. 42%; women and men respectively; X2 = 6.09; p = .01). Conclusion Urban Indigenous Australians have similar levels of knowledge regarding the PAG to non-Indigenous Australians. However, the option of accumulating 10-minute activity bouts needs to be better communicated to younger Indigenous people. Most participants expressed a preference for advice about physical activity to be delivered via health professionals, and groups to be active with. Indigenous and age-specific resources that promote the unique aspects of the current PAG (e.g., that vigorous exercise is not essential for health and blocks of 10 minutes of activity are OK) should be developed and

  14. Tuning your priors to the world.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The idea that perceptual and cognitive systems must incorporate knowledge about the structure of the environment has become a central dogma of cognitive theory. In a Bayesian context, this idea is often realized in terms of "tuning the prior"-widely assumed to mean adjusting prior probabilities so that they match the frequencies of events in the world. This kind of "ecological" tuning has often been held up as an ideal of inference, in fact defining an "ideal observer." But widespread as this viewpoint is, it directly contradicts Bayesian philosophy of probability, which views probabilities as degrees of belief rather than relative frequencies, and explicitly denies that they are objective characteristics of the world. Moreover, tuning the prior to observed environmental frequencies is subject to overfitting, meaning in this context overtuning to the environment, which leads (ironically) to poor performance in future encounters with the same environment. Whenever there is uncertainty about the environment-which there almost always is-an agent's prior should be biased away from ecological relative frequencies and toward simpler and more entropic priors.

  15. Lipoprotein lipase activity and mass, apolipoprotein C-II mass and polymorphisms of apolipoproteins E and A5 in subjects with prior acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia due to chylomicronemia may trigger an acute pancreatitis. However, the basic underlying mechanism is usually not well understood. We decided to analyze some proteins involved in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Methods Twenty-four survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis (cases) and 31 patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (controls) were included. Clinical and anthropometrical data, chylomicronaemia, lipoprotein profile, postheparin lipoprotein lipase mass and activity, hepatic lipase activity, apolipoprotein C II and CIII mass, apo E and A5 polymorphisms were assessed. Results Only five cases were found to have LPL mass and activity deficiency, all of them thin and having the first episode in childhood. No cases had apolipoprotein CII deficiency. No significant differences were found between the non-deficient LPL cases and the controls in terms of obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, drug therapy, gender distribution, evidence of fasting chylomicronaemia, lipid levels, LPL activity and mass, hepatic lipase activity, CII and CIII mass or apo E polymorphisms. However, the SNP S19W of apo A5 tended to be more prevalent in cases than controls (40% vs. 23%, NS). Conclusion Primary defects in LPL and C-II are rare in survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis; lipase activity measurements should be restricted to those having their first episode during chilhood. PMID:19534808

  16. Hierarchy of S-Phase-Promoting Factors: Yeast Dbf4-Cdc7 Kinase Requires Prior S-Phase Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nougarède, Romain; Della Seta, Flavio; Zarzov, Patrick; Schwob, Etienne

    2000-01-01

    In all eukaryotes, the initiation of DNA synthesis requires the formation of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) on replication origins, followed by their activation by two S-T protein kinases, an S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase (S-CDK) and a homologue of yeast Dbf4-Cdc7 kinase (Dbf4p-dependent kinase [DDK]). Here, we show that yeast DDK activity is cell cycle regulated, though less tightly than that of the S-CDK Clb5-Cdk1, and peaks during S phase in correlation with Dbf4p levels. Dbf4p is short-lived throughout the cell cycle, but its instability is accentuated during G1 by the anaphase-promoting complex. Downregulating DDK activity is physiologically important, as joint Cdc7p and Dbf4p overexpression is lethal. Because pre-RC formation is a highly ordered process, we asked whether S-CDK and DDK need also to function in a specific order for the firing of origins. We found that both kinases are activated independently, but we show that DDK can perform its function for DNA replication only after S-CDKs have been activated. Cdc45p, a protein needed for initiation, binds tightly to chromatin only after S-CDK activation (L. Zou and B. Stillman, Science 280:593–596, 1998). We show that Cdc45p is phosphorylated by DDK in vitro, suggesting that it might be one of DDK's critical substrates after S-CDK activation. Linking the origin-bound DDK to the tightly regulated S-CDK in a dependent sequence of events may ensure that DNA replication initiates only at the right time and place. PMID:10805723

  17. Non-chemical proton-dependent steps prior to O2-activation limit Azotobacter vinelandii 3-mercaptopropionic acid dioxygenase (MDO) catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Joshua K.; Sardar, Sinjinee; Hossain, Mohammad S.; Foss, Frank W.; Pierce, Brad S.

    2016-01-01

    3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenase from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av MDO) is a non-heme mononuclear iron enzyme that catalyzes the O2-dependent oxidation of 3-mercaptopropionate (3mpa) to produce 3-sulfinopropionic acid (3spa). With one exception, the active site residues of MDO are identical to bacterial cysteine dioxygenase (CDO). Specifically, the CDO Arg-residue (R50) is replaced by Gln (Q67) in MDO. Despite this minor active site perturbation, substrate-specificity of Av MDO is more relaxed as compared to CDO. In order to investigate the relative timing of chemical and non-chemical events in Av MDO catalysis, the pH/D-dependence of steady-state kinetic parameters (kcat and kcat/KM) and viscosity effects are measured using two different substrates [3mpa and L-cysteine (cys)]. The pL-dependent activity of Av MDO in these reactions can be rationalized assuming a diprotic enzyme model in which three ionic forms of the enzyme are present [cationic, E(z+1); neutral, Ez; and anionic, E(z−1)]. The activities observed for each substrate appear to be dominated by electrostatic interactions within the enzymatic active site. Given the similarity between MDO and the more extensively characterized mammalian CDO, a tentative model for the role of the conserved ‘catalytic triad’ is proposed. PMID:27311613

  18. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  19. Acceptable knowledge summary report for combustible/noncombustible, metallic, and HEPA filter waste resulting from {sup 238}Pu fabrication activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.S.Z.; Foxx, C.L.

    1998-02-19

    All transuranic (TRU) waste must be sufficiently characterized and certified before it is shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allows use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization. EPA uses the term AK in its guidance document and defines AK and provides guidelines on how acceptable knowledge should be obtained and documented. This AK package has been prepared in accordance with Acceptable Knowledge Documentation (TWCP-QP-1.1-021,R.2). This report covers acceptable knowledge information for five waste streams generated at TA-55 during operations to fabricate various heat sources using feedstock {sup 238}Pu supplied by the Savannah River Site (SRS). The {sup 238}Pu feedstock itself does not contain quantities of RCRA-regulated constituents above regulatory threshold limits, as known from process knowledge at SRS and as confirmed by chemical analysis. No RCRA-regulated chemicals were used during {sup 238}Pu fabrication activities at TA-55, and all {sup 238}Pu activities were physically separated from other plutonium processing activities. Most of the waste generated from the {sup 238}Pu fabrication activities is thus nonmixed waste, including waste streams TA-55-43, 45, and 47. The exceptions are waste streams TA-55-44, which contains discarded lead-lined rubber gloves used in the gloveboxes that contained the {sup 238}Pu material, and TA-55-46, which may contain pieces of discarded lead. These waste streams have been denoted as mixed because of the presence of the lead-containing material.

  20. Temperature Knowledge and Model Correlation for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Reflector Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Dawson, Douglas; Kwack, Eug

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Earth observing Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled to launch in November 2014 into a 685 km near-polar, sun synchronous orbit. SMAP will provide comprehensive global mapping measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state in order to enhance understanding of the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The primary objectives of SMAP are to improve worldwide weather and flood forecasting, enhance climate prediction, and refine drought and agriculture monitoring during its 3 year mission. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and an L-band radiometer which share a common feed horn and parabolic mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 rpm, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within 3 days. In order to make the necessary precise surface emission measurements from space, a temperature knowledge of 60 deg C for the mesh reflector is required. In order to show compliance, a thermal vacuum test was conducted using a portable solar simulator to illuminate a non flight, but flight-like test article through the quartz window of the vacuum chamber. The molybdenum wire of the antenna mesh is too fine to accommodate thermal sensors for direct temperature measurements. Instead, the mesh temperature was inferred from resistance measurements made during the test. The test article was rotated to five separate angles between 10 deg and 90 deg via chamber breaks to simulate the maximum expected on-orbit solar loading during the mission. The resistance measurements were converted to temperature via a resistance versus temperature calibration plot that was constructed from data collected in a separate calibration test. A simple thermal model of two different representations of the mesh (plate and torus) was created to correlate the mesh temperature predictions to within 60 deg C. The on-orbit mesh

  1. Prior Activation of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors Suppresses the Subsequent Induction of Long-Term Potentiation in Hippocampal CA1 Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Goto, Jun-Ichi; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) activated by preconditioning low-frequency afferent stimulation (LFS) in the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices from mature guinea pigs. Induction of LTP in the field excitatory postsynaptic potential or the population…

  2. Assessing the Feasibility of a Multi-Program School-Based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Healthful Eating in Middle Schools Prior to Wide-Scale Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Mary; Hardwick, Cary K.; Mezgebu, Solomon; Lindsay, Ana C.; Roover, Michelle L.; Peterson, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: University-community partnerships can support schools in implementing evidence-based responses to youth obesity trends. An inter-organizational partnership was established to implement and evaluate the Healthy Choices Collaborative Intervention (HCCI). HCCI combines an interdisciplinary curriculum, before/after school activities, and…

  3. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Its Relation to Student Physical Activity Patterns at a Large U.S. Southern State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen D.; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Centeio, Erin; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Ramirez, Tere; Chen, Li

    2010-01-01

    This study examined student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge and its relationship to physical activity (PA). The participants were undergraduate students from a large U.S. state university. HRF knowledge was assessed using a test consisting of 150 multiple choice items. Differences in HRF knowledge scores by sex, ethnicity, and years in…

  4. Der Wissenstransfer von Innovationen--Die Perspektive der Schulen als Aktive Handlungseinheiten (The Transfer of Knowledge on Innovations--The Perspective of Schools as Active Units of Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechmann, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates German schools (n=402) that provide general education. Documents different ways of knowledge transfer in these schools. Examines the impact of different influence factors on the use of these transfer examples. Discusses the model of active use of knowledge and the transfer of knowledge throughout the school system. (CAJ)

  5. The effects of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Audrey; Moseley, Jane; Jackson, Winston

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the impact of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents living in Nova Scotia, Canada. One hundred twenty-one students attending two high schools were administered one pretest and two posttest questionnaires. Students were arbitrarily assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention group partook in a 60-minute classroom activity on infant feeding. Findings indicated that students in the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater breast-feeding knowledge at Posttest 1 and at 10 weeks postintervention. Students in the intervention group reported a significantly greater intention toward breast-feeding their own future children; an increase was sustained at 10 weeks. These findings suggest that adolescents' knowledge of and intention toward breast-feeding may be positively influenced during their teen years. School nurses are well positioned to support and encourage the inclusion of breast-feeding content in school curricula to enhance adolescents' knowledge and intentions toward breast-feeding.

  6. Previous knowledge can induce an illusion of causality through actively biasing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yarritu, Ion; Matute, Helena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the way people assess the relationship between a cause and an outcome is closely related to the actual evidence existing about the co-occurrence of these events. However, people's estimations are often biased, and this usually translates into illusions of causality. Some have suggested that such illusions could be the result of previous knowledge-based expectations. In the present research we explored the role that previous knowledge has in the development of illusions of causality. We propose that previous knowledge influences the assessment of causality by influencing the decisions about responding or not (i.e., presence or absence of the potential cause), which biases the information people are exposed to, and this in turn produces illusions congruent with such biased information. In a non-contingent situation in which participants decided whether the potential cause was present or absent (Experiment 1), the influence of expectations on participants' judgments was mediated by the probability of occurrence of the potential cause (determined by participants' responses). However, in an identical situation, except that the participants were not allowed to decide the occurrence of the potential cause (Experiment 2), only the probability of the cause was significant, not the expectations or the interaction. Together, these results support our hypothesis that knowledge-based expectations affect the development of causal illusions by the mediation of behavior, which biases the information received. PMID:25904883

  7. Previous knowledge can induce an illusion of causality through actively biasing behavior.

    PubMed

    Yarritu, Ion; Matute, Helena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the way people assess the relationship between a cause and an outcome is closely related to the actual evidence existing about the co-occurrence of these events. However, people's estimations are often biased, and this usually translates into illusions of causality. Some have suggested that such illusions could be the result of previous knowledge-based expectations. In the present research we explored the role that previous knowledge has in the development of illusions of causality. We propose that previous knowledge influences the assessment of causality by influencing the decisions about responding or not (i.e., presence or absence of the potential cause), which biases the information people are exposed to, and this in turn produces illusions congruent with such biased information. In a non-contingent situation in which participants decided whether the potential cause was present or absent (Experiment 1), the influence of expectations on participants' judgments was mediated by the probability of occurrence of the potential cause (determined by participants' responses). However, in an identical situation, except that the participants were not allowed to decide the occurrence of the potential cause (Experiment 2), only the probability of the cause was significant, not the expectations or the interaction. Together, these results support our hypothesis that knowledge-based expectations affect the development of causal illusions by the mediation of behavior, which biases the information received.

  8. Doctoral Student Learning Patterns: Learning about Active Knowledge Creation or Passive Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Doctoral studies are about learning to create new knowledge and to become a researcher. Yet surprisingly little is known about the individual learning patterns of doctoral students. The study aims to explore learning patterns among natural science doctoral students. The participants included 19 doctoral students from a top-level natural science…

  9. Activity Theory as a Lens to Understand How Facebook Develops Knowledge Application Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Ssentamu, Proscovia; Mayisela, Tabisa; Brown, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Uganda's higher education system has generally been criticized for concentrating on theory leading to a mismatch between training received and practical skills required by employers. Studies have documented the inability of graduates from some programmes at Makerere University in applying knowledge in the work environment. This could partly be…

  10. VVER Knowledge Preservation and Transfer within the Frame of CORONA Project Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitev, Mladen; Corniani, Enrico; Manolova, Maria; Pironkov, Lybomir; Tsvetkov, Iskren

    2016-02-01

    The CORONA project is funded by the European Commission under the FP7 programme with overall objective to establish a Regional Centre of Competence for VVER Technology and Nuclear Applications. The Centre will provide support and services for preservation and transfer of VVER-related nuclear knowledge as well as know-how and capacity building. Specific training schemes aimed at nuclear professionals and researchers, non-nuclear professionals and students are developed and implemented in cooperation with local, national and international training and educational institutions. Pilot trainings are executed for each specific target group to assess the applicability of the training materials. The training scheme implemented for nuclear professionals and researchers is focussed on the NPP Lifetime Management. The available knowledge on enhancing safety and performance of nuclear installations with VVER technology is used in the preparation of the training materials. The Online Multimedia Training Course on VVER Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, developed by the joint effort of JRC-IET and IAEA is used in the training. The outcome collected from the trainees showed that the tool meets its primary goal of consolidating the existing knowledge on the VVER RPV Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, provides adequate ground for transfer of this knowledge.

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Preschoolers' Mathematical Knowledge: The Contribution of Home Activities and Parent Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFlorio, Lydia; Beliakoff, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) enter kindergarten with less developed mathematical knowledge compared to children from middle SES families. This discrepancy is present at age 3 years and likely stems from differences in the home learning environment. This study reports SES-related differences both in…

  12. Activating Student Background Knowledge in a Take Charge Approach to Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly J.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the immediate needs of language teachers who want to develop their students' reading skills but have not been provided with the instructional information necessary to do so. It suggests a methodological sequence for using the students' background knowledge and strategy training for foreign language reading using authentic texts. (33…

  13. Activating Student Background Knowledge in a Take Charge Approach to Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly Jesusita

    A guide for teachers of second language reading offers ideas for using authentic texts as instructional materials. The guide focuses on how to teach students to become strategic readers and use their background knowledge to enhance comprehension. Schema theory is proposed as a framework for approaching reading tasks, by providing relevant pre- and…

  14. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  15. High School Teachers' Problem Solving Activities to Review and Extend Their Mathematical and Didactical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Barrera-Mora, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The study documents the extent to which high school teachers reflect on their need to revise and extend their mathematical and practicing knowledge. In this context, teachers worked on a set of tasks as a part of an inquiring community that promoted the use of different computational tools in problem solving approaches. Results indicated that the…

  16. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  17. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

  18. Another Look at Mother Goose: Prior Knowledge or Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Lenore

    Arguing that Mother Goose is becoming an endangered species, this paper reports on the results of an informal survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in a children's literature course. The survey results reported in the paper indicated that some students were able to complete a cloze-type Mother Goose couplet, but others audibly…

  19. Prior Knowledge of Mechanics amongst First Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Dick

    2007-01-01

    In the last 25 years, A-level Mathematics syllabi have changed very considerably, introducing a broader range of application areas but reducing the previous emphasis on classical mechanics. This article describes a baseline survey undertaken to establish in detail the entry levels in mechanics for the cohort of students entering Engineering…

  20. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  1. Activity Systems, Information Sharing and the Development of Organizational Knowledge in Two Finnish Firms: An Exploratory Study Using Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widén-Wulff, Gunilla; Davenport, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper, we discuss the link between information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two very different organizations; a company that handles insurance claims and a small, entrepreneurial hi-tech company. We suggest that this link has not been adequately addressed by studies of information behaviour, though a…

  2. Lv4 Is a Capsid-Specific Antiviral Activity in Human Blood Cells That Restricts Viruses of the SIVMAC/SIVSM/HIV-2 Lineage Prior to Integration.

    PubMed

    Pizzato, Massimo; McCauley, Sean Matthew; Neagu, Martha R; Pertel, Thomas; Firrito, Claudia; Ziglio, Serena; Dauphin, Ann; Zufferey, Madeleine; Berthoux, Lionel; Luban, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    HIV-2 and SIVMAC are AIDS-causing, zoonotic lentiviruses that jumped to humans and rhesus macaques, respectively, from SIVSM-bearing sooty mangabey monkeys. Cross-species transmission events such as these sometimes necessitate virus adaptation to species-specific, host restriction factors such as TRIM5. Here, a new human restriction activity is described that blocks viruses of the SIVSM/SIVMAC/HIV-2 lineage. Human T, B, and myeloid cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and dendritic cells were 4 to >100-fold less transducible by VSV G-pseudotyped SIVMAC, HIV-2, or SIVSM than by HIV-1. In contrast, transduction of six epithelial cell lines was equivalent to that by HIV-1. Substitution of HIV-1 CA with the SIVMAC or HIV-2 CA was sufficient to reduce HIV-1 transduction to the level of the respective vectors. Among such CA chimeras there was a general trend such that CAs from epidemic HIV-2 Group A and B isolates were the most infectious on human T cells, CA from a 1° sooty mangabey isolate was the least infectious, and non-epidemic HIV-2 Group D, E, F, and G CAs were in the middle. The CA-specific decrease in infectivity was observed with either HIV-1, HIV-2, ecotropic MLV, or ALV Env pseudotypes, indicating that it was independent of the virus entry pathway. As2O3, a drug that suppresses TRIM5-mediated restriction, increased human blood cell transduction by SIVMAC but not by HIV-1. Nonetheless, elimination of TRIM5 restriction activity did not rescue SIVMAC transduction. Also, in contrast to TRIM5-mediated restriction, the SIVMAC CA-specific block occurred after completion of reverse transcription and the formation of 2-LTR circles, but before establishment of the provirus. Transduction efficiency in heterokaryons generated by fusing epithelial cells with T cells resembled that in the T cells, indicative of a dominant-acting SIVMAC restriction activity in the latter. These results suggest that the nucleus of human blood cells possesses a restriction factor

  3. Potassium deficiency affects water status and photosynthetic rate of the vegetative sink in green house tomato prior to its effects on source activity.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Synsuke; Moghaieb, Reda E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Panigrahi, R; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Ito, J; Nguyen, Nguyen T; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-02-01

    The potassium requirement of green house tomatoes is very high for vegetative growth and fruit production. Potassium deficiency in plants takes long time for expression of visible symptoms. The objective of this study is to detect the deficiency early during the vegetative growth and define the roles of aquaporin and K-channel transporters in the process of regulation of water status and source-sink relationship. The tomato plants were grown hydroponically inside green house of Hiroshima University, Japan and subjected to different levels of K in the rooting medium. Potassium deficiency stress decreased photosynthesis, expansion and transport of ¹⁴C assimilates of the source leaf, but the effects became evident only after diameter expansion of the growing stem (sink) was down-regulated. The depression of stem diameter expansion is assumed to be associated with the suppression of water supply more than photosynthate supply to the organ. The stem diameter expansion is parameterized by root water uptake and leaf transpiration rates. The application of aquaporin inhibitor (AgNO₃) decreased leaf water potential, stem expansion and root hydraulic conductance within minutes of application. Similar results were obtained for application of the K-channel inhibitors. These observations suggested a close relationship between stem diameter expansion and activities of aquaporins and K-channel transporters in roots. The deficiency of potassium might have reduced aquaporin activity, consequently suppressing root hydraulic conductance and water supply to the growing stem for diameter expansion and leaf for transpiration. We conclude that close coupling between aquaporins and K-channel transporters in water uptake of roots is responsible for regulation of stem diameter dynamics of green house tomato plants.

  4. Tuning Your Priors to the World

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The idea that perceptual and cognitive systems must incorporate knowledge about the structure of the environment has become a central dogma of cognitive theory. In a Bayesian context, this idea is often realized in terms of “tuning the prior”—widely assumed to mean adjusting prior probabilities so that they match the frequencies of events in the world. This kind of “ecological” tuning has often been held up as an ideal of inference, in fact defining an “ideal observer.” But widespread as this viewpoint is, it directly contradicts Bayesian philosophy of probability, which views probabilities as degrees of belief rather than relative frequencies, and explicitly denies that they are objective characteristics of the world. Moreover, tuning the prior to observed environmental frequencies is subject to overfitting, meaning in this context overtuning to the environment, which leads (ironically) to poor performance in future encounters with the same environment. Whenever there is uncertainty about the environment—which there almost always is—an agent's prior should be biased away from ecological relative frequencies and toward simpler and more entropic priors. PMID:23335572

  5. Marginally specified priors for non-parametric Bayesian estimation.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David C; Hoff, Peter D; Dunson, David B

    2015-01-01

    Prior specification for non-parametric Bayesian inference involves the difficult task of quantifying prior knowledge about a parameter of high, often infinite, dimension. A statistician is unlikely to have informed opinions about all aspects of such a parameter but will have real information about functionals of the parameter, such as the population mean or variance. The paper proposes a new framework for non-parametric Bayes inference in which the prior distribution for a possibly infinite dimensional parameter is decomposed into two parts: an informative prior on a finite set of functionals, and a non-parametric conditional prior for the parameter given the functionals. Such priors can be easily constructed from standard non-parametric prior distributions in common use and inherit the large support of the standard priors on which they are based. Additionally, posterior approximations under these informative priors can generally be made via minor adjustments to existing Markov chain approximation algorithms for standard non-parametric prior distributions. We illustrate the use of such priors in the context of multivariate density estimation using Dirichlet process mixture models, and in the modelling of high dimensional sparse contingency tables.

  6. Designing m-learning for junior registrars--activation of a theoretical model of clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Boye, Niels; Nøhr, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The MINI-project aims at supporting junior registrars in the learning process of how to utilize their theoretical knowledge from Medical School in everyday clinical reasoning and practice. Due to the nature of the work--concurrent moving, learning and producing--we designed an m-learning application. This paper introduces the possibilities and challenges for design of the m-learning application based on a) analytical findings on learning and mobility as derived from the design case--an emergency medical ward b) theoretical perspectives on medical knowledge, and c) presentation of the design of an m-learning application. The design process was based on user-driven innovation and the paper discusses considerations on how to combine user-drive and generic models.

  7. Towards transdisciplinarity in Arctic sustainability knowledge co-production: Socially-Oriented Observations as a participatory integrated activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, Tatiana; Volkov, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    The paper is an attempt to tie together main biogeophysical and social science projects under the auspice of interdisciplinary sustainability science development. Special attention is put to the necessity of the transdisciplinary knowledge co-production based on activities and problem-solutions approaches. It puts attention to the role of monitoring activities in sustainability interdisciplinary science and transdisciplinary knowledge evolution in the Arctic. Socially focused monitoring named Socially-Oriented Observations creating a transdisciplinary space is viewed as one of sources of learning and transformations towards sustainability making possible to shape rapid changes happening in the Arctic based on sustainability knowledge co-production. Continuous Socially-Oriented Observations integrating scientific, education and monitoring methods enables to define adaptation and transformation pathways in the Arctic - the most rapidly changing region of our planet. Socially-Oriented Observations are based on the existing and developing interdisciplinary scientific approaches emerged within natural science and social science projects, sustainable development and resilience concepts putting principle attention to building sustainable and resilient socio-ecological systems. It is argued that the Arctic sustainability science is a valuable component of the whole and broader system of the Arctic Sustainability knowledge co-produced with the help of transdisciplinary approaches integrating science, local/traditional knowledge, entrepreneurship, education, decision-making. Socially-Oriented Observations are designed to be a transdisciplinary interactive continuous participatory process empowering deliberate choices of people that can shape the changes and enable transformation towards sustainability. Approaches of Socially-Oriented Observations and methods of implementation that have been developed since the IPY 2007/2008 and being practiced in different regions of the

  8. Terminating pre-ozonation prior to biological activated carbon filtration results in increased formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products upon subsequent chlorination.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Changjun; Gao, Naiyun; Templeton, Michael R; Zhang, Yanshen

    2015-02-01

    Previous research demonstrated that ozone dosed before biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration reduces the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) upon subsequent chlorination. The current work aimed to evaluate the impact of terminating this pre-ozonation on the ability of the BAC to remove the precursors of N-DBPs. More N-DBP precursors passed into the post-BAC water when the pre-ozonation was terminated, resulting in greater formation of N-DBPs when the water was subsequently chlorinated, compared to a parallel BAC filter when the pre-ozonation was run continuously. Moreover, the N-DBP formation potential was significantly increased in the effluent of the BAC filter after terminating pre-ozonation, compared with the influent of the BAC filter (i.e. the effluent from the sand filter). Therefore, while selectively switching pre-ozonation on/off may have cost and other operational benefits for water suppliers, these should be weighed against the increased formation of N-DBPs and potential associated health risks.

  9. Solid-phase extraction of iridium from soil and water samples by using activated carbon cloth prior to its spectrophotometric determination.

    PubMed

    Ozkantar, Nebiye; Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    A solid-phase extraction method for separation and preconcentration of Ir(IV) ion by using activated carbon cloth (ACC) has been presented. Ir(IV) as their 1-(2-pyridylazo) 2-naphtol (PAN) chelate was adsorbed on ACC at pH 2.0 and was eluted from ACC with acidic dimethylformamide (DMF). The Ir(IV) concentration was determined at 536 nm as Ir(IV)-PAN complex by using UV-vis spectrophotometer. The analytical parameters including pH, sample and eluent flow rates, amount of PAN, eluent type, concentration, and sample volume were optimized. The effects of foreign ions on the recoveries of iridium were also investigated. The preconcentration factor was calculated as 60. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method were found as 0.039 and 0.129 μg L(-1), respectively. The method was applied to soil and water samples for iridium determination.

  10. Low-dose irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation results in ATM activation and increased lethality in Atm-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Pietzner, J; Merscher, B M; Baer, P C; Duecker, R P; Eickmeier, O; Fußbroich, D; Bader, P; Del Turco, D; Henschler, R; Zielen, S; Schubert, R

    2016-04-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a genetic instability syndrome characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, severe bronchial complications, hypersensitivity to radiotherapy and an elevated risk of malignancies. Repopulation with ATM-competent bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) significantly prolonged the lifespan and improved the phenotype of Atm-deficient mice. The aim of the present study was to promote BMDC engraftment after bone marrow transplantation using low-dose irradiation (IR) as a co-conditioning strategy. Atm-deficient mice were transplanted with green fluorescent protein-expressing, ATM-positive BMDCs using a clinically relevant non-myeloablative host-conditioning regimen together with TBI (0.2-2.0 Gy). IR significantly improved the engraftment of BMDCs into the bone marrow, blood, spleen and lung in a dose-dependent manner, but not into the cerebellum. However, with increasing doses, IR lethality increased even after low-dose IR. Analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung histochemistry revealed a significant enhancement in the number of inflammatory cells and oxidative damage. A delay in the resolution of γ-H2AX-expression points to an insufficient double-strand break repair capacity following IR with 0.5 Gy in Atm-deficient splenocytes. Our results demonstrate that even low-dose IR results in ATM activation. In the absence of ATM, low-dose IR leads to increased inflammation, oxidative stress and lethality in the Atm-deficient mouse model.

  11. The Roles of Structured Input Activities in Processing Instruction and the Kinds of Knowledge They Promote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Emma; Chen, Hsin-Ying

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate the effects of the two input activities in Processing Instruction: referential activities, which force learners to focus on a form and its meaning, and affective activities, which contain exemplars of the target form and require learners to process sentence meaning. One hundred and twenty 12-year-old Taiwanese learners…

  12. What do patients really know? An evaluation of patients’ physical activity guideline knowledge within general practice 1

    PubMed Central

    Morton, S.; Thompson, D.; Wheeler, P.; Easton, G.; Majeed, A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Physical inactivity is well recognised as one of the leading causes of preventable death. However, little is known about the general public’s knowledge surrounding national physical activity guidelines, particularly within general practice (GP). Setting Two GPs (York and Maidenhead, UK). Question Are GP patients aware of the national physical guidelines? Also, are health care professionals routinely raising the issue of physical inactivity and would patients welcome support from health care professionals regarding inactivity? Methodology A questionnaire was distributed in two GPs over a one-week period to evaluate patients knowledge of the national physical activity guidelines. Results Ninety-four participants completed the questionnaire over one week (60 female; 34 male), with an average age of 54.2 (standard deviation: 19.9 years). 14% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 8–22%) of the total participants correctly knew the recommended national guidelines for physical activity. 52% (95% CI: 42–63%) recalled being asked by a health care professional about their activity levels. 46% (95% CI: 35–56%) would welcome support from a health care professional around improving their activity levels. Discussion/Conclusion Only 14% of responders correctly knew the current national minimum activity guidelines. Encouragingly 46% of participants in our study were interested in physical activity advice from a health care professional. Health care professionals need to be aware that many patients do not know the current physical activity guidelines and recognise that primary care may be an underutilised opportunity to educate and promote physical activity. PMID:28250834

  13. Algorithms for biomagnetic source imaging with prior anatomical and physiological information

    SciTech Connect

    Hughett, Paul William

    1995-12-01

    This dissertation derives a new method for estimating current source amplitudes in the brain and heart from external magnetic field measurements and prior knowledge about the probable source positions and amplitudes. The minimum mean square error estimator for the linear inverse problem with statistical prior information was derived and is called the optimal constrained linear inverse method (OCLIM). OCLIM includes as special cases the Shim-Cho weighted pseudoinverse and Wiener estimators but allows more general priors and thus reduces the reconstruction error. Efficient algorithms were developed to compute the OCLIM estimate for instantaneous or time series data. The method was tested in a simulated neuromagnetic imaging problem with five simultaneously active sources on a grid of 387 possible source locations; all five sources were resolved, even though the true sources were not exactly at the modeled source positions and the true source statistics differed from the assumed statistics.

  14. Hepatic falciform ligament Tc-99m-macroaggregated albumin activity on SPECT/CT prior to Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization: prophylactic measures to prevent non-target microsphere localization via patent hepatic falciform arteries.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Tan, Andrew E H; Khoo, Li Ser; Lo, Richard H G; Chow, Pierce K H; Goh, Anthony S W

    2011-06-01

    Yttrium-90 (Y-90) selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is increasingly used to treat inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. We describe two patients where hepatic falciform ligament Technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m-MAA) activity was identified on single photon emission computed tomography with integrated low-dose CT (SPECT/CT) scan during pre-therapy planning, and the steps taken to prevent radiation dermatitis. The first patient underwent prophylactic coil embolization of the patent hepatic falciform artery; the second patient underwent super-selective infusion of Y-90 resin microspheres to avoid the patent hepatic falciform artery. The incidence of falciform ligament Tc-99m-MAA activity detected on SPECT/CT at our institution is 10%. Tc-99m-MAA SPECT/CT scan provides valuable diagnostic information for treatment planning prior to Y-90 SIRT.

  15. Interleukin-1 receptor blockade is associated with reduced mortality in sepsis patients with features of the macrophage activation syndrome: Re-analysis of a prior Phase III trial

    PubMed Central

    Shakoory, B.; Carcillo, J.A.; Chatham, W. W.; Amdur, R. L.; Zhao, H.; Dinarello, C.A.; Cron, R.Q.; Opal, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of anakinra (recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) in improving 28-day survival in sepsis patients with features of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Despite equivocal results in sepsis trials, anakinra is effective in treating MAS, a similar entity with fever, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hepatobiliary dysfunction (HBD), cytopenias, and hyperferritinemia. Hence, sepsis patients with MAS features may benefit from IL-1 receptor blockade. Design Re-analysis of de-identified data from the phase III randomized interleukin-1 receptor antagonist trial in severe sepsis (Opal, et. al. Crit Care Med. 1997 Jul;25(7):1115–24). Setting Multi-center study recruiting through 91 centers from 11 countries in Europe and North America. Participants Sepsis patients with MODS and/or shock (original study) were re-grouped based on presence or absence of concurrent HBD and DIC as features of MAS (HBD/DIC group). The “non-HBD/DIC” group included patients with only HBD, only DIC or neither. Intervention Treatment with anakinra or placebo. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) 28-day mortality. Statistical analysis descriptive statistics, chi-square, ANOVA, logistic and Cox regression. Results Data were available for 763 adults from the original study cohort, randomized to receive either anakinra or placebo. Concurrent HBD/DIC was noted in 43 patients (5.6% of total, ages 18–75; 47% women). The 28-day survival was similar in both anakinra and placebo-treated non-HBD/DIC patients (71.4% vs. 70.8%, p=.88). Treatment with anakinra was associated with significant improvement in the 28-day survival rate in HBD/DIC patients (65.4% anakinra vs. 35.3% placebo), with HR for death 0.28 (0.11–0.71, p = 0.0071) for the treatment group in Cox regression. Conclusions and Relevance In this subgroup analysis, IL-1 receptor blockade was associated with significant improvement in survival of patients with sepsis and concurrent HBD/DIC. A

  16. Language knowledge and event knowledge in language use.

    PubMed

    Willits, Jon A; Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how semantic knowledge is used in language comprehension and in making judgments about events in the world. We contrast knowledge gleaned from prior language experience ("language knowledge") and knowledge coming from prior experience with the world ("world knowledge"). In two corpus analyses, we show that previous research linking verb aspect and event representations have confounded language and world knowledge. Then, using carefully chosen stimuli that remove this confound, we performed four experiments that manipulated the degree to which language knowledge or world knowledge should be salient and relevant to performing a task, finding in each case that participants use the type of knowledge most appropriate to the task. These results provide evidence for a highly context-sensitive and interactionist perspective on how semantic knowledge is represented and used during language processing.

  17. Comparative ecophysiology of active zoobenthic filter feeding, essence of current knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Larsen, P. S.

    2000-12-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of current knowledge of a comprehensive and steadily growing research field. The first section deals with water pumping and particle retention mechanisms in ciliary and muscular filter feeders. The second section examines the biological filter pumps in order to assess adaptation to the environment. Filter-feeding benthic invertebrates have evolved filter pumps to solve common basic problems. This has led to a large degree of similarity between otherwise distant standing species, which makes comparative studies interesting and important. The present review of zoobenthic filter feeding aims at accentuating such recognition.

  18. Active Learning in Research Methods Classes Is Associated with Higher Knowledge and Confidence, Though not Evaluations or Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Peter J.; Baughman, Frank D.

    2016-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are regarded as difficult subjects to teach, fueling investigations into techniques that increase student engagement. Students enjoy active learning opportunities like hands-on demonstrations, authentic research participation, and working with real data. However, enhanced enjoyment does not always correspond with enhanced learning and performance. In this study, we developed a workshop activity in which students participated in a computer-based experiment and used class-generated data to run a range of statistical procedures. To enable evaluation, we developed a parallel, didactic/canned workshop, which was identical to the activity-based version, except that students were told about the experiment and used a pre-existing/canned dataset to perform their analyses. Tutorial groups were randomized to one of the two workshop versions, and 39 students completed a post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. A series of generalized linear mixed models suggested that, compared to the students in the didactic/canned condition, students exposed to the activity-based workshop displayed significantly greater knowledge of the methodological and statistical issues addressed in class, and were more confident about their ability to use this knowledge in the future. However, overall evaluations and satisfaction between the two groups were not reliably different. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26973575

  19. Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Kate; Tate, Anna; Illescas, Alex; Saffa, Alhaji; Collins, Austin; Varma, Jay K.

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed women in New York, New York, USA, who were in areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant. Of 99 women who were US residents, 30 were unaware of the government travel advisory to areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant, and 37 were unaware of their pregnancies during travel. PMID:27855041

  20. Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, Kate; Tate, Anna; Illescas, Alex; Saffa, Alhaji; Collins, Austin; Varma, Jay K; Vora, Neil M

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed women in New York, New York, USA, who were in areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant. Of 99 women who were US residents, 30 were unaware of the government travel advisory to areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant, and 37 were unaware of their pregnancies during travel.

  1. Superior Temporal Activation as a Function of Linguistic Knowledge: Insights from Deaf Native Signers Who Speechread

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capek, Cheryl M.; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd; McGuire, Philip K.; David, Anthony S.; Brammer, Michael J.; Campbell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. This region is also reliably activated by observation of meaningless oral and manual actions. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic…

  2. Knowledge About Sounds—Context-Specific Meaning Differently Activates Cortical Hemispheres, Auditory Cortical Fields, and Layers in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Diana B.; Schmidt, H. Sabine; Ehret, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the auditory cortex (AC) by a given sound pattern is plastic, depending, in largely unknown ways, on the physiological state and the behavioral context of the receiving animal and on the receiver's experience with the sounds. Such plasticity can be inferred when house mouse mothers respond maternally to pup ultrasounds right after parturition and naïve females have to learn to respond. Here we use c-FOS immunocytochemistry to quantify highly activated neurons in the AC fields and layers of seven groups of mothers and naïve females who have different knowledge about and are differently motivated to respond to acoustic models of pup ultrasounds of different behavioral significance. Profiles of FOS-positive cells in the AC primary fields (AI, AAF), the ultrasonic field (UF), the secondary field (AII), and the dorsoposterior field (DP) suggest that activation reflects in AI, AAF, and UF the integration of sound properties with animal state-dependent factors, in the higher-order field AII the news value of a given sound in the behavioral context, and in the higher-order field DP the level of maternal motivation and, by left-hemisphere activation advantage, the recognition of the meaning of sounds in the given context. Anesthesia reduced activation in all fields, especially in cortical layers 2/3. Thus, plasticity in the AC is field-specific preparing different output of AC fields in the process of perception, recognition and responding to communication sounds. Further, the activation profiles of the auditory cortical fields suggest the differentiation between brains hormonally primed to know (mothers) and brains which acquired knowledge via implicit learning (naïve females). In this way, auditory cortical activation discriminates between instinctive (mothers) and learned (naïve females) cognition. PMID:27013959

  3. Knowledge About Sounds-Context-Specific Meaning Differently Activates Cortical Hemispheres, Auditory Cortical Fields, and Layers in House Mice.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Diana B; Schmidt, H Sabine; Ehret, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the auditory cortex (AC) by a given sound pattern is plastic, depending, in largely unknown ways, on the physiological state and the behavioral context of the receiving animal and on the receiver's experience with the sounds. Such plasticity can be inferred when house mouse mothers respond maternally to pup ultrasounds right after parturition and naïve females have to learn to respond. Here we use c-FOS immunocytochemistry to quantify highly activated neurons in the AC fields and layers of seven groups of mothers and naïve females who have different knowledge about and are differently motivated to respond to acoustic models of pup ultrasounds of different behavioral significance. Profiles of FOS-positive cells in the AC primary fields (AI, AAF), the ultrasonic field (UF), the secondary field (AII), and the dorsoposterior field (DP) suggest that activation reflects in AI, AAF, and UF the integration of sound properties with animal state-dependent factors, in the higher-order field AII the news value of a given sound in the behavioral context, and in the higher-order field DP the level of maternal motivation and, by left-hemisphere activation advantage, the recognition of the meaning of sounds in the given context. Anesthesia reduced activation in all fields, especially in cortical layers 2/3. Thus, plasticity in the AC is field-specific preparing different output of AC fields in the process of perception, recognition and responding to communication sounds. Further, the activation profiles of the auditory cortical fields suggest the differentiation between brains hormonally primed to know (mothers) and brains which acquired knowledge via implicit learning (naïve females). In this way, auditory cortical activation discriminates between instinctive (mothers) and learned (naïve females) cognition.

  4. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  5. Designing a knowledge management system for distributed activities: a human centered approach.

    PubMed

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables re-searchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment.

  6. Designing a Knowledge Management System for Distributed Activities: A Human Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables researchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment. PMID:14728235

  7. Spanish Primary School Students' Knowledge of Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, David Sanchez-Mora; Lopez, Luis Miguel Garcia; Diaz, Maria Sagrario Del Valle; Martinez, Inmaculada Solera

    2011-01-01

    Background: Games represent a very important part of the physical education curriculum and the process by which they are learnt is very complex. Constructive teaching theories highlight the existence of knowledge prior to instruction that the pupil actively transforms through verbalisation and interaction with classmates. The results of research…

  8. Displaying Knowledge through Interrogatives in Student-Initiated Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Marit Skarbø

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of student initiatives in whole-class interactions. While prior research on question-answer sequences in classroom interactions has shown students to be rather passive recipients of knowledge, this article focuses on aspects of classroom interaction where students take a more active role. Following a conversation…

  9. Random template placement and prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röver, Christian

    2010-05-01

    In signal detection problems, one is usually faced with the task of searching a parameter space for peaks in the likelihood function which indicate the presence of a signal. Random searches have proven to be very efficient as well as easy to implement, compared e.g. to searches along regular grids in parameter space. Knowledge of the parameterised shape of the signal searched for adds structure to the parameter space, i.e., there are usually regions requiring to be densely searched while in other regions a coarser search is sufficient. On the other hand, prior information identifies the regions in which a search will actually be promising or may likely be in vain. Defining specific figures of merit allows one to combine both template metric and prior distribution and devise optimal sampling schemes over the parameter space. We show an example related to the gravitational wave signal from a binary inspiral event. Here the template metric and prior information are particularly contradictory, since signals from low-mass systems tolerate the least mismatch in parameter space while high-mass systems are far more likely, as they imply a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence are detectable to greater distances. The derived sampling strategy is implemented in a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm where it improves convergence.

  10. Self-reported practice, confidence, and knowledge about palliative care of nurses in a Japanese Regional Cancer Center: longitudinal study after 1-year activity of palliative care team.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Koji; Imura, Chizuru; Nanba, Miki; Fukumoto, Naoko; Itoh, Tomoko

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge and skill deficits about palliative care in medical professionals are among the most common barriers to quality palliative care. This study in a Japanese regional cancer center was conducted to clarify nurses' self-reported practices, confidence, and knowledge, and the changes in these parameters after the 1-year educational and clinical activity of a palliative care team. Questionnaires were distributed to 134 nurses before and after a palliative care team conducted 6-topic educational programs and clinical consultation activity throughout the year. The nurses were asked to report their practices, confidence, and knowledge about palliative care in 5 fields (pain, dyspnea, delirium, communication, and dying-phase). In some areas of palliative care, hospital nurses did not adhere to recommended practices, had knowledge deficits, and were not generally confident with palliative care practices. However, daily palliative care team activities, including educational programs and clinical consultation service, could improve their practice and knowledge levels.

  11. Constructing Knowledge: An Experience of Active and Collaborative Learning in ICT Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Margarida M.; Simoes, Dora

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of the implementation of active and collaborative practices in ICT (information and communication technologies) classrooms. Both of these approaches convey a lot of responsibility from the teacher to the students and the hoping, as backed up by the literature, is to promote deeper learning and reasoning skills at a…

  12. Nobody Says No: Student Self-Censorship in a Collaborative Knowledge Building Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Alan; Nason, Rod

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores student self-censorship within an online learning environment. Self-censorship in group activity can be seen as a two-edged sword. While it can be advantageous that a student censor personal frustration and angst when working with others, if the self-censorship impacts on the cognitive contribution a student makes then this may…

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions, and Beliefs regarding Physical Activity on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullally, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many proven benefits of exercise, obesity rates on college campuses continue to rise. At the same time, physical activity (PA) courses are being reduced or cut at various educational institutions. The loss of PA courses creates a problem because college students do not receive the necessary education they need in relation to the…

  14. Learning by Doing: The Objectification of Knowledge across Semiotic Modalities in Middle School Chemistry Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis follows students' action and interaction with a single scientific phenomenon (bubbling/gas) over the course of a curriculum unit in a middle school science classroom to examine how and what they learn when doing laboratory activities. Taking a situated approach to interaction, I place the process of objectification in its multimodal…

  15. Does Active Learning Improve Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Research Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campisi, Jay; Finn, Kevin E.

    2011-01-01

    We incorporated an active, collaborative-based research project in our undergraduate Research Methods course for first-year sports medicine majors. Working in small groups, students identified a research question, generated a hypothesis to be tested, designed an experiment, implemented the experiment, analyzed the data, and presented their…

  16. In Silico Mining for Antimalarial Structure-Activity Knowledge and Discovery of Novel Antimalarial Curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Viira, Birgit; Gendron, Thibault; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Cojean, Sandrine; Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre; Maes, Louis; Maran, Uko; Loiseau, Philippe M; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2016-06-29

    Malaria is a parasitic tropical disease that kills around 600,000 patients every year. The emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) represents a significant public health threat, indicating the urgent need for new effective compounds to reverse ACT resistance and cure the disease. For this, extensive curation and homogenization of experimental anti-Plasmodium screening data from both in-house and ChEMBL sources were conducted. As a result, a coherent strategy was established that allowed compiling coherent training sets that associate compound structures to the respective antimalarial activity measurements. Seventeen of these training sets led to the successful generation of classification models discriminating whether a compound has a significant probability to be active under the specific conditions of the antimalarial test associated with each set. These models were used in consensus prediction of the most likely active from a series of curcuminoids available in-house. Positive predictions together with a few predicted as inactive were then submitted to experimental in vitro antimalarial testing. A large majority from predicted compounds showed antimalarial activity, but not those predicted as inactive, thus experimentally validating the in silico screening approach. The herein proposed consensus machine learning approach showed its potential to reduce the cost and duration of antimalarial drug discovery.

  17. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  18. Knowledge and luck.

    PubMed

    Turri, John; Buckwalter, Wesley; Blouw, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nearly all success is due to some mix of ability and luck. But some successes we attribute to the agent's ability, whereas others we attribute to luck. To better understand the criteria distinguishing credit from luck, we conducted a series of four studies on knowledge attributions. Knowledge is an achievement that involves reaching the truth. But many factors affecting the truth are beyond our control, and reaching the truth is often partly due to luck. Which sorts of luck are compatible with knowledge? We found that knowledge attributions are highly sensitive to lucky events that change the explanation for why a belief is true. By contrast, knowledge attributions are surprisingly insensitive to lucky events that threaten, but ultimately fail to change the explanation for why a belief is true. These results shed light on our concept of knowledge, help explain apparent inconsistencies in prior work on knowledge attributions, and constitute progress toward a general understanding of the relation between success and luck.

  19. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  20. Project-focused activity and knowledge tracker: a unified data analysis, collaboration, and workflow tool for medicinal chemistry project teams.

    PubMed

    Brodney, Marian D; Brosius, Arthur D; Gregory, Tracy; Heck, Steven D; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn L; Poss, Christopher S

    2009-12-01

    Advances in the field of drug discovery have brought an explosion in the quantity of data available to medicinal chemists and other project team members. New strategies and systems are needed to help these scientists to efficiently gather, organize, analyze, annotate, and share data about potential new drug molecules of interest to their project teams. Herein we describe a suite of integrated services and end-user applications that facilitate these activities throughout the medicinal chemistry design cycle. The Automated Data Presentation (ADP) and Virtual Compound Profiler (VCP) processes automate the gathering, organization, and storage of real and virtual molecules, respectively, and associated data. The Project-Focused Activity and Knowledge Tracker (PFAKT) provides a unified data analysis and collaboration environment, enhancing decision-making, improving team communication, and increasing efficiency.