Science.gov

Sample records for activating sequence uas

  1. Isolation and Identification of Genes Activating Uas2-Dependent Adh2 Expression in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Donoviel, M. S.; Young, E. T.

    1996-01-01

    Two cis-acting elements have been identified that act synergistically to regulate expression of the glucose-repressed alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) gene. UAS1 is bound by the trans-activator Adr1p. UAS2 is thought to be the binding site for an unidentified regulatory protein. A genetic selection based on a UAS2-dependent ADH2 reporter was devised to isolate genes capable of activating UAS2-dependent transcription. One set of UAS2-dependent genes contained SPT6/CRE2/SSN20. Multicopy SPT6 caused improper expression of chromosomal ADH2. A second set of UAS2-dependent clones contained a previously uncharacterized open reading frame designated MEU1 (Multicopy Enhancer of UAS2). A frame shift mutation in MEU1 abolished its ability to activate UAS2-dependent gene expression. Multicopy MEU1 expression suppressed the constitutive ADH2 expression caused by cre2-1. Disruption of MEU1 reduced endogenous ADH2 expression about twofold but had no effect on cell viability or growth. No homologues of MEU1 were identified by low-stringency Southern hybridization of yeast genomic DNA, and no significant homologues were found in the sequence data bases. A MEU1/β-gal fusion protein was not localized to a particular region of the cell. MEU1 is linked to PPR1 on chromosome XII. PMID:8807288

  2. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  3. UAS Related Activities at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center is completing its refurbishment and initial flights of one the pre-production Global Hawk aircraft it received from the U.S. Air Force. NASA Dryden has an agreement with the Global Hawk s manufacturer, Northrop Grumman, to partner in the refurbishment and flight operations of the vehicles. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has also partnered on the project and is assisting NASA with project management and pilot responsibilities for the aircraft. NASA and NOAA will be using the Global Hawks to conduct earth science research. The earth science community is increasing utilizing UAS of all sizes and capabilities to collect important data on a variety of issues including important global climate change issues. To pursue the data collection needs of the science community there is a growing demand for international collaboration with respect to operating UAS in global airspace. Operations of NASA s Ikhana aircraft continued this past year. The Ikhana is a modified Predator B UAS. A UAS dedicated to research at NASA Dryden is the X-48B blended wing body research aircraft. Flight tests with the 500- pound, remotely piloted test vehicle are now in a block 4 phase involving parameter identification and maneuvers to research the limits of the engine in stall situations. NASA s participation in the blended wing body research effort is focused on fundamental, advanced flight dynamics and structural design concepts within the Subsonic Fixed Wing project, part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program managed through NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Potential benefits of the aircraft include increased volume for carrying capacity, efficient aerodynamics for reduced fuel burn and possibly significant reductions in noise due to propulsion integration options. NASA Dryden continues to support the UAS industry by facilitating access to three specially designated test areas on Edwards Air Force Base for the

  4. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) activities at the Department of the Interior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Hutt, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is responsible for protecting and managing the natural resources and heritage on almost 20% of the land in the United States. The DOI’s mission requires access to remotely sensed data over vast lands, including areas that are remote and potentially dangerous to access. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology has the potential to enable the DOI to be a better steward of the land by: (1) Improving natural hazard forecasting and the analysis of the impacts. (2) Improving the understanding of climate change to better plan for likely impacts. (3) Developing precipitation and evaporation forecasting to better manage water resources. (4) Monitoring Arctic ice change and its impacts on ecosystems, coasts, and transportation. (5) Increasing safety and effectiveness of wildland fire management. (6) Enhancing search and rescue capabilities. (7) Broadening the abilities to monitor environmental or landscape conditions and changes. (8) Better understanding and protecting the Nation’s ecosystems. The initial operational testing and evaluations performed by the DOI have proven that UAS technology can be used to support many of the Department’s activities. UAS technology provides scientists a way to look longer, closer and more frequently at some of Earth’s most remote areas—places that were previously too dangerous or expensive to monitor in detail. The flexibility of operations and relative low cost to purchase and operate Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) enhances the ability to track long-term landscape and environmental change. The initial testing indicates the operational costs are approximately 10% of traditional manned aircraft. In addition, users can quickly assess landscape-altering events such as wildland fires, floods and volcanoes. UAS technology will allow the DOI to do more with less and in the process enhance the Department’s ability to provide unbiased scientific information to help stakeholders make

  5. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS: A Report on the Human Systems Integration Phase 1 Simulation Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, R. Conrad; Shively, R. Jay

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began a five-year Project to address the technical barriers related to routine access of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Planned in two phases, the goal of the first phase was to lay the foundations for the Project by identifying those barriers and key issues to be addressed to achieve integration. Phase 1 activities were completed two years into the five-year Project. The purpose of this paper is to review activities within the Human Systems Integration (HSI) subproject in Phase 1 toward its two objectives: 1) develop GCS guidelines for routine UAS access to the NAS, and 2) develop a prototype display suite within an existing Ground Control Station (GCS). The first objective directly addresses a critical barrier for UAS integration into the NAS - a lack of GCS design standards or requirements. First, the paper describes the initial development of a prototype GCS display suite and supporting simulation software capabilities. Then, three simulation experiments utilizing this simulation architecture are summarized. The first experiment sought to determine a baseline performance of UAS pilots operating in civil airspace under current instrument flight rules for manned aircraft. The second experiment examined the effect of currently employed UAS contingency procedures on Air Traffic Control (ATC) participants. The third experiment compared three GCS command and control interfaces on UAS pilot response times in compliance with ATC clearances. The authors discuss how the results of these and future simulation and flight-testing activities contribute to the development of GCS guidelines to support the safe integration of UAS into the NAS. Finally, the planned activities for Phase 2, including an integrated human-in-the-loop simulation and two flight tests are briefly described.

  6. The sequence and binding specificity of UaY, the specific regulator of the purine utilization pathway in Aspergillus nidulans, suggest an evolutionary relationship with the PPR1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, T; de Queiroz, M V; Oestreicher, N; Scazzocchio, C

    1995-01-01

    The uaY gene codes for a transcriptional activator mediating the induction of a number of unlinked genes involved in purine utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. Here we present the complete genomic and cDNA nucleotide sequence of this gene. The gene contains two introns. The derived polypeptide of 1060 residues contains a typical zinc binuclear cluster domain and shows a number of similarities with the PPR1 regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These similarities are most striking in the putative linker and dimerization regions following the zinc cluster. Gel-shift and DNase I footprinting experiments have been carried out for three genes subject to UaY-mediated induction. The binding sequence is 5'-TCGG-6X-CCGA, which is identical to the proposed PPR1 binding sites. Nevertheless, the identity of the base immediately 3' of the 5'-TCGG sequence clearly affects the affinity of the site. The site upstream of the uapA gene has been shown to be active in vivo. Binding to this site has been analysed by a number of interference techniques. There is an interesting chemical similarity between the co-inducer of the purine utilization pathway (uric acid) and that of the genes of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway (dihydroorotic acid) and we show that dihydroorotic acid can act as a poor inducer of at least one activity under UaY control. These striking similarities, together with the unique pattern of regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae, suggest that PPR1 evolved through recruitment into the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway of an ancestral gene related to uaY. Images PMID:7729421

  7. Data Management And Pre-Archival Activities For A Complex UAS Project In The Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrichs, J. F.; Tschudi, M. A.; Norman, J.; Schultz, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) had the objective of employing UASs to study ocean-ice interactions in the Beaufort Sea. The aircraft operated from Oliktok Point in Alaska during July and August 2013. The project team included representatives of several different institutions widely dispersed geographically. Mission planning activities used multiple tools including the Waypoint Planning Tool (WPT) developed by NASA Ames and a combination of vector and raster datasets to support development of flight plans. Flight planning datasets were downloaded and visualizations created for WPT and Google Earth using an automated tool running remotely from the field site. Data collected during the project included both image and non-image data from 16 different instruments with varying spatial coverage and resolution. UAS data volumes were large (on the order of 3-4 Tb per flight) and the datasets were delivered shortly after flight using a wide variety of media types. The data management portion of the project included acquisition of imagery for planning, capturing the flight sensor data, preliminary processing, and compilation of metadata for archival at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

  8. Life Science Start-up Activities at the Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS).

    PubMed

    Huber, Gerda

    2014-12-01

    The universities of applied sciences (UAS) provide several values for the society and economy of a country. Besides education of high level professionals, transfer of knowledge from research to applications in industry or as new start-up companies is an important task. This is done in different ways in the various disciplines. In Life Sciences, a key industry branch in Switzerland, innovation is a competitive success factor and research findings from UAS/Life Sciences contribute to the valorization of new technologies to products, services and to business performance. In order to foster awareness for the innovation need of industry, UAS install processes and support for transfer of research and technology results to marketable applications. Furthermore they may facilitate contacts of researchers and students with entrepreneurs in order to animate start-up founding as a true alternative to being employed. Access to coaching and entrepreneurial training completes the essential basis. PMID:26508606

  9. Analysis of Radioactive Releases During Proposed Demolition Activities for the 224-U and 224-UA Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Droppo, James G.

    2009-03-31

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling has been conducted in support of the demolition of the 224-U and 224-UA buildings using estimated release rates to provide information on the location and levels of radioactive contamination that may be expected. The facilities surrounding the UO3 plant have the potential to affect dispersion patterns through various meteorological phenomena, including building wake effects. Hourly meteorological data collected over a 5-year period were used to examine the effects of wind speed, direction, and stability on projected concentrations of contaminants in air and deposited on nearby surfaces. The modeling results indicate that the radiological exposures from the planned demolition efforts will be below the designated limits for air and soil exposures.

  10. Georeferencing experiments with UAS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźków, G.; Toth, C.

    2014-11-01

    Comparing typical airborne mapping systems with Unmanned Airborne Systems (UAS) developed for mapping purposes, there are several advantages and disadvantages of both systems. The unquestionable benefits of UAS are the much lower costs of equipment and the simple operation; though, the regulations to fly UAS greatly vary by country. Low cost, however, means small sensor size and low weight, thus, sensors usually lack the quality, negatively impacting the accuracy of UAS data and, consequently, any derived mapping products. This work compares the performance of three different positioning approaches used for UAS image geolocation. The first one is based on using dual-frequency GPS data, post-processed in kinematic mode. The second approach uses the single frequency, code only GPS data that was acquired and processed by a geotagger, attached to mapping camera. Finally, the third one employs indirect image georeferencing, based on aerial triangulation using ground controls. As expected, the quality of data provided by the inexpensive GPS receiver (geotagger) is not suitable for mapping purposes. The two other approaches provided similar and reliable results, confirming that commonly used indirect georeferencing, which usually assures good solution, can be replaced by direct georeferencing. The latter technique results not only in reduction of field work, e.g. Ground Control Points (GCPs) surveying, but is appropriate for use with other sensors, such as active imaging technology, LiDAR, further extending UAS application potential.

  11. Analysis of Radioactive Releases During Proposed Demolition Activities for the 224-U and 224-UA Buildings - Addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Droppo, James G.; Joyce, Kevin E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2010-12-21

    A post-demolition modeling analysis is conducted that compares during-demolition atmospheric concentration monitoring results with modeling results based on the actual meteorological conditions during the demolition activities. The 224-U and 224-UA Buildings that were located in the U-Plant UO3 complex in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site were demolished during the summer of 2010. These facilities converted uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH), a product of Hanford’s Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant, into uranium trioxide (UO3). This report is an addendum to a pre-demolition emission analysis and air dispersion modeling effort that was conducted for proposed demolition activities for these structures.

  12. Internal deletions in the yeast transcriptional activator HAP1 have opposite effects at two sequence elements.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Pfeifer, K; Powell, L; Guarente, L

    1990-06-01

    In this report we study the effects of internal deletions of the yeast transcriptional activator HAP1 (CYP1) on activity at two dissimilar DNA binding sites, upstream activation sequence 1 (UAS1) of CYC1 (iso-1-cytochrome c) and CYC7 (iso-2-cytochrome c). These deletions remove up to 1061 amino acids of the 1483-residue protein and bring the carboxyl-terminal acidic activation domain closer to the amino-terminal DNA-binding domain. Surprisingly, the deletions have opposite effects at the two sites; activity at UAS1 increases with deletion size, while activity at CYC7 decreases. The mutant with the largest deletion, mini-HAP1, has no measurable activity at CYC7 but binds normally to the site in vitro. In contrast, a protein with the DNA-binding domain of HAP1 fused to the acidic activation domain of GAL4 is active at both UAS1 and CYC7. These findings are discussed in the context of two models that suggest how the DNA sequence can alter the activity of the bound HAP1. In a separate experiment, we generate a mutation in the DNA-binding domain of HAP1 that requires the addition of zinc for binding to either UAS1 or CYC7 in vitro. This finding shows that a zinc finger anchors DNA binding to both types of HAP1 sites. PMID:2162046

  13. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for

  14. NASA UAS Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey Ervin; Mulac, Brenda Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Last year may prove to be a pivotal year for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) arena, especially in relation to routine UAS access to airspace as NASA accepted an invitation to join the UAS Executive Committee (UAS ExCom). The UAS ExCom is a multi-agency, Federal executive-level committee comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA with the goals to: 1) Coordinate and align efforts between key Federal Government agencies to achieve routine safe federal public UAS operations in the National Airspace System (NAS); 2) Coordinate and prioritize technical, procedural, regulatory, and policy solutions needed to deliver incremental capabilities; 3) Develop a plan to accommodate the larger stakeholder community at the appropriate time; and 4) Resolve conflicts between Federal Government agencies (FAA, DoD, DHS, and NASA), related to the above goals. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. In order to meet that need, technical, procedural, regulatory, and policy solutions are required to deliver incremental capabilities leading to routine access. The formation of the UAS ExCom is significant in that it represents a tangible commitment by FAA senior leadership to address the UAS access challenge. While the focus of the ExCom is government owned and operated UAS, civil UAS operations are bound to benefit by the progress made in achieving routine access for government UAS. As the UAS ExCom was forming, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate began to show renewed interest in UAS, particularly in relation to the future state of the air transportation system under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NASA made funding from the American

  15. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PUT3 activator protein associates with proline-specific upstream activation sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, A H; Brandriss, M C

    1989-01-01

    The PUT1 and PUT2 genes encoding the enzymes of the proline utilization pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are induced by proline and activated by the product of the PUT3 gene. Two upstream activation sequences (UASs) in the PUT1 promoter were identified by homology to the PUT2 UAS. Deletion analysis of the two PUT1 UASs showed that they were functionally independent and additive in producing maximal levels of gene expression. The consensus PUT UAS is a 21-base-pair partially palindromic sequence required in vivo for induction of both genes. The results of a gel mobility shift assay demonstrated that the proline-specific UAS is the binding site of a protein factor. In vitro complex formation was observed in crude extracts of yeast strains carrying either a single genomic copy of the PUT3 gene or the cloned PUT3 gene on a 2 microns plasmid, and the binding was dosage dependent. DNA-binding activity was not observed in extracts of strains carrying either a put3 mutation that caused a noninducible (Put-) phenotype or a deletion of the gene. Wild-type levels of complex formation were observed in an extract of a strain carrying an allele of PUT3 that resulted in a constitutive (Put+) phenotype. Extracts from a strain carrying a PUT3-lacZ gene fusion formed two complexes of slower mobility than the wild-type complex. We conclude that the PUT3 product is either a DNA-binding protein or part of a DNA-binding complex that recognizes the UASs of both PUT1 and PUT2. Binding was observed in extracts of a strain grown in the presence or absence of proline, demonstrating the constitutive nature of the DNA-protein interaction. Images PMID:2689862

  16. UA in Review, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitney, Pat; Dupee, Betty; Reid, James; Meckel, Steven; Tissier, Isabelle; Gillispie, Juli; Armstrong, Linda; Crabb, Michael; Cook, Linda

    This document provides statistics that describe the University of Alaska (UA) statewide system of higher education, which encompasses 4-year institutions and community and 2-year colleges. The student profile information includes: (1) headcount by campus, gender and ethnicity; (2) part-time/full-time student enrollment; (3) non-credit student…

  17. Mutations That Suppress the Deletion of an Upstream Activating Sequence in Yeast: Involvement of a Protein Kinase and Histone H3 in Repressing Transcription in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Prelich, G.; Winston, F.

    1993-01-01

    Regulated transcription of most protein-encoding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires an upstream activating sequence (UAS); in the absence of UAS elements, little or no transcription occurs. In certain mutant strains, however, promoters that have been deleted for their UAS can direct significant levels of transcription, indicating that the remaining promoter elements (the basal promoter) are capable of directing higher levels of transcription, but they are normally repressed in wild-type strains. To analyze this repression, we have selected for mutations that cause increased transcription of the SUC2 gene in the absence of its UAS. In addition to some previously studied genes, this selection has identified five genes that we have designated BUR1, BUR2, BUR3, BUR5 and BUR6 (for Bypass UAS Requirement). The bur mutations cause pleiotropic phenotypes, indicating that they affect transcription of many genes. Furthermore, some bur mutations suppress the requirement for the SNF5 trans-activator at both SUC2 and Ty. Additional analysis has demonstrated that BUR1 is identical to SGV1, which encodes a CDC28-related protein kinase. This result indicates that protein phosphorylation is important for repression of the SUC2 basal promoter as well as other aspects of transcription in vivo. Finally, BUR5 is identical to HHT1, encoding histone H3, further implicating chromatin structure as important for expression of SUC2. PMID:8293972

  18. Complex transcriptional regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYB2 gene encoding cytochrome b2: CYP1(HAP1) activator binds to the CYB2 upstream activation site UAS1-B2.

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, T; Guiard, B

    1991-01-01

    Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding cytochrome b2 (EC 1.2.2.3), CYB2, was investigated by direct analysis of mRNA transcripts and by measurement of the expression of lacZ fused to the CYB2 control regions. These studies indicated that regulation of the CYB2 gene is subject to several metabolic controls at the transcriptional level: inhibition due to glucose fermentation, induction by lactate, and inhibition in anaerobiosis or in absence of heme biosynthesis. Furthermore, we have shown that the CYB2 promoter contains one cis negative regulatory region and two heme-dependent positive regions, one of which is controlled by the transcriptional regulator CYP1 (HAP1) which is involved in the modulation of the expression of several oxygen-regulated genes. The CYP1 (HAP1)-binding sequence was located by gel retardation and DNase I footprinting experiments and compared with the binding sequences previously characterized in detail (UAS1CYC1, UAS'CYP3 (CYC7), and UASCTT1). Images PMID:2046677

  19. Interactions of purified transcription factors: binding of yeast MAT alpha 1 and PRTF to cell type-specific, upstream activating sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, S; Ammerer, G; Richmond, T J

    1988-01-01

    Pheromone receptor transcription factor (PRTF) and MAT alpha 1 are protein transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of the alpha-specific genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have expressed MAT alpha 1 as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified it from inclusion bodies in milligram quantities. The MAT alpha 1 protein was obtained after specific cleavage of the fusion protein. Quantitative band shift electrophoresis was used to determine the equilibrium dissociation constants that describe the multicomponent binding equilibrium between the PRTF and MAT alpha 1 proteins, and alpha-specific STE3 upstream activating sequence (UAS) DNA. The dissociation constant for the complex of PRTF and the a-specific UAS of STE2 was also measured and found to be 5.9 X 10(-11) M, only three times less than that for the PRTF-STE3 UAS complex. Analyses of these complexes by DNase I footprinting demonstrate that the PRTF binding site is confined to the palindromic P-box sequence in the case of the STE3 UAS, but extends symmetrically from this central region to cover 28 bp for the STE2 UAS. When MAT alpha 1 is bound to the PRTF-STE3 complex, the region of DNA protected is enlarged to that seen for the PRTF-STE2 complex. Our results using these two purified factors in vitro suggest that PRTF has nearly the same affinity for a- and alpha-specific UAS elements and that transcriptional activation requires a particular conformational state for the PRTF-DNA complex which occurs in the PRTF-STE2 and MAT alpha 1-PRTF-STE3 complexes, but not in the PRTF-STE3 complex. Images PMID:2854061

  20. UAS Integration in the NAS FY15 Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindle, Laurie; Randall, Debra; Hackenburg, Davis

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS progress and future directions.

  1. UAS Integration in the NAS Project - FY 14 Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindle, Laurie; Randall, Debra; Hackenberg, Davis

    2014-01-01

    This briefing gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS Projects progress and future directions.

  2. Generic OPC UA Server Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel, Piotr P.; Farnham, Benjamin; Filimonov, Viatcheslav; Schlenker, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach for generic design and efficient development of OPC UA servers. Development starts with creation of a design file, in XML format, describing an object-oriented information model of the target system or device. Using this model, the framework generates an executable OPC UA server application, which exposes the per-design OPC UA address space, without the developer writing a single line of code. Furthermore, the framework generates skeleton code into which the developer adds the necessary logic for integration to the target system or device. This approach allows both developers unfamiliar with the OPC UA standard, and advanced OPC UA developers, to create servers for the systems they are experts in while greatly reducing design and development effort as compared to developments based purely on COTS OPC UA toolkits. Higher level software may further benefit from the explicit OPC UA server model by using the XML design description as the basis for generating client connectivity configuration and server data representation. Moreover, having the XML design description at hand facilitates automatic generation of validation tools. In this contribution, the concept and implementation of this framework is detailed along with examples of actual production-level usage in the detector control system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and beyond.

  3. Mapping with Small UAS: A Point Cloud Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Charles; Jozkow, Grzegorz; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Interest in using inexpensive Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology for topographic mapping has recently significantly increased. Small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade cameras can easily acquire high-resolution aerial imagery allowing for dense point cloud generation, followed by surface model creation and orthophoto production. In contrast to conventional airborne mapping systems, UAS has limited ground coverage due to low flying height and limited flying time, yet it offers an attractive alternative to high performance airborne systems, as the cost of the sensors and platform, and the flight logistics, is relatively low. In addition, UAS is better suited for small area data acquisitions and to acquire data in difficult to access areas, such as urban canyons or densely built-up environments. The main question with respect to the use of UAS is whether the inexpensive consumer sensors installed in UAS platforms can provide the geospatial data quality comparable to that provided by conventional systems. This study aims at the performance evaluation of the current practice of UAS-based topographic mapping by reviewing the practical aspects of sensor configuration, georeferencing and point cloud generation, including comparisons between sensor types and processing tools. The main objective is to provide accuracy characterization and practical information for selecting and using UAS solutions in general mapping applications. The analysis is based on statistical evaluation as well as visual examination of experimental data acquired by a Bergen octocopter with three different image sensor configurations, including a GoPro HERO3+ Black Edition, a Nikon D800 DSLR and a Velodyne HDL-32. In addition, georeferencing data of varying quality were acquired and evaluated. The optical imagery was processed by using three commercial point cloud generation tools. Comparing point clouds created by active and passive sensors by using different quality sensors, and finally

  4. NASA Dryden's UAS Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The vision of NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center is to "fly what others only imagine." Its mission is to advance technology and science through flight. Objectives supporting the mission include performing flight research and technology integration to revolutionize aviation and pioneer aerospace technology, validating space exploration concepts, conducting airborne remote sensing and science missions, and supporting operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. A significant focus of effort in recent years has been on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), both in support of the Airborne Science Program and as research vehicles to advance the state of the art in UAS. Additionally, the Center has used its piloted aircraft in support of UAS technology development. In order to facilitate greater access to the UAS expertise that exists at the Center, that expertise has been organized around three major capabilities. The first is access to high-altitude, long-endurance UAS. The second is the establishment of a test range for small UAS. The third is safety case assessment support.

  5. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skliarov, V.; Röttger, A.; Honig, A.; Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S.; Lapenas, A.; Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S.

    2009-01-01

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5th meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  7. UAS-NAS Stakeholder Feedback Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Debra; Murphy, Jim; Grindle, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to national security and defense, emergency management, science, and to enable commercial applications has been continually increasing over the past few years. To address this need, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) formulated and funded the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project (hereafter referred to as UAS-NAS Project) from 2011 to 2016. The UAS-NAS Project identified the following need statement: The UAS community needs routine access to the global airspace for all classes of UAS. The Project identified the following goal: To provide research findings to reduce technical barriers associated with integrating UAS into the NAS utilizing integrated system level tests in a relevant environment. This report provides a summary of the collaborations between the UAS-NAS Project and its primary stakeholders and how the Project applied and incorporated the feedback.

  8. Oxygen-dependent upstream activation sites of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome c genes are related forms of the same sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Cerdan, M.E.; Zitomer, R.S.

    1988-06-01

    In Sacchariomyces cerevisiae, the two genes, CYC1 and CYC7, that encode the isoforms of cytochrome c are expressed at different levels. Oxygen regulation is indicated by the expression of the CYP1 gene, and the CYP1 protein interacts with both CYC1 upstream activation sequence 1 (UAS1) and CYC7 UAS/sub 0/. In this study, the homology between the CYP1-binding sites of both genes was investigated. The most noticeable difference between the CYC1 and CYC7 UASs is the presence of GC base pairs at the same positions in a repeated sequence in CYC7 compared with CG base pairs in CYC1. Directed mutagenesis changing these GC residues to CG residues in CYC7 led to CYC1-like expression of CYC7 both in a CYP1 wild-type strain and in a strain carrying the semidominant mutation CYP1-16 which reverses the oxygen-dependent expression of the two genes. The authors' results strongly support the hypothesis that the CYP1-binding sites in CYC1 and CYC7 are related forms of the same sequence and that the CYP1-16 protein has altered specificity for the variant forms of the concensus sequences in both genes.

  9. The UA9 experimental layout

    SciTech Connect

    Scandale, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Arduini, G.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; et al

    2011-10-13

    The UA9 experimental equipment was installed in the CERN-SPS in March '09 with the aim of investigating crystal assisted collimation in coasting mode. Its basic layout comprises silicon bent crystals acting as primary collimators mounted inside two vacuum vessels. A movable 60 cm long block of tungsten located downstream at about 90 degrees phase advance intercepts the deflected beam. Scintillators, Gas Electron Multiplier chambers and other beam loss monitors measure nuclear loss rates induced by the interaction of the beam halo in the crystal. Two Roman pots installed in the path of the deflected particles are equipped with a Medipix detector to reconstruct the transverse distribution of the impinging beam. Finally UA9 takes advantage of an LHC-collimator prototype installed close to the first Roman pot to help in setting the beam conditions and to analyze the efficiency to deflect the beam. This paper describes in details the hardware installed to study the crystal collimation during 2010.

  10. Identification of potential target genes for Adr1p through characterization of essential nucleotides in UAS1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, C; Kacherovsky, N; Dombek, K M; Camier, S; Thukral, S K; Rhim, E; Young, E T

    1994-01-01

    Adr1p is a regulatory protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that binds to and activates transcription from two sites in a perfect 22-bp inverted repeat, UAS1, in the ADH2 promoter. Binding requires two C2H2 zinc fingers and a region amino terminal to the fingers. The importance for DNA binding of each position within UAS1 was deduced from two types of assays. Both methods led to an identical consensus sequence containing only four essential base pairs: GG(A/G)G. The preferred sequence, TTGG(A/G)GA, is found in both halves of the inverted repeat. The region of Adr1p amino terminal to the fingers is important for phosphate contacts in the central region of UAS1. However, no base-specific contacts in this portion of UAS1 are important for DNA binding or for ADR1-dependent transcription in vivo. When the central 6 bp were deleted, only a single monomer of Adr1p was able to bind in vitro and activation in vivo was severely reduced. On the basis of these results and previous knowledge about the DNA binding site requirements, including constraints on the spacing and orientation of sites that affect activation in vivo, a consensus binding site for Adr1p was derived. By using this consensus site, potential Adr1p binding sites were located in the promoters of genes known to show ADR1-dependent expression. In addition, this consensus allowed the identification of new potential target genes for Adr1p. Images PMID:8196627

  11. Combination of the ALCR/alcA ethanol switch and GAL4/VP16-UAS enhancer trap system enables spatial and temporal control of transgene expression in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongge; Van Loock, Bram; Liao, Mingjun; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2007-07-01

    The experimental control of gene expression in specific tissues or cells at defined time points is a useful tool for the analysis of gene function. GAL4/VP16-UAS enhancer trap lines can be used to selectively express genes in specific tissues or cells, and an ethanol-inducible system can help to control the time of expression. In this study, the combination of the two methods allowed the successful regulation of gene expression in both time and space. For this purpose, a binary vector, 962-UAS::GUS, was constructed in which the ALCR activator and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were placed under the control of upstream activator sequence (UAS) elements and the alcA response element, respectively. Three different GAL4/VP16-UAS enhancer trap lines of Arabidopsis were transformed, resulting in transgenic plants in which GUS activity was detected only on ethanol induction and exclusively in the predicted tissues of the enhancer trap lines. As a library of different enhancer trap lines with distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP) patterns exist, transformation with a similar vector, in which GUS is replaced by another gene, would enable the control of the time and place of transgene expression. We have constructed two vectors for easy cloning of the gene of interest, one with a polylinker site and one that is compatible with the GATEWAY vector conversion system. The method can be extended to other species when enhancer trap lines become available.

  12. Identification of base and backbone contacts used for DNA sequence recognition and high-affinity binding by LAC9, a transcription activator containing a C6 zinc finger

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, Yuan-Di C.; Nandabalan, K.; Dickson, R.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The LAC9 protein of Kluyveromyces lactis is a transcriptional regulator of genes in the lactose-galactose regulon. To regulate transcription, LAC9 must bind to 17-bp upstream activator sequences (UASs) located in front of each target gene. LAC9 is homologous to the GAL4 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the two proteins must bind DNA in a very similar manner. In this paper the authors show that high-affinity, sequence-specific binding by LAC9 dimers is mediated primarily by 3 bp at each end of the UAS. In addition, at least one half of the UAS must have a GC or CG base pair at position 1 for high-affinity binding; LAC9k binds preferentially to the half containing the GC base pair. Hydroxyl radical footprinting shows that a LAC9 dimer binds an unusually broad region on one face of the DNA helix. Because of the data, they suggest that LAC9 contacts positions 6, 7, and 8, both plus and minus, of the UAS, which are separated by more than one turn of the DNA helix, and twists part way around the DNA, thus protecting the broad region of the minor groove between the major-groove contacts.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS): Evolving Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years; Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  14. Distance Education at UAS: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Lynne; Ohler, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Increased pressure on the University of Alaska Southeast (UAS) to become more involved in distance education compelled UAS to commission a study of the perceptions, problems, and opportunities in the area of distance education as seen by three distinct groups in the university community: students, faculty, and staff (including administrators). The…

  15. Targeted expression in zebrafish primordial germ cells by Cre/loxP and Gal4/UAS systems.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Feng; Wei, Zhi-Qiang; Zhu, Zuo-Yan; Sun, Yong-Hua

    2013-10-01

    In zebrafish and other vertebrates, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are a population of embryonic cells that give rise to sperm and eggs in adults. Any type of genetically manipulated lines have to be originated from the germ cells of the manipulated founders, thus it is of great importance to establish an effective technology for highly specific PGC-targeted gene manipulation in vertebrates. In the present study, we used the Cre/loxP recombinase system and Gal4/UAS transcription system for induction and regulation of mRFP (monomer red fluorescent protein) gene expression to achieve highly efficient PGC-targeted gene expression in zebrafish. First, we established two transgenic activator lines, Tg(kop:cre) and Tg(kop:KalTA4), to express the Cre recombinases and the Gal4 activator proteins in PGCs. Second, we generated two transgenic effector lines, Tg(kop:loxP-SV40-loxP-mRFP) and Tg(UAS:mRFP), which intrinsically showed transcriptional silence of mRFP. When Tg(kop:cre) females were crossed with Tg(kop:loxP-SV40-loxP-mRFP) males, the loxP flanked SV40 transcriptional stop sequence was 100 % removed from the germ cells of the transgenic hybrids. This led to massive production of PGC-specific mRFP transgenic line, Tg(kop:loxP-mRFP), from an mRFP silent transgenic line, Tg(kop:loxP-SV40-loxP-mRFP). When Tg(kop:KalTA4) females were crossed with Tg(UAS:mRFP) males, the hybrid embryos showed PGC specifically expressed mRFP from shield stage till 25 days post-fertilization (pf), indicating the high sensitivity, high efficiency, and long-lasting effect of the Gal4/UAS system. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional amplification efficiency of the Gal4/UAS system in PGCs can be about 300 times higher than in 1-day-pf embryos. More importantly, when the UAS:mRFP-nos1 construct was directly injected into the Tg(kop:KalTA4) embryos, it was possible to specifically label the PGCs with high sensitivity, efficiency, and persistence. Therefore, we have established two

  16. The promoter of the tgt/sec operon in Escherichia coli is preceded by an upstream activation sequence that contains a high affinity FIS binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Slany, R K; Kersten, H

    1992-01-01

    The tgt/sec operon in E. coli consists of five genes: queA, tgt, ORF12, secD, and secF. QueA and Tgt participate in the biosynthesis of the hypermodified t-RNA nucleoside Queuosine, whereas SecD and SecF are involved in protein secretion. Examination of the promoter region of the operon showed structural similarity to promoter regions of the rrn-operons. An upstream activation sequence (UAS) containing a potential binding site for the factor of inversion stimulation (FIS) was found. Gel retardation assays and DNaseI footprinting indicated, that FIS binds specifically and with high affinity to a site centred at position -58. Binding of FIS caused bending of the DNA, as deduced from circular permutation analysis. Various 5' deletion mutants of the promoter region were constructed and fused to a lacZ reporter gene to determine the influence of the UAS element on the promoter strength. An approximately two-fold activation of the promoter by the UAS element was observed. Images PMID:1508713

  17. Delivery of ursolic acid (UA) in polymeric nanoparticles effectively promotes the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through enhanced inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Xiaolin; Ding, Jing; Xu, Huae; Dai, Xinzheng; Hou, Zhibo; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Kun; Sun, Weihao

    2013-01-30

    It has been demonstrated that ursolic acid (UA) could effectively induces apoptosis of cancer cells by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), which constitutively expresses in gastric cancer. However, the hydrophobicity of UA increases the difficulty in its potential clinical application, which raises the possibility for its application as a novel model drug in nanoparticle-based delivery system. UA-loaded nanoparticles (UA-NPs) were prepared by a nano-precipitation method using amphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) block copolymers as drug carriers. UA was effectively transported into SGC7901 cells by nanoparticles and localized around the nuclei in the cytoplasms. The in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis test indicated that UA-NPs significantly elicited more cell death at almost equivalent dose and corresponding incubation time. Moreover, UA-NPs led to more cell apoptosis through stronger inhibition of COX-2 and activation of caspase 3. The most powerful evidence from this report is that the significant differences between the cytotoxicity of free UA and UA-NPs are closely related to the expression levels of COX-2 and caspase-3, which demonstrates the superiority of UA-NPs over free UA through penetrating cell membrane. Therefore, the study offer an effective way to improve the anticancer efficiency of UA through nano-drug delivery system.

  18. Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequences.

    PubMed

    Leaver, Amber M; Van Lare, Jennifer; Zielinski, Brandon; Halpern, Andrea R; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2009-02-25

    Music consists of sound sequences that require integration over time. As we become familiar with music, associations between notes, melodies, and entire symphonic movements become stronger and more complex. These associations can become so tight that, for example, hearing the end of one album track can elicit a robust image of the upcoming track while anticipating it in total silence. Here, we study this predictive "anticipatory imagery" at various stages throughout learning and investigate activity changes in corresponding neural structures using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anticipatory imagery (in silence) for highly familiar naturalistic music was accompanied by pronounced activity in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and premotor areas. Examining changes in the neural bases of anticipatory imagery during two stages of learning conditional associations between simple melodies, however, demonstrates the importance of fronto-striatal connections, consistent with a role of the basal ganglia in "training" frontal cortex (Pasupathy and Miller, 2005). Another striking change in neural resources during learning was a shift between caudal PFC earlier to rostral PFC later in learning. Our findings regarding musical anticipation and sound sequence learning are highly compatible with studies of motor sequence learning, suggesting common predictive mechanisms in both domains. PMID:19244522

  19. Initial Experimental Airworthiness Certification Guidance for UAS. UAS Experimental Certification Process and Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the regulatory processes and requirements already in place by which an applicant might obtain experimental airworthiness certification for a civil Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). It is more extensive and subsequent to an earlier, similar deliverable, PD007, which was an interim study of the same topic. Since few regulatory airworthiness and operating standards exist for UAS like those for traditional manned aircraft and since most UAS have historically been developed and operated under military auspices, civil use of UAS in the NAS is a new and unfamiliar challenge requiring specific and unique considerations. Experimental certification is the most basic level of FAA approval toward routine UAS operation in the NAS. The paper reviews and explains existing FAA requirements for an applicant seeking experimental airworthiness approval and details the process for submission of necessary information. It summarizes the limited purposes for which experimental aircraft may be used and addresses pertinent aspects of UAS design, construction and operation in the NAS in harmony with traditional manned aircraft. Policy IPT position is that UAS, while different from manned aircraft, can use the same initial processes to gain civil operating experience under the experimental approval. Particular note is taken of those UAS-unique characteristics which require extra attention to assure equivalent safety of operation, such as the UAS control station and sense-and-avoid. The paper also provides "best practices" guidance for UAS manufacturers and FAA personnel in two appendices. The material in Appendix A is intended to provide guidance on assuring UAS safety to FAA, and provides FAA personnel with a suggested list of items to review, with a focus on UAS unique factors, prior to issuance of an experimental airworthiness certificate. Appendix B provides an outline for a program letter which a manufacturer could use in preparing the application for an UAS

  20. Optimal rotation sequences for active perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakath, David; Rachuy, Carsten; Clemens, Joachim; Schill, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    One major objective of autonomous systems navigating in dynamic environments is gathering information needed for self localization, decision making, and path planning. To account for this, such systems are usually equipped with multiple types of sensors. As these sensors often have a limited field of view and a fixed orientation, the task of active perception breaks down to the problem of calculating alignment sequences which maximize the information gain regarding expected measurements. Action sequences that rotate the system according to the calculated optimal patterns then have to be generated. In this paper we present an approach for calculating these sequences for an autonomous system equipped with multiple sensors. We use a particle filter for multi- sensor fusion and state estimation. The planning task is modeled as a Markov decision process (MDP), where the system decides in each step, what actions to perform next. The optimal control policy, which provides the best action depending on the current estimated state, maximizes the expected cumulative reward. The latter is computed from the expected information gain of all sensors over time using value iteration. The algorithm is applied to a manifold representation of the joint space of rotation and time. We show the performance of the approach in a spacecraft navigation scenario where the information gain is changing over time, caused by the dynamic environment and the continuous movement of the spacecraft

  1. Safety and Certification Considerations for Expanding the Use of UAS in Precision Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Neogi, Natasha A.; Vertstynen, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    The agricultural community is actively engaged in adopting new technologies such as unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to help assess the condition of crops and develop appropriate treatment plans. In the United States, agricultural use of UAS has largely been limited to small UAS, generally weighing less than 55 lb and operating within the line of sight of a remote pilot. A variety of small UAS are being used to monitor and map crops, while only a few are being used to apply agricultural inputs based on the results of remote sensing. Larger UAS with substantial payload capacity could provide an option for site-specific application of agricultural inputs in a timely fashion, without substantive damage to the crops or soil. A recent study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated certification requirements needed to enable the use of larger UAS to support the precision agriculture industry. This paper provides a brief introduction to aircraft certification relevant to agricultural UAS, an overview of and results from the NASA study, and a discussion of how those results might affect the precision agriculture community. Specific topics of interest include business model considerations for unmanned aerial applicators and a comparison with current means of variable rate application. The intent of the paper is to inform the precision agriculture community of evolving technologies that will enable broader use of unmanned vehicles to reduce costs, reduce environmental impacts, and enhance yield, especially for specialty crops that are grown on small to medium size farms.

  2. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  3. UAS in the NAS: Survey Responses by ATC, Manned Aircraft Pilots, and UAS Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; McAdaragh, Raymon; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA currently is working with industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish future requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). To work these issues NASA has established a multi-center UAS Integration in the NAS project. In order to establish Ground Control Station requirements for UAS, the perspective of each of the major players in NAS operations was desired. Three on-line surveys were administered that focused on Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), pilots of manned aircraft, and pilots of UAS. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with some survey respondents. The survey questions addressed UAS control, navigation, and communications from the perspective of small and large unmanned aircraft. Questions also addressed issues of UAS equipage, especially with regard to sense and avoid capabilities. From the ATC and military ATC perspective, of particular interest is how mixed-operations (manned/UAS) have worked in the past and the role of aircraft equipage. Knowledge gained from this information is expected to assist the NASA UAS in the NAS project in directing research foci thus assisting the FAA in the development of rules, regulations, and policies related to UAS in the NAS.

  4. UAS in the NAS: Survey Responses by ATC, Manned Aircraft Pilots, and UAS Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; McAdaragh, Raymon; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA currently is working with industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish future requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). To work these issues NASA has established a multi-center "UAS Integration in the NAS" project. In order to establish Ground Control Station requirements for UAS, the perspective of each of the major players in NAS operations was desired. Three on-line surveys were administered that focused on Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), pilots of manned aircraft, and pilots of UAS. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with some survey respondents. The survey questions addressed UAS control, navigation, and communications from the perspective of small and large unmanned aircraft. Questions also addressed issues of UAS equipage, especially with regard to sense and avoid capabilities. From the civilian ATC and military ATC perspectives, of particular interest are how mixed operations (manned / UAS) have worked in the past and the role of aircraft equipage. Knowledge gained from this information is expected to assist the NASA UAS Integration in the NAS project in directing research foci thus assisting the FAA in the development of rules, regulations, and policies related to UAS in the NAS.

  5. UAS NAS IHITL Test Readiness Review (TRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim; Brignola, Michael P.; Rorie, Conrad; Santiago, Confesor; Guminsky, Mike; Cross, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Requesting release of IHITL test readiness review (TRR) charts to ensure UAS-NAS project primary stakeholders, the Federal Aviation Administration through the RTCA special committee -228 and the Office of the Secretary of Defense Sense and Avoid Science and Research Panel, are well informed on the IHITL test plan and expected outcomes as they relate to their needs to safely fly UAS in the NAS.

  6. NASA Experience with UAS Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.; Jennison, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Viewgraphs of NASA's Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) as it applies to Earth science missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Agenda; 2) Background; 3) NASA Science Aircraft Endurance; 4) Science UAS Development Challenges; 5) USCG Alaskan Maritime Surveillance; 6) NOAA/NASA UAV Demonstration Project; 7) Western States Fire Mission; 8) Esperanza Fire Emergency Response; 9) Ikhana (Predator B); 10) UAV Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR); 11) Global Hawk; and 12) Related Technologies

  7. Possibilities of Uas for Maritime Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimkowska, A.; Lee, I.; Choi, K.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have become more important and its use for different application is appreciated. At the beginning UAS were used for military purposes. These successful applications initiated interest among researchers to find uses of UAS for civilian purposes, as they are alternative to both manned and satellite systems in acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data at lower cost while long flight duration. As UAS are built from many components such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), sensing payloads, communication systems, ground control stations, recovery and launch equipment, and supporting equipment, knowledge about its functionality and characteristics is crucial for missions. Therefore, finding appropriate configuration of all elements to fulfill requirements of the mission is a very difficult, yet important task. UAS may be used in various maritime applications such as ship detection, red tide detection and monitoring, border patrol, tracking of pollution at sea and hurricane monitoring just to mention few. One of the greatest advantages of UAV is their ability to fly over dangerous and hazardous areas, where sending manned aircraft could be risky for a crew. In this article brief description of aerial unmanned system components is introduced. Firstly characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles are presented, it continues with introducing inertial navigation system, communication systems, sensing payloads, ground control stations, and ground and recovery equipment. Next part introduces some examples of UAS for maritime applications. This is followed by suggestions of key indicators which should be taken into consideration while choosing UAS. Last part talks about configuration schemes of UAVs and sensor payloads suggested for some maritime applications.

  8. Ergonomics and workplace design: application of Ergo-UAS System in Fiat Group Automobiles.

    PubMed

    Vitello, M; Galante, L G; Capoccia, M; Caragnano, G

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008 Fiat Group Automobiles has introduced Ergo-UAS system for the balancing of production lines and to detect ergonomic issues. Ergo-UAS system integrates 2 specific methods: MTM-UAS for time measurement and EAWS as ergonomic method to evaluate biomechanical effort for each workstation. Fiat is using a software system to manage time evaluation and ergo characterization of production cycle (UAS) to perform line balancing and obtain allowance factor in all Italian car manufacturing plant. For new car models, starting from New Panda, FGA is applying Ergo-UAS for workplace design since the earliest phase of product development. This means that workplace design is based on information about new product, new layout, new work organization and is performed by a multidisciplinary team (Work Place Integration Team), focusing on several aspects of product and process: safety, quality and productivity. This allows to find and solve ergonomic threats before the start of production, by means of a strict cooperation between product development, engineering and design, manufacturing. Three examples of workstation design are presented in which application of Ergo-UAS was determinant to find out initial excessive levels of biomechanical load and helped the process designer to improve the workstations and define limits of acceptability. Technical activities (on product or on process), or organizational changes, that have been implemented in order to solve the problems are presented. A comparison between "before" and "new" ergonomic scores necessary to bring workstations in acceptable conditions were made.

  9. Ergonomics and workplace design: application of Ergo-UAS System in Fiat Group Automobiles.

    PubMed

    Vitello, M; Galante, L G; Capoccia, M; Caragnano, G

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008 Fiat Group Automobiles has introduced Ergo-UAS system for the balancing of production lines and to detect ergonomic issues. Ergo-UAS system integrates 2 specific methods: MTM-UAS for time measurement and EAWS as ergonomic method to evaluate biomechanical effort for each workstation. Fiat is using a software system to manage time evaluation and ergo characterization of production cycle (UAS) to perform line balancing and obtain allowance factor in all Italian car manufacturing plant. For new car models, starting from New Panda, FGA is applying Ergo-UAS for workplace design since the earliest phase of product development. This means that workplace design is based on information about new product, new layout, new work organization and is performed by a multidisciplinary team (Work Place Integration Team), focusing on several aspects of product and process: safety, quality and productivity. This allows to find and solve ergonomic threats before the start of production, by means of a strict cooperation between product development, engineering and design, manufacturing. Three examples of workstation design are presented in which application of Ergo-UAS was determinant to find out initial excessive levels of biomechanical load and helped the process designer to improve the workstations and define limits of acceptability. Technical activities (on product or on process), or organizational changes, that have been implemented in order to solve the problems are presented. A comparison between "before" and "new" ergonomic scores necessary to bring workstations in acceptable conditions were made. PMID:22317404

  10. Registration and Marking Requirements for UAS. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The registration of an aircraft is a prerequisite for issuance of a U.S. certificate of airworthiness by the FAA. The procedures and requirements for aircraft registration, and the subsequent issuance of registration numbers, are contained in FAR Part 47. However, the process/method(s) for applying the requirements of Parts 45 & 47 to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has not been defined. This task resolved the application of 14 CFR Parts 45 and 47 to UAS. Key Findings: UAS are aircraft systems and as such the recommended approach to registration is to follow the same process for registration as manned aircraft. This will require manufacturers to comply with the requirements for 14 CFR 47, Aircraft Registration and 14 CFR 45, Identification and Registration Marking. In addition, only the UA should be identified with the N number registration markings. There should also be a documentation link showing the applicability of the control station and communication link to the UA. The documentation link can be in the form of a Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) entry or a UAS logbook entry. The recommended process for the registration of UAS is similar to the manned aircraft process and is outlined in a 6-step process in the paper.

  11. Coupling the GAL4 UAS system with alcR for versatile cell type-specific chemically inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sakvarelidze, Lali; Tao, Zheng; Bush, Max; Roberts, Gethin R; Leader, David J; Doonan, John H; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The Aspergillus alc regulon encodes a transcription factor, ALCR, which regulates transcription from cognate promoters such as alcA(p). In the presence of suitable chemical inducers, ALCR activates gene expression from alcA(p). The alc regulon can be transferred to other species and can be used to control the expression of reporter, metabolic and developmental genes in response to low-level ethanol exposure. In this paper, we describe a versatile system for targeting the alc regulon to specific cell types in Arabidopsis by driving ALCR expression from the GAL4 upstream activator sequence (UAS). Large numbers of Arabidopsis lines are available in which GAL4 is expressed in a variety of spatial patterns and, in turn, drives the expression of any gene cloned downstream of the UAS. We have used a previously characterized line that directs gene expression to the endosperm to demonstrate spatially restricted ethanol-inducible gene expression. We also show that the domain of inducible gene expression can easily be altered by crossing the UAS::ALCR cassette into different driver lines. We conclude that this gene switch can be used to drive gene expression in a highly responsive, but spatially restricted, manner.

  12. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Integrated Test and Evaluation (IT&E) Flight Test 3. Revision E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  13. UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

  14. Influence of UAS Pilot Communication and Execution Delay on Controller's Acceptability Ratings of UAS-ATC Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Morales, Gregory; Chiappe, Dan; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Jay; Buker, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Successful integration of UAS in the NAS will require that UAS interactions with the air traffic management system be similar to interactions between manned aircraft and air traffic management. For example, UAS response times to air traffic controller (ATCo) clearances should be equivalent to those that are currently found to be acceptable with manned aircraft. Prior studies have examined communication delays with manned aircraft. Unfortunately, there is no analogous body of research for UAS. The goal of the present study was to determine how UAS pilot communication and execution delays affect ATCos' acceptability ratings of UAS pilot responses when the UAS is operating in the NAS. Eight radar-certified controllers managed traffic in a modified ZLA sector with one UAS flying in it. In separate scenarios, the UAS pilot verbal communication and execution delays were either short (1.5 s) or long (5 s) and either constant or variable. The ATCo acceptability of UAS pilot communication and execution delays were measured subjectively via post trial ratings. UAS verbal pilot communication delay, were rated as acceptable 92% of the time when the delay was short. This acceptability level decreased to 64% when the delay was long. UAS pilot execution delay had less of an influence on ATCo acceptability ratings in the present stimulation. Implications of these findings for UAS in the NAS integration are discussed.

  15. Mesoscopic Patterns of Neural Activity Support Songbird Cortical Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Guitchounts, Grigori; Velho, Tarciso; Lois, Carlos; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Time-locked sequences of neural activity can be found throughout the vertebrate forebrain in various species and behavioral contexts. From “time cells” in the hippocampus of rodents to cortical activity controlling movement, temporal sequence generation is integral to many forms of learned behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying sequence generation are not well known. Here, we describe a spatial and temporal organization of the songbird premotor cortical microcircuit that supports sparse sequences of neural activity. Multi-channel electrophysiology and calcium imaging reveal that neural activity in premotor cortex is correlated with a length scale of 100 µm. Within this length scale, basal-ganglia–projecting excitatory neurons, on average, fire at a specific phase of a local 30 Hz network rhythm. These results show that premotor cortical activity is inhomogeneous in time and space, and that a mesoscopic dynamical pattern underlies the generation of the neural sequences controlling song. PMID:26039895

  16. Gal4/UAS transgenic tools and their application to zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Marnie E; Rhee, Jerry; Goll, Mary G; Akitake, Courtney M; Parsons, Michael; Leach, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    The ability to regulate gene expression in a cell-specific and temporally restricted manner provides a powerful means to test gene function, bypass the action of lethal genes, label subsets of cells for developmental studies, monitor subcellular structures, and target tissues for selective ablation or physiological analyses. The galactose-inducible system of yeast, mediated by the transcriptional activator Gal4 and its consensus UAS binding site, has proven to be a highly successful and versatile system for controlling transcriptional activation in Drosophila. It has also been used effectively, albeit in a more limited manner, in the mouse. While zebrafish has lagged behind other model systems in the widespread application of Gal4 transgenic approaches to modulate gene activity during development, recent technological advances are permitting rapid progress. Here we review Gal4-regulated genetic tools and discuss how they have been used in zebrafish as well as their potential drawbacks. We describe some exciting new directions, in large part afforded by the Tol2 transposition system, that are generating valuable new Gal4/UAS reagents for zebrafish research.

  17. Only correlated sequences that are actively processed contribute to implicit sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Weiermann, Brigitte; Cock, Josephine

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how implicit sequence learning is affected by the presence of secondary information that is correlated with the primary sequence but not necessarily relevant to performance. In a previous work, we have shown that correlation plays an important role but other prerequisites may also be involved. In Experiments 1 and 2, using a task sequence learning paradigm, we found that primary sequence learning was not affected by secondary information that was sequenced but irrelevant to performance, even though the two streams of information were correlated. In contrast, in Experiment 3, we found that sensitivity to the main sequence was greater with the provision of extra sequenced information that was relevant to performance in addition to being correlated. This suggests that sequence learning was enhanced through the integration of information. We conclude that information in secondary as well as primary sequences must be actively processed if it is to have a beneficial impact. By actively processed we mean information that is selectively attended and necessary for carrying out the tasks.

  18. Volcano Gas Measurements from UAS - Customization of Sensors and Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C. A.; Dahlgren, R. P.; Kern, C.; Kelly, P. J.; Fladeland, M. M.; Norton, K.; Johnson, M. S.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions threaten not only the lives and property of local populations, but also aviation worldwide. Volcanic gas release is a key driving force in eruptive activity, and monitoring gas emissions is critical to assessing volcanic hazards, yet most volcanoes are not monitored for volcanic gas emission. Measuring volcanic gas emissions with manned aircraft has been standard practice for many years during eruptive crises, but such measurements are quite costly. As a result, measurements are typically only made every week or two at most during periods of unrest or eruption, whereas eruption dynamics change much more rapidly. Furthermore, very few measurements are made between eruptions to establish baseline emissions. Unmanned aerial system (UAS) measurements of volcanic plumes hold great promise for both improving temporal resolution of measurements during volcanic unrest, and for reducing the exposure of personnel to potentially hazardous conditions. Here we present the results of a new collaborative effort between the US Geological Survey and NASA Ames Research Center to develop a UAS specific for volcano gas monitoring using miniaturized gas sensing systems and a custom airframe. Two miniaturized sensing systems are being built and tested: a microDOAS system to quantify SO2 emission rates, and a miniature MultiGAS system for measuring in-situ concentrations of CO2, SO2, and H2S. The instruments are being built into pods that will be flown on a custom airframe built from surplus Raven RQ-11. The Raven is one of the smallest UAS (a SUAS), and has the potential to support global rapid response when eruptions occur because they require less crew for operations. A test mission is planned for fall 2015 or spring 2016 at the Crows Landing Airfield in central California. Future measurement locations might include Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii, or Pagan Volcano in the Marianas.

  19. Cooperative Uas Localization Using Lowcost Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Salil; Kealy, Allison; Lohani, Bharat

    2016-06-01

    Networks of small, low cost Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) have the potential to improve responsiveness and situational awareness across an increasing number of applications including defense, surveillance, mapping, search and rescue, disaster management, mineral exploration, assisted guidance and navigation etc. These ad hoc UAS networks typically have the capability to communicate with each other and can share data between the individual UAS nodes. Thus these networks can operate as robust and efficient information acquisition platforms. For any of the applications involving UASs, a primary requirement is the localization i.e. determining the position and orientation of the UAS. The performance requirements of localization can vary with individual applications, for example: mapping applications need much higher localization accuracy as compared to the applications involving only surveillance. The sharing of appropriate data between UASs can prove to be advantageous when compared to a single UAS, in terms of improving the positioning accuracy and reliability particularly in partially or completely GNSS denied environments. This research aims to integrate low cost positioning sensors and cooperative localization technique for a network of UASs. Our hypothesis is that it is possible to achieve high accurate, real-time localization of each of the nodes in the network even with cheaper sensors if the nodes of the network share information among themselves. This hypothesis is validated using simulations and the results are analyzed both for centralized and distributed estimation architectures. At first, the results are studied for a two node network which is then expanded for a network containing more number of nodes. Having more nodes in the network allows us to study the properties of the network including the effect of size and shape of the network on accuracy of the nodes.

  20. The Impact of Suggestive Maneuver Guidance on UAS Pilots Performing the Detect and Avoid Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorie, Conrad; Fern, Lisa; Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses the results of a recent UAS Integration into the NAS human-in-the-loop simulation. In the study, 16 active UAS pilots flew a UAS through civil airspace and were tasked with maintaining well clear from other aircraft in the area. Pilots performed the task with four different detect and avoid (DAA) traffic displays, each of which varied in the form of guidance it provided to pilots The present findings focus on how the different displays impacted pilots' measured response to scripted conflicts with their aircraft. Measured response is made up of several components, each of which help inform our understanding of the pilots' role in the overall detect and avoid task.

  1. The application of UAS towards tornado research and forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, A. L.; Argrow, B. M.; Frew, E.; Weiss, C.

    2014-12-01

    UAS hold significant potential to advance the understanding of tornadoes and improve tornado warning skill. While the current regulatory environment places limits on the application of UAS towards these ends, demonstrated success targeting tornadic and non-tornadic supercells proves the general feasibility of this work. In this presentation we will summarize the successes using UAS to collect data in the vicinity of supercell thunderstorms and discuss ways that these data, along with additional data collected in future field campaigns, can be used answer basic research questions concerning tornado formation and applied research questions concerning the value of UAS in the tornado warning decision process. The associative relationship between the rear-flank downdraft (RFD) and tornadogenesis has long been recognized. Yet, despite decades of research focused on tornadoes, the causal relationship between the RFD and tornadogenesis remains unresolved. In the presentation, we will describe ways that UAS could be used to test hypotheses posed to explain this causal relationship. We will also present a strategy to quantify the impact of UAS on tornado warning skill. Through controlled forecast experiments conducted using data collected through small field campaigns that leverage prior success targeting supercell thunderstorms with UAS, the value of targeted surveillance of potentially tornadic storms using UAS can be assessed. Significant changes to the existing regulatory environment are likely required for UAS, operated in a targeted surveillance mode, to contribute to improving tornado warning skill, but progress can be made today towards quantifying the impact that UAS could make.

  2. Aspects of dem Generation from Uas Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiwe, A.; Gehrke, R.; Spreckels, V.; Schlienkamp, A.

    2013-08-01

    Since a few years, micro UAS (unmanned aerial systems) with vertical take off and landing capabilities like quadro- or octocopter are used as sensor platform for Aerophotogrammetry. Since the restricted payload of micro UAS with a total weight up of 5 kg (payload only up to 1.5 kg), these systems are often equipped with small format cameras. These cameras can be classified as amateur cameras and it is often the case, that these systems do not meet the requirements of a geometric stable camera for photogrammetric measurement purposes. However, once equipped with a suitable camera system, an UAS is an interesting alternative to expensive manned flights for small areas. The operating flight height of the above described UAS is about 50 up to 150 meters above ground level. This low flight height lead on the one hand to a very high spatial resolution of the aerial imagery. Depending on the cameras focal length and the sensor's pixel size, the ground sampling distance (GSD) is usually about 1 up to 5 cm. This high resolution is useful especially for the automatic generation of homologous tie-points, which are a precondition for the image alignment (bundle block adjustment). On the other hand, the image scale depends on the object's height and the UAV operating height. Objects like mine heaps or construction sites show high variations of the object's height. As a result, operating the UAS with a constant flying height will lead to high variations in the image scale. For some processing approaches this will lead to problems e.g. the automatic tie-point generation in stereo image pairs. As precondition to all DEM generating approaches, first of all a geometric stable camera, sharp images are essentially. Well known calibration parameters are necessary for the bundle adjustment, to control the exterior orientations. It can be shown, that a simultaneous on site camera calibration may lead to misaligned aerial images. Also, the success rate of an automatic tie-point generation

  3. UAS-Based Radar Sounding of Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. D.; Keshmiri, S.; Leuschen, C.; Ewing, M.; Yan, J. B.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, S.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Kansas Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets developed two Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) to support polar research. We developed a mid-range UAS, called the Meridian, for operating a radar depth sounder/imager at 195 MHz with an eight-element antenna array. The Meridian weighs 1,100 lbs, has a 26-foot wingspan, and a range of 950 nm at its full payload capacity of 120 lbs. Ice-penetrating radar performance drove the configuration design, though additional payloads and sensors were considered to ensure adaptation to multi-mission science payloads. We also developed a short range UAS called the G1X for operating a low-frequency radar sounder that operates at 14 and 35 MHz. The G1X weighs 85 lbs, has a 17-foot wingspan, and a range of about 60 nm per gallon of fuel. The dual-frequency HF/VHF radar depth sounder transmits at 100 W peak power at a pulse repetition frequency of 10 KHz and weighs approximately 4.5 lbs. We conducted flight tests of the G1X integrated with the radar at the Sub-glacial Lake Whillans ice stream and the WISSARD drill site. The tests included pilot-controlled and fully autonomous flights to collect data over closely-spaced lines to synthesize a 2-D aperture. We obtained clear bed echoes with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of more than 50 dB at this location. These are the first-ever successful soundings of glacial ice with a UAS-based radar. Although ice attenuation losses in this location are low in comparison to more challenging targets, in-field performance improvements to the UAS and HF/VHF radar system enabled significant gains in the signal-to-noise ratio, such that the system can now be demonstrated on more challenging outlet glaciers. We are upgrading the G1X UAS and radar system for further tests and data collection in Greenland. We are reducing the weight and volume of the radar, which, when coupled with further reductions in airframe and avionics weight and a larger fuel bladder, will offer extended range. Finally

  4. Uas Topographic Mapping with Velodyne LiDAR Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozkow, G.; Toth, C.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology is nowadays willingly used in small area topographic mapping due to low costs and good quality of derived products. Since cameras typically used with UAS have some limitations, e.g. cannot penetrate the vegetation, LiDAR sensors are increasingly getting attention in UAS mapping. Sensor developments reached the point when their costs and size suit the UAS platform, though, LiDAR UAS is still an emerging technology. One issue related to using LiDAR sensors on UAS is the limited performance of the navigation sensors used on UAS platforms. Therefore, various hardware and software solutions are investigated to increase the quality of UAS LiDAR point clouds. This work analyses several aspects of the UAS LiDAR point cloud generation performance based on UAS flights conducted with the Velodyne laser scanner and cameras. The attention was primarily paid to the trajectory reconstruction performance that is essential for accurate point cloud georeferencing. Since the navigation sensors, especially Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), may not be of sufficient performance, the estimated camera poses could allow to increase the robustness of the estimated trajectory, and subsequently, the accuracy of the point cloud. The accuracy of the final UAS LiDAR point cloud was evaluated on the basis of the generated DSM, including comparison with point clouds obtained from dense image matching. The results showed the need for more investigation on MEMS IMU sensors used for UAS trajectory reconstruction. The accuracy of the UAS LiDAR point cloud, though lower than for point cloud obtained from images, may be still sufficient for certain mapping applications where the optical imagery is not useful.

  5. Activation of the Ustilagic Acid Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Ustilago maydis by the C2H2 Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Rua1▿

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Beate; Liu, Lidan; Schink, Kay Oliver; Bölker, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The phytopathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes, under conditions of nitrogen starvation, large amounts of the biosurfactant ustilagic acid (UA). This secreted cellobiose glycolipid is toxic for many microorganisms and confers biocontrol activity to U. maydis. Recently, a large gene cluster that is responsible for UA biosynthesis was identified. Here, we show that expression of all cluster genes depends on Rua1, a nuclear protein of the C2H2 zinc finger family, whose gene is located within the gene cluster. While deletion of rua1 results in complete loss of UA production, overexpression of rua1 promotes increased UA synthesis even in the presence of a good nitrogen source. Bioinformatic analysis allowed us to identify a conserved sequence element that is present in the promoters of all structural genes involved in UA biosynthesis. Deletion analysis of several promoters within the cluster revealed that this DNA element serves as an upstream activating sequence (UAS) and mediates Rua1-dependent expression. We used the yeast one-hybrid system to demonstrate specific recognition of this DNA element by Rua1. Introduction of nucleotide exchanges into the consensus sequence interfered with Rua1-dependent activation, suggesting that this sequence element acts as a direct binding site for Rua1. PMID:20173069

  6. Activation of the ustilagic acid biosynthesis gene cluster in Ustilago maydis by the C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor Rua1.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Beate; Liu, Lidan; Schink, Kay Oliver; Bölker, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The phytopathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes, under conditions of nitrogen starvation, large amounts of the biosurfactant ustilagic acid (UA). This secreted cellobiose glycolipid is toxic for many microorganisms and confers biocontrol activity to U. maydis. Recently, a large gene cluster that is responsible for UA biosynthesis was identified. Here, we show that expression of all cluster genes depends on Rua1, a nuclear protein of the C(2)H(2) zinc finger family, whose gene is located within the gene cluster. While deletion of rua1 results in complete loss of UA production, overexpression of rua1 promotes increased UA synthesis even in the presence of a good nitrogen source. Bioinformatic analysis allowed us to identify a conserved sequence element that is present in the promoters of all structural genes involved in UA biosynthesis. Deletion analysis of several promoters within the cluster revealed that this DNA element serves as an upstream activating sequence (UAS) and mediates Rua1-dependent expression. We used the yeast one-hybrid system to demonstrate specific recognition of this DNA element by Rua1. Introduction of nucleotide exchanges into the consensus sequence interfered with Rua1-dependent activation, suggesting that this sequence element acts as a direct binding site for Rua1. PMID:20173069

  7. Recommendations for UAS Crew Ratings. Pilot Ratings and Authorization Requirements for UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This position paper is intended to recommend the minimum certificate and rating requirements for a pilot to operate an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in the National Airspace System. The paper will recommend the minimum requirements based on the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA) required of a UAS pilot and show how those compare to the KSAs required by regulation for manned-aircraft pilots. The paper will provide substantiation based on studies conducted using analyses, simulation and flight experience. The paper is not yet complete; only initial working material is included. The material provided describes the body of work completed thus far and the plan for remaining tasks to complete the recommendation. The HSI Pilot KSA document provides an analysis of the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for UAS operation in the NAS. It is the source document used for the position paper.

  8. Use of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in Response to the 2014 Eruption of Ontake Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Terada, A.; Shinohara, H.; Kazahaya, R.; Yoshimoto, M.; Tanaka, R.

    2015-12-01

    On Sept. 27, 2014, a phreatic eruption occurred at Ontake volcano (3067 m a.s.l.), central Japan. The eruption caused an unprecedented volcanic disaster in the last 70 years in Japan. Search and rescue operations started soon after the eruption until they were suspended due to snowfall in late October. Considering the potential hazards of further explosive events and the severe winter condition, an approach to the summit area after late October was very difficult. To reveal the condition of the volcanic activity and foresee the trend, we considered it important to carry out volcanic gas surveys for the dense plumes in the vicinity of the vents using an unmanned aircraft system (UAS). For the surveys at Ontake volcano, the UAS was expected to fly about 8 km roundtrip distance at an altitude of over 3000 m. A multicopter with 8 rotors was adopted and we targeted four types of plume monitoring using the UAS; in-plume monitoring of multiple gas concentrations, SO2 flux measurement with UV spectroscopy, thermography of the vents, and in-plume particle sampling. In order to meet the 1 kg payload of the multicopter, some of the instruments were slimmed down.The UAS campaigns at Ontake volcano were carried out on Nov. 20-21, 2014 and on Jun. 2, 2015 from the safety distance of 3-3.5 km away from the crater. With the UAS surveys, we revealed that the SO2/H2S ratios of volcanic gas were closer to the hydrothermal origin instead of direct magma degassing. The second survey also pointed out that the SO2 emission decreased down below 10 ton/day by June 2015, by taking an advantage of flying the vicinity of the vents before the plume was diluted. Our surveys showed decreasing activity of the volcano, together with the advantages of using UAS in volcano monitoring for inaccessible conditions.

  9. Noninvasive three-dimensional electrocardiographic imaging of ventricular activation sequence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Ramachandra, Indiresha; Liu, Zhongming; Muneer, Basharat; Pogwizd, Steven M; He, Bin

    2005-12-01

    Imaging the myocardial activation sequence is critical for improved diagnosis and treatment of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. It is desirable to reveal the underlying cardiac electrical activity throughout the three-dimensional (3-D) myocardium (rather than just the endocardial or epicardial surface) from noninvasive body surface potential measurements. A new 3-D electrocardiographic imaging technique (3-DEIT) based on the boundary element method (BEM) and multiobjective nonlinear optimization has been applied to reconstruct the cardiac activation sequences from body surface potential maps. Ultrafast computerized tomography scanning was performed for subsequent construction of the torso and heart models. Experimental studies were then conducted, during left and right ventricular pacing, in which noninvasive assessment of ventricular activation sequence by means of 3-DEIT was performed simultaneously with 3-D intracardiac mapping (up to 200 intramural sites) using specially designed plunge-needle electrodes in closed-chest rabbits. Estimated activation sequences from 3-DEIT were in good agreement with those constructed from simultaneously recorded intracardiac electrograms in the same animals. Averaged over 100 paced beats (from a total of 10 pacing sites), total activation times were comparable (53.3 +/- 8.1 vs. 49.8 +/- 5.2 ms), the localization error of site of initiation of activation was 5.73 +/- 1.77 mm, and the relative error between the estimated and measured activation sequences was 0.32 +/- 0.06. The present experimental results demonstrate that the 3-D paced ventricular activation sequence can be reconstructed by using noninvasive multisite body surface electrocardiographic measurements and imaging of heart-torso geometry. This new 3-D electrocardiographic imaging modality has the potential to guide catheter-based ablative interventions for the treatment of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias.

  10. Expanding the Envelope of UAS Certification: What it Takes to Type Certify a UAS for Precision Agricultural Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, J. M.; Hayhurst, K. J.; Neogi, N. A.; Verstynen, H. A.; Clothier, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges to the development of a commercial Unmanned Air-craft System (UAS) market is the lack of explicit consideration of UAS in the current regulatory framework. Despite recent progress, additional steps are needed to enable broad UAS types and operational models. This paper discusses recent research that examines how a risk-based approach for safety might change the process and substance of airworthiness requirements for UAS. The project proposed risk-centric airworthiness requirements for a midsize un-manned rotorcraft used for agricultural spraying and also identified factors that may contribute to distinguishing safety risk among different UAS types and operational concepts. Lessons learned regarding how a risk-based approach can expand the envelope of UAS certification are discussed.

  11. Assessing UAS Flight Testing and It's Importance for Beyond-Line-of-Sight UAS Control in Cooperation with Partnering Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Jong, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    From the 1st of June until the 21st of August, the internship has been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Master of Space Studies at the International Space University. The main activities consisted of doing research on UAV flight-­-testing and the assessing of safety with respect to Beyond-­-Line-­-Of-­-Sight operations. Further activities consisted of accommodating international partners and potential partners at the NASA Ames site, in order to identify mutual interest and future collaboration. Besides those activities, the report describes the planning process of the ISU Space Coast Trip to 10 different space related companies on the west-­-coast of California. Key words: UAS, UAV, BLOS, Ames, ISU Trip

  12. UAS Integration into the NAS: Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Delegation of Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn; Kenny, Caitlin Ailis

    2012-01-01

    FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 mandates UAS integration in the NAS by 2015. Operators must be able to safely maneuver UAS to maintain separation and collision avoidance. Delegated Separation is defined as the transfer of responsibility for maintaining separation between aircraft or vehicles from the air navigation service provider to the relevant flight operator, and will likely begin in sparsely trafficked areas before moving to more heavily populated airspace. As UAS operate primarily in areas with lower traffic density and perform maneuvers routinely that are currently managed through special handling, they have the advantage of becoming an early adopter of delegated separation. This experiment will examine if UAS are capable of performing delegated separation in 5 nm horizontal and 1000 ft vertical distances under two delegation conditions. In Extended Delegation, ATC are in charge of identifying problems and delegating to pilot identification and implementation of the solution and monitoring. In Full Delegation, the pilots are responsible for all tasks related to separation assurance: identification of problems and solutions, implementation and monitoring.

  13. Effect of Vertical Rate Error on Recovery from Loss of Well Clear Between UAS and Non-Cooperative Intruders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cone, Andrew; Thipphavong, David; Lee, Seung Man; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    When an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) encounters an intruder and is unable to maintain required temporal and spatial separation between the two vehicles, it is referred to as a loss of well-clear. In this state, the UAS must make its best attempt to regain separation while maximizing the minimum separation between itself and the intruder. When encountering a non-cooperative intruder (an aircraft operating under visual flight rules without ADS-B or an active transponder) the UAS must rely on the radar system to provide the intruders location, velocity, and heading information. As many UAS have limited climb and descent performance, vertical position andor vertical rate errors make it difficult to determine whether an intruder will pass above or below them. To account for that, there is a proposal by RTCA Special Committee 228 to prohibit guidance systems from providing vertical guidance to regain well-clear to UAS in an encounter with a non-cooperative intruder unless their radar system has vertical position error below 175 feet (95) and vertical velocity errors below 200 fpm (95). Two sets of fast-time parametric studies was conducted, each with 54000 pairwise encounters between a UAS and non-cooperative intruder to determine the suitability of offering vertical guidance to regain well clear to a UAS in the presence of radar sensor noise. The UAS was not allowed to maneuver until it received well-clear recovery guidance. The maximum severity of the loss of well-clear was logged and used as the primary indicator of the separation achieved by the UAS. One set of 54000 encounters allowed the UAS to maneuver either vertically or horizontally, while the second permitted horizontal maneuvers, only. Comparing the two data sets allowed researchers to see the effect of allowing vertical guidance to a UAS for a particular encounter and vertical rate error. Study results show there is a small reduction in the average severity of a loss of well-clear when vertical maneuvers

  14. Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Murakoshi, Saori; Kalayanamitra, Kittiwan; Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Fukui, Shigeyuki; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates and are linear polysaccharides consisting of variously sulfated repeating disaccharides, [-4GlcUAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-](n), where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. CS chains containing D-disaccharide units [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)] are involved in the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity through interaction with a neurotrophic factor, pleiotrophin, resulting in the regulation of signaling. In this study, to obtain further structural information on the CS chains containing d-disaccharide units involved in brain development, oligosaccharides containing D-units were isolated from a shark fin cartilage. Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, ΔO-D-D, ΔA-D-D, ΔC-D-D, ΔE-A-D, ΔD-D-C, ΔE-D-D and ΔA-B-D, in addition to three previously reported sequences, ΔC-A-D, ΔC-D-C and ΔA-D-A, were isolated from a CS preparation of shark fin cartilage after exhaustive digestion with chondroitinase AC-I, which cannot act on the galactosaminidic linkages bound to D-units. The symbol Δ stands for a 4,5-unsaturated bond of uronic acids, whereas A, B, C, D, E and O represent [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-, 6-O-sulfate)] and [GlcUA-GalNAc], respectively. In binding studies using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody, MO-225, the epitopes of which are involved in cerebellar development in mammals, novel epitope structures, ΔA-D-A, ΔA-D-D and ΔA-B-D, were revealed. Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields.

  15. Uas for Geo-Information Current Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarbrink, R. B.

    2011-09-01

    Recent and ongoing developments of state-of-the-art sensor technologies have resulted in smaller and lighter photogrammetric cameras with IMU, lidar scanners and other sensors that can now be integrated with and mounted on the larger Light UAS. This paper describes as an example the successful automatic flight of the 50-megapixel DigiCAM with AEROcontrol IMU developed by IGI flown on Geocopter's GC-201 unmanned helicopter system. The operational and technical requirements of UAS defined in new legislation remain however the safeguard to protect people and costly sensor payload assets. The current prospects of UAS-g face additional challenges related to end-user awareness and the return on investment. The current status of UAS legislation is given in this paper. This legislation justifies UAS-g operations of mapping coastal zones, forests, agricultural fields, and open mines. Sooner return on investment happens when the UAS legislation will be opening up airspace over urban areas (Class 2 approved UAS-g), to longer distances (BLOS operations), and to higher altitudes. UAS-g flights then become feasible to the maximum extent for cadastral mapping of larger areas, oil and gas pipeline monitoring, power line surveys, dike inspection, and highway and railway mapping.

  16. UAS remote sensing for precision agriculture: An independent assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. However, research is required to determine which sensors and data processing methods are required to use sUAS in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Oregon State U...

  17. Kīlauea June 27th Lava Flow Hazard Mapping and Disaster Response with UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, N.; Perroy, R. L.; Hon, K. A.; Rasgado, V.

    2015-12-01

    In June of 2014, pāhoehoe lava flows from the Púu ´Ō´ō eruption began threatening communities and infrastructure on eastern Hawaii Island. During the subsequent declared state of emergency by Hawaii Civil Defense and temporary flight restriction by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), we used a small fixed-wing Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to collect high spatial and temporal resolution imagery over the active flow in support of natural hazard assessment by emergency managers. Integration of our UAS into busy airspace, populated by emergency aircraft and tour helicopters, required close operational coordination with the FAA and local operators. We logged >80 hours of UAS flight operations between October 2014 and March 2015, generating a dense time-series of 4-5 cm resolution imagery and derived topographic datasets using structure from motion. These data were used to monitor flow activity, document pre- and post- lava flow damage, identify hazardous areas for first responders, and model lava flow paths in complex topography ahead of the active flow front. Turnaround times for delivered spatial data products improved from 24-48 hours at the beginning of the study to ~2-4 hours by the end. Data from this project are being incorporated into cloud computing applications to shorten delivery time and extract useful analytics regarding lava flow hazards in near real-time. The lessons learned from this event have advanced UAS integration in disaster operations in U.S. airspace and show the high potential UAS hold for natural hazards assessment and real-time emergency management.

  18. Folding and activity of hybrid sequence, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, J.H.B.; Storrs, R.W.; Wemmer, D.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Peptides have been synthesized that have hybrid sequences, partially derived from the bee venom peptide apamin and partially from the S peptide of ribonuclease A. The hybrid peptides were demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy to fold, forming the same disulfides and basic three-dimensional structure as native apamin, containing a {beta}-turn and an {alpha}-helix. These hybrids were active in complementing S protein, reactivating nuclease activity. In addition, the hybrid peptide was effective in inducing antibodies that cross-react with the RNase, without conjugation to a carrier protein. The stability of the folded structure of this peptide suggests that it should be possible to elicit antibodies that will react not only with a specific sequence, but also with a specific secondary structure. Hybrid sequence peptides also provide opportunities to study separately nucleation and propagation steps in formation of secondary structure. The authors show that in S peptide the {alpha}-helix does not end abruptly but rather terminates gradually over four or five residues. In general, these hybrid sequence peptides, which fold predictably because of disulfide bond formation, can provide opportunities for examining structure - function relationships for many biologically active sequences.

  19. Spectrum for UAS Control and Non-Payload Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to National Security and Defense, Emergency Management, and Science as well as commercial applications (e.g. cargo transport). To enable integration of UAS into the National Airspace System, several critical technical barriers must be eliminated, including: Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid - the uncertainty surrounding the ability to interoperate in ATC environments and maintain safe separation from other aircraft in the absence of an on-board pilot. Human Systems Integration - lack of standards and guidelines with respect to UAS display information as well as lack of Ground Control Station (GCS) design requirements to operate in the NAS. Certification - lack of airworthiness requirements and safety-related data specific to the full range of UAS, or for their avionics systems or other components. Communications - lack of standard, certifiable data links and aviation safety spectrum to operate such links for civil UAS control communications.

  20. Learning Behavior Characterization with Multi-Feature, Hierarchical Activity Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Cheng; Segedy, James R.; Kinnebrew, John S.; Biswas, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses Multi-Feature Hierarchical Sequential Pattern Mining, MFH-SPAM, a novel algorithm that efficiently extracts patterns from students' learning activity sequences. This algorithm extends an existing sequential pattern mining algorithm by dynamically selecting the level of specificity for hierarchically-defined features…

  1. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagadera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.

    1989-02-01

    The UA1 First Level Trigger Processor (TP) is a fast digital machine with a highly parallel pipelined architecture of fast TTL combinational and programmable logic controlled by programmable microsequencers. The TP uses 100,000 IC's housed in 18 crates each containing 21 fastbus sized modules. It is hardwired with a very high level of interconnection. The energy deposited in the upgraded calorimeter is digitised into 1700 bytes of input data every beam crossing. The Processor selects in 1.5 microseconds events for further processing. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electro-magnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented.

  2. Prediction of fine-tuned promoter activity from DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring

  3. Prediction of fine-tuned promoter activity from DNA sequence

    PubMed Central

    Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring

  4. Gaze interaction in UAS video exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Jutta; Brüstle, Stefan; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    A frequently occurring interaction task in UAS video exploitation is the marking or selection of objects of interest in the video. If an object of interest is visually detected by the image analyst, its selection/marking for further exploitation, documentation and communication with the team is a necessary task. Today object selection is usually performed by mouse interaction. As due to sensor motion all objects in the video move, object selection can be rather challenging, especially if strong and fast and ego-motions are present, e.g., with small airborne sensor platforms. In addition to that, objects of interest are sometimes too shortly visible to be selected by the analyst using mouse interaction. To address this issue we propose an eye tracker as input device for object selection. As the eye tracker continuously provides the gaze position of the analyst on the monitor, it is intuitive to use the gaze position for pointing at an object. The selection is then actuated by pressing a button. We integrated this gaze-based "gaze + key press" object selection into Fraunhofer IOSB's exploitation station ABUL using a Tobii X60 eye tracker and a standard keyboard for the button press. Representing the object selections in a spatial relational database, ABUL enables the image analyst to efficiently query the video data in a post processing step for selected objects of interest with respect to their geographical and other properties. An experimental evaluation is presented, comparing gaze-based interaction with mouse interaction in the context of object selection in UAS videos.

  5. Vertebral shape: automatic measurement with dynamically sequenced active appearance models.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M G; Cootes, T F; Adams, J E

    2005-01-01

    The shape and appearance of vertebrae on lateral dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were statistically modelled. The spine was modelled by a sequence of overlapping triplets of vertebrae, using Active Appearance Models (AAMs). To automate vertebral morphometry, the sequence of trained models was matched to previously unseen scans. The dataset includes a significant number of pathologies. A new dynamic ordering algorithm was assessed for the model fitting sequence, using the best quality of fit achieved by multiple sub-model candidates. The accuracy of the search was improved by dynamically imposing the best quality candidate first. The results confirm the feasibility of substantially automating vertebral morphometry measurements even with fractures or noisy images.

  6. UAS Detection Classification and Neutralization: Market Survey 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark; Erdman, Matthew Kelly

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to briefly frame the challenges of detecting low, slow, and small (LSS) unmanned aerial systems (UAS). The conclusion drawn from internal discussions and external reports is the following; detection of LSS UAS is a challenging problem that can- not be achieved with a single detection modality for all potential targets. Classification of LSS UAS, especially classification in the presence of background clutter (e.g., urban environment) or other non-threating targets (e.g., birds), is under-explored. Though information of avail- able technologies is sparse, many of the existing options for UAS detection appear to be in their infancy (when compared to more established ground-based air defense systems for larger and/or faster threats). Companies currently providing or developing technologies to combat the UAS safety and security problem are certainly worth investigating, however, no company has provided the statistical evidence necessary to support robust detection, identification, and/or neutralization of LSS UAS targets. The results of a market survey are included that highlights potential commercial entities that could contribute some technology that assists in the detection, classification, and neutral- ization of a LSS UAS. This survey found no clear and obvious commercial solution, though recommendations are given for further investigation of several potential systems.

  7. Activity in the caudate nucleus of monkey during spatial sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kermadi, I; Joseph, J P

    1995-09-01

    1. There are indications that the execution of behavioral sequences involves the basal ganglia. In this study we examined the role of the caudate nucleus in the construction, storage, and execution of spatial plans. 2. Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to perform sequences of saccades and arm movements. The animals had to remember the order of illumination, variable from one sequence to another, of three fixed spatial targets. After a delay, they had to visually orient toward, and press each target in the same order. Six different sequences were executed on the basis of the order of illumination of the targets. Single cell activity was recorded from the four caudate nuclei of the two monkeys. 3. Neural activity was analyzed in each sequence during 10 different periods: the instruction period in which the targets were illuminated, the three orientation periods toward the different targets, the three postsaccadic periods, and the three periods of target pressing. Statistical comparisons were made to detect differences between the different sequences with respect to activity in each period (sequence specificity). 4. A total of 2,100 neurons were studied, of which 387 were task related. The task-related cells were found in both the head and the body of the caudate nucleus. 5. During central fixation, anticipatory activity (n = 81) preceded onset of specific events. Four groups were considered: 1) neurons (n = 46) anticipating offset of the central fixation point, 2) neurons (n = 7) anticipating the illumination of any target, regardless of its spatial position or order of presentation (rank), 3) neurons (n = 17) anticipating the illumination of the first target, regardless of its spatial position, and 4) neurons (n = 11) anticipating the illumination of a given target, regardless of its rank. 6. Phasic visual responses to target onset were observed in 48 cells. The cells responded primarily to the contralateral and upper targets. In a majority (n = 35), visual

  8. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units. PMID:26353344

  9. UAS Modeling of the Communication Links Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birr, Richard B.; Girgis, Nancy; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the authority that grants access into, and operations within, the National Airspace System (NAS) for all aircraft, including Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The safe operation of UAS in the NAS must be assured if the full potential of UAS is to be realized and supported by the public and Congress. This report analyzed the communication systems that are needed for the safe operations of UAS in the NAS. Safe operations can be defined as the availability of the required links to carry the information to control the UAS and the return links to allow controllers to know where the UAS is at any given moment as well as how it is performing. This report is the end result of work performed jointly between the FAA and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Kennedy Space Center (NASA KSC). The work was done in support of the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 203 (SC-203) Control and Communications Working Group. The RTCA is a federal advisory committee to the FAA. Though the work was not under the direction of the working group, a large part of the specific values used in the simulations came from the working group. Specifically, all of the radio links were modeled based on the formulation completed by the working group. This report analyzed three scenarios from RTCA SC-203 that represent how a UAS would operate in the NAS. Each scenario was created using the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) modeling and simulation tool. The flight paths of the UAS were generated and the UAS dynamics were likewise modeled. Then each communication asset such as transmitters, receivers, and antennas were modeled and placed on the appropriate UAS, satellite, or Control Station (CS). After that, the radio links were analyzed for signal strength and antenna blockage, and the overall link performance was analyzed in detail. The goal was to obtain 99.9% availability on all of the radio communication links. In order

  10. Fungal epoxide hydrolases: new landmarks in sequence-activity space.

    PubMed

    Smit, Martha S

    2004-03-01

    Epoxide hydrolases are useful catalysts for the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of epoxides, which are sought after intermediates for the synthesis of enantiopure fine chemicals. The epoxide hydrolases from Aspergillus niger and from the basidiomycetous yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodosporidium toruloides have demonstrated potential as versatile, user friendly biocatalysts for organic synthesis. A recombinant A. niger epoxide hydrolase, produced by an overproducing A. niger strain, is already commercially available and recombinant yeast epoxide hydrolases expressed in Escherichia coli have shown excellent results. Within the vast body of activity information on the one hand and gene sequence information on the other hand, the epoxide hydrolases from the Rhodotorula spp. and A. niger stand out because we have sequence information as well as activity information for both the wild-type and recombinant forms of these enzymes.

  11. Sequence-specific DNA primer effects on telomerase polymerization activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M S; Blackburn, E H

    1993-01-01

    The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase synthesizes one strand of telomeric DNA by copying a template sequence within the RNA moiety of the enzyme. Kinetic studies of this polymerization reaction were used to analyze the mechanism and properties of the telomerase from Tetrahymena thermophila. This enzyme synthesizes TTGGGG repeats, the telomeric DNA sequence of this species, by elongating a DNA primer whose 3' end base pairs with the template-forming domain of the RNA. The enzyme was found to act nonprocessively with short (10- to 12-nucleotide) primers but to become processive as TTGGGG repeats were added. Variation of the 5' sequences of short primers with a common 3' end identified sequence-specific effects which are distinct from those involving base pairing of the 3' end of the primer with the RNA template and which can markedly induce enzyme activity by increasing the catalytic rate of the telomerase polymerization reaction. These results identify an additional mechanistic basis for telomere and DNA end recognition by telomerase in vivo. Images PMID:8413255

  12. Ursolic acid (UA): A metabolite with promising therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Dharambir; Tuli, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Anil K

    2016-02-01

    Plants are known to produce a variety of bioactive metabolites which are being used to cure various life threatening and chronic diseases. The molecular mechanism of action of such bioactive molecules, may open up new avenues for the scientific community to develop or improve novel therapeutic approaches to tackle dreadful diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Ursolic acid (UA) is one among the categories of such plant-based therapeutic metabolites having multiple intracellular and extracellular targets that play role in apoptosis, metastasis, angiogenesis and inflammatory processes. Moreover, the synthetic derivatives of UA have also been seen to be involved in a range of pharmacological applications, which are associated with prevention of diseases. Evidences suggest that UA could be used as a potential candidate to develop a comprehensive competent strategy towards the treatment and prevention of health disorders. The review article herein describes the possible therapeutic effects of UA along with putative mechanism of action. PMID:26775565

  13. Pre- and main-sequence evolution of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.; Barry, Don C.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetic activity on single solarlike stars declines with stellar age. This has important consequences for the influence of the sun on the early solar system. What is meant by stellar activity, and how it is measured, is reviewed. Stellar activity on the premain-sequence phase of evolution is discussed; the classical T Tauri stars do not exhibit solarlike activity, while the naked T Tauri stars do. The emission surface fluxes of the naked T Tauri stars are similar to those of the youngest main-sequence G stars. The best representation for solarlike stars is a decay proportional to exp(A x t exp 0.5), where A is a function of line excitation temperature. From these decay laws, one can determine the interdependences of the activity, age, and rotation periods. The fluxes of ionizing photons at the earth early in its history are discussed; there was sufficient fluence to account for the observed isotopic ratios of the noble gases.

  14. Observing of entrainment using small UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S.; Bange, J.; Beyrich, F.

    2012-04-01

    Entrainment processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere are important concerning vertical exchange of momentum, energy, water vapor, trace gases and aerosol. The transition zone between the convectively mixed boundary layer and the stably stratified free atmosphere is called the entrainment zone (EZ). The EZ restrains the domain of turbulence by a temperature inversion and acts as a lid to pollutants. Measurement flights of the mini meteorological aerial vehicle (M2AV) of the Technische Universität Braunschweig were performed in spring 2011 to determine the capability of the unmanned aerial system (UAS) to measure the structure of the EZ. The campaign took place at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg / Richard-Aßmann-Observatory of the German Meteorological Service, which is located close to Berlin. Besides the M2AV flights, standard observations were performed by a 12 m and 99 m tower, a sodar, ceilometer and radiosondes. A tethered balloon with measurement units at six different levels was operated especially for this campaign. The measurements of these systems were used to determine the inversion layer and to capture its diurnal cycle. The talk will be focused on vertical profiles of the M2AV up to the free atmosphere, detailed analysis of spatial series of w'θ' at different altitudes and on vertical profiles of normalized variances of the vertical wind component and the potential temperature.

  15. NASA UAS Integration into the NAS Project: Human Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work the Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project has done on detect and avoid (DAA) displays while working on the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) Integration into the NAS project. The most recent simulation on DAA interoperability with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is discussed in the most detail. The relationship of the work to the larger UAS community and next steps are also detailed.

  16. NASA GRC UAS Project: Communications Modeling and Simulation Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace represents new operational concepts required in civil aviation. These new concepts are evolving as the nation moves toward the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under the leadership of the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), and through ongoing work by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The desire and ability to fly UAS in the National Air Space (NAS) in the near term has increased dramatically, and this multi-agency effort to develop and implement a national plan to successfully address the challenges of UAS access to the NAS in a safe and timely manner is well underway. As part of the effort to integrate UAS in the National Airspace, NASA Glenn Research Center is currently involved with providing research into Communications systems and Communication system operations in order to assist with developing requirements for this implementation. In order to provide data and information regarding communication systems performance that will be necessary, NASA GRC is tasked with developing and executing plans for simulations of candidate future UAS command and control communications, in line with architectures and communications technologies being developed and/or proposed by NASA and relevant aviation organizations (in particular, RTCA SC-203). The simulations and related analyses will provide insight into the ability of proposed communications technologies and system architectures to enable safe operation of UAS, meeting UAS in the NAS project goals (including performance requirements, scalability, and interoperability), and ultimately leading to a determination of the ability of NextGen communication systems to accommodate UAS. This presentation, compiled by the NASA GRC team, will provide a view of the overall planned simulation effort and objectives, a description of the simulation concept and status of the design and development that has occurred to date.

  17. Characterization of the DNA-binding activity of GCR1: in vivo evidence for two GCR1-binding sites in the upstream activating sequence of TPI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Huie, M A; Scott, E W; Drazinic, C M; Lopez, M C; Hornstra, I K; Yang, T P; Baker, H V

    1992-01-01

    GCR1 gene function is required for high-level glycolytic gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, we suggested that the CTTCC sequence motif found in front of many genes encoding glycolytic enzymes lay at the core of the GCR1-binding site. Here we mapped the DNA-binding domain of GCR1 to the carboxy-terminal 154 amino acids of the polypeptide. DNase I protection studies showed that a hybrid MBP-GCR1 fusion protein protected a region of the upstream activating sequence of TPI (UASTPI), which harbored the CTTCC sequence motif, and suggested that the fusion protein might also interact with a region of the UAS that contained the related sequence CATCC. A series of in vivo G methylation protection experiments of the native TPI promoter were carried out with wild-type and gcr1 deletion mutant strains. The G doublets that correspond to the C doublets in each site were protected in the wild-type strain but not in the gcr1 mutant strain. These data demonstrate that the UAS of TPI contains two GCR1-binding sites which are occupied in vivo. Furthermore, adjacent RAP1/GRF1/TUF- and REB1/GRF2/QBP/Y-binding sites in UASTPI were occupied in the backgrounds of both strains. In addition, DNA band-shift assays were used to show that the MBP-GCR1 fusion protein was able to form nucleoprotein complexes with oligonucleotides that contained CTTCC sequence elements found in front of other glycolytic genes, namely, PGK, ENO1, PYK, and ADH1, all of which are dependent on GCR1 gene function for full expression. However, we were unable to detect specific interactions with CTTCC sequence elements found in front of the translational component genes TEF1, TEF2, and CRY1. Taken together, these experiments have allowed us to propose a consensus GCR1-binding site which is 5'-(T/A)N(T/C)N(G/A)NC(T/A)TCC(T/A)N(T/A)(T/A)(T/G)-3'. Images PMID:1588965

  18. UAS Modeling of the Communication Links Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birr, Richard; Murray, Jennifer; Girgis, nancy

    2011-01-01

    There were many links calculated for this and the other scenarios. The rain was analyzed for 99.9% availability with rain rated of none, 20 mm/hr and 90 mm/hr at a height of 5 km out to 25 NM. This was done for each scenario for LOS and for BLOS links for Scenario 5 and 6. Scenario 1 was a LOS-only scenario. Use of two 3 dB Antennas on both ends. The CS2 was unable to maintain a control RF Link during the flight. The largest access gap periods between object top and bottom UA antennae were caused by terrain (ridges and hills). The CS Antenna was changed to High Gain Directional Antenna, all three CS maintained lock on vehicle. There were RF dropouts between the top and bottom UA antennae caused by aircraft obstructions (fuselage, wings, wheel assembles, etc.). Note that for this study antenna locations were placed on top and bottom center of the UA body. Future study should include actual UA antenna locations on the aircraft providing manufactures are willing to provide information. The importance of CS location(s) was demonstrated for primary or backup CS. With a second backup CS placed in a suitable location the UA was able to maintain an overall RF link. The actual location of both backup CSs required the antenna location to be place 150 ft above ground in order to establish a RF link between the UA and CS.

  19. UAS-Systems Integration, Validation, and Diagnostics Simulation Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Catherine W.; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Phase 1 efforts of NASA's UAS-in-the-NAS Project a task was initiated to explore the merits of developing a system simulation capability for UAS to address airworthiness certification requirements. The core of the capability would be a software representation of an unmanned vehicle, including all of the relevant avionics and flight control system components. The specific system elements could be replaced with hardware representations to provide Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWITL) test and evaluation capability. The UAS Systems Integration and Validation Laboratory (UAS-SIVL) was created to provide a UAS-systems integration, validation, and diagnostics hardware-in-the-loop simulation capability. This paper discusses how SIVL provides a robust and flexible simulation framework that permits the study of failure modes, effects, propagation paths, criticality, and mitigation strategies to help develop safety, reliability, and design data that can assist with the development of certification standards, means of compliance, and design best practices for civil UAS.

  20. HALE UAS Concept of Operations. Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This document is a system level Concept of Operations (CONOPS) from the perspective of future High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) service providers and National Airspace System (NAS) users. It describes current systems (existing UAS), describes HALE UAS functions and operations to be performed (via sample missions), and offers insight into the user s environment (i.e., the UAS as a system of systems). It is intended to be a source document for NAS UAS operational requirements, and provides a construct for government agencies to use in guiding their regulatory decisions, architecture requirements, and investment strategies. Although it does not describe the technical capabilities of a specific HALE UAS system (which do, and will vary widely), it is intended to aid in requirements capture and to be used as input to the functional requirements and analysis process. The document provides a basis for development of functional requirements and operational guidelines to achieve unrestricted access into the NAS. This document is an FY06 update to the FY05 Access 5 Project-approved Concept of Operations document previously published in the Public Domain on the Access 5 open website. This version is recommended to be approved for public release also. The updates are a reorganization of materials from the previous version with the addition of an updated set of operational requirements, inclusion of sample mission scenarios, and identification of roles and responsibilities of interfaces within flight phases.

  1. The Main Sequence of Explosive Solar Active Regions: Comparison of Emerging and Mature Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For mature active regions, an active region s magnetic flux content determines the maximum free energy the active region can have. Most Large flares and CMEs occur in active regions that are near their free-energy limit. Active-region flare power radiated in the GOES 1-8 band increases steeply as the free-energy limit is approached. We infer that the free-energy limit is set by the rate of release of an active region s free magnetic energy by flares, CMEs and coronal heating balancing the maximum rate the Sun can put free energy into the active region s magnetic field. This balance of maximum power results in explosive active regions residing in a "mainsequence" in active-region (flux content, free energy content) phase space, which sequence is analogous to the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) phase space.

  2. Seismic activity of the East Sea, Korea offshore earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARK, E.; Park, S.; Hahm, I.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity in Korea is known to be relatively low compared to China and Japan. But it seems to be more active historically, according to historical documents on earthquake. The magnitudes of historical earthquakes were estimated to be about 4 - 6 by previous studies and there were several events with magnitude over 6. Instrumental earthquakes recorded in 1978 - 2012 seem to be smaller than historical earthquakes, according to the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) catalog. Their magnitudes are smaller than 4 in general. Although epicenters of instrumental earthquakes seem to be randomly distributed on the entire Korean Peninsula, some earthquakes occur intensively in several specific areas in the East Sea and the eastern region of Jeju Island. The areas having intensive seismic activity in the East Sea are offshore regions of Uljin (Region A), Yeongdeok (Region B), and Ulsan (Region C) from north to south. Eleven earthquakes of ML 2.0 - 3.2 occurred in Region A on April 2006. The epicenters were distributed within a radius of about 0.7 km. And the focal depths were in the range of 1.6 - 13.0 km (Kang and Shin, 2006). Kang and Shin (2006) propose that the sequence is closely related to the marginal geometry of the Ulleung Basin and the regional stress regime. Seven events with ML 2.1 - 3.0 occurred between September 12 and October 17 in 2007, and four events with ML 2.3 - 3.5 did between 07 December 2008 and 13 January 2009 in Region B. The relocations of eleven events greatly improved the epicenter locations that fall within an area with a radius of about 4 km. The relocated depths are in a range of 8 km to 14 km. According to Shin et al. (2012), the distribution of epicenters and fault plane solution of the largest earthquake in the sequences implied that the earthquake sequences are closely related to the Hupo fault at the eastern margin of Hupo basin. The sequences have been considered to have swarm seismicity pattern. In this study, we analyzed the

  3. Enabling Earth Science Measurements with NASA Uas Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, R.; Schoenung, S.; Fladeland, M.; Cutler, F.; Tagg, B.

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Airborne Science Program (ASP) maintains a fleet of manned and unmanned aircraft for Earth Science measurements and observations. The unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) range in size from very large (Global Hawks) to medium (SIERRA, Viking) and relatively small (DragonEye). UAS fly from very low (boundary layer) to very high altitude (stratosphere). NASA also supports science and applied science projects using UAS operated by outside companies or agencies. The aircraft and accompanying data and support systems have been used in numerous investigations. For example, Global Hawks have been used to study both hurricanes and atmospheric composition. SIERRA has been used to study ice, earthquake faults, and coral reefs. DragonEye is being used to measure volcanic emissions. As a foundation for NASA's UAS work, Altair and Ikhana not only flew wildfires in the US, but also provided major programs for the development of real-time data download and processing capabilities. In 2014, an advanced L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar flew for the first time on Global Hawk, demonstrating UAVSAR, which has been flying successfully on a manned aircraft. This paper focuses on two topics: 1) results of a NASA program called UAS-Enabled Earth Science, in which three science teams flew UAS to demonstrate platform and sensor performance, airspace integration, and applied science results from the data collected; 2) recent accomplishments with the high altitude, long-duration Global Hawks. The challenges experienced with flying UAS are discussed. Recent upgrades to data processing, communications, tracking and flight planning systems are described.

  4. UAS-NAS Project Demo - Mini HITL Week 2 Stats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.; Fern, Lisa C.; Rorie, Robert C.; Shively, Robert; Jovic, Srboljub

    2016-01-01

    The UAS-NAS Project demo will showcase recent research efforts to ensure the interoperability between proposed UAS detect and avoid (DAA) human machine interface requirements (developed within RTCA SC-228) and existing collision avoidance displays. Attendees will be able to view the current state of the art of the DAA pilot traffic, alerting and guidance displays integrated with Traffic advisory and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) II in the UAS-NAS Project's research UAS ground control station (developed in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory). In addition, attendees will have the opportunity to interact with the research UAS ground control station and "fly" encounters, using the DAA and TCAS II displays to avoid simulated aircraft. The display of the advisories will be hosted on a laptop with an external 30" monitor, running the Vigilant Spirit system. DAA advisories will be generated by the JADEM software tool, connected to the system via the LVC Gateway. A repeater of the primary flight display will be shown on a 55" monitor mounted on a stand at the back of the booth to show the pilot interaction to the passersby.

  5. Songbird - AN Innovative Uas Combining the Advantages of Fixed Wing and Multi Rotor Uas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamm, F.-P.; Brieger, N.; Neitzke, K.-P.; Meyer, M.; Jansen, R.; Mönninghof, M.

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a family of innovative fixed wing UAS with can vertical take off and land - the SONGBIRD family. With nominal payloads starting from 0.5 kg they can take off and land safely like a multi-rotor UAV, removing the need for an airstrip for the critical phases of operation. A specially designed flight controller allows stable flight at every point of the transition phase between VTOL and fixed wing mode. Because of this smooth process with a all time stable flight, very expensive payload like hyperspectral sensors or advanced optical cameras can be used. Due to their design all airplanes of the SONGBIRD family have excellent horizontal flight properties, a maximum speed of over 110 km/h, good gliding properties and long flight times of up to 1 h. Missions were flown in wind speeds up to 18 m/s. At every time of the flight it is possible to interrupt the mission and hover over a point of interest for detail investigations. The complete flight, including take-off and landing can be performed by autopilot. Designed for daily use in professional environments, SONGBIRDs are built out of glass-fibre and carbon composites for a long service life. For safe operations comprehensive security features are implemented, for example redundant flight controllers and sensors, advanced power management system and mature fail safe procedures. The aircraft can be dismantled into small parts for transportation. SONGBIRDS are available for different pay loads, from 500 g to 2 kg. The SONGBIRD family are interesting tools combining the advantages of multi-copter and fixed wing UAS.

  6. Next Generation UAS Based Spectral Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, P.; Townsend, P.; Mandl, D.; Kingdon, C.; Ly, V.; Sohlberg, R.; Corp, L.; Cappelaere, P.; Frye, S.; Handy, M.; Nagol, J.; Ambrosia, V.; Navarro, F.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information on the development of a small Unmanned Aerial System(UAS) with a low power, high performance Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) and a hyperspectral imager to enable intelligent gathering of science grade vegetation data over agricultural fields at about 150 ft. The IPM performs real time data processing over the image data and then enables the navigation system to move the UAS to locations where measurements are optimal for science. This is important because the small UAS typically has about 30 minutes of battery power and therefore over large agricultural fields, resource utilization efficiency is important. The key innovation is the shrinking of the IPM and the cross communication with the navigation software to allow the data processing to interact with desired way points while using Field Programmable Gate Arrays to enable high performance on large data volumes produced by the hyperspectral imager.

  7. Reverse sequencing syllables of spoken words activates primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Ino, Tadashi; Asada, Tomohiko; Hirose, Syuichi; Ito, Jin; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2003-10-27

    Using fMRI, we investigated the neural correlates for sequencing the individual syllables of spoken words in reverse order. The comparison of this task to a control task requiring subjects to repeat identical syllables given acoustically revealed the activation of the primary visual cortex. Because one syllable is generally expressed by one kana character (Japanese phonogram), most subjects used a strategy in which the kana character string corresponding to the word was imagined visually and then read mentally in reverse order to perform the task effectively. Such strategy was not used during a control condition. These results suggest that the primary visual cortex plays a role in the generation of an imagined string.

  8. [Ventricular activation sequence estimated by body surface isochrone map].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Ishikawa, T; Takami, K; Kojima, H; Yabe, S; Ohsugi, S; Miyachi, K; Sotobata, I

    1985-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the body surface isochrone map (VAT map) for identifying the ventricular activation sequence, and it was correlated with the isopotential map. Subjects consisted of 42 normal healthy adults, 18 patients with artificial ventricular pacemakers, and 100 patients with ventricular premature beats (VPB). The sites of pacemaker implantations were the right ventricular endocardial apex (nine cases), right ventricular epicardial apex (five cases), right ventricular inflow tract (one case), left ventricular epicardial apex (one case), and posterior base of the left ventricle via the coronary sinus (two cases). An isopotential map was recorded by the mapper HPM-6500 (Chunichi-Denshi Co.) on the basis of an 87 unipolar lead ECG, and a VAT isochrone map was drawn by a minicomputer. The normal VAT map was classified by type according to alignment of isochrone lines, and their frequency was 57.1% for type A, 16.7% for type B, and 26.2% for type C. In the VAT map of ventricular pacing, the body surface area of initial isochrone lines represented well the sites of pacemaker stimuli. In the VAT map of VPB, the sites of origin of VPB agreed well with those as determined by the previous study using an isopotential map. The density of the isochrone lines suggested the mode of conduction via the specialized conduction system or ventricular muscle. The VAT map is a very useful diagnostic method to predict the ventricular activation sequence more directly in a single sheet of the map. PMID:2419457

  9. Enabling Earth Science Measurements with NASA UAS Capabilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, Randal; Schoenung, Susan; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Cutler, Frank; Tagg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Airborne Science Program (ASP) maintains a fleet of manned and unmanned aircraft for Earth Science measurements and observations. The unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) range in size from very large (Global Hawks) to medium (SIERRA, Viking) and relatively small (DragonEye). UAS fly from very low (boundary layer) to very high altitude (stratosphere). NASA also supports science and applied science projects using UAS operated by outside companies or agencies. The aircraft and accompanying data and support systems have been used in numerous investigations. For example, Global Hawks have been used to study both hurricanes and atmospheric composition. SIERRA has been used to study ice, earthquake faults, and coral reefs. DragonEye is being used to measure volcanic emissions. As a foundation for NASA's UAS work, Altair and Ikkana not only flew wildfires in the Western US, but also provided major programs for the development of real-time data download and processing capabilities. In early 2014, an advanced L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) also flew for the first time on Global Hawk, proving the utility of UAVSAR, which has been flying successfully on a manned aircraft. In this paper, we focus on two topics: 1) the results of a NASA program called UAS-Enabled Earth Science, in which three different science teams flew (at least) two different UAS to demonstrate platform performance, airspace integration, sensor performance, and applied science results from the data collected; 2) recent accomplishments with the high altitude, long-duration Global Hawks, especially measurements from several payload suites consisting of multiple instruments. The latest upgrades to data processing, communications, tracking and flight planning systems will also be described.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of an UAS Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliveros, Edgardo V.; Murray, A. Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Collision Avoidance System, capable of representing different types of scenarios for UAS collision avoidance. Commercial and military piloted aircraft currently utilize various systems for collision avoidance such as Traffic Alert and Collision A voidance System (TCAS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Radar and ElectroOptical and Infrared Sensors (EO-IR). The integration of information from these systems is done by the pilot in the aircraft to determine the best course of action. In order to operate optimally in the National Airspace System (NAS) UAS have to work in a similar or equivalent manner to a piloted aircraft by applying the principle of "detect-see and avoid" (DSA) to other air traffic. Hence, we have taken these existing sensor technologies into consideration in order to meet the challenge of researching the modeling and simulation of an approximated DSA system. A Schematic Model for a UAS Collision Avoidance System (CAS) has been developed ina closed loop block diagram for that purpose. We have found that the most suitable software to carry out this task is the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) from Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI). We have used the Aircraft Mission Modeler (AMM) for modeling and simulation of a scenario where a UAS is placed on a possible collision path with an initial intruder and then with a second intruder, but is able to avoid them by executing a right tum maneuver and then climbing. Radars have also been modeled with specific characteristics for the UAS and both intruders. The software provides analytical, graphical user interfaces and data controlling tools which allow the operator to simulate different conditions. Extensive simulations have been carried out which returned excellent results.

  11. Cooperative Autonomous Observation of Volcanic Environments with sUAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravela, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Autonomous Observing System Project (CAOS) at the MIT Earth Signals and Systems Group has developed methodology and systems for dynamically mapping coherent fluids such as plumes using small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS). In the CAOS approach, two classes of sUAS, one remote the other in-situ, implement a dynamic data-driven mapping system by closing the loop between Modeling, Estimation, Sampling, Planning and Control (MESPAC). The continually gathered measurements are assimilated to produce maps/analyses which also guide the sUAS network to adaptively resample the environment. Rather than scan the volume in fixed Eulerian or Lagrangian flight plans, the adaptive nature of the sampling process enables objectives for efficiency and resilience to be incorporated. Modeling includes realtime prediction using two types of reduced models, one based on nowcasting remote observations of plume tracer using scale-cascaded alignment, and another based on dynamically-deformable EOF/POD developed for coherent structures. Ensemble-based Information-theoretic machine learning approaches are used for the highly non-linear/non-Gaussian state/parameter estimation, and for planning. Control of the sUAS is based on model reference control coupled with hierarchical PID. MESPAC is implemented in part on a SkyCandy platform, and implements an airborne mesh that provides instantaneous situational awareness and redundant communication to an operating fleet. SkyCandy is deployed on Itzamna Aero's I9X/W UAS with low-cost sensors, and is currently being used to study the Popocatepetl volcano. Results suggest that operational communities can deploy low-cost sUAS to systematically monitor whilst optimizing for efficiency/maximizing resilience. The CAOS methodology is applicable to many other environments where coherent structures are present in the background. More information can be found at caos.mit.edu.

  12. Air Traffic Controller Performance and Acceptability of Multiple UAS in a Simulated NAS Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas; Chiappe, Dan; Morales, Greg; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that air traffic controllers (ATCos) rated UAS pilot verbal response latencies as acceptable when a 1.5 s delay was added to the UAS pilot responses, but a 5 s delay was rated as mostly unacceptable. In the present study we determined whether a 1.5 s added delay in the UAS pilots' verbal communications would affect ATCos interactions with UAS and other conventional aircraft when the number and speed of the UAS were manipulated. Eight radar-certified ATCos participated in this simulation. The ATCos managed a medium altitude sector containing arrival aircraft, en route aircraft, and one to four UAS. The UAS were conducting a surveillance mission and flew at either a "slow" or "fast" speed. We measured both UAS and conventional pilots' verbal communication latencies, and obtained ATCos' acceptability ratings for these latencies. Although the UAS pilot response latencies were longer than those of conventional pilots, the ATCos rated UAS pilot verbal communication latencies to be as acceptable as those of conventional pilots. Because the overall traffic load within the sector was held constant, ATCos only performed slightly worse when multiple UAS were in their sector compared to when only one UAS was in the sector. Implications of these findings for UAS integration in the NAS are discussed.

  13. NASA GRC UAS Project - Communications Modeling and Simulation Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apaza, Rafael; Bretmersky, Steven; Dailey, Justin; Satapathy, Goutam; Ditzenberger, David; Ye, Chris; Kubat, Greg; Chevalier, Christine; Nguyen, Thanh

    2014-01-01

    The integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace represents new operational concepts required in civil aviation. These new concepts are evolving as the nation moves toward the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under the leadership of the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), and through ongoing work by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The desire and ability to fly UAS in the National Air Space (NAS) in the near term has increased dramatically, and this multi-agency effort to develop and implement a national plan to successfully address the challenges of UAS access to the NAS in a safe and timely manner is well underway. As part of the effort to integrate UAS in the National Airspace, NASA Glenn Research Center is currently involved with providing research into Communications systems and Communication system operations in order to assist with developing requirements for this implementation. In order to provide data and information regarding communication systems performance that will be necessary, NASA GRC is tasked with developing and executing plans for simulations of candidate future UAS command and control communications, in line with architectures and communications technologies being developed and or proposed by NASA and relevant aviation organizations (in particular, RTCA SC-203). The simulations and related analyses will provide insight into the ability of proposed communications technologies and system architectures to enable safe operation of UAS, meeting UAS in the NAS project goals (including performance requirements, scalability, and interoperability), and ultimately leading to a determination of the ability of NextGen communication systems to accommodate UAS. This presentation, compiled by the NASA GRC Modeling and Simulation team, will provide an update to this ongoing effort at NASA GRC as follow-up to the overview of the planned simulation effort presented at ICNS in 2013. The objective

  14. SAFEGUARD: An Assured Safety Net Technology for UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Evan T.; Young, Steven D.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    As demands increase to use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a broad spectrum of commercial applications, regulatory authorities are examining how to safely integrate them without loss of safety or major disruption to existing airspace operations. This work addresses the development of the Safeguard system as an assured safety net technology for UAS. The Safeguard system monitors and enforces conformance to a set of rules defined prior to flight (e.g., geospatial stay-out or stay-in regions, speed limits, altitude limits). Safeguard operates independently of the UAS autopilot and is strategically designed in a way that can be realized by a small set of verifiable functions to simplify compliance with regulatory standards for commercial aircraft. A framework is described that decouples the system from any other devices on the UAS as well as introduces complementary positioning source(s) for applications that require integrity and availability beyond what the Global Positioning System (GPS) can provide. Additionally, the high level logic embedded within the software is presented, as well as the steps being taken toward verification and validation (V&V) of proper functionality. Next, an initial prototype implementation of the described system is disclosed. Lastly, future work including development, testing, and system V&V is summarized.

  15. UAS in the NAS Flight Test Series 3 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting a series of flight tests to acheive the following objectives: 1.) Validate results previously collected during project simulations with live data 2.) Evaluate TCAS IISS interoperability 3.) Test fully integrated system in a relevant live test environment 4.) Inform final DAA and C2 MOPS 5.) Reduce risk for Flight Test Series 4.

  16. The sequence of learning cycle activities in high school chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Michael R.; Renner, John W.

    The sequence of the three phases of two high school learning cycles in chemistry was altered in order to: (I ) give insights into the factors which account for the success of the learning cycle, (2) serve as an indirect test of the association between Piaget's theory and the learning cycle, and (3) to compare the learning cycle with traditional instruction. Each of the six sequences (one n o d and five altered) was studied with content and atritudc measures. The outcomes of the study supported the contention that the normal learning cycle sequence is the optimum sequence for achievement of content knowledge.

  17. Integration of a Generalised Building Model Into the Pose Estimation of Uas Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, J.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2016-06-01

    A hybrid bundle adjustment is presented that allows for the integration of a generalised building model into the pose estimation of image sequences. These images are captured by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) equipped with a camera flying in between the buildings. The relation between the building model and the images is described by distances between the object coordinates of the tie points and building model planes. Relations are found by a simple 3D distance criterion and are modelled as fictitious observations in a Gauss-Markov adjustment. The coordinates of model vertices are part of the adjustment as directly observed unknowns which allows for changes in the model. Results of first experiments using a synthetic and a real image sequence demonstrate improvements of the image orientation in comparison to an adjustment without the building model, but also reveal limitations of the current state of the method.

  18. An intuitive graphical user interface for small UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroumtsos, Nicholas; Gilbreath, Gary; Przybylski, Scott

    2013-05-01

    Thousands of small UAVs are in active use by the US military and are generally operated by trained but not necessarily skilled personnel. The user interfaces for these devices often seem to be more engineering-focused than usability-focused, which can lead to operator frustration, poor mission effectiveness, reduced situational awareness, and sometimes loss of the vehicle. In addition, coordinated control of both air and ground vehicles is a frequently desired objective, usually with the intent of increasing situational awareness for the ground vehicle. The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSCPAC) is working under a Naval Innovative Science and Engineering project to address these topics. The UAS currently targeted are the Raven/Puma/Wasp family of air vehicles as they are small, all share the same communications protocol, and are in wide-spread use. The stock ground control station (GCS) consists of a hand control unit, radio, interconnect hub, and laptop. The system has been simplified to an X-box controller, radio and a laptop, resulting in a smaller hardware footprint, but most importantly the number of personnel required to operate the system has been reduced from two to one. The stock displays, including video with text overlay on one and FalconView on the other, are replaced with a single, graphics-based, integrated user interface, providing the user with much improved situational awareness. The SSCPAC government-developed GCS (the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit) already has the ability to control ground robots and this is leveraged to realize simultaneous multi-vehicle operations including autonomous UAV over-watch for enhanced UGV situational awareness.

  19. Monitoring Coastal Processes at Local and Regional Geographic Scales with UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Bridges, D.; Prouty, D.; Berryhill, J.; Williams, D.; Jeffress, G.

    2014-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) provide a powerful tool for coastal mapping due to attractive features such as low cost data acquisition, flexibility in data capture and resolution, rapid response, and autonomous flight. We investigate two different scales of UAS platforms for monitoring coastal processes along the central Texas Gulf coast. Firstly, the eBee is a small-scale UAS weighing ~0.7 kg designed for localized mapping. The imaging payload consists of a hand held RGB digital camera and NIR digital camera, both with 16.1 megapixel resolutions. The system can map up to 10 square kilometers on a single flight and is capable of acquiring imagery down to 1.5 cm ground sample distance. The eBee is configured with a GPS receiver, altitude sensor, gyroscope and a radio transmitter enabling autonomous flight. The system has a certificate of authorization (COA) from the FAA to fly over the Ward Island campus of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMUCC). The campus has an engineered beach, called University Beach, located along Corpus Christi Bay. A set of groins and detached breakwaters were built in an effort to protect the beach from erosive wave action. The eBee is being applied to periodically survey the beach (Figure 1A). Through Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques, eBee-derived image sequences are post-processed to extract 3D topography and measure volumetric change. Additionally, when water clarity suffices, this approach enables the extraction of shallow-water bathymetry. Results on the utilization of the eBee to monitor beach morphodynamics will be presented including a comparison of derived estimates to RTK GPS and airborne lidar. Secondly, the RS-16 UAS has a 4 m wingspan and 11 kg sensor payload. The system is remotely piloted and has a flight endurance of 12 to 16 hours making it suitable for regional scale coastal mapping. The imaging payload consists of a multispectral sensor suite measuring in the visible, thermal IR, and ultraviolet ranges of the

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project, UAS Control and Non-Payload Communication System Phase-1 Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the prototype radio development, and results from phase 1 flight tests conducted during 2013.

  1. An expressed sequence tag database of T-cell-enriched activated chicken splenocytes: sequence analysis of 5251 clones.

    PubMed

    Tirunagaru, V G; Sofer, L; Cui, J; Burnside, J

    2000-06-01

    The cDNA and gene sequences of many mammalian cytokines and their receptors are known. However, corresponding information on avian cytokines is limited due to the lack of cross-species activity at the functional level or strong homology at the molecular level. To improve the efficiency of identifying cytokines and novel chicken genes, a directionally cloned cDNA library from T-cell-enriched activated chicken splenocytes was constructed, and the partial sequence of 5251 clones was obtained. Sequence clustering indicates that 2357 (42%) of the clones are present as a single copy, and 2961 are distinct clones, demonstrating the high level of complexity of this library. Comparisons of the sequence data with known DNA sequences in GenBank indicate that approximately 25% of the clones match known chicken genes, 39% have similarity to known genes in other species, and 11% had no match to any sequence in the database. Several previously uncharacterized chicken cytokines and their receptors were present in our library. This collection provides a useful database for cataloging genes expressed in T cells and a valuable resource for future investigations of gene expression in avian immunology. A chicken EST Web site (http://udgenome. ags.udel. edu/chickest/chick.htm) has been created to provide access to the data, and a set of unique sequences has been deposited with GenBank (Accession Nos. AI979741-AI982511). Our new Web site (http://www. chickest.udel.edu) will be active as of March 3, 2000, and will also provide keyword-searching capabilities for BLASTX and BLASTN hits of all our clones. PMID:10860659

  2. Decrease in gamma-band activity tracks sequence learning

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Radhika; Millman, Daniel; Tang, Hanlin; Crone, Nathan E.; Lenz, Fredrick A.; Tierney, Travis S.; Madsen, Joseph R.; Kreiman, Gabriel; Anderson, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Learning novel sequences constitutes an example of declarative memory formation, involving conscious recall of temporal events. Performance in sequence learning tasks improves with repetition and involves forming temporal associations over scales of seconds to minutes. To further understand the neural circuits underlying declarative sequence learning over trials, we tracked changes in intracranial field potentials (IFPs) recorded from 1142 electrodes implanted throughout temporal and frontal cortical areas in 14 human subjects, while they learned the temporal-order of multiple sequences of images over trials through repeated recall. We observed an increase in power in the gamma frequency band (30–100 Hz) in the recall phase, particularly in areas within the temporal lobe including the parahippocampal gyrus. The degree of this gamma power enhancement decreased over trials with improved sequence recall. Modulation of gamma power was directly correlated with the improvement in recall performance. When presenting new sequences, gamma power was reset to high values and decreased again after learning. These observations suggest that signals in the gamma frequency band may play a more prominent role during the early steps of the learning process rather than during the maintenance of memory traces. PMID:25653598

  3. A Summary of Two Recent UAS Command and Control (C2) Communications Feasibility Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Auld, Elisabeth; Church, Gary; Henriksen, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In Spring of 2015, the NextGen Institute conducted two UAS C2 Communications Feasibility Studies on behalf of the FAA UAS Integration Office to develop two limited UAS C2 operational examples, each involving low-altitude BLOS (Beyond Line of Sight) Line of Communication (LOC) UAS applications, as part of assessing the myriad practical UAS C2 deployment challenges associated with these approaches. The studies investigated the feasibility of "Point-to-Point" (PTP) and "Network" approaches to UAS C2 to better understand potential user needs and to explore evolutionary paths to establishing a nation-wide system for delivering UAS C2 communications. This paper will summarize the solicitation, approach and results of the two studies teams led by Aviation Management Associates, Inc. and Exelis Inc.

  4. Mapping of riparian invasive species with supervised classification of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Jonathan, Lisein; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Riparian zones are key landscape features, representing the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although they have been influenced by human activities for centuries, their degradation has increased during the 20th century. Concomitant with (or as consequences of) these disturbances, the invasion of exotic species has increased throughout the world's riparian zones. In our study, we propose a easily reproducible methodological framework to map three riparian invasive taxa using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) imagery: Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier, and Japanese knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt Petrop.), Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) and hybrids). Based on visible and near-infrared UAS orthophoto, we derived simple spectral and texture image metrics computed at various scales of image segmentation (10, 30, 45, 60 using eCognition software). Supervised classification based on the random forests algorithm was used to identify the most relevant variable (or combination of variables) derived from UAS imagery for mapping riparian invasive plant species. The models were built using 20% of the dataset, the rest of the dataset being used as a test set (80%). Except for H. mantegazzianum, the best results in terms of global accuracy were achieved with the finest scale of analysis (segmentation scale parameter = 10). The best values of overall accuracies reached 72%, 68%, and 97% for I. glandulifera, Japanese knotweed, and H. mantegazzianum respectively. In terms of selected metrics, simple spectral metrics (layer mean/camera brightness) were the most used. Our results also confirm the added value of texture metrics (GLCM derivatives) for mapping riparian invasive species. The results obtained for I. glandulifera and Japanese knotweed do not reach sufficient accuracies for operational applications. However, the results achieved for H. mantegazzianum are encouraging. The high accuracies values combined to

  5. sUAS and their application in observing geomorphological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallik, Jozef; Bolešová, Lenka

    2016-07-01

    Methodologies and procedures in processing gained data vary based on possibilities and needs of scientific projects. This paper should help to get a general overview in the choice of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS - commonly known as drones) for scientific purposes, namely remote sensing of geomorphologic processes such as soil degradation in high mountainous areas that are hard to access and have unfavourable weather conditions. All high mountain areas in European countries are legislatively protected, and so various permissions and observation of strict procedures are needed in order to not have a negative influence on the environment. Nowadays, several types of UAS exist that could effectively help us in such protection, as well as in full-fledged utilization when answering scientific questions about the alpine lake genesis. We demonstrate it here with selected examples of our photo documentation.

  6. Ua neeb khu: a Hmong American healing ceremony.

    PubMed

    Capps, Lisa L

    2011-06-01

    Ua neeb khu (pronounced "oo-ah neng kue") is a ceremonial healing practice engaged in by Hmong Americans for the treatment of various health problems involving spiritually focused concerns that only a shaman practitioner is qualified to treat. A qualitative ethnographic case study method with participant observation was used to analyze a spiritual healing ceremony performed by a shaman healer (txiv neeb) for an elderly Hmong American male residing in a midwestern city in the United States. The healing ritual was filmed and reviewed with the shaman healer to identify symbolic meanings and processes. Through ritual exchange and reciprocal transaction between the spirit and living world, the shaman facilitated the resolution of the spiritual problem and promoted the patient's healing and sense of well-being. Awareness of the symbolic aspects of ritual in ua neeb khu and the relationship to the patient's world view is useful to health practitioners for a holistic understanding of Hmong American healing practices.

  7. Virtualizing Super-Computation On-Board Uas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salami, E.; Soler, J. A.; Cuadrado, R.; Barrado, C.; Pastor, E.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS, also known as UAV, RPAS or drones) have a great potential to support a wide variety of aerial remote sensing applications. Most UAS work by acquiring data using on-board sensors for later post-processing. Some require the data gathered to be downlinked to the ground in real-time. However, depending on the volume of data and the cost of the communications, this later option is not sustainable in the long term. This paper develops the concept of virtualizing super-computation on-board UAS, as a method to ease the operation by facilitating the downlink of high-level information products instead of raw data. Exploiting recent developments in miniaturized multi-core devices is the way to speed-up on-board computation. This hardware shall satisfy size, power and weight constraints. Several technologies are appearing with promising results for high performance computing on unmanned platforms, such as the 36 cores of the TILE-Gx36 by Tilera (now EZchip) or the 64 cores of the Epiphany-IV by Adapteva. The strategy for virtualizing super-computation on-board includes the benchmarking for hardware selection, the software architecture and the communications aware design. A parallelization strategy is given for the 36-core TILE-Gx36 for a UAS in a fire mission or in similar target-detection applications. The results are obtained for payload image processing algorithms and determine in real-time the data snapshot to gather and transfer to ground according to the needs of the mission, the processing time, and consumed watts.

  8. Some Impacts of Risk-Centric Certification Requirements for UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neogi, Natasha A. (Inventor); Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses results from a recent study that investigates certification requirements for an unmanned rotorcraft performing agricultural application operations. The process of determining appropriate requirements using a risk-centric approach revealed a number of challenges that could impact larger UAS standardization efforts. Fundamental challenges include selecting the correct level of abstraction for requirements to permit design flexibility, transforming human-centric operational requirements to aircraft airworthiness requirements, and assessing all hazards associated with the operation.

  9. Evaluation of DEM generation accuracy from UAS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santise, M.; Fornari, M.; Forlani, G.; Roncella, R.

    2014-06-01

    The growing use of UAS platform for aerial photogrammetry comes with a new family of Computer Vision highly automated processing software expressly built to manage the peculiar characteristics of these blocks of images. It is of interest to photogrammetrist and professionals, therefore, to find out whether the image orientation and DSM generation methods implemented in such software are reliable and the DSMs and orthophotos are accurate. On a more general basis, it is interesting to figure out whether it is still worth applying the standard rules of aerial photogrammetry to the case of drones, achieving the same inner strength and the same accuracies as well. With such goals in mind, a test area has been set up at the University Campus in Parma. A large number of ground points has been measured on natural as well as signalized points, to provide a comprehensive test field, to check the accuracy performance of different UAS systems. In the test area, points both at ground-level and features on the buildings roofs were measured, in order to obtain a distributed support also altimetrically. Control points were set on different types of surfaces (buildings, asphalt, target, fields of grass and bumps); break lines, were also employed. The paper presents the results of a comparison between two different surveys for DEM (Digital Elevation Model) generation, performed at 70 m and 140 m flying height, using a Falcon 8 UAS.

  10. LaserCom in UAS missions: benefits and operational aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Heine, Frank; Begg, Lester L.; Du, Detao

    2013-05-01

    Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) is progressing continuously. With the successful in-orbit verification of a Laser Communication Terminal (LCT), the coherent homodyne BPSK scheme advanced to a standard for Free-Space Optical Communication (FSOC) which now prevails more and more. The LCT is located not only on satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with spacecrafts like ALPHASAT-TDP and the European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) the LCT will also exist in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) in the near future. In other words, the LCT has reached its practical application. With existence of such space assets the time has come for other utilizations beyond that of establishing optical Inter-Satellite Links (ISL). Aeronautical applications, as for instance High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) or Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have to be addressed. Driving factors and advantages of FSOC in HALE/MALE UAS missions are highlighted. Numerous practice-related issues are described concerning the space segment, the aeronautical segment as well as the ground segment. The advantages for UAS missions are described resulting from the utilization of FSOC exclusively for wideband transmission of sensor data whereas vehicle Command and Control can be maintained as before via RF communication. Moreover, the paper discusses FSOC as enabler for the integration of air and space-based wideband Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems into existent military command and control systems.

  11. Dynamic replanning on demand of UAS constellations performing ISR missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouch, Daniel W.; Zeidman, Ernest; Callahan, William; McGraw, Kirk

    2011-05-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have proven themselves to be indispensable in providing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) over the battlefield. Constellations of heterogeneous, multi-purpose UAS are being tasked to provide ISR in an unpredictable environment. This necessitates the dynamic replanning of critical missions as weather conditions change, new observation targets are identified, aircraft are lost or equipment malfunctions, and new airspace restrictions are introduced. We present a method to generate coordinated mission plans for constellations of UAS with multiple flight goals and potentially competing objectives, and update them on demand as the operational situation changes. We use a fast evolutionary algorithm-based, multi-objective optimization technique. The updated flight routes maintain continuity by considering where the ISR assets have already flown and where they still need to go. Both the initial planning and replanning take into account factors such as area of analysis coverage, restricted operating zones, maximum control station range, adverse weather effects, military terrain value, and sensor performance. Our results demonstrate that by constraining the space of potential solutions using an intelligently-formed air maneuver network with a subset of potential airspace corridors and navigational waypoints, we can ensure global optimization for multiple objectives considering the situation both before and after the replanning is initiated. We employ sophisticated visualization techniques using a geographic information system to help the user 'look under the hood" of the algorithms to understand the effectiveness and viability of the generated ISR mission plans and identify potential gaps in coverage.

  12. Analysis of Point Cloud Generation from UAS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, S.; Jóźków, G.; Toth, C.; Vander Jagt, B.

    2014-11-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) allow for the collection of low altitude aerial images, along with other geospatial information from a variety of companion sensors. The images can then be processed using sophisticated algorithms from the Computer Vision (CV) field, guided by the traditional and established procedures from photogrammetry. Based on highly overlapped images, new software packages which were specifically developed for UAS technology can easily create ground models, such as Point Clouds (PC), Digital Surface Model (DSM), orthoimages, etc. The goal of this study is to compare the performance of three different software packages, focusing on the accuracy of the 3D products they produce. Using a Nikon D800 camera installed on an ocotocopter UAS platform, images were collected during subsequent field tests conducted over the Olentangy River, north from the Ohio State University campus. Two areas around bike bridges on the Olentangy River Trail were selected because of the challenge the packages would have in creating accurate products; matching pixels over the river and dense canopy on the shore presents difficult scenarios to model. Ground Control Points (GCP) were gathered at each site to tie the models to a local coordinate system and help assess the absolute accuracy for each package. In addition, the models were also relatively compared to each other using their PCs.

  13. Concepts of Integration for UAS Operations in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is the lack of an onboard pilot that can comply with the legal requirement identified in the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. UAS will be expected to demonstrate the means to perform the function of see and avoid while preserving the safety level of the airspace and the efficiency of the air traffic system. This paper introduces a Sense and Avoid (SAA) concept for integration of UAS into the NAS that is currently being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and identifies areas that require additional experimental evaluation to further inform various elements of the concept. The concept design rests on interoperability principles that take into account both the Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment as well as existing systems such as the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Specifically, the concept addresses the determination of well clear values that are large enough to avoid issuance of TCAS corrective Resolution Advisories, undue concern by pilots of proximate aircraft and issuance of controller traffic alerts. The concept also addresses appropriate declaration times for projected losses of well clear conditions and maneuvers to regain well clear separation.

  14. Assuring Ground-Based Detect and Avoid for UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganeshmadhav Jagadeesh; Berthold, Randall; Fladeland, Matthew; Storms, Bruce; Sumich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the Marginal Ice Zones Observations and Processes Experiment (MIZOPEX) NASA Earth science mission was to show the operational capabilities of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when deployed on challenging missions, in difficult environments. Given the extreme conditions of the Arctic environment where MIZOPEX measurements were required, the mission opted to use a radar to provide a ground-based detect-and-avoid (GBDAA) capability as an alternate means of compliance (AMOC) with the see-and-avoid federal aviation regulation. This paper describes how GBDAA safety assurance was provided by interpreting and applying the guidelines in the national policy for UAS operational approval. In particular, we describe how we formulated the appropriate safety goals, defined the processes and procedures for system safety, identified and assembled the relevant safety verification evidence, and created an operational safety case in compliance with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requirements. To the best of our knowledge, the safety case, which was ultimately approved by the FAA, is the first successful example of non-military UAS operations using GBDAA in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS), and, therefore, the first nonmilitary application of the safety case concept in this context.

  15. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Assessment of Melt Lakes in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, J.; Steffen, K.

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this August 2007 week-long test campaign was to assess the viability of supraglacial lake depths with high-resolution hyperspectral measurements. The knowledge of melt lake depth is essential in determining the volume of water which forms on top of glacial surfaces during the annual melt season. The assessment of melt water volume is a crucial input parameter for modeling the Greenland ice sheet dynamics. UAS operations were flown out of western Greenland. Preliminary results from five hyperspectral data cubes are presented, indicating that supraglacial water depths can be determined from low altitude, high-resolution hyperspectral imaging. The pixel resolution of the hyperspectral sensor is 0.2 meters at an altitude of 300 meters above the ice surface; this provides accuracy that is two orders of magnitude better than imagery obtained by the MODIS sensor or other similar satellite-based methods. Further, a UAS-based hyperspectral approach enables the measurement of supraglacial lake depths under most cloud cover conditions. The capabilities of three UAS types (Manta, Silver Fox, and electric Silver Fox) flight tested in Greenland are discussed. Also, we present future field planning (2008 and 2009) to measure supraglacial lake depths with hyperspectral imagery in conjunction with a green laser altimeter.

  16. UAS Integration Into the NAS: An Examination of Baseline Compliance in the Current Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Johnson, Walter

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are expected to be integrated into the National Airspace System (NAS) by 2015. Several human factors challenges need to be addressed before UAS can safely and routinely fly in the NAS with manned aircraft. Perhaps the most significant challenge is for the UAS to be non-disruptive to the air traffic management system. Another human factors challenge is how to provide UAS pilots with intuitive traffic information in order to support situation awareness (SA) of their airspace environment as well as a see-and-avoid capability comparable to manned aircraft so that a UAS pilot could safely maneuver the aircraft to maintain separation and collision avoidance if necessary. A simulation experiment was conducted to examine baseline compliance of UAS operations in the current airspace system. Researchers also examined the effects of introducing a Cockpit Situation Display (CSD) into a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) on UAS pilot performance, workload and situation awareness while flying in a positively controlled sector. Pilots were tasked with conducting a highway patrol police mission with a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAS in L.A. Center airspace with two mission objectives: 1) to reroute the UAS when issued new instructions from their commander, and 2) to communicate with Air Traffic Control (ATC) to negotiate flight plan changes and respond to vectoring and altitude change instructions. Objective aircraft separation data, workload ratings, SA data, and subjective ratings regarding UAS operations in the NAS were collected. Results indicate that UAS pilots were able to comply appropriately with ATC instructions. In addition, the introduction of the CSD improved pilot SA and reduced workload associated with UAS and ATC interactions.

  17. Dynamic reorganization of neural activity in motor cortex during new sequence production.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Ashe, James

    2015-09-01

    Although previous studies have shown that primary motor cortex (M1) neurons are modulated during the performance of a sequence of movements, it is not known how this neural activity in the M1 reorganizes during new learning of sequence-dependent motor skills. Here we trained monkeys to move to each of four spatial targets to produce multiple distinct sequences of movements in which the spatial organization of the targets determined uniquely the serial order of the movements. After the monkeys memorized the sequences, we changed one element of these over-practised sequences and the subjects were required to learn the new sequence through trial and error. When one element in an over-learned four-element sequence was changed, the sequence-specific neural activity was totally disrupted, but relatively minor changes in the direction-specific activity were observed. The data suggest that sequential motor skills are represented within M1 in the context of the complete sequential behavior rather than as a series of single consecutive movements; and sequence-specific neurons in the M1 are involved in new learning of sequence by using memorized knowledge to acquire complex motor skill efficiently.

  18. Dynamic reorganization of neural activity in motor cortex during new sequence production.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Ashe, James

    2015-09-01

    Although previous studies have shown that primary motor cortex (M1) neurons are modulated during the performance of a sequence of movements, it is not known how this neural activity in the M1 reorganizes during new learning of sequence-dependent motor skills. Here we trained monkeys to move to each of four spatial targets to produce multiple distinct sequences of movements in which the spatial organization of the targets determined uniquely the serial order of the movements. After the monkeys memorized the sequences, we changed one element of these over-practised sequences and the subjects were required to learn the new sequence through trial and error. When one element in an over-learned four-element sequence was changed, the sequence-specific neural activity was totally disrupted, but relatively minor changes in the direction-specific activity were observed. The data suggest that sequential motor skills are represented within M1 in the context of the complete sequential behavior rather than as a series of single consecutive movements; and sequence-specific neurons in the M1 are involved in new learning of sequence by using memorized knowledge to acquire complex motor skill efficiently. PMID:26202600

  19. The intergenic region of maize streak virus contains a GC-rich element that activates rightward transcription and binds maize nuclear factors.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, C; Schwarz, J J; Black, D M; Schneider, M; Howell, S H

    1990-12-01

    Maize streak virus (MSV) is transcribed bidirectionally from an intergenic region and rightward transcription produces an RNA that encodes the coat protein. The intergenic region contains promoter elements required for rightward transcription including an upstream activating sequence (UAS) which endows the promoter with full activity in a maize transient expression system. The UAS contains two GC-rich repeats (GC boxes) and a long inverted repeat or hairpin with a loop harboring a TAATATTAC sequence common to all geminiviruses. Deletions through the UAS demonstrated the presence of an element, called the rightward promoter element (rpe1), which is responsible for transcriptional activation. Rpe1 includes the two GC-rich boxes, which are similar in sequence to Sp1 binding sites in mammalian cells, but not the conserved hairpin loop. Rpe1 binds maize nuclear factors in vitro and the characteristics of the binding interaction have been determined by 1) binding competition with oligonucleotides, 2) methidiumpropyl-EDTA footprinting and 3) methylation interference assays. Binding of maize nuclear factors to the UAS generates two major bands, slow and fast migrating bands, in gel retardation assays. Footprinting and factor titration data suggest that the fast bands arise by the binding of factors to one GC box while the slow bands are generated by factors binding to both boxes. The data further indicate that the factors bind to the two GC-rich boxes with little cooperativity and bind on opposite faces of the DNA helix.

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. The prototype radio will be used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the design, development, and flight test planning for this prototype radio.

  1. Unlocking the potential of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, C.; Riddell, K.; Barchyn, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS, < 25 kg) are emerging as a viable alternative to conventional remote sensing platforms for Earth observation (EO). sUAS technology affords greater control, lower cost, and flexibility for scientists, and provides new opportunities to match the scale of sUAS data to the scale of the geophysical phenomenon under investigation. Although a mechanism is in place to make sUAS available to researchers and other non-military users through the US Federal Aviation Administration's Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (FAAMRA), there are many regulatory hurdles before they are fully accepted and integrated into the National Airspace System. In this talk we will provide a brief overview of the regulatory landscape for sUAS, both in the USA and in Canada, where sUAS regulations are more flexible. We critically outline potential advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for EO applications under current and potential regulations. We find advantages: relatively low cost, potentially high temporal resolution, rapidly improving technology, and operational flexibility. We also find disadvantages: limited temporal and spatial extent, limited accuracy assessment and methodological development, and an immature regulatory landscape. From a case study we show an example of the accuracy of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain map (DTM) from sUAS imagery. We also compare the sUAS DTM to a LiDAR DTM. Our results suggest that sUAS-acquired imagery may provide a low-cost, rapid, and flexible alternative to airborne LiDAR. Overall, we are encouraged about the potential of sUAS for geophysical measurements; however, understanding and compliance with regulations is paramount to ensure that research is conducted legally and responsibly. Because UAS are new outside of military operations, we hope researchers will proceed carefully to ensure this great scientific opportunity remains a long term tool.

  2. Potentials of RF/FSO Communication in UAS Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Heine, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) has gained particular attention during the past few years and is progressing continuously. With the successful in-orbit verification of a Laser Communication Terminal (LCT), the coherent homodyne BPSK scheme advanced to a standard for Free-Space Optical Communication (FSOC) which now prevails more and more. The LCT is presently operated on satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In the near future, the LCT will be operated in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) onboard the ALPHASAT-TDP and the European Data Relay System (EDRS). In other words, the LCT has reached a point of maturity to realize its practical application. With existence of such space assets the time has come for other utilization beyond that of optical Inter-Satellite Links (ISL). Aeronautical applications, as for instance High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) or Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have to be addressed. This is caused due to an extremely high demand for bandwidth. Driving factors and advantages of FSOC in HALE/MALE UAS missions are highlighted. Numerous practice-related issues are described concerning the space segment, the aeronautical segment as well as the ground segment. The advantages for UAS missions are described resulting from the utilization of FSOC exclusively for wideband transmission of sensor data while vehicle Command & Control (C2) can be maintained, as before, via RF communication. Moreover, the paper discusses FSOC as an enabler for the integration of air and space-based wideband Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) systems into existent military command and control networks. From the given information it can be concluded that FSOC contributes to the future increase of air-and space power.

  3. Human Factors Guidelines for UAS in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan; Shively, R. Jay

    2013-01-01

    The ground control stations (GCS) of some UAS have been characterized by less-than-adequate human-system interfaces. In some cases this may reflect a failure to apply an existing regulation or human factors standard. In other cases, the problem may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material. NASA is leading a community effort to develop recommendations for human factors guidelines for GCS to support routine beyond-line-of-sight UAS operations in the national airspace system (NAS). In contrast to regulations, guidelines are not mandatory requirements. However, by encapsulating solutions to identified problems or areas of risk, guidelines can provide assistance to system developers, users and regulatory agencies. To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. By assuming that a pilot will be responsible for each UAS operating in the NAS, and that the aircraft will be required to operate in a manner comparable to conventionally piloted aircraft, it is possible to identify a generic set of pilot tasks and the information, control and communication requirements needed to support these tasks. Areas where guidelines will be useful can then be identified, utilizing information from simulations, operational experience and the human factors literature. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material will, at times, provide adequate coverage of an area. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  4. UTM Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line of sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Use build-a-little-test-a-little strategy remote areas to urban areas Low density: No traffic management required but understanding of airspace constraints. Cooperative traffic management: Understanding of airspace constraints and other operations. Manned and unmanned traffic management: Scalable and heterogeneous operations. UTM construct consistent with FAAs risk-based strategy. UTM research platform is used for simulations and tests. UTM offers path towards scalability.

  5. Studies of the Phase Transitions in UAs with Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S. K.; Lander, G. H.; Shapiro, S. M.; Vogt, O.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium arsenide is known to order with the type-I antiferromagnetic (AF) structure at ≈126 K, and exhibit a first-order transition to the type-IA AF structure at TN/2. We have now reexamined these transitions with a single crystal. Above TN UAs exhibits critical scattering suggesting a tendency to order with an incommensurate wavevector, but then suddenly orders with the AF-I structure. The analysis of the data shows the need to consider anisotropic exchange interactions of cubic symmetry between U moments.

  6. Uas for Archaeology - New Perspectives on Aerial Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallavollita, P.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Melis, M. G.; Milanese, M.; Zappino, L.

    2013-08-01

    In this work some Unmanned Aerial Systems applications are discussed and applied to archaeological sites survey and 3D model reconstructions. Interesting results are shown for three important and different aged sites on north Sardinia (Italy). An easy and simplified procedure has proposed permitting the adoption of multi-rotor aircrafts for daily archaeological survey during excavation and documentation, involving state of art in UAS design, flight control systems, high definition sensor cameras and innovative photogrammetric software tools. Very high quality 3D models results are shown and discussed and how they have been simplified the archaeologist work and decisions.

  7. Draft Genome Assemblies of Enterobacter aerogenes CDC 6003-71, Enterobacter cloacae CDC 442-68, and Pantoea agglomerans UA 0804-01.

    PubMed

    Minogue, T D; Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Chertkov, O; Freitas, T; Frey, K G; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

    2014-10-23

    The Enterobacteriaceae are environmental and enteric microbes. We sequenced the genomes of two Enterobacter reference strains, E. aerogenes CDC 6003-71 and E. cloacae CDC 442-68, as well as one near neighbor used as an exclusionary reference for diagnostics, Pantoea agglomerans CDC UA0804-01. The genome sizes range from 4.72 to 5.55 Mbp and have G+C contents from 54.6 to 55.1%.

  8. Anionic polymers and 10 nm Fe₃O₄@UA wound dressings support human foetal stem cells normal development and exhibit great antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Lazar, Veronica; Andrei, Eugen; Constantinescu, Andrei; Maniu, Horia

    2014-03-25

    The aims of this study were the development, characterization and bioevaluation of a novel biocompatible, resorbable and bio-active wound dressing prototype, based on anionic polymers (sodium alginate--AlgNa, carboximethylcellulose--CMC) and magnetic nanoparticles loaded with usnic acid (Fe₃O₄@UA). The antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus grown in biofilms. The biocompatibility testing model included an endothelial cell line from human umbilical vein and human foetal progenitor cells derived from the amniotic fluid, that express a wide spectrum of surface molecules involved in different vascular functions and inflammatory response, and may be used as skin regenerative support. The obtained results demonstrated that CMC/Fe₃O₄@UA and AlgNa/Fe₃O₄@UA are exhibiting structural and functional properties that recommend them for further applications in the biomedical field. They could be used alone or coated with different bio-active compounds, such as Fe₃O₄@UA, for the development of novel, multifunctional porous materials used in tissues regeneration, as antimicrobial substances releasing devices, providing also a mechanical support for the eukaryotic cells adhesion, and exhibiting the advantage of low cytotoxicity on human progenitor cells. The great antimicrobial properties exhibited by the newly synthesized nano-bioactive coatings are recommending them as successful candidates for improving the implanted devices surfaces used in regenerative medicine. PMID:23994366

  9. Anionic polymers and 10 nm Fe₃O₄@UA wound dressings support human foetal stem cells normal development and exhibit great antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Lazar, Veronica; Andrei, Eugen; Constantinescu, Andrei; Maniu, Horia

    2014-03-25

    The aims of this study were the development, characterization and bioevaluation of a novel biocompatible, resorbable and bio-active wound dressing prototype, based on anionic polymers (sodium alginate--AlgNa, carboximethylcellulose--CMC) and magnetic nanoparticles loaded with usnic acid (Fe₃O₄@UA). The antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus grown in biofilms. The biocompatibility testing model included an endothelial cell line from human umbilical vein and human foetal progenitor cells derived from the amniotic fluid, that express a wide spectrum of surface molecules involved in different vascular functions and inflammatory response, and may be used as skin regenerative support. The obtained results demonstrated that CMC/Fe₃O₄@UA and AlgNa/Fe₃O₄@UA are exhibiting structural and functional properties that recommend them for further applications in the biomedical field. They could be used alone or coated with different bio-active compounds, such as Fe₃O₄@UA, for the development of novel, multifunctional porous materials used in tissues regeneration, as antimicrobial substances releasing devices, providing also a mechanical support for the eukaryotic cells adhesion, and exhibiting the advantage of low cytotoxicity on human progenitor cells. The great antimicrobial properties exhibited by the newly synthesized nano-bioactive coatings are recommending them as successful candidates for improving the implanted devices surfaces used in regenerative medicine.

  10. Tol2-mediated transgenesis, gene trapping, enhancer trapping, and Gal4-UAS system.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, K; Asakawa, K; Muto, A; Wada, H

    2016-01-01

    The Tol2 element is an active transposon that was found from the genome of the Japanese medaka fish. Since the Tol2 transposition system is active in all vertebrate cells tested so far, it has been applied to germ line transgenesis in various model animals including fish, frog, chicken, and mouse, and to gene transfer in culture cells. In zebrafish, the Tol2 system consists of the transposase mRNA and a Tol2 transposon-donor plasmid, and is introduced into fertilized eggs by microinjection. Thus genomic integrations of the Tol2 construct are generated in the germ lineage and transmitted to the offspring very efficiently. By using the Tol2 transposition system, we have developed important genetic methods, such as transgenesis, gene trapping, enhancer trapping, and the Gal4-UAS system in zebrafish and applied to many aspects of biological studies. In this chapter, we describe how these methods are performed. PMID:27443919

  11. Active Site Characterization of Proteases Sequences from Different Species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Yadav, Virendra K; Yadav, Sangeeta; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    A total of 129 proteases sequences comprising 43 serine proteases, 36 aspartic proteases, 24 cysteine protease, 21 metalloproteases, and 05 neutral proteases from different Aspergillus species were analyzed for the catalytically active site residues using MEROPS database and various bioinformatics tools. Different proteases have predominance of variable active site residues. In case of 24 cysteine proteases of Aspergilli, the predominant active site residues observed were Gln193, Cys199, His364, Asn384 while for 43 serine proteases, the active site residues namely Asp164, His193, Asn284, Ser349 and Asp325, His357, Asn454, Ser519 were frequently observed. The analysis of 21 metalloproteases of Aspergilli revealed Glu298 and Glu388, Tyr476 as predominant active site residues. In general, Aspergilli species-specific active site residues were observed for different types of protease sequences analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis of these 129 proteases sequences revealed 14 different clans representing different types of proteases with diverse active site residues.

  12. Sequence Dance for Lifelong Leisure Activity: An International Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John P.

    This paper provides the outline of a session in dance at the annual meeting of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. The purpose of the session was to provide an opportunity to celebrate individual differences while learning new skills for lifelong leisure activity through an English dance form known as…

  13. Determining Stand Parameters from Uas-Based Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, V.; Serifoglu, C.; Gungor, O.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, forest management plans are produced by terrestrial surveying techniques for 10 or 20 year periods, which can be considered quite long to maintain the sustainability of forests. For a successful forest management plan, it is necessary to collect accurate information about the stand parameters and store them in dynamic and robust databases. The position, number, height and closure of trees are among the most important stand parameters required for a forest management plan. Determining the position of each single tree is challenging in such an area consisting of too many interlocking trees. Hence, in this study, an object-based tree detection methodology has been developed in MATLAB programming language to determine the position of each tree top in a highly closed area. The developed algorithm uses the Canopy Height Model (CHM), which is computed from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated by using the point cloud extracted from the images taken from a UAS (Unmanned Aerial System). The heights of trees have been determined by using the CHM. The closure of the trees has been determined with the written MATLAB script. The results show that the developed tree detection methodology detected more than 70% of the trees successfully. It can also be concluded that the stand parameters may be determined by using the UAS-based point clouds depending on the characteristics of the study area. In addition, determination of the stand parameters by using point clouds reduces the time needed to produce forest management plans.

  14. Embedding Human Expert Cognition Into Autonomous UAS Trajectory Planning.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritesh; Meyer, Patrick; Campbell, Duncan

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the inclusion of human expert cognition into autonomous trajectory planning for unmanned aerial systems (UASs) operating in low-altitude environments. During typical UAS operations, multiple objectives may exist; therefore, the use of multicriteria decision aid techniques can potentially allow for convergence to trajectory solutions which better reflect overall mission requirements. In that context, additive multiattribute value theory has been applied to optimize trajectories with respect to multiple objectives. A graphical user interface was developed to allow for knowledge capture from a human decision maker (HDM) through simulated decision scenarios. The expert decision data gathered are converted into value functions and corresponding criteria weightings using utility additive theory. The inclusion of preferences elicited from HDM data within an automated decision system allows for the generation of trajectories which more closely represent the candidate HDM decision preferences. This approach has been demonstrated in this paper through simulation using a fixed-wing UAS operating in low-altitude environments.

  15. UAS and Distributed Temperature Sensing Reveal Previously Unseen Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, C. W.; Liu, Z.; Holmes, H.; Wing, M.; Predosa, R. A.; Blunck, D.

    2015-12-01

    The frontier of atmospheric boundary layer research lies in times and places of complexity. Transitions between atmospheric states, buoyant flows over complex terrain, and times with only weak forcing mechanisms all have rich physical expressions of atmospheric flow that are not fully understood. These motions often span a large range of scales and are nonstationary. Traditional atmospheric measurement approaches are inadequate in these situations as they do not have the data density or the physical extent to capture the full range of motions. An unmanned aerial system (UAS) is used to lift distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technologies to observe the early morning transition from stable to unstably stratified conditions. The UAS/DTS combination yielded observations of temperature and humidity in the lower atmosphere with never-seen-before resolution and extent. The data reveal a complex interplay of motions that occur during the morning transition that ultimately results in the propagation and growth of unstable wave modes. The observations have given new insight into the appropriate scaling variables for the morning transition time.

  16. Identification of the DNA sequences controlling the expression of the MAT alpha locus of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Siliciano, P G; Tatchell, K

    1986-01-01

    We have excised a 28-base-pair DNA fragment from the MAT alpha intergenic region and tested its ability to direct diploid-specific transcriptional repression. This fragment (1643-1671, 5'-GCTTCCCAATGTAGAAAAGTACA-TCATA-3') lies within a region required for the normal diploid-specific repression of the MAT alpha transcripts. First, the fragment was inserted into a 53-base-pair MAT alpha deletion that expresses alpha 1 and alpha 2 constitutively. Insertion of the fragment restores proper diploid regulation to the MAT alpha transcripts: alpha 1 mRNA is strongly repressed and alpha 2 mRNA is reduced by a factor of approximately equal to 10 from its haploid level. The fragment works equally well in either orientation, and two copies of the fragment do not lead to stronger repression than a single copy. We also inserted the fragment at three sites upstream of the CYC1-lacZ fusion gene. Insertions placing the regulatory fragment between the CYC1 upstream activator sequence (UAS) and the coding region make beta-galactosidase efficiently in alpha haploids but produce 1/40th the enzyme in a/alpha diploids. This diploid-specific repression requires functional MATa-1 gene product. Insertion of the MAT fragment on the opposite side of the UAS (37 base pairs upstream of the UAS) also caused diploid repression of the fusion gene, but only by a factor of 7. When the regulatory fragment is inserted at a large distance on the far side of the UAS (375 base pairs), it has little if any effect on beta-galactosidase expression. We postulate that this sequence is the operator recognized by the diploid-specific repressor. Images PMID:3517864

  17. A Bird's-Eye View of Eco-Geomorphology From a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeClair, A. J.; Hugenholtz, C.

    2012-12-01

    Physical disturbance regimes play important roles in shaping ecosystems and landscapes; however, our ability to detect disturbance often depends on the method and scale of observation. Here we use a relatively new method in order to detect and map the eco-geomorphic impacts of fossorial mammals in a grassland setting. It is well-known that digging and mound building activity by these animals is a form of biological disturbance that has a number of eco-geomorphic consequences, including: soil formation, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and succession. All these processes contribute to landscape heterogeneity and often increase local micro-topographic variations through mound formation. Most studies that have examined the eco-geomorphic role of fossorial mammals have been limited to observations using traditional field-based methods. While this has yielded important data about the localized effects, the cumulative, landscape-level impacts of such small-scale disturbance events are still largely unknown. While fossorial mammals such as pocket gophers (family Geomyidae) are assumed to be ubiquitous in the environments in which they occur, the small size of individual mounds has meant that mapping their biological footprint using traditional methods has been extremely difficult. Individual mounds disappear in the pixels of conventional remote sensing imagery, while their spatial distribution makes it impractical to study them beyond the plot scale. However, recent advances in both low cost, high-resolution digital cameras, and unmanned aerial systems (UAS), have made it possible to acquire landscape-level data that matches the scale of their disturbance, thus potentially bridging the gap between ground-based field methods and traditional remote sensing imagery. In this study we used UAS-acquired, sub-decimeter resolution imagery to map and quantify the extent of fossorial mammal disturbance in a 4 km2 area of the Great Sand Hills - a stabilized dune field in southwestern

  18. Synthetic muscle promoters: activities exceeding naturally occurring regulatory sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Eastman, E. M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Draghia-Akli, R.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.

  19. Classification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. UAS Classification/Categorization for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Category, class, and type designations are primary means to identify appropriate aircraft certification basis, operating rules/limitations, and pilot qualifications to operate in the National Airspace System (NAS). The question is whether UAS fit into existing aircraft categories or classes, or are unique enough to justify the creation of a new category/class. In addition, the characteristics or capabilities, which define when an UAS becomes a regulated aircraft, must also be decided. This issue focuses on UAS classification for certification purposes. Several approaches have been considered for classifying UAS. They basically group into either using a weight/mass basis, or a safety risk basis, factoring in the performance of the UAS, including where the UAS would operate. Under existing standards, aircraft must have a Type Certificate and Certificate of Airworthiness, in order to be used for "compensation or hire", a major difference from model aircraft. Newer technologies may make it possible for very small UAS to conduct commercial services, but that is left for a future discussion to extend the regulated aircraft to a lower level. The Access 5 position is that UAS are aircraft and should be regulated above the weight threshold differentiating them from model airplanes. The recommended classification grouping is summarized in a chart.

  20. Rangeland remote sensing applications with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace: challenges and experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  1. Sequences flanking the core-binding site modulate glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Stefanie; Jurk, Marcel; Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Dror, Iris; Lebars, Isabelle; Kieffer, Bruno; Imhof, Petra; Rohs, Remo; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2016-09-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds as a homodimer to genomic response elements, which have particular sequence and shape characteristics. Here we show that the nucleotides directly flanking the core-binding site, differ depending on the strength of GR-dependent activation of nearby genes. Our study indicates that these flanking nucleotides change the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding site, the DNA-binding domain of GR and the quaternary structure of the dimeric complex. Functional studies in a defined genomic context show that sequence-induced changes in GR activity cannot be explained by differences in GR occupancy. Rather, mutating the dimerization interface mitigates DNA-induced changes in both activity and structure, arguing for a role of DNA-induced structural changes in modulating GR activity. Together, our study shows that DNA sequence identity of genomic binding sites modulates GR activity downstream of binding, which may play a role in achieving regulatory specificity towards individual target genes.

  2. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  3. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations In Low-Altitude Airspace By Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet)There is urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  4. A multiplexed transcription activator-like effector system for detecting specific DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, Ali; Mayall, Robert; George, Iain; Oberding, Lisa; Dastidar, Himika; Fegan, Jamie; Chaudhuri, Somshukla; Dole, Justin; Feng, Sharon; Hoang, Denny; Moges, Ruth; Osgood, Julie; Remondini, Taylor; van der Meulen, Wm Keith; Wang, Su; Wintersinger, Chris; Zaparoli Zucoloto, Amanda; Chatfield-Reed, Kate; Arcellana-Panlilio, Mayi; Nygren, Anders

    2014-12-19

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), originating from the Xanthomonas genus of bacteria, bind to specific DNA sequences based on amino acid sequence in the repeat-variable diresidue (RVD) positions of the protein. By altering these RVDs, it has been shown that a TALE protein can be engineered to bind virtually any DNA sequence of interest. The possibility of multiplexing TALEs for the purposes of identifying specific DNA sequences has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrate a system in which a TALE protein bound to a nitrocellulose strip has been utilized to capture purified DNA, which is then detected using the binding of a second distinct TALE protein conjugated to a protein tag that is then detected by a dot blot. This system provides a signal only when both TALEs bind to their respective sequences, further demonstrating the specificity of the TALE binding.

  5. A multiplexed transcription activator-like effector system for detecting specific DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, Ali; Mayall, Robert; George, Iain; Oberding, Lisa; Dastidar, Himika; Fegan, Jamie; Chaudhuri, Somshukla; Dole, Justin; Feng, Sharon; Hoang, Denny; Moges, Ruth; Osgood, Julie; Remondini, Taylor; van der Meulen, Wm Keith; Wang, Su; Wintersinger, Chris; Zaparoli Zucoloto, Amanda; Chatfield-Reed, Kate; Arcellana-Panlilio, Mayi; Nygren, Anders

    2014-12-19

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), originating from the Xanthomonas genus of bacteria, bind to specific DNA sequences based on amino acid sequence in the repeat-variable diresidue (RVD) positions of the protein. By altering these RVDs, it has been shown that a TALE protein can be engineered to bind virtually any DNA sequence of interest. The possibility of multiplexing TALEs for the purposes of identifying specific DNA sequences has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrate a system in which a TALE protein bound to a nitrocellulose strip has been utilized to capture purified DNA, which is then detected using the binding of a second distinct TALE protein conjugated to a protein tag that is then detected by a dot blot. This system provides a signal only when both TALEs bind to their respective sequences, further demonstrating the specificity of the TALE binding. PMID:25524096

  6. A DNA Sequence Element That Advances Replication Origin Activation Time in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Thomas J.; Kolor, Katherine; Fangman, Walton L.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Raghuraman, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic origins of DNA replication undergo activation at various times in S-phase, allowing the genome to be duplicated in a temporally staggered fashion. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation times of individual origins are not intrinsic to those origins but are instead governed by surrounding sequences. Currently, there are two examples of DNA sequences that are known to advance origin activation time, centromeres and forkhead transcription factor binding sites. By combining deletion and linker scanning mutational analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to measure fork direction in the context of a two-origin plasmid, we have identified and characterized a 19- to 23-bp and a larger 584-bp DNA sequence that are capable of advancing origin activation time. PMID:24022751

  7. Rapid Conversion of Traditional Introductory Physics Sequences to an Activity-Based Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Garett; Cook, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Physics at EKU [Eastern Kentucky University] with support from the National Science Foundations Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement Program has successfully converted our entire introductory physics sequence, both algebra-based and calculus-based courses, to an activity-based format where laboratory activities,…

  8. Student Activity Ideas for the Technology Sequence Systems and Foundation Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This publication provides single-page outlines of brief ideas for high school student activities in each of the System and Foundation Courses of the New York State technology sequence. The idea outlines are provided as a resource to assist teachers in the development of student learning activities. The six courses for which ideas are presented are…

  9. Use of Uas in a High Mountain Landscape: the Case of Gran Sommetta Rock Glacier (ao)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Delaloye, R.; Diotri, F.; Forlani, G.; Fornari, M.; Morra di Cella, U.; Pogliotti, P.; Roncella, R.; Santise, M.

    2015-08-01

    Photogrammetry has been used since long time to periodically control the evolution of landslides, either from aerial images as well as from ground. Landslides control and monitoring systems face a large variety of cases and situations: in hardly accessible environments, like glacial areas and high mountain locations, it is not simple finding a survey method and a measurement control system, which are capable to reliably assess, with low costs, the expected displacement and its accuracy. For this reason, the behaviour of these events presents the geologists and the surveyor each time with different challenges. The use of UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) represents, in this context, a recent and valid option to perform the data acquisition both in safety and quickly, avoiding hazards and risks for the operators while at the same time containing the costs. The paper presents an innovative monitoring system based on UAS-photogrammetry, GNSS survey and DSM change detection techniques to evaluate the Gran Sommetta rock glacier surface movements over the period 2012-2014. Since 2012, the surface movements of the glacier are monitored by ARPAVdA (a regional environmental protection agency) as a case study for the impact of climate change on high-mountain infrastructures. In such scenarios, in fact, a low-cost monitoring activity can provide important data to improve our knowledge about glacier dynamics connected to climate changes and to prevent risks in anthropic Alps areas. To evaluate the displacements of the rock glacier different techniques were proposed: the most reliable uses the orthophoto of the area and rely on a manual identification of corresponding features performed by a trained operator. To further limit the costs and improve the density of displacement information two automatic procedures were developed as well.

  10. Analysis of UAS DAA Surveillance in Fast-Time Simulations without DAA Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David P.; Santiago, Confesor; Isaacson, David R.; Lee, Seung Man; Refai, Mohamad Said; Snow, James William

    2015-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of performance standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA surveillance system performance. A recent study conducted using NASA's ACES (Airspace Concept Evaluation System) simulation capability begins to address questions surrounding the development of draft MOPS for DAA surveillance systems. ACES simulations were conducted to study the performance of sensor systems proposed by the SC-228 DAA Surveillance sub-group. Analysis included but was not limited to: 1) number of intruders (both IFR and VFR) detected by all sensors as a function of UAS flight time, 2) number of intruders (both IFR and VFR) detected by radar alone as a function of UAS flight time, and 3) number of VFR intruders detected by all sensors as a function of UAS flight time. The results will be used by SC-228 to inform decisions about the surveillance standards of UAS DAA systems and future requirements development and validation efforts.

  11. Recent Advances in the Tempest UAS for In-Situ Measurements in Highly-Dynamic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argrow, B. M.; Frew, E.; Houston, A. L.; Weiss, C.

    2014-12-01

    The spring 2010 deployment of the Tempest UAS during the VORTEX2 field campaign verified that a small UAS, supported by a customized mobile communications, command, and control (C3) architecture, could simultaneously satisfy Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airspace requirements, and make in-situ thermodynamic measurements in supercell thunderstorms. A multi-hole airdata probe was recently integrated into the Tempest UAS airframe and verification flights were made in spring 2013 to collect in-situ wind measurements behind gust fronts produced by supercell thunderstorms in northeast Colorado. Using instantaneous aircraft attitude estimates from the autopilot, the in-situ measurements were converted to inertial wind estimates, and estimates of uncertainty in the wind measurements was examined. To date, the limited deployments of the Tempest UAS have primarily focused on addressing the engineering and regulatory requirements to conduct supercell research, and the Tempest UAS team of engineers and meteorologists is preparing for deployments with the focus on collecting targeted data for meteorological exploration and hypothesis testing. We describe the recent expansion of the operations area and altitude ceiling of the Tempest UAS, engineering issues for accurate inertial wind estimates, new concepts of operation that include the simultaneous deployment of multiple aircraft with mobile ground stations, and a brief description of our current effort to develop a capability for the Tempest UAS to perform autonomous path planning to maximize energy harvesting from the local wind field for increased endurance.

  12. Assessing Activity Pattern Similarity with Multidimensional Sequence Alignment based on a Multiobjective Optimization Evolutionary Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Mei-Po; Xiao, Ningchuan; Ding, Guoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the complexity and multidimensional characteristics of human activities, assessing the similarity of human activity patterns and classifying individuals with similar patterns remains highly challenging. This paper presents a new and unique methodology for evaluating the similarity among individual activity patterns. It conceptualizes multidimensional sequence alignment (MDSA) as a multiobjective optimization problem, and solves this problem with an evolutionary algorithm. The study utilizes sequence alignment to code multiple facets of human activities into multidimensional sequences, and to treat similarity assessment as a multiobjective optimization problem that aims to minimize the alignment cost for all dimensions simultaneously. A multiobjective optimization evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) is used to generate a diverse set of optimal or near-optimal alignment solutions. Evolutionary operators are specifically designed for this problem, and a local search method also is incorporated to improve the search ability of the algorithm. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by comparing it with a popular existing method called ClustalG using a set of 50 sequences. The results indicate that our method outperforms the existing method for most of our selected cases. The multiobjective evolutionary algorithm presented in this paper provides an effective approach for assessing activity pattern similarity, and a foundation for identifying distinctive groups of individuals with similar activity patterns. PMID:26190858

  13. UU/UA dinucleotide frequency reduction in coding regions results in increased mRNA stability and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Al-Saif, Maher; Khabar, Khalid S A

    2012-05-01

    UU and UA dinucleotides are rare in mammalian genes and may offer natural selection against endoribonuclease-mediated mRNA decay. This study hypothesized that reducing UU and UA (UW) dinucleotides in the mRNA-coding sequence, including the codons and the dicodon boundaries, may promote resistance to mRNA decay, thereby increasing protein production. Indeed, protein expression from UW-reduced coding regions of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), luciferase, interferon-α, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was higher when compared to the wild-type protein expression. The steady-state level of UW-reduced EGFP mRNA was higher and the mRNA half-life was also longer. Ectopic expression of the endoribonuclease, RNase L, did not reduce the wild type or UW-reduced mRNA. A mutant form of the mRNA decay-promoting protein, tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36), which has a point mutation in the zinc-finger domain (C124R), was used. The wild-type EGFP mRNA but not the UW-reduced mRNA responded to the dominant negative action of the C124R ZFP36/TTP mutant. The results indicate the efficacy of the described rational approach to formulate a general scheme for boosting recombinant protein production in mammalian cells.

  14. Analysis of DNA structure and sequence requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL endonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Correa, Elisa M E; De Tullio, Luisina; Vélez, Pablo S; Martina, Mariana A; Argaraña, Carlos E; Barra, José L

    2013-12-01

    The hallmark of the mismatch repair system in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms devoid of MutH is the presence of a MutL homologue with endonuclease activity. The aim of this study was to analyse whether different DNA structures affect Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL (PaMutL) endonuclease activity and to determine if a specific nucleotide sequence is required for this activity. Our results showed that PaMutL was able to nick covalently closed circular plasmids but not linear DNA at high ionic strengths, while the activity on linear DNA was only found below 60 mM salt. In addition, single strand DNA, ss/ds DNA boundaries and negatively supercoiling degree were not required for PaMutL nicking activity. Finally, the analysis of the incision sites revealed that PaMutL, as well as Bacillus thuringiensis MutL homologue, did not show DNA sequence specificity.

  15. Testing a small UAS for mapping artisanal diamond mining sites in Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing technology is advancing at an unprecedented rate. At the forefront of the new technological developments are unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The advent of small, lightweight, low-cost, and user-friendly UAS is greatly expanding the potential applications of remote sensing technology and improving the set of tools available to researchers seeking to map and monitor terrain from above. In this article, we explore the applications of a small UAS for mapping informal diamond mining sites in Africa. We found that this technology provides aerial imagery of unparalleled resolution in a data-sparse, difficult to access, and remote terrain.

  16. Analysis of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defnes the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models. Some of these properties are numerically quantifed using statistical methods.

  17. A Framework for Safe Integration of Small UAS Into the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Bland, Geoffrey; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for the safe integration of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The paper examines the potential uses of sUAS to build an understanding of the location and frequency of potential future flight operations based on the future applications of the sUAS systems. The paper then examines the types of systems that would be required to meet the application-level demand to determine classes of platforms and operations. Finally, a framework is proposed for both airworthiness and operations that attempts to balance safety with utility for these important systems.

  18. Positive Regulation in a Eukaryote, a Study of the uaY Gene of ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS: I. Characterization of Alleles, Dominance and Complementation Studies, and a Fine Structure Map of the uaY -oxpA Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Scazzocchio, Claudio; Sdrin, Nicholas; Ong, Gloria

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we characterize genetically a positive eukaryotic regulatory gene: the uaY gene of the ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans. Several steps in the uptake and degradation of purines are under the control of the uaY gene (summarized in Scazzocchio and Gorton 1977). In the present paper 12 uaY- mutations are characterized with respect to their inducibility for adenine deaminase, xanthine dehydrogenase (purine hydroxylase I) and urate oxidase and by the absence of the uric acid-xanthine permease scored in vivo by resistance to 2-thiouric acid. While 10 mutations are uniformly unleaky, two others are almost wild type for the induction of urate oxidase. A fine structure map of the uaY gene shows that the two "leaky" mutations are not clustered. The fine structure mapping unambiguously positions six uaY alleles and provides preliminary but interesting trends regarding the pattern of gene conversion in the uaY gene. The enzyme levels in all uaY-/uaY+ heterozygous diploids are intermediate between the corresponding uaY-/uaY- and uaY+/uaY+ homozygous diploids, suggesting that one functional copy of the uaY gene is able to mediate the complete induction of only one set of structural genes. No complementation was found between any two uaY- alleles. This establishes that the mutations showing either of the phenotypes are alleles in the same gene; it fails to provide evidence for intracistronic complementation. A mutation, oxpA5, causes resistance to the xanthine analogue oxypurinol (4, 6-dihydroxypyrazolo-(3, 4-d)-pyrimidine) and partial constitutivity of adenine deaminase, xanthine dehydrogenase (purine hydroxylase I) and urate oxidase. The constitutive phenotype is suppressed by mutations blocking the synthesis of intracellular inducers. The mutation is recessive and complements fully with the 11 uaY- mutations tested. It maps to the left of all 12 uaY mutations to which it has been crossed. The data indicate that both the resistance and constitutivity arise from one

  19. Genome sequence of Wickerhamomyces anomalus DSM 6766 reveals genetic basis of biotechnologically important antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jessica; Rupp, Oliver; Trost, Eva; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Passoth, Volkmar; Goesmann, Alexander; Tauch, Andreas; Brinkrolf, Karina

    2012-05-01

    The ascomycetous yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala and Hansenula anomala) exhibits antimicrobial activities and flavoring features that are responsible for its frequent association with food, beverage and feed products. However, limited information on the genetic background of this yeast and its multiple capabilities are currently available. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the neotype strain W. anomalus DSM 6766. On the basis of pyrosequencing, a de novo assembly of this strain resulted in a draft genome sequence with a total size of 25.47 Mbp. An automatic annotation using RAPYD generated 11 512 protein-coding sequences. This annotation provided the basis to analyse metabolic capabilities, phylogenetic relationships, as well as biotechnologically important features and yielded novel candidate genes of W. anomalus DSM 6766 coding for proteins participating in antimicrobial activities. PMID:22292503

  20. Determination of Uas Trajectory in a Known Environment from Fpv Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel self-localization method. The algorithm automatically establishes correspondence between the FPV video streamed from a UAS flying in a structured urban environment and its 3D model. The resulting camera pose provides a precise navigation solution in the densely crowded environment. Initially, Vertical Line Features are extracted from a streamed FPV video frame, as the camera is kept approximately leveled through a gimbal system. The features are then matched with Vertical Line Features extracted from a synthetic image of the 3D model. A space resection is performed to provide the EOPs for this frame. The features are tracked in the next frame, followed by an incremental triangulation. The main contribution of this paper lies in automating this process as an FPV video sequence typically consists of thousands of frames. Accuracies of the position and orientation parameters of the video camera and the validation checks of the estimated parameters are presented. Future work includes testing the method in real-time to determine latencies and reliability, and multi-directional field of view of the FPV video camera.

  1. Estimation of spatially distributed turbulent heat fluxes using thermal information captured from an UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Claire; Thiem, Christina Elisabeth; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key component of the Earth's water and energy cycle. However, measuring evapotranspiration is difficult and distributed information with high spatial resolution is rare. Land surface temperature (LST) is often used as source of data for the estimation of evapotranspiration. Actual LST is mainly controlled by the amount of incoming radiation, surface albedo, water availability, ventilation of the surface and in case of vegetation stands also by the intensity of the transpiration process. Thus it contains valuable information on the actual state of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Typically LST information is available from satellite imagery or from radiometers installed at experimental sites. Thus, measured LST is either representative for areas of hundreds of square meters (satellites), or for certain points (radiometers). Thermal imaging from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) can be used for addressing this scale gap and is a trade-off between flexibility and ease of use on the one hand and spatial coverage on the other hand. In this study we have measured surface temperatures at a grassland site in Luxemburg in July 2015 by means of a thermal infrared camera mounted on an octocopter drone. At the same time scintillometer measurements were made at the same field. The experimental set-up was completed by meteorological and radiation measurements. UAS flights were conducted on a sequence of days over a time period of 2 weeks and with up to ten flights a day in order to monitor diurnal variation of LST. The observed spatially distributed surface temperatures were then used to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes using three algorithms. All of them make use of observed vertical temperature gradients between surface and atmosphere but do show a different complexity. Two of them are single-source models while one is a dual-source representation of the soil-vegetation system. Although the experimental site was fully covered by grass, LST

  2. DNA sequences that activate isocitrate lyase gene expression during late embryogenesis and during postgerminative growth.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J Z; Santes, C M; Engel, M L; Gasser, C S; Harada, J J

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed DNA sequences that regulate the expression of an isocitrate lyase gene from Brassica napus L. during late embryogenesis and during postgerminative growth to determine whether glyoxysomal function is induced by a common mechanism at different developmental stages. beta-Glucuronidase constructs were used both in transient expression assays in B. napus and in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to identify the segments of the isocitrate lyase 5' flanking region that influence promoter activity. DNA sequences that play the principal role in activating the promoter during post-germinative growth are located more than 1,200 bp upstream of the gene. Distinct DNA sequences that were sufficient for high-level expression during late embryogenesis but only low-level expression during postgerminative growth were also identified. Other parts of the 5' flanking region increased promoter activity both in developing seed and in seedlings. We conclude that a combination of elements is involved in regulating the isocitrate lyase gene and that distinct DNA sequences play primary roles in activating the gene in embryos and in seedlings. These findings suggest that different signals contribute to the induction of glyoxysomal function during these two developmental stages. We also showed that some of the constructs were expressed differently in transient expression assays and in transgenic plants. PMID:8934622

  3. Object relations theory and activity theory: a proposed link by way of the procedural sequence model.

    PubMed

    Ryle, A

    1991-12-01

    An account of object relations theory (ORT), represented in terms of the procedural sequence model (PSM), is compared to the ideas of Vygotsky and activity theory (AT). The two models are seen to be compatible and complementary and their combination offers a satisfactory account of human psychology, appropriate for the understanding and integration of psychotherapy. PMID:1786224

  4. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  5. Transcriptomic sequencing reveals a set of unique genes activated by butyrate-induced histone modification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes induced by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell using deep RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq), a set of unique gen...

  6. Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

  7. A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

  8. Target DNA sequence directly regulates the frequency of activation-induced deaminase-dependent mutations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangguo; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S; O'Connor, Brian P; Wang, Jing H

    2012-10-15

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) catalyses class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B lymphocytes to enhance Ab diversity. CSR involves breaking and rejoining highly repetitive switch (S) regions in the IgH (Igh) locus. S regions appear to be preferential targets of AID. To determine whether S region sequence per se, independent of Igh cis regulatory elements, can influence AID targeting efficiency and mutation frequency, we established a knock-in mouse model by inserting a core Sγ1 region into the first intron of proto-oncogene Bcl6, which is a non-Ig target of SHM. We found that the mutation frequency of the inserted Sγ1 region was dramatically higher than that of the adjacent Bcl6 endogenous sequence. Mechanistically, S region-enhanced SHM was associated with increased recruitment of AID and RNA polymerase II, together with Spt5, albeit to a lesser extent. Our studies demonstrate that target DNA sequences influence mutation frequency via regulating AID recruitment. We propose that the nucleotide sequence preference may serve as an additional layer of AID regulation by restricting its mutagenic activity to specific sequences despite the observation that AID has the potential to access the genome widely.

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project Subcommittee Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chuck; Griner, James H.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shively, Robert J.; Consiglio, Maria; Muller, Eric; Murphy, James; Kim, Sam

    2012-01-01

    UAS Integration in the NAS Project overview with details from each of the subprojects. Subprojects include: Communications, Certification, Integrated Test and Evaluation, Human Systems Integration, and Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability.

  10. The upper airway in sleep-disordered breathing: UA in SDB.

    PubMed

    Taranto Montemurro, L; Kasai, T

    2014-02-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a common condition and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the pathogenesis of SDB remains to be elucidated. In general, SDB is divided into two forms, obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA and CSA, respectively). OSA results from the sleep-related collapse of the upper airway (UA) in association with multiple factors like race, gender, obesity and UA dimensions. CSA primarily results from a fall in PaCO2 to a level below the apnea threshold during sleep through the reflex inhibition of central respiratory drive. It has been reported that UA alterations (i.e., collapse or dilation) can be observed in CSA. This review highlights the roles of the UA in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of SDB. PMID:24572450

  11. Examination of Frameworks for Safe Integration of Intelligent Small UAS into the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for the safe integration of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The paper briefly examines the potential uses of sUAS to build an understanding of the location and frequency of potential future flight operations based on the future applications of the sUAS systems. The paper then examines the types of systems that would be required to meet the application-level demand to determine "classes" of platforms and operations. A framework for categorization of the "intelligence" level of the UAS is postulated for purposes of NAS integration. Finally, constraints on the intelligent systems are postulated to ensure their ease of integration into the NAS.

  12. 76 FR 75565 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Meeting....

  13. 77 FR 32699 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; UAS Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; UAS Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  14. The upper airway in sleep-disordered breathing: UA in SDB.

    PubMed

    Taranto Montemurro, L; Kasai, T

    2014-02-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a common condition and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the pathogenesis of SDB remains to be elucidated. In general, SDB is divided into two forms, obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA and CSA, respectively). OSA results from the sleep-related collapse of the upper airway (UA) in association with multiple factors like race, gender, obesity and UA dimensions. CSA primarily results from a fall in PaCO2 to a level below the apnea threshold during sleep through the reflex inhibition of central respiratory drive. It has been reported that UA alterations (i.e., collapse or dilation) can be observed in CSA. This review highlights the roles of the UA in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of SDB.

  15. The Chromospheric Activity and Age Relation among Main Sequence Stars in Wide Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, Terry D.; Zhao, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present a study of the chromospheric activity levels in 36 wide binary systems. Thirty one of the binaries contain a white dwarf component. In such binaries the total age can be estimated by adding the cooling age of the white dwarf to an estimate of the progenitor's main sequence lifetime. To better understand how activity correlates to stellar age, 14 cluster member stars were also observed. Our observations confirm the expectation derived from studies of single main sequence stars that activity decays with age. However, for the first time we demonstrate that this relation extends from 50 Myr to at least 8 Gyr for stars with 1.0 < V-I < 2.4 color index. We also find that little change in activity occurs for stars with V-I < 1.0 and ages between 1 Gyr and 5 Gyr. The slope of constant age lines in the activity vs. V-I plane for young stars is relatively steep, while for old stars it appears to be flatter. In addition, our sample includes five wide binaries consisting of two main sequence stars. These pairs provide a useful reality check on our activity vs. age relation. Support for this project from NSF grant AST-0807919 to Florida Institute of Technology is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. NASA Unmanned Aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) System Waveform Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Carlos; Hammel, Bruce; Hammel, Allan; Moore, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). To address this deficiency, NASA has established a project called UAS Integration in the NAS (UAS in the NAS), under the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). This project provides an opportunity to transition concepts, technology, algorithms, and knowledge to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other stakeholders to help them define the requirements, regulations, and issues for routine UAS access to the NAS. The safe, routine, and efficient integration of UAS into the NAS requires new radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations and a new data communications system which is both secure and scalable with increasing UAS traffic without adversely impacting the Air Traffic Control (ATC) communication system. These data communications, referred to as Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC), whose purpose is to exchange information between the unmanned aircraft and the ground control station to ensure safe, reliable, and effective unmanned aircraft flight operation. A Communications Subproject within the UAS in the NAS Project has been established to address issues related to CNPC development, certification and fielding. The focus of the Communications Subproject is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UAS integration into the NAS. The goal is to validate secure, robust data links within the allocated frequency spectrum for UAS. A vision, architectural concepts, and seed requirements for the future commercial UAS CNPC system have been developed by RTCA Special Committee 203 (SC-203) in the process

  17. Enhancement Strategies for Frame-To Uas Stereo Visual Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, J.; Rodehorst, V.

    2016-06-01

    Autonomous navigation of indoor unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) requires accurate pose estimations usually obtained from indirect measurements. Navigation based on inertial measurement units (IMU) is known to be affected by high drift rates. The incorporation of cameras provides complementary information due to the different underlying measurement principle. The scale ambiguity problem for monocular cameras is avoided when a light-weight stereo camera setup is used. However, also frame-to-frame stereo visual odometry (VO) approaches are known to accumulate pose estimation errors over time. Several valuable real-time capable techniques for outlier detection and drift reduction in frame-to-frame VO, for example robust relative orientation estimation using random sample consensus (RANSAC) and bundle adjustment, are available. This study addresses the problem of choosing appropriate VO components. We propose a frame-to-frame stereo VO method based on carefully selected components and parameters. This method is evaluated regarding the impact and value of different outlier detection and drift-reduction strategies, for example keyframe selection and sparse bundle adjustment (SBA), using reference benchmark data as well as own real stereo data. The experimental results demonstrate that our VO method is able to estimate quite accurate trajectories. Feature bucketing and keyframe selection are simple but effective strategies which further improve the VO results. Furthermore, introducing the stereo baseline constraint in pose graph optimization (PGO) leads to significant improvements.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Roadmap 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, Jill J.; Hutt, Michael E.; Sloan, Jeff L.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Goplen, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    This Roadmap provides operational procedures and lessons learned from completed proof-of-concept UAS missions in areas such as wildlife management, resource monitoring, and public land inspections. This information provides not only an implementation framework but can also help increase the awareness by resource managers, scientists, and others of the ability of UAS technology to advance data quality, improve personnel safety, and reduce data acquisition costs.

  19. Identification of the sequences recognized by phage phi 29 transcriptional activator: possible interaction between the activator and the RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Nuez, B; Rojo, F; Barthelemy, I; Salas, M

    1991-05-11

    Expression of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 late genes requires the transcriptional activator protein p4. This activator binds to a region of the late A3 promoter spanning nucleotides -56 to -102 relative to the transcription start site, generating a strong bending Tin the DNA. In this work the target sequences recognized by protein p4 in the phage phi 29 late A3 promoter have been characterized. The binding of protein p4 to derivatives of the late A3 promoter harbouring deletions in the protein p4 binding site has been studied. When protein p4 recognition sequences were altered, the activator could only bind to the promoter in the presence of RNA polymerase. This strong cooperativity in the binding of protein p4 and RNA polymerase to the promoter suggests the presence of direct protein-protein contacts between them.

  20. Sequences flanking the core-binding site modulate glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Schöne, Stefanie; Jurk, Marcel; Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Dror, Iris; Lebars, Isabelle; Kieffer, Bruno; Imhof, Petra; Rohs, Remo; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H.

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds as a homodimer to genomic response elements, which have particular sequence and shape characteristics. Here we show that the nucleotides directly flanking the core-binding site, differ depending on the strength of GR-dependent activation of nearby genes. Our study indicates that these flanking nucleotides change the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding site, the DNA-binding domain of GR and the quaternary structure of the dimeric complex. Functional studies in a defined genomic context show that sequence-induced changes in GR activity cannot be explained by differences in GR occupancy. Rather, mutating the dimerization interface mitigates DNA-induced changes in both activity and structure, arguing for a role of DNA-induced structural changes in modulating GR activity. Together, our study shows that DNA sequence identity of genomic binding sites modulates GR activity downstream of binding, which may play a role in achieving regulatory specificity towards individual target genes. PMID:27581526

  1. Sequences flanking the core-binding site modulate glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Stefanie; Jurk, Marcel; Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Dror, Iris; Lebars, Isabelle; Kieffer, Bruno; Imhof, Petra; Rohs, Remo; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds as a homodimer to genomic response elements, which have particular sequence and shape characteristics. Here we show that the nucleotides directly flanking the core-binding site, differ depending on the strength of GR-dependent activation of nearby genes. Our study indicates that these flanking nucleotides change the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding site, the DNA-binding domain of GR and the quaternary structure of the dimeric complex. Functional studies in a defined genomic context show that sequence-induced changes in GR activity cannot be explained by differences in GR occupancy. Rather, mutating the dimerization interface mitigates DNA-induced changes in both activity and structure, arguing for a role of DNA-induced structural changes in modulating GR activity. Together, our study shows that DNA sequence identity of genomic binding sites modulates GR activity downstream of binding, which may play a role in achieving regulatory specificity towards individual target genes. PMID:27581526

  2. The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Matsumoto, T; Torikata, T

    1998-10-01

    The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity were analyzed. Carboxymethylated lysozyme was digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The established amino acid sequence had one amino acid substitution at position 102 (Arg to Gly) comparing with Indian peafowl lysozyme and four amino acid substitutions at positions 3 (Phe to Tyr), 15 (His to Leu), 41 (Gln to His), and 121 (Gln to His) with chicken lysozyme. Analysis of the time-courses of reaction using N-acetylglucosamine pentamer as a substrate showed a difference of binding free energy change (-0.4 kcal/mol) at subsites A between monal pheasant and Indian peafowl lysozyme. This was assumed to be caused by the amino acid substitution at subsite A with loss of a positive charge at position 102 (Arg102 to Gly).

  3. IS406 and IS407, two gene-activating insertion sequences for Pseudomonas cepacia.

    PubMed

    Wood, M S; Byrne, A; Lessie, T G

    1991-08-30

    We have determined the nucleotide sequences of IS406 (1368 bp) and IS407 (1236 bp), two insertion sequence (IS) elements isolated from Pseudomonas cepacia 249 on the basis of their abilities to activate the expression of the lac genes of Tn951. IS406 and IS407 when inserted into the lac promoter/operator region of Tn951 generated, respectively, duplications of 8 and 4 bp of target DNA. IS406 had 41-bp terminal inverted repeat (IR) sequences with eleven mismatches. IR-L (left) contained a 12-bp motif present at the ends of Tn2501. In other respects, IS406 was distinct from previously described bacterial IS elements listed in the GenBank and EMBL databases. IS407 had 49-bp terminal IRs with 18 mismatches. IR-R (right) contained an outwardly directed sigma 70-like promoter. IS407 was closely related to IS476 and ISR1 from Xanthomonas and Rhizobium sp., respectively. PMID:1718819

  4. The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Matsumoto, T; Torikata, T

    1998-10-01

    The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity were analyzed. Carboxymethylated lysozyme was digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The established amino acid sequence had one amino acid substitution at position 102 (Arg to Gly) comparing with Indian peafowl lysozyme and four amino acid substitutions at positions 3 (Phe to Tyr), 15 (His to Leu), 41 (Gln to His), and 121 (Gln to His) with chicken lysozyme. Analysis of the time-courses of reaction using N-acetylglucosamine pentamer as a substrate showed a difference of binding free energy change (-0.4 kcal/mol) at subsites A between monal pheasant and Indian peafowl lysozyme. This was assumed to be caused by the amino acid substitution at subsite A with loss of a positive charge at position 102 (Arg102 to Gly). PMID:9836434

  5. Transcriptomic Sequencing Reveals a Set of Unique Genes Activated by Butyrate-Induced Histone Modification.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Robert W; Baldwin, Ransom L; Blomberg, Le Ann; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes in the bovine epithelial cells using RNA sequencing technology, a set of unique genes that are activated only after butyrate treatment were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network, using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, indicated that these genes activated by butyrate treatment are related to major cellular functions, including cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results offered insight into the butyrate-induced transcriptomic changes and will accelerate our discerning of the molecular fundamentals of epigenomic regulation. PMID:26819550

  6. Transcriptomic Sequencing Reveals a Set of Unique Genes Activated by Butyrate-Induced Histone Modification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Robert W.; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Blomberg, Le Ann; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes in the bovine epithelial cells using RNA sequencing technology, a set of unique genes that are activated only after butyrate treatment were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network, using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, indicated that these genes activated by butyrate treatment are related to major cellular functions, including cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results offered insight into the butyrate-induced transcriptomic changes and will accelerate our discerning of the molecular fundamentals of epigenomic regulation. PMID:26819550

  7. Full Genome Sequence and sfRNA Interferon Antagonist Activity of Zika Virus from Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rezelj, Veronica V.; Clark, Jordan J.; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Freitas de Oliveira França, Rafael; Pena, Lindomar J.; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Da Silva Filipe, Ana; Davis, Christopher; Hughes, Joseph; Varjak, Margus; Selinger, Martin; Zuvanov, Luíza; Owsianka, Ania M.; Patel, Arvind H.; McLauchlan, John; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Fall, Gamou; Sall, Amadou A.; Biek, Roman; Rehwinkel, Jan; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has transformed a previously obscure mosquito-transmitted arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family into a major public health concern. Little is currently known about the evolution and biology of ZIKV and the factors that contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Determining genomic sequences of clinical viral isolates and characterization of elements within these are an important prerequisite to advance our understanding of viral replicative processes and virus-host interactions. Methodology/Principal findings We obtained a ZIKV isolate from a patient who presented with classical ZIKV-associated symptoms, and used high throughput sequencing and other molecular biology approaches to determine its full genome sequence, including non-coding regions. Genome regions were characterized and compared to the sequences of other isolates where available. Furthermore, we identified a subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in ZIKV-infected cells that has antagonist activity against RIG-I induced type I interferon induction, with a lesser effect on MDA-5 mediated action. Conclusions/Significance The full-length genome sequence including non-coding regions of a South American ZIKV isolate from a patient with classical symptoms will support efforts to develop genetic tools for this virus. Detection of sfRNA that counteracts interferon responses is likely to be important for further understanding of pathogenesis and virus-host interactions. PMID:27706161

  8. Spatial unmixing for environmental impact monitoring of mining using UAS and WV-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delalieux, S.; Livens, S.; Goossens, M.; Reusen, I.; Tote, C.

    2012-04-01

    The three principal activities of the mineral resources mining industry - mining, mineral processing and metallurgical extraction - all produce waste. The environmental impact of these activities depends on many factors, in particular, the type of mining and the size of the operation. The effects of the mining (extraction) stage tend to be mainly local, associated with surface disturbance, the production of large amounts of solid waste material, and the spread of chemically reactive particulate matter to the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Many studies have shown the potential of remote sensing for environmental impact monitoring, e.g., [1]. However, its applicability has been limited due to the inherent spatial-spectral and temporal trade-off of most sensors. More recently, miniaturization of sensors makes it possible to capture color images from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with a very high spatial resolution. In addition, the UAS can be deployed in a very flexible manner, allowing high temporal resolution imaging. More detailed spectral information is available from multispectral images, albeit at lower spatial resolution. Combining both types of images using image fusion can help to overcome the spatial-spectral trade-off and provide a new tool for more detailed monitoring of environmental impacts. Within the framework of the ImpactMin project, funded by the Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission, the objective of this study is to implement and apply the spatial unmixing algorithm, as proposed by [2], on images of the 'Vihovici Coal Mine' area, located in the Mostar Valley, Bosnia and Herzegovina. A WorldView2 (WV2) satellite image will be employed, which provides 8-band multispectral data at a spatial resolution of 2m. High spatial resolution images, obtained by a SmartPlanes UAS, will provide RGB data with 0.05m spatial resolution. The spatial unmixing technique is based on the idea that a linear mixing model can be used to perform the downscaling of

  9. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    PubMed

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  10. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)

    PubMed Central

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F.; Alzate, Juan F.; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  11. Nucleotide Sequences and Modifications That Determine RIG-I/RNA Binding and Signaling Activities

    PubMed Central

    Uzri, Dina; Gehrke, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Cytoplasmic viral RNAs with 5′ triphosphates (5′ppp) are detected by the RNA helicase RIG-I, initiating downstream signaling and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) expression that establish an antiviral state. We demonstrate here that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) 3′ untranslated region (UTR) RNA has greater activity as an immune stimulator than several flavivirus UTR RNAs. We confirmed that the HCV 3′-UTR poly(U/UC) region is the determinant for robust activation of RIG-I-mediated innate immune signaling and that its antisense sequence, poly(AG/A), is an equivalent RIG-I activator. The poly(U/UC) region of the fulminant HCV JFH-1 strain was a relatively weak activator, while the antisense JFH-1 strain poly(AG/A) RNA was very potent. Poly(U/UC) activity does not require primary nucleotide sequence adjacency to the 5′ppp, suggesting that RIG-I recognizes two independent RNA domains. Whereas poly(U) 50-nt or poly(A) 50-nt sequences were minimally active, inserting a single C or G nucleotide, respectively, into these RNAs increased IFN-β expression. Poly(U/UC) RNAs transcribed in vitro using modified uridine 2′ fluoro or pseudouridine ribonucleotides lacked signaling activity while functioning as competitive inhibitors of RIG-I binding and IFN-β expression. Nucleotide base and ribose modifications that convert activator RNAs into competitive inhibitors of RIG-I signaling may be useful as modulators of RIG-I-mediated innate immune responses and as tools to dissect the RNA binding and conformational events associated with signaling. PMID:19224987

  12. The multifaceted nature of the relationship between performance and brain activity in motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Orban, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe; Lungu, Ovidiu; Albouy, Geneviève; Breton, Estelle; Laberenne, Frédéric; Benali, Habib; Maquet, Pierre; Doyon, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The 'learning and performance' conundrum has for a long time puzzled the field of cognitive neuroscience. Deciphering the genuine functional neuroanatomy of motor sequence learning, among that of other skills, has thereby been hampered. The main caveat is that changes in neural activity that inherently accompany task practice may not only reflect the learning process per se, but also the basic motor implementation of improved performance. Previous research has attempted to control for a performance confound in brain activity by adopting methodologies that prevent changes in performance. However, blocking the expression of performance is likely to distort the very nature of the motor sequence learning process, and may thus represent a major confound in itself. In the present study, we postulated that both learning-dependent plasticity mechanisms and learning-independent implementation processes are nested within the relationship that exists between performance and brain activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to map brain responses in healthy volunteers while they either (a) learned a novel sequence, (b) produced a highly automatized sequence or (c) executed non-sequential movements matched for speed frequency. In order to dissociate between qualitatively distinct, but intertwined, relationships between performance and neural activity, our analyses focused on correlations between variations in performance and brain activity, and how this relationship differs or shares commonalities between conditions. Results revealed that activity in the putamen and contralateral lobule VI of the cerebellum most strongly correlated with performance during learning per se, suggesting their key role in this process. By contrast, activity in a parallel cerebellar network, as well as in motor and premotor cortical areas, was modulated by performance during learning and during one or both control condition(s), suggesting the primary contribution of these areas in

  13. MOLECULAR CLONING, SEQUENCING, EXPRESSION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) INTERFERON-GAMMA.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Bao-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Fu; Wu, Xu-Jin; Ma, Qing-Yi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-29

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species and indigenous to China. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is the only member of type □ IFN and is vital for the regulation of host adapted immunity and inflammatory response. Little is known aboutthe FN-γ gene and its roles in giant panda.In this study, IFN-γ gene of Qinling giant panda was amplified from total blood RNA by RT-CPR, cloned, sequenced and analysed. The open reading frame (ORF) of Qinling giant panda IFN-γ encodes 152 amino acidsand is highly similar to Sichuan giant panda with an identity of 99.3% in cDNA sequence. The IFN-γ cDNA sequence was ligated to the pET32a vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 competent cells. Expression of recombinant IFN-γ protein of Qinling giant panda in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Biological activity assay indicated that the recombinant IFN-γ protein at the concentration of 4-10 µg/ml activated the giant panda peripheral blood lymphocytes,while at 12 µg/mlinhibited. the activation of the lymphocytes.These findings provide insights into the evolution of giant panda IFN-γ and information regarding amino acid residues essential for their biological activity.

  14. Fission Yeast Hotspot Sequence Motifs Are Also Active in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Walter W.; Steiner, Estelle M.

    2012-01-01

    In most organisms, including humans, meiotic recombination occurs preferentially at a limited number of sites in the genome known as hotspots. There has been substantial progress recently in elucidating the factors determining the location of meiotic recombination hotspots, and it is becoming clear that simple sequence motifs play a significant role. In S. pombe, there are at least five unique sequence motifs that have been shown to produce hotspots of recombination, and it is likely that there are more. In S. cerevisiae, simple sequence motifs have also been shown to produce hotspots or show significant correlations with hotspots. Some of the hotspot motifs in both yeasts are known or suspected to bind transcription factors (TFs), which are required for the activity of those hotspots. Here we show that four of the five hotspot motifs identified in S. pombe also create hotspots in the distantly related budding yeast S. cerevisiae. For one of these hotspots, M26 (also called CRE), we identify TFs, Cst6 and Sko1, that activate and inhibit the hotspot, respectively. In addition, two of the hotspot motifs show significant correlations with naturally occurring hotspots. The conservation of these hotspots between the distantly related fission and budding yeasts suggests that these sequence motifs, and others yet to be discovered, may function widely as hotspots in many diverse organisms. PMID:23300865

  15. UAS-NAS Integrated Human in the Loop: Test Environment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil; Jovic, Srba

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research was broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of the Test Infrastructure theme was to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the execution of integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project developed an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment incorporating live, virtual, and constructive elements capable of validating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project planned to conduct three integrated events: a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and two Flight Test series that integrated key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of

  16. Mission Adaptive Uas Capabilities for Earth Science and Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.; Young, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are important assets for accessing high risk airspace and incorporate technologies for sensor coordination, onboard processing, tele-communication, unconventional flight control, and ground based monitoring and optimization. These capabilities permit adaptive mission management in the face of complex requirements and chaotic external influences. NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of Earth science remote sensing missions directed at the assessment of natural resources and here we describe two resource mapping problems having mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability extensible to other resource assessment challenges. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This constraint exists when collecting imaging spectroscopy data over vegetation for time series analysis or for the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the signal. Furthermore, the primary flight control imperative to minimize tracking error should compromise with the requirement to minimize aircraft motion artifacts in the spatial measurement distribution. A second example involves mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in recent Earth Science missions including the OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for spectral and radiometric reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magnetometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and

  17. Salivary histatin 5: dependence of sequence, chain length, and helical conformation for candidacidal activity.

    PubMed

    Raj, P A; Edgerton, M; Levine, M J

    1990-03-01

    Histatin 5 (Asp1-Ser-His-Ala4-Lys-Arg-His-His8-Gly-Tyr-Lys-Arg12-Lys-Ph e-His-Glu16-Lys-His - His-Ser20-His-Arg-Gly-Tyr24), one of the basic histidine-rich peptides present in human parotid saliva and several of its fragments, 1-16 (N16), 9-24 (C16), 11-24 (C14), 13-24 (C12), 15-24 (C10), and 7-16 (M10), were synthesized by solid-phase procedures. Native histatin 5 from human parotid saliva was also purified. Their antifungal activities on two strains of Candida albicans have been studied and their conformational preferences both in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions examined by circular dichroism. The synthetic histatin 5, C16, and C14 peptides were highly active and inhibited the growth of C. albicans. The candidacidal activity data of synthetic histatin 5 were comparable to the values of the native histatin 5 isolated from parotid saliva and those reported previously, although the assay system used and the strains examined were different. The C16 fragment was as active as the whole peptide itself, whereas the N16 fragment was far less active than C14, suggesting that the sequence at the C-terminal is important for its fungicidal activity. An increase in the chain length of the C-terminal sequence from 12 to 16 residues increased the candidacidal activity, thereby indicating that a peptide chain length of at least 12 residues is necessary to elicit optimum biological activity. The CD spectra of these linear peptides showed that they are structurally more flexible, and they adopt different conformations depending on the solvent environment. CD studies provided evidence that histatin 5 and the longer fragments, C16, N16, and C14 preferred alpha-helical conformations in non-aqueous solvents such as trifluoroethanol and methanol, while in water and pH 7.4 phosphate buffers, they favored random coil structures. The shorter sequences seemed to adopt either turn structures or unordered structures both in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. It appears that the sequence at

  18. Targeted gene expression using the GAL4/UAS system in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Morikazu; Nakai, Junichi; Inoue, Satoshi; Quan, Guo Xing; Kanda, Toshio; Tamura, Toshiki

    2003-01-01

    The silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the most well-studied insects in terms of both genetics and physiology and is recognized as the model lepidopteran insect. To develop an efficient system for analyzing gene function in the silkworm, we investigated the feasibility of using the GAL4/UAS system in conjunction with piggyBac vector-mediated germ-line transformation for targeted gene expression. To drive the GAL4 gene, we used two endogenous promoters that originated from the B. mori actin A3 (BmA3) and fibroin light-chain (FiL) genes and the artificial promoter 3xP3. GFP was used as the reporter. In initial tests of the function of the GAL4/UAS system, we generated transgenic animals that carried the UAS-GFP construct plus either BmA3-GAL4 or 3xP3-GAL4. GFP fluorescence was observed in the tissues of GFP-positive animals, in which both promoters drove GAL4 gene expression. Animals that possessed only the GAL4 gene or UAS-GFP construct did not show GFP fluorescence. In addition, as a further test of the ability of the GAL4/UAS system to drive tissue-specific expression we constructed FiL-GAL4 lines with 3xP3-CFP as the transformation marker. FiL-GAL4 x UAS-GFP crosses showed GFP expression in the posterior silk gland, in which the endogenous FiL gene is normally expressed. These results show that the GAL4/UAS system is applicable to B. mori and emphasize the potential of this system for controlled analyses of B. mori gene function. PMID:14668386

  19. Development of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) for Scaling Terrestrial Ecosystem Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, R.; McMahon, A. M.; Serbin, S.; Rogers, A.

    2015-12-01

    The next generation of Ecosystem and Earth System Models (EESMs) will require detailed information on ecosystem structure and function, including properties of vegetation related to carbon (C), water, and energy cycling, in order to project the future state of ecosystems. High spatial-temporal resolution measurements of terrestrial ecosystem are also important for EESMs, because they can provide critical inputs and benchmark datasets for evaluation of EESMs simulations across scales. The recent development of high-quality, low-altitude remote sensing platforms or small UAS (< 25 kg) enables measurements of terrestrial ecosystems at unprecedented temporal and spatial scales. Specifically, these new platforms can provide detailed information on patterns and processes of terrestrial ecosystems at a critical intermediate scale between point measurements and suborbital and satellite platforms. Given their potential for sub-decimeter spatial resolution, improved mission safety, high revisit frequency, and reduced operation cost, these platforms are of particular interest in the development of ecological scaling algorithms to parameterize and benchmark EESMs, particularly over complex and remote terrain. Our group is developing a small UAS platform and integrated sensor package focused on measurement needs for scaling and informing ecosystem modeling activities, as well as scaling and mapping plant functional traits. To do this we are developing an integrated software workflow and hardware package using off-the-shelf instrumentation including a high-resolution digital camera for Structure from Motion, spectroradiometer, and a thermal infrared camera. Our workflow includes platform design, measurement, image processing, data management, and information extraction. The fusion of 3D structure information, thermal-infrared imagery, and spectroscopic measurements, will provide a foundation for the development of ecological scaling and mapping algorithms. Our initial focus is

  20. Capturing and modelling high-complex alluvial topography with UAS-borne laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Due to fluvial activity alluvial forests are zones of highest complexity and relief energy. Alluvial forests are dominated by new and pristine channels in consequence of current and historic flood events. Apart from topographic features, the vegetation structure is typically very complex featuring, both, dense under story as well as high trees. Furthermore, deadwood and debris carried from upstream during periods of high discharge within the river channel are deposited in these areas. Therefore, precise modelling of the micro relief of alluvial forests using standard tools like Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is hardly feasible. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), in turn, is very time consuming for capturing larger areas as many scan positions are necessary for obtaining complete coverage due to view occlusions in the forest. In the recent past, the technological development of Unmanned Arial Systems (UAS) has reached a level that light-weight survey-grade laser scanners can be operated from these platforms. For capturing alluvial topography this could bridge the gap between ALS and TLS in terms of providing a very detailed description of the topography and the vegetation structure due to the achievable very high point density of >100 points per m2. In our contribution we demonstrate the feasibility to apply UAS-borne laser scanning for capturing and modelling the complex topography of the study area Neubacher Au, an alluvial forest at the pre-alpine River Pielach (Lower Austria). The area was captured with Riegl's VUX-1 compact time-of-flight laser scanner mounted on a RiCopter (X-8 array octocopter). The scanner features an effective scan rate of 500 kHz and was flown in 50-100 m above ground. At this flying height the laser footprint is 25-50 mm allowing mapping of very small surface details. Furthermore, online waveform processing of the backscattered laser energy enables the retrieval of multiple targets for single laser shots resulting in a dense point cloud of

  1. Complete genome sequence of the cold-active bacteriophage VMY22 from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Qin, Kunhao; Cheng, Benxu; Zhang, Shengting; Wang, Nan; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Qi; Kuang, Anxiu; Lin, Lianbing; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin

    2016-06-01

    The cold-active bacteriophage VMY22, belonging to the Podoviridae family, was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome is 18,609 bp long, with an overall G + C content of 36.4 mol%, and 25 open reading frames (ORFs). The sequence contains 46 potential promoters, 6 transcription terminators, and no tRNAs. Most of the ORFs show a high degree of similarity to B103 (NC_004165). Two noteworthy findings were made. First, one of the predicted proteins, ORF 19, shows high sequence similarity to the bacteriocin biosynthesis protein from Bacillus cereus. From this information, we propose that the VMY22 phage is at an intermediate phase in its coevolution with its bacterial host. Second, seven of the hypothetical proteins appear to be unique to this cold-active B. cereus phage (i.e., not found in temperate-active B. cereus phages). These observations add to our current knowledge about the coevolution of bacteriophages and their hosts. The identification of a novel group of gene and protein structures and functions will lead to a better understanding of cold-adaptation mechanisms in bacteria and their bacteriophages.

  2. Promoter-like sequences regulating transcriptional activity in neurexin and neuroligin genes.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Fabian; Rohlmann, Astrid; Reissner, Carsten; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Missler, Markus

    2013-10-01

    Synapse function requires the cell-adhesion molecules neurexins (Nrxn) and neuroligins (Nlgn). Although these molecules are essential for neurotransmission and prefer distinct isoform combinations for interaction, little is known about their transcriptional regulation. Here, we started to explore this important aspect because expression of Nrxn1-3 and Nlgn1-3 genes is altered in mice lacking the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein2 (MeCP2). Since MeCP2 can bind to methylated CpG-dinucleotides and Nrxn/Nlgn contain CpG-islands, we tested genomic sequences for transcriptional activity in reporter gene assays. We found that their influence on transcription are differentially activating or inhibiting. As we observed an activity difference between heterologous and neuronal cell lines for distinct Nrxn1 and Nlgn2 sequences, we dissected their putative promoter regions. In both genes, we identify regions in exon1 that can induce transcription, in addition to the alternative transcriptional start points in exon2. While the 5'-regions of Nrxn1 and Nlgn2 contain two CpG-rich elements that show distinct methylation frequency and binding to MeCP2, other regions may act independently of this transcriptional regulator. These data provide first insights into regulatory sequences of Nrxn and Nlgn genes that may represent an important aspect of their function at synapses in health and disease.

  3. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project - Gen-4 and Gen-5 Radio Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current plans for the prototype radio development.

  4. Draft genomic DNA sequence of strain Halomonas sp. FS-N4 exhibiting high catalase activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Abulaizi, Ailiman; Sun, Cong; Cheng, Hong; Wu, Min

    2014-12-01

    Halomonas sp. FS-N4 is a bacterium, which can grow in the medium Marine Broth 2216 with 5M initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, shows a strong oxidation resistance, and the crude enzyme activity can reach as high as 13.33katal/mg. We reported the draft genome sequence of H. sp. FS-N4, showing that it contains 3434 protein-coding genes, including the genes putatively involved in the response to the oxidative stress, among which a phytochrome-like gene might be a key point to survive in the environment with high concentration of hydrogen peroxide and exhibit high catalase activity.

  5. Purification and sequencing of the active site tryptic peptide from penicillin-binding protein 1b of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, R.A.; Suzuki, H.; Hirota, Y.; Strominger, J.L.

    1985-07-02

    This paper reports the sequence of the active site peptide of penicillin-binding protein 1b from Escherichia coli. Purified penicillin-binding protein 1b was labeled with (/sup 14/C)penicillin G, digested with trypsin, and partially purified by gel filtration. Upon further purification by high-pressure liquid chromatography, two radioactive peaks were observed, and the major peak, representing over 75% of the applied radioactivity, was submitted to amino acid analysis and sequencing. The sequence Ser-Ile-Gly-Ser-Leu-Ala-Lys was obtained. The active site nucleophile was identified by digesting the purified peptide with aminopeptidase M and separating the radioactive products on high-pressure liquid chromatography. Amino acid analysis confirmed that the serine residue in the middle of the sequence was covalently bonded to the (/sup 14/C)penicilloyl moiety. A comparison of this sequence to active site sequences of other penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactamases is presented.

  6. Sequence Search and Comparative Genomic Analysis of SUMO-Activating Enzymes Using CoGe.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Albert, Victor A

    2016-01-01

    The growing number of genome sequences completed during the last few years has made necessary the development of bioinformatics tools for the easy access and retrieval of sequence data, as well as for downstream comparative genomic analyses. Some of these are implemented as online platforms that integrate genomic data produced by different genome sequencing initiatives with data mining tools as well as various comparative genomic and evolutionary analysis possibilities.Here, we use the online comparative genomics platform CoGe ( http://www.genomevolution.org/coge/ ) (Lyons and Freeling. Plant J 53:661-673, 2008; Tang and Lyons. Front Plant Sci 3:172, 2012) (1) to retrieve the entire complement of orthologous and paralogous genes belonging to the SUMO-Activating Enzymes 1 (SAE1) gene family from a set of species representative of the Brassicaceae plant eudicot family with genomes fully sequenced, and (2) to investigate the history, timing, and molecular mechanisms of the gene duplications driving the evolutionary expansion and functional diversification of the SAE1 family in Brassicaceae. PMID:27424761

  7. Benchmark of the FLUKA model of crystal channeling against the UA9-H8 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoofs, P.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Smirnov, G.

    2015-07-01

    Channeling in bent crystals is increasingly considered as an option for the collimation of high-energy particle beams. The installation of crystals in the LHC has taken place during this past year and aims at demonstrating the feasibility of crystal collimation and a possible cleaning efficiency improvement. The performance of CERN collimation insertions is evaluated with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, which is capable to simulate energy deposition in collimators as well as beam loss monitor signals. A new model of crystal channeling was developed specifically so that similar simulations can be conducted in the case of crystal-assisted collimation. In this paper, most recent results of this model are brought forward in the framework of a joint activity inside the UA9 collaboration to benchmark the different simulation tools available. The performance of crystal STF 45, produced at INFN Ferrara, was measured at the H8 beamline at CERN in 2010 and serves as the basis to the comparison. Distributions of deflected particles are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data. Calculated dechanneling lengths and crystal performance in the transition region between amorphous regime and volume reflection are also close to the measured ones.

  8. Characterization and sequencing of the active site of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, Wing-Kin; Dong, Jian-Guo; Yang, S.F. ); Kenny, J.W.; Thompson, G.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, is inactivated by its substrate S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Apple ACC synthase was purified with an immunoaffinity gel, and its active site was probed with NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} or Ado({sup 14}C)Met. Peptide sequencing of both {sup 3}H- and {sup 14}C-labeled peptides revealed a common dodecapeptide of Ser-Leu-Ser-Xaa-Asp-Leu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Arg, where Xaa was the modified, radioactive residue in each case. Acid hydrolysis of the {sup 3}H-labeled enzyme released radioactive N-pyridoxyllysine, indicating that the active-site peptide contained lysine at position 4. Mass spectrometry of the {sup 14}C-labeled peptide indicated a protonated molecular ion at m/z 1390.6, from which the mass of Xaa was calculated to be 229, a number that is equivalent to the mass of a lysine residue alkylated by the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet, as we previously proposed. These results indicate that the same active-site lysine binds the PLP and convalently links to the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet during inactivation. The active site of tomato ACC synthase was probed in the same manner with Ado ({sup 14}C)Met. Sequencing of the tomato active-site peptide revealed two highly conserved dodecapeptides; the minor peptide possessed a sequence identical to that of the apple enzyme, whereas the major peptide differed from the minor peptide in that methionine replaced leucine at position 6.

  9. Determination of juvenile hormone titers by means of LC-MS/MS/MS and a juvenile hormone-responsive Gal4/UAS system in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Hou, Yuan; Wang, Jianjun; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Saha, Tusar T; Wang, Xue-Li; Lin, Ling; Zou, Zhen; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2016-10-01

    In anautogenous mosquitoes, juvenile hormone III (JH) plays an essential role in female post-eclosion (PE) development, preparing them for subsequent blood feeding and egg growth. We re-examined the JH titer during the reproductive cycle of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Using liquid chromatography coupled with triple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS/MS), we have shown that it reaches its peak at 48-54 h PE in the female hemolymph and at 72 h PE in whole body extracts. This method represents an effective assay for determination of JH titers. The 2.1-kb 5' promoter region of the Early Trypsin (ET) gene, which is specifically expressed in the female midgut under the control of JH during the PE phase, was utilized to genetically engineer the Ae. aegypti mosquito line with the ET-Gal4 activator. We then established the ET-GAL4>UAS-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) system in Ae. aegypti. In ET-Gal4>UAS-EGFP female mosquitoes, the intensity of the midgut-specific EGFP signal was observed to correspond to the ET gene transcript level and follow the JH titer during the PE phase. The EGFP signal and the EGFP transcript level were significantly diminished in midguts of transgenic female mosquitoes after RNA interference depletion of the JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), providing evidence of the control of ET gene expression by Met. Topical JH application caused premature enhancement of the EGFP signal and the EGFP transcript level in midguts of newly eclosed ET-Gal4>UAS-EGFP female mosquitoes, in which endogenous JH titer is still low. Hence, this novel ET-Gal4>UAS system permits JH-dependent gene overexpression in the midgut of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes prior to a blood meal. PMID:27530057

  10. Analysis of UAS DAA Alerting in Fast-Time Simulations without DAA Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David P.; Santiago, Confesor; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Lee, Seung Man; Park, Chunki; Refai, Mohamad Said; Snow, James

    2015-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of performance standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA alerting system performance. A recent study conducted using NASA's ACES (Airspace Concept Evaluation System) simulation capability begins to address questions surrounding the development of draft MOPS for DAA alerting systems. ACES simulations were conducted to study the performance of alerting systems proposed by the SC-228 DAA Alerting sub-group. Analysis included but was not limited to: 1) correct alert (and timeliness), 2) false alert (and severity and duration), 3) missed alert, and 4) probability of an alert type at the time of loss of well clear. The performance of DAA alerting systems when using intent vs. dead-reckoning for UAS ownship trajectories was also compared. The results will be used by SC-228 to inform decisions about the surveillance standards of UAS DAA systems and future requirements development and validation efforts.

  11. Definition and test of the electromagnetic immunity of UAS for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Chmel, S.; Jöster, M.; Pusch, T.; Suhrke, M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technological developments considerably lowered the barrier for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to be employed in a variety of usage scenarios, comprising live video transmission from otherwise inaccessible vantage points. As an example, in the French-German ANCHORS project several UAS guided by swarm intelligence provide aerial views and environmental data of a disaster site while deploying an ad-hoc communication network for first responders. Since being able to operate in harsh environmental conditions is a key feature, the immunity of the UAS against radio frequency (RF) exposure has been studied. Conventional Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) applied to commercial and industrial electronics is not sufficient since UAS are airborne and can as such move beyond the bounds within which RF exposure is usually limited by regulatory measures. Therefore, the EMC requirements have been complemented by a set of specific RF test frequencies and parameters where strong sources are expected to interfere in the example project test case of an inland port environment. While no essential malfunctions could be observed up to field strengths of 30 V m-1, a sophisticated, more exhaustive approach for testing against potential sources of interference in key scenarios of UAS usage should be derived from our present findings.

  12. High-Resolution Debris Flow Volume Mapping with Unmanned Aerial Systems (uas) and Photogrammetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. S.; Fromm, R.; Lechner, V.

    2016-06-01

    Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM) were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS) DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  13. Differences between MyoD DNA binding and activation site requirements revealed by functional random sequence selection.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J; Blackwell, T K; Kedes, L; Weintraub, H

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed for selecting functional enhancer/promoter sites from random DNA sequences in higher eukaryotic cells. Of sequences that were thus selected for transcriptional activation by the muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix protein MyoD, only a subset are similar to the preferred in vitro binding consensus, and in the same promoter context an optimal in vitro binding site was inactive. Other sequences with full transcriptional activity instead exhibit sequence preferences that, remarkably, are generally either identical or very similar to those found in naturally occurring muscle-specific promoters. This first systematic examination of the relation between DNA binding and transcriptional activation by basic helix-loop-helix proteins indicates that binding per se is necessary but not sufficient for transcriptional activation by MyoD and implies a requirement for other DNA sequence-dependent interactions or conformations at its binding site. PMID:8668207

  14. DNA sequence, structure, and tyrosine kinase activity of the Drosophila melanogaster abelson proto-oncogene homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Henkemeyer, M.J.; Bennett, R.L.; Gertler, F.B.; Hoffmann, F.M.

    1988-02-01

    The authors report their molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster Abelson gene (abl), a gene in which recessive loss-of-function mutations result in lethality at the pupal stage of development. This essential gene consists of 10 exons extending over 26 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. The DNA sequence encodes a protein of 1,520 amino acids with strong sequence similarity to the human c-abl proto-oncogene beginning in the type 1b 5' exon and extending through the region essential for tyrosine kinase activity. When the tyrosine kinase homologous region was expressed in Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues was observed with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. These results show that the abl gene is highly conserved through evolution and encodes a functional tyrosine protein kinase required for Drosophila development.

  15. Cloning and sequencing of an ice nucleation active gene of Erwinia uredovora.

    PubMed

    Michigami, Y; Watabe, S; Abe, K; Obata, H; Arai, S

    1994-04-01

    An ice nucleation activity gene, named inaU, of the bacterium Erwinia uredovora KUIN-3 has been sequenced. This gene encodes a protein of 1034 amino acid residues, and its expression product, inaU protein, has an 832-amino acid residue segment consisting of 52 repeats of closely related 16-amino acid motifs (R-domain), flanked by N- and C-terminal sequences (N- and C-domains, respectively). The primary structure of the inaU protein is similar to those of the inaA, inaW, and inaZ gene products of Erwinia ananas, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas syringae, respectively, but is smaller than any of these products in terms of the size of the R-domain. PMID:7764866

  16. Structurally complex and highly active RNA ligases derived from random RNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekland, E. H.; Szostak, J. W.; Bartel, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    Seven families of RNA ligases, previously isolated from random RNA sequences, fall into three classes on the basis of secondary structure and regiospecificity of ligation. Two of the three classes of ribozymes have been engineered to act as true enzymes, catalyzing the multiple-turnover transformation of substrates into products. The most complex of these ribozymes has a minimal catalytic domain of 93 nucleotides. An optimized version of this ribozyme has a kcat exceeding one per second, a value far greater than that of most natural RNA catalysts and approaching that of comparable protein enzymes. The fact that such a large and complex ligase emerged from a very limited sampling of sequence space implies the existence of a large number of distinct RNA structures of equivalent complexity and activity.

  17. The effect of sequence context on the activity of cytosine DNA glycosylases.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Scott T; Brown, Tom; Fox, Keith R

    2015-12-01

    We have prepared single (N204D) and double (N204D:L272A) mutants of human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUDG), generating two cytosine DNA glycosylases (hCDG and hCYDG). Both these enzymes are able to excise cytosine (but not 5-methylcytosine), when this base is part of a mismatched base pair. hCDG is more active than the equivalent E. coli enzyme (eCYDG) and also has some activity when the cytosine is paired with guanine, unlike eCYDG. hCDG also has some activity against single stranded DNA, while having poor activity towards an unnatural base pair that forces the cytosine into an extrahelical conformation (in contrast to eCYDG for which a bulky base enhances the enzyme's activity). We also examined how sequence context affects the activity of these enzymes, determining the effect of flanking base pairs on cleavage efficiency. An abasic site or a hexaethylene glycol linker placed opposite the target cytosine, also causes an increase in activity compared with an AC mismatch. Flanking an AC mismatch with GC base pairs resulted in a 100-fold decrease in excision activity relative to flanking AT base pairs and the 5'-flanking base pair had a greater effect on the rate of cleavage. However, this effect is not simply due to the stability of the flanking base pairs as adjacent GT mismatches also produce low cleavage efficiency. PMID:26463365

  18. Targeted massively parallel sequencing of angiosarcomas reveals frequent activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Rajmohan; Chandramohan, Raghu; Möller, Inga; Scholz, Simone L.; Berger, Michael; Huberman, Kety; Viale, Agnes; Pirun, Mono; Socci, Nicholas D.; Bouvier, Nancy; Bauer, Sebastian; Artl, Monika; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Sucker, Antje; Schwindenhammer, Benjamin; Grabellus, Florian; Speicher, Michael R.; Schaller, Jörg; Hillen, Uwe; Schadendorf, Dirk; Mentzel, Thomas; Cheng, Donavan T.; Wiesner, Thomas; Griewank, Klaus G.

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare malignant mesenchymal tumors of endothelial differentiation. The clinical behavior is usually aggressive and the prognosis for patients with advanced disease is poor with no effective therapies. The genetic bases of these tumors have been partially revealed in recent studies reporting genetic alterations such as amplifications of MYC (primarily in radiation-associated angiosarcomas), inactivating mutations in PTPRB and R707Q hotspot mutations of PLCG1. Here, we performed a comprehensive genomic analysis of 34 angiosarcomas using a clinically-approved, hybridization-based targeted next-generation sequencing assay for 341 well-established oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Over half of the angiosarcomas (n = 18, 53%) harbored genetic alterations affecting the MAPK pathway, involving mutations in KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, BRAF, MAPK1 and NF1, or amplifications in MAPK1/CRKL, CRAF or BRAF. The most frequently detected genetic aberrations were mutations in TP53 in 12 tumors (35%) and losses of CDKN2A in 9 tumors (26%). MYC amplifications were generally mutually exclusive of TP53 alterations and CDKN2A loss and were identified in 8 tumors (24%), most of which (n = 7, 88%) arose post-irradiation. Previously reported mutations in PTPRB (n = 10, 29%) and one (3%) PLCG1 R707Q mutation were also identified. Our results demonstrate that angiosarcomas are a genetically heterogeneous group of tumors, harboring a wide range of genetic alterations. The high frequency of genetic events affecting the MAPK pathway suggests that targeted therapies inhibiting MAPK signaling may be promising therapeutic avenues in patients with advanced angiosarcomas. PMID:26440310

  19. Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone coding for the mouse GM2 activator protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bellachioma, G; Stirling, J L; Orlacchio, A; Beccari, T

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA (1.1 kb) containing the complete coding sequence for the mouse GM2 activator protein was isolated from a mouse macrophage library using a cDNA for the human protein as a probe. There was a single ATG located 12 bp from the 5' end of the cDNA clone followed by an open reading frame of 579 bp. Northern blot analysis of mouse macrophage RNA showed that there was a single band with a mobility corresponding to a size of 2.3 kb. We deduce from this that the mouse mRNA, in common with the mRNA for the human GM2 activator protein, has a long 3' untranslated sequence of approx. 1.7 kb. Alignment of the mouse and human deduced amino acid sequences showed 68% identity overall and 75% identity for the sequence on the C-terminal side of the first 31 residues, which in the human GM2 activator protein contains the signal peptide. Hydropathicity plots showed great similarity between the mouse and human sequences even in regions of low sequence similarity. There is a single N-glycosylation site in the mouse GM2 activator protein sequence (Asn151-Phe-Thr) which differs in its location from the single site reported in the human GM2 activator protein sequence (Asn63-Val-Thr). Images Figure 1 PMID:7689829

  20. Wind Tunnel and Hover Performance Test Results for Multicopter UAS Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl R.; Jung, Jaewoo; Willink, Gina; Glasner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a lack of published data for the performance of multicopter unmanned aircraft system (UAS) vehicles, such as quadcopters and octocopters, often referred to collectively as drones. With the rapidly increasing popularity of multicopter UAS, there is interest in better characterizing the performance of this type of aircraft. By studying the performance of currently available vehicles, it will be possible to develop models for vehicles at this scale that can accurately predict performance and model trajectories. This paper describes a wind tunnel test that was recently performed in the U.S. Army's 7- by 10-ft Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. During this wind tunnel entry, five multicopter UAS vehicles were tested to determine forces and moments as well as electrical power as a function of wind speed, rotor speed, and vehicle attitude. The test is described here in detail, and a selection of the key results from the test is presented.

  1. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  2. A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Chamberlain, James; Consiglio, Maria; Upchurch, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. For these models, algorithms that predict well-clear violations along aircraft current trajectories are provided. These algorithms are analogous to conflict detection algorithms but instead of predicting loss of separation, they predict whether well-clear violations will occur during a given lookahead time interval. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models.

  3. Evaluation of the Trade Space Between UAS Maneuver Performance and SAA System Performance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, nearterm UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements for a wide range of encounters. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. The simulator is described herein and has both a graphical user interface and batch interface to support detailed analysis of individual UAS encounters and macro analysis of a very large set of UAS and encounter models, respectively. Results from the simulator using approximate performance data from a well-known manned aircraft is presented to provide insight into the problem and as verification and validation of the simulator. Analysis of climb, descent, and level turn maneuvers to avoid a collision is presented. Noting the diversity of backgrounds in the UAS community, a description of the UAS aerodynamic and propulsive design and performance parameters is included. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how

  4. Implementation of a sensor guided flight algorithm for target tracking by small UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gaemus E.; Stankevitz, Chris; Liese, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    Small xed-wing UAS (SUAS) such as Raven and Unicorn have limited power, speed, and maneuverability. Their missions can be dramatically hindered by environmental conditions (wind, terrain), obstructions (buildings, trees) blocking clear line of sight to a target, and/or sensor hardware limitations (xed stare, limited gimbal motion, lack of zoom). Toyon's Sensor Guided Flight (SGF) algorithm was designed to account for SUAS hardware shortcomings and enable long-term tracking of maneuvering targets by maintaining persistent eyes-on-target. SGF was successfully tested in simulation with high-delity UAS, sensor, and environment models, but real- world ight testing with 60 Unicorn UAS revealed surprising second order challenges that were not highlighted by the simulations. This paper describes the SGF algorithm, our rst round simulation results, our second order discoveries from ight testing, and subsequent improvements that were made to the algorithm.

  5. HALE UAS Command and Control Communications: Step 1 - Functional Requirements Document. Version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned aircraft system (UAS) communicates with an off-board pilot-in-command in all flight phases via the C2 data link, making it a critical component for the UA to fly in the NAS safely and routinely. This is a new requirement in current FAA communications planning and monitoring processes. This document provides a set of comprehensive C2 communications functional requirements and performance guidelines to help facilitate the future FAA certification process for civil UAS to operate in the NAS. The objective of the guidelines is to provide the ability to validate the functional requirements and in future be used to develop performance-level requirements.

  6. Lateralized human hippocampal activity predicts navigation based on sequence or place memory

    PubMed Central

    Iglói, Kinga; Doeller, Christian F.; Berthoz, Alain; Rondi-Reig, Laure; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus is crucial for both spatial navigation and episodic memory, suggesting that it provides a common function to both. Here we adapt a spatial paradigm, developed for rodents, for use with functional MRI in humans to show that activation of the right hippocampus predicts the use of an allocentric spatial representation, and activation of the left hippocampus predicts the use of a sequential egocentric representation. Both representations can be identified in hippocampal activity before their effect on behavior at subsequent choice-points. Our results suggest that, rather than providing a single common function, the two hippocampi provide complementary representations for navigation, concerning places on the right and temporal sequences on the left, both of which likely contribute to different aspects of episodic memory. PMID:20660746

  7. Analysis of Polygenic Mutants Suggests a Role for Mediator in Regulating Transcriptional Activation Distance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Reavey, Caitlin T.; Hickman, Mark J.; Dobi, Krista C.; Botstein, David; Winston, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Studies of natural populations of many organisms have shown that traits are often complex, caused by contributions of mutations in multiple genes. In contrast, genetic studies in the laboratory primarily focus on studying the phenotypes caused by mutations in a single gene. However, the single mutation approach may be limited with respect to the breadth and degree of new phenotypes that can be found. We have taken the approach of isolating complex, or polygenic mutants in the lab to study the regulation of transcriptional activation distance in yeast. While most aspects of eukaryotic transcription are conserved from yeast to human, transcriptional activation distance is not. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the upstream activating sequence (UAS) is generally found within 450 base pairs of the transcription start site (TSS) and when the UAS is moved too far away, activation no longer occurs. In contrast, metazoan enhancers can activate from as far as several hundred kilobases from the TSS. Previously, we identified single mutations that allow transcription activation to occur at a greater-than-normal distance from the GAL1 UAS. As the single mutant phenotypes were weak, we have now isolated polygenic mutants that possess strong long-distance phenotypes. By identification of the causative mutations we have accounted for most of the heritability of the phenotype in each strain and have provided evidence that the Mediator coactivator complex plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of transcription activation distance. PMID:26281848

  8. Analysis of Polygenic Mutants Suggests a Role for Mediator in Regulating Transcriptional Activation Distance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Reavey, Caitlin T; Hickman, Mark J; Dobi, Krista C; Botstein, David; Winston, Fred

    2015-10-01

    Studies of natural populations of many organisms have shown that traits are often complex, caused by contributions of mutations in multiple genes. In contrast, genetic studies in the laboratory primarily focus on studying the phenotypes caused by mutations in a single gene. However, the single mutation approach may be limited with respect to the breadth and degree of new phenotypes that can be found. We have taken the approach of isolating complex, or polygenic mutants in the lab to study the regulation of transcriptional activation distance in yeast. While most aspects of eukaryotic transcription are conserved from yeast to human, transcriptional activation distance is not. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the upstream activating sequence (UAS) is generally found within 450 base pairs of the transcription start site (TSS) and when the UAS is moved too far away, activation no longer occurs. In contrast, metazoan enhancers can activate from as far as several hundred kilobases from the TSS. Previously, we identified single mutations that allow transcription activation to occur at a greater-than-normal distance from the GAL1 UAS. As the single mutant phenotypes were weak, we have now isolated polygenic mutants that possess strong long-distance phenotypes. By identification of the causative mutations we have accounted for most of the heritability of the phenotype in each strain and have provided evidence that the Mediator coactivator complex plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of transcription activation distance.

  9. Varying Levels of Automation on UAS Operator Responses to Traffic Resolution Advisories in Civil Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Caitlin; Fern, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Continuing demand for the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has put increasing pressure on operations in civil airspace. The need to fly UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) in order to perform missions vital to national security and defense, emergency management, and science is increasing at a rapid pace. In order to ensure safe operations in the NAS, operators of unmanned aircraft, like those of manned aircraft, may be required to maintain separation assurance and avoid loss of separation with other aircraft while performing their mission tasks. This experiment investigated the effects of varying levels of automation on UAS operator performance and workload while responding to conflict resolution instructions provided by the Tactical Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) during a UAS mission in high-density airspace. The purpose of this study was not to investigate the safety of using TCAS II on UAS, but rather to examine the effect of automation on the ability of operators to respond to traffic collision alerts. Six licensed pilots were recruited to act as UAS operators for this study. Operators were instructed to follow a specified mission flight path, while maintaining radio contact with Air Traffic Control and responding to TCAS II resolution advisories. Operators flew four, 45 minute, experimental missions with four different levels of automation: Manual, Knobs, Management by Exception, and Fully Automated. All missions included TCAS II Resolution Advisories (RAs) that required operator attention and rerouting. Operator compliance and reaction time to RAs was measured, and post-run NASA-TLX ratings were collected to measure workload. Results showed significantly higher compliance rates, faster responses to TCAS II alerts, as well as less preemptive operator actions when higher levels of automation are implemented. Physical and Temporal ratings of workload were significantly higher in the Manual condition than in the Management by Exception and

  10. Sequence Analysis and Characterization of Active Human Alu Subfamilies Based on the 1000 Genomes Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Konkel, Miriam K; Walker, Jerilyn A; Hotard, Ashley B; Ranck, Megan C; Fontenot, Catherine C; Storer, Jessica; Stewart, Chip; Marth, Gabor T; Batzer, Mark A

    2015-08-29

    The goal of the 1000 Genomes Consortium is to characterize human genome structural variation (SV), including forms of copy number variations such as deletions, duplications, and insertions. Mobile element insertions, particularly Alu elements, are major contributors to genomic SV among humans. During the pilot phase of the project we experimentally validated 645 (611 intergenic and 34 exon targeted) polymorphic "young" Alu insertion events, absent from the human reference genome. Here, we report high resolution sequencing of 343 (322 unique) recent Alu insertion events, along with their respective target site duplications, precise genomic breakpoint coordinates, subfamily assignment, percent divergence, and estimated A-rich tail lengths. All the sequenced Alu loci were derived from the AluY lineage with no evidence of retrotransposition activity involving older Alu families (e.g., AluJ and AluS). AluYa5 is currently the most active Alu subfamily in the human lineage, followed by AluYb8, and many others including three newly identified subfamilies we have termed AluYb7a3, AluYb8b1, and AluYa4a1. This report provides the structural details of 322 unique Alu variants from individual human genomes collectively adding about 100 kb of genomic variation. Many Alu subfamilies are currently active in human populations, including a surprising level of AluY retrotransposition. Human Alu subfamilies exhibit continuous evolution with potential drivers sprouting new Alu lineages.

  11. Magnetic Activity of Pre-main Sequence Stars near the Stellar-Substellar Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, David; Kastner, Joel. H.; Rodriguez, David

    2016-01-01

    X-ray observations of pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars of M-type probe coronal emission and offer a means to investigate magnetic activity at the stellar-substellar boundary. Recent observations of main sequence (MS) stars at this boundary display a decrease in fractional X-ray luminosity (L X /L bol ) by almost two orders of magnitude for spectral types M7 and later. We investigate magnetic activity and search for a decrease in X-ray emission in the pre-MS progenitors of these MS stars. We present XMM-Newton X-ray observations and preliminary results for ~10 nearby (30-70 pc), very low mass pre-MS stars in the relatively unexplored age range of 10-30 Myr. We compare the fractional X-ray luminosities of these 10-30 Myr old stars to younger (1-3 Myr) pre-MS brown dwarfs and find no dependence on spectral type or age suggesting that X-ray activity declines at an age later than ~30 Myr in these very low-mass stars.

  12. Intense Transpositional Activity of Insertion Sequences in an Ancient Obligate Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Samuel; Ling, Alison; Pérez, Philippe; Delaunay, Carine; Vavre, Fabrice; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The streamlined genomes of ancient obligate endosymbionts generally lack transposable elements, such as insertion sequences (IS). Yet, the genome of Wolbachia, one of the most abundant bacterial endosymbionts on Earth, is littered with IS. Such a paradox raises the question as to why there are so many ISs in the genome of this ancient endosymbiont. To address this question, we investigated IS transpositional activity in the unculturable Wolbachia by tracking the evolutionary dynamics and history of ISWpi1 elements. We show that 1) ISWpi1 is widespread in Wolbachia, being present in at least 55% of the 40 sampled strains, 2) ISWpi1 copies exhibit virtually identical nucleotide sequences both within and among Wolbachia genomes and possess an intact transposase gene, 3) individual ISWpi1 copies are differentially inserted among Wolbachia genomes, and 4) ISWpi1 occurs at variable copy numbers among Wolbachia genomes. Collectively, our results provide compelling evidence for intense ISWpi1 transpositional activity and frequent ISWpi1 horizontal transmission among strains during recent Wolbachia evolution. Thus, the genomes of ancient obligate endosymbionts can carry high loads of functional and transpositionally active transposable elements. Our results also indicate that Wolbachia genomes have experienced multiple and temporally distinct ISWpi1 invasions during their evolutionary history. Such recurrent exposition to new IS invasions may explain, at least partly, the unusually high density of transposable elements found in the genomes of Wolbachia endosymbionts. PMID:18562339

  13. Tectonics and Quaternary sequence development of basins along the active Vienna Basin strike-slip fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcher, B.; Lomax, J.; Meurers, B.; Smit, J.; Preusser, F.; Decker, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Vienna Basin strike-slip fault is a continent scale active fault extending over a distance of some 300 km from the Eastern Alps through the Vienna Basin into the Western Carpathians. Sinistral movement causes the formation of several tight Pleistocene strike-slip basins within the older Miocene Vienna Basin. These sub-basins not only have a high relevance for groundwater exploitation but their fault activities depict serious seismic hazards. Basins are filled with fluvial sediments from the Danube and, closer to the Alpine front, with thick alluvial fan deposits. However, knowledge on the stratigraphy and tectonics is sparse and rather limited to the Miocene part of the Vienna Basin as it hosts giant hydrocarbon fields. This study tackles two major questions: (i) What is the effect of Quaternary climatic oscillations and subsidence on the sequence development of the alluvial fans and (ii) what is the deformation style of these basins? To answer (i) we present a series of new OSL ages and biotic data from both, surface and cores, to better constrain the timing of fan activity, fan abandonment but also to constrain the onset of Pleistocene basin formation. For (ii) we utilize information from unparalleled geophysical and geological data. Specifically we utilize industrial Bouguer gravity's derivatives to highlight shallow structures and to compensate for the lag of fault trace information. The integration of geological and geophysical data highlights textbook-like models of strike-slip basins, with typical features like Riedel shears with intervening relay ramps, en-echelon sidewall faults and a cross-basin fault zone delimiting opposite depocenters. The infill reflects a distinct cyclicity with thick sequences of coarse sediments deposited during colder periods and thin sequences of paleosol and flood sediments deposited during warmer periods. Ages indicate main activity around the short peak glacial periods and basin formation starting c. 300 ka ago. The

  14. The influence of nucleotide sequence and temperature on the activity of thermostable DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jesse L; Rejali, Nick; Wittwer, Carl T

    2014-05-01

    Extension rates of a thermostable, deletion-mutant polymerase were measured from 50°C to 90°C using a fluorescence activity assay adapted for real-time PCR instruments. Substrates with a common hairpin (6-base loop and a 14-bp stem) were synthesized with different 10-base homopolymer tails. Rates for A, C, G, T, and 7-deaza-G incorporation at 75°C were 81, 150, 214, 46, and 120 seconds(-1). Rates for U were half as fast as T and did not increase with increasing concentration. Hairpin substrates with 25-base tails from 0% to 100% GC content had maximal extension rates near 60% GC and were predicted from the template sequence and mononucleotide incorporation rates to within 30% for most sequences. Addition of dimethyl sulfoxide at 7.5% increased rates to within 1% to 17% of prediction for templates with 40% to 90% GC. When secondary structure was designed into the template region, extension rates decreased. Oligonucleotide probes reduced extension rates by 65% (5'-3' exo-) and 70% (5'-3' exo+). When using a separate primer and a linear template to form a polymerase substrate, rates were dependent on both the primer melting temperature (Tm) and the annealing/extension temperature. Maximum rates were observed from Tm to Tm - 5°C with little extension by Tm + 5°C. Defining the influence of sequence and temperature on polymerase extension will enable more rapid and efficient PCR. PMID:24607271

  15. De Novo Sequencing of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides by Electron-Activated Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Yu, Xiang; Mao, Yang; Costello, Catherine E.; Zaia, Joseph; Lin, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Structural characterization of highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) is challenging because of the extensive sulfate losses mediated by free protons. While removal of the free protons may be achieved through the use of derivatization, metal cation adducts, and/or electrospray supercharging reagents, these steps add complexity to the experimental workflow. It is therefore desirable to develop an analytical approach for GAG sequencing that does not require derivatization or addition of reagents to the electrospray solution. Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) can produce extensive and informative fragmentation for GAGs without the need to remove free protons from the precursor ions. However, EDD is an inefficient process, often requiring consumption of large sample quantities (typically several micrograms), particularly for highly sulfated GAG ions. Here, we report that with improved instrumentation, optimization of the ionization and ion transfer parameters, and enhanced EDD efficiency, it is possible to generate highly informative EDD spectra of highly sulfated GAGs on the liquid chromatography (LC) time-scale, with consumption of only a few nanograms of sample. We further show that negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) is an even more effective fragmentation technique for GAG sequencing, producing fewer sulfate losses while consuming smaller amount of samples. Finally, a simple algorithm was developed for de novo HS sequencing based on their high resolution tandem mass spectra. These results demonstrate the potential of EDD and NETD as sensitive analytical tools for detailed, high-throughput, de novo structural analyses of highly sulfated GAGs. PMID:24224699

  16. PRP8 intein in Ajellomycetaceae family pathogens: sequence analysis, splicing evaluation and homing endonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Volkmann, Gerrit; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    Inteins are intervening sequences that are transcribed and translated with flanking host protein sequences and then self-excised by protein splicing. Bi-functional inteins also contain a homing endonuclease responsible for their genetic mobility. The PRP8 intein, the most widespread among fungi, occurs in important pathogens such as Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, from the Ajellomycetaceae family. Herein, we describe the bi-functional PRP8 intein in two other Ajellomycetacean pathogens, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Emmonsia parva. Sequence analysis and experimental evidence suggest that the homing endonuclease from PbrPRP8 is inactive. The splicing activity of the PRP8 intein from the B. dermatitidis, E. parva and P. brasiliensis species complex was demonstrated in a non-native protein context in Escherichia coli. Since the PRP8 intein is located in a functionally essential nuclear protein, it can be considered a promising therapeutic target for anti-fungal drugs, because inhibition of intein splicing should inhibit proliferation of intein-containing pathogens. PMID:20682355

  17. Observing Supercells with Unmanned Aircraft: Results from the UAS Component of VORTEX-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, A. L.; Argrow, B.; Frew, E.

    2010-12-01

    In the second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX-2) autonomous unmanned aircraft were used for the first time to collect in-situ observations in close proximity to supercells. The use of unmanned aircraft to collect data significant to stormscale research has long been recognized. However, collecting these data requires aircraft operation beyond the visual line of sight of the controller which necessitates aircraft autonomy. An autonomous unmanned aircraft requires a significantly more complex command and control system and elicits more scrutiny by airspace regulatory agencies. Therefore, while the potential utility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS, the unmanned aircraft along with the communications and logistics infrastructure required for their operation) for stormscale research may be obvious, the engineering and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome for their use are significant. Surmounting these engineering and regulatory hurdles was the principal objective of the UAS component of VORTEX-2. Regulatory hurdles prevented UAS operations in the first year of VORTEX-2. However, the Federal Aviation Administration (tasked with regulating all UAS operations) granted the UAS group certificates of authorization (CoA) to fly for all of year-2 over northeast CO, southwest NE, and northwest KS. The majority of the engineering hurdles involved the communication system necessary to 1) command and control the aircraft through its on-board autopilot and 2) direct ground-based vehicles required to remain compliant with FAA regulations. Testing during both year-1 and -2 yielded a robust communication system. Lessons learned from interactions with the FAA along with an overview of the communication system will be presented at the conference. Scientifically, the UAS in VORTEX-2 was tasked with collecting in-situ observations of the temperature and moisture above the surface across the rear flank gust front (RFGF) and within the rear

  18. Fine mapping of genome activation in bovine embryos by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Schwalb, Björn; Blum, Helmut; Wolf, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    During maternal-to-embryonic transition control of embryonic development gradually switches from maternal RNAs and proteins stored in the oocyte to gene products generated after embryonic genome activation (EGA). Detailed insight into the onset of embryonic transcription is obscured by the presence of maternal transcripts. Using the bovine model system, we established by RNA sequencing a comprehensive catalogue of transcripts in germinal vesicle and metaphase II oocytes, and in embryos at the four-cell, eight-cell, 16-cell, and blastocyst stages. These were produced by in vitro fertilization of Bos taurus taurus oocytes with sperm from a Bos taurus indicus bull to facilitate parent-specific transcriptome analysis. Transcripts from 12.4 to 13.7 × 103 different genes were detected in the various developmental stages. EGA was analyzed by (i) detection of embryonic transcripts, which are not present in oocytes; (ii) detection of transcripts from the paternal allele; and (iii) detection of primary transcripts with intronic sequences. These strategies revealed (i) 220, (ii) 937, and (iii) 6,848 genes to be activated from the four-cell to the blastocyst stage. The largest proportion of gene activation [i.e., (i) 59%, (ii) 42%, and (iii) 58%] was found in eight-cell embryos, indicating major EGA at this stage. Gene ontology analysis of genes activated at the four-cell stage identified categories related to RNA processing, translation, and transport, consistent with preparation for major EGA. Our study provides the largest transcriptome data set of bovine oocyte maturation and early embryonic development and detailed insight into the timing of embryonic activation of specific genes. PMID:24591639

  19. Meeting of Experts on NASA's Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace Systems (NAS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean; Bauer, Jeff; Bixby, C.J.; Lauderdale, Todd; Shively, Jay; Griner, James; Hayhurst, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project; UAS Integration into the NAS Project; Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance; Pilot Aircraft Interface Objectives/Rationale; Communication; Certification; and Integrated Tests and Evaluations.

  20. PCR-Activated Cell Sorting for Cultivation-Free Enrichment and Sequencing of Rare Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shaun W.; Tran, Tuan M.; Abate, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial systems often exhibit staggering diversity, making the study of rare, interesting species challenging. For example, metagenomic analyses of mixed-cell populations are often dominated by the sequences of the most abundant organisms, while those of rare microbes are detected only at low levels, if at all. To overcome this, selective cultivation or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) can be used to enrich for the target species prior to sequence analysis; however, since most microbes cannot be grown in the lab, cultivation strategies often fail, while cell sorting requires techniques to uniquely label the cell type of interest, which is often not possible with uncultivable microbes. Here, we introduce a culture-independent strategy for sorting microbial cells based on genomic content, which we term PCR-activated cell sorting (PACS). This technology, which utilizes the power of droplet-based microfluidics, is similar to FACS in that it uses a fluorescent signal to uniquely identify and sort target species. However, PACS differs importantly from FACS in that the signal is generated by performing PCR assays on the cells in microfluidic droplets, allowing target cells to be identified with high specificity with suitable design of PCR primers and TaqMan probes. The PACS assay is general, requires minimal optimization and, unlike antibody methods, can be developed without access to microbial antigens. Compared to non-specific methods in which cells are sorted based on size, granularity, or the ability to take up dye, PACS enables genetic sequence-specific sorting and recovery of the cell genomes. In addition to sorting microbes, PACS can be applied to eukaryotic cells, viruses, and naked nucleic acids. PMID:25629401

  1. PCR-activated cell sorting for cultivation-free enrichment and sequencing of rare microbes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shaun W; Tran, Tuan M; Abate, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Microbial systems often exhibit staggering diversity, making the study of rare, interesting species challenging. For example, metagenomic analyses of mixed-cell populations are often dominated by the sequences of the most abundant organisms, while those of rare microbes are detected only at low levels, if at all. To overcome this, selective cultivation or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) can be used to enrich for the target species prior to sequence analysis; however, since most microbes cannot be grown in the lab, cultivation strategies often fail, while cell sorting requires techniques to uniquely label the cell type of interest, which is often not possible with uncultivable microbes. Here, we introduce a culture-independent strategy for sorting microbial cells based on genomic content, which we term PCR-activated cell sorting (PACS). This technology, which utilizes the power of droplet-based microfluidics, is similar to FACS in that it uses a fluorescent signal to uniquely identify and sort target species. However, PACS differs importantly from FACS in that the signal is generated by performing PCR assays on the cells in microfluidic droplets, allowing target cells to be identified with high specificity with suitable design of PCR primers and TaqMan probes. The PACS assay is general, requires minimal optimization and, unlike antibody methods, can be developed without access to microbial antigens. Compared to non-specific methods in which cells are sorted based on size, granularity, or the ability to take up dye, PACS enables genetic sequence-specific sorting and recovery of the cell genomes. In addition to sorting microbes, PACS can be applied to eukaryotic cells, viruses, and naked nucleic acids. PMID:25629401

  2. Integration and Testing of Miniaturized Volcanic Gas-Sensing Instruments on UAS Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, T. M.; Kern, C.; Diaz, J. A.; Vanderwaal, S. J.; Levy, A.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanologists measure the concentrations and emission rates of gases emitted from active volcanoes to understand magmatic processes, which aids in eruption forecasting, and to evaluate air quality for human and environmental health. Both of these applications become particularly important during periods of unusually high volcanic unrest when it is typically hazardous to approach a given volcano. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) represent a promising platform for continued gas measurements during unrest, while reducing the risk to volcanologists. Two miniature gas-sensing instruments have been developed specifically for integration onto small UAS platforms. Both instruments weigh 1 kg or less, including integrated power. The microDOAS instrument is an upward-looking UV/vis spectrometer that measures the spectral absorption signature of SO2 and certain halogen oxides in scattered solar radiation. By flying beneath a volcanic plume, the instrument can measure the SO2 content in the plume cross-section which can be used to determine the SO2 emission rate. The miniGas instrument is flown within the volcanic plume and records in situ concentrations of CO2, SO2 and H2S, as well as atmospheric temperature, pressure, relative humidity and GPS location. All data are telemetered back to the base station to immediately alert the operator of potentially hazardous conditions. Both instruments have been successfully tested at active volcanoes in Alaska and Costa Rica and were integrated onto small ACUASI Ptarmigan hexacopters. A test mission was conducted at the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. During this experiment both instruments were successfully flown in flight patterns typical of manned volcanic gas measurements and new UAV-specific measurement strategies were developed. Here we describe the instruments and platforms employed, our experimental results and observations, and make recommendations for application to volcanic settings.

  3. An active contour model algorithm for tracking endocardiac boundaries in echocardiographic sequences.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, P J; Zapata, J; Ruiz, R

    2000-01-01

    The use of active contour models to track the boundaries of anatomic structures in medical images is a technique that has attracted a great number of efforts during the last decade. Segmentation techniques based in deformable active contours were proposed first by Kass et al. Because of the problems appearing using these models, some solutions have been introduced, such as balloon force or Gradient Vector Flow force (GVF), derived from the Gradient Vector Flow vectorial field. Results obtained with these forces in the tracking endocardiac task in echocardiographic sequences were not adequate. We have designed a new external force called hybrid force, which, by combining both forces, joins the main features of each one.

  4. Segmentation and tracking in echocardiographic sequences: active contours guided by optical flow estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, I.; Krucinski, S.; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a method for segmentation and tracking of cardiac structures in ultrasound image sequences. The developed algorithm is based on the active contour framework. This approach requires initial placement of the contour close to the desired position in the image, usually an object outline. Best contour shape and position are then calculated, assuming that at this configuration a global energy function, associated with a contour, attains its minimum. Active contours can be used for tracking by selecting a solution from a previous frame as an initial position in a present frame. Such an approach, however, fails for large displacements of the object of interest. This paper presents a technique that incorporates the information on pixel velocities (optical flow) into the estimate of initial contour to enable tracking of fast-moving objects. The algorithm was tested on several ultrasound image sequences, each covering one complete cardiac cycle. The contour successfully tracked boundaries of mitral valve leaflets, aortic root and endocardial borders of the left ventricle. The algorithm-generated outlines were compared against manual tracings by expert physicians. The automated method resulted in contours that were within the boundaries of intraobserver variability.

  5. Active and dynamic information fusion for facial expression understanding from image sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmian; Ji, Qiang

    2005-05-01

    This paper explores the use of multisensory information fusion technique with Dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) for modeling and understanding the temporal behaviors of facial expressions in image sequences. Our facial feature detection and tracking based on active IR illumination provides reliable visual information under variable lighting and head motion. Our approach to facial expression recognition lies in the proposed dynamic and probabilistic framework based on combining DBNs with Ekman's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for systematically modeling the dynamic and stochastic behaviors of spontaneous facial expressions. The framework not only provides a coherent and unified hierarchical probabilistic framework to represent spatial and temporal information related to facial expressions, but also allows us to actively select the most informative visual cues from the available information sources to minimize the ambiguity in recognition. The recognition of facial expressions is accomplished by fusing not only from the current visual observations, but also from the previous visual evidences. Consequently, the recognition becomes more robust and accurate through explicitly modeling temporal behavior of facial expression. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundation underlying the proposed probabilistic and dynamic framework for facial expression modeling and understanding. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach can accurately and robustly recognize spontaneous facial expressions from an image sequence under different conditions.

  6. Morphological analysis of hummocks in debris avalanche deposits using UAS-derived high-definition topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Naruhashi, Ryutaro; Okumura, Koji; Zaiki, Masumi

    2016-04-01

    Debris avalanche caused by sector collapse of a volcanic mountain often forms depositional landforms with characteristic surface morphology comprising hummocks. Geomorphological and sedimentological analyses of debris avalanche deposits (DAD) at the northeastern face of Mt. Erciyes in central Turkey have been performed to investigate the mechanisms and processes of the debris avalanche. The morphometry of hummocks provides an opportunity to examine the volumetric and kinematic characteristics of the DAD. Although the exact age has been unknown, the sector collapse of this DAD was supposed to have occurred in the late Pleistocene (sometime during 90-20 ka), and subsequent sediment supply from the DAD could have affected ancient human activities in the downstream basin areas. In order to measure detailed surface morphology and depositional structures of the DAD, we apply structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry using unmanned aerial system (UAS) and a handheld camera. The UAS, including small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) and a digital camera, provides low-altitude aerial photographs to capture surface morphology for an area of several square kilometers. A high-resolution topographic data, as well as an orthorectified image, of the hummocks were then obtained from the digital elevation model (DEM), and the geometric features of the hummocks were examined. A handheld camera is also used to obtain photographs of outcrop face of the DAD along a road to support the seimentological investigation. The three-dimensional topographic models of the outcrop, with a panoramic orthorectified image projected on a vertical plane, were obtained. This data enables to effectively describe sedimentological structure of the hummock in DAD. The detailed map of the DAD is also further examined with a regional geomorphological map to be compared with other geomorphological features including fluvial valleys, terraces, lakes and active faults.

  7. The use of the SCEM-UA optimization algorithm in the calibration of the physically based hydrological model SWAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienzner, Michele; Facchi, Arianna; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    In the agricultural seasons 2010 and 2011, an intensive monitoring activity aimed at quantifying fluxes and storage of water in a maize agroecosystem of the Po Valley plain (Northern Italy) was carried out. In the experimental site, instruments for the measurement of water fluxes with the eddy covariance technique were installed. Additionally, in order to measure the terms of the H2O budget also investigating their variability at the field scale, six Intensive Monitoring Plots (IMPs in the following) were identified in the field and instrumentation for the continuous monitoring of water status of the soil (moisture, water potential, groundwater table depth) was installed in each of them. In the two seasons, also periodic campaigns for the determination of biometric parameters of the crop, hydrological parameters of the soil, fluxes of water from maize leaves and from soil were conducted. The experimental field was characterized by a shallow groundwater table depth (0.6 to 1.5 m). In 2010 it was watered by border irrigation, while in 2011 no irrigation events were applied. Monitored data were used to carry out simulations with the physically based hydrological model SWAP (Soil Water Atmosphere Plant model, Kroes and Van Dam, 2003), with the aim of assessing the relative contribution of the various water fluxes (rainfall, irrigation, capillary rise) to maize water requirements. In particular, the SWAP model was implemented using the basis of observational data collected for the two IMPs showing the main differences in terms of soil types, vegetation growth and, limited to 2010, irrigation supply. The two selected IMPs were located at the ends of a transect placed perpendicularly to the irrigation channel. While many parameters and water fluxes necessary for the SWAP implementation and validation were measured directly, it was impossible to detect with sufficient accuracy the saturated hydraulic conductivity at different depths for the two IMPs during the two years of

  8. Imaging cardiac activation sequence during ventricular tachycardia in a canine model of nonischemic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Yu, Long; Zhou, Zhaoye; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2015-01-15

    Noninvasive cardiac activation imaging of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is important in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias in heart failure (HF) patients. This study investigated the ability of the three-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique for characterizing the activation patterns of spontaneously occurring and norepinephrine (NE)-induced VTs in a newly developed arrhythmogenic canine model of nonischemic HF. HF was induced by aortic insufficiency followed by aortic constriction in three canines. Up to 128 body-surface ECGs were measured simultaneously with bipolar recordings from up to 232 intramural sites in a closed-chest condition. Data analysis was performed on the spontaneously occurring VTs (n=4) and the NE-induced nonsustained VTs (n=8) in HF canines. Both spontaneously occurring and NE-induced nonsustained VTs initiated by a focal mechanism primarily from the subendocardium, but occasionally from the subepicardium of left ventricle. Most focal initiation sites were located at apex, right ventricular outflow tract, and left lateral wall. The NE-induced VTs were longer, more rapid, and had more focal sites than the spontaneously occurring VTs. Good correlation was obtained between imaged activation sequence and direct measurements (averaged correlation coefficient of ∼0.70 over 135 VT beats). The reconstructed initiation sites were ∼10 mm from measured initiation sites, suggesting good localization in such a large animal model with cardiac size similar to a human. Both spontaneously occurring and NE-induced nonsustained VTs had focal initiation in this canine model of nonischemic HF. 3DCEI is feasible to image the activation sequence and help define arrhythmia mechanism of nonischemic HF-associated VTs. PMID:25416188

  9. Efficient DNA fingerprinting based on the targeted sequencing of active retrotransposon insertion sites using a bench-top high-throughput sequencing platform.

    PubMed

    Monden, Yuki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Shindo, Akiko; Tahara, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    In many crop species, DNA fingerprinting is required for the precise identification of cultivars to protect the rights of breeders. Many families of retrotransposons have multiple copies throughout the eukaryotic genome and their integrated copies are inherited genetically. Thus, their insertion polymorphisms among cultivars are useful for DNA fingerprinting. In this study, we conducted a DNA fingerprinting based on the insertion polymorphisms of active retrotransposon families (Rtsp-1 and LIb) in sweet potato. Using 38 cultivars, we identified 2,024 insertion sites in the two families with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Of these insertion sites, 91.4% appeared to be polymorphic among the cultivars and 376 cultivar-specific insertion sites were identified, which were converted directly into cultivar-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using these insertion sites, which corresponded well with known pedigree information, thereby indicating their suitability for genetic diversity studies. Thus, the genome-wide comparative analysis of active retrotransposon insertion sites using the bench-top MiSeq sequencing platform is highly effective for DNA fingerprinting without any requirement for whole genome sequence information. This approach may facilitate the development of practical polymerase chain reaction-based cultivar diagnostic system and could also be applied to the determination of genetic relationships.

  10. Large UAS Operations in the NAS - The NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Gregory P.; Howell, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on wildfires throughout Western US. Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20+ hours). Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. Deliver real-time imagery to (within 10-minutes of acquisition).

  11. Point Cloud Generation from sUAS-Mounted iPhone Imagery: Performance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladai, A. D.; Miller, J.

    2014-11-01

    The rapidly growing use of sUAS technology and fast sensor developments continuously inspire mapping professionals to experiment with low-cost airborne systems. Smartphones has all the sensors used in modern airborne surveying systems, including GPS, IMU, camera, etc. Of course, the performance level of the sensors differs by orders, yet it is intriguing to assess the potential of using inexpensive sensors installed on sUAS systems for topographic applications. This paper focuses on the quality analysis of point clouds generated based on overlapping images acquired by an iPhone 5s mounted on a sUAS platform. To support the investigation, test data was acquired over an area with complex topography and varying vegetation. In addition, extensive ground control, including GCPs and transects were collected with GSP and traditional geodetic surveying methods. The statistical and visual analysis is based on a comparison of the UAS data and reference dataset. The results with the evaluation provide a realistic measure of data acquisition system performance. The paper also gives a recommendation for data processing workflow to achieve the best quality of the final products: the digital terrain model and orthophoto mosaic. After a successful data collection the main question is always the reliability and the accuracy of the georeferenced data.

  12. UAS-derived imagery and terrain models for rangeland mapping and monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images from satellites and piloted aircraft have been used extensively for mapping and monitoring rangelands, which comprise approximately 50% of the world’s land area. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are ideally suited for monitoring these vast and remote areas, and derived data can bridge the gap ...

  13. The Use of Uas for Rapid 3d Mapping in Geomatics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Tian-Yuan Shih, Peter; Yu, Sz-Cheng; Tsai, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    With the development of technology, UAS is an advance technology to support rapid mapping for disaster response. The aim of this study is to develop educational modules for UAS data processing in rapid 3D mapping. The designed modules for this study are focused on UAV data processing from available freeware or trial software for education purpose. The key modules include orientation modelling, 3D point clouds generation, image georeferencing and visualization. The orientation modelling modules adopts VisualSFM to determine the projection matrix for each image station. Besides, the approximate ground control points are measured from OpenStreetMap for absolute orientation. The second module uses SURE and the orientation files from previous module for 3D point clouds generation. Then, the ground point selection and digital terrain model generation can be archived by LAStools. The third module stitches individual rectified images into a mosaic image using Microsoft ICE (Image Composite Editor). The last module visualizes and measures the generated dense point clouds in CloudCompare. These comprehensive UAS processing modules allow the students to gain the skills to process and deliver UAS photogrammetric products in rapid 3D mapping. Moreover, they can also apply the photogrammetric products for analysis in practice.

  14. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Delegation of Separation in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) performing delegated separation in the national airspace system (NAS). Delegated separation is the transfer of responsibility for maintaining separation between aircraft or vehicles from air navigation service providers to the relevant pilot or flight operator. The effects of delegated separation and traffic display information level were collected through performance, workload, and situation awareness measures. The results of this study show benefits related to the use of conflict detection alerts being shown on the UAS operator's cockpit situation display (CSD), and to the use of full delegation. Overall, changing the level of separation responsibility and adding conflict detection alerts on the CSD was not found to have an adverse effect on performance as shown by the low amounts of losses of separation. The use of conflict detection alerts on the CSD and full delegation responsibilities given to the UAS operator were found to create significantly reduced workload, significantly increased situation awareness and significantly easier communications between the UAS operator and air traffic controller without significantly increasing the amount of losses of separation.

  15. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Integrated Test and LVC Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim; Hoang, Ty

    2015-01-01

    Overview presentation of the Integrated Test and Evaluation sub-project of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). The emphasis of the presentation is the Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) system (a broadly used name for classifying modeling and simulation) infrastructure and use of external assets and connection.

  16. UAS Integration in the NAS Project Test Site Kick-off Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Witzberger, Kevin; Hackenberg, Davis L.; Murphy, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This briefing was presented during the Test Site Kick Off Meeting to discuss the contract awards for Task 1 and Task 2. This briefing covered a high level overview for contract deliverables, Task 1 - UAS Traffic Management and Task 2, Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Environment.

  17. High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS): Pilot Knowledge, Skills and Abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial work accomplished by the ACCESS 5 Human System Integration (HSI) team to identify Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Pilot Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA), Training and Medical requirements. To derive this information the following tasks were accomplished: a) Mission and Function analyses were performed; b) Applicable FARs and FAA Advisory Circulars (ACs) were reviewed; c) Meetings were conducted with NASA and FAA Human Factors personnel; d) Surveys were completed by ACCESS 5 HSI Working group UA Pilots; e) Coordination meetings were conducted with the ACCESS 5 Policy IPT. The results of these efforts were used to develop a summary of the current qualifications. for an individual to function as a Pilot In Command (PIC) for UAs currently flown by UNITE companies, to develop preliminary Pilot KSAs for each phase of flight, and to delineate preliminary Pilot Training and Medical requirements. These results are to be provided to the Policy IPT to support their development of recommendations for UA Pilot Rating Criteria, training and medical qualifications. It is expected that the initially an instrument rated pilot will be required to serve as the PIC. However, as operational experience is gained, and automation is applied to accomplish various system functions, it is expected that pilot rating criteria could be lessened.

  18. The system of forward-backward drift chambers in the UA2 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conta, C.; Fraternali, M.; Fumagalli, G.; Gildemeister, O.; Goggi, V. G.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Impellizzeri, F.; Iuvino, G.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.; Livan, M.; Madsen, B.; Mantovani, G. C.; Mapelli, L.; Möllerud, R.; Pastore, F.; Rimoldi, A.; Rossini, B.; Vicini, A.

    1984-07-01

    The system of multiplane drift chambers for the forward-backward toroidal spectrometers of the UA2 experiment at the SPS pp¯ collider is described. Details about mechanical design and construction techniques are given. Results on the performance of the chambers are reported.

  19. UAS-based thermal remote sensing for crop water stress detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The remote detection of water stress in a biofuel crop field was investigated using canopy temperature measurements. An experimental trial was set up in the central valley of Maui, Hawaii, comprising different sugarcane varieties and irrigation regimes. An unmanned aerial system (UAS) was equipped w...

  20. Concentrated Study Time and Improved Learning Efficiency: An Experiment Using "Economics U$A."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Paul W.; Niss, James F.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on an experiment that tested whether course length and concentration affect learning. Using the "Economics U$A" television series, compares student performance in two classes taught over differing time periods. Results implied that concentrated time periods for courses may lead to more concentrated student effort. (LS)

  1. JEFX 10 demonstration of Cooperative Hunter Killer UAS and upstream data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Brian K.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Watkins, Adam S.; McCubbin, Christopher B.; Marshall, Steven J.; Barton, Jeffrey D.; Newman, Andrew J.; Peterson, Cammy K.; DeSena, Jonathan T.; Dutrow, Daniel A.; Rodriguez, Pedro A.

    2011-05-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory deployed and demonstrated a prototype Cooperative Hunter Killer (CHK) Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) capability and a prototype Upstream Data Fusion (UDF) capability as participants in the Joint Expeditionary Force Experiment 2010 in April 2010. The CHK capability was deployed at the Nevada Test and Training Range to prosecute a convoy protection operational thread. It used mission-level autonomy (MLA) software applied to a networked swarm of three Raven hunter UAS and a Procerus Miracle surrogate killer UAS, all equipped with full motion video (FMV). The MLA software provides the capability for the hunter-killer swarm to autonomously search an area or road network, divide the search area, deconflict flight paths, and maintain line of sight communications with mobile ground stations. It also provides an interface for an operator to designate a threat and initiate automatic engagement of the target by the killer UAS. The UDF prototype was deployed at the Maritime Operations Center at Commander Second Fleet, Naval Station Norfolk to provide intelligence analysts and the ISR commander with a common fused track picture from the available FMV sources. It consisted of a video exploitation component that automatically detected moving objects, a multiple hypothesis tracker that fused all of the detection data to produce a common track picture, and a display and user interface component that visualized the common track picture along with appropriate geospatial information such as maps and terrain as well as target coordinates and the source video.

  2. Large and small UAS for trace gas measurements in climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; D'Amore, P.; Dutton, G. S.; Nance, J. D.; Hall, B. D.; Gao, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA and CIRES scientists have used Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for the measurement of trace gases involved in climate change since 2005, including both high altitude-long endurance (HALE UAS: NASA Altair & Global Hawk) and 1-m wingspan, small UAS (sUAS: SkyWisp, Aero). These gases include nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), methane (CH4), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), and water vapor (H2O). In particular, atmospheric N2O is the third strongest greenhouse gas (326 parts-per-billion, ppb) and is the largest increasing stratospheric ozone depleting gas in terms of future emissions (~4 Tg N2O-N yr-1), primarily from fertilizer use. Atmospheric SF6, another potent greenhouse gas, is present globally at 8.2 parts-per-trillion (ppt) and growing at a rate of 0.25 ppt yr-1, and is used primarily in electrical power distribution. It is an excellent indicator of transport timescales (e.g., mean age) in the troposphere and stratosphere, because of its source distribution (~95% emitted in NH), long atmospheric lifetime (~600-3200 yr), and large relative atmospheric growth rate (~3%). We have developed atmospheric instrumentation for HALE platforms using a two-channel gas chromatograph with an ozone photometer and a water vapor tunable diode laser spectrometer. We are currently investigating a sUAS glider (SkyWisp) for balloon-assisted high altitude flights (30 km) and propeller driven sUAS (Aero) as a test bed for a new autopilot (Pixhawk, 3DRobotics). Our motivation for utilizing this autopilot is a low cost, open source autopilot alternative that can be used to return AirCore samples from high altitude balloons for quick laboratory analysis. The goal is a monitoring program to understand transport changes as a result of climate change during different seasons at many locations from a balloon-borne package (Moore et al., BAMS, pp. 147-155, Jan. 2014). The glider version of our open source autopilot system is also being considered for a

  3. Elucidation of peptide sequence effects that control the activity, size, and function of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppage, Ryan

    Bio-inspired nanoparticle catalysis offers the opportunity to improve on current catalytic standards with respect to turnover efficiency, organic solvent use, and thermal activation. Unfortunately, projected energy demands will soon outweigh our fuel supplies. The task of creating multifunctional catalysts that both lower thermal activation and possess a number of functions in aqueous conditions is daunting. Similar to these needs, nature has evolved to create a wide range of highly specialized catalytic processes, which incorporate inorganic materials, take place in ambient temperatures, and in an aqueous environment. These specialized biological systems provide inspiration, but are not applicable to current needs. Exploitation of these biotic-abiotic systems could allow for green, multifunctional catalysts. In the resulting works, a peptide sequence has been isolated via phage display with affinity for Pd surfaces, that forms stable, peptide-capped nanoparticles. Substitution of residues results in the tuning of both nanocatalyst activity and nanoparticle size, such that a peptide surface-controlling effect can be noted. These characteristics can be exploited to ultimately understand the binding interactions among bio-inorganic interfaces, such that a rational design of biomolecules can be realized for the synthesis of highly active, green, multifunctional nanomaterials.

  4. Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Proteins from Maize Cluster in Two Sequence Subgroups with Differential Aquaporin Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Chaumont, François; Barrieu, François; Jung, Rudolf; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    2000-01-01

    The transport of water through membranes is regulated in part by aquaporins or water channel proteins. These proteins are members of the larger family of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Plant aquaporins are categorized as either tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) or plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs). Sequence analysis shows that PIPs form several subclasses. We report on the characterization of three maize (Zea mays) PIPs belonging to the PIP1 and PIP2 subfamilies (ZmPIP1a, ZmPIP1b, and ZmPIP2a). The ZmPIP2a clone has normal aquaporin activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes. ZmPIP1a and ZmPIP1b have no activity, and a review of the literature shows that most PIP1 proteins identified in other plants have no or very low activity in oocytes. Arabidopsis PIP1 proteins are the only exception. Control experiments show that this lack of activity of maize PIP1 proteins is not caused by their failure to arrive at the plasma membrane of the oocytes. ZmPIP1b also does not appear to facilitate the transport of any of the small solutes tried (glycerol, choline, ethanol, urea, and amino acids). These results are discussed in relationship to the function and regulation of the PIP family of aquaporins. PMID:10759498

  5. Evaluating Alerting and Guidance Performance of a UAS Detect-And-Avoid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seung Man; Park, Chunki; Thipphavong, David P.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge to the routine, safe operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) is the development of detect-and-avoid (DAA) systems to aid the UAS pilot in remaining "well clear" of nearby aircraft. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of alerting criteria and pilot response delay on the safety and performance of UAS DAA systems in the context of routine civil UAS operations in the National Airspace System (NAS). A NAS-wide fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess UAS DAA system performance with a large number of encounters and a broad set of DAA alerting and guidance system parameters. Three attributes of the DAA system were controlled as independent variables in the study to conduct trade-off analyses: UAS trajectory prediction method (dead-reckoning vs. intent-based), alerting time threshold (related to predicted time to LoWC), and alerting distance threshold (related to predicted Horizontal Miss Distance, or HMD). A set of metrics, such as the percentage of true positive, false positive, and missed alerts, based on signal detection theory and analysis methods utilizing the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were proposed to evaluate the safety and performance of DAA alerting and guidance systems and aid development of DAA system performance standards. The effect of pilot response delay on the performance of DAA systems was evaluated using a DAA alerting and guidance model and a pilot model developed to support this study. A total of 18 fast-time simulations were conducted with nine different DAA alerting threshold settings and two different trajectory prediction methods, using recorded radar traffic from current Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations, and supplemented with DAA-equipped UAS traffic based on mission profiles modeling future UAS operations. Results indicate DAA alerting distance threshold has a greater effect on DAA system performance than DAA alerting time threshold or ownship trajectory prediction method

  6. High Uric Acid (UA) Negatively Affects Serum Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b) Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Erfu; Song, Wei-Juan; Yang, Rui-Xia; Yan, Cheng-Jing; Zhang, Bing-Feng; Xu, Hua-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone metastases often occur in the majority of patients with advanced cancer, such as prostate cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b), a novel bone resorption marker, has been used gradually in the clinics as a specific and sensitive marker of bone resorption for the early diagnosis of cancer patients with bone metastasis. Here, we reported that high concentrations of uric acid (UA) lead to decrease of TRACP 5b levels and determined whether TRACP 5b level was associated with UA in interference experiment. Methods A total of 77 patients with high concentrations of UA and 77 healthy subjects were tested to evaluate the differences in their TRACP 5b levels. Serial dilutions of UA were respectively spiked with a known concentration of TRACP 5b standard sample, then Serum TRACP 5b was detected by using bone TRAP® Assay. A correction equation was set to eliminate UA-derived TRACP 5b false-decrease. The effect of this correction was evaluated in high-UA individuals. Results The average TRACP level of the high-UA individuals (1.47± 0.62 U/L) was significantly lower than that of the healthy subjects (2.62 ± 0.63 U/L) (t-test, p<0.0001). The UA correction equation derived: ΔTRACP 5b = -1.9751lgΔUA + 3.7365 with an R2 = 0.98899. Application of the UA correction equation resulted in a statistically non-significant difference in TRACP 5b values between the healthy subjects and high-UA individuals (p = 0.24). Conclusions High UA concentrations can falsely decrease TRACP 5b levels due to a method-related systematic error. To avoid misdiagnoses or inappropriate therapeutic decisions, increased attention should be paid to UA interference, when TRACP 5b is used for early diagnosis of cancer patients with bone metastasis, evaluation of the aggressiveness of osteosarcoma or prediction of survival in prostate cancer and breast cancer with bone metastases. PMID:26800211

  7. FacB, the Aspergillus nidulans activator of acetate utilization genes, binds dissimilar DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, R B; Andrianopoulos, A; Davis, M A; Hynes, M J

    1998-01-01

    The facB gene is required for acetate induction of acetamidase (amdS) and the acetate utilization enzymes acetyl-CoA synthase (facA), isocitrate lyase (acuD) and malate synthase (acuE) in Aspergillus nidulans. The facB gene encodes a transcriptional activator with a GAL4-type Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc binuclear cluster DNA-binding domain which is shown to be required for DNA binding. In vitro DNA-binding sites for FacB in the 5' regions of the amdS, facA, acuD and acuE genes have been identified. Mutations in amdS FacB DNA-binding sites affected expression of an amdS-lacZ reporter in vivo and altered the affinity of in vitro DNA binding. This study shows that the FacB Zn(II)2Cys6 cluster binds to dissimilar sites which show similarity in form but not sequence with DNA-binding sites of other Zn(II)2Cys6 proteins. Sequences with homology to FacB sites are found in the 5' regions of genes regulated by the closely related yeast Zn(II)2Cys6 protein CAT8. PMID:9524126

  8. Sequence diversity and enzyme activity of ferric-chelate reductase LeFRO1 in tomato.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyu; Chen, Chunlin; Wu, Huilan; Li, Ye; Li, Junming; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2013-11-20

    Ferric-chelate reductase which functions in the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron on root surface is a critical protein for iron homeostasis in strategy I plants. LeFRO1 is a major ferric-chelate reductase involved in iron uptake in tomato. To identify the natural variations of LeFRO1 and to assess their effect on the ferric-chelate reductase activity, we cloned the coding sequences of LeFRO1 from 16 tomato varieties collected from different regions, and detected three types of LeFRO1 (LeFRO1(MM), LeFRO1(Ailsa) and LeFRO1(Monita)) with five amino acid variations at the positions 21, 24, 112, 195 and 582. Enzyme activity assay revealed that the three types of LeFRO1 possessed different ferric-chelate reductase activity (LeFRO1(Ailsa) > LeFRO1(MM) > LeFRO1(Monita)). The 112th amino acid residue Ala of LeFRO1 is critical for maintaining the high activity of ferric-chelate reductase, because modification of this amino acid resulted in a significant reduction of enzyme activity. Further, we showed that the combination of the amino acid residue Ile at the site 24 with Lys at the site 582 played a positive role in the enzyme activity of LeFRO1. In conclusion, the findings are helpful to understand the natural adaptation mechanisms of plants to iron-limiting stress, and may provide new knowledge to select and manipulate LeFRO1 for improving the iron deficiency tolerance in tomato.

  9. Target sequence accessibility limits activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Popov, Sergey W; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Wotschke, Beate; Brüderlein, Silke; Barth, Thomas F; Dorsch, Karola; Ritz, Olga; Möller, Peter; Leithäuser, Frank

    2007-07-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) in activated B lymphocytes and is potentially implicated in genomic instability of B-cell malignancies. For unknown reasons, B-cell neoplasms often lack SHM and CSR in spite of high AID expression. Here, we show that primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-negative lymphoma that possesses hypermutated, class-switched Ig genes, expresses high levels of AID with an intact primary structure but does not do CSR in 14 of 16 cases analyzed. Absence of CSR coincided with low Ig germ-line transcription, whereas high level germ-line transcription was observed only in those two cases with active CSR. Interleukin-4/CD40L costimulation induced CSR and a marked up-regulation of germ-line transcription in the PMBL-derived cell line MedB-1. In the PMBL cell line Karpas 1106P, CSR was not inducible and germ-line transcription remained low on stimulation. However, Karpas 1106P, but not MedB-1, had ongoing SHM of the Ig gene and BCL6. These genes were transcribed in Karpas 1106P, whereas transcription was undetectable or low in MedB-1 cells. Thus, accessibility of the target sequences seems to be a major limiting factor for AID-dependent somatic gene diversification in PMBL. PMID:17638864

  10. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  11. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  12. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M. Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  13. The Discovery of Solar-like Activity Cycles Beyond the End of the Main Sequence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Route, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    The long-term magnetic behavior of objects near the cooler end of the stellar main sequence is poorly understood. Most theoretical work on the generation of magnetism in these ultracool dwarfs (spectral type ≥M7 stars and brown dwarfs) suggests that their magnetic fields should not change in strength and direction. Using polarized radio emission measurements of their magnetic field orientations, I demonstrate that these cool, low-mass, fully convective objects appear to undergo magnetic polarity reversals analogous to those that occur on the Sun. This powerful new technique potentially indicates that the patterns of magnetic activity displayed by the Sun continue to exist, despite the fully convective interiors of these objects, in contravention of several leading theories of the generation of magnetic fields by internal dynamos.

  14. Thermal infrared imaging of GGD27-IRS. The active pre-main sequence star revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspin, C.; Puxley, P. J.; Blanco, P. R.; Pina, R. K.; Pickup, D. A.; Paterson, M. J.; Sylvester, J.; Laird, D. C.; Bridger, A.; Daly, P. N.; Griffin, J. L.

    1994-12-01

    We present near-IR (NIR) 2.2-4.7 micrometer imaging of the core region of the pre-main sequence bipolar CO outflow source GGD27-IRS. Indirect evidence from earlier imaging polarimetry and long-slit spectroscopy suggested that the true young active star in the region, GGD27-ILL, is heavily embedded and completely obscured even at 2 micrometers. Our new 4.7 micrometer images directly detect this source for the first time locating it at 2.0 sec west, 1.3 sec south of the bright NIR source IRS2. This position is 0.2 sec from the position derived from our earlier NIR polarization maps. New mid-IR images of the core region show three point-like sources which are identified as GGD27-ILL, IRS7 and IRS8. We discuss the morphological composition of the core region in light of our discovery.

  15. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study. 2; Evaluating Detect and Avoid Technology and Communication Delays in Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of communications delays and winds on air traffic controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from Detect and Avoid (DAA) self-separation algorithms (Stratway+) displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Control System. This guidance consisted of amber "bands" on the heading scale of the UAS navigation display indicating headings that would result in a loss of well clear between the UAS and nearby traffic. Winds tested were successfully handled by the DAA algorithms and did not affect the controller acceptability ratings of the HMDs. Voice communications delays for the UAS were also tested and included one-way delay times of 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS. Information from this study will also be of value to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 228 - Minimum Performance Standards for UAS.

  16. 75 FR 61452 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Military Training Activities at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Demolition Training Range, construction of a joint range administration/Unmanned Aerial System (UAS... systems, vehicles, and aircraft, in addition to accommodating training activities currently conducted...

  17. The influence of viral coding sequences on pestivirus IRES activity reveals further parallels with translation initiation in prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Simon P; Ali, Iraj K; Kaminski, Ann; Digard, Paul; Jackson, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a member of the pestivirus family, which shares many features in common with hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is shown here that CSFV has an exceptionally efficient cis-acting internal ribosome entry segment (IRES), which, like that of HCV, is strongly influenced by the sequences immediately downstream of the initiation codon, and is optimal with viral coding sequences in this position. Constructs that retained 17 or more codons of viral coding sequence exhibited full IRES activity, but with only 12 codons, activity was approximately 66% of maximum in vitro (though close to maximum in transfected BHK cells), whereas with just 3 codons or fewer, the activity was only approximately 15% of maximum. The minimal coding region elements required for high activity were exchanged between HCV and CSFV. Although maximum activity was observed in each case with the homologous combination of coding region and 5' UTR, the heterologous combinations were sufficiently active to rule out a highly specific functional interplay between the 5' UTR and coding sequences. On the other hand, inversion of the coding sequences resulted in low IRES activity, particularly with the HCV coding sequences. RNA structure probing showed that the efficiency of internal initiation of these chimeric constructs correlated most closely with the degree of single-strandedness of the region around and immediately downstream of the initiation codon. The low activity IRESs could not be rescued by addition of supplementary eIF4A (the initiation factor with ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity). The extreme sensitivity to secondary structure around the initiation codon is likely to be due to the fact that the eIF4F complex (which has eIF4A as one of its subunits) is not required for and does not participate in initiation on these IRESs. PMID:12515388

  18. Electrophysiological and structural determinants of electrotonic modulation of repolarization by the activation sequence

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Richard D.; Benson, Alan P.; Hardy, Matthew E. L.; White, Ed; Bernus, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Spatial dispersion of repolarization is known to play an important role in arrhythmogenesis. Electrotonic modulation of repolarization by the activation sequence has been observed in some species and tissue preparations, but to varying extents. Our study sought to determine the mechanisms underlying species- and tissue-dependent electrotonic modulation of repolarization in ventricles. Epi-fluorescence optical imaging of whole rat hearts and pig left ventricular wedges were used to assess epicardial spatial activation and repolarization characteristics. Experiments were supported by computer simulations using realistic geometries. Tight coupling between activation times (AT) and action potential duration (APD) were observed in rat experiments but not in pig. Linear correlation analysis found slopes of −1.03 ± 0.59 and −0.26 ± 0.13 for rat and pig, respectively (p < 0.0001). In rat, maximal dispersion of APD was 11.0 ± 3.1 ms but dispersion of repolarization time (RT) was relatively homogeneous (8.2 ± 2.7, p < 0.0001). However, in pig no such difference was observed between the dispersion of APD and RT (17.8 ± 6.1 vs. 17.7 ± 6.5, respectively). Localized elevations of APD (12.9 ± 8.3%) were identified at ventricular insertion sites of rat hearts both in experiments and simulations. Tissue geometry and action potential (AP) morphology contributed significantly to determining influence of electrotonic modulation. Simulations of a rat AP in a pig geometry decreased the slope of AT and APD relationships by 70.6% whereas slopes were increased by 75.0% when implementing a pig AP in a rat geometry. A modified pig AP, shortened to match the rat APD, showed little coupling between AT and APD with greatly reduced slope compared to the rat AP. Electrotonic modulation of repolarization by the activation sequence is especially pronounced in small hearts with murine-like APs. Tissue architecture and AP morphology play an important role in electrotonic modulation of

  19. Pattern of active and inactive sequences of diabetes self-monitoring in mobile phone and paper diary users.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Nikhil S; Jing Wang

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot randomized controlled trial involving overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes, we find that smartphone users have sharply higher adherence to self-monitoring of diet, physical activity, blood glucose, and body weight, as compared to paper diary users. By characterizing the pattern of adherence with the probability of continuation of active and inactive sequences of self-monitoring, we find that smartphone users have longer active sequences of self-monitoring of all four behaviors that were being monitored. Smartphone users are also quicker to resume self-monitoring of diet and physical activity after a lapse in self-monitoring, whereas paper diary users have shorter inactive sequences for monitoring blood glucose and body weight. The findings are informative for data collection methodology in this burgeoning area of research.

  20. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  1. UAS Integration into the NAS: Detect and Avoid Display Evaluations in Support of SC-228 MOPS Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, Conrad; Shively, Jay

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work the Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project has done on detect and avoid (DAA) displays while working on the UAS Integration into the NAS project. Much of the work has been used to support the ongoing development of minimum operational performance standards (MOPS) for UAS by RTCA Special Committee 228. The design and results of three different human-in-the-loop simulations are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of the UAS pilot in the Self Separation Timeline.

  2. The activation sequence of cellular protein handling systems after proteasomal inhibition in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction of protein handling has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases and inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been linked to the formation of protein aggregates and proteinopathies in such diseases. While proteasomal inhibition could trigger an array of downstream protein handling changes including up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), induction of molecular chaperones, activation of the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and aggresome formation, little is known of the relationship of proteasomal inhibition to the sequence of activation of these diverse protein handling systems. In this study we utilized the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG132 and examined the activity of several major protein handling systems in the immortalized dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell line. In the early phase (up to 6 hours after proteasomal inhibition), MG132 induced time-dependent proteasomal inhibition which resulted in stimulation of the UPR, increased autophagic flux and stimulated heat shock protein response as determined by increased levels of phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/GADD153, turnover of autophagy related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and increased levels of Hsp70 respectively. After prolonged proteasomal inhibition induced by MG132, we observed the formation of vimentin-caged aggresome-like inclusion bodies. A recovery study after MG132-induced proteasomal inhibition indicated that the autophagy-lysosomal pathway participated in the clearance of aggresomes. Our data characterizes the relationship between proteasome inhibition and activation of other protein handling systems. These data also indicated that the induction of alternate protein handling systems and their temporal relationships may be important factors that determine the extent of accumulation of misfolded proteins in cells as a result of

  3. Parameter Impact on Sharing Studies Between UAS CNPC Satellite Transmitters and Terrestrial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a control and non-payload communication (CNPC) link for civil-use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) when operating in beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) conditions, satellite communication links are generally required. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has determined that the CNPC link must operate over protected aviation safety spectrum allocations. Although a suitable allocation exists in the 5030-5091 MHz band, no satellites provide operations in this band and none are currently planned. In order to avoid a very lengthy delay in the deployment of UAS in BLOS conditions, it has been proposed to use existing satellites operating in the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS), of which many operate in several spectrum bands. Regulatory actions by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) are needed to enable such a use on an international basis, and indeed Agenda Item (AI) 1.5 for the 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) was established to decide on the enactment of possible regulatory provisions. As part of the preparation for AI 1.5, studies on the sharing FSS bands between existing services and CNPC for UAS are being contributed by NASA and others. These studies evaluate the potential impact of satellite CNPC transmitters operating from UAS on other in-band services, and on the potential impact of other in-band services on satellite CNPC receivers operating on UAS platforms. Such studies are made more complex by the inclusion of what are essentially moving FSS earth stations, compared to typical sharing studies between fixed elements. Hence, the process of determining the appropriate technical parameters for the studies meets with difficulty. In order to enable a sharing study to be completed in a less-than-infinite amount of time, the number of parameters exercised must be greatly limited. Therefore, understanding the impact of various parameter choices is accomplished through selectivity analyses. In the case of sharing

  4. The Pollino Seismic Sequence: Activated Graben Structures in a Seismic Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rößler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Bindi, Dino; Cesca, Simone; Hainzl, Sebatian; Maccaferri, Francesco; Rivalta, Eleonora; Woith, Heiko; Dahm, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (Southern Apennines, Italy) represent one of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalogue, with no M>5.5 earthquakes during the last centuries. In historical times several swarm-like seismic sequences occurred in the area including two intense swarms within the past two decades. The most energetic one started in 2010 and has been still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on 25 October. The range hosts a number of opposing normal faults forming a graben-like structure. Their rheology and their interactions are unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host large earthquakes and the style of deformation. Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faults is necessary to assess the tectonics and the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have jointly monitored the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Based on this installation, we located more than 16,000 local earthquakes that occurred between November 2012 and September 2014. Here we investigate quantitatively all the phases of the seismic sequence starting from January 2010. Event locations along with moment tensor inversion constrain spatially the structures activated by the swarm and the migration pattern of the seismicity. The seismicity forms clusters concentrated within the southern part of the MB and along the Pollino Fault linking MB and CF. Most earthquakes are confined to the upper 10 km of the crust in an area of ~15x15 km2. However, sparse seismicity at depths between 15 and 20 km and moderate seismicity further north with deepening hypocenters also exist. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic; only the northern part has experienced micro-seismicity. The spatial distribution is however more complex than the major tectonic structures

  5. CA1 cell activity sequences emerge after reorganization of network correlation structure during associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Mehrab N; Dhawale, Ashesh K; Bhalla, Upinder S

    2014-01-01

    Animals can learn causal relationships between pairs of stimuli separated in time and this ability depends on the hippocampus. Such learning is believed to emerge from alterations in network connectivity, but large-scale connectivity is difficult to measure directly, especially during learning. Here, we show that area CA1 cells converge to time-locked firing sequences that bridge the two stimuli paired during training, and this phenomenon is coupled to a reorganization of network correlations. Using two-photon calcium imaging of mouse hippocampal neurons we find that co-time-tuned neurons exhibit enhanced spontaneous activity correlations that increase just prior to learning. While time-tuned cells are not spatially organized, spontaneously correlated cells do fall into distinct spatial clusters that change as a result of learning. We propose that the spatial re-organization of correlation clusters reflects global network connectivity changes that are responsible for the emergence of the sequentially-timed activity of cell-groups underlying the learned behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01982.001 PMID:24668171

  6. Understanding the granulation process of activated sludge in a biological phosphorus removal sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Yong; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Ran-Deng; Zhou, Yue-Xi

    2012-02-01

    The granulation of activated sludge was investigated using two parallel sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated in biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal conditions though the reactor configuration and operating parameters did not favor the granulation. Granules were not observed when the SBR was operated in biological nitrogen removal period for 30d. However, aerobic granules were formed naturally without the increase of aeration intensity when enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was achieved. It can be detected that plenty of positive charged particles were formed with the release of phosphorus during the anaerobic period of EBPR. The size of the particles was about 5-20 μm and their highest positive ζ potential was about 73 mV. These positive charged particles can stimulate the granulation. Based on the experimental results, a hypothesis was proposed to interpret the granulation process of activated sludge in the EBPR process in SBR. Dense and compact subgranules were formed stimulated by the positive charged particles. The subgranules grew gradually by collision, adhesion and attached growth of bacteria. Finally, the extrusion and shear of hydrodynamic shear force would help the maturation of granules. Aerobic granular SBR showed excellent biological phosphorus removal ability. The average phosphorus removal efficiency was over 95% and the phosphorus in the effluent was below 0.50 mg L(-1) during the operation.

  7. Activation of the lac genes of Tn951 by insertion sequences from Pseudomonas cepacia.

    PubMed

    Wood, M S; Lory, C; Lessie, T G

    1990-04-01

    We have identified three transposable gene-activating elements from Pseudomonas cepacia on the basis of their abilities to increase expression of the lac genes of the broad-host-range plasmid pGC91.14 (pRP1::Tn951). When introduced into auxotrophic derivatives of P. cepacia 249 (ATCC 17616), this plasmid failed to confer the ability to utilize lactose. The lac genes of Tn951 were poorly expressed in P. cepacia and were not induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. Lac+ variants of the pGC91.14-containing strains which formed beta-galactosidase at high constitutive levels as a consequence of transposition of insertion sequences from the P. cepacia genome to sites upstream of the lacZ gene of Tn951 were isolated. Certain of the elements also increased gene expression in other bacteria. For example, IS407 strongly activated the lacZ gene of Tn951 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and IS406 (but not IS407) did so in Zymomonas mobilis. The results indicate that IS elements from P. cepacia have potential for turning on the expression of foreign genes in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:2156800

  8. Sequence-specific apolipoprotein A-I effects on lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Dergunov, Alexander D

    2013-06-01

    Existing kinetic data of cholesteryl ester formation by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in discoidal high-density lipoproteins with 34 mutations of apoA-I that involved all putative helices were grouped by cluster analysis into four noncoincident regions with mutations both without any functional impairment and with profound isolated (V- and K-mutations) or common (VK-mutations) effect on V(max)(app) and K(m)(app). Data were analyzed with a new kinetic model of LCAT activity at interface that exploits the efficiency of LCAT binding to the particle, particle dimensions, and surface concentrations of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. V-mutations with major location in the central part and C-domain affected the second-order rate constant of cholesteryl ester formation at the solvolysis of acyl-enzyme intermediate by cholesterol as nucleophile. The central region in apoA-I sequence is suggested to influence the proper positioning of cholesterol molecule toward LCAT active center with major contribution of arginine residue(s). K-mutations with major location in N-domain may affect binding and stability of enzyme-phosphatidylcholine complex. VK-mutations may possess mixed effects; the independent binding measurement may segregate individual steps. PMID:23516040

  9. Shared Investment Projects and Forecasting Errors: Setting Framework Conditions for Coordination and Sequencing Data Quality Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments’ efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that—in some setups—a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm’s point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that—in particular for relatively good forecasters—most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model. PMID:25803736

  10. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model. PMID:25803736

  11. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  12. Effects of bail activation sequence and feed availability on cow traffic and milk harvesting capacity in a robotic rotary dairy.

    PubMed

    Kolbach, R; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C; Dhand, N K

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different bail activation sequences in combination with feed availability on cow traffic and harvesting capacity in a novel prototype robotic rotary (RR; DeLaval AMR, Tumba, Sweden). The RR can milk up to 50 cows/h. However, in voluntary cow traffic systems, the number of cows presenting may be low at certain times of the day (or during certain months or seasons in seasonal calving systems). In these circumstances, the ratio of active bails to the number of cows available may be undesirably high, with consequential negative effects on system efficiency and milk quality (the RR does not flush individual units automatically after each milking). Activating only 50% of the bails may be a management strategy chosen to cope with periods of underutilization. Four treatments with a total activation of 50% of bails [8 bails with activation sequences of 8, 4, 2, or 1 consecutive bail(s)], with or without the presence of feed on the RR, were observed during sixteen 4-h observation periods after a system wash. The absence of feed resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of available bails remaining idle, but no significant differences were observed across the 4 bail activation sequences. Overall, the effect of bail activation sequence on cow traffic was negligible, but the sequences that had more consecutive bail activations resulted in more robot operations being conducted simultaneously and more milk being harvested per minute of robot operation time. A feeding function upon entry to the RR platform, in combination with bails activated sequentially, would lead to a more efficient use of the RR. PMID:23415530

  13. Characterization and sequencing of an active-site cysteine-containing peptide from the xylanase of a thermotolerant Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Keskar, S S; Rao, M B; Deshpande, V V

    1992-02-01

    The kinetics of chemical modification of the xylanase from a thermotolerant Streptomyces T7 indicated the involvement of 1 mol of cysteine residue/mol of enzyme [Keskar, Srinivasan & Deshpande (1989) Biochem. J. 261, 49-55]. The chromophoric reagent N-(2,4-dinitroanilino)maleimide (DAM) reacts covalently with thiol groups of xylanase with complete inactivation. Protection against inactivation was provided by the substrate (xylan). The purified xylanase that had been modified with DAM was digested with pepsin and the peptides were purified by gel filtration followed by peptide mapping. The active-site peptide was distinguished from the other thiol-containing peptides by comparison of the peptides generated by labelling the enzyme in the presence and in the absence of the substrate. The peptide mapping of the modified enzyme in the absence of xylan showed three yellow peptides, whereas in the presence of xylan only two yellow peptides were detected. The active-site peptide protected by the substrate failed to form the complex with DAM. The modified active-site peptide was isolated and sequenced. Gas-phase sequencing provided the following sequence: Ser-Val-Ile-Met-Xaa-Ile-Asp-His-Ile-Arg-Phe. This is the first report on the isolation and sequencing of the active-site peptide from a xylanase. The comparison of reactive cysteine-containing peptide sequence with the catalytic regions of other glucanases revealed the presence of a conserved aspartic acid residue.

  14. UAS in the NAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-1: The Effects of Horizontal Miss Distances on Simulated UAS and Manned Aircraft Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghatas, Rania W.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined air traffic controller acceptability ratings based on the effects of differing horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft. In a simulation of the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) East-side airspace, the CAS-1 experiment at NASA Langley Research Center enlisted fourteen recently retired DFW air traffic controllers to rate well-clear volumes based on differing HMDs that ranged from 0.5 NM to 3.0 NM. The controllers were tasked with rating these HMDs from "too small" to "too excessive" on a defined, 1-5, scale and whether these distances caused any disruptions to the controller and/or to the surrounding traffic flow. Results of the study indicated a clear favoring towards a particular HMD range. Controller workload was also measured. Data from this experiment and subsequent experiments will play a crucial role in the FAA's establishment of rules, regulations, and procedures to safely and efficiently integrate UAS into the NAS.

  15. Cognitive context detection in UAS operators using eye-gaze patterns on computer screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannaru, Pujitha; Balasingam, Balakumar; Pattipati, Krishna; Sibley, Ciara; Coyne, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of eye-gaze metrics of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) operators as effective indices of their cognitive workload. Our analyses are based on an experiment where twenty participants performed pre-scripted UAS missions of three different difficulty levels by interacting with two custom designed graphical user interfaces (GUIs) that are displayed side by side. First, we compute several eye-gaze metrics, traditional eye movement metrics as well as newly proposed ones, and analyze their effectiveness as cognitive classifiers. Most of the eye-gaze metrics are computed by dividing the computer screen into "cells". Then, we perform several analyses in order to select metrics for effective cognitive context classification related to our specific application; the objective of these analyses are to (i) identify appropriate ways to divide the screen into cells; (ii) select appropriate metrics for training and classification of cognitive features; and (iii) identify a suitable classification method.

  16. A UAS-based remote sensing platform for crop water stress detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, D.; Ayars, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The remote detection of water stress in a biofuel crop field was investigated using canopy temperature measurements. An experimental trial was set up in the central valley of Maui, Hawaii, comprising different sugarcane varieties and irrigation regimes. An unmanned aerial system (UAS) was equipped with a FLIR A615 thermal camera to acquire canopy temperature imagery. Images were mosaicked and processed to show spatial temperature difference of entire field. A weather station was installed in a full irrigation plot to collect meteorological parameters. The sensitivity of canopy to air temperature difference and crop water stress index were investigated on detecting cop water stress levels. The results showed that low irrigation level treatment plots resulted in higher canopy temperatures compared to the high irrigation level treatment plots. Canopy temperatures also showed differences in water stress in different sugarcane varieties. The study demonstrated the feasibility of UAS-based thermal method to quantify plant water status of sugar canes used for biofuel crops.

  17. Synthesis, anti-mycobacterial activity and DNA sequence-selectivity of a library of biaryl-motifs containing polyamides.

    PubMed

    Brucoli, Federico; Guzman, Juan D; Maitra, Arundhati; James, Colin H; Fox, Keith R; Bhakta, Sanjib

    2015-07-01

    The alarming rise of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains, compel the development of new molecules with novel modes of action to control this world health emergency. Distamycin analogues containing N-terminal biaryl-motifs 2(1-5)(1-7) were synthesised using a solution-phase approach and evaluated for their anti-mycobacterial activity and DNA-sequence selectivity. Thiophene dimer motif-containing polyamide 2(2,6) exhibited 10-fold higher inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared to distamycin and library member 2(5,7) showed high binding affinity for the 5'-ACATAT-3' sequence.

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project. NASA Contributions to the SARP WC Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Debra K.; Consiglio, Maria Cristina; Santiago, Confesor

    2014-01-01

    To better inform sense and avoid research needs and to understand ongoing investigation of potential solutions that ultimately lead to the assisting the FAA with their Congressional mandate to fly UAS in the NAS.

  19. Functional Requirements Document for HALE UAS Operations in the NAS: Step 1. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Functional Requirements Document (FRD) is to compile the functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 Vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the national airspace system (NAS)" for Step 1. These functional requirements could support the development of a minimum set of policies, procedures and standards by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and various standards organizations. It is envisioned that this comprehensive body of work will enable the FAA to establish and approve regulations to govern safe operation of UAS in the NAS on a routine or daily "file and fly" basis. The approach used to derive the functional requirements found within this FRD was to decompose the operational requirements and objectives identified within the Access 5 Concept of Operations (CONOPS) into the functions needed to routinely and safely operate a HALE UAS in the NAS. As a result, four major functional areas evolved to enable routine and safe UAS operations for an on-demand basis in the NAS. These four major functions are: Aviate, Navigate, Communicate, and Avoid Hazards. All of the functional requirements within this document can be directly traceable to one of these four major functions. Some functions, however, are traceable to several, or even all, of these four major functions. These cross-cutting functional requirements support the "Command / Control: function as well as the "Manage Contingencies" function. The requirements associated to these high-level functions and all of their supporting low-level functions are addressed in subsequent sections of this document.

  20. UAS Integration into the NAS: HSI Full Mission Simulation Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Jay; Fern, Lisa; Rorie, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Full Mission Sim was to examine the effects of different command and control interfaces on UAS pilots' ability to respond to ATC commands and traffic advisories. Results suggest that higher levels of automation (i.e., waypoint-to-waypoint control interfaces) lead to longer initial response times and longer edit times. The findings demonstrate the importance of providing pilots with interfaces that facilitate their ability to get back "in the loop."

  1. Assessing Spectrum Compatibility for Beyond-Line-of-Sight UAS Control and Non-Payload Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide for the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS), the control and non-payload communications (CNPC) link must be highly reliable. A specific requirement is that it must operate using aviation safety radiofrequency spectrum. Two types of links are required - line-of-sight (LOS) using terrestrial-based communications and beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) using satellite communications. The 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) provided a suitable allocation for LOS CNPC spectrum in the 5030 to 5091 MHz band which, when combined with a previously existing allocation fulfills the LOS spectrum requirement. The 5030 to 5091 MHz band is also allocated for BLOS CNPC, but since a significant portion of that band is required for LOS CNPC, additional BLOS spectrum is required. More critically, there are no satellites in operation or in development to provide such services in that band. Hence BLOS CNPC cannot be provided in protected aviation spectrum under current conditions. To fill this gap and enable integration of UAS into the NAS, it has been proposed to allow CNPC to operate over certain Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) bands in which many satellites currently provide commercial services. To enable this, changes in international regulation must be enacted. Agenda Item 1.5 of the 2015 WRC examines the possible regulatory changes needed. As part of the examination process, sharing between potential UAS using satellite communications for BLOS CNPC and other services allocated to the FSS bands being considered must be studied. This paper reviews the technical requirements and approach being undertaken for these sharing studies, with emphasis on study of interference from UAS into digital repeater links operating under the Fixed Service allocation. These studies are being conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  2. Assessing Spectrum Compatibility for Beyond-Line-of-Sight UAS Control and Non-Payload Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide for the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS), the control and non-payload communications (CNPC) link must be highly reliable. A specific requirement is that it must operate using aviation safety radiofrequency spectrum. Two types of links are required - line-of-sight (LOS) using terrestrial-based communications and beyond-line- of-sight (BLOS) using satellite communications. The 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) provided a suitable allocation for LOS CNPC spectrum in the 5030-5091 MHz band which, when combined with a previously existing allocation fulfills the LOS spectrum requirement. The 5030- 5091 MHz band is also allocated for BLOS CNPC, but since a significant portion of that band is required for LOS CNPC, additional BLOS spectrum is required. More critically, there are no satellites in operation or in development to provide such services in that band. Hence BLOS CNPC cannot be provided in protected aviation spectrum under current conditions. To fill this gap and enable integration of UAS into the NAS, it has been proposed to allow CNPC to operate over certain Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) bands in which many satellites currently provide commercial services. To enable this, changes in international regulation must be enacted. Agenda Item 1.5 of the 2015 WRC examines the possible regulatory changes needed. As part of the examination process, sharing between potential UAS using satellite communications for BLOS CNPC and other services allocated to the FSS bands being considered must be studied. This paper reviews the technical requirements and approach being undertaken for these sharing studies, with emphasis on study of interference from UAS into digital repeater links operating under the Fixed Service allocation. These studies are being conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  3. The Possibility of Using Images Obtained from the Uas in Cadastral Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurczynski, Z.; Bakuła, K.; Karabin, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Markiewicz, J. S.; Ostrowski, W.; Podlasiak, P.; Zawieska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Updating the cadastre requires much work carried out by surveying companies in countries that have still not solved the problem of updating the cadastral data. In terms of the required precision, these works are among the most accurate. This raises the question: to what extent may modern digital photogrammetric methods be useful in this process? The capabilities of photogrammetry have increased significantly after the introduction of digital aerial cameras and digital technologies. For the registration of cadastral objects, i.e., land parcels' boundaries and the outlines of buildings, very high-resolution aerial photographs can be used. The paper relates an attempt to use an alternative source of data for this task - the development of images acquired from UAS platforms. Multivariate mapping of cadastral parcels was implemented to determine the scope of the suitability of low altitude photos for the cadastre. In this study, images obtained from UAS with the GSD of 3 cm were collected for an area of a few square kilometres. Bundle adjustment of these data was processed with sub-pixel accuracy. This led to photogrammetric measurements being carried out and the provision of an orthophotomap (orthogonalized with a digital surface model from dense image matching of UAS images). Geometric data related to buildings were collected with two methods: stereoscopic and multi-photo measurements. Data related to parcels' boundaries were measured with monoplotting on an orthophotomap from low-altitude images. As reference field surveying data were used. The paper shows the potential and limits of the use of UAS in a process of updating cadastral data. It also gives recommendations when performing photogrammetric missions and presents the possible accuracy of this type of work.

  4. Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    UAS operations will be safer if a UTM system is available to support the functions associated with Airspace management and geo-fencing (reduce risk of accidents, impact to other operations, and community concerns); Weather and severe wind integration (avoid severe weather areas based on prediction); Predict and manage congestion (mission safety);Terrain and man-made objects database and avoidance; Maintain safe separation (mission safety and assurance of other assets); Allow only authenticated operations (avoid unauthorized airspace use).

  5. Intelligent Hardware-Enabled Sensor and Software Safety and Health Management for Autonomous UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Y.; Schumann, Johann; Ippolito, Corey

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can only be deployed if they can effectively complete their mission and respond to failures and uncertain environmental conditions while maintaining safety with respect to other aircraft as well as humans and property on the ground. We propose to design a real-time, onboard system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor essential system components such as sensors, software, and hardware systems for detection and diagnosis of failures and violations of safety or performance rules during the ight of a UAS. Our approach to SHM is three-pronged, providing: (1) real-time monitoring of sensor and software signals; (2) signal analysis, preprocessing, and advanced on-the- y temporal and Bayesian probabilistic fault diagnosis; (3) an unobtrusive, lightweight, read-only, low-power hardware realization using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) in order to avoid overburdening limited computing resources or costly re-certi cation of ight software due to instrumentation. No currently available SHM capabilities (or combinations of currently existing SHM capabilities) come anywhere close to satisfying these three criteria yet NASA will require such intelligent, hardwareenabled sensor and software safety and health management for introducing autonomous UAS into the National Airspace System (NAS). We propose a novel approach of creating modular building blocks for combining responsive runtime monitoring of temporal logic system safety requirements with model-based diagnosis and Bayesian network-based probabilistic analysis. Our proposed research program includes both developing this novel approach and demonstrating its capabilities using the NASA Swift UAS as a demonstration platform.

  6. Recording and Modeling of Fortresses and Castles with Uas. Some Study Cases in Jaen (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenal, J.; Pérez, J. L.; Mata, E.; Delgado, J.; Gómez-López, J. M.; Colomo, C.; Mozas, A.

    2016-06-01

    The province of Jaen (Southern Spain) has one of the largest concentrations of medieval fortresses of all Europe. Moreover ancient Iberian settlements located in oppida (fortified villages) and dated at VI-IV BC also are outstanding examples of historical heritage landmarks in the region. Most of these places are being restored or under documentation analysis to prevent their progressive deterioration. These places have several geometric characteristics in common, such as isolated locations, elongated shapes, largemedium size objects (in the order of tens to few hundred of meters), architectural features with vertical development (such as masonry or rammed earth walls, towers, gates, battlements, etc) or without it (walls, buildings or paths layouts at ground level). The object size, the required level of details and accuracy (of the order of some few cm) and both vertical and horizontal features imply that present UAS techniques can be advantageously used with respect to conventional aerial and terrestrial photogrammetric techniques. Vertical stereoscopic and oblique convergent UAS photogrammetric networks combined with processing techniques based on Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms allow detailed low cost 2D/3D products. The proper selection of the UAS, camera, image acquisition mode (stop and/or cruising), the network and the processing software will determine the quality of final products and their usefulness in metric documentation, 3D modelization or museology. The efficiency of the use of UAS has been analyzed in several selected examples in Jaen (Burgalimar and Berrueco castles, Xth and XIIIth centuries, respectively, and the Iberian Puente Tablas oppidum, Vth-IVth centuries BC).

  7. Digital Elevation Model from Non-Metric Camera in Uas Compared with LIDAR Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayamit, O. M.; Pedro, M. F.; Ernesto, R. R.; Fernando, B. L.

    2015-08-01

    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data as a representation of surface topography is highly demanded for use in spatial analysis and modelling. Aimed to that issue many methods of acquisition data and process it are developed, from traditional surveying until modern technology like LIDAR. On the other hands, in a past four year the development of Unamend Aerial System (UAS) aimed to Geomatic bring us the possibility to acquire data about surface by non-metric digital camera on board in a short time with good quality for some analysis. Data collectors have attracted tremendous attention on UAS due to possibility of the determination of volume changes over time, monitoring of the breakwaters, hydrological modelling including flood simulation, drainage networks, among others whose support in DEM for proper analysis. The DEM quality is considered as a combination of DEM accuracy and DEM suitability so; this paper is aimed to analyse the quality of the DEM from non-metric digital camera on UAS compared with a DEM from LIDAR corresponding to same geographic space covering 4 km2 in Artemisa province, Cuba. This area is in a frame of urban planning whose need to know the topographic characteristics in order to analyse hydrology behaviour and decide the best place for make roads, building and so on. Base on LIDAR technology is still more accurate method, it offer us a pattern for test DEM from non-metric digital camera on UAS, whose are much more flexible and bring a solution for many applications whose needs DEM of detail.

  8. Using a fixed-wing UAS to map snow depth distribution: an evaluation at peak accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michele, Carlo; Avanzi, Francesco; Passoni, Daniele; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Pinto, Livio; Dosso, Paolo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Gianatti, Roberto; Della Vedova, Giacomo

    2016-03-01

    We investigate snow depth distribution at peak accumulation over a small Alpine area ( ˜ 0.3 km2) using photogrammetry-based surveys with a fixed-wing unmanned aerial system (UAS). These devices are growing in popularity as inexpensive alternatives to existing techniques within the field of remote sensing, but the assessment of their performance in Alpine areas to map snow depth distribution is still an open issue. Moreover, several existing attempts to map snow depth using UASs have used multi-rotor systems, since they guarantee higher stability than fixed-wing systems. We designed two field campaigns: during the first survey, performed at the beginning of the accumulation season, the digital elevation model of the ground was obtained. A second survey, at peak accumulation, enabled us to estimate the snow depth distribution as a difference with respect to the previous aerial survey. Moreover, the spatial integration of UAS snow depth measurements enabled us to estimate the snow volume accumulated over the area. On the same day, we collected 12 probe measurements of snow depth at random positions within the case study to perform a preliminary evaluation of UAS-based snow depth. Results reveal that UAS estimations of point snow depth present an average difference with reference to manual measurements equal to -0.073 m and a RMSE equal to 0.14 m. We have also explored how some basic snow depth statistics (e.g., mean, standard deviation, minima and maxima) change with sampling resolution (from 5 cm up to ˜ 100 m): for this case study, snow depth standard deviation (hence coefficient of variation) increases with decreasing cell size, but it stabilizes for resolutions smaller than 1 m. This provides a possible indication of sampling resolution in similar conditions.

  9. The replication initiator protein of plasmid pT181 has sequence-specific endonuclease and topoisomerase-like activities.

    PubMed Central

    Koepsel, R R; Murray, R W; Rosenblum, W D; Khan, S A

    1985-01-01

    Initiation of pT181 DNA replication specifically requires the plasmid-encoded RepC protein. Here we demonstrate that highly purified RepC protein has sequence-specific endonuclease and topoisomerase-like activities. A maximum sequence of 127 base pairs containing the pT181 origin of replication is required for nicking-closing by RepC protein. RepC introduces a single strand break within the pT181 origin. The nick site has been shown by DNA sequencing to lie between nucleotides 70 and 71 in the bottom strand of the DNA within the origin sequence. This nick site probably corresponds to the start site of pT181 replication. The results presented here suggest that, unlike most other plasmids, pT181 replicates by a rolling circle mechanism. Images PMID:2995991

  10. Experiments with Uas Imagery for Automatic Modeling of Power Line 3d Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźków, G.; Vander Jagt, B.; Toth, C.

    2015-08-01

    The ideal mapping technology for transmission line inspection is the airborne LiDAR executed from helicopter platforms. It allows for full 3D geometry extraction in highly automated manner. Large scale aerial images can be also used for this purpose, however, automation is possible only for finding transmission line positions (2D geometry), and the sag needs to be estimated manually. For longer lines, these techniques are less expensive than ground surveys, yet they are still expensive. UAS technology has the potential to reduce these costs, especially if using inexpensive platforms with consumer grade cameras. This study investigates the potential of using high resolution UAS imagery for automatic modeling of transmission line 3D geometry. The key point of this experiment was to employ dense matching algorithms to appropriately acquired UAS images to have points created also on wires. This allowed to model the 3D geometry of transmission lines similarly to LiDAR acquired point clouds. Results showed that the transmission line modeling is possible with a high internal accuracy for both, horizontal and vertical directions, even when wires were represented by a partial (sparse) point cloud.

  11. Calibration of UAS imagery inside and outside of shadows for improved vegetation index computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, Elizabeth; Salvaggio, Carl; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron D.

    2016-05-01

    Vegetation health and vigor can be assessed with data from multi- and hyperspectral airborne and satellite- borne sensors using index products such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) technology have created the opportunity to access these same image data sets in a more cost effective manner with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Another advantage of these systems includes the ability to gather data in almost any weather condition, including complete cloud cover, when data has not been available before from traditional platforms. The ability to collect in these varied conditions, meteorological and temporal, will present researchers and producers with many new challenges. Particularly, cloud shadows and self-shadowing by vegetation must be taken into consideration in imagery collected from UAS platforms to avoid variation in NDVI due to changes in illumination within a single scene, and between collection flights. A workflow is presented to compensate for variations in vegetation indices due to shadows and variation in illumination levels in high resolution imagery collected from UAS platforms. Other calibration methods that producers may currently be utilizing produce NDVI products that still contain shadow boundaries and variations due to illumination, whereas the final NDVI mosaic from this workflow does not.

  12. Use of UAS to Support Management in Precision Agriculture: The AggieAir Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; ELarab, M.; Hassan Esfahani, L.; Jensen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing applications for precision agriculture depend on acquiring actionable information at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are capable of providing such imagery for use in various applications for precision agriculture (yield estimation, evapotranspiration, etc.). AggieAirTM, a UAS platform and sensory array, was designed and developed at Utah State University to acquire high-resolution imagery (0.15m -0.6 m) in the visual, near infrared, red edge, and thermal infrared spectra. Spectral data obtained from AggieAir are used to develop soil moisture, plant chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen and actual evapotranspiration estimates to support management in precision agriculture. This presentation will focus on experience in using the AggieAir system to provide information products of possible interest in precision agriculture. The discussion will include information about the direction and rate of development of UAS technology and the current and anticipated future state of the regulatory environment for use of these systems in the U.S.

  13. Molecular identification of the microbial diversity in two sequencing batch reactors with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Martin; Eilmus, Sascha; Röder, Nadine; Roesch, Christopher; Bothe, Hermann

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of the microbial community was identified in two lab-scale, ideally mixed sequencing batch reactors which were run for 115 days. One of the reactors was intermittently aerated (2 h aerobically/2 h anaerobically) whereas the other was consistently aerated. The amount of biomass as dry matter, the degradation of organic carbon determined by chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen-degradation activity were followed over the operation of the two reactors and did not show significant differences between the two approaches at the end of the experiment. At this point, the composition of the microbial community was determined by a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approach using multiple restriction enzymes by which organisms were retrieved to the lowest taxonomic level. The microbial composition was then significantly different. The species richness was at least five-fold higher in the intermittently aerated reactor than in the permanently kept aerobic approach which is in line with the observation that ecosystem disturbances result in higher diversity. PMID:21786107

  14. Neuronal precursor-specific activity of a human doublecortin regulatory sequence.

    PubMed

    Karl, Claudia; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Prang, Peter; Munding, Matthias; Kilb, Werner; Brigadski, Tanja; Plötz, Sonja; Mages, Wolfgang; Luhmann, Heiko; Winkler, Jürgen; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Aigner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    The doublecortin (DCX) gene encodes a 40-kDa microtubule-associated protein specifically expressed in neuronal precursors of the developing and adult CNS. Due to its specific expression pattern, attention was drawn to DCX as a marker for neuronal precursors and neurogenesis, thereby underscoring the importance of its promoter identification and promoter analysis. Here, we analysed the human DCX regulatory sequence and confined it to a 3.5-kb fragment upstream of the ATG start codon. We demonstrate by transient transfection experiments that this fragment is sufficient and specific to drive expression of reporter genes in embryonic and adult neuronal precursors. The activity of this regulatory fragment overlapped with the expression of endogenous DCX and with the young neuronal markers class III beta-tubulin isotype and microtubule-associated protein Map2ab but not with glial or oligodendroglial markers. Electrophysiological data further confirmed the immature neuronal nature of these cells. Deletions within the 3.5-kb region demonstrated the relevance of specific regions containing transcription factor-binding sites. Moreover, application of neurogenesis-related growth factors in the neuronal precursor cultures suggested the lack of direct signalling of these factors on the DCX promoter construct. PMID:15663475

  15. Selective Deletion of the Internal Lysine Residue from the Peptide Sequence by Collisional Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2012-11-01

    The gas-phase peptide ion fragmentation chemistry is always the center of attraction in proteomics to analyze the amino acid sequence of peptides and proteins. In this work, we describe the formation of an anomalous fragment ion, which corresponds to the selective deletion of the internal lysine residue from a series of lysine containing peptides upon collisional activation in the ion trap. We detected several water-loss fragment ions and the maximum number of water molecules lost from a particular fragment ion was equal to the number of lysine residues in that fragment. As a consequence of this water-loss phenomenon, internal lysine residues were found to be deleted from the peptide ion. The N,N-dimethylation of all the amine functional groups of the peptide stopped the internal lysine deletion reaction, but selective N-terminal α-amino acetylation had no effect on this process indicating involvement of the side chains of the lysine residues. The detailed mechanism of the lysine deletion was investigated by multistage CID of the modified and unmodified peptides, by isotope labeling and by energy resolved CID studies. The results suggest that the lysine deletion might occur through a unimolecular multistep mechanism involving a seven-membered cyclic imine intermediate formed by the loss of water from a lysine residue in the protonated peptide. This intermediate subsequently undergoes degradation reaction to deplete the interior imine ring from the peptide backbone leading to the deletion of an internal lysine residue.

  16. The importance of hinge sequence for loop function and catalytic activity in the reaction catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Xiang, J; Sun, J; Sampson, N S

    2001-04-01

    We have determined the sequence requirements for the N-terminal protein hinge of the active-site lid of triosephosphate isomerase. The codons for the hinge (PVW) were replaced with a genetic library of all possible 8000 amino acid combinations. The most active of these 8000 mutants were selected using in vivo complementation of a triosephosphate isomerase-deficient strain of Escherichia coli, DF502. Approximately 0.3 % of the mutants complement DF502 with an activity that is between 10 and 70 % of wild-type activity. They all contain Pro at the first position. Furthermore, the sequences of these hinge mutants reveal that hydrophobic packing is very important for efficient formation of the enediol intermediate. However, the reduced catalytic activities observed are not due to increased rates of loop opening. To explore the relationship between the N-terminal and C-terminal hinges, three semi-active mutants from the N-terminal hinge selection experiment (PLH, PHS and PTF), and six active C-terminal hinge mutants from previous work (NSS, LWA, YSL, KTK, NPN, KVA) were combined to form 18 "double-hinge" mutants. The activities of these mutants suggest that the N-terminal and C-terminal hinge structures affect one another. It appears that specific side-chain interactions are important for forming a catalytically active enzyme, but not for preventing release of the unstable enediol intermediate from the active site of the enzyme. The independence of intermediate release on amino acid sequence is consistent with the absence of a "universal" hinge sequence in structurally related enzymes. PMID:11286559

  17. The importance of hinge sequence for loop function and catalytic activity in the reaction catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Xiang, J; Sun, J; Sampson, N S

    2001-04-01

    We have determined the sequence requirements for the N-terminal protein hinge of the active-site lid of triosephosphate isomerase. The codons for the hinge (PVW) were replaced with a genetic library of all possible 8000 amino acid combinations. The most active of these 8000 mutants were selected using in vivo complementation of a triosephosphate isomerase-deficient strain of Escherichia coli, DF502. Approximately 0.3 % of the mutants complement DF502 with an activity that is between 10 and 70 % of wild-type activity. They all contain Pro at the first position. Furthermore, the sequences of these hinge mutants reveal that hydrophobic packing is very important for efficient formation of the enediol intermediate. However, the reduced catalytic activities observed are not due to increased rates of loop opening. To explore the relationship between the N-terminal and C-terminal hinges, three semi-active mutants from the N-terminal hinge selection experiment (PLH, PHS and PTF), and six active C-terminal hinge mutants from previous work (NSS, LWA, YSL, KTK, NPN, KVA) were combined to form 18 "double-hinge" mutants. The activities of these mutants suggest that the N-terminal and C-terminal hinge structures affect one another. It appears that specific side-chain interactions are important for forming a catalytically active enzyme, but not for preventing release of the unstable enediol intermediate from the active site of the enzyme. The independence of intermediate release on amino acid sequence is consistent with the absence of a "universal" hinge sequence in structurally related enzymes.

  18. Unsupervised spatio-temporal detection of brain functional activation based on hidden Markov multiple event sequence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisan, Sylvain; Thoraval, Laurent; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Heitz, Fabrice; Foucher, Jack

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a novel, completely unsupervised fMRI brain mapping approach that addresses the three problems of hemodynamic response function (HRF) shape variability, neural event timing, and fMRI response linearity. To make it robust, the method takes into account spatial and temporal information directly into the core of the activation detection process. In practice, activation detection is formulated in terms of temporal alignment between the sequence of hemodynamic response onsets (HROs) detected in the fMRI signal at υ and in the spatial neighbourhood of υ, and the sequence of "off-on" transitions observed in the input blocked stimulation paradigm (when considering epoch-related fMRI data), or the sequence of stimuli of the event-based paradigm (when considering event-related fMRI data). This multiple event sequence alignment problem, which comes under multisensor data fusion, is solved within the probabilistic framework of hidden Markov multiple event sequence models (HMMESMs), a special class of hidden Markov models. Results obtained on real and synthetic data compete with those obtained with the popular statistical parametric mapping (SPM) approach, but without necessitating any prior definition of the expected activation patterns, the HMMESM mapping approach being completely unsupervised.

  19. Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ursolic Acid, a Triterpenoid Antioxidant, Is Mediated through Suppression of NF-κB, AP-1 and NF-AT

    PubMed Central

    Checker, Rahul; Sandur, Santosh K.; Sharma, Deepak; Patwardhan, Raghavendra S.; Jayakumar, S.; Kohli, Vineet; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Sainis, Krishna B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, is the major component of many plants including apples, basil, cranberries, peppermint, rosemary, oregano and prunes and has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. These properties of UA have been attributed to its ability to suppress NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) activation. Since NF-κB, in co-ordination with NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) and AP-1(activator protein-1), is known to regulate inflammatory genes, we hypothesized that UA might exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. Methodology/Principal Findings The anti-inflammatory effects of UA were assessed in activated T cells, B cells and macrophages. Effects of UA on ERK, JNK, NF-κB, AP-1 and NF-AT were studied to elucidate its mechanism of action. In vivo efficacy of UA was studied using mouse model of graft-versus-host disease. UA inhibited activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion in T cells, B cells and macrophages. UA inhibited mitogen-induced up-regulation of activation markers and co-stimulatory molecules in T and B cells. It inhibited mitogen-induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK and suppressed the activation of immunoregulatory transcription factors NF-κB, NF-AT and AP-1 in lymphocytes. Treatment of cells with UA prior to allogenic transplantation significantly delayed induction of acute graft-versus-host disease in mice and also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-γ. UA treatment inhibited T cell activation even when added post-mitogenic stimulation demonstrating its therapeutic utility as an anti-inflammatory agent. Conclusions/Significance The present study describes the detailed mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of UA. Further, UA may find application in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. PMID:22363615

  20. Canine amino acid transport system Xc(-): cDNA sequence, distribution and cystine transport activity in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Takuya; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Ichihara, Nobuteru; Ochiai, Hideharu

    2014-04-01

    The cystine transport activity of a lens epithelial cell line originated from a canine mature cataract was investigated. The distinct cystine transport activity was observed, which was inhibited to 28% by extracellular 1 mM glutamate. The cDNA sequences of canine cysteine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and 4F2hc were determined. The predicted amino acid sequences were 527 and 533 amino acid polypeptides, respectively. The amino acid sequences of canine xCT and 4F2hc showed high similarities (>80%) to those of humans. The expression of xCT in lens epithelial cell line was confirmed by western blot analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed high level expression only in the brain, and it was below the detectable level in other tissues.

  1. Inter-level Scaffolding and Sequences of Representational Activities in Teaching a Chemical System with Graphical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Black, John B.

    2016-05-01

    Chemistry knowledge can be represented at macro-, micro- and symbolic levels, and learning a chemistry topic requires students to engage in multiple representational activities. This study focused on scaffolding for inter-level connection-making in learning chemistry knowledge with graphical simulations. We also tested whether different sequences of representational activities produced different student learning outcomes in learning a chemistry topic. A sample of 129 seventh graders participated in this study. In a simulation-based environment, participants completed three representational activities to learn several ideal gas law concepts. We conducted a 2 × 3 factorial design experiment. We compared two scaffolding conditions: (1) the inter-level scaffolding condition in which participants received inter-level questions and experienced the dynamic link function in the simulation-based environment and (2) the intra-level scaffolding condition in which participants received intra-level questions and did not experience the dynamic link function. We also compared three different sequences of representational activities: macro-symbolic-micro, micro-symbolic-macro and symbolic-micro-macro. For the scaffolding variable, we found that the inter-level scaffolding condition produced significantly better performance in both knowledge comprehension and application, compared to the intra-level scaffolding condition. For the sequence variable, we found that the macro-symbolic-micro sequence produced significantly better knowledge comprehension performance than the other two sequences; however, it did not benefit knowledge application performance. There was a trend that the treatment group who experienced inter-level scaffolding and the micro-symbolic-macro sequence achieved the best knowledge application performance.

  2. Inter-level Scaffolding and Sequences of Representational Activities in Teaching a Chemical System with Graphical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Black, John B.

    2016-10-01

    Chemistry knowledge can be represented at macro-, micro- and symbolic levels, and learning a chemistry topic requires students to engage in multiple representational activities. This study focused on scaffolding for inter-level connection-making in learning chemistry knowledge with graphical simulations. We also tested whether different sequences of representational activities produced different student learning outcomes in learning a chemistry topic. A sample of 129 seventh graders participated in this study. In a simulation-based environment, participants completed three representational activities to learn several ideal gas law concepts. We conducted a 2 × 3 factorial design experiment. We compared two scaffolding conditions: (1) the inter- level scaffolding condition in which participants received inter-level questions and experienced the dynamic link function in the simulation-based environment and (2) the intra- level scaffolding condition in which participants received intra-level questions and did not experience the dynamic link function. We also compared three different sequences of representational activities: macro-symbolic-micro, micro-symbolic-macro and symbolic-micro-macro. For the scaffolding variable, we found that the inter- level scaffolding condition produced significantly better performance in both knowledge comprehension and application, compared to the intra- level scaffolding condition. For the sequence variable, we found that the macro-symbolic-micro sequence produced significantly better knowledge comprehension performance than the other two sequences; however, it did not benefit knowledge application performance. There was a trend that the treatment group who experienced inter- level scaffolding and the micro-symbolic-macro sequence achieved the best knowledge application performance.

  3. Monitoring Natural Occurring Asbestos in ophiolite sequences and derived soils: implication with human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Bloise, Andrea; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution focuses on soils that developed on serpentinite-metabasite bedrocks, which could potentially be rich in asbestos minerals and, as a consequence, have a negative impact on agricultural activity and on environmental quality. In order to investigate the natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) on the surface of the soil formed from serpentinites and metabasite, we selected a study area located in Sila Piccola (Calabrian Peloritani Orogen, southern Italy), where previous studies highlighted the presence of asbestiform minerals within the large ophiolitic sequences that crop out (Punturo et al., 2015; Bloise et al., 2015). Agricultural soil samples have been collected mainly close to urban centres and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (TEM-EDS), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Results pointed out as all the collected soil samples contain serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile), asbestos amphiboles, clays, chlorite, muscovite, plagioclase and iron oxides in various amounts. Electron microscope images of the soils show that their contain a variety of aggregating agents such as organic matter and clay in which individual fibres of chrysotile and tremolite-actinolite are trapped. The investigation showed that both serpentinite and metabasite rocks act as a perennial source of contamination for the agriculture lands because of the high amount of tremolite-actinolite found in the studied soil samples developed on such lithotypes. Even if asbestiform minerals usually occur in aggregates which cannot be suspended in the air, agricultural activities such as plowing can destroy these soil aggregates with the creation of dust containing inhalable asbestos fibres that evolve into airborne increasing the exposure of population to them. Since the dispersion of fibres could be associated with

  4. Developmental Sequences of Perceptual-Motor Tasks, Movement Activities for Neurologically Handicapped and Retarded Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    Intended for special education and physical education teachers, the handbook presents selected developmental sequences of activities based on the analysis of perceptual motor characteristics of groups of retarded and neurologically handicapped children. Four classifications of children and their perceptual motor characteristics are discussed: the…

  5. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  6. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  7. Use of passive UAS imaging to measure biophysical parameters in a southern Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, M. K.; Sloan, J.; Mladinich, C. S.; Wessman, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide detailed, fine spatial resolution imagery for ecological uses not otherwise obtainable through standard methods. The use of UAS imagery for ecology is a rapidly -evolving field, where the study of forest landscape ecology can be augmented using UAS imagery to scale and validate biophysical data from field measurements to spaceborne observations. High resolution imagery provided by UAS (30 cm2 pixels) offers detailed canopy cover and forest structure data in a time efficient and inexpensive manner. Using a GoPro Hero2 (2 mm focal length) camera mounted in the nose cone of a Raven unmanned system, we collected aerial and thermal data monthly during the summer 2013, over two subalpine forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado. These forests are dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus ponderosae) and have experienced insect-driven (primarily mountain pine beetle; MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) mortality. Objectives of this study include observations of forest health variables such as canopy water content (CWC) from thermal imagery and leaf area index (LAI), biomass and forest productivity from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from UAS imagery. Observations were, validated with ground measurements. Images were processed using a combination of AgiSoft Photoscan professional software and ENVI remote imaging software. We utilized the software Leaf Area Index Calculator (LAIC) developed by Córcoles et al. (2013) for calculating LAI from digital images and modified to conform to leaf area of needle-leaf trees as in Chen and Cihlar (1996) . LAIC uses a K-means cluster analysis to decipher the RGB levels for each pixel and distinguish between green aboveground vegetation and other materials, and project leaf area per unit of ground surface area (i.e. half total needle surface area per unit area). Preliminary LAIC UAS data shows summer average LAI was 3.8 in the most dense forest stands and 2.95 in less dense

  8. GCAT-SEEKquence: Genome Consortium for Active Teaching of Undergraduates through Increased Faculty Access to Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Buonaccorsi, Vincent P.; Boyle, Michael D.; Grove, Deborah; Praul, Craig; Sakk, Eric; Stuart, Ash; Tobin, Tammy; Hosler, Jay; Carney, Susan L.; Engle, Michael J.; Overton, Barry E.; Newman, Jeffrey D.; Pizzorno, Marie; Powell, Jennifer R.; Trun, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    To transform undergraduate biology education, faculty need to provide opportunities for students to engage in the process of science. The rise of research approaches using next-generation (NextGen) sequencing has been impressive, but incorporation of such approaches into the undergraduate curriculum remains a major challenge. In this paper, we report proceedings of a National Science Foundation–funded workshop held July 11–14, 2011, at Juniata College. The purpose of the workshop was to develop a regional research coordination network for undergraduate biology education (RCN/UBE). The network is collaborating with a genome-sequencing core facility located at Pennsylvania State University (University Park) to enable undergraduate students and faculty at small colleges to access state-of-the-art sequencing technology. We aim to create a database of references, protocols, and raw data related to NextGen sequencing, and to find innovative ways to reduce costs related to sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. It was agreed that our regional network for NextGen sequencing could operate more effectively if it were partnered with the Genome Consortium for Active Teaching (GCAT) as a new arm of that consortium, entitled GCAT-SEEK(quence). This step would also permit the approach to be replicated elsewhere. PMID:22135368

  9. Sequence and structure-based prediction of fructosyltransferase activity for functional subclassification of fungal GH32 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Trollope, Kim M; van Wyk, Niël; Kotjomela, Momo A; Volschenk, Heinrich

    2015-12-01

    Sucrolytic enzymes catalyse sucrose hydrolysis or the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), a prebiotic in human and animal nutrition. FOS synthesis capacity differs between sucrolytic enzymes. Amino-acid-sequence-based classification of FOS synthesizing enzymes would greatly facilitate the in silico identification of novel catalysts, as large amounts of sequence data lie untapped. The development of a bioinformatics tool to rapidly distinguish between high-level FOSs synthesizing predominantly sucrose hydrolysing enzymes from fungal genomic data is presented. Sequence comparison of functionally characterized enzymes displaying low- and high-level FOS synthesis revealed conserved motifs unique to each group. New light is shed on the sequence context of active site residues in three previously identified conserved motifs. We characterized two enzymes predicted to possess low- and high-level FOS synthesis activities based on their conserved motif sequences. FOS data for the enzymes confirmed our successful prediction of their FOS synthesis capacity. Structural comparison of enzymes displaying low- and high-level FOS synthesis identified steric hindrance between nystose and a long loop region present only in low-level FOS synthesizers. This loop is proposed to limit the synthesis of FOS species with higher degrees of polymerization, a phenomenon observed among enzymes displaying low-level FOS synthesis. Conserved sequence motifs surrounding catalytic residues and a distant structural determinant were identifiers of FOS synthesis capacity and allow for functional annotation of sucrolytic enzymes directly from amino acid sequence. The tool presented may also be useful to study the structure-function relationships of β-fructofuranosidases by identifying mutations present in a group of closely related enzymes displaying similar function.

  10. Sequence and structure-based prediction of fructosyltransferase activity for functional subclassification of fungal GH32 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Trollope, Kim M; van Wyk, Niël; Kotjomela, Momo A; Volschenk, Heinrich

    2015-12-01

    Sucrolytic enzymes catalyse sucrose hydrolysis or the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), a prebiotic in human and animal nutrition. FOS synthesis capacity differs between sucrolytic enzymes. Amino-acid-sequence-based classification of FOS synthesizing enzymes would greatly facilitate the in silico identification of novel catalysts, as large amounts of sequence data lie untapped. The development of a bioinformatics tool to rapidly distinguish between high-level FOSs synthesizing predominantly sucrose hydrolysing enzymes from fungal genomic data is presented. Sequence comparison of functionally characterized enzymes displaying low- and high-level FOS synthesis revealed conserved motifs unique to each group. New light is shed on the sequence context of active site residues in three previously identified conserved motifs. We characterized two enzymes predicted to possess low- and high-level FOS synthesis activities based on their conserved motif sequences. FOS data for the enzymes confirmed our successful prediction of their FOS synthesis capacity. Structural comparison of enzymes displaying low- and high-level FOS synthesis identified steric hindrance between nystose and a long loop region present only in low-level FOS synthesizers. This loop is proposed to limit the synthesis of FOS species with higher degrees of polymerization, a phenomenon observed among enzymes displaying low-level FOS synthesis. Conserved sequence motifs surrounding catalytic residues and a distant structural determinant were identifiers of FOS synthesis capacity and allow for functional annotation of sucrolytic enzymes directly from amino acid sequence. The tool presented may also be useful to study the structure-function relationships of β-fructofuranosidases by identifying mutations present in a group of closely related enzymes displaying similar function. PMID:26426731

  11. Correlations between prefrontal neurons form a small-world network that optimizes the generation of multineuron sequences of activity.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Francisco J; Zimmerman, Chris A; Horn, Meryl E; Sohal, Vikaas S

    2016-05-01

    Sequential patterns of prefrontal activity are believed to mediate important behaviors, e.g., working memory, but it remains unclear exactly how they are generated. In accordance with previous studies of cortical circuits, we found that prefrontal microcircuits in young adult mice spontaneously generate many more stereotyped sequences of activity than expected by chance. However, the key question of whether these sequences depend on a specific functional organization within the cortical microcircuit, or emerge simply as a by-product of random interactions between neurons, remains unanswered. We observed that correlations between prefrontal neurons do follow a specific functional organization-they have a small-world topology. However, until now it has not been possible to directly link small-world topologies to specific circuit functions, e.g., sequence generation. Therefore, we developed a novel analysis to address this issue. Specifically, we constructed surrogate data sets that have identical levels of network activity at every point in time but nevertheless represent various network topologies. We call this method shuffling activity to rearrange correlations (SHARC). We found that only surrogate data sets based on the actual small-world functional organization of prefrontal microcircuits were able to reproduce the levels of sequences observed in actual data. As expected, small-world data sets contained many more sequences than surrogate data sets with randomly arranged correlations. Surprisingly, small-world data sets also outperformed data sets in which correlations were maximally clustered. Thus the small-world functional organization of cortical microcircuits, which effectively balances the random and maximally clustered regimes, is optimal for producing stereotyped sequential patterns of activity.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis YC-10, a novel active strain against plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feixue; Wang, Jian; Song, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Ju'e; Zhang, Deyong; Liu, Yong

    2015-09-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial biopesticide for controlling agricultural pests by the production of toxic parasporal crystals proteins.Here,we report the finished annotated genome sequence of B. thuringiensis YC-10,which is highly toxic to nematodes.The complete genome sequence consists of a circular chromosome and nine circular plasmids,which the biggest plasmid harbors six parasporal crystals proteins genes consisting of cry1Aa, cry1Ac, cry1Ia, cry2Aa, cry2Ab and cryB1. The crystals proteins of Cry1Ia and Cry1Aa have high nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita.

  13. Draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra possessing transcription activator-like effectors used for genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Park, Hye-Jee; Ryu, Sangryeol; Han, Sang-Wook

    2014-06-10

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra is a causal agent of bacterial pustule disease in soybean. This bacterium possesses transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors which are useful for genetic/protein engineering applications in higher organisms including plants and humans. Here, we report that the draft genome sequence consists of 5,337,885-bp double-stranded DNA encoding 4674 open reading frames (ORFs) in 13 different contigs. This genome sequence would be useful in applications of TAL effectors in genetic engineering and in elucidating virulence factors against plants. PMID:24657734

  14. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis YC-10, a novel active strain against plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feixue; Wang, Jian; Song, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Ju'e; Zhang, Deyong; Liu, Yong

    2015-09-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial biopesticide for controlling agricultural pests by the production of toxic parasporal crystals proteins.Here,we report the finished annotated genome sequence of B. thuringiensis YC-10,which is highly toxic to nematodes.The complete genome sequence consists of a circular chromosome and nine circular plasmids,which the biggest plasmid harbors six parasporal crystals proteins genes consisting of cry1Aa, cry1Ac, cry1Ia, cry2Aa, cry2Ab and cryB1. The crystals proteins of Cry1Ia and Cry1Aa have high nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita. PMID:26100235

  15. The C. elegans apoptotic nuclease NUC-1 is related in sequence and activity to mammalian DNase II.

    PubMed

    Lyon, C J; Evans, C J; Bill, B R; Otsuka, A J; Aguilera, R J

    2000-07-11

    The Caenorhabditis elegans nuc-1 gene has previously been implicated in programmed cell death due to the presence of persistent undegraded apoptotic DNA in nuc-1 mutant animals. In this report, we describe the cloning and characterization of nuc-1, which encodes an acidic nuclease with significant sequence similarity to mammalian DNase II. Database searches performed with human DNase II protein sequence revealed a significant similarity with the predicted C. elegans C07B5.5 ORF. Subsequent analysis of crude C. elegans protein extracts revealed that wild-type animals contained a potent endonuclease activity with a cleavage preference similar to DNase II, while nuc-1 mutant worms demonstrated a marked reduction in this nuclease activity. Sequence analysis of C07B5.5 DNA and mRNA also revealed that nuc-1(e1392), but not wild-type animals contained a nonsense mutation within the CO7B5.5 coding region. Furthermore, nuc-1 transgenic lines carrying the wild-type C07B5.5 locus demonstrated a complete complementation of the nuc-1 mutant phenotype. Our results therefore provide compelling evidence that the C07B5.5 gene encodes the NUC-1 apoptotic nuclease and that this nuclease is related in sequence and activity to DNase II.

  16. Involvement of Human Natural Killer-1 (HNK-1) Sulfotransferase in the Biosynthesis of the GlcUA(3-O-sulfate)-Gal-Gal-Xyl Tetrasaccharide Found in α-Thrombomodulin from Human Urine*

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Taishi; Mizumoto, Shuji; Nishimura, Yuko; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an integral membrane glycoprotein, which occurs as both a chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan (PG) form (β-TM) and a non-PG form without a CS chain (α-TM) and hence is a part-time PG. An α-TM preparation isolated from human urine contained the glycosaminoglycan linkage region tetrasaccharide GlcUAβ1–3Galβ1–3Galβ1–4xylose, and the nonreducing terminal GlcUA residue is 3-O-sulfated. Because the human natural killer-1 sulfotransferase (HNK-1ST) transfers a sulfate group from 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate to the C-3 position of the nonreducing terminal GlcUA residue in the HNK-1 antigen precursor trisaccharide, GlcUAβ1–3Galβ1–4GlcNAc, the sulfotransferase activity toward the linkage region was investigated. In fact, the activity of HNK-1ST toward the linkage region was much higher than that toward the glucuronylneolactotetraosylceramide, the precursor of the HNK-1 epitope. HNK-1ST may be responsible for regulating the sorting of α- and β-TM. Furthermore, HNK-1ST also transferred a sulfate group from 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate to the C-3 position of the nonreducing terminal GlcUA residue of a chondroitin chain. Intriguingly, the HNK-1 antibody recognized CS chains and the linkage region if they contained GlcUA(3-O-sulfate), suggesting that HNK-1ST not only synthesizes the HNK-1 epitope but may also be involved in the generation of part-time PGs. PMID:21828042

  17. Development and characterisation of ursolic acid nanocrystals without stabiliser having improved dissolution rate and in vitro anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju; Wang, Yancai; Song, Yuelin; Chan, Hokman; Bi, Chao; Yang, Xiao; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yitao; Zheng, Ying

    2014-02-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), which is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, has the potential to be developed as an anticancer drug, whereas its poor aqueous solubility and dissolution rate limit its clinical application. The aim of the present study was to develop UA nanocrystals to enhance its aqueous dispersibility, dissolution rate and anticancer activity. Following the investigation on the effects of stabiliser, the ratio of organic phase to aqueous solution and drug concentration, the UA nanocrystals without stabiliser were successfully prepared by anti-solvent precipitation approach. The nanocrystals maintained similar crystallinity with particle size, polydispersion index and zeta potential values of 188.0 ± 4.4 nm, 0.154 ± 0.022, and -25.0 ± 5.9 mV, respectively. Compared with the raw material, the UA nanocrystals showed good aqueous dispensability and a higher dissolution rate, and they could be completely dissolved in 0.5% SDS solution within 120 min. Moreover, the suspension of UA nanocrystals was physically stable after storage at 4°C for 7 weeks. By inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, the UA nanocrystals significantly induced stronger cell growth inhibition activity against MCF-7 cells compared with free drug in vitro, although the uptake of free UA was approximately twice higher than that of the UA nanocrystals. The UA nanocrystals may be used as a potential delivery formulation for intravenous injection with enhanced dissolution velocity and anticancer activity. PMID:24022345

  18. The dorsal-related immunity factor, Dif, is a sequence-specific trans-activator of Drosophila Cecropin gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, U M; Björklund, G; Ip, Y T; Engström, Y

    1995-01-01

    A new member of the Rel family of transcription factors, the dorsal-related immunity factor, Dif, was recently cloned and suggested to be involved in regulating the immune response in Drosophila. Despite its classification as a Rel family member, the Dif cDNA-encoded product has not been proven previously to be a transcription factor. We now present evidence that the Dif gene product trans-activates the Drosophila Cecropin A1 gene in co-transfection assays. The transactivation requires a 40 bp upstream element including an insect kappa B-like motif. A dimer of the kappa B-like motif 5'-GGGGATTTTT inserted into a minimal promoter conferred high levels of reporter gene expression by Dif, while a multimer of several mutated versions of this motif was not activated, demonstrating the sequence specificity of Dif. Full trans-activation by Dif requires the C-terminal part of the protein. The morphogen dorsal (dl) can also activate the Cecropin A1 promoter, but to a lesser extent and in a less sequence-specific manner than Dif. Simultaneous overexpression of Dif and dl in co-transfection assays revealed that dl possesses a dominant negative effect on Dif transactivation. This study establishes that Dif is a sequence-specific transcription factor and is probably a key activator of the immune response in Drosophila. Images PMID:7621828

  19. The ion-induced folding of the hammerhead ribozyme: core sequence changes that perturb folding into the active conformation.

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, G S; Murchie, A I; Lilley, D M

    1996-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme undergoes an ion-dependent folding process into the active conformation. We find that the folding can be blocked at specific stages by changes of sequence or functionality within the core. In the the absence of added metal ions, the global structure of the hammerhead is extended, with a large angle subtended between stems I and II. No core sequence changes appear to alter this geometry, consistent with an unstructured core under these conditions. Upon addition of low concentrations of magnesium ions, the hammerhead folds by an association of stems II and III, to include a large angle between them. This stage is inhibited or altered by mutations within the oligopurine sequence lying between stems II and III, and folding is completely prevented by an A14G mutation. Further increase in magnesium ion concentration brings about a second stage of folding in the natural sequence hammerhead, involving a reorientation of stem I, which rotates around into the same direction of stem II. Because this transition occurs over the same range of magnesium ion concentration over which the hammerhead ribozyme becomes active, it is likely that the final conformation is most closely related to the active form of the structure. Magnesium ion-dependent folding into this conformation is prevented by changes at G5, notably removal of the 2'-hydroxyl group and replacement of the base by cytidine. The ability to dissect the folding process by means of sequence changes suggests that two separate ion-dependent stages are involved in the folding of the hammerhead ribozyme into the active conformation. PMID:8752086

  20. Ursolic acid induces apoptosis in human leukaemia cells and exhibits anti-leukaemic activity in nude mice through the PKB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ning; Cheng, Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Gao, Ziyi; Chen, Jieping; Liu, E-Hu; Huang, Cheng; Chen, Deying; Yang, Zailin; Liu, Qun; Li, Ping; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ursolic acid (UA) has been extensively used as an anti-leukaemic agent in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we investigated the ability of UA to induce apoptosis in human leukaemia cells in relation to its effects on caspase activation, Mcl-1 down-regulation and perturbations in stress-induced signalling pathways such as PKB and JNK. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Leukaemia cells were treated with UA after which apoptosis, caspase activation, PKB and JNK signalling pathways were evaluated. The anti-tumour activity of UA was evaluated using xenograft mouse model. KEY RESULTS UA induced apoptosis in human leukaemia cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner; this was associated with caspase activation, down-regulation of Mcl-1 and inactivation of PKB accompanied by activation of JNK. Enforced activation of PKB by a constitutively active PKB construct prevented UA-mediated JNK activation, Mcl-1 down-regulation, caspase activation and apoptosis. Conversely, UA lethality was potentiated by the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Interruption of the JNK pathway by pharmacological or genetic (e.g. siRNA) attenuated UA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, UA-mediated inhibition of tumour growth in vivo was associated with induction of apoptosis, inactivation of PKB as well as activation of JNK. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Collectively, these findings suggest a hierarchical model of UA-induced apoptosis in human leukaemia cells in which UA induces PKB inactivation, leading to JNK activation and culminating in Mcl-1 down-regulation, caspase activation and apoptosis. These findings indicate that interruption of PKB/JNK pathways may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in haematological malignancies. PMID:21950524

  1. Sequences affecting the V(D)J recombinational activity of the IgH intronic enhancer in a transgenic substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fernex, C; Caillol, D; Capone, M; Krippl, B; Ferrier, P

    1994-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic transcriptional enhancer (E mu) is part of a complex cis-regulatory DNA region which has notably been shown to modulate V(D)J rearrangements of associated variable gene segments. We have used recombination substrates comprised of the E mu enhancer together with various lengths of additional downstream mu sequences to assess the individual contribution of those sequences to the V(D)J recombinational regulatory activity. Surprisingly, in the absence of large amounts of mu sequences, substrate rearrangements were not detected in Southern blot analyses of the lymphoid tissues from independent transgenic mice, but were readily detectable following transfection into cultured pre-B cells. A short mu segment which includes matrix association regions (MARs) was not sufficient to restore high levels of rearrangements within the reporter transgenes. However, additional experiments demonstrated that the mu sequences are dispensable for V(D)J recombination in transgenic thymuses, implying a suppressive effect exerted by the vector sequences left in the transgenic insert, when they are attached near the E mu regulatory region. This suppression of V(D)J recombination, which correlates with an hypermethylation of the transgenes, is discussed in view of previously reported transgenic and gene targeting experiments. Images PMID:8139920

  2. Activated neu oncogene sequences in primary tumors of the peripheral nervous system induced in rats by transplacental exposure to ethylnitrosourea

    SciTech Connect

    Perantoni, A.O.; Rice, J.M.; Reed, C.D.; Watatani, M.; Wenk, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    Neurogenic tumors were selectively induced in high incidence in F344 rats by a single transplacental exposure to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). The authors prepared DNA for transfection of NIH 3T3 cells from primary glial tumors of the brain and form schwannomas of the cranial and spinal nerves that developed in the transplacentally exposed offspring between 20 and 40 weeks after birth. DNA preparations from 6 of 13 schwannomas, but not from normal liver, kidney, or intestine of tumor-bearing rats, transformed NIH 3T3 cells. NIH 3T3 clones transformed by schwannoma DNA contained rat repetitive DNA sequences, and all isolates contained rat neu oncogene sequences. A point mutation in the transmembrane region of the putative protein product of neu was identified in all six transformants and in the primary tumors from which they were derived as well as in 5 of 6 schwannomas tested that did not transform NIH 3T3 cells. Of 59 gliomas, only one yielded transforming DNA, and an activated N-ras oncogen was identified. The normal cellular neu sequence for the transmembrane region, but not the mutated sequence, was identified in DNA from all 11 gliomas surveyed by oligonucleotide hybridization. Activation of the neu oncogene, originally identified in cultured cell lines derived from EtNU-induced neurogenic tumors appears specifically associated with tumors of the peripheral nervous system in the F344 inbred strain.

  3. Evolution of the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram in UAs1-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plackowski, Tomasz; Matusiak, Marcin; Sznajd, Jozef

    2010-09-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram of UAs1-xSex with x in the range of 0-0.1 is studied by means of magnetocaloric and specific-heat measurements. Our interest is focused on the high-temperature phase transitions and especially on the point, where the paramagnetic (P) and two ordered phases meet. For undoped UAs these two ordered states are the ferrimagnetic (Fi) and the type-I antiferromagnetic phases. According to Sinha [Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1028 (1980)]10.1103/PhysRevLett.45.1028 the antiferromagnetic phase transition is in the vicinity of a Lifshitz point. Furthermore, Kuznietz [J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 61, 246 (1986)]10.1016/0304-8853(86)90033-8 showed that an incommensurate phase (IC) emerges between the type-I (or type-IA) antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases in the case of UAs1-xSex with 0

  4. UAS-based quantification of sedimentary body changes at Langgriesgraben, Styria, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöttl, Stefan; Seier, Gernot; Rascher, Eric; Sulzer, Wolfgang; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The creek's sedimentary body at Langgriesgraben is characterized by inconstant but recurring earth surface changes. Mass transport and deposition occur partly spontaneously and endanger primary infrastructure, in particular a main road. It is often mentioned in literature that the use of small and lightweight UAS is promising. To contribute to that, this study focuses on the documentation and quantification of carried sedimentary material by using a hexacopter in a high alpine environment. The images which were captured on two different dates, allow generating orthophotos and DEMs. The comparison of these derivatives enables a deeper understanding of the sedimentary body and its conditions. Our specific study area is a part of a bigger research area of another research project (Sedyn-X). One of the main goals of that project is to create a conceptual model of the sedimentary cascade for the entire Johnsbachtal catchment and to quantify geomorphic processes (e.g. erosion, transport and rearrangement of sediments). Therefore Terrestrial Laser Scanning recordings are performed as well. Through the generated surface models from different eras, changes in surface and volume can be quantified. The photogrammetric surface models can be compared with almost simultaneous ALS and TLS recordings. Apart from that, the outcomes will provide hard facts for decision-makers. The UAS related processing steps and methods (e.g. DGPS, SfM) are more or less established and well-known, but the applicability of UAS for recording feasible data, has to be proved constantly. We assume that our results will answer concrete questions and thus reduce expected damage and costs.

  5. Biomass estimator for NIR image with a few additional spectral band images taken from light UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Saari, Heikki; Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Honkavaara, Eija

    2012-05-01

    A novel way to produce biomass estimation will offer possibilities for precision farming. Fertilizer prediction maps can be made based on accurate biomass estimation generated by a novel biomass estimator. By using this knowledge, a variable rate amount of fertilizers can be applied during the growing season. The innovation consists of light UAS, a high spatial resolution camera, and VTT's novel spectral camera. A few properly selected spectral wavelengths with NIR images and point clouds extracted by automatic image matching have been used in the estimation. The spectral wavelengths were chosen from green, red, and NIR channels.

  6. The Impact of Integrated Maneuver Guidance Information on UAS Pilots Performing the Detect and Avoid Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorie, Conrad; Fern, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The integrated human-in-the-loop (iHITL) simulation examined the effect of four different Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) display concepts on unmanned aircraft system (UAS) pilots' ability to maintain safe separation. The displays varied in the type and amount of guidance they provided to pilots. The study's background and methodology are discussed, followed by the 'measured response' data (i.e., pilots' end-to-end response time in reacting to traffic alerts on their DAA display). Results indicate that display type had a significant impact on how long pilot's spent interacting with the interface (i.e., edit times).

  7. UAS Integration into the NAS: iHTL: DAA Display Evaluation Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, Conrad; Shively, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The integrated human-in-the-loop (iHITL) simulation examined the effect of four different Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) display concepts on unmanned aircraft system (UAS) pilots' ability to maintain safe separation. The displays varied in the type and amount of guidance they provided to pilots. The study's background and methodology are discussed, followed by a presentation of the preliminary 'measured response' data (i.e., pilots' end-to-end response time in reacting to traffic alerts on their DAA display). Results indicate that display type had moderate to no affect on pilot measured response times.

  8. The Unmanned Mission Avionics Test Heliciopter - a Flexible and Versatile Vtol-Uas Experimental System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, H.-W., , Dr.

    2011-09-01

    civil customers. These applications cover a wide spectrum from R&D programs for the military customer to special services for the civil customer. This paper focuses on the technical conversion of a commercially available VTOL-UAS to ESG's Unmanned Mission Avionics Test Helicopter (UMAT), its concept and operational capabilities. At the end of the paper, the current integration of a radar sensor is described as an example of the UMATs flexibility. The radar sensor is developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR). It is integrated by ESG together with the industrial partner SWISS UAV.

  9. Georeferencing UAS Derivatives Through Point Cloud Registration with Archived Lidar Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magtalas, M. S. L. Y.; Aves, J. C. L.; Blanco, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    Georeferencing gathered images is a common step before performing spatial analysis and other processes on acquired datasets using unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Methods of applying spatial information to aerial images or their derivatives is through onboard GPS (Global Positioning Systems) geotagging, or through tying of models through GCPs (Ground Control Points) acquired in the field. Currently, UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) derivatives are limited to meter-levels of accuracy when their generation is unaided with points of known position on the ground. The use of ground control points established using survey-grade GPS or GNSS receivers can greatly reduce model errors to centimeter levels. However, this comes with additional costs not only with instrument acquisition and survey operations, but also in actual time spent in the field. This study uses a workflow for cloud-based post-processing of UAS data in combination with already existing LiDAR data. The georeferencing of the UAV point cloud is executed using the Iterative Closest Point algorithm (ICP). It is applied through the open-source CloudCompare software (Girardeau-Montaut, 2006) on a `skeleton point cloud'. This skeleton point cloud consists of manually extracted features consistent on both LiDAR and UAV data. For this cloud, roads and buildings with minimal deviations given their differing dates of acquisition are considered consistent. Transformation parameters are computed for the skeleton cloud which could then be applied to the whole UAS dataset. In addition, a separate cloud consisting of non-vegetation features automatically derived using CANUPO classification algorithm (Brodu and Lague, 2012) was used to generate a separate set of parameters. Ground survey is done to validate the transformed cloud. An RMSE value of around 16 centimeters was found when comparing validation data to the models georeferenced using the CANUPO cloud and the manual skeleton cloud. Cloud-to-cloud distance computations of

  10. Design, Development, and Testing of a Compound Wing V/TOL small UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and testing of an innovative small UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System). The design of the vehicle was driven by the need to both have long endurance yet still have the convenience of V/TOL (Vertical Take-Off and Landing) operation. The paper discusses some of the design considerations and configurations evaluated in searching for a configuration that met the demanding mission requirements. The paper also discusses some aspects of the compound wing and experimental testing conducted to discern the optimum parameters for the wing's design. The paper discusses the results of the preliminary flight testing and outlines further research to be conducted.

  11. Upcycling UAS into modular platforms for Earth science and autonomy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Dary, O. G.; Ogunbiyi, J. A.; Pinsker, E. A.; Reynolds, K. W.; Werner, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    This reports the results of a multidisciplinary project conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) involving a number of student interns over the summers of 2014 and 2015. The project had a goal of applying rapid prototyping techniques, including 3D printing, to unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and demonstrated that surplus UAS could be repurposed into new configurations suitable for conducting science missions. ARC received several units of the RQ-11 Raven and RQ-14 DragonEye manufactured by AeroVironment Corporation, along with ground stations and spare parts. These UAS have electric propulsion, a wingspan and length ~1m; they are designed to disassemble for transport, have a simple wing design with snap-together interfaces, made from lightweight materials. After removing all ITAR restricted technology these were made available to summer interns that also had access to 3D printing, CNC laser-cutting equipment through NASA's SpaceShop. The modular nature and simple wing profiles enabled the teams to deconstruct and subsequently reconfigure them into completely new airframes. Two multi-fuselage designs were assembled using Ardupilot-based common avionics architecture (CAA), with extended wingspans, an H-tail and an innovative cambered flap system. After NASA internal design reviews, the students fabricated new control surfaces and subcomponents necessary to splice the RQ-14 subcomponents back together. Laboratory testing was performed on test articles to determine bending modulus and safety factors, and documentation was prepared for airworthiness flight safety review. Upon receiving approval of documentation and flight readiness certification, the repurposed UAS were flown at Crows Landing airfield in Stanislaus County, California, initially under RC pilot control and subsequently under fully autonomous control. The RQ-11 is now being used to expand on the modularity design and the Team has been at work in designing different configurations and a payload pod

  12. sUAS for Rapid Pre-Storm Coastal Characterization and Vulnerability Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, K. L.; Slocum, R. K.; Spore, N.

    2015-12-01

    Open coast beaches and surf-zones are dynamic three-dimensional environments that can evolve rapidly on the time-scale of hours in response to changing environmental conditions. Up-to-date knowledge about the pre-storm morphology of the coast can be instrumental in making accurate predictions about coastal change and damage during large storms like Hurricanes and Nor'Easters. For example, alongshore variations in the shape of ephemeral sandbars along the coastline can focus wave energy, subjecting different stretches of coastline to significantly higher waves. Variations in beach slope and width can also alter wave runup, causing higher wave-induced water levels which can cause overwash or inlet breaching. Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) offer a new capability to rapidly and inexpensively map vulnerable coastlines in advance of approaching storms. Here we present results from a prototype system that maps coastal topography and surf-zone morphology utilizing a multi-camera sensor. Structure-from-motion algorithms are used to generate topography and also constrain the trajectory of the sUAS. These data, in combination with mount boresight information, are used to rectify images from ocean-facing cameras. Images from all cameras are merged to generate a wide field of view allowing up to 5 minutes of continuous imagery time-series to be collected as the sUAS transits the coastline. Water imagery is then analyzed using wave-kinematics algorithms to provide information on surf-zone bathymetry. To assess this methodology, the absolute and relative accuracy of topographic data are evaluated in relation to simultaneously collected terrestrial lidar data. Ortho-rectification of water imagery is investigated using visible fixed targets installed in the surf-zone, and through comparison to stationary tower-based imagery. Future work will focus on evaluating how topographic and bathymetric data from this sUAS approach can be used to update forcing parameters in both

  13. Supporting the Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems(UAS) for Global Science Observations in Civil and Segregated Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulac, B. L.; Reider. K/

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are growing more popular within the earth science community as a way to augment measurements currently made with manned aircraft. UAS arc uniquely suited for applications that require long dwell times and/or in locations that are generally too dangerous for manned aircraft. Environmental monitoring in areas like the Arctic or obtaining data within a hurricane are just a couple of examples of many applications to which UAS are ideally suited. However, UAS are not without their challenges. Most unmanned aircraft are unable to meet current airspace regulations that are in place for manned aircraft, and specific airspace standards and regulations for unmanned aircraft do not exist. As a result, gaining access to civil airspace for flights is very difficult around the world. Under Term of Reference 48 within the ISPRS Commission 1, WGI/I: Standardization of Aircraft Interfaces, efforts have been made to understand and quantify the current state of UAS airspace access on a global scale. The results of these efforts will be presented along with examples of successful science missions that have been conducted internationally during the past year.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies raised against 167-180 aa sequence of human carbonic anhydrase XII inhibit its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Dekaminaviciute, Dovile; Kairys, Visvaldas; Zilnyte, Milda; Petrikaite, Vilma; Jogaite, Vaida; Matuliene, Jurgita; Gudleviciene, Zivile; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Human carbonic anhydrase XII (CA XII) is a single-pass transmembrane protein with an extracellular catalytic domain. This enzyme is being recognized as a potential biomarker for different tumours. The current study was aimed to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) neutralizing the enzymatic activity of CA XII. Bioinformatics analysis of CA XII structure revealed surface-exposed sequences located in a proximity of its catalytic centre. Two MAbs against the selected antigenic peptide spanning 167-180 aa sequence of CA XII were generated. The MAbs were reactive with recombinant catalytic domain of CA XII expressed either in E. coli or mammalian cells. Inhibitory activity of the MAbs was demonstrated by a stopped flow CO2 hydration assay. The study provides new data on the surface-exposed linear CA XII epitope that may serve as a target for inhibitory antibodies with a potential immunotherapeutic application.

  15. Temporal Sequence of Hemispheric Network Activation during Semantic Processing: A Functional Network Connectivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaf, Michal; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Calhoun, Vince; Kraut, Michael; Hart, John, Jr.; Pearlson, Godfrey

    2009-01-01

    To explore the temporal sequence of, and the relationship between, the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) during semantic memory (SM) processing we identified the neural networks involved in the performance of functional MRI semantic object retrieval task (SORT) using group independent component analysis (ICA) in 47 healthy individuals. SORT…

  16. Meeting Learning Challenges: Working with Children Who Have Difficulty Following Sequence of Activities and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2005-01-01

    In a question and answer advisory, the author gives advice to a preschool teacher working with a child who is having difficulties with sequencing, or the ability to put together a purposeful pattern of action, behavior, ideas, or thoughts. The author advises that through careful observation and appropriate learning opportunities, the children's…

  17. Bacterial community structures of phosphate-removing and non-phosphate-removing activated sludges from sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, P L; Hugenholtz, P; Keller, J; Blackall, L L

    1995-01-01

    The bacterial community structures of phosphate- and non-phosphate-removing activated sludges were compared. Sludge samples were obtained from two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), and 16S rDNA clone libraries of the bacterial sludge populations were established. Community structures were determined by phylogenetic analyses of 97 and 92 partial clone sequences from SBR1 (phosphate-removing sludge) and SBR2 (non-phosphate-removing sludge), respectively. For both sludges, the predominant bacterial group with which clones were affiliated was the beta subclass of the proteobacteria. Other major groups represented were the alpha proteobacterial subclass, planctomycete group, and Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides group. In addition, several clone groups unaffiliated with known bacterial assemblages were identified in the clone libraries. Acinetobacter spp., thought to be important in phosphate removal in activated sludge, were poorly represented by clone sequences in both libraries. Differences in community structure were observed between the phosphate- and non-phosphate-removing sludges; in particular, the Rhodocyclus group within the beta subclass was represented to a greater extent in the phosphate-removing community. Such differences may account for the differing phosphate-removing capabilities of the two activated sludge communities. PMID:7544094

  18. Gardnerella vaginalis Subgroups Defined by cpn60 Sequencing and Sialidase Activity in Isolates from Canada, Belgium and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, John J; Paramel Jayaprakash, Teenus; Withana Gamage, Niradha; Patterson, Mo H; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Hill, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Increased abundance of Gardnerella vaginalis and sialidase activity in vaginal fluid is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common but poorly understood clinical entity associated with poor reproductive health outcomes. Since most women are colonized with G. vaginalis, its status as a normal member of the vaginal microbiota or pathogen causing BV remains controversial, and numerous classification schemes have been described. Since 2005, sequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target (cpn60 UT) has distinguished four subgroups in isolate collections, clone libraries and deep sequencing datasets. To clarify potential clinical and diagnostic significance of cpn60 subgroups, we undertook phenotypic and molecular characterization of 112 G. vaginalis isolates from three continents. A total of 36 subgroup A, 33 B, 35 C and 8 D isolates were identified through phylogenetic analysis of cpn60 sequences as corresponding to four "clades" identified in a recently published study, based on sequencing 473 genes across 17 isolates. cpn60 subgroups were compared with other previously described molecular methods for classification of Gardnerella subgroups, including amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and real-time PCR assays designed to quantify subgroups in vaginal samples. Although two ARDRA patterns were observed in isolates, each was observed in three cpn60 subgroups (A/B/D and B/C/D). Real-time PCR assays corroborated cpn60 subgroups overall, but 13 isolates from subgroups A, B and D were negative in all assays. A putative sialidase gene was detected in all subgroup B, C and D isolates, but only in a single subgroup A isolate. In contrast, sialidase activity was observed in all subgroup B isolates, 3 (9%) subgroup C isolates and no subgroup A or D isolates. These observations suggest distinct roles for G. vaginalis subgroups in BV pathogenesis. We conclude that cpn60 UT sequencing is a robust approach for defining G. vaginalis subgroups within the

  19. Gardnerella vaginalis Subgroups Defined by cpn60 Sequencing and Sialidase Activity in Isolates from Canada, Belgium and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, John J.; Paramel Jayaprakash, Teenus; Withana Gamage, Niradha; Patterson, Mo H.; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Hill, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Increased abundance of Gardnerella vaginalis and sialidase activity in vaginal fluid is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common but poorly understood clinical entity associated with poor reproductive health outcomes. Since most women are colonized with G. vaginalis, its status as a normal member of the vaginal microbiota or pathogen causing BV remains controversial, and numerous classification schemes have been described. Since 2005, sequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target (cpn60 UT) has distinguished four subgroups in isolate collections, clone libraries and deep sequencing datasets. To clarify potential clinical and diagnostic significance of cpn60 subgroups, we undertook phenotypic and molecular characterization of 112 G. vaginalis isolates from three continents. A total of 36 subgroup A, 33 B, 35 C and 8 D isolates were identified through phylogenetic analysis of cpn60 sequences as corresponding to four “clades” identified in a recently published study, based on sequencing 473 genes across 17 isolates. cpn60 subgroups were compared with other previously described molecular methods for classification of Gardnerella subgroups, including amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and real-time PCR assays designed to quantify subgroups in vaginal samples. Although two ARDRA patterns were observed in isolates, each was observed in three cpn60 subgroups (A/B/D and B/C/D). Real-time PCR assays corroborated cpn60 subgroups overall, but 13 isolates from subgroups A, B and D were negative in all assays. A putative sialidase gene was detected in all subgroup B, C and D isolates, but only in a single subgroup A isolate. In contrast, sialidase activity was observed in all subgroup B isolates, 3 (9%) subgroup C isolates and no subgroup A or D isolates. These observations suggest distinct roles for G. vaginalis subgroups in BV pathogenesis. We conclude that cpn60 UT sequencing is a robust approach for defining G. vaginalis subgroups within

  20. Architecture for persistent surveillance using mast and UAS-based autonomous sensing with bio-inspired technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry

    2014-06-01

    A sophisticated real time architecture for capturing relevant battlefield information of personnel and terrestrial events from a network of mast based imaging and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with target detection, tracking, classification and visualization is presented. Persistent surveillance of personnel and vehicles is achieved using a unique spatial and temporally invariant motion detection and tracking algorithm for mast based cameras in combination with aerial remote sensing to autonomously monitor unattended ground based sensor networks. UAS autonomous routing is achieved using bio-inspired algorithms that mimic how bacteria locate nutrients in their environment. Results include field test data, performance and lessons learned. The technology also has application to detecting and tracking low observables (manned and UAS), counter MANPADS, airport bird detection and search and rescue operations.

  1. Using the MicroASAR on the NASA SIERRA UAS in the Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaugg, Evan; Long, David; Edwards, Matthew; Fladeland, Matthew; Kolyer, Richard; Crocker, Ian; Maslanik, James; Herzfeld, Ute; Wallin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The MicroASAR is a flexible, robust SAR system built on the successful legacy of the BYU microSAR. It is a compact LFM-CW SAR system designed for low-power operation on small, manned aircraft or UAS. The NASA SIERRA UAS was designed to test new instruments and support flight experiments. NASA used the MicroASAR on the SIERRA during a science field campaign in 2009 to study sea ice roughness and break-up in the Arctic and high northern latitudes. This mission is known as CASIE-09 (Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment 2009). This paper describes the MicroASAR and its role flying on the SIERRA UAS platform as part of CASIE-09.

  2. Automatic Extraction of Small Spatial Plots from Geo-Registered UAS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkauer, Keith; Hearst, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    Accurate extraction of spatial plots from high-resolution imagery acquired by Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), is a prerequisite for accurate assessment of experimental plots in many geoscience fields. If the imagery is correctly geo-registered, then it may be possible to accurately extract plots from the imagery based on their map coordinates. To test this approach, a UAS was used to acquire visual imagery of 5 ha of soybean fields containing 6.0 m2 plots in a complex planting scheme. Sixteen artificial targets were setup in the fields before flights and different spatial configurations of 0 to 6 targets were used as Ground Control Points (GCPs) for geo-registration, resulting in a total of 175 geo-registered image mosaics with a broad range of geo-registration accuracies. Geo-registration accuracy was quantified based on the horizontal Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of targets used as checkpoints. Twenty test plots were extracted from the geo-registered imagery. Plot extraction accuracy was quantified based on the percentage of the desired plot area that was extracted. It was found that using 4 GCPs along the perimeter of the field minimized the horizontal RMSE and enabled a plot extraction accuracy of at least 70%, with a mean plot extraction accuracy of 92%. The methods developed are suitable for work in many fields where replicates across time and space are necessary to quantify variability.

  3. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  4. Validation of Spaceborne Radar Surface Water Mapping with Optical sUAS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Murnaghan, K.; Sherman, D.; Poncos, V.; Brisco, B.; Armenakis, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has over 40 years of experience with airborne and spaceborne sensors and is now starting to use small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) to validate products from large coverage area sensors and create new methodologies for very high resolution products. Wetlands have several functions including water storage and retention which can reduce flooding and provide continuous flow for hydroelectric generation and irrigation for agriculture. Synthetic Aperture Radar is well suited as a tool for monitoring surface water by supplying acquisitions irrespective of cloud cover or time of day. Wetlands can be subdivided into three classes: open water, flooded vegetation and upland which can vary seasonally with time and water level changes. RADARSAT-2 data from the Wide-Ultra Fine, Spotlight and Fine Quad-Pol modes has been used to map the open water in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, Alberta using intensity thresholding. We also use spotlight modes for higher resolution and the fully polarimetric mode (FQ) for polarimetric decomposition. Validation of these products will be done using a low altitude flying sUAS to generate optical georeferenced images. This project provides methodologies which could be used for flood mapping as well as ecological monitoring.

  5. Experimental Optimization of a Free-to-Rotate Wing for Small UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; DeLoach, Richard; Copeland, Tiwana; Vo, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses an experimental investigation conducted to optimize a free-to-rotate wing for use on a small unmanned aircraft system (UAS). Although free-to-rotate wings have been used for decades on various small UAS and small manned aircraft, little is known about how to optimize these unusual wings for a specific application. The paper discusses some of the design rationale of the basic wing. In addition, three main parameters were selected for "optimization", wing camber, wing pivot location, and wing center of gravity (c.g.) location. A small apparatus was constructed to enable some simple experimental analysis of these parameters. A design-of-experiment series of tests were first conducted to discern which of the main optimization parameters were most likely to have the greatest impact on the outputs of interest, namely, some measure of "stability", some measure of the lift being generated at the neutral position, and how quickly the wing "recovers" from an upset. A second set of tests were conducted to develop a response-surface numerical representation of these outputs as functions of the three primary inputs. The response surface numerical representations are then used to develop an "optimum" within the trade space investigated. The results of the optimization are then tested experimentally to validate the predictions.

  6. UAS-based automatic bird count of a common gull colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2013-08-01

    The standard procedure to count birds is a manual one. However a manual bird count is a time consuming and cumbersome process, requiring several people going from nest to nest counting the birds and the clutches. High resolution imagery, generated with a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) offer an interesting alternative. Experiences and results of UAS surveys for automatic bird count of the last two years are presented for the bird reserve island Langenwerder. For 2011 1568 birds (± 5%) were detected on the image mosaic, based on multispectral image classification and GIS-based post processing. Based on the experiences of 2011 the results and the accuracy of the automatic bird count 2012 became more efficient. For 2012 1938 birds with an accuracy of approx. ± 3% were counted. Additionally a separation of breeding and non-breeding birds was performed with the assumption, that standing birds cause a visible shade. The final section of the paper is devoted to the analysis of the 3D-point cloud. Thereby the point cloud was used to determine the height of the vegetation and the extend and depth of closed sinks, which are unsuitable for breeding birds.

  7. Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Program Goal: Conduct research at an integrated system-level on promising concepts and technologies and explore, assess, or demonstrate the benefits in a relevant environment.Criteria for selection of projects for Integrated Systems Research: a) Technology has attained enough maturity in the foundational research program that they merit more in-depth evaluation at an integrated system level in a relevant environment. b) Technologies which systems analysis indicates have the most potential for contributing to the simultaneous attainment of goals. c) Technologies identified through stakeholder input as having potential for simultaneous attainment of goals. d) Research not being done by other government agencies and appropriate for NASA to conduct. e) Budget augmentation. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project Explore and assess new vehicle concepts and enabling technologies through system-level experimentation to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise, and emissions Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project Contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS Innovative Concepts for Green Aviation (ICGA) Project Spur innovation by offering research opportunities to the broader aeronautics community through peer-reviewed proposals, with a focus on making aviation more eco-friendly. Establish incentive prizes similar to the Centennial Challenges and sponsor innovation demonstrations of selected technologies that show promise of reducing aviation s impact on the environment

  8. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Scannapieco, Antonio F.; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3D mapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  9. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-22

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  10. Snow Depth Mapping at a Basin-Wide Scale in the Western Arctic Using UAS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, T.; Marsh, P.; Mann, P.; Walker, B.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing snow depths across the Arctic has proven to be extremely difficult due to the variability of snow depths at scales from metres to 100's of metres. New Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) technology provides the possibility to obtain centimeter level resolution imagery (~3cm), and to create Digital Surface Models (DSM) based on the Structure from Motion method. However, there is an ongoing need to quantify the accuracy of this method over different terrain and vegetation types across the Arctic. In this study, we used a small UAS equipped with a high resolution RGB camera to create DSMs over a 1 km2 watershed in the western Canadian Arctic during snow (end of winter) and snow-free periods. To improve the image georeferencing, 15 Ground Control Points were marked across the watershed and incorporated into the DSM processing. The summer DSM was subtracted from the snowcovered DSM to deliver snow depth measurements across the entire watershed. These snow depth measurements were validated by over 2000 snow depth measurements. This technique has the potential to improve larger scale snow depth mapping across watersheds by providing snow depth measurements at a ~3 cm . The ability of mapping both shallow snow (less than 75cm) covering much of the basin and snow patches (up to 5 m in depth) that cover less than 10% of the basin, but contain a significant portion of total basin snowcover, is important for both water resource applications, as well as for testing snow models.

  11. CCR4 and CAF1 deadenylases have an intrinsic activity to remove the post-poly(A) sequence.

    PubMed

    Niinuma, Sho; Fukaya, Takashi; Tomari, Yukihide

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) recruit the CCR4-NOT complex, which contains two deadenylases, CCR4 and CAF1, to promote shortening of the poly(A) tail. Although both CCR4 and CAF1 generally have a strong preference for poly(A) RNA substrates, it has been reported from yeast to humans that they can also remove non-A residues in vitro to various degrees. However, it remains unknown how CCR4 and CAF1 remove non-A sequences. Herein we show that Drosophila miRNAs can promote the removal of 3'-terminal non-A residues in an exonucleolytic manner, but only if an upstream poly(A) sequence exists. This non-A removing reaction is directly catalyzed by both CCR4 and CAF1 and depends on the balance between the length of the internal poly(A) sequence and that of the downstream non-A sequence. These results suggest that the CCR4-NOT complex has an intrinsic activity to remove the 3'-terminal non-A modifications downstream from the poly(A) tail. PMID:27484313

  12. Three-dimensional motion estimation using genetic algorithms from image sequence in an active stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipanda, Albert; Ajot, Jerome; Woo, Sanghyuk

    2003-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for estimating 3D rigid motion parameters from an image sequence of a moving object. The 3D surface measurement is achieved using an active stereovision system composed of a camera and a light projector, which illuminates objects to be analyzed by a pyramid-shaped laser beam. By associating the laser rays and the spots in the 2D image, the 3D points corresponding to these spots are reconstructed. Each image of the sequence provides a set of 3D points, which is modeled by a B-spline surface. Therefore, estimating the motion between two images of the sequence boils down to matching two B-spline surfaces. We consider the matching environment as an optimization problem and find the optimal solution using Genetic Algorithms. A chromosome is encoded by concatenating six binary coded parameters, the three angles of rotation and the x-axis, y-axis and z-axis translations. We have defined an original fitness function to calculate the similarity measure between two surfaces. The matching process is performed iteratively: the number of points to be matched grows as the process advances and results are refined until convergence. Experimental results with a real image sequence are presented to show the effectiveness of the method.

  13. Length heterogeneity at conserved sequence block 2 in human mitochondrial DNA acts as a rheostat for RNA polymerase POLRMT activity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Benedict G.; Wellesley, Frederick C.; Savery, Nigel J.; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The guanine (G)-tract of conserved sequence block 2 (CSB 2) in human mitochondrial DNA can result in transcription termination due to formation of a hybrid G-quadruplex between the nascent RNA and the nontemplate DNA strand. This structure can then influence genome replication, stability and localization. Here we surveyed the frequency of variation in sequence identity and length at CSB 2 amongst human mitochondrial genomes and used in vitro transcription to assess the effects of this length heterogeneity on the activity of the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, POLRMT. In general, increased G-tract length correlated with increased termination levels. However, variation in the population favoured CSB 2 sequences which produced efficient termination while particularly weak or strong signals were avoided. For all variants examined, the 3′ end of the transcripts mapped to the same downstream sequences and were prevented from terminating by addition of the transcription factor TEFM. We propose that CSB 2 length heterogeneity allows variation in the efficiency of transcription termination without affecting the position of the products or the capacity for regulation by TEFM. PMID:27436287

  14. Application of UAS photogrammetry for assessment of flood driven fluvial dynamics of montane stream. Case study - Roklansky creek, Sumava Mts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Miřijovský, Jakub; Hartvich, Filip; Kaiglová, Jana

    2014-05-01

    Current progress in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology is largely based on new field survey and analysis techniques, employing advanced technologies for monitoring the dynamics of the runoff process, field surveying and for remote monitoring of changes in riverbeds and of fluvial dynamics. Application of these techniques allows researchers to obtain information on a significantly higher qualitative level than using traditional methods of field survey and measurement, either in terms of spatial accuracy and resolution, frequency of sampling or qualitative characteristics of acquired data. The contribution demonstrates the potential of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for analysis of fluvial dynamics of montane stream, driven by flood in combination with other survey techniques, namely the ground LiDAR scanning, digital granulometry and automated water level monitoring. The UAS photogrammetry is employed in the study to acquire high precision DTMs, enabling reconstruction of riverbed and quantitative analysis of volumetric changes related to initial flood events. The hexacopter UAS platform has been used to acquire the data for photogrammetric analysis of complex stretch of stream with historically elevated fluvial dynamics. The photogrammetric reconstruction enabled to build accurate DTM of riverbed and floodplain before and after the initial event and to calculate the extent of volumetric changes. The potential of UAS photogrammetry for fluvio morphological study is in combination with other monitoring and survey techniques, enabling complex analysis of fluvial dynamics. The magnitude, duration and hydrological properties of initial flood event were derived from automated high frequency water level monitoring. The digital granulometry enabled to analyze the structure of sedimentary material in floodplain. The terrestrial LiDAR scanning allows construction of very detailed 3D models of selected fluvial forms, enabling deeper insight into the effects of fluvial

  15. Communications Technology Assessment for the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Bishop, William D.; Dailey, Justin E.; Chevalier, Christine T.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is performing communications systems research for the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project. One of the goals of the communications element is to select and test a communications technology for the UAS Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) link. The GRC UAS Modeling and Simulation (M/S) Sub Team will evaluate the performance of several potential technologies for the CNPC link through detailed software simulations. In parallel, an industry partner will implement a technology in hardware to be used for flight testing. The task necessitated a technical assessment of existing Radio Frequency (RF) communications technologies to identify the best candidate systems for use as the UAS CNPC link. The assessment provides a basis for selecting the technologies for the M/S effort and the hardware radio design. The process developed for the technical assessments for the Future Communications Study1 (FCS) was used as an initial starting point for this assessment. The FCS is a joint Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Eurocontrol study on technologies for use as a future aeronautical communications link. The FCS technology assessment process methodology can be applied to the UAS CNPC link; however the findings of the FCS are not directly applicable because of different requirements between a CNPC link and a general aeronautical data link. Additional technologies were added to the potential technologies list from the State of the Art Unmanned Aircraft System Communication Assessment developed by NASA GRC2. This document investigates the state of the art of communications as related to UAS. A portion of the document examines potential communications systems for a UAS communication architecture. Like the FCS, the state of the art assessment surveyed existing communications technologies. It did not, however, perform a detailed assessment of the

  16. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  17. Active populations of rare microbes in oceanic environments as revealed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and 454 tag sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Koji; Taniguchi, Akito; Tada, Yuya; Kaneko, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    The "rare biosphere" consisting of thousands of low-abundance microbial taxa is important as a seed bank or a gene pool to maintain microbial functional redundancy and robustness of the ecosystem. Here we investigated contemporaneous growth of diverse microbial taxa including rare taxa and determined their variability in environmentally distinctive locations along a north-south transect in the Pacific Ocean in order to assess which taxa were actively growing and how environmental factors influenced bacterial community structures. A bromodeoxyuridine-labeling technique in combination with PCR amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes gave 215-793 OTUs from 1200 to 3500 unique sequences in the total communities and 175-299 OTUs nearly 860 to 1800 sequences in the active communities. Unexpectedly, many of the active OTUs were not detected in the total fractions. Among these active but rare OTUs, some taxa (2-4% of rare OTUs) showed much higher abundance (>0.10% of total reads) in the active fraction than in the total fraction, suggesting that their contribution to bacterial community productivity or growth was much larger than that expected from their standing stocks at each location. An ordination plot by the principal component analysis presented that bacterial community compositions among 4 sampling locations and between total and active fractions were distinctive with each other. A redundancy analysis revealed that the variability of community compositions significantly correlated to seawater temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration. Also, a variation partitioning analysis showed that the environmental factors explained 49% of the variability of community compositions and the distance only explained 4.0% of its variability. These results implied very dynamic change of community structures due to environmental filtering. The active bacterial populations are more diverse and spread further in rare biosphere than we have ever seen. This study implied that rare

  18. Active populations of rare microbes in oceanic environments as revealed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and 454 tag sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Koji; Taniguchi, Akito; Tada, Yuya; Kaneko, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    The "rare biosphere" consisting of thousands of low-abundance microbial taxa is important as a seed bank or a gene pool to maintain microbial functional redundancy and robustness of the ecosystem. Here we investigated contemporaneous growth of diverse microbial taxa including rare taxa and determined their variability in environmentally distinctive locations along a north-south transect in the Pacific Ocean in order to assess which taxa were actively growing and how environmental factors influenced bacterial community structures. A bromodeoxyuridine-labeling technique in combination with PCR amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes gave 215-793 OTUs from 1200 to 3500 unique sequences in the total communities and 175-299 OTUs nearly 860 to 1800 sequences in the active communities. Unexpectedly, many of the active OTUs were not detected in the total fractions. Among these active but rare OTUs, some taxa (2-4% of rare OTUs) showed much higher abundance (>0.10% of total reads) in the active fraction than in the total fraction, suggesting that their contribution to bacterial community productivity or growth was much larger than that expected from their standing stocks at each location. An ordination plot by the principal component analysis presented that bacterial community compositions among 4 sampling locations and between total and active fractions were distinctive with each other. A redundancy analysis revealed that the variability of community compositions significantly correlated to seawater temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration. Also, a variation partitioning analysis showed that the environmental factors explained 49% of the variability of community compositions and the distance only explained 4.0% of its variability. These results implied very dynamic change of community structures due to environmental filtering. The active bacterial populations are more diverse and spread further in rare biosphere than we have ever seen. This study implied that rare

  19. Coamplification and coexpression of human tissue-type plasminogen activator and murine dihydrofolate reductase sequences in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, R J; Wasley, L C; Spiliotes, A J; Gossels, S D; Latt, S A; Larsen, G R; Kay, R M

    1985-01-01

    Expression of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) at high levels has been achieved in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by cotransfection and subsequent coamplification of the transfected sequences. Expression vectors containing the t-PA cDNA gene and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) cDNA gene were cotransfected into CHO DHFR-deficient cells. Transformants expressing DHFR were selected by growth in media lacking nucleosides and contained low numbers of t-PA genes and DHFR genes. Stepwise selection of the DHFR+ transformants in increasing concentrations of methotrexate generated cells which had amplified both DHFR genes and t-PA genes over 100-fold. These cell lines expressed elevated levels of enzymatically active t-PA. To optimize both t-PA sequence amplification and t-PA expression, various modifications of the original procedure were used. These included alterations to the DHFR expression vector, optimization of the molar ratio of t-PA to DHFR sequences in the cotransfection, and modification of the methotrexate resistance selection procedure. The structure of the amplified DNA, its chromosomal location, and its stability during growth in the absence of methotrexate are reported. Images PMID:4040603

  20. A stress-activated, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-ATF/CREB pathway regulates posttranscriptional, sequence-dependent decay of target RNAs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Wagnon, Jacy L; Protacio, Reine M; Glazko, Galina V; Beggs, Marjorie; Raj, Vinay; Davidson, Mari K; Wahls, Wayne P

    2013-08-01

    Broadly conserved, mitogen-activated/stress-activated protein kinases (MAPK/SAPK) of the p38 family regulate multiple cellular processes. They transduce signals via dimeric, basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors of the ATF/CREB family (such as Atf2, Fos, and Jun) to regulate the transcription of target genes. We report additional mechanisms for gene regulation by such pathways exerted through RNA stability controls. The Spc1 (Sty1/Phh1) kinase-regulated Atf1-Pcr1 (Mts1-Mts2) heterodimer of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe controls the stress-induced, posttranscriptional stability and decay of sets of target RNAs. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing data revealed that decay is associated nonrandomly with transcripts that contain an M26 sequence motif. Moreover, the ablation of an M26 sequence motif in a target mRNA is sufficient to block its stress-induced loss. Conversely, engineered M26 motifs can render a stable mRNA into one that is targeted for decay. This stress-activated RNA decay (SARD) provides a mechanism for reducing the expression of target genes without shutting off transcription itself. Thus, a single p38-ATF/CREB signal transduction pathway can coordinately induce (promote transcription and RNA stability) and repress (promote RNA decay) transcript levels for distinct sets of genes, as is required for developmental decisions in response to stress and other stimuli. PMID:23732911

  1. A Stress-Activated, p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–ATF/CREB Pathway Regulates Posttranscriptional, Sequence-Dependent Decay of Target RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Wagnon, Jacy L.; Protacio, Reine M.; Glazko, Galina V.; Beggs, Marjorie; Raj, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Broadly conserved, mitogen-activated/stress-activated protein kinases (MAPK/SAPK) of the p38 family regulate multiple cellular processes. They transduce signals via dimeric, basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors of the ATF/CREB family (such as Atf2, Fos, and Jun) to regulate the transcription of target genes. We report additional mechanisms for gene regulation by such pathways exerted through RNA stability controls. The Spc1 (Sty1/Phh1) kinase-regulated Atf1-Pcr1 (Mts1-Mts2) heterodimer of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe controls the stress-induced, posttranscriptional stability and decay of sets of target RNAs. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing data revealed that decay is associated nonrandomly with transcripts that contain an M26 sequence motif. Moreover, the ablation of an M26 sequence motif in a target mRNA is sufficient to block its stress-induced loss. Conversely, engineered M26 motifs can render a stable mRNA into one that is targeted for decay. This stress-activated RNA decay (SARD) provides a mechanism for reducing the expression of target genes without shutting off transcription itself. Thus, a single p38-ATF/CREB signal transduction pathway can coordinately induce (promote transcription and RNA stability) and repress (promote RNA decay) transcript levels for distinct sets of genes, as is required for developmental decisions in response to stress and other stimuli. PMID:23732911

  2. Changes in cerebellar activation pattern during two successive sequences of saccades.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Thomas; Mascolo, Andrea; Yousry, Tarek A; Bense, Sandra; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2002-06-01

    The changes in the cerebellar activation pattern of two successive fMRI scanning runs were determined for visually guided to-and-fro saccades in 12 healthy volunteers familiar with the study paradigm. Group and single subject-analyses revealed a constant activation of the paramedian cerebellar vermis (uvula, tonsils, tuber, folium/declive), which reflects constant ocular motor activity in both runs. A significant decrease in activation of the cerebellar hemispheres found in the second run is best explained by either a decrease in attention or the effects of motor optimization and learning. The significant, systematic changes of the cerebellar activation pattern in two successive runs were not expected, because the ocular motor task was simple, familiar, and highly automated. These findings indicate that similar effects may bias other cerebellar activation studies, in which sensorimotor tasks are repeated in a single session.

  3. Sequence-Specific Modifications Enhance the Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Response Activated by RIG-I Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cindy; Beljanski, Vladimir; Yin, Kevin; Olagnier, David; Ben Yebdri, Fethia; Steel, Courtney; Goulet, Marie-Line; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Haddad, Elias K.; Trautmann, Lydie; Ross, Ted; Lin, Rongtuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cytosolic RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) receptor plays a pivotal role in the initiation of the immune response against RNA virus infection by recognizing short 5′-triphosphate (5′ppp)-containing viral RNA and activating the host antiviral innate response. In the present study, we generated novel 5′ppp RIG-I agonists of varieous lengths, structures, and sequences and evaluated the generation of the antiviral and inflammatory responses in human epithelial A549 cells, human innate immune primary cells, and murine models of influenza and chikungunya viral pathogenesis. A 99-nucleotide, uridine-rich hairpin 5′pppRNA termed M8 stimulated an extensive and robust interferon response compared to other modified 5′pppRNA structures, RIG-I aptamers, or poly(I·C). Interestingly, manipulation of the primary RNA sequence alone was sufficient to modulate antiviral activity and inflammatory response, in a manner dependent exclusively on RIG-I and independent of MDA5 and TLR3. Both prophylactic and therapeutic administration of M8 effectively inhibited influenza virus and dengue virus replication in vitro. Furthermore, multiple strains of influenza virus that were resistant to oseltamivir, an FDA-approved therapeutic treatment for influenza, were highly sensitive to inhibition by M8. Finally, prophylactic M8 treatment in vivo prolonged survival and reduced lung viral titers of mice challenged with influenza virus, as well as reducing chikungunya virus-associated foot swelling and viral load. Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5′pppRNA can be rationally designed to achieve a maximal RIG-I-mediated protective antiviral response against human-pathogenic RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE The development of novel therapeutics to treat human-pathogenic RNA viral infections is an important goal to reduce spread of infection and to improve human health and safety. This study investigated the design of an RNA agonist with enhanced antiviral and inflammatory

  4. An Energy-Aware Trajectory Optimization Layer for sUAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, William A.

    The focus of this work is the implementation of an energy-aware trajectory optimization algorithm that enables small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) to operate in unknown, dynamic severe weather environments. The software is designed as a component of an Energy-Aware Dynamic Data Driven Application System (EA-DDDAS) for sUAS. This work addresses the challenges of integrating and executing an online trajectory optimization algorithm during mission operations in the field. Using simplified aircraft kinematics, the energy-aware algorithm enables extraction of kinetic energy from measured winds to optimize thrust use and endurance during flight. The optimization layer, based upon a nonlinear program formulation, extracts energy by exploiting strong wind velocity gradients in the wind field, a process known as dynamic soaring. The trajectory optimization layer extends the energy-aware path planner developed by Wenceslao Shaw-Cortez te{Shaw-cortez2013} to include additional mission configurations, simulations with a 6-DOF model, and validation of the system with flight testing in June 2015 in Lubbock, Texas. The trajectory optimization layer interfaces with several components within the EA-DDDAS to provide an sUAS with optimal flight trajectories in real-time during severe weather. As a result, execution timing, data transfer, and scalability are considered in the design of the software. Severe weather also poses a measure of unpredictability to the system with respect to communication between systems and available data resources during mission operations. A heuristic mission tree with different cost functions and constraints is implemented to provide a level of adaptability to the optimization layer. Simulations and flight experiments are performed to assess the efficacy of the trajectory optimization layer. The results are used to assess the feasibility of flying dynamic soaring trajectories with existing controllers as well as to verify the interconnections between

  5. Novel proline-hydroxyproline glycopeptides from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) flowers: de novo sequencing and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Astafieva, Alexandra A; Enyenihi, Atim A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Kozlov, Sergey A; Grishin, Eugene V; Odintsova, Tatyana I; Zubarev, Roman A; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2015-09-01

    Two novel homologous peptides named ToHyp1 and ToHyp2 that show no similarity to any known proteins were isolated from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers by multidimensional liquid chromatography. Amino acid and mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the peptides have unusual structure: they are cysteine-free, proline-hydroxyproline-rich and post-translationally glycosylated by pentoses, with 5 carbohydrates in ToHyp2 and 10 in ToHyp1. The ToHyp2 peptide with a monoisotopic molecular mass of 4350.3Da was completely sequenced by a combination of Edman degradation and de novo sequencing via top down multistage collision induced dissociation (CID) and higher energy dissociation (HCD) tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)). ToHyp2 consists of 35 amino acids, contains eighteen proline residues, of which 8 prolines are hydroxylated. The peptide displays antifungal activity and inhibits growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We further showed that carbohydrate moieties have no significant impact on the peptide structure, but are important for antifungal activity although not absolutely necessary. The deglycosylated ToHyp2 peptide was less active against the susceptible fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana than the native peptide. Unique structural features of the ToHyp2 peptide place it into a new family of plant defense peptides. The discovery of ToHyp peptides in T. officinale flowers expands the repertoire of molecules of plant origin with practical applications. PMID:26259198

  6. Novel proline-hydroxyproline glycopeptides from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) flowers: de novo sequencing and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Astafieva, Alexandra A; Enyenihi, Atim A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Kozlov, Sergey A; Grishin, Eugene V; Odintsova, Tatyana I; Zubarev, Roman A; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2015-09-01

    Two novel homologous peptides named ToHyp1 and ToHyp2 that show no similarity to any known proteins were isolated from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers by multidimensional liquid chromatography. Amino acid and mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the peptides have unusual structure: they are cysteine-free, proline-hydroxyproline-rich and post-translationally glycosylated by pentoses, with 5 carbohydrates in ToHyp2 and 10 in ToHyp1. The ToHyp2 peptide with a monoisotopic molecular mass of 4350.3Da was completely sequenced by a combination of Edman degradation and de novo sequencing via top down multistage collision induced dissociation (CID) and higher energy dissociation (HCD) tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)). ToHyp2 consists of 35 amino acids, contains eighteen proline residues, of which 8 prolines are hydroxylated. The peptide displays antifungal activity and inhibits growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We further showed that carbohydrate moieties have no significant impact on the peptide structure, but are important for antifungal activity although not absolutely necessary. The deglycosylated ToHyp2 peptide was less active against the susceptible fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana than the native peptide. Unique structural features of the ToHyp2 peptide place it into a new family of plant defense peptides. The discovery of ToHyp peptides in T. officinale flowers expands the repertoire of molecules of plant origin with practical applications.

  7. Genomic Sequence of Bacteriophage ATCC 8074-B1 and Activity of Its Endolysin and Engineered Variants against Clostridium sporogenes

    PubMed Central

    Gasson, Michael J.; Narbad, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lytic bacteriophage ATCC 8074-B1 produces large plaques on its host Clostridium sporogenes. Sequencing of the 47,595-bp genome allowed the identification of 82 putative open reading frames, including those encoding proteins for head and tail morphogenesis and lysis. However, sequences commonly associated with lysogeny were absent. ORF 22 encodes an endolysin, CS74L, that shows homology to N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases, and when expressed in Escherichia coli, the protein causes effective lysis of C. sporogenes cells when added externally. CS74L was also active on Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum. The catalytic domain expressed alone (CS74L1–177) exhibited a similar activity and the same host range as the full-length endolysin. A chimeric endolysin consisting of the CS74L catalytic domain fused to the C-terminal domain of endolysin CD27L, derived from Clostridium difficile bacteriophage ΦCD27, was produced. This chimera (CSCD) lysed C. sporogenes cells with an activity equivalent to that of the catalytic domain alone. In contrast, the CD27L C-terminal domain reduced the efficacy of the CS74L catalytic domain when tested against C. tyrobutyricum. The addition of the CD27L C-terminal domain did not enable the lysin to target C. difficile or other CD27L-sensitive bacteria. PMID:22427494

  8. Sequence specific protein binding to and activation of the TGF-beta 3 promoter through a repeated TCCC motif.

    PubMed Central

    Lafyatis, R; Denhez, F; Williams, T; Sporn, M; Roberts, A

    1991-01-01

    We have previously characterized the TGF-beta 3 promoter and shown that the activity of this promoter is highly variable in different cell types. Although the promoter contains a proximal cAMP responsive element, which is critical to basal and forskolin-induced promoter activity, this element is not responsible for the variable, cell-specific regulation of the promoter. In this paper, we identify a 25 base pair sequence in the proximal region of the TGF-beta 3 promoter that binds a novel DNA-binding protein. This region includes the sequence T-CCCTCCCTCCC, (3 x TCCC), and mutation of these T-CCC repeats inhibits protein binding. Further, we show that in the cell line A375, which we have previously shown expresses high levels of TGF-beta 3 mRNA, this region is responsible for mediating high level TGF-beta 3 promoter activity. Immediately 3' to the 3 x TCCC sequence is a consensus AP-2 binding site, however, we show that this region does not bind AP-2, and AP-2 does not transactivate the TGF-beta 3 promoter. Therefore, we provide strong evidence that high level expression of TGF-beta 3 in A375 cells results from transactivation of the TGF-beta 3 promoter by a protein that binds to a repeated TCCC motif in the promoter and suggest that this DNA-binding protein likely also regulates aspects of developmental and tissue-specific expression of this cytokine. Images PMID:1754378

  9. RNA sequencing from neural ensembles activated during fear conditioning in the mouse temporal association cortex.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Hyung; Huang, Ben S; Gray, Jesse M

    2016-01-01

    The stable formation of remote fear memories is thought to require neuronal gene induction in cortical ensembles that are activated during learning. However, the set of genes expressed specifically in these activated ensembles is not known; knowledge of such transcriptional profiles may offer insights into the molecular program underlying stable memory formation. Here we use RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression is enriched in activated cortical ensembles labeled during associative fear learning. We first establish that mouse temporal association cortex (TeA) is required for remote recall of auditory fear memories. We then perform RNA-Seq in TeA neurons that are labeled by the activity reporter Arc-dVenus during learning. We identify 944 genes with enriched expression in Arc-dVenus+ neurons. These genes include markers of L2/3, L5b, and L6 excitatory neurons but not glial or inhibitory markers, confirming Arc-dVenus to be an excitatory neuron-specific but non-layer-specific activity reporter. Cross comparisons to other transcriptional profiles show that 125 of the enriched genes are also activity-regulated in vitro or induced by visual stimulus in the visual cortex, suggesting that they may be induced generally in the cortex in an experience-dependent fashion. Prominent among the enriched genes are those encoding potassium channels that down-regulate neuronal activity, suggesting the possibility that part of the molecular program induced by fear conditioning may initiate homeostatic plasticity. PMID:27557751

  10. RNA sequencing from neural ensembles activated during fear conditioning in the mouse temporal association cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin-Hyung; Huang, Ben S.; Gray, Jesse M.

    2016-01-01

    The stable formation of remote fear memories is thought to require neuronal gene induction in cortical ensembles that are activated during learning. However, the set of genes expressed specifically in these activated ensembles is not known; knowledge of such transcriptional profiles may offer insights into the molecular program underlying stable memory formation. Here we use RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression is enriched in activated cortical ensembles labeled during associative fear learning. We first establish that mouse temporal association cortex (TeA) is required for remote recall of auditory fear memories. We then perform RNA-Seq in TeA neurons that are labeled by the activity reporter Arc-dVenus during learning. We identify 944 genes with enriched expression in Arc-dVenus+ neurons. These genes include markers of L2/3, L5b, and L6 excitatory neurons but not glial or inhibitory markers, confirming Arc-dVenus to be an excitatory neuron-specific but non-layer-specific activity reporter. Cross comparisons to other transcriptional profiles show that 125 of the enriched genes are also activity-regulated in vitro or induced by visual stimulus in the visual cortex, suggesting that they may be induced generally in the cortex in an experience-dependent fashion. Prominent among the enriched genes are those encoding potassium channels that down-regulate neuronal activity, suggesting the possibility that part of the molecular program induced by fear conditioning may initiate homeostatic plasticity. PMID:27557751

  11. Circulating T cells of patients with active psoriasis respond to streptococcal M-peptides sharing sequences with human epidermal keratins.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsdottir, H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Troye-Blomberg, M; Good, M F; Valdimarsson, H; Jonsdottir, I

    1997-06-01

    Psoriasis is a T-cell mediated inflammatory skin disease which has been associated with group A, beta-haemolytic streptococcal infections. Four 20 a.a. long M6-peptides sharing 5-6 a.a. sequences with human epidermal keratins were identified. To investigate the role of potentially cross-reactive T cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) responses of circulating T cells to these peptides were analysed by ELISPOT and RT-PCR in 14 psoriatic patients, 12 healthy individuals and six patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Untreated psoriatic patients' responses were significantly higher to these peptides than healthy and AD controls, while responses to a control M6-peptide, not sharing sequences with keratin, were negligible in all groups. No difference was found in response to streptokinase/streptodornase (SK/SD). M6-protein and peptides exclusively elicited IFN-gamma production, with little IL-4 production, even in AD patients. Interferon-gamma responses to all the M6-peptides were abolished after successful treatment of psoriatic patients, but responses to SK/SD were unaffected. The results indicate that active psoriasis is associated with Th1-like cells responding to streptococcal M6-peptides sharing sequences with human epidermal keratin. This is consistent with the hypothesis that psoriasis may be induced and exacerbated in susceptible individuals by M-protein specific Th1-like cells that cross-react with human epidermal keratin.

  12. Science sequence design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koskela, P. E.; Bollman, W. E.; Freeman, J. E.; Helton, M. R.; Reichert, R. J.; Travers, E. S.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The activities of the following members of the Navigation Team are recorded: the Science Sequence Design Group, responsible for preparing the final science sequence designs; the Advanced Sequence Planning Group, responsible for sequence planning; and the Science Recommendation Team (SRT) representatives, responsible for conducting the necessary sequence design interfaces with the teams during the mission. The interface task included science support in both advance planning and daily operations. Science sequences designed during the mission are also discussed.

  13. UA Key Student Outcomes Indicators: A Comparative Analysis of Alumni Survey Responses by Survey Year Cohort & College, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducharme, Sophie Ariane; Stratton, Richard W.

    This report combines the results of the 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 administrations of the University of Akron (UA) Alumni Survey. During each survey, a questionnaire with more than 100 items was mailed to each undergraduate alumnus 1 year and 6 years after his or her graduation. As a result, this survey combines responses of the classes of 1991…

  14. C2 Link Security for UAS: Technical Literature Study and Preliminary Functional Requirements. Version 0.9 (Working Draft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a study of the technical literature related to Command and Control (C2) link security for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for operation in the National Airspace System (NAS). Included is a preliminary set of functional requirements for C2 link security.

  15. Calculated in situ rock density from gravity observations, UA-1 (Cannikin) emplacement hole, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healey, D.L.

    1971-01-01

    Gravity observations were made on the ground surface and at a depth of 5,854 feet in drill hole UA-1. Two attempts to measure the free-air gradient utilizing the headframe over the drill hole were unsuccessful owing to mechanical vibrations in the structure. Because of the uncertainty in the measured free-air gradients these values were discarded and the average value (0.09406 mgal/ft) was used in the calculations. The calculated in situ bulk density is 2.36 g/cc. The weighted average bulk density determined from 47 core samples taken in the adjacent UAE-1 drill hole is also 2.36 g/cc. An analysis of selected portions of density logs provides an in situ bulk density of 2.37 g/cc.

  16. Security Risk Assessment Process for UAS in the NAS CNPC Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannicca, Dennis Christopher; Young, Daniel Paul; Suresh, Thadhani; Winter, Gilbert A.

    2013-01-01

    This informational paper discusses the risk assessment process conducted to analyze Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) architectures for integrating civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The assessment employs the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management framework to identify threats, vulnerabilities, and risks to these architectures and recommends corresponding mitigating security controls. This process builds upon earlier work performed by RTCA Special Committee (SC) 203 and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to roadmap the risk assessment methodology and to identify categories of information security risks that pose a significant impact to aeronautical communications systems. A description of the deviations from the typical process is described in regards to this aeronautical communications system. Due to the sensitive nature of the information, data resulting from the risk assessment pertaining to threats, vulnerabilities, and risks is beyond the scope of this paper

  17. Security Risk Assessment Process for UAS in the NAS CNPC Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; Young, Dennis P.; Thadani, Suresh K.; Winter, Gilbert A.

    2013-01-01

    This informational paper discusses the risk assessment process conducted to analyze Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) architectures for integrating civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The assessment employs the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management framework to identify threats, vulnerabilities, and risks to these architectures and recommends corresponding mitigating security controls. This process builds upon earlier work performed by RTCA Special Committee (SC) 203 and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to roadmap the risk assessment methodology and to identify categories of information security risks that pose a significant impact to aeronautical communications systems. A description of the deviations from the typical process is described in regards to this aeronautical communications system. Due to the sensitive nature of the information, data resulting from the risk assessment pertaining to threats, vulnerabilities, and risks is beyond the scope of this paper.

  18. Emergency Response Fire-Imaging UAS Missions over the Southern California Wildfire Disaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelFrate, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives include: Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout Western US. Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20-hours+). Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. Demonstrate new UAV-compatible, autonomous sensor for improved thermal characterization of fires. Provide automated, on-board, terrain and geo-rectified sensor imagery over OTH satcom links to national fire personnel and Incident commanders. Deliver real-time imagery (within 10-minutes of acquisition). Demonstrate capabilities of OTS technologies (GoogleEarth) to serve and display mission-critical sensor data, coincident with other pertinent data elements to facilitate information processing (WX data, ground asset data, other satellite data, R/T video, flight track info, etc).

  19. Emergency Response Fire-Imaging UAS Missions over the Southern California Wildfire Disaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives include: Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout Western US. Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20-hours+). Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. Demonstrate new UAV-compatible, autonomous sensor for improved thermal characterization of fires. Provide automated, on-board, terrain and geo-rectified sensor imagery over OTH satcom links to national fire personnel and Incident commanders. Deliver real-time imagery (within 10-minutes of acquisition). Demonstrate capabilities of OTS technologies (GoogleEarth) to serve and display mission-critical sensor data, coincident with other pertinent data elements to facilitate information processing (WX data, ground asset data, other satellite data, R/T video, flight track info, etc).

  20. UAS Conflict-Avoidance Using Multiagent RL with Abstract Strategy Type Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebhuhn, Carrie; Knudson, Matt; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace is of growing interest to the research community. Safety and scalability of control algorithms are key to the successful integration of autonomous system into a human-populated airspace. In order to ensure safety while still maintaining efficient paths of travel, these algorithms must also accommodate heterogeneity of path strategies of its neighbors. We show that, using multiagent RL, we can improve the speed with which conflicts are resolved in cases with up to 80 aircraft within a section of the airspace. In addition, we show that the introduction of abstract agent strategy types to partition the state space is helpful in resolving conflicts, particularly in high congestion.

  1. UAS Applications for Hurricane Science, Hurrican and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Earth Science Industry Update: UAS Applications for Hurricane Science Unmanned systems can significantly transform hurricane observations and monitoring, improving our knowledge about and ability to forecast storm formation, track, and intensity change. NASA's use of the Global Hawk has demonstrated the scientific value of this platform and provided a proof-of-concept for operational applications. However, science flight operations face several challenges and constraints. In this session, learn about how NASA adapted the Global Hawk to do science; How NASA conducts its hurricane missions, and some of the challenges and constraints they face; Science results from NASA's recent hurricane field campaigns using the Global Hawk. How assimilation of dropsonde and radar data into weather prediction models may improve forecast accuracy; Other Earth science problems that could be addressed with Global Hawks.

  2. O-demethylase from Acetobacterium dehalogenans--cloning, sequencing, and active expression of the gene encoding the corrinoid protein.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, F; Wohlfarth, G; Diekert, G

    1998-10-15

    The ether-cleaving O-demethylase from the strictly anaerobic homoacetogen Acetobacterium dehalogenans catalyses the methyltransfer from 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoate (vanillate) to tetrahydrofolate. In the first step a vanillate :corrinoid protein methyltransferase (methyltransferase I) mediates the methylation of a 25-kDa corrinoid protein with the cofactor reduced to cob(I)alamin. The methyl group is then transferred to tetrahydrofolate by the action of a methylcorrinoid protein:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase (methyltransferase II). Using primers derived from the amino-terminal sequences of the corrinoid protein and the vanillate:corrinoid protein methyltransferase (methyltransferase I), a 723-bp fragment was amplified by PCR, which contained the gene odmA encoding the corrinoid protein of O-demethylase. Downstream of odmA, part of the odmB gene encoding methyltransferase I was identified. The amino acid sequence deduced from odmA showed about 60% similarity to the cobalamin-binding domain of methionine synthase from Escherichia coli (MetH) and to corrinoid proteins of methyltransferase systems involved in methanogenesis from methanol and methylamines. The sequence contained the DXHXXG consensus sequence typical for displacement of the dimethylbenzimidazole base of the corrinoid cofactor by a histidine from the protein. Heterologous expression of odmA in E. coli yielded a colourless, oxygen-insensitive apoprotein, which was able to bind one mol cobalamin or methylcobalamin/mol protein. Both of these reconstituted forms of the protein were active in the overall O-demethylation reaction. OdmA reconstituted with hydroxocobalamin and reduced by titanium(III) citrate to the cob(I)alamin form was methylated with vanillate by methyltransferase I in an irreversible reaction. Methylcobalamin carrying OdmA served as methyl group donor for the methylation of tetrahydrofolate by methyltransferase II. This reaction was found to be reversible, since methyltranSferase II

  3. Purification, characterization, and N-terminal amino acid sequence of the adenylyl cyclase-activating protease from bovine sperm.

    PubMed

    Adeniran, A J; Shoshani, I; Minuth, M; Awad, J A; Elce, J S; Johnson, R A

    1995-03-01

    We previously reported the extraction of a factor from bovine sperm that activated adenylyl cyclases of rat brain and human platelets, and identified it as a trypsin-like protease that was referred to as "ninhibin." This proteolytic activity was purified to near homogeneity from an alkaline extract of washed sperm particles by sequential chromatography on p-aminobenzamidine agarose and CM-Sephadex. Purification was greater than 100-fold with nearly 30% recovery of protease activity exhibiting a major band of approximately 40 kDa. An approximately 45-kDa form of the protease was also evident in crude extracts and was preferentially isolated when the enzyme was prepared in the presence of a mixture of protease inhibitors. The larger form of the protease was substantially less effective in stimulating adenylyl cyclase than was the smaller form; it is likely to be a zymogen form from which the smaller, more active form is derived. Purified forms of acrosin and ninhibin exhibited similar mobilities on PAGE, similar capacities for activating adenylyl cyclase, similar patterns of proteolytic fragmentation, and similar immunoblot patterns obtained with an antibody against purified bovine acrosin. More importantly, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of bovine ninhibin was found to be identical with that of bovine acrosin and caprine acrosin and more than 75% identical with porcine acrosin. The data support the conclusion that the adenylyl cyclase-activating protease previously referred to as ninhibin is, in fact, acrosin. PMID:7756444

  4. Quantifying fluvial topography using UAS imagery and SfM photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodget, Amy; Carbonneau, Patrice; Visser, Fleur; Maddock, Ian; Habit, Evelyn

    2014-05-01

    The measurement and monitoring of fluvial topography at high spatial and temporal resolutions is in increasing demand for a range of river science and management applications, including change detection, hydraulic models, habitat assessments, river restorations and sediment budgets. Existing approaches are yet to provide a single technique for rapidly quantifying fluvial topography in both exposed and submerged areas, with high spatial resolution, reach-scale continuous coverage, high accuracy and reasonable cost. In this paper, we explore the potential of using imagery acquired from a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) and processed using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry for filling this gap. We use a rotary winged hexacopter known as the Draganflyer X6, a consumer grade digital camera (Panasonic Lumix DMC-LX3) and the commercially available PhotoScan Pro SfM software (Agisoft LLC). We test the approach on three contrasting river systems; a shallow margin of the San Pedro River in the Valdivia region of south-central Chile, the lowland River Arrow in Warwickshire, UK, and the upland Coledale Beck in Cumbria, UK. Digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophotos of hyperspatial resolution (0.01-0.02m) are produced. Mean elevation errors are found to vary somewhat between sites, dependent on vegetation coverage and the spatial arrangement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the data. Mean errors are in the range 4-44mm for exposed areas and 17-89mm for submerged areas. Errors in submerged areas can be improved to 4-56mm with the application of a simple refraction correction procedure. Multiple surveys of the River Arrow site show consistently high quality results, indicating the repeatability of the approach. This work therefore demonstrates the potential of a UAS-SfM approach for quantifying fluvial topography.

  5. New Satellite Project Aerosol-UA: Remote Sensing of Aerosols in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Rosenbush, V.; Ivanov, Yu.; Makarov, A.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Moskalov, S.; Bovchaliuk, V; Lukenyuk, A.; Shymkiv, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development of the Ukrainian space project Aerosol-UA which has the following three main objectives: (1) to monitor the spatial distribution of key characteristics of terrestrial tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols; (2) to provide a comprehensive observational database enabling accurate quantitative estimates of the aerosol contribution to the energy budget of the climate system; and (3) quantify the contribution of anthropogenic aerosols to climate and ecological processes. The remote sensing concept of the project is based on precise orbital measurements of the intensity and polarization of sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and the surface with a scanning polarimeter accompanied by a wide-angle multispectral imager-polarimeter. Preparations have already been made for the development of the instrument suite for the Aerosol-UA project, in particular, of the multi-channel scanning polarimeter (ScanPol) designed for remote sensing studies of the global distribution of aerosol and cloud properties (such as particle size, morphology, and composition) in the terrestrial atmosphere by polarimetric and spectrophotometric measurements of the scattered sunlight in a wide range of wavelengths and viewing directions from which a scene location is observed. ScanPol is accompanied by multispectral wide-angle imager-polarimeter (MSIP) that serves to collect information on cloud conditions and Earths surface image. Various components of the polarimeter ScanPol have been prototyped, including the opto-mechanical and electronic assemblies and the scanning mirror controller. Preliminary synthetic data simulations for the retrieval of aerosol parameters over land surfaces have been performed using the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) algorithm. Methods for the validation of satellite data using ground-based observations of aerosol properties are also discussed. We assume that designing, building, and launching into orbit a multi

  6. Meta-image navigation augmenters for GPS denied mountain navigation of small UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Teng; ćelik, Koray; Somani, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    We present a novel approach to use mountain drainage patterns for GPS-Denied navigation of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) such as the ScanEagle, utilizing a down-looking fixed focus monocular imager. Our proposal allows extension of missions to GPS-denied mountain areas, with no assumption of human-made geographic objects. We leverage the analogy between mountain drainage patterns, human arteriograms, and human fingerprints, to match local drainage patterns to Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) rendered parallax occlusion maps of geo-registered radar returns (GRRR). Details of our actual GPU algorithm is beyond the subject of this paper, and is planned as a future paper. The matching occurs in real-time, while GRRR data is loaded on-board the aircraft pre-mission, so as not to require a scanning aperture radar during the mission. For recognition purposes, we represent a given mountain area with a set of spatially distributed mountain minutiae, i.e., details found in the drainage patterns, so that conventional minutiae-based fingerprint matching approaches can be used to match real-time camera image against template images in the training set. We use medical arteriography processing techniques to extract the patterns. The minutiae-based representation of mountains is achieved by first exposing mountain ridges and valleys with a series of filters and then extracting mountain minutiae from these ridges/valleys. Our results are experimentally validated on actual terrain data and show the effectiveness of minutiae-based mountain representation method. Furthermore, we study how to select landmarks for UAS navigation based on the proposed mountain representation and give a set of examples to show its feasibility. This research was in part funded by Rockwell Collins Inc.

  7. Quantifying the Representation Error of Land Biosphere Models using High Resolution Footprint Analyses and UAS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, C. V.; Schmidt, A.; Law, B. E.; Moore, W.

    2015-12-01

    The validity of land biosphere model outputs rely on accurate representations of ecosystem processes within the model. Typically, a vegetation or land cover type for a given area (several Km squared or larger resolution), is assumed to have uniform properties. The limited spacial and temporal resolution of models prevents resolving finer scale heterogeneous flux patterns that arise from variations in vegetation. This representation error must be quantified carefully if models are informed through data assimilation in order to assign appropriate weighting of model outputs and measurement data. The representation error is usually only estimated or ignored entirely due to the difficulty in determining reasonable values. UAS based gas sensors allow measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentrations with unprecedented spacial resolution, providing a means of determining the representation error for CO2 fluxes empirically. In this study we use three dimensional CO2 concentration data in combination with high resolution footprint analyses in order to quantify the representation error for modelled CO2 fluxes for typical resolutions of regional land biosphere models. CO2 concentration data were collected using an Atlatl X6A hexa-copter, carrying a highly calibrated closed path infra-red gas analyzer based sampling system with an uncertainty of ≤ ±0.2 ppm CO2. Gas concentration data was mapped in three dimensions using the UAS on-board position data and compared to footprints generated using WRF 3.61. Chad Hanson, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR Andres Schmidt, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR Bev Law, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR

  8. Wimuas: Developing a Tool to Review Wildlife Data from Various Uas Flight Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linchant, J.; Lhoest, S.; Quevauvillers, S.; Semeki, J.; Lejeune, P.; Vermeulen, C.

    2015-08-01

    To get around UAS limitations and propose a viable solution for wildlife monitoring, the development of new inventory methods is needed. However, most authors use the classic systematic transect method as data processing and statistics are easier. We thus created an application to process data from every type of flight plan and to help detect and compare observations on large datasets. WiMUAS is a small software compatible with the open-source QGISthat allows the creation of visual maps compatible with geographical information systems based on telemetry data and payload parameters to estimate the covered area. The application also has a slider for animal detection that allows multiple observers to record and compare their results for accurate counts. We then tested it on data from a trial realized on savannah animal populations in Democratic Republic of Congo using the Falcon UAS. We created a new type of flight plan, a rosette-shaped design that can be covered in three flights,.and repeated it twice. More than 5000 images were collected during the six flights. Image projection gives an area of 12,4 km2 for the first trial and of 12,1 km2 for the second. The mean sampling rate for both test is 6,1 %. Observers spotted buffaloes, hippos, warthogs and various antelopes with different success over an average rate of 8 images reviewed per minute. Resulting densities observed by the three observers are similar for each test (coefficient of variation 6,9 and 8,6 % respectively) but mean densities vary a lot between the two trials (23,8 and 6,5 animals/km2 respectively).

  9. Evaluation of H.264 and H.265 full motion video encoding for small UAS platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, Christopher D.; Walker, David; Taylor, Clark; Hill, Kerry; Hoffman, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Of all the steps in the image acquisition and formation pipeline, compression is the only process that degrades image quality. A selected compression algorithm succeeds or fails to provide sufficient quality at the requested compression rate depending on how well the algorithm is suited to the input data. Applying an algorithm designed for one type of data to a different type often results in poor compression performance. This is mostly the case when comparing the performance of H.264, designed for standard definition data, to HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding), which the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) designed for high-definition data. This study focuses on evaluating how HEVC compares to H.264 when compressing data from small UAS platforms. To compare the standards directly, we assess two open-source traditional software solutions: x264 and x265. These software-only comparisons allow us to establish a baseline of how much improvement can generally be expected of HEVC over H.264. Then, specific solutions leveraging different types of hardware are selected to understand the limitations of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) options. Algorithmically, regardless of the implementation, HEVC is found to provide similar quality video as H.264 at 40% lower data rates for video resolutions greater than 1280x720, roughly 1 Megapixel (MPx). For resolutions less than 1MPx, H.264 is an adequate solution though a small (roughly 20%) compression boost is earned by employing HEVC. New low cost, size, weight, and power (CSWAP) HEVC implementations are being developed and will be ideal for small UAS systems.

  10. An airborne low SWaP-C UAS sense and avoid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhonghai; Lin, Xingping; Xiang, Xingyu; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Jia, Bin; Wang, Gang

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a low size, weight and power - cost (SWaP-C) airborne sense and avoid (ABSAA) system, which is based on a linear frequency modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) radar and can be mounted on small unmanned aircraft system (UAS). The system satisfies the constraint of the available sources on group 2/3 UAS. To obtain the desired sense and avoid range, a narrow band frequency (or range) scanning technique is applied for reducing the receiver's noise floor to improve its sensitivity, and a digital signal integration with fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The gate length and chirp rate are intelligently adapted to not only accommodate different object distances, speeds and approaching angle conditions, but also optimize the detection speed, resolution and coverage range. To minimize the radar blind zone, a higher chirp rate and a narrowband intermediate frequency (IF) filter are applied at the near region with a single antenna signal for target detection. The offset IF frequency between transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) is designed to mitigate the TX leakage to the receiver, especially at close distances. Adaptive antenna gain and beam-width are utilized for searching at far distance and fast 360 degree middle range. For speeding up the system update rate, lower chirp rates and wider IF and baseband filters are applied for obtaining larger range scanning step length out of the near region. To make the system working with a low power transmitter (TX), multiple-antenna beamforming, digital signal integration with FFT, and a much narrower receiver (RX) bandwidth are applied at the far region. The ABSAA system working range is 2 miles with a 1W transmitter and single antenna signal detection, and it is 5 miles when a 5W transmitter and 4-antenna beamforming (BF) are applied.

  11. New satellite project Aerosol-UA: Remote sensing of aerosols in the terrestrial atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G.; Yatskiv, Ya.; Degtyaryov, O.; Syniavskyi, I.; Mishchenko, M.; Rosenbush, V.; Ivanov, Yu.; Makarov, A.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Danylevsky, V.; Sosonkin, M.; Moskalov, S.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Lukenyuk, A.; Shymkiv, A.; Udodov, E.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the development of the Ukrainian space project Aerosol-UA which has the following three main objectives: (1) to monitor the spatial distribution of key characteristics of terrestrial tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols; (2) to provide a comprehensive observational database enabling accurate quantitative estimates of the aerosol contribution to the energy budget of the climate system; and (3) quantify the contribution of anthropogenic aerosols to climate and ecological processes. The remote sensing concept of the project is based on precise orbital measurements of the intensity and polarization of sunlight scattered by the atmosphere and the surface with a scanning polarimeter accompanied by a wide-angle multispectral imager-polarimeter. Preparations have already been made for the development of the instrument suite for the Aerosol-UA project, in particular, of the multi-channel scanning polarimeter (ScanPol) designed for remote sensing studies of the global distribution of aerosol and cloud properties (such as particle size, morphology, and composition) in the terrestrial atmosphere by polarimetric and spectrophotometric measurements of the scattered sunlight in a wide range of wavelengths and viewing directions from which a scene location is observed. ScanPol is accompanied by multispectral wide-angle imager-polarimeter (MSIP) that serves to collect information on cloud conditions and Earth's surface image. Various components of the polarimeter ScanPol have been prototyped, including the opto-mechanical and electronic assemblies and the scanning mirror controller. Preliminary synthetic data simulations for the retrieval of aerosol parameters over land surfaces have been performed using the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP) algorithm. Methods for the validation of satellite data using ground-based observations of aerosol properties are also discussed. We assume that designing, building, and launching into orbit a multi

  12. Plasminogen activators in experimental colorectal neoplasia: a role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence?

    PubMed Central

    Gelister, J S; Lewin, M R; Driver, H E; Savage, F; Mahmoud, M; Gaffney, P J; Boulos, P B

    1987-01-01

    An important step in the transition from adenomatous polyp to invasive carcinoma is the degradation of the epithelial basement membrane. By the generation of plasmin, plasminogen activators may play an important role in regulating the extracellular protease activity required for this event to occur. The production of biofunctional urokinase and of tissue plasminogen activator was therefore investigated in the dimethylhydrazine induced rat model of colorectal neoplasia. Both adenomatous polyps (p values less than 0.001) and colorectal carcinomas (p values less than 0.001) were demonstrated to produce a significant excess of both urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator when compared with macroscopically normal colon. There was, however, no increased production of either enzyme by macroscopically normal preneoplastic colon when compared with control colon. This enhanced capacity of colorectal tumours to produce plasminogen activators and generate plasmin is thus a feature of both the premalignant as well as the malignant phenotype. These enzymes may contribute to the malignant potential of adenomatous polyps and to the invasive capacity of established carcinomas. PMID:3115868

  13. Concept and design of a UAS-based platform for measurements of RF signal-in-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Thorsten; Bredemeyer, Jochen; Mihalachi, Marius; Rohde, Jan; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Field strength or signal-in-space (SIS) measurements have been performed by using manned helicopters, aircrafts or from ground level using extendable masts. With the availability of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) such as multicopters a new versatile platform for SIS measurements is deployable. Larger types show up to eight individually driven electric motors and controllers (therefore called octocopter). They provide the ability to fly along predefined traces, to hover at waypoints and to initiate other actions when those have been reached. They provide self-levelling and stabilisation and moreover, they may gear at a point of interest regardless of their actual position, e.g. during their flight around a tower. Their payload mainly depends on the platform size and allows integration of complex measurement equipment. Upgrading their navigation capabilities including state-of-the-art global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and ground station transmitter (real-time kinematic - RTK) enables precise localisation of the UAS. For operation in electromagnetic harsh environments a shielding can be considered and integrated into the concept. This paper describes concept and design of an octocopter and its instrumentation, along with applications in recent projects, in which we measure and validate terrestrial navigation systems applied in air traffic and the weather forecast services. Among those are instrumentation landing systems (ILS), VHF omnidirectional radio ranges (VOR), airport traffic and weather radars as well as military surveillance radars, and UHF wind profilers. Especially to investigate the possible interaction of VORs and radars with single wind turbines (WT) or wind power plants has become a major request of economy, military and politics. Here, UAS can be deployed to deliver measurement data investigating this interaction. Once developed and setup to a certain extent, UAS are easy and cost-efficient to operate. Nonetheless, due to their compact size, UAS

  14. The Effect of Clade-Specific Sequence Polymorphisms on HIV-1 Protease Activity and Inhibitor Resistance Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaranayake, Rajintha M.; Kolli, Madhavi; King, Nancy M.; Nalivaika, Ellen A.; Heroux, Annie; Kakizawa, Junko; Sugiura, Wataru; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2010-09-08

    The majority of HIV-1 infections around the world result from non-B clade HIV-1 strains. The CRF01{_}AE (AE) strain is seen principally in Southeast Asia. AE protease differs by {approx}10% in amino acid sequence from clade B protease and carries several naturally occurring polymorphisms that are associated with drug resistance in clade B. AE protease has been observed to develop resistance through a nonactive-site N88S mutation in response to nelfinavir (NFV) therapy, whereas clade B protease develops both the active-site mutation D30N and the nonactive-site mutation N88D. Structural and biochemical studies were carried out with wild-type and NFV-resistant clade B and AE protease variants. The relationship between clade-specific sequence variations and pathways to inhibitor resistance was also assessed. AE protease has a lower catalytic turnover rate than clade B protease, and it also has weaker affinity for both NFV and darunavir (DRV). This weaker affinity may lead to the nonactive-site N88S variant in AE, which exhibits significantly decreased affinity for both NFV and DRV. The D30N/N88D mutations in clade B resulted in a significant loss of affinity for NFV and, to a lesser extent, for DRV. A comparison of crystal structures of AE protease shows significant structural rearrangement in the flap hinge region compared with those of clade B protease and suggests insights into the alternative pathways to NFV resistance. In combination, our studies show that sequence polymorphisms within clades can alter protease activity and inhibitor binding and are capable of altering the pathway to inhibitor resistance.

  15. Cytolethal Distending Toxin Sequence and Activity in the Enterohepatic Pathogen Helicobacter hepaticus

    PubMed Central

    Young, Vincent B.; Knox, Kimberly A.; Schauer, David B.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of hepatitis and enterocolitis caused by enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Sonicates of the murine pathogen Helicobacter hepaticus were found to cause progressive cell distension, accumulation of filamentous actin, and G2/M cell cycle arrest in HeLa cell monolayers. The genes encoding this cytotoxic activity were cloned from H. hepaticus. Three open reading frames with closest homology to cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC from Campylobacter jejuni were identified. Sonicates of a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli carrying the cloned cdtABC gene cluster from H. hepaticus reproduced the cytotoxic activities seen with sonicates of H. hepaticus. Cytolethal distending toxin activity is a potential virulence determinant of H. hepaticus that may play a role in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter-associated hepatitis and enterocolitis. PMID:10603386

  16. Anisotropic Elastography for Local Passive Properties and Active Contractility of Myocardium from Dynamic Heart Imaging Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Sun, L. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Major heart diseases such as ischemia and hypertrophic myocardiopathy are accompanied with significant changes in the passive mechanical properties and active contractility of myocardium. Identification of these changes helps diagnose heart diseases, monitor therapy, and design surgery. A dynamic cardiac elastography (DCE) framework is developed to assess the anisotropic viscoelastic passive properties and active contractility of myocardial tissues, based on the chamber pressure and dynamic displacement measured with cardiac imaging techniques. A dynamic adjoint method is derived to enhance the numerical efficiency and stability of DCE. Model-based simulations are conducted using a numerical left ventricle (LV) phantom with an ischemic region. The passive material parameters of normal and ischemic tissues are identified during LV rapid/reduced filling and artery contraction, and those of active contractility are quantified during isovolumetric contraction and rapid/reduced ejection. It is found that quasistatic simplification in the previous cardiac elastography studies may yield inaccurate material parameters. PMID:23165032

  17. Sequence of Gating Charge Movement and Pore Gating in hERG Activation and Deactivation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Goodchild, Samuel J.; Macdonald, Logan C.; Fedida, David

    2015-01-01

    KV11.1 voltage-gated K+ channels are noted for unusually slow activation, fast inactivation, and slow deactivation kinetics, which tune channel activity to provide vital repolarizing current during later stages of the cardiac action potential. The bulk of charge movement in human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) is slow, as is return of charge upon repolarization, suggesting that the rates of hERG channel opening and, critically, that of deactivation might be determined by slow voltage sensor movement, and also by a mode-shift after activation. To test these ideas, we compared the kinetics and voltage dependence of ionic activation and deactivation with gating charge movement. At 0 mV, gating charge moved ∼threefold faster than ionic current, which suggests the presence of additional slow transitions downstream of charge movement in the physiological activation pathway. A significant voltage sensor mode-shift was apparent by 24 ms at +60 mV in gating currents, and return of charge closely tracked pore closure after pulses of 100 and 300 ms duration. A deletion of the N-terminus PAS domain, mutation R4AR5A or the LQT2-causing mutation R56Q gave faster-deactivating channels that displayed an attenuated mode-shift of charge. This indicates that charge movement is perturbed by N- and C-terminus interactions, and that these domain interactions stabilize the open state and limit the rate of charge return. We conclude that slow on-gating charge movement can only partly account for slow hERG ionic activation, and that the rate of pore closure has a limiting role in the slow return of gating charges. PMID:25809256

  18. New Neighbors from 2MASS: Activity and Kinematics at the Bottom of the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizis, John E.; Monet, David G.; Reid, I. Neill; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Liebert, James; Williams, Rik J.

    2000-08-01

    We have combined 2MASS and POSS II data in a search for nearby ultracool (later than M6.5) dwarfs with Ks<12. Spectroscopic follow-up observations identify 53 M7-M9.5 dwarfs and seven L dwarfs. The observed space density is 0.0045+/-0.0008 M8-M9.5 dwarfs per cubic parsec, without accounting for biases, consistent with a mass function that is smooth across the stellar/substellar limit. We show the observed frequency of Hα emission peaks at ~100% for M7 dwarfs and then decreases for cooler dwarfs. In absolute terms, however, as measured by the ratio of Hα to bolometric luminosity, none of the ultracool M dwarfs can be considered very active compared to earlier M dwarfs, and we show that the decrease that begins at spectral type M6 continues to the latest L dwarfs. We find that flaring is common among the coolest M dwarfs and estimate the frequency of flares at 7% or higher. We show that the kinematics of relatively active (EW>6 Å) ultracool M dwarfs are consistent with an ordinary old disk stellar population, while the kinematics of inactive ultracool M dwarfs are more typical of a 0.5 Gyr old population. The early L dwarfs in the sample have kinematics consistent with old ages, suggesting that the hydrogen-burning limit is near spectral types L2-L4. We use the available data on M and L dwarfs to show that chromospheric activity drops with decreasing mass and temperature and that at a given (M8 or later) spectral type, the younger field (brown) dwarfs are less active than many of the older, more massive field stellar dwarfs. Thus, contrary to the well-known stellar age-activity relationship, low activity in field ultracool dwarfs can be an indication of comparative youth and substellar mass.

  19. Anti-hepatoma activity and mechanism of ursolic acid and its derivatives isolated from Aralia decaisneana

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ze; Lin, Geng; Zheng, Rui-Xia; Huang, Feng; Yang, Meng-Su; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor activity of ursolic acid (UA) and its derivatives isolated from Aralia decaisneana on hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In vivo cytotoxicity was first screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, DNA ladder, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot and real time PCR were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of UA. Implanted mouse hepatoma H22 was used to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect of UA in vivo. RESULTS: UA could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 and its drug-resistance strain, R-HepG2 cells, but had no inhibitory effect on primarily cultured normal mouse hepatocytes whereas all the six derivatives of UA could not inhibit the growth of all tested cell lines. Further study on mechanism demonstrated that apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest were involved in the cytotoxicity and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP). Downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and upregulation of heat shock protein (HSP) 105 mRNA correlated to the apoptosis of HepG2 cells treated with UA. In addition, UA also could inhibit the growth of H22 hepatoma in vivo. CONCLUSION: UA is a promising anti-tumor agent, but further work needs to be done to improve its solubility. PMID:16521214

  20. Robustness of nucleosome patterns in the presence of DNA sequence-specific free energy landscapes and active remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuebler, Johannes; Obermayer, Benedikt; Möbius, Wolfram; Wolff, Michael; Gerland, Ulrich

    Proper positioning of nucleosomes in eukaryotic cells is important for transcription regulation. When averaged over many genes, nucleosome positions in coding regions follow a simple oscillatory pattern, which is described to a surprising degree of accuracy by a simple one-dimensional gas model for particles interacting via a soft-core repulsion. The quantitative agreement is surprising given that nucleosome positions are known to be determined by a complex interplay of mechanisms including DNA sequence-specific nucleosome stability and active repositioning of nucleosomes by remodeling enzymes. We rationalize the observed robustness of the simple oscillatory pattern by showing that the main effect of several known nucleosome positioning mechanisms is a renormalization of the particle interaction. For example, ``disorder'' from sequence-specific affinities leads to an apparent softening, while active remodeling can result in apparent softening for directional sliding or apparent stiffening for clamping mechanisms. We suggest that such parameter renormalization can explain the apparent difference of nucleosome properties in two yeast species, S. cerevisiae and S. pombe.

  1. Biosynthesis, glycosylation, and partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the T-cell-activating protein TAP.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, H; Coligan, J; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1987-01-01

    We have characterized the TAP molecule, an Ly-6 linked T-cell-activating glycoprotein. The three TAP bands that are precipitated from metabolically labeled cells display a common migration pattern in isoelectric focusing/NaDodSO4/PAGE gels and have common N-terminal sequences. This sequence is rich in cysteine and is homologous to that previously reported for the Ly-6.1E antigen. We, therefore, compared TAP and Ly-6.1E biochemically and found them to be structurally distinct. Given the role of TAP in T-cell activation, we further studied whether the molecule was phosphorylated. We have not found evidence for phosphorylation of the TAP protein. The carbohydrates present on the TAP molecule are resistant to peptide N-glycosidase F in vitro and tunicamycin in vivo. The upper band of the TAP triplet is susceptible to treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid and thus seems to be of the O-linked rather than of the N-linked variety. The biosynthetic processing of TAP was studied in pulse-chase experiments. The middle band of the TAP triplet appears to be the earliest detectable species. Its conversion to the O-linked high molecular weight species can be blocked by monensin. Images PMID:3033645

  2. Evidence of mineralization activity and supramolecular assembly by the N-terminal sequence of ACCBP, a biomineralization protein that is homologous to the acetylcholine binding protein family.

    PubMed

    Amos, Fairland F; Ndao, Moise; Evans, John Spencer

    2009-12-14

    Several biomineralization proteins that exhibit intrinsic disorder also possess sequence regions that are homologous to nonmineral associated folded proteins. One such protein is the amorphous calcium carbonate binding protein (ACCBP), one of several proteins that regulate the formation of the oyster shell and exhibit 30% conserved sequence identity to the acetylcholine binding protein sequences. To gain a better understanding of the ACCBP protein, we utilized bioinformatic approaches to identify the location of disordered and folded regions within this protein. In addition, we synthesized a 50 AA polypeptide, ACCN, representing the N-terminal domain of the mature processed ACCBP protein. We then utilized this polypeptide to determine the mineralization activity and qualitative structure of the N-terminal region of ACCBP. Our bioinformatic studies indicate that ACCBP consists of a ten-stranded beta-sandwich structure that includes short disordered sequence blocks, two of which reside within the primarily helical and surface-accessible ACCN sequence. Circular dichroism studies reveal that ACCN is partially disordered in solution; however, ACCN can be induced to fold into an alpha helix in the presence of TFE. Furthermore, we confirm that the ACCN sequence is multifunctional; this sequence promotes radial calcite polycrystal growth on Kevlar threads and forms supramolecular assemblies in solution that contain amorphous-appearing deposits. We conclude that the partially disordered ACCN sequence is a putative site for mineralization activity within the ACCBP protein and that the presence of short disordered sequence regions within the ACCBP fold are essential for function.

  3. Septal localization by membrane targeting sequences and a conserved sequence essential for activity at the COOH-terminus of Bacillus subtilis cardiolipin synthase.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Jin; Shuto, Satoshi; Imai, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Kazuki; Saito, Tomo; Natori, Kohei; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kouji

    2016-04-01

    The acidic phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is localized on polar and septal membranes and plays an important physiological role in Bacillus subtilis cells. ClsA, the enzyme responsible for CL synthesis, is also localized on septal membranes. We found that GFP fusion proteins of the enzyme with NH2-terminal and internal deletions retained septal localization. However, derivatives with deletions starting from the COOH-terminus (Leu482) ceased to localize to the septum once the deletion passed the Ile residue at 448, indicating that the sequence responsible for septal localization is confined within a short distance from the COOH-terminus. Two sequences, Ile436-Leu450 and Leu466-Leu478, are predicted to individually form an amphipathic α-helix. This configuration is known as a membrane targeting sequence (MTS) and we therefore refer to them as MTS2 and MTS1, respectively. Either one has the ability to affect septal localization, and each of these sequences by itself localizes to the septum. Membrane association of the constructs of this enzyme containing the MTSs was verified by subcellular fractionation of the cells. CL synthesis, in contrast, was abolished after deleting just the last residue, Leu482, in the COOH-terminal four amino acid residue sequence, Ser-Pro-Ile-Leu, which is highly conserved among bacterial CL synthases.

  4. Situated Uses of ICT and Mediation of Joint Activity in a Primary Education Instructional Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Cesar; Rochera, Maria J.; Colomina, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: From a socioconstructivist and situated perspective of teaching and learning processes, the authors analyze how one teacher and her group of 19 sixth-grade pupils use ICT. The study focuses on the way these tools mediate their activity, and evaluates the tools' potential for teaching and learning innovation. Method: A case study…

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter johnsonii MB44, Exhibiting Nematicidal Activity against Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shijing; Ali, Muhammad; Xie, Li

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter johnsonii MB44 was isolated from a frost-plant-tissue sample, which showed noteworthy nematicidal activity against the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we report the 3.4 Mb draft genome of A. johnsonii MB44, which will help in understanding the molecular mechanism of its ability to infect nematodes. PMID:26893438

  6. Whole-genome sequencing reveals activation-induced cytidine deaminase signatures during indolent chronic lymphocytic leukaemia evolution.

    PubMed

    Kasar, S; Kim, J; Improgo, R; Tiao, G; Polak, P; Haradhvala, N; Lawrence, M S; Kiezun, A; Fernandes, S M; Bahl, S; Sougnez, C; Gabriel, S; Lander, E S; Kim, H T; Getz, G; Brown, J R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chromosome 13q deletion or normal cytogenetics represent the majority of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cases, yet have relatively few driver mutations. To better understand their genomic landscape, here we perform whole-genome sequencing on a cohort of patients enriched with these cytogenetic characteristics. Mutations in known CLL drivers are seen in only 33% of this cohort, and associated with normal cytogenetics and unmutated IGHV. The most commonly mutated gene in our cohort, IGLL5, shows a mutational pattern suggestive of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) activity. Unsupervised analysis of mutational signatures demonstrates the activities of canonical AID (c-AID), leading to clustered mutations near active transcriptional start sites; non-canonical AID (nc-AID), leading to genome-wide non-clustered mutations, and an ageing signature responsible for most mutations. Using mutation clonality to infer time of onset, we find that while ageing and c-AID activities are ongoing, nc-AID-associated mutations likely occur earlier in tumour evolution. PMID:26638776

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Sugar Cane Endophyte Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2, a Disease-Suppressive Bacterium with Antifungal Activity toward the Plant Pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2 exhibits antifungal activity and represents a biocontrol agent to suppress red rot disease of sugar cane. Here, we report the completely sequenced 6.6-Mb genome of P. aurantiaca PB-St2. The sequence contains a repertoire of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites that putatively contribute to its antagonistic activity and its plant-microbe interactions. PMID:24459254

  8. Emergency preparedness activities during an ongoing seismic swarm: the experience of the 2011-2012 Pollino (Southern Italy) sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, A.; Mucciarelli, M.; Chiauzzi, L.; De Costanzo, G.; Loperte, G.

    2012-04-01

    Facing natural disasters effects can be a very difficult task lacking suitable activities and tools to preventively prepare the involved community (people, authorities, professionals, …) to the expected events. Therefore, a suite of preventive actions should be carried out to mitigate natural risks, in particular working to reduce the territorial vulnerability with respect to the specific natural hazard at hand, and to increase people response capacity. In fact, building social capacity helps to increase the risk perception and the people capacity to adapt to and cope with natural hazards. Since October 2011 a seismic swarm is affecting the Pollino mountain range, Southern Italy. At present the sequence is still ongoing, with more than 500 events with M>1, at least 40 well perceived by the population and a maximum magnitude at 3.6. The area mainly affected by the seismic sequence includes 12 villages, with a total population of about 50.000 inhabitants and, according to the current seismic hazard map it has high seismicity level. Such area was hit by a magnitude Ml=5.7 event in 1998 that produced macroseismic intensity not higher that VII-VIII degree of MCS scale and caused one dead, some injured and widespread damage in at least six municipalities. During the sequence, the National Department of Civil Protection (DPC) and the Civil Protection of Basilicata Region decided to put in action some measures aimed at verifying and enhancing emergency preparedness. These actions have been carried out with a constant and fruitful collaboration among the main stakeholders involved (scientific community, local and national governmental agencies, civil protection volunteers, etc) trough the following main activities: 1. collaboration between scientific community and the local and national offices of Civil Protection especially in the relationship with local authorities (e.g. mayors, which are civil protection authorities in their municipality); 2. interaction between DPC

  9. From CoRoT 102899501 to the Sun. A time evolution model of chromospheric activity on the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondoin, P.; Gandolfi, D.; Fridlund, M.; Frasca, A.; Guenther, E. W.; Hatzes, A.; Deeg, H. J.; Parviainen, H.; Eigmüller, P.; Deleuil, M.

    2012-12-01

    Aims: The present study reports measurements of the rotation period of a young solar analogue, estimates of its surface coverage by photospheric starspots and of its chromospheric activity level, and derivations of its evolutionary status. Detailed observations of many young solar-type stars, such as the one reported in the present paper, provide insight into rotation and magnetic properties that may have prevailed on the Sun in its early evolution. Methods: Using a model based on the rotational modulation of the visibility of active regions, we analysed the high-accuracy CoRoT lightcurve of the active star CoRoT 102899501. Spectroscopic follow-up observations were used to derive its fundamental parameters. We compared the chromospheric activity level of Corot 102899501 with the R'HK index distribution vs age established on a large sample of solar-type dwarfs in open clusters. We also compared the chromospheric activity level of this young star with a model of chromospheric activity evolution established by combining relationships between the R'HK index and the Rossby number with a recent model of stellar rotation evolution on the main sequence. Results: We measure the spot coverage of the stellar surface as a function of time and find evidence for a tentative increase from 5 - 14% at the beginning of the observing run to 13-29% 35 days later. A high level of magnetic activity on Corot 102899501 is corroborated by a strong emission in the Balmer and Ca ii H and K lines (R'HK ~ -4). The starspots used as tracers of the star rotation constrain the rotation period to 1.625 ± 0.002 days and do not show evidence for differential rotation. The effective temperature (Teff = 5180 ± 80 K), surface gravity (log g = 4.35 ± 0.1), and metallicity ([M/H] = 0.05 ± 0.07 dex) indicate that the object is located near the evolutionary track of a 1.09 ± 0.12 M⊙ pre-main sequence star at an age of 23 ± 10 Myr. This value is consistent with the "gyro-age" of about 8-25 Myr

  10. Location of the redox-active thiols of ribonucleotide reductase: sequences similarity between the Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus leichmannii enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, A.N.I.; Ashley, G.W.; Stubbe, J.

    1987-11-03

    The redox-active thiols of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase have been located by a procedure involving (1) prereduction of enzyme with dithiothreitol, (2) specific oxidation of the redox-active thiols by treatment with substrate in the absence of exogenous reductant, (3) alkylation of other thiols with iodoacetamide, and (4) reduction of the disulfides with dithiothreitol and alkylation with (1-/sup 14/C)iodoacetamide. The dithiothreitol-reduce E. coli B1 subunit is able to convert 3 equiv of CDP to dCDP and is labeled with 5.4 equiv of /sup 14/C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 2.8 equiv of /sup 14/C is on cysteines-752 and -757 at the C-terminus of B1, while 1.0-1.5 equiv of /sup 14/C is on cysteines-222 and -227. It thus appears that two sets of redox-active dithiols are involved in substrate reduction. The L. leichmannii reductase is able to convert 1.1 equiv of CTP to dCTP and is labeled with 2.1 equiv of /sup 14/C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 1.4 equiv of /sup 14/C is located on the two cysteines of C-E-G-G-A-C-P-I-K. This peptide shows remarkable and unexpected similarity to the thiol-containing region of the C-terminal peptide of E. coli B1, C-E-S-G-A-C-K-I.

  11. Genome-Based Identification of Active Prophage Regions by Next Generation Sequencing in Bacillus licheniformis DSM13

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Robert; Rodríguez, David Pintor; Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Dietrich, Sascha; Leimbach, Andreas; Hoppert, Michael; Liesegang, Heiko; Volland, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Prophages are viruses, which have integrated their genomes into the genome of a bacterial host. The status of the prophage genome can vary from fully intact with the potential to form infective particles to a remnant state where only a few phage genes persist. Prophages have impact on the properties of their host and are therefore of great interest for genomic research and strain design. Here we present a genome- and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach for identification and activity evaluation of prophage regions. Seven prophage or prophage-like regions were identified in the genome of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13. Six of these regions show similarity to members of the Siphoviridae phage family. The remaining region encodes the B. licheniformis orthologue of the PBSX prophage from Bacillus subtilis. Analysis of isolated phage particles (induced by mitomycin C) from the wild-type strain and prophage deletion mutant strains revealed activity of the prophage regions BLi_Pp2 (PBSX-like), BLi_Pp3 and BLi_Pp6. In contrast to BLi_Pp2 and BLi_Pp3, neither phage DNA nor phage particles of BLi_Pp6 could be visualized. However, the ability of prophage BLi_Pp6 to generate particles could be confirmed by sequencing of particle-protected DNA mapping to prophage locus BLi_Pp6. The introduced NGS-based approach allows the investigation of prophage regions and their ability to form particles. Our results show that this approach increases the sensitivity of prophage activity analysis and can complement more conventional approaches such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:25811873

  12. Evolutionary origin of a novel gene expression pattern through co-option of the latent activities of existing regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    Rebeiz, Mark; Jikomes, Nick; Kassner, Victoria A; Carroll, Sean B

    2011-06-21

    Spatiotemporal changes in gene expression underlie many evolutionary novelties in nature. However, the evolutionary origins of novel expression patterns, and the transcriptional control elements ("enhancers") that govern them, remain unclear. Here, we sought to explore the molecular genetic mechanisms by which new enhancers arise. We undertook a survey of closely related Drosophila species to identify recently evolved novel gene expression patterns and traced their evolutionary history. Analyses of gene expression in a variety of developing tissues of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup revealed high rates of expression pattern divergence, including numerous evolutionary losses, heterochronic shifts, and expansions or contractions of expression domains. However, gains of novel expression patterns were much less frequent. One gain was observed for the Neprilysin-1 (Nep1) gene, which has evolved a unique expression pattern in optic lobe neuroblasts of Drosophila santomea. Dissection of the Nep1 cis-regulatory region localized a newly derived optic lobe enhancer activity to a region of an intron that has accumulated a small number of mutations. The Nep1 optic lobe enhancer overlaps with other enhancer activities, from which the novel activity was co-opted. We suggest that the novel optic lobe enhancer evolved by exploiting the cryptic activity of extant regulatory sequences, and this may reflect a general mechanism whereby new enhancers evolve.

  13. Neurospora tryptophan synthase: N-terminal analysis and the sequence of the pyridoxal phosphate active site peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, M.L.; Hsu, P.Y.; DeMoss, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Tryptophan synthase (TS), which catalyzes the final step of tryptophan biosynthesis, is a multifunctional protein requiring pyridoxal phosphate (B6P) for two of its three distinct enzyme activities. TS from Neurospora has a blocked N-terminal, is a homodimer of 150 KDa and binds one mole of B6P per mole of subunit. The authors shown the N-terminal residue to be acyl-serine. The B6P-active site of holoenzyme was labelled by reduction of the B6P-Schiff base with (/sup 3/H)-NaBH/sub 4/, and resulted in a proportionate loss of activity in the two B6P-requiring reactions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of CNBr-generated peptides showed the labelled, active site peptide to be 6 KDa. The sequence of this peptide, purified to apparent homogeneity by a combination of C-18 reversed phase and TSK gel filtration HPLC is: gly-arg-pro-gly-gln-leu-his-lys-ala-glu-arg-leu-thr-glu-tyr-ala-gly-gly-ala-gln-ile-xxx-leu-lys-arg-glu-asp-leu-asn-his-xxx-gly-xxx-his-/sub ***/-ile-asn-asn-ala-leu. Although four residues (xxx, /sub ***/) are unidentified, this peptide is minimally 78% homologous with the corresponding peptide from yeast TS, in which residue (/sub ***/) is the lysine that binds B6P.

  14. cis-Active Ras G2-like sequence implicated in the heterotropic activation of the deoxyadenosine kinase of Lactobacillus acidophilus R-26.

    PubMed

    Guo, S; Ma, N; Ives, D H

    1997-03-14

    Deoxyadenosine kinase (dAK) forms a heterodimer with either deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) or deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), and is heterotropically activated 3-5 times by dGuo or dCyd. Expressed alone, dAK is inactive and exhibits no response to dGuo or dCyd; activity and heterotropic response are fully restored upon reassociation with dGK or dCK. However, turnover of independently expressed dGK or dCK is nearly maximal, being further activated only 50-100% upon reassociation with dAK. In neither case is the heterotropic activation due to ligand-induced heterodimer formation. A proline/alanine substitution within a dAK segment homologous to loop G2 of Ras proteins yielded a heterodimer with dAK permanently cis-activated 2-fold, with a corresponding reduction in heterotropic activation by dGuo. A chimeric dAK, with 25% of its C terminus substituted by the homologous sequence from dGK, was inactive alone, and its characteristics were unchanged in the reconstituted heterodimer. Superimposing the Pro/Ala substitution on this chimera also reduced heterotropic activation by half. Cross-linking the dimer by 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was inhibited by ATP, dATP, dGTP, and dAdo, suggesting the proximity of the active site(s) to the interface. These data suggest that dAK depends on dGK or dCK in a manner resembling the reliance of Ras upon GTPase activating protein.

  15. Deep sequencing of subseafloor eukaryotic rRNA reveals active Fungi across marine subsurface provinces.

    PubMed

    Orsi, William; Biddle, Jennifer F; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface.

  16. Deep Sequencing of Subseafloor Eukaryotic rRNA Reveals Active Fungi across Marine Subsurface Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, William; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface. PMID:23418556

  17. Pharmacological evidence of bradykinin regeneration from extended sequences that behave as peptidase-activated B2 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Charest-Morin, Xavier; Roy, Caroline; Fortin, Emile-Jacques; Bouthillier, Johanne; Marceau, François

    2014-01-01

    While bradykinin (BK) is known to be degraded by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), we have recently discovered that Met-Lys-BK-Ser-Ser is paradoxically activated by ACE. We designed and evaluated additional "prodrug" peptides extended around the BK sequence as potential ligands that could be locally activated by vascular or blood plasma peptidases. BK regeneration was estimated using the contractility of the human umbilical vein as model of vascular functions mediated by endogenous B2 receptors (B2Rs) and the endocytosis of the fusion protein B2R-green fluorescent protein (B2R-GFP) expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells. Of three BK sequences extended by a C-terminal dipeptide, BK-His-Leu had the most desirable profile, exhibiting little direct affinity for the receptor but a significant one for ACE (as shown by competition of [(3)H]BK binding to B2R-GFP or of [(3)H]enalaprilat to recombinant ACE, respectively). The potency of the contractile effect of this analog on the vein was reduced 18-fold by the ACE inhibitor enalaprilat, pharmacologically evidencing BK regeneration in situ. BK-Arg, a potential substrate of arginine carboxypeptidases, had a low affinity for B2Rs and its potency as a contractile agent was reduced 15-fold by tissue treatment with an inhibitor of these enzymes, Plummer's inhibitor. B2R-GFP internalization in response to 100 nM of the extended peptides recapitulated these findings, as enalaprilat selectively inhibited the effect of BK-His-Leu and Plummer's inhibitor, that of BK-Arg. The two peptidase inhibitors did not affect BK-induced effects in either assay. The novel C-terminally extended BKs had no or very little affinity for the kinin B1 receptor (competition of [(3)H]Lys-des-Arg(9)-BK binding). The feasibility of peptidase-activated B2R agonists is illustrated by C-terminal extensions of the BK sequence.

  18. Quantifying streambank erosion: a comparative study using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) and a terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D.; Hamshaw, S. D.; Dewoolkar, M.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Frolik, J.; Bryce, T. G.; Waldron, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Streambank erosion is a common non-point source contributing to suspended sediment and nutrient loading of waterways, and recently has been estimated to account for 30-80% of sediment loading into receiving waters. There is interest in developing reliable methods to quantify bank erosion in watersheds, so effective management strategies can be devised. However, current methods can be either cost prohibitive or unreliable. Direct measurement approaches (surveys and erosion pins) are labor intensive and yield site-specific measurements that are limited for extrapolation to larger scales. Similar issues arise with analytical methods such as slope stability analysis, which require material parameters that are resource intensive to determine. Newer approaches such as use of aerial LiDAR data have proved effective for watershed level assessment, but come with long turnaround times and high cost. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is also effective and offers high accuracy, however collection over large areas is impractical and post-processing is labor intensive. New technology in the form of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has the potential to significantly enhance the ability to monitor channel migration and quantify bank erosion at variable scales. In this study, 20 km of the Mad and Winooski Rivers in Vermont were flown using a senseFly eBee UAS. Flights were made in spring and fall 2015 in leaf-off conditions with selected portions also flown after large storms in the summer. Change in bank profiles between spring and fall flights provide a comprehensive estimate of bank erosion along the study reaches. Six sites with varying bank heights, erosion sensitivity, and vegetation conditions were selected for simultaneous surveying using a TLS. Point cloud data from both the TLS and UAS were compared to assess the accuracy of the UAS for capturing the bank profile. Changes in bank cross-sections and in volumes calculated from 3D digital surface models were used to compare the

  19. A comprehensive insight into tetracycline resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in activated sludge using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kailong; Tang, Junying; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Xu, Ke; Ren, Hongqiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to comprehensively investigate tetracycline resistance in activated sludge of sewage treatment plants, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing were used to detect potential tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in sludge cultured with different concentrations of tetracycline. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene revealed that tetracycline treatment greatly affected the bacterial community structure of the sludge. Nine genera consisting of Sulfuritalea, Armatimonas, Prosthecobacter, Hyphomicrobium, Azonexus, Longilinea, Paracoccus, Novosphingobium and Rhodobacter were identified as potential TRB in the sludge. Results of qPCR, molecular cloning and metagenomic analysis consistently indicated that tetracycline treatment could increase both the abundance and diversity of the tet genes, but decreased the occurrence and diversity of non-tetracycline ARG, especially sulfonamide resistance gene sul2. Cluster analysis showed that tetracycline treatment at subinhibitory concentrations (5 mg/L) was found to pose greater effects on the bacterial community composition, which may be responsible for the variations of the ARGs abundance. This study indicated that joint use of 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing can be effectively used to explore ARB and ARGs in the environment, and future studies should include an in-depth investigation of the relationship between microbial community, ARGs and antibiotics in sewage treatment plant (STP) sludge. PMID:24905407

  20. One RNA plays three roles to provide catalytic activity to a group I intron lacking an endogenous internal guide sequence.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Nilesh; Lehman, Niles

    2009-07-01

    Catalytic RNA molecules possess simultaneously a genotype and a phenotype. However, a single RNA genotype has the potential to adopt two or perhaps more distinct phenotypes as a result of differential folding and/or catalytic activity. Such multifunctionality would be particularly significant if the phenotypes were functionally inter-related in a common biochemical pathway. Here, this phenomenon is demonstrated by the ability of the Azoarcus group I ribozyme to function when its canonical internal guide sequence (GUG) has been removed from the 5' end of the molecule, and added back exogenously in trans. The presence of GUG triplets in non-covalent fragments of the ribozyme allow trans-splicing to occur in both a reverse splicing assay and a covalent self-assembly assay in which the internal guide sequence (IGS)-less ribozyme can put itself together from two of its component pieces. Analysis of these reactions indicates that a single RNA fragment can perform up to three distinct roles in a reaction: behaving as a portion of a catalyst, behaving as a substrate, and providing an exogenous IGS. This property of RNA to be multifunctional in a single reaction pathway bolsters the probability that a system of self-replicating molecules could have existed in an RNA world during the origins of life on the Earth. PMID:19406926

  1. Active deformation and engineering analysis of CFRP mirror of various lay-up sequences within quasi-isotropic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chunmei; Yu, Xia; Guo, Peiji

    2014-08-01

    A regularization stiffness coefficient method was verified further to optimize lay-up sequences of quasi-isotropic laminates for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite mirrors. Firstly, the deformation due to gravity of 1G and temperature difference of 20-100°C and the modal were analyzed by finite element method (FEM). Secondly, the influence of angle error of ply stacking on quasi-isotropic of bending stiffness was evaluated. Finally, an active support system of 49 actuators in circular arrangement is designed for a 500mm CFRP mirror, and its goal is to deform the spherical CFRP mirror to a parabolic. Therefore, the response functions of the actuators were gotten, and the surface form errors and stresses were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the CFRP mirrors designed by the method have a better symmetrical bending deformation under gravity and thermal load and a higher fundamental frequency, and the larger n the better symmetry (for π/n quasi-isotropic laminates); the method reduces the sensitivity to misalignment of ply orientation for symmetric bending, and the mirror's maximum von Mises stress and maximum shear stress are less compared to those laminates not optimized in lay-up sequence.

  2. Ursolic Acid Activates Intracellular Killing Effect of Macrophages During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Podder, Biswajit; Jang, Woong Sik; Nam, Kung-Woo; Lee, Byung-Eui; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most threatening infectious diseases to public health all over the world, for which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the etiological agent of pathogenesis. Ursolic acid (UA) has immunomodulatory function and exhibits antimycobacterial activity. However, the intracellular killing effect of UA has yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intracellular killing effect of UA during mycobacterial infection. The intracellular killing activity of UA was evaluated in the macrophage cell line THP-1 by the MGIT 960 system as well as by CFU count. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the level of nitric oxide (NO) were measured using DCF-DA and Griess reagent, respectively. Phagocytosis was observed by a fluorescence-based staining method, and the colony forming units were enumerated on 7H11 agar medium following infection. In addition, MRP8 mRNA expression was measured by qRT-PCR. UA significantly decreased the number of intracellular Mycobacterium through generation of ROS and NO. In addition, it profoundly activated the phagocytosis process of THP-1 cells during MTB-infection. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that UA activated the phagocytosis process in human monocyte cells through MRP8 induction. These data suggest that UA firmly contributes to the intracellular killing effect of macrophages during mycobacterial infection.

  3. Processing, Cataloguing and Distribution of Uas Images in Near Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkel, I.

    2013-08-01

    Why are UAS such a hype? UAS make the data capture flexible, fast and easy. For many applications this is more important than a perfect photogrammetric aerial image block. To ensure, that the advantage of a fast data capturing will be valid up to the end of the processing chain, all intermediate steps like data processing and data dissemination to the customer need to be flexible and fast as well. GEOSYSTEMS has established the whole processing workflow as server/client solution. This is the focus of the presentation. Depending on the image acquisition system the image data can be down linked during the flight to the data processing computer or it is stored on a mobile device and hooked up to the data processing computer after the flight campaign. The image project manager reads the data from the device and georeferences the images according to the position data. The meta data is converted into an ISO conform format and subsequently all georeferenced images are catalogued in the raster data management System ERDAS APOLLO. APOLLO provides the data, respectively the images as an OGC-conform services to the customer. Within seconds the UAV-images are ready to use for GIS application, image processing or direct interpretation via web applications - where ever you want. The whole processing chain is built in a generic manner. It can be adapted to a magnitude of applications. The UAV imageries can be processed and catalogued as single ortho imges or as image mosaic. Furthermore, image data of various cameras can be fusioned. By using WPS (web processing services) image enhancement, image analysis workflows like change detection layers can be calculated and provided to the image analysts. The processing of the WPS runs direct on the raster data management server. The image analyst has no data and no software on his local computer. This workflow is proven to be fast, stable and accurate. It is designed to support time critical applications for security demands - the images

  4. Stress gene (hsp70) sequences and quantitative expression in Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) during active and cryptobiotic stages.

    PubMed

    Schill, Ralph O; Steinbrück, Günther H B; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2004-04-01

    The eutardigrade Milnesium tardigradum can undergo cryptobiosis, i.e. entry into a reversible ametabolic stage induced by dehydration, cooling and, probably, osmotic and anoxic stress. For the first time in tardigrades, we described partial sequences of three heat-shock protein (hsp70 family) genes and examined gene expression on the way from an active to a cryptobiotic and back to an active stage again. Results showed different patterns of gene expression in the hsp70 isoforms. All three isoforms seem to be true heat-shock proteins since transcription could be clearly enhanced by temperature elevation. Isoform 1 and, at a lower level, isoform 3 do not seem to have a specific function for cryptobiosis. By contrast, transcription of isoform 2 is significantly induced in the transitional stage between the active and the cryptobiotic stage, resulting in a comparatively high mRNA copy number also during cryptobiosis. This pattern of induction implies that isoform 2 is the most relevant hsp70 gene for M. tardigradum individuals entering the cryptobiotic stage.

  5. Dodecyl Maltopyranoside Enabled Purification of Active Human GABA Type A Receptors for Deep and Direct Proteomic Sequencing*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Miller, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    The challenge in high-quality membrane proteomics is all about sample preparation prior to HPLC, and the cell-to-protein step poses a long-standing bottleneck. Traditional protein extraction methods apply ionic or poly-disperse detergents, harsh denaturation, and repeated protein/peptide precipitation/resolubilization afterward, but suffer low yield, low reproducibility, and low sequence coverage. Contrary to attempts to subdue, we resolved this challenge by providing proteins nature-and-activity-promoting conditions throughout preparation. Using 285-kDa hetero-pentameric human GABA type A receptor overexpressed in HEK293 as a model, we describe a n-dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside/cholesteryl hemisuccinate (DDM/CHS)-based affinity purification method, that produced active receptors, supported protease activity, and allowed high performance with both in-gel and direct gel-free proteomic analyses—without detergent removal. Unlike conventional belief that detergents must be removed before HPLC MS, the high-purity low-dose nonionic detergent DDM did not interfere with peptides, and obviated removal or desalting. Sonication or dropwise addition of detergent robustly solubilized over 90% of membrane pellets. The purification conditions were comparable to those applied in successful crystallizations of most membrane proteins. These results enabled streamlined proteomics of human synaptic membrane proteins, and more importantly, allowed directly coupling proteomics with crystallography to characterize both static and dynamic structures of membrane proteins in crystallization pipelines. PMID:25473089

  6. Combining proteomics and transcriptome sequencing to identify active plant-cell-wall-degrading enzymes in a leaf beetle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The primary plant cell wall is a complex mixture of polysaccharides and proteins encasing living plant cells. Among these polysaccharides, cellulose is the most abundant and useful biopolymer present on earth. These polysaccharides also represent a rich source of energy for organisms which have evolved the ability to degrade them. A growing body of evidence suggests that phytophagous beetles, mainly species from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea, possess endogenous genes encoding complex and diverse families of so-called plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). The presence of these genes in phytophagous beetles may have been a key element in their success as herbivores. Here, we combined a proteomics approach and transcriptome sequencing to identify PCWDEs present in larval gut contents of the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Results Using a two-dimensional proteomics approach, we recovered 11 protein bands, isolated using activity assays targeting cellulose-, pectin- and xylan-degrading enzymes. After mass spectrometry analyses, a total of 13 proteins putatively responsible for degrading plant cell wall polysaccharides were identified; these proteins belong to three glycoside hydrolase (GH) families: GH11 (xylanases), GH28 (polygalacturonases or pectinases), and GH45 (β-1,4-glucanases or cellulases). Additionally, highly stable and proteolysis-resistant host plant-derived proteins from various pathogenesis-related protein (PRs) families as well as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) were also identified from the gut contents proteome. In parallel, transcriptome sequencing revealed the presence of at least 19 putative PCWDE transcripts encoded by the P. cochleariae genome. All of these were specifically expressed in the insect gut rather than the rest of the body, and in adults as well as larvae. The discrepancy observed in the number of putative PCWDEs between transcriptome and proteome analyses could be

  7. The role of mechanical heterogeneities in evaporite sequence during deformation initiated by basement fault activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Burliga, Stanisław

    2016-04-01

    Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) situated in the centre of the Polish Zechstein Basin started to rise above a basement fault in the Early Triassic. Geological studies of the KSS revealed significant differences in the deformation patterns between the PZ1-PZ2 (intensely deformed) and PZ3-PZ4 (less deformed) cycle evaporites. These two older and two younger cycle evaporite complexes are separated by the thick Main Anhydrite (A3) bed. We use numerical simulations to assess the impact of a thick anhydrite bed on intrasalt deformation. In our models, the overburden consists of clastic sediments. A normal fault located in the rigid basement beneath the salt is activated due to model extension. At the same time, the sedimentation process takes place. The evaporites consist of a salt bed intercalated with a thick anhydrite layer of varying position and geometry. To understand the role of anhydrite layer, we run comparative simulations, in which no anhydrite layer is present. In the study, we use our own numerical codes implemented in MATLAB combined with the MILAMIN and MUTILS numerical packages. Our investigations revealed a significant influence of the anhydrite on deformation style in the evaporate series. The supra-anhydrite domain is characterized by weaker deformation and lower rates of salt flow in comparison to the sub-anhydrite domain. The highest contrast in the rate of salt flow between the two domains is observed in the case of the anhydrite layer situated close to the bottom of the salt complex. The thick anhydrite layer additionally diminishes the deformation rate in the supra-anhydrite domain and can lead to detachment of the basement deformation from its overlay. Our numerical simulations showed that the presence of the A3 Main Anhydrite bed could be the dominant factor responsible for the decoupling of deformation in the KSS salt complex.

  8. DNA sequences at a glance.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Armando J; Garcia, Sara P; Pratas, Diogo; Ferreira, Paulo J S G

    2013-01-01

    Data summarization and triage is one of the current top challenges in visual analytics. The goal is to let users visually inspect large data sets and examine or request data with particular characteristics. The need for summarization and visual analytics is also felt when dealing with digital representations of DNA sequences. Genomic data sets are growing rapidly, making their analysis increasingly more difficult, and raising the need for new, scalable tools. For example, being able to look at very large DNA sequences while immediately identifying potentially interesting regions would provide the biologist with a flexible exploratory and analytical tool. In this paper we present a new concept, the "information profile", which provides a quantitative measure of the local complexity of a DNA sequence, independently of the direction of processing. The computation of the information profiles is computationally tractable: we show that it can be done in time proportional to the length of the sequence. We also describe a tool to compute the information profiles of a given DNA sequence, and use the genome of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain 972 h(-) and five human chromosomes 22 for illustration. We show that information profiles are useful for detecting large-scale genomic regularities by visual inspection. Several discovery strategies are possible, including the standalone analysis of single sequences, the comparative analysis of sequences from individuals from the same species, and the comparative analysis of sequences from different organisms. The comparison scale can be varied, allowing the users to zoom-in on specific details, or obtain a broad overview of a long segment. Software applications have been made available for non-commercial use at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/software/dna-at-glance.

  9. DNA Sequences at a Glance

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Armando J.; Garcia, Sara P.; Pratas, Diogo; Ferreira, Paulo J. S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Data summarization and triage is one of the current top challenges in visual analytics. The goal is to let users visually inspect large data sets and examine or request data with particular characteristics. The need for summarization and visual analytics is also felt when dealing with digital representations of DNA sequences. Genomic data sets are growing rapidly, making their analysis increasingly more difficult, and raising the need for new, scalable tools. For example, being able to look at very large DNA sequences while immediately identifying potentially interesting regions would provide the biologist with a flexible exploratory and analytical tool. In this paper we present a new concept, the “information profile”, which provides a quantitative measure of the local complexity of a DNA sequence, independently of the direction of processing. The computation of the information profiles is computationally tractable: we show that it can be done in time proportional to the length of the sequence. We also describe a tool to compute the information profiles of a given DNA sequence, and use the genome of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain 972 h− and five human chromosomes 22 for illustration. We show that information profiles are useful for detecting large-scale genomic regularities by visual inspection. Several discovery strategies are possible, including the standalone analysis of single sequences, the comparative analysis of sequences from individuals from the same species, and the comparative analysis of sequences from different organisms. The comparison scale can be varied, allowing the users to zoom-in on specific details, or obtain a broad overview of a long segment. Software applications have been made available for non-commercial use at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/software/dna-at-glance. PMID:24278218

  10. Selective anticancer activity of a hexapeptide with sequence homology to a non-kinase domain of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 4 and 6 (Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6) are closely structurally homologous proteins which are classically understood to control the transition from the G1 to the S-phases of the cell cycle by combining with their appropriate cyclin D or cyclin E partners to form kinase-active holoenzymes. Deregulation of Cdk4 is widespread in human cancer, CDK4 gene knockout is highly protective against chemical and oncogene-mediated epithelial carcinogenesis, despite the continued presence of CDK2 and CDK6; and overexpresssion of Cdk4 promotes skin carcinogenesis. Surprisingly, however, Cdk4 kinase inhibitors have not yet fulfilled their expectation as 'blockbuster' anticancer agents. Resistance to inhibition of Cdk4 kinase in some cases could potentially be due to a non-kinase activity, as recently reported with epidermal growth factor receptor. Results A search for a potential functional site of non-kinase activity present in Cdk4 but not Cdk2 or Cdk6 revealed a previously-unidentified loop on the outside of the C'-terminal non-kinase domain of Cdk4, containing a central amino-acid sequence, Pro-Arg-Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro (PRGPRP). An isolated hexapeptide with this sequence and its cyclic amphiphilic congeners are selectively lethal at high doses to a wide range of human cancer cell lines whilst sparing normal diploid keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Treated cancer cells do not exhibit the wide variability of dose response typically seen with other anticancer agents. Cancer cell killing by PRGPRP, in a cyclic amphiphilic cassette, requires cells to be in cycle but does not perturb cell cycle distribution and is accompanied by altered relative Cdk4/Cdk1 expression and selective decrease in ATP levels. Morphological features of apoptosis are absent and cancer cell death does not appear to involve autophagy. Conclusion These findings suggest a potential new paradigm for the development of broad-spectrum cancer specific therapeutics with a companion diagnostic

  11. Sequence of Lacustrine Activity Within a Basin in Southwestern Melas Chasma, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. M.; Weitz, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    A perched basin located in southwestern Melas Chasma has widely been recognized as the site of a postulated paleolake. Valley networks converge from the east and west into an enclosed 30 x120 km basin and terminate in fan-shaped landforms. Fan deposits are interbedded with layered beds that are largely presumed to be lacustrine deposits. New details of the aqueous history in the Melas basin have been revealed from analysis of high-resolution image, topographic and spectral datasets from the THEMIS, HiRISE, HRSC, CTX, and CRISM instruments. We conducted a comprehensive examination of the diversity of fan-shaped landforms within the basin to characterize their morphology based on meter-scale images, evaluate their origin, and synthesize a history for the basin based on superposition relationships of the fans. Ten fan-shaped landforms have been identified which reflect various depositional environments and some fans reflect lake level(Figure 1). A distinctive megaripple marker bed, interpreted as aeolian bedforms, is within the lower levels of the exposed stratigraphic record. This observation, taken together with the stratigraphic succession of fan-shaped deposits, indicates fluctuating lake levels with, at a minimum, early and late-stage lake highstands. Landform scale was used to estimate average discharge (~30 m3/s), formative discharge (200-300 m3/s) and fan formation timescale, which further inform the duration of lacustrine activity within the basin. The synthesis of results from this study indicate the lacustrine period within the Melas basin lasted at least centuries to millennia, and included at least two highstands with an intervening lowstand or hiatus. Climate conditions conducive to lake stability had to be maintained for a duration long enough to build these fans. Localized aqueous alteration of the surface occurred after the lacustrine period, resulting in multiple hydrated silica (opal) outcrops within the basin. Figure 1: Study region and sketch map

  12. Development of U.S. Government General Technical Requirements for UAS Flight Safety Systems Utilizing the Iridium Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Jennifer; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of technical requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) utilization of the Iridium Satellite Constellation to provide flight safety. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) required an over-the-horizon communication standard to guarantee flight safety before permitting widespread UAS flights in the National Air Space (NAS). This is important to ensure reliable control of UASs during loss-link and over-the-horizon scenarios. The core requirement was to utilize a satellite system to send GPS tracking data and other telemetry from a flight vehicle down to the ground. Iridium was chosen as the system because it is one of the only true satellite systems that has world wide coverage, and the service has a highly reliable link margin. The Iridium system, the flight modems, and the test flight are described.

  13. Uas Based Tree Species Identification Using the Novel FPI Based Hyperspectral Cameras in Visible, NIR and SWIR Spectral Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsi, R.; Honkavaara, E.; Tuominen, S.; Saari, H.; Pölönen, I.; Hakala, T.; Viljanen, N.; Soukkamäki, J.; Näkki, I.; Ojanen, H.; Reinikainen, J.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned airborne systems (UAS) based remote sensing offers flexible tool for environmental monitoring. Novel lightweight Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) based, frame format, hyperspectral imaging in the spectral range from 400 to 1600 nm was used for identifying different species of trees in a forest area. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this was the first research where stereoscopic, hyperspectral VIS, NIR, SWIR data is collected for tree species identification using UAS. The first results of the analysis based on fusion of two FPI-based hyperspectral imagers and RGB camera showed that the novel FPI hyperspectral technology provided accurate geometric, radiometric and spectral information in a forested scene and is operational for environmental remote sensing applications.

  14. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2016-01-01

    Just a year ago we laid out the UTM challenges and NASA's proposed solutions. During the past year NASA's goal continues to be to conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line-of-sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Significant progress has been made, and NASA is continuing to move forward.

  15. Membrane-Active Sequences within gp41 Membrane Proximal External Region (MPER) Modulate MPER-Containing Peptidyl Fusion Inhibitor Activity and the Biosynthesis of HIV-1 Structural Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Si Min; Jejcic, Alenka; Tam, James P.; Vahlne, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The membrane proximal external region (MPER) is a highly conserved membrane-active region located at the juxtamembrane positions within class I viral fusion glycoproteins and essential for membrane fusion events during viral entry. The MPER in the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) envelope protein (Env) interacts with the lipid bilayers through a cluster of tryptophan (Trp) residues and a C-terminal cholesterol-interacting motif. The inclusion of the MPER N-terminal sequence contributes to the membrane reactivity and anti-viral efficacy of the first two anti-HIV peptidyl fusion inhibitors T20 and T1249. As a type I transmembrane protein, Env also interacts with the cellular membranes during its biosynthesis and trafficking. Here we investigated the roles of MPER membrane-active sequences during both viral entry and assembly, specifically, their roles in the design of peptidyl fusion inhibitors and the biosynthesis of viral structural proteins. We found that elimination of the membrane-active elements in MPER peptides, namely, penta Trp→alanine (Ala) substitutions and the disruption of the C-terminal cholesterol-interacting motif through deletion inhibited the anti-viral effect against the pseudotyped HIV-1. Furthermore, as compared to C-terminal dimerization, N-terminal dimerization of MPER peptides and N-terminal extension with five helix-forming residues enhanced their anti-viral efficacy substantially. The secondary structure study revealed that the penta-Trp→Ala substitutions also increased the helical content in the MPER sequence, which prompted us to study the biological relevance of such mutations in pre-fusion Env. We observed that Ala mutations of Trp664, Trp668 and Trp670 in MPER moderately lowered the intracellular and intraviral contents of Env while significantly elevating the content of another viral structural protein, p55/Gag and its derivative p24/capsid. The data suggest a role of the gp41 MPER in the membrane-reactive events during

  16. Complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. ERGS1:01, a putative novel bacterium with prospective cold active industrial enzymes, isolated from East Rathong glacier in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakshak; Singh, Dharam; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-11-20

    We report the complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. ERGS1:01, a novel bacterium which produces industrial enzymes at low temperature. East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalayas is untouched and unexplored for microbial diversity though it has a rich source of glaciers, alpine and meadows. Genome sequence has provided the basis for understanding its adaptation under harsh condition of Himalayan glacier, its ability to produce cold active industrial enzymes and has unlocked opportunities for microbial bioprospection from East Rathong glacier.

  17. Preliminary Recommendations for the Collection, Storage, and Analysis of UAS Safety Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enomoto, Francis; Bushnell, David; Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Schumann, Johann

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of UASs in military and public service operations is proliferating, civilian use of UASs remains limited in the United States today. With efforts underway to accommodate and integrate UASs into the NAS, a proactive understanding of safety issues, i.e., the unique hazards and the corresponding risks that UASs pose not only through their operations for commercial purposes, but also to existing operations in the NAS, is especially important so as to (a) support the development of a sound regulatory basis, (b) regulate, design and properly equip UASs, and (c) effectively mitigate the risks posed. Data, especially about system and component failures, incidents, and accidents, provides valuable insight into how performance and operational capabilities/limitations contribute to hazards. Since the majority of UAS operations today take place in a context that is significantly different from the norm in civil aviation, i.e., with different operational goals and standards, identifying that which constitutes useful and sufficient data on UASs and their operations is a substantial research challenge.

  18. Correction and Densification of Uas-Based Photogrammetric Thermal Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, O.; Erenoglu, R. C.; Erenoglu, O.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetric processing algorithms can suffer problems due to either the initial image quality (noise, low radiometric quality, shadows and so on) or to certain surface materials (shiny or textureless objects). This can result in noisy point clouds and/or difficulties in feature extraction. Specifically, dense point clouds which are generated with photogrammetric method using a lightweight thermal camera, are more noisy and sparse than the point clouds of high-resolution digital camera images. In this paper, new method which produces more reliable and dense thermal point cloud using the sparse thermal point cloud and high resolution digital point cloud was considered. Both thermal and digital images were obtained with UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) based lightweight Optris PI 450 and Canon EOS 605D camera images. Thermal and digital point clouds, and orthophotos were produced using photogrammetric methods. Problematic thermal point cloud was transformed to a high density thermal point cloud using image processing methods such as rasterizing, registering, interpolation and filling. The results showed that the obtained thermal point cloud - up to chosen processing parameters - was 87% more densify than the original point cloud. The second improvement was gained at the height accuracy of the thermal point cloud. New densified point cloud has more consistent elevation model while the original thermal point cloud shows serious deviations from the expected surface model.

  19. Development of the Brican TD100 Small Uas and Payload Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, B.; McLuckie, B.; Koski, W. R.; Bird, D.; Patterson, C.; Bohdanov, D.; Liu, H.; Mathews, T.; Gamage, G.

    2015-08-01

    The Brican TD100 is a high performance, small UAS designed and made in Brampton Ontario Canada. The concept was defined in late 2009 and it is designed for a maximum weight of 25 kg which is now the accepted cut-off defining small civil UASs. A very clean tractor propeller layout is used with a lightweight composite structure and a high aspect ratio wing to obtain good range and endurance. The design features and performance of the initial electrically powered version are discussed and progress with developing a multifuel engine version is described. The system includes features enabling operation beyond line of sight (BLOS) and the proving missions are described. The vehicle has been used for aerial photography and low cost mapping using a professional grade Nikon DSLR camera. For forest fire research a FLIR A65 IR camera was used, while for georeferenced mapping a new Applanix AP20 system was calibrated with the Nikon camera. The sorties to be described include forest fire research, wildlife photography of bowhead whales in the Arctic and surveys of endangered caribou in a remote area of Labrador, with all these applications including the DSLR camera.

  20. Particle Filtering for Obstacle Tracking in UAS Sense and Avoid Applications

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Obstacle detection and tracking is a key function for UAS sense and avoid applications. In fact, obstacles in the flight path must be detected and tracked in an accurate and timely manner in order to execute a collision avoidance maneuver in case of collision threat. The most important parameter for the assessment of a collision risk is the Distance at Closest Point of Approach, that is, the predicted minimum distance between own aircraft and intruder for assigned current position and speed. Since assessed methodologies can cause some loss of accuracy due to nonlinearities, advanced filtering methodologies, such as particle filters, can provide more accurate estimates of the target state in case of nonlinear problems, thus improving system performance in terms of collision risk estimation. The paper focuses on algorithm development and performance evaluation for an obstacle tracking system based on a particle filter. The particle filter algorithm was tested in off-line simulations based on data gathered during flight tests. In particular, radar-based tracking was considered in order to evaluate the impact of particle filtering in a single sensor framework. The analysis shows some accuracy improvements in the estimation of Distance at Closest Point of Approach, thus reducing the delay in collision detection. PMID:25105154

  1. DKIST visible tunable filter control software: connecting the DKIST framework to OPC UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alexander; Halbgewachs, Clemens; Kentischer, Thomas J.; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar; Sigwarth, Michael; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a narrowband tunable filter system for imaging spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry based on large-format Fabry Perot interferometers that is currently built by the Kiepenheuer Institut fuer Sonnenphysik for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST). The control software must handle around 30 motorised drives, 3 etalons, a polarizing modulator, a helium neon laser for system calibration, temperature controllers and a multitude of sensors. The VTF is foreseen as one of the DKISTs first-light instruments and should become operational in 2019. In the design of the control software we strongly separate between the high-level part interfacing to the DKIST common services framework (CSF) and the low-level control system software which guarantees real-time performance and synchronization to precision time protocol (PTP) based observatory time. For the latter we chose a programmable logic controller (PLC) from Beckhoff Automation GmbH which supports a wide set of input and output devices as well as distributed clocks for synchronizing signals down to the sub-microsecond level. In this paper we present the design of the required control system software as well as our work on extending the DKIST CSF to use the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) standard which provides a cross-platform communication standard for process control and automation as an interface between the high-level software and the real-time control system.

  2. Remote sensing of aerosol in the terrestrial atmosphere from space: "AEROSOL-UA" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Milinevsky, Gennadi; Degtyarev, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosols on a global scale are not well known in terms of determination of their effects on climate. This mostly is due to extreme variability of aerosol concentrations, properties, sources, and types. Aerosol climate impact is comparable to the effect of greenhouse gases, but its influence is more difficult to measure, especially with respect to aerosol microphysical properties and the evaluation of anthropogenic aerosol effect. There are many satellite missions studying aerosol distribution in the terrestrial atmosphere, such as MISR/Terra, OMI/Aura, AVHHR, MODIS/Terra and Aqua, CALIOP/CALIPSO. To improve the quality of data and climate models, and to reduce aerosol climate forcing uncertainties, several new missions are planned. The gap in orbital instruments for studying aerosol microphysics has arisen after the Glory mission failed during launch in 2011. In this review paper, we describe several planned aerosol space missions, including the Ukrainian project AEROSOL-UA that will obtain the data using a multi-channel scanning polarimeter and wide-angle polarimetric camera. The mission is designed for remote sensing of the aerosol microphysics and cloud properties on a global scale.

  3. Operational Experience with Long Duration Wildfire Mapping: UAS Missions Over the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Cobleigh, Brent; Buoni, Greg; Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States Forest Service, and National Interagency Fire Center have developed a partnership to develop and demonstrate technology to improve airborne wildfire imaging and data dissemination. In the summer of 2007, a multi-spectral infrared scanner was integrated into NASA's Ikhana Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) (a General Atomics Predator-B) and launched on four long duration wildfire mapping demonstration missions covering eight western states. Extensive safety analysis, contingency planning, and mission coordination were key to securing an FAA certificate of authorization (COA) to operate in the national airspace. Infrared images were autonomously geo-rectified, transmitted to the ground station by satellite communications, and networked to fire incident commanders within 15 minutes of acquisition. Close coordination with air traffic control ensured a safe operation, and allowed real-time redirection around inclement weather and other minor changes to the flight plan. All objectives of the mission demonstrations were achieved. In late October, wind-driven wildfires erupted in five southern California counties. State and national emergency operations agencies requested Ikhana to help assess and manage the wildfires. Four additional missions were launched over a 5-day period, with near realtime images delivered to multiple emergency operations centers and fire incident commands managing 10 fires.

  4. Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosol Vertical Distributions above Svalbard, Norway using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Stalin, S.; Telg, H.; Murphy, D. M.; Burkhart, J. F.; Quinn, P.; Storvold, R.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions were measured above Svalbard, Norway in April 2015 to investigate the processes controlling aerosol concentrations and radiative effects. The aerosol payload was flown in a NOAA/PMEL MANTA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) on 9 flights totaling 19 flight hours. Measurements were made of particle number concentration and aerosol light absorption at three wavelengths, similar to those conducted in April 2011 (Bates et al., Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2115-2120, 2013). A filter sample was collected on each flight for analyses of trace elements. Additional measurements in the aerosol payload in 2015 included aerosol size distributions obtained using a Printed Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS) and aerosol optical depth obtained using a four wavelength miniature Scanning Aerosol Sun Photometer (miniSASP). The data show most of the column aerosol mass and resulting optical depth in the boundary layer but frequent aerosol layers aloft with high particle number concentration (2000 cm-3) and enhanced aerosol light absorption (1 Mm-1). Transport of these aerosol layers was assessed using FLEXPART particle dispersion models. The data contribute to an assessment of sources of BC to the Arctic and potential climate impacts.

  5. Comparison of Muscle Onset Activation Sequences between a Golf or Tennis Swing and Common Training Exercises Using Surface Electromyography: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, John M; Logan, Andrew; Shultz, Rebecca; Koval, Jeffrey J; Roh, Eugene Y; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this pilot study is to use surface electromyography to determine an individual athlete's typical muscle onset activation sequence when performing a golf or tennis forward swing and to use the method to assess to what degree the sequence is reproduced with common conditioning exercises and a machine designed for this purpose. Methods. Data for 18 healthy male subjects were collected for 15 muscles of the trunk and lower extremities. Data were filtered and processed to determine the average onset of muscle activation for each motion. A Spearman correlation estimated congruence of activation order between the swing and each exercise. Correlations of each group were pooled with 95% confidence intervals using a random effects meta-analytic strategy. Results. The averaged sequences differed among each athlete tested, but pooled correlations demonstrated a positive association between each exercise and the participants' natural muscle onset activation sequence. Conclusion. The selected training exercises and Turning Point™ device all partially reproduced our athletes' averaged muscle onset activation sequences for both sports. The results support consideration of a larger, adequately powered study using this method to quantify to what degree each of the selected exercises is appropriate for use in both golf and tennis. PMID:27403454

  6. Comparison of Muscle Onset Activation Sequences between a Golf or Tennis Swing and Common Training Exercises Using Surface Electromyography: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, John M; Logan, Andrew; Shultz, Rebecca; Koval, Jeffrey J; Roh, Eugene Y; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this pilot study is to use surface electromyography to determine an individual athlete's typical muscle onset activation sequence when performing a golf or tennis forward swing and to use the method to assess to what degree the sequence is reproduced with common conditioning exercises and a machine designed for this purpose. Methods. Data for 18 healthy male subjects were collected for 15 muscles of the trunk and lower extremities. Data were filtered and processed to determine the average onset of muscle activation for each motion. A Spearman correlation estimated congruence of activation order between the swing and each exercise. Correlations of each group were pooled with 95% confidence intervals using a random effects meta-analytic strategy. Results. The averaged sequences differed among each athlete tested, but pooled correla