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Sample records for activating system ras

  1. An Active RFID Accountability System (RAS) for Constrained Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Alan M; Hanson, Gregory R; Sexton, Angela Kay; Jones Jr, J P; Freer, Eva B; Sjoreen, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an RFID Accountability System (RAS) that allows items with active RFID tags to be tracked in environments where tags may not be able to transmit their location continuously. The system uses activators that transmit a short range signal. Active RFID tags are in a sleep state until they encounter an activator. Then they transmit a signal that is picked up by the antennas installed throughout the building. This paper presents the theory of operation, application areas, lessons learned, and key features developed over the course of seven years of development and use.

  2. Coherence and frequency in the reticular activating system (RAS)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit 1) electrical coupling mainly in GABAergic cells, and 2) gamma band activity in virtually all of the cells. Specifically, cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) 1) show electrical coupling, and 2) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanism behind electrical coupling is important because the stimulant modafinil was shown to increase electrical coupling. We also provide recent findings demonstrating that all cells in the PPN and Pf have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential to gamma band activity. On the other hand, all SubCD, and some PPN, cells manifested sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. We speculate that continuous sensory input will modulate coupling and induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. PMID:23044219

  3. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  4. Activated Ras interacts with the Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator.

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, F; Fields, S; Schneider, C; Martin, G S

    1994-01-01

    The yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that interact with Ras. The H-Ras protein was found to interact with a guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator (GDS) that has been previously shown to regulate guanine nucleotide exchange on another member of the Ras protein family, Ral. The interaction is mediated by the C-terminal, noncatalytic segment of the RalGDS and can be detected both in vivo, using the two-hybrid system, and in vitro, with purified recombinant proteins. The interaction of the RalGDS C-terminal segment with Ras is specific, dependent on activation of Ras by GTP, and blocked by a mutation that affects Ras effector function. These characteristics are similar to those previously demonstrated for the interaction between Ras and its putative effector, Raf, suggesting that the RalGDS may also be a Ras effector. Consistent with this idea, the RalGDS was found to inhibit the binding of Raf to Ras. Images PMID:7972015

  5. ASPP1 and ASPP2 bind active RAS, potentiate RAS signalling and enhance p53 activity in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Godin-Heymann, N; Dan Wang, X; Bergamaschi, D; Llanos, S; Lu, X

    2013-01-01

    RAS mutations occur frequently in human cancer and activated RAS signalling contributes to tumour development and progression. Apart from its oncogenic effects on cell growth, active RAS has tumour-suppressive functions via its ability to induce cellular senescence and apoptosis. RAS is known to induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest, yet its effect on p53-dependent apoptosis remains unclear. We report here that apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) 1 and 2, two activators of p53, preferentially bind active RAS via their N-terminal RAS-association domains (RAD). Additionally, ASPP2 colocalises with and contributes to RAS cellular membrane localisation and potentiates RAS signalling. In cancer cells, ASPP1 and ASPP2 cooperate with oncogenic RAS to enhance the transcription and apoptotic function of p53. Thus, loss of ASPP1 and ASPP2 in human cancer cells may contribute to the full transforming property of RAS oncogene. PMID:23392125

  6. Differential activation of yeast adenylyl cyclase by Ras1 and Ras2 depends on the conserved N terminus.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, N; Segal, M; Marbach, I; Levitzki, A

    1995-11-21

    Although both Ras1 and Ras2 activate adenylyl cyclase in yeast, a number of differences can be observed regarding their function in the cAMP pathway. To explore the relative contribution of conserved and variable domains in determining these differences, chimeric RAS1-RAS2 or RAS2-RAS1 genes were constructed by swapping the sequences encoding the variable C-terminal domains. These constructs were expressed in a cdc25ts ras1 ras2 strain. Biochemical data show that the difference in efficacy of adenylyl cyclase activation between the two Ras proteins resides in the highly conserved N-terminal domain. This finding is supported by the observation that Ras2 delta, in which the C-terminal domain of Ras2 has been deleted, is a more potent activator of the yeast adenylyl cyclase than Ras1 delta, in which the C-terminal domain of Ras1 has been deleted. These observations suggest that amino acid residues other than the highly conserved residues of the effector domain within the N terminus may determine the efficiency of functional interaction with adenylyl cyclase. Similar levels of intracellular cAMP were found in Ras1, Ras1-Ras2, Ras1 delta, Ras2, and Ras2-Ras1 strains throughout the growth curve. This was found to result from the higher expression of Ras1 and Ras1-Ras2, which compensate for their lower efficacy in activating adenylyl cyclase. These results suggest that the difference between the Ras1 and the Ras2 phenotype is not due to their different efficacy in activating the cAMP pathway and that the divergent C-terminal domains are responsible for these differences, through interaction with other regulatory elements. PMID:7479926

  7. Regulation of Ras Exchange Factors and Cellular Localization of Ras Activation by Lipid Messengers in T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jesse E.; Rubio, Ignacio; Roose, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and Son of Sevenless (SOS)-family GEFs. Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood. One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of RasGEFs functions are lipid second messengers. Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells. PMID:24027568

  8. Pleiotrophin mediates hematopoietic regeneration via activation of RAS.

    PubMed

    Himburg, Heather A; Yan, Xiao; Doan, Phuong L; Quarmyne, Mamle; Micewicz, Eva; McBride, William; Chao, Nelson J; Slamon, Dennis J; Chute, John P

    2014-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are highly susceptible to ionizing radiation-mediated death via induction of ROS, DNA double-strand breaks, and apoptotic pathways. The development of therapeutics capable of mitigating ionizing radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity could benefit both victims of acute radiation sickness and patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Unfortunately, therapies capable of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution following lethal radiation exposure have remained elusive. Here, we found that systemic administration of pleiotrophin (PTN), a protein that is secreted by BM-derived endothelial cells, substantially increased the survival of mice following radiation exposure and after myeloablative BM transplantation. In both models, PTN increased survival by accelerating the recovery of BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vivo. PTN treatment promoted HSC regeneration via activation of the RAS pathway in mice that expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-zeta (PTPRZ), whereas PTN treatment did not induce RAS signaling in PTPRZ-deficient mice, suggesting that PTN-mediated activation of RAS was dependent upon signaling through PTPRZ. PTN strongly inhibited HSC cycling following irradiation, whereas RAS inhibition abrogated PTN-mediated induction of HSC quiescence, blocked PTN-mediated recovery of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and abolished PTN-mediated survival of irradiated mice. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of PTN to improve survival after myeloablation and suggest that PTN-mediated hematopoietic regeneration occurs in a RAS-dependent manner. PMID:25250571

  9. Identification of a farnesol analog as a Ras function inhibitor using both an in vivo Ras activation sensor and a phenotypic screening approach

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Kamalakkannan; Subramanian, Thangaiah; Spielmann, H. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in Ras isoforms such as K-Ras, N-Ras, and H-Ras contribute to roughly 85, 15, and 1 % of human cancers, respectively. Proper membrane targeting of these Ras isoforms, a prerequisite for Ras activity, requires farnesylation or geranylgeranylation at the C-terminal CAAX box. We devised an in vivo screening strategy based on monitoring Ras activation and phenotypic physiological outputs for assaying synthetic Ras function inhibitors (RFI). Ras activity was visualized by the trans-location of RBDRaf1-GFP to activated Ras at the plasma membrane. By using this strategy, we screened one synthetic farnesyl substrate analog (AGOH) along with nine putative inhibitors and found that only m-CN-AGOH inhibited Ras activation. Phenotypic analysis of starving cells could be used to monitor polarization, motility, and the inability of these treated cells to aggregate properly during fruiting body formation. Incorporation of AGOH and m-CN-AGOH to cellular proteins was detected by western blot. These screening assays can be incorporated into a high throughput screening format using Dictyostelium discoideum and automated microscopy to determine effective RFIs. These RFI candidates can then be further tested in mammalian systems. PMID:24194124

  10. EGFR phosphorylates FAM129B to promote Ras activation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haitao; Lee, Jong-Ho; Wang, Yugang; Pang, Yilin; Zhang, Tao; Xia, Yan; Zhong, Lianjin; Lyu, Jianxin; Lu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are important regulators for Ras activation, which is instrumental in tumor development. However, the mechanism underlying this regulation remains elusive. We demonstrate here that activated EGFR phosphorylates the Y593 residue of the protein known as family with sequence similarity 129, member B (FAM129B), which is overexpressed in many types of human cancer. FAM129B phosphorylation increased the interaction between FAM129B and Ras, resulting in reduced binding of p120-RasGAP to Ras. FAM129B phosphorylation promoted Ras activation, increasing ERK1/2- and PKM2-dependent β-catenin transactivation and leading to the enhanced glycolytic gene expression and the Warburg effect; promoting tumor cell proliferation and invasion; and supporting brain tumorigenesis. Our studies unearthed a novel and important mechanism underlying EGFR-mediated Ras activation in tumor development. PMID:26721396

  11. Gamma Band Activity in the RAS-intracellular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Kezunovic, N.; D’Onofrio, S.; Luster, B.; Hyde, J.; Bisagno, V.; Urbano, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the intrinsic membrane properties behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms involve high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels or sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. We address three necessary next steps resulting from these discoveries, an intracellular mechanism responsible for maintaining gamma band activity based on persistent G-protein activation, separate intracellular pathways that differentiate between gamma band activity during waking vs during REM sleep, and an intracellular mechanism responsible for the dysregulation in gamma band activity in schizophrenia. These findings open several promising research avenues that have not been thoroughly explored. What are the effects of sleep or REM sleep deprivation on these RAS mechanisms? Are these mechanisms involved in memory processing during waking and/or during REM sleep? Does gamma band processing differ during waking vs REM sleep after sleep or REM sleep deprivation? PMID:24309750

  12. Activated K-Ras, But Not H-Ras or N-Ras, Regulates Brain Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in a Raf/Rb-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Bender, R. Hugh F.; Haigis, Kevin M.; Gutmann, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) give rise to all the major cell types in the brain, including neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. However, the intracellular signaling pathways that govern brain NSC proliferation and differentiation have been incompletely characterized to date. Since some neurodevelopmental brain disorders (Costello syndrome and Noonan syndrome) are caused by germline activating mutations in the RAS genes, Ras small GTPases are likely critical regulators of brain NSC function. In the mammalian brain, Ras exists as three distinct molecules (H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras), each with different subcellular localizations, downstream signaling effectors, and biological effects. Leveraging a novel series of conditional-activated Ras molecule-expressing genetically engineered mouse strains, we demonstrate that activated K-Ras, but not H-Ras or N-Ras, expression increases brain NSC growth in a Raf-dependent, but Mek-independent, manner. Moreover, we show that activated K-Ras regulation of brain NSC proliferation requires Raf binding and suppression of retinoblastoma (Rb) function. Collectively, these observations establish tissue-specific differences in activated Ras molecule regulation of brain cell growth that operate through a noncanonical mechanism. PMID:25788415

  13. Autophagic activity dictates the cellular response to oncogenic RAS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihua; Wang, Xiao Dan; Lapi, Eleonora; Sullivan, Alexandra; Jia, Wei; He, You-Wen; Ratnayaka, Indrika; Zhong, Shan; Goldin, Robert D.; Goemans, Christoph G.; Tolkovsky, Aviva M.; Lu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    RAS is frequently mutated in human cancers and has opposing effects on autophagy and tumorigenesis. Identifying determinants of the cellular responses to RAS is therefore vital in cancer research. Here, we show that autophagic activity dictates the cellular response to oncogenic RAS. N-terminal Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (ASPP2) mediates RAS-induced senescence and inhibits autophagy. Oncogenic RAS-expressing ASPP2(Δ3/Δ3) mouse embryonic fibroblasts that escape senescence express a high level of ATG5/ATG12. Consistent with the notion that autophagy levels control the cellular response to oncogenic RAS, overexpressing ATG5, but not autophagy-deficient ATG5 mutant K130R, bypasses RAS-induced senescence, whereas ATG5 or ATG3 deficiency predisposes to it. Mechanistically, ASPP2 inhibits RAS-induced autophagy by competing with ATG16 to bind ATG5/ATG12 and preventing ATG16/ATG5/ATG12 formation. Hence, ASPP2 modulates oncogenic RAS-induced autophagic activity to dictate the cellular response to RAS: to proliferate or senesce. PMID:22847423

  14. IAA RAS Radio Telescope Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A.; Lavrov, A.

    2007-07-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAA RAS) has three identical radio telescopes, the receiving complex of which consists of five two-channel receivers of different bands, six cryogen systems, and additional devices: four local oscillators, phase calibration generators and IF commutator. The design, hardware and data communication protocol are described. The most convenient way to join the devices of the receiving complex into the common monitoring system is to use the interface which allows to connect numerous devices to the data bus. For the purpose of data communication regulation and to exclude conflicts, a data communication protocol has been designed, which operates with complex formatted data sequences. Formation of such sequences requires considerable data processing capability. That is provided by a microcontroller chip in each slave device. The test version of the software for the central computer has been developed in IAA RAS. We are developing the Mark IV FS software extension modules, which will allow us to control the receiving complex of the radio telescope by special SNAP commands from both operator input and schedule files. We are also developing procedures of automatic measurements of SEFD, system noise temperature and other parameters, available both in VLBI and single-dish modes of operation. The system described has been installed on all IAA RAS radio telescopes at "Svetloe", "Zelenchukskaya" and "Badary" observatories. It has proved to be working quite reliably and to show the perfonmance expected.

  15. RasGRP3, a Ras activator, contributes to signaling and the tumorigenic phenotype in human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luowei; Kedei, Noemi; Tóth, Zsuzsanna E.; Czap, Alexandra; Velasquez, Julia F.; Mihova, Daniela; Michalowski, Aleksandra M.; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Blumberg, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    RasGRP3, an activator for H-Ras, R-Ras and Rap1/2, has emerged as an important mediator of signaling downstream from receptor coupled phosphoinositide turnover in B and T cells. Here, we report that RasGRP3 showed a high level of expression in multiple human melanoma cell lines as well as in a subset of human melanoma tissue samples. Suppression of endogenous RasGRP3 expression in these melanoma cell lines reduced Ras-GTP formation as well as c-Met expression and Akt phosphorylation downstream from HGF or EGF stimulation. RasGRP3 suppression also inhibited cell proliferation and reduced both colony formation in soft agar and xenograft tumor growth in immunodeficient mice, demonstrating the importance of RasGRP3 for the transformed phenotype of the melanoma cells. Reciprocally, overexpression of RasGRP3 in human primary melanocytes altered cellular morphology, markedly enhanced cell proliferation, and rendered the cells tumorigenic in a mouse xenograft model. Suppression of RasGRP3 expression in these cells inhibited downstream RasGRP3 responses and suppressed cell growth, confirming the functional role of RasGRP3 in the altered behavior of these cells. The identification of the role of RasGRP3 in melanoma highlights its importance, as a Ras activator, in the phosphoinositide signaling pathway in human melanoma and provides a new potential therapeutic target. PMID:21602881

  16. Activated Drosophila Ras1 is selectively suppressed by isoprenyl transferase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, R C; Qian, Y; Vogt, A; Sebti, S M; Hamilton, A D; Carthew, R W

    1995-01-01

    Ras CAAX (C = cysteine, A = aliphatic amino acid, and X = any amino acid) peptidomimetic inhibitors of farnesyl protein transferase suppress Ras-dependent cell transformation by preventing farnesylation of the Ras oncoprotein. These compounds are potential anticancer agents for tumors associated with Ras mutations. The peptidomimetic FTI-254 was tested for Ras1-inhibiting activity in whole animals by injection of activated Ras1val12 Drosophila larvae. FTI-254 decreased the ability of Ras1val12 to form supernumerary R7 photoreceptor cells in the compound eye of transformed flies. In contrast, it had no effect on the related supernumerary R7 phenotypes of flies transformed with either the activated sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, Raf kinase, or a chimeric Ras1val12 protein that is membrane associated through myristylation instead of isoprenylation. Therefore, FTI-254 acts as an isoprenylation inhibitor to selectively inhibit Ras1val12 signaling activity in a whole-animal model system. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7479910

  17. Overexpressed galectin-3 in pancreatic cancer induces cell proliferation and invasion by binding Ras and activating Ras signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Shumei; Ji, Baoan; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Wang, Huamin; Hafley, Margarete; Logsdon, Craig; Bresalier, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is a lethal disease with a five-year survival of 3-5%. Mutations in K-Ras are found in nearly all cases, but K-Ras mutations alone are not sufficient for the development of PDAC. Additional factors contribute to activation of Ras signaling and lead to tumor formation. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a multifunctional β-galactoside-binding protein, is highly expressed in PDAC. We therefore investigated the functional role of Gal-3 in pancreatic cancer progression and its relationship to Ras signaling. Expression of Gal-3 was determined by immunohistochemistry, Q-PCR and immunoblot. Functional studies were performed using pancreatic cell lines genetically engineered to express high or low levels of Gal-3. Ras activity was examined by Raf pull-down assays. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence were used to assess protein-protein interactions. In this study, we demonstrate that Gal-3 was highly up-regulated in human tumors and in a mutant K-Ras mouse model of PDAC. Down-regulation of Gal-3 by lentivirus shRNA decreased PDAC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and reduced tumor volume and size in an orthotopic mouse model. Gal-3 bound Ras and maintained Ras activity; down-regulation of Gal-3 decreased Ras activity as well as Ras down-stream signaling including phosphorylation of ERK and AKT and Ral A activity. Transfection of Gal-3 cDNA into PDAC cells with low-level Gal-3 augmented Ras activity and its down-stream signaling. These results suggest that Gal-3 contributes to pancreatic cancer progression, in part, by binding Ras and activating Ras signaling. Gal-3 may therefore be a potential novel target for this deadly disease. PMID:22900040

  18. Site–Specific Monoubiquitination Activates Ras by Impeding GTPase Activating Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachael; Lewis, Steven M.; Sasaki, Atsuo T.; Wilkerson, Emily M.; Locasale, Jason W.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Kuhlman, Brian; Dohlman, Henrik G.; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell growth and differentiation are controlled by growth factor receptors coupled to the GTPase Ras. Oncogenic mutations disrupt GTPase activity leading to persistent Ras signaling and cancer progression. Recent evidence indicates that monoubiquitination of Ras leads to Ras activation. Mutation of the primary site of monoubiquitination impairs the ability of activated K–Ras to promote tumor growth. To determine the mechanism of human Ras activation we chemically ubiquitinated the protein and analyzed its function by NMR, computational modeling, and biochemical activity measurements. We established that monoubiquitination has little effect on Ras GTP binding, GTP hydrolysis, or exchange factor activation, but severely abrogates the response to GTPase activating proteins in a site–specific manner. These findings reveal a new mechanism by which Ras can trigger persistent signaling in the absence of receptor activation or an oncogenic mutation. PMID:23178454

  19. The Significance of Ras Activity in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Craig D.; Lu, Weiqin

    2016-01-01

    The genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer shows nearly ubiquitous mutations of K-RAS. However, oncogenic K-Rasmt alone is not sufficient to lead to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in either human or in genetically modified adult mouse models. Many stimulants, such as high fat diet, CCK, LPS, PGE2 and others, have physiological effects at low concentrations that are mediated in part through modest increases in K-Ras activity. However, at high concentrations, they induce inflammation that, in the presence of oncogenic K-Ras expression, substantially accelerates PDAC formation. The mechanism involves increased activity of oncogenic K-Rasmt. Unlike what has been proposed in the standard paradigm for the role of Ras in oncogenesis, oncogenic K-Rasmt is now known to not be constitutively active. Rather, it can be activated by standard mechanisms similar to wild-type K-Ras, but its activity is sustained for a prolonged period. Furthermore, if the level of K-Ras activity exceeds a threshold at which it begins to generate its own activators, then a feed-forward loop is formed between K-Ras activity and inflammation and pathological processes including oncogenesis are initiated. Oncogenic K-Rasmt activation, a key event in PDAC initiation and development, is subject to complex regulatory mechanisms. Reagents which inhibit inflammation, such as the Cox2 inhibitor celecoxib, block the feed-forward loop and prevent induction of PDAC in models with endogenous oncogenic K-Rasmt. Increased understanding of the role of activating and inhibitory mechanisms on oncogenic K-Rasmt activity is of paramount importance for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies to fight against this lethal disease. PMID:26929740

  20. A Model System for Activation-Induced Alternative Splicing of CD45 Pre-mRNA in T Cells Implicates Protein Kinase C and Ras

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Kristen W.; Weiss, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Multiple isoforms of the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 are expressed on the surface of human T cells. Interestingly, the expression of these isoforms has been shown to vary significantly upon T-cell activation. In this report, we describe a novel cell line-based model system in which we can mimic the activation-induced alternative splicing of CD45 observed in primary T cells. Of the many proximal signaling events induced by T-cell stimulation, we show that activation of protein kinase C and activation of Ras are important for the switch toward the exclusion of CD45 variable exons, whereas events related to Ca2+ flux are not. In addition, the ability of cycloheximide to block the activation-induced alternative splicing of CD45 suggests a requirement for de novo protein synthesis. We further demonstrate that sequences which have previously been implicated in the tissue-specific regulation of CD45 variable exons are likewise necessary and sufficient for activation-induced splicing. These results provide an initial understanding of the requirements for CD45 alternative splicing upon T-cell activation, and they confirm the importance of this novel cell line in facilitating a more detailed analysis of the activation-induced regulation of CD45 than has been previously possible. PMID:10594010

  1. Small molecule binding sites on the Ras:SOS complex can be exploited for inhibition of Ras activation.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jon J G; Anderson, Malcolm; Blades, Kevin; Brassington, Claire; Breeze, Alexander L; Chresta, Christine; Embrey, Kevin; Fairley, Gary; Faulder, Paul; Finlay, M Raymond V; Kettle, Jason G; Nowak, Thorsten; Overman, Ross; Patel, S Joe; Perkins, Paula; Spadola, Loredana; Tart, Jonathan; Tucker, Julie A; Wrigley, Gail

    2015-03-12

    Constitutively active mutant KRas displays a reduced rate of GTP hydrolysis via both intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein-catalyzed mechanisms, resulting in the perpetual activation of Ras pathways. We describe a fragment screening campaign using X-ray crystallography that led to the discovery of three fragment binding sites on the Ras:SOS complex. The identification of tool compounds binding at each of these sites allowed exploration of two new approaches to Ras pathway inhibition by stabilizing or covalently modifying the Ras:SOS complex to prevent the reloading of Ras with GTP. Initially, we identified ligands that bound reversibly to the Ras:SOS complex in two distinct sites, but these compounds were not sufficiently potent inhibitors to validate our stabilization hypothesis. We conclude by demonstrating that covalent modification of Cys118 on Ras leads to a novel mechanism of inhibition of the SOS-mediated interaction between Ras and Raf and is effective at inhibiting the exchange of labeled GDP in both mutant (G12C and G12V) and wild type Ras. PMID:25695162

  2. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates N-Ras activation on the Golgi complex of antigen-stimulated T cells.

    PubMed

    Ibiza, Sales; Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Ortega, Angel; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Barreiro, Olga; García-Domínguez, Carlota A; Víctor, Víctor M; Esplugues, Juan V; Rojas, José M; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Serrador, Juan M

    2008-07-29

    Ras/ERK signaling plays an important role in T cell activation and development. We recently reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ERK activation by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which eNOS exerts this regulation. We have found that eNOS-derived NO positively regulates Ras/ERK activation in T cells stimulated with antigen on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Intracellular activation of N-, H-, and K-Ras was monitored with fluorescent probes in T cells stably transfected with eNOS-GFP or its G2A point mutant, which is defective in activity and cellular localization. Using this system, we demonstrate that eNOS selectively activates N-Ras but not K-Ras on the Golgi complex of T cells engaged with APC, even though Ras isoforms are activated in response to NO from donors. We further show that activation of N-Ras involves eNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation on Cys(118), suggesting that upon TCR engagement, eNOS-derived NO directly activates N-Ras on the Golgi. Moreover, wild-type but not C118S N-Ras increased TCR-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys(118) contributes to activation-induced T cell death. Our data define a signaling mechanism for the regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway based on the eNOS-dependent differential activation of N-Ras and K-Ras at specific cell compartments. PMID:18641128

  3. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates N-Ras activation on the Golgi complex of antigen-stimulated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibiza, Sales; Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Ortega, Ángel; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Barreiro, Olga; García-Domínguez, Carlota A.; Víctor, Víctor M.; Esplugues, Juan V.; Rojas, José M.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Serrador, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ras/ERK signaling plays an important role in T cell activation and development. We recently reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ERK activation by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which eNOS exerts this regulation. We have found that eNOS-derived NO positively regulates Ras/ERK activation in T cells stimulated with antigen on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Intracellular activation of N-, H-, and K-Ras was monitored with fluorescent probes in T cells stably transfected with eNOS-GFP or its G2A point mutant, which is defective in activity and cellular localization. Using this system, we demonstrate that eNOS selectively activates N-Ras but not K-Ras on the Golgi complex of T cells engaged with APC, even though Ras isoforms are activated in response to NO from donors. We further show that activation of N-Ras involves eNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation on Cys118, suggesting that upon TCR engagement, eNOS-derived NO directly activates N-Ras on the Golgi. Moreover, wild-type but not C118S N-Ras increased TCR-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys118 contributes to activation-induced T cell death. Our data define a signaling mechanism for the regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway based on the eNOS-dependent differential activation of N-Ras and K-Ras at specific cell compartments. PMID:18641128

  4. The small GTPases Ras and Rap1 bind to and control TORC2 activity.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Ankita; Lotfi, Pouya; Chavan, Anita J; Montaño, Nieves M; Bolourani, Parvin; Weeks, Gerald; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Pots, Henderikus; Van Haastert, Peter J M; Kortholt, Arjan; Charest, Pascale G

    2016-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 (TORC2) has conserved roles in regulating cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration and has been linked to cancer metastasis. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating TORC2 activity and function in any system. In Dictyostelium, TORC2 functions at the front of migrating cells downstream of the Ras protein RasC, controlling F-actin dynamics and cAMP production. Here, we report the identification of the small GTPase Rap1 as a conserved binding partner of the TORC2 component RIP3/SIN1, and that Rap1 positively regulates the RasC-mediated activation of TORC2 in Dictyostelium. Moreover, we show that active RasC binds to the catalytic domain of TOR, suggesting a mechanism of TORC2 activation that is similar to Rheb activation of TOR complex 1. Dual Ras/Rap1 regulation of TORC2 may allow for integration of Ras and Rap1 signaling pathways in directed cell migration. PMID:27172998

  5. The small GTPases Ras and Rap1 bind to and control TORC2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ankita; Lotfi, Pouya; Chavan, Anita J.; Montaño, Nieves M.; Bolourani, Parvin; Weeks, Gerald; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P.; Pots, Henderikus; Van Haastert, Peter J. M.; Kortholt, Arjan; Charest, Pascale G.

    2016-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 (TORC2) has conserved roles in regulating cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration and has been linked to cancer metastasis. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating TORC2 activity and function in any system. In Dictyostelium, TORC2 functions at the front of migrating cells downstream of the Ras protein RasC, controlling F-actin dynamics and cAMP production. Here, we report the identification of the small GTPase Rap1 as a conserved binding partner of the TORC2 component RIP3/SIN1, and that Rap1 positively regulates the RasC-mediated activation of TORC2 in Dictyostelium. Moreover, we show that active RasC binds to the catalytic domain of TOR, suggesting a mechanism of TORC2 activation that is similar to Rheb activation of TOR complex 1. Dual Ras/Rap1 regulation of TORC2 may allow for integration of Ras and Rap1 signaling pathways in directed cell migration. PMID:27172998

  6. PGA1-induced apoptosis involves specific activation of H-Ras and N-Ras in cellular endomembranes.

    PubMed

    Anta, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Castro, J; García-Domínguez, C A; Ibiza, S; Martínez, N; Durá, L M; Hernández, S; Gragera, T; Peña-Jiménez, D; Yunta, M; Zarich, N; Crespo, P; Serrador, J M; Santos, E; Muñoz, A; Oliva, J L; Rojas-Cabañeros, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) is an inducer of cell death in cancer cells. However, the mechanism that initiates this cytotoxic response remains elusive. Here we report that PGA1 triggers apoptosis by a process that entails the specific activation of H- and N-Ras isoforms, leading to caspase activation. Cells without H- and N-Ras did not undergo apoptosis upon PGA1 treatment; in these cells, the cellular demise was rescued by overexpression of either H-Ras or N-Ras. Consistently, the mutant H-Ras-C118S, defective for binding PGA1, did not produce cell death. Molecular analysis revealed a key role for the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the apoptotic process through the induction of calpain activity and caspase-12 cleavage. We propose that PGA1 evokes a specific physiological cell death program, through H- and N-Ras, but not K-Ras, activation at endomembranes. Our results highlight a novel mechanism that may be of potential interest for tumor treatment. PMID:27468687

  7. PGA1-induced apoptosis involves specific activation of H-Ras and N-Ras in cellular endomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Anta, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Castro, J; García- Domínguez, C A; Ibiza, S; Martínez, N; Durá, L M; Hernández, S; Gragera, T; Peña-Jiménez, D; Yunta, M; Zarich, N; Crespo, P; Serrador, J M; Santos, E; Muñoz, A; Oliva, J L; Rojas-Cabañeros, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) is an inducer of cell death in cancer cells. However, the mechanism that initiates this cytotoxic response remains elusive. Here we report that PGA1 triggers apoptosis by a process that entails the specific activation of H- and N-Ras isoforms, leading to caspase activation. Cells without H- and N-Ras did not undergo apoptosis upon PGA1 treatment; in these cells, the cellular demise was rescued by overexpression of either H-Ras or N-Ras. Consistently, the mutant H-Ras-C118S, defective for binding PGA1, did not produce cell death. Molecular analysis revealed a key role for the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the apoptotic process through the induction of calpain activity and caspase-12 cleavage. We propose that PGA1 evokes a specific physiological cell death program, through H- and N-Ras, but not K-Ras, activation at endomembranes. Our results highlight a novel mechanism that may be of potential interest for tumor treatment. PMID:27468687

  8. Ras-GTP dimers activate the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; Lin, Li-Jung; Pitt, Cameron; Galeas, Jacqueline; Lewis, Sophia; Gray, Joe W.; McCormick, Frank; Chu, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referred to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors. PMID:26080442

  9. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; Lin, Li -Jung; Pitt, Cameron; Galeas, Jacqueline; Lewis, Sophia; Gray, Joe W.; McCormick, Frank; Chu, Steven

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referredmore » to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.« less

  10. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; Lin, Li -Jung; Pitt, Cameron; Galeas, Jacqueline; Lewis, Sophia; Gray, Joe W.; McCormick, Frank; Chu, Steven

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referred to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.

  11. Site-specific monoubiquitination activates Ras by impeding GTPase-activating protein function

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, G Aaron; Gunawardena, Harsha P; Baker, Rachael; Campbell, Sharon L

    2013-01-01

    KRas has recently been shown to be activated by monoubiquitination (mUb). Similar to oncogenic mutations, mUb of Ras at position 147 activates Ras by causing a defect in GTPase activating protein (GAP) function. To characterize the mechanism by which mUb impairs GAP-mediated downregulation of Ras, we made various modifications at position 147 of Ras and examined the impact on Ras sensitivity to GAP function. Whereas small modifications (iodoacetamide and glutathione) at position 147 of Ras do not affect GAP-mediated hydrolysis, ligation of Ras to UbG76C (native linker), UbX77C (one residue longer), and PDZ2 (with a native ubiquitin linker) was defective in GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. However, restoration of GAP activity was observed for Ras modified with the PDZ2 domain containing a shorter and stiffer linker region than ubiquitin. Therefore, the properties of the linker region dictate whether modification affects GAP-mediated hydrolysis, and our data indicate that the GAP defect requires a minimum linker length of 7 to 8 residues. PMID:24030601

  12. The Differential Effects of Wild-Type and Mutated K-Ras on MST2 Signaling Are Determined by K-Ras Activation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Romano, David; Maccario, Helene; Doherty, Carolanne; Quinn, Niall P.

    2013-01-01

    K-Ras is frequently mutated in human cancers. Mutant (mt) K-Ras can stimulate both oncogenic transformation and apoptosis through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT pathways and the MST2 pathway, respectively. The biological outcome is determined by the balance and cross talk between these pathways. In colorectal cancer (CRC), a K-Ras mutation is negatively correlated with MST2 expression, as mt K-Ras can induce apoptosis by activating the MST2 pathway. However, wild-type (wt) K-Ras can prevent the activation of the MST2 pathway upon growth factor stimulation and enable transformation by mt K-Ras in CRC cells that express MST2. Here we have investigated the mechanism by which wt and mt K-Ras differentially regulate the MST2 pathway and MST2-dependent apoptosis. The ability of K-Ras to activate MST2 and MST2-dependent apoptosis is determined by the differential activation kinetics of mt K-Ras and wt K-Ras. Chronic activation of K-Ras by mutation or overexpression of Ras exchange factors results in the activation of MST2 and LATS1, increased MST2-LATS1 complex formation, and apoptosis. In contrast, transient K-Ras activation upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation prevents the formation of the MST2-LATS1 complex in an AKT-dependent manner. Our data suggest that the close relationship between Ras prosurvival and proapoptotic signaling is coordinated via the differential regulation of the MST2-LATS1 interaction by transient and chronic stimuli. PMID:23459937

  13. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P; Groves, Jay T

    2016-09-01

    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2-SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted-membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions were sufficient to retain human SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule could processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raised questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative assays of reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B-cell signaling systems combined with single-molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies revealed an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until being actively removed via endocytosis. PMID:27501536

  14. Isoprenoid addition to Ras protein is the critical modification for its membrane association and transforming activity.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, K; Cox, A D; Hisaka, M M; Graham, S M; Buss, J E; Der, C J

    1992-01-01

    We have introduced a variety of amino acid substitutions into carboxyl-terminal CA1A2X sequence (C = cysteine; A = aliphatic; X = any amino acid) of the oncogenic [Val12]Ki-Ras4B protein to identify the amino acids that permit Ras processing (isoprenylation, proteolysis, and carboxyl methylation), membrane association, and transformation in cultured mammalian cells. While all substitutions were tolerated at the A1 position, substitutions at A2 and X reduced transforming activity. The A2 residue was important for both isoprenylation and AAX proteolysis, whereas the X residue dictated the extent and specificity of isoprenoid modification only. Differences were observed between Ras processing in living cells and farnesylation efficiency in a cell-free system. Finally, one farnesylated mutant did not undergo either proteolysis or carboxyl methylation but still displayed efficient membrane association (approximately 50%) and transforming activity, indicating that farnesylation alone can support Ras transforming activity. Since both farnesylation and carboxyl methylation are critical for yeast a-factor biological activity, the three CAAX-signaled modifications may have different contributions to the function of different CAAX-containing proteins. Images PMID:1631135

  15. Targeting the RAS pathway by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Michael K; Rogler, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Targeting of oncogenic driver mutations with small-molecule inhibitors resulted in powerful treatment options for cancer patients in recent years. The RAS (rat sarcoma) pathway is among the most frequently mutated pathways in human cancer. Whereas targeting mutant Kirsten RAS (KRAS) remains difficult, mutant B rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (BRAF) kinase is an established drug target in cancer. Now data show that neuroblastoma RAS (NRAS) and even Harvey RAS (HRAS) mutations could be predictive markers for treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors. This review discusses recent preclinical and clinical studies of MEK inhibitors in BRAF and RAS mutant cancer. PMID:26691679

  16. VEGF neutralizing aerosol therapy in primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma with K-ras activating-mutations.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Virginie; Rabbe, Nathalie; Guilleminault, Laurent; Paul, Flora; Schlick, Laurène; Azzopardi, Nicolas; Duruisseaux, Michael; Fouquenet, Delphine; Montharu, Jérôme; Redini, Françoise; Paintaud, Gilles; Lemarié, Etienne; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie; Heuzé-Vourc'h, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    K-ras mutations promote angiogenesis in lung cancer and contribute to the drug resistance of cancer cells. It is not clear whether K-ras mutated adenocarcinomas are sensitive to anti-angiogenic therapy with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-angiogenic mAbs are usually delivered systemically, but only a small proportion reaches the lung after intravenous injection. We investigated the relevance of a non-invasive pulmonary route for the delivery of anti-VEGF mAbs in the mouse K-ras(LA1) model. We found that pulmonary delivery of these mAbs significantly reduced the number of tumor lesions and inhibited malignant progression. The antitumor effect involves the VEGFR2-dependent inhibition of blood vessel growth, which impairs tumor proliferation. Pharmacokinetic analysis of aerosolized anti-VEGF showed its low rate of passage into the bloodstream, suggesting that this delivery route is associated with reduced systemic side effects. Our findings highlight the value of the aerosol route for administration of anti-angiogenic mAbs in pulmonary adenocarcinoma with K-ras activating-mutations. PMID:25484066

  17. RasGRP Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ksionda, Olga; Limnander, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Summary RasGRP proteins are activators of Ras and other related small GTPases by the virtue of functioning as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In vertebrates, four RasGRP family members have been described. RasGRP-1 through −4 share many structural domains but there are also subtle differences between each of the different family members. Whereas SOS RasGEFs are ubiquitously expressed, RasGRP proteins are expressed in distinct patterns, such as in different cells of the hematopoietic system and in the brain. Most studies have concentrated on the role of RasGRP proteins in the development and function of immune cell types because of the predominant RasGRP expression profiles in these cells and the immune phenotypes of mice deficient for Rasgrp genes. However, more recent studies demonstrate that RasGRPs also play an important role in tumorigenesis. Examples are skin- and hematological-cancers but also solid malignancies such as melanoma or prostate cancer. These novel studies bring up many new and unanswered questions related to the molecular mechanism of RasGRP-driven oncogenesis, such as new receptor systems that RasGRP appears to respond to as well as regulatory mechanism for RasGRP expression that appear to be perturbed in these cancers. Here we will review some of the known aspects of RasGRP biology in lymphocytes and will discuss the exciting new notion that RasGRP Ras exchange factors play a role in oncogenesis downstream of various growth factor receptors. PMID:24744772

  18. Immunomodulatory activity of Āmalaki Rasāyana: An experimental evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Jignesh; Ashok, B.K.; Galib; Patgiri, B.J.; Prajapati, P.K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ayurvedic system of medicine holds a number of drugs that improves the immunity. Āmalaki (Emblica officinalis) is one such drug. Researches with crude extracts of Āmalaki have proven the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. But, works on Āmalaki Rasāyana are not found reported. Aims: Considering this, two samples of Āmalaki Rasāyana (AR7 and AR21) were studied to evaluate comparative immunomodulatory activity against the cyclophosphamide immunosuppression in rats. Materials and Methods: Test drugs were prepared by following classical guidelines. Wistar strain albino rats of either sex were used in the study. Statistical Analysis: For comparison of data from cyclophosphamide control group with remaining cyclophosphamide plus test drug administered groups one way ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple t-test (DMTT) was employed. Results and Conclusions: Āmalaki Rasāyana possesses significant immunostimulant activity and moderate cytoprotective activity. AR21 was found to have better activity profile in terms of both immunostimulant as well as cytoprotective activity. PMID:24167334

  19. Systemic Regulation of RAS/MAPK Signaling by the Serotonin Metabolite 5-HIAA

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Tobias; Snoek, L. Basten; Fröhli, Erika; van der Bent, M. Leontien; Kammenga, Jan; Hajnal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Human cancer is caused by the interplay of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and inherited variations in cancer susceptibility genes. While many of the tumor initiating mutations are well characterized, the effect of genetic background variation on disease onset and progression is less understood. We have used C. elegans genetics to identify genetic modifiers of the oncogenic RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Quantitative trait locus analysis of two highly diverged C. elegans isolates combined with allele swapping experiments identified the polymorphic monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene amx-2 as a negative regulator of RAS/MAPK signaling. We further show that the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), which is a product of MAOA catalysis, systemically inhibits RAS/MAPK signaling in different organs of C. elegans. Thus, MAOA activity sets a global threshold for MAPK activation by controlling 5-HIAA levels. To our knowledge, 5-HIAA is the first endogenous small molecule that acts as a systemic inhibitor of RAS/MAPK signaling. PMID:25978500

  20. The Tumor Suppressor DiRas3 Forms a Complex with H-Ras and C-RAF Proteins and Regulates Localization, Dimerization, and Kinase Activity of C-RAF*

    PubMed Central

    Baljuls, Angela; Beck, Matthias; Oenel, Ayla; Robubi, Armin; Kroschewski, Ruth; Hekman, Mirko; Rudel, Thomas; Rapp, Ulf R.

    2012-01-01

    The maternally imprinted Ras-related tumor suppressor gene DiRas3 is lost or down-regulated in more than 60% of ovarian and breast cancers. The anti-tumorigenic effect of DiRas3 is achieved through several mechanisms, including inhibition of cell proliferation, motility, and invasion, as well as induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Re-expression of DiRas3 in cancer cells interferes with the signaling through Ras/MAPK and PI3K. Despite intensive research, the mode of interference of DiRas3 with the Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK signal transduction is still a matter of speculation. In this study, we show that DiRas3 associates with the H-Ras oncogene and that activation of H-Ras enforces this interaction. Furthermore, while associated with DiRas3, H-Ras is able to bind to its effector protein C-RAF. The resulting multimeric complex consisting of DiRas3, C-RAF, and active H-Ras is more stable than the two protein complexes H-Ras·C-RAF or H-Ras·DiRas3, respectively. The consequence of this complex formation is a DiRas3-mediated recruitment and anchorage of C-RAF to components of the membrane skeleton, suppression of C-RAF/B-RAF heterodimerization, and inhibition of C-RAF kinase activity. PMID:22605333

  1. Immune response to bacteria induces dissemination of Ras-activated Drosophila hindgut cells

    PubMed Central

    Bangi, Erdem; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Rahme, Laurence G; Cagan, Ross; Apidianakis, Yiorgos

    2012-01-01

    Although pathogenic bacteria are suspected contributors to colorectal cancer progression, cancer-promoting bacteria and their mode of action remain largely unknown. Here we report that sustained infection with the human intestinal colonizer Pseudomonas aeruginosa synergizes with the Ras1V12 oncogene to induce basal invasion and dissemination of hindgut cells to distant sites. Cross-talk between infection and dissemination requires sustained activation by the bacteria of the Imd–dTab2–dTak1 innate immune pathway, which converges with Ras1V12 signalling on JNK pathway activation, culminating in extracellular matrix degradation. Hindgut, but not midgut, cells are amenable to this cooperative dissemination, which is progressive and genetically and pharmacologically inhibitable. Thus, Drosophila hindgut provides a valuable system for the study of intestinal malignancies. PMID:22498775

  2. Study Illuminates K-Ras4B Activation, Which May Help Predict Drug Resistance | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Until recently, researchers studying RAS, a family of proteins involved in transmitting signals within cells, believed that the exchange of guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP) by guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was sufficient to activate the protein. Once activated, RAS can cause unintended and overactive signaling in cells, which can lead to cell division and, ultimately, cancer.

  3. Harvey ras genes transform without mutant codons, apparently activated by truncation of a 5' exon (exon -1).

    PubMed Central

    Cichutek, K; Duesberg, P H

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that the ras gene of Harvey sarcoma virus (Ha-SV) and the proto-ras DNAs from certain tumor cells derive transforming function from specific codons in which they differ from normal proto-ras genes. Molecularly cloned Harvey proviral vectors carrying viral ras, normal rat proto-ras, and recombinant ras genes in which the virus-specific ras codons 12 and 59 were replaced by proto-ras equivalents each transformed aneuploid mouse 3T3 cells after latent periods that ranged from 4 to 10 days. Viruses with or without virus-specific ras codons all transformed diploid rat cells in 3-5 days equally well. However, in the absence of virus replication, mutant codons were beneficial for transforming function. Deletion of non-ras regions of Ha-SV did not affect transforming function. We conclude that specific ras codons are not necessary for transforming function. Comparisons of the ras sequences of Ha-SV, BALB SV, and Rasheed SV with sequences of proto-ras genes from rat and man revealed an upstream proto-ras exon, termed exon -1. The 3' end of this exon is present in all three viruses and in a ras pseudogene of the rat. Since ras genes transform without mutation and since exon -1 is truncated in viral ras genes and all transforming proto-ras DNAs of the Harvey and the Kirsten ras family, we propose that ras genes are activated by truncation of exon -1 either via viral transduction or artificially via cloning and transfection. The proposal implies that untruncated proto-ras genes with point mutations may not be cellular cancer genes. Images PMID:3517865

  4. How to Target Activated Ras Proteins: Direct Inhibition vs. Induced Mislocalization.

    PubMed

    Brock, Ethan J; Ji, Kyungmin; Reiners, John J; Mattingly, Raymond R

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic Ras proteins are a driving force in a significant set of human cancers and wildtype, unmutated Ras proteins likely contribute to the malignant phenotype of many more. The overall challenge of targeting activated Ras proteins has great promise to treat cancer, but this goal has yet to be achieved. Significant efforts and resources have been committed to inhibiting Ras, but these energies have so far made little impact in the clinic. Direct attempts to target activated Ras proteins have faced many obstacles, including the fundamental nature of the gain-of-function oncogenic activity being produced by a loss-of-function at the biochemical level. Nevertheless, there has been very promising recent pre-clinical progress. The major strategy that has so far reached the clinic aimed to inhibit activated Ras indirectly through blocking its post-translational modification and inducing its mislocalization. While these efforts to indirectly target Ras through inhibition of farnesyl transferase (FTase) were rationally designed, this strategy suffered from insufficient attention to the distinctions between the isoforms of Ras. This led to subsequent failures in large-scale clinical trials targeting K-Ras driven lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers. Despite these setbacks, efforts to indirectly target activated Ras through inducing its mislocalization have persisted. It is plausible that FTase inhibitors may still have some utility in the clinic, perhaps in combination with statins or other agents. Alternative approaches for inducing mislocalization of Ras through disruption of its palmitoylation cycle or interaction with chaperone proteins are in early stages of development. PMID:26423696

  5. FMLP activates Ras and Raf in human neutrophils. Potential role in activation of MAP kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, G S; Avdi, N; Buhl, A M; Suzuki, N; Johnson, G L

    1994-01-01

    Chemoattractants bind to seven transmembrane-spanning, G-protein-linked receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and induce a variety of functional responses, including activation of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) kinase. Although the pathways by which MAP kinases are activated in neutrophils are unknown, we hypothesized that activation of the Ras/Raf pathway leading to activation of MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) would be induced by the chemoattractant f-met-leu-phe. Human neutrophils exposed to 10 nM FMLP for 30 s exhibited an MAP kinase kinase activity coeluting with MEK-1. Immunoprecipitation of Raf-1 kinase after stimulation with FMLP revealed an activity that phosphorylated MEK, was detectable at 30 s, and peaked at 2-3 min. Immunoprecipitation of Ras from both intact neutrophils labeled with [32P]orthophosphate and electropermeabilized neutrophils incubated with [32P]GTP was used to determine that FMLP treatment was associated with activation of Ras. Activation of both Ras and Raf was inhibited by treatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin, indicating predominant linkage to the Gi2 protein. Although phorbol esters activated Raf, activation induced by FMLP appeared independent of protein kinase C, further suggesting that Gi2 was linked to Ras and Raf independent of phospholipase C and protein kinase C. Dibutyryl cAMP, which inhibits many neutrophil functional responses, blocked the activation of Raf by FMLP, suggesting that interruption of the Raf/MAP kinase pathway influences neutrophil responses to chemoattractants. These data suggest that Gi2-mediated receptor regulation of the Ras/Raf/MAP kinase pathway is a primary response to chemoattractants. Images PMID:8040337

  6. Suppression of albumin enhancer activity by H-ras and AP-1 in hepatocyte cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J; Isom, H C

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrated, using a transient transfection assay, that the albumin enhancer increased the expression of the albumin promoter in a highly differentiated, simian virus 40 (SV40)-immortalized hepatocyte cell line, CWSV1, but was not functional in two ras-transformed cell lines (NR3 and NR4) derived from CWSV1 by stable transfection with the T24ras oncogene. A transient cotransfection assay showed that T24ras and normal c-Ha-ras were each able to inhibit the activity of the albumin enhancer in an immortal hepatocyte cell line. DNase I footprinting and gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that the DNA binding activities specific to the albumin enhancer were not decreased in the ras-transformed cells. ras also did not diminish the expression of HNF1 alpha, C/EBP alpha, HNF3 alpha, HNF3 beta, or HNF3 gamma but did significantly increase AP-1 binding activity. Three AP-1 binding sites were identified within the albumin enhancer, and DNA binding activities specific to these AP-1 sites were induced in the ras-transformed hepatocytes. Subsequent functional assays showed that overexpression of c-jun and c-fos inhibited the activity of the albumin enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis of the AP-1 binding sites in the albumin enhancer partially abrogated the suppressing effect of ras and c-jun/c-fos on the enhancer. These functional studies therefore supported the results of the structural studies with AP-1. We conclude that the activity of the albumin enhancer is subject to regulation by ras signaling pathways and that the effect of ras on the albumin enhancer activity may be mediated by AP-1. Images PMID:8114691

  7. CARD9 mediates Dectin-1-induced ERK activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras for antifungal immunity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin-Ming; Tang, Bing; Zhu, Le-Le; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Xue-Qiang; Gorjestani, Sara; Hsu, Yen-Michael S; Yang, Long; Guan, Jian-Hong; Xu, Guo-Tong; Lin, Xin

    2014-10-20

    Dectin-1 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for sensing fungal infection. It has been well-established that Dectin-1 induces innate immune responses through caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9)-mediated NF-κB activation. In this study, we find that CARD9 is dispensable for NF-κB activation induced by Dectin-1 ligands, such as curdlan or Candida albicans yeast. In contrast, we find that CARD9 regulates H-Ras activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras, which mediates Dectin-1-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation and proinflammatory responses when stimulated by their ligands. Mechanistically, Dectin-1 engagement initiates spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-dependent Ras-GRF1 phosphorylation, and the phosphorylated Ras-GRF1 recruits and activates H-Ras through forming a complex with CARD9, which leads to activation of ERK downstream. Finally, we show that inhibiting ERK activation significantly accelerates the death of C. albicans-infected mice, and this inhibitory effect is dependent on CARD9. Together, our studies reveal a molecular mechanism by which Dectin-1 induces H-Ras activation that leads to ERK activation for host innate immune responses against fungal infection. PMID:25267792

  8. CARD9 mediates Dectin-1–induced ERK activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras for antifungal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bing; Zhu, Le-Le; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Xue-Qiang; Gorjestani, Sara; Hsu, Yen-Michael S.; Yang, Long; Guan, Jian-Hong; Xu, Guo-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Dectin-1 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for sensing fungal infection. It has been well-established that Dectin-1 induces innate immune responses through caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9)–mediated NF-κB activation. In this study, we find that CARD9 is dispensable for NF-κB activation induced by Dectin-1 ligands, such as curdlan or Candida albicans yeast. In contrast, we find that CARD9 regulates H-Ras activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras, which mediates Dectin-1–induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation and proinflammatory responses when stimulated by their ligands. Mechanistically, Dectin-1 engagement initiates spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)–dependent Ras-GRF1 phosphorylation, and the phosphorylated Ras-GRF1 recruits and activates H-Ras through forming a complex with CARD9, which leads to activation of ERK downstream. Finally, we show that inhibiting ERK activation significantly accelerates the death of C. albicans–infected mice, and this inhibitory effect is dependent on CARD9. Together, our studies reveal a molecular mechanism by which Dectin-1 induces H-Ras activation that leads to ERK activation for host innate immune responses against fungal infection. PMID:25267792

  9. A new genetic model of activity-induced Ras signaling dependent pre-synaptic plasticity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Amanda; Bowers, Mallory; Mortimer, Alysia Vrailas; Timmerman, Christina; Roux, Stephanie; Ramaswami, Mani; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2010-01-01

    Techniques to induce activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in vivo allow the underlying signaling pathways to be studied in their biological context. Here, we demonstrate activity-induced plasticity at neuromuscular synapses of Drosophila double mutant for comatose (an NSF mutant) and Kum (a SERCA mutant), and present an analysis of the underlying signaling pathways. comt; Kum (CK) double mutants exhibit increased locomotor activity under normal culture conditions, concomitant with a larger neuromuscular junction synapse and stably elevated evoked transmitter release. The observed enhancements of synaptic size and transmitter release in CK mutants are completely abrogated by: a) reduced activity of motor neurons; b) attenuation of the Ras/ERK signaling cascade; or c) inhibition of the transcription factors Fos and CREB. all of which restrict synaptic properties to near wild type levels. Together, these results document neural activity-dependent plasticity of motor synapses in CK animals that requires Ras/ERK signaling and normal transcriptional activity of Fos and CREB. Further, novel in vivo reporters of neuronal Ras activation and Fos transcription also confirm increased signaling through a Ras/AP-1 pathway in motor neurons of CK animals, consistent with results from our genetic experiments. Thus, this study: a) provides a robust system in which to study activity-induced synaptic plasticity in vivo; b) establishes a causal link between neural activity, Ras signaling, transcriptional regulation and pre-synaptic plasticity in glutamatergic motor neurons of Drosophila larvae; and c) presents novel, genetically encoded reporters for Ras and AP-1 dependent signaling pathways in Drosophila. PMID:20193670

  10. Regulation of protein kinase C activity in neuronal differentiation induced by the N-ras oncogene in PC-12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lacal, J C; Cuadrado, A; Jones, J E; Trotta, R; Burstein, D E; Thomson, T; Pellicer, A

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the N-ras oncogene under the control of the glucocorticoid-responsive promoter in the pheochromocytoma cell line UR61, a subline of PC-12 cells, has been used to investigate the differentiation process to neuronal cells triggered by ras oncogenes (I. Guerrero, A. Pellicer, and D. E. Burstein, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 150:1185-1192, 1988). Using ras-inducible cell lines, we observed that expression of the oncogenic N-ras p21 protein interferes with the ability of phorbol esters to induce downregulation of protein kinase C. This effect was associated with the appearance of immunologically detectable protein kinase C as well as the activity of the enzyme as analyzed either by binding of [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate in intact cells or by in vitro kinase activity. These results indicate a relationship between ras p21 and protein kinase C in neuronal differentiation in this model system. Comparison to the murine fibroblast system suggests that this relationship may be functional. Images PMID:2188105

  11. Variational data assimilation system "INM RAS - Black Sea"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmuzin, Eugene; Agoshkov, Valery; Assovskiy, Maksim; Giniatulin, Sergey; Zakharova, Natalia; Kuimov, Grigory; Fomin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for Data Assimilation Procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The problems discussed above are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for Personal Computers (PC). Special problems and questions arise while effective ICS versions for PC are being developed. These problems and questions can be solved with applying modern methods of numerical mathematics and by solving "parallelism problem" using OpenMP technology and special linear algebra packages. In this work the results on the ICS development for PC-ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the work the following problems and questions are discussed: practical problems that can be studied by ICS; parallelism problems and their solutions with applying of OpenMP technology and the linear algebra packages used in ICS "INM - Black Sea"; Interface of ICS. The results of ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" testing are presented. Efficiency of technologies and methods applied are discussed. The work was supported by RFBR, grants No. 13-01-00753, 13-05-00715 and by The Ministry of education and science of Russian Federation, project 8291, project 11.519.11.1005 References: [1] V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 5-31 [2] E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 [3] V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V

  12. Xenopus H-RasV12 promotes entry into meiotic M phase and cdc2 activation independently of Mos and p42(MAPK).

    PubMed

    Dupré, Aude; Suziedelis, Kestutis; Valuckaite, Ryte; de Gunzburg, Jean; Ozon, René; Jessus, Catherine; Haccard, Olivier

    2002-09-19

    In the Xenopus oocyte, progesterone triggers M phase Promoting Factor (MPF) activation in a protein synthesis dependent manner. Although the synthesis of the p42(MAPK) activator Mos appears to be required for MPF activation, p42(MAPK) activity has been shown to be dispensable. To clarify this paradox, we attempted to activate the p42(MAPK) pathway independently of Mos synthesis by cloning and using Xenopus H-Ras in the oocyte. We demonstrate that the injection of the constitutively active Xe H-RasV12 mutant induces p42(MAPK) and MPF activation through two independent pathways. Xe H-RasV12 induces only a partial activation of p42(MAPK) when protein synthesis and MPF activation are prevented. A full level of p42(MAPK) activation is reached when MPF is activated and Mos is present. In contrast, MPF activation induced by Xe H-RasV12 is achieved independently of Mos synthesis and p42(MAPK) activation but still depends on protein synthesis. Therefore, the amphibian oocyte represents a new model system to analyse an original H-Ras pathway ending to MPF activation and distinct from the p42(MAPK) pathway. The identification of the proteins synthesized in response to Xe H-RasV12 and required for MPF activation, represents an important clue in understanding the mechanism of progesterone action. PMID:12226746

  13. Lin28-let7 Modulates Radiosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells With Activation of K-Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jee-Sun.; Kim, Jae-Jin; Byun, Ju-Yeon; Kim, In-Ah

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of targeting Lin28-let7 microRNA regulatory network for overcoming the radioresistance of cancer cells having activated K-Ras signaling. Methods and Materials: A549 lung carcinoma cells and ASPC1 pancreatic cancer cells possessing K-RAS mutation were transfected with pre-let7a microRNA or Lin28 siRNA, respectively. Clonogenic assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western analysis were performed. The effects of Lin28 on SQ20B cells having wild-type K-RAS, and a normal fibroblast were also assessed. Results: The overexpression of let-7a decreased expression of K-Ras and radiosensitized A549 cells. Inhibition of Lin28, a repressor of let-7, attenuated K-Ras expression and radiosensitized A549 and ASPC1 cells. Neither SQ20B cells expressing wild-type K-RAS nor HDF, the normal human fibroblasts, were radiosensitized by this approach. Conclusions: The Lin28-let7 regulatory network may be a potentially useful therapeutic target for overcoming the radioresistance of human cancers having activated K-Ras signaling.

  14. Ras history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although the roots of Ras sprouted from the rich history of retrovirus research, it was the discovery of mutationally activated RAS genes in human cancer in 1982 that stimulated an intensive research effort to understand Ras protein structure, biochemistry and biology. While the ultimate goal has been developing anti-Ras drugs for cancer treatment, discoveries from Ras have laid the foundation for three broad areas of science. First, they focused studies on the origins of cancer to the molecular level, with the subsequent discovery of genes mutated in cancer that now number in the thousands. Second, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which Ras facilitates signal transduction established many of our fundamental concepts of how a normal cell orchestrates responses to extracellular cues. Third, Ras proteins are also founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that regulate all key cellular processes and established the versatile role of small GTP-binding proteins in biology. We highlight some of the key findings of the last 28 years. PMID:21686117

  15. Neutron radiation can activate K-ras via a point mutation in codon 146 and induces a different spectrum of ras mutations than does gamma radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, S R; Newcomb, E W; Pellicer, A

    1990-01-01

    Neutron radiation is known to produce tumors in animals and cause cell transformation. We have developed a protocol to efficiently induce thymic lymphomas in RF/J mice by a single acute dose of neutron irradiation. Activated ras genes were detected in 17% (4 of 24) of the tumors analyzed. One of the tumors contained a K-ras gene activated by a point mutation in codon 146. Activating ras mutations at position 146 have not been previously detected in any known human or animal tumors. The spectrum of ras mutations detected in neutron radiation-induced thymic lymphomas was different from that seen in thymic lymphomas induced by gamma radiation in the same strain of mice. These results may have important implications for the mechanisms by which different types of radiation damage DNA. Images PMID:2403644

  16. Reduced Expression of the Extracellular Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Is Associated with Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) to Promote Vascular Remodeling in the Pathogenesis of Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, La-mei; Tang, Na; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Yong-min; Li, Zhen; Feng, Qian; He, Fang

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), remodeling of the vasculature, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) play important roles in the development of essential hypertension (EH), which is defined as high blood pressure (BP) in which secondary causes, such as renovascular disease, are absent. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in the regulation of BP. However, the underlying mechanisms by which the CaSR regulates BP are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of the CaSR in EH was investigated using male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and rat and human plasma samples. The percentages of medial wall thickness to external diameter (WT%), total vessel wall cross-sectional area to the total area (WA%) of thoracic arteries, as well as the percentage of wall area occupied by collagen to total vessel wall area (CA%) were determined. Tissue protein expression and plasma concentrations of the CaSR, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), renin, and angiotensin II (Ang II) were additionally assessed. WT%, WA%, and CA% were found to increase with increasing BP, whereas the plasma concentration of CaSR was found to decrease. With increasing BP, the levels of smooth muscle actin and calponin decreased, whereas those of osteopontin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen increased. The CaSR level negatively correlated with the levels of cAMP and Ang II, but positively correlated with those of renin. Our data suggest that reduced expression of the CaSR is correlated with activation of the RAS, which induces increased vascular remodeling and VSMC proliferation, and thereby associated with EH in the SHR model and in the Han Chinese population. Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of EH. PMID:27391973

  17. A C-terminal domain of GAP is sufficient to stimulate ras p21 GTPase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M S; Hill, W S; Ng, A S; Vogel, U S; Schaber, M D; Scolnick, E M; Dixon, R A; Sigal, I S; Gibbs, J B

    1989-01-01

    The cDNA for bovine ras p21 GTPase activating protein (GAP) has been cloned and the 1044 amino acid polypeptide encoded by the clone has been shown to bind the GTP complexes of both normal and oncogenic Harvey (Ha) ras p21. To identify the regions of GAP critical for the catalytic stimulation of ras p21 GTPase activity, a series of truncated forms of GAP protein were expressed in Escherichia coli. The C-terminal 343 amino acids of GAP (residues 702-1044) were observed to bind Ha ras p21-GTP and stimulate Ha ras p21 GTPase activity with the same efficiency (kcat/KM congruent to 1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 at 24 degrees C) as GAP purified from bovine brain or full-length GAP expressed in E. coli. Deletion of the final 61 amino acid residues of GAP (residues 986-1044) rendered the protein insoluble upon expression in E. coli. These results define a distinct catalytic domain at the C terminus of GAP. In addition, GAP contains amino acid similarity with the B and C box domains conserved among phospholipase C-II, the crk oncogene product, and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase oncogene products. This homologous region is located in the N-terminal half of GAP outside of the catalytic domain that stimulates ras p21 GTPase activity and may constitute a distinct structural or functional domain within the GAP protein. Images PMID:2545441

  18. SUMO wrestling with Ras

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Ji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This review discusses our current understanding of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) pathway and how it functionally intersects with Ras signaling in cancer. The Ras family of small GTPases are frequently mutated in cancer. The role of the SUMO pathway in cancer and in Ras signaling is currently not well understood. Recent studies have shown that the SUMO pathway can both regulate Ras/MAPK pathway activity directly and support Ras-driven oncogenesis through the regulation of proteins that are not direct Ras effectors. We recently discovered that in Ras mutant cancer cells, the SUMOylation status of a subset of proteins is altered and one such protein, KAP1, is required for Ras-driven transformation. A better understanding of the functional interaction between the SUMO and Ras pathways could lead to new insights into the mechanism of Ras-driven oncogenesis. PMID:27057691

  19. A novel combination of K-ras and myc amplification accompanied by point mutational activation of K-ras in a human lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Taya, Y; Hosogai, K; Hirohashi, S; Shimosato, Y; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuchida, N; Fushimi, M; Sekiya, T; Nishimura, S

    1984-01-01

    Amplifications of two oncogenes, c-K-ras-2 and c-myc, were found in a human lung giant cell carcinoma (LGCC) Lu-65, which is maintained in nude mice. The extent of c-K-ras-2 and myc amplifications were estimated to be 10- and 8-fold, respectively, by means of the Southern hybridization procedure. In addition, NIH3T3 cells were transformed by transfection of Lu-65 DNA and the transforming gene was identified as c-K-ras-2. c-K-ras-2 genes were cloned from a gene library of Lu-65 and a single point mutation causing a substitution of cysteine for glycine in codon 12 was found by DNA sequencing. It was concluded that the amplification of the c-myc and c-K-ras-2 genes are accompanied by point mutational activation of c-K-ras-2 in the human LGCC Lu-65. This is the first report of multiple gene amplification accompanied by a point mutation of oncogenes in human cancer cells, providing further support for the idea that co-operation of at least two activated cellular oncogenes is required for carcinogenesis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:6098458

  20. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 inhibits breast cell invasion and migration by blocking H-Ras activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Hun; Koh, Minsoo; Moon, Aree

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactive Ras promotes proliferation and malignant phenotypic conversion of cells in cancer. Ras protein must be associated with cellular membranes for its oncogenic activities through post-translational modifications, including farnesylation. Farnesyltransferase (FTase) is essential for H-Ras membrane targeting, and H-Ras, but not N-Ras, has been demonstrated to cause an invasive phenotype in MCF10A breast epithelial cells. In the present study, it was observed that an FTase inhibitor (FTI), FTI-277, blocked epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced H-Ras activation, but not N-Ras activation in MDA-MB-231 cells, which express wild-type H-Ras and N-Ras. FTI-277 exerted a more potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of H-Ras-MCF10A cells and Hs578T breast cancer cells expressing an active mutant of H-Ras than that of MDA-MB-231 cells. The invasive/migratory phenotypes of the H-Ras-MCF10A and Hs578T cells were effectively inhibited by FTI-277 treatment. By contrast, FTI-277 did not affect the invasive/migratory phenotypes of MDA-MB-231 cells. However, the EGF-induced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells was decreased by FTI-277, implicating that FTI-277 inhibits breast cell invasion and migration by blocking H-Ras activation. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that FTase inhibition by FTI-277 may be an effective strategy for targeting H-Ras-mediated proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cells. PMID:27602167

  1. The Remote Analysis Station (RAS) as an instructional system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H.; Wilson, C. L.; Dye, R. H.; Jaworski, E.

    1981-01-01

    "Hands-on" training in LANDSAT data analysis techniques can be obtained using a desk-top, interactive remote analysis station (RAS) which consists of a color CRT imagery display, with alphanumeric overwrite and keyboard, as well as a cursor controller and modem. This portable station can communicate via modem and dial-up telephone with a host computer at 1200 baud or it can be hardwired to a host computer at 9600 baud. A Z80 microcomputer controls the display refresh memory and remote station processing. LANDSAT data is displayed as three-band false-color imagery, one-band color-sliced imagery, or color-coded processed imagery. Although the display memory routinely operates at 256 x 256 picture elements, a display resolution of 128 x 128 can be selected to fill the display faster. In the false color mode the computer packs the data into one 8-bit character. When the host is not sending pictorial information the characters sent are in ordinary ASCII code. System capabilities are described.

  2. Mitochondrial Activity and Cyr1 Are Key Regulators of Ras1 Activation of C. albicans Virulence Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Demers, Elora G.; Lindsay, Allia K.; Harty, Colleen E.; Willger, Sven D.; Piispanen, Amy E.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a major fungal pathogen and a member of the commensal human microflora. The morphological switch from yeast to hyphal growth is associated with disease and many environmental factors are known to influence the yeast-to-hyphae switch. The Ras1-Cyr1-PKA pathway is a major regulator of C. albicans morphogenesis as well as biofilm formation and white-opaque switching. Previous studies have shown that hyphal growth is strongly repressed by mitochondrial inhibitors. Here, we show that mitochondrial inhibitors strongly decreased Ras1 GTP-binding and activity in C. albicans and similar effects were observed in other Candida species. Consistent with there being a connection between respiratory activity and GTP-Ras1 binding, mutants lacking complex I or complex IV grew as yeast in hypha-inducing conditions, had lower levels of GTP-Ras1, and Ras1 GTP-binding was unaffected by respiratory inhibitors. Mitochondria-perturbing agents decreased intracellular ATP concentrations and metabolomics analyses of cells grown with different respiratory inhibitors found consistent perturbation of pyruvate metabolism and the TCA cycle, changes in redox state, increased catabolism of lipids, and decreased sterol content which suggested increased AMP kinase activity. Biochemical and genetic experiments provide strong evidence for a model in which the activation of Ras1 is controlled by ATP levels in an AMP kinase independent manner. The Ras1 GTPase activating protein, Ira2, but not the Ras1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Cdc25, was required for the reduction of Ras1-GTP in response to inhibitor-mediated reduction of ATP levels. Furthermore, Cyr1, a well-characterized Ras1 effector, participated in the control of Ras1-GTP binding in response to decreased mitochondrial activity suggesting a revised model for Ras1 and Cyr1 signaling in which Cyr1 and Ras1 influence each other and, together with Ira2, seem to form a master-regulatory complex necessary to integrate

  3. Opposing activities of the Ras and Hippo pathways converge on regulation of YAP protein turnover.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xin; Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Chen, Qingfeng; Zhang, Rui; Hagman, Zandra; Voorhoeve, P Mathijs; Cohen, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Cancer genomes accumulate numerous genetic and epigenetic modifications. Yet, human cellular transformation can be accomplished by a few genetically defined elements. These elements activate key pathways required to support replicative immortality and anchorage independent growth, a predictor of tumorigenesis in vivo. Here, we provide evidence that the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway is a key barrier to Ras-mediated cellular transformation. The Hippo pathway targets YAP1 for degradation via the βTrCP-SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. In contrast, the Ras pathway acts oppositely, to promote YAP1 stability through downregulation of the ubiquitin ligase complex substrate recognition factors SOCS5/6. Depletion of SOCS5/6 or upregulation of YAP1 can bypass the requirement for oncogenic Ras in anchorage independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Through the YAP1 target, Amphiregulin, Ras activates the endogenous EGFR pathway, which is required for transformation. Thus, the oncogenic activity of Ras(V12) depends on its ability to counteract Hippo pathway activity, creating a positive feedback loop, which depends on stabilization of YAP1. PMID:25180228

  4. Opposing activities of the Ras and Hippo pathways converge on regulation of YAP protein turnover

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xin; Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Chen, Qingfeng; Zhang, Rui; Hagman, Zandra; Voorhoeve, P Mathijs; Cohen, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Cancer genomes accumulate numerous genetic and epigenetic modifications. Yet, human cellular transformation can be accomplished by a few genetically defined elements. These elements activate key pathways required to support replicative immortality and anchorage independent growth, a predictor of tumorigenesis in vivo. Here, we provide evidence that the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway is a key barrier to Ras-mediated cellular transformation. The Hippo pathway targets YAP1 for degradation via the βTrCP-SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. In contrast, the Ras pathway acts oppositely, to promote YAP1 stability through downregulation of the ubiquitin ligase complex substrate recognition factors SOCS5/6. Depletion of SOCS5/6 or upregulation of YAP1 can bypass the requirement for oncogenic Ras in anchorage independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Through the YAP1 target, Amphiregulin, Ras activates the endogenous EGFR pathway, which is required for transformation. Thus, the oncogenic activity of RasV12 depends on its ability to counteract Hippo pathway activity, creating a positive feedback loop, which depends on stabilization of YAP1. PMID:25180228

  5. The Kinase Activity-deficient Isoform of the Protein Araf Antagonizes Ras/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (Ras/MAPK) Signaling in the Zebrafish Embryo*

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Cong; Liu, Xingfeng; Meng, Anming

    2015-01-01

    Raf kinases are important components of the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk pathway and also cross-talk with other signaling pathways. Araf kinase has been demonstrated to inhibit TGF-β/Smad2 signaling by directly phosphorylating and accelerating degradation of activated Smad2. In this study, we show that the araf gene expresses in zebrafish embryos to produce a shorter transcript variant, araf-tv2, in addition to the full-length variant araf-tv1. araf-tv2 is predicted to encode a C-terminally truncated peptide without the kinase activity domain. Araf-tv2 can physically associate with Araf-tv1 but does not antagonize the inhibitory effect of Araf-tv1 on TGF-β/Smad2 signaling. Instead, Araf-tv2 interacts strongly with Kras and Nras, ultimately blocking MAPK activation by these Ras proteins. In zebrafish embryos, overexpression of araf-tv2 is sufficient to inhibit Fgf/Ras-promoted Erk activation, mesodermal induction, dorsal development, and neuroectodermal posteriorization. Therefore, different isoforms of Araf may participate in similar developmental processes but by regulating different signaling pathways. PMID:26306042

  6. R-Ras inhibits VEGF-induced p38MAPK activation and HSP27 phosphorylation in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Junko; Li, Fangfei; Komatsu, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    R-Ras is a Ras family small GTPase highly expressed in mature functional blood vessels in normal tissues. It inhibits pathological angiogenesis and promotes vessel maturation and stabilization. Previous studies suggest that R-Ras affects cellular signaling in endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells to regulate vessel formation and remodeling in adult tissues. R-Ras suppresses VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and vessel sprouting while promoting normalization of pathologically developing vessels in mice. R-Ras attenuates VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) activation by inhibiting internalization of the receptor upon VEGF ligand binding, leading to significant reduction of VEGFR2 autophosphorylation. Here, we show that R-Ras strongly suppresses VEGF-dependent activation of stress-activated protein kinase-2/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SAPK2/p38MAPK) and phosphorylation of downstream heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a regulator of actin cytoskeleton organization, in endothelial cells. The suppression of p38MAPK activation and HSP27 phosphorylation by R-Ras concurred with altered actin cytoskeleton architecture, reduced membrane protrusion, and inhibition of endothelial cell migration toward VEGF. Silencing of endogenous R-Ras by RNAi increased membrane protrusion and cell migration stimulated by VEGF, and these effects were offset by p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580. These results suggest that R-Ras regulates angiogenic activities of endothelial cells in part via inhibition of the p38MAPK-HSP27 axis of VEGF signaling. PMID:27029009

  7. Identification of murine homologues of the Drosophila son of sevenless gene: potential activators of ras.

    PubMed Central

    Bowtell, D; Fu, P; Simon, M; Senior, P

    1992-01-01

    Several findings suggest that signals from tyrosine kinases are transduced, at least in part, through ras proteins. These findings include (i) blockage of the transforming activity of constitutively active tyrosine kinases by inhibiting ras function and (ii) genetic screens in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Drosophila that identified ras genes as downstream effectors of tyrosine kinases. The recently isolated Drosophila gene Son of sevenless (Sos) is postulated to act as a positive regulatory link between tyrosine kinase and ras proteins by catalyzing exchange of GDP for GTP on ras protein. Such exchange proteins have been reported in extracts of mammalian cells but have not been previously characterized at a molecular level. As Sos appears to function in this role in Drosophila, we sought to isolate a vertebrate counterpart(s). We have characterized two widely expressed murine genes with a high degree of homology to Sos. Hybridization with human DNA and RNA indicates a high degree of conservation of these genes in other vertebrates. Images PMID:1631150

  8. Both p21ras and pp60v-src are required, but neither alone is sufficient, to activate the Raf-1 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, N G; Roberts, T M; Li, P

    1992-01-01

    The raf genes encode a family of cytoplasmic proteins with intrinsic protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. The c-raf gene is the cellular homolog of v-raf, the transforming gene of murine sarcoma virus 3611. The constitutive kinase activity of the v-Raf protein has been implicated in transformation and mitogenesis. The activity of Raf-1, the protein product of the c-raf gene, is normally suppressed by a regulatory N-terminal domain. Activation of various tyrosine-kinase growth factor receptors results in activation of Raf-1 and its hyperphosphorylation. Further, Raf-1 has been shown to act either downstream or independently of the p21ras protein, as indicated by experiments involving microinjection of anti-Ras antibodies. To investigate the potential role of p21ras in the activation of Raf-1 by tyrosine kinases, we have used the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system to overproduce various wild-type and mutant forms of pp60src, p21ras, and Raf-1 proteins. We show that either pp60v-src or p21c-ras can independently activate the autokinase activity of Raf-1, but only to a limited extent. Surprisingly, both pp60v-src and p21c-ras are required to fully activate Raf-1. Analysis of the Raf-1 autokinase activity in vitro shows that Raf-1 autophosphorylation sites are distributed equally on serine and threonine residues. When Raf-1 is analyzed by immunoblotting, as previously reported for mammalian cell experiments, a marked increase in the apparent molecular weight of Raf-1 is seen only when it is coexpressed with both pp60v-src and p21ras. Images PMID:1372995

  9. Alphavirus production is inhibited in neurofibromin 1-deficient cells through activated RAS signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokoltsova, Olga A. Domina, Aaron M. Kolokoltsov, Andrey A. Davey, Robert A. | Weaver, Scott C. || Watowich, Stanley J. ||

    2008-07-20

    Virus-host interactions essential for alphavirus pathogenesis are poorly understood. To address this shortcoming, we coupled retrovirus insertional mutagenesis and a cell survival selection strategy to generate clonal cell lines broadly resistant to Sindbis virus (SINV) and other alphaviruses. Resistant cells had significantly impaired SINV production relative to wild-type (WT) cells, although virus binding and fusion events were similar in both sets of cells. Analysis of the retroviral integration sites identified the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene as disrupted in alphavirus-resistant cell lines. Subsequent analysis indicated that expression of NF1 was significantly reduced in alphavirus-resistant cells. Importantly, independent down-regulation of NF1 expression in WT HEK 293 cells decreased virus production and increased cell viability during SINV infection, relative to infected WT cells. Additionally, we observed hyperactive RAS signalling in the resistant HEK 293 cells, which was anticipated because NF1 is a negative regulator of RAS. Expression of constitutively active RAS (HRAS-G12V) in a WT HEK 293 cell line resulted in a marked delay in virus production, compared with infected cells transfected with parental plasmid or dominant-negative RAS (HRAS-S17N). This work highlights novel host cell determinants required for alphavirus pathogenesis and suggests that RAS signalling may play an important role in neuronal susceptibility to SINV infection.

  10. TP53 and Let-7a micro-RNA Regulate K-Ras Activity in HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Carrie; Heinrich, Eileen L.; Duldulao, Marjun; Arrington, Amanda K.; Fakih, Marwan; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Kim, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated that KRAS and TP53 mutations predict response to therapy in colorectal cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between these two common genetic alterations. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNA implicated in cellular processes, have been increasingly linked to KRAS and TP53. We hypothesized that lethal-7a (let-7a) miRNA regulates KRAS through TP53. To investigate the relationship between KRAS, TP53, and let-7a, we used HCT116 KRASmut human colorectal cancer cells with four different genotypic modifications in TP53 (TP53−/−, TP53+/−, TP53mut/+, and TP53mut/−). Using these cells we observed that K-Ras activity was higher in cells with mutant or knocked out TP53 alleles, suggesting that wild-type TP53 may suppress K-Ras activity. Let-7a was present in HCT116 KRASmut cells, though there was no correlation between let-7a level and TP53 genotype status. To explore how let-7a may regulate K-Ras in the different TP53 genotype cells we used let-7a inhibitor and demonstrated increased K-Ras activity across all TP53, thus corroborating prior reports that let-7a regulates K-Ras. To assess potential clinical implications of this regulatory network, we examined the influence of TP53 genotype and let-7a inhibition on colon cancer cell survival following chemoradiation therapy (CRT). We observed that cells with complete loss of wild-type TP53 alleles (−/− or −/mut) were resistant to CRT following treatment with 5-fluorouracil and radiation. Further increase in K-Ras activity with let-7a inhibition did not impact survival in these cells. In contrast, cells with single or double wild-type TP53 alleles were moderately responsive to CRT and exhibited resistance when let-7a was inhibited. In summary, our results show a complex regulatory system involving TP53, KRAS, and let-7a. Our results may provide clues to understand and target these interactions in colorectal cancer. PMID:23936455

  11. R-Ras Inhibits VEGF-Induced p38MAPK Activation and HSP27 Phosphorylation in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Junko; Li, Fangfei; Komatsu, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    R-Ras is a Ras family small GTPase that is highly expressed in mature functional blood vessels in normal tissues. It inhibits pathological angiogenesis and promotes vessel maturation and stabilization. Previous studies suggest that R-Ras affects cellular signaling in endothelial cells, pericytes and smooth-muscle cells to regulate vessel formation and remodeling in adult tissues. R-Ras suppresses VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and vessel sprouting while promoting normalization of pathologically developing vessels in mice. It attenuates VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) activation by inhibiting internalization of the receptor upon VEGF ligand binding, leading to significant reduction of VEGFR2 autophosphorylation. Here, we show that R-Ras strongly suppresses the VEGF-dependent activation of stress-activated protein kinase-2/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SAPK2/p38MAPK) and the phosphorylation of downstream heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27), a regulator of actin cytoskeleton organization, in endothelial cells. The suppression of p38MAPK activation and HSP27 phosphorylation by R-Ras concurred with altered actin cytoskeleton architecture, reduced membrane protrusion and inhibition of endothelial cell migration toward VEGF. Silencing of endogenous R-Ras by RNA interference increased membrane protrusion and cell migration stimulated by VEGF, and these effects were offset by p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580. These results suggest that R-Ras regulates angiogenic activities of endothelial cells in part via inhibition of the p38MAPK-HSP27 axis of VEGF signaling. PMID:27029009

  12. Ras-dependent and -independent pathways target the mitogen-activated protein kinase network in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Büscher, D; Hipskind, R A; Krautwald, S; Reimann, T; Baccarini, M

    1995-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated upon a variety of extracellular stimuli in different cells. In macrophages, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) stimulates proliferation, while bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits cell growth and causes differentiation and activation. Both CSF-1 and LPS rapidly activate the MAPK network and induce the phosphorylation of two distinct ternary complex factors (TCFs), TCF/Elk and TCF/SAP. CSF-1, but not LPS, stimulated the formation of p21ras. GTP complexes. Expression of a dominant negative ras mutant reduced, but did not abolish, CSF-1-mediated stimulation of MEK and MAPK. In contrast, activation of the MEK kinase Raf-1 was Ras independent. Treatment with the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor D609 suppressed LPS-mediated, but not CSF-1-mediated, activation of Raf-1, MEK, and MAPK. Similarly, down-regulation or inhibition of protein kinase C blocked MEK and MAPK induction by LPS but not that by CSF-1. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate pretreatment led to the sustained activation of the Raf-1 kinase but not that of MEK and MAPK. Thus, activated Raf-1 alone does not support MEK/MAPK activation in macrophages. Phosphorylation of TCF/Elk but not that of TCF/SAP was blocked by all treatments that interfered with MAPK activation, implying that TCF/SAP was targeted by a MAPK-independent pathway. Therefore, CSF-1 and LPS target the MAPK network by two alternative pathways, both of which induce Raf-1 activation. The mitogenic pathway depends on Ras activity, while the differentiation signal relies on protein kinase C and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activation. PMID:7799956

  13. [Role of RAS in prehypertension].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Shinji; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension has long been recognized as a major risk factor of several cardiovascular diseases. It is well known that the renin-angiotensin system(RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of both hypertension and hypertensive end-organ damage. Untreated hypertension is self-accelerating condition through RAS stimulation. Activation of RAS contributes to the transition from borderline hypertension to established hypertension. Recently, "the Seventh Report of Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7)" proposed a new classification of borderline blood pressure levels, as "prehypertension". The therapeutic focus has begun to shift from the therapy of established hypertension to the prevention of hypertension. This review addressed the relationship between hypertension, prehypertension and the role of RAS. PMID:18700549

  14. Small Molecule APY606 Displays Extensive Antitumor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer via Impairing Ras-MAPK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Na; Liu, Zuojia; Zhao, Wenjing; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has been found with abnormal expression or mutation in Ras proteins. Oncogenic Ras activation exploits their extensive signaling reach to affect multiple cellular processes, in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling exerts important roles in tumorigenesis. Therapies targeted Ras are thus of major benefit for pancreatic cancer. Although small molecule APY606 has been successfully picked out by virtual drug screening based on Ras target receptor, its in-depth mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein assessed the antitumor activity of APY606 against human pancreatic cancer Capan-1 and SW1990 cell lines and explored the effect of Ras-MAPK and apoptosis-related signaling pathway on the activity of APY606. APY606 treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cancer cell viability. Additionally, APY606 exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by reduction in tumor cell invasion, migration and mitochondrial membrane potential but also by alteration in several apoptotic indexes. Furthermore, APY606 treatment directly inhibited Ras-GTP and the downstream activation of MAPK, which resulted in the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, leading to the up-regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins (Bax, cytosolic Cytochrome c and Caspase 3) and of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Cyclin A, E. These data suggest that impairing Ras-MAPK signaling is a novel mechanism of action for APY606 during therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27223122

  15. Small Molecule APY606 Displays Extensive Antitumor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer via Impairing Ras-MAPK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Na; Liu, Zuojia; Zhao, Wenjing; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has been found with abnormal expression or mutation in Ras proteins. Oncogenic Ras activation exploits their extensive signaling reach to affect multiple cellular processes, in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling exerts important roles in tumorigenesis. Therapies targeted Ras are thus of major benefit for pancreatic cancer. Although small molecule APY606 has been successfully picked out by virtual drug screening based on Ras target receptor, its in-depth mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein assessed the antitumor activity of APY606 against human pancreatic cancer Capan-1 and SW1990 cell lines and explored the effect of Ras-MAPK and apoptosis-related signaling pathway on the activity of APY606. APY606 treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cancer cell viability. Additionally, APY606 exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by reduction in tumor cell invasion, migration and mitochondrial membrane potential but also by alteration in several apoptotic indexes. Furthermore, APY606 treatment directly inhibited Ras-GTP and the downstream activation of MAPK, which resulted in the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, leading to the up-regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins (Bax, cytosolic Cytochrome c and Caspase 3) and of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Cyclin A, E. These data suggest that impairing Ras-MAPK signaling is a novel mechanism of action for APY606 during therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27223122

  16. Involvement of Ras in survival responsiveness to nitric oxide toxicity in pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seong Won; Baek, Kwang Jin; Lee, Hee Sung; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Young-Myeong; Yun, Hye-Young

    2002-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in attenuation of tumor growth by activated macrophages that generate large amount of cytotoxic/cytostatic free radicals. However, some tumor cells may survive from NO cytotoxicity and continue to proliferate to malignant tumors. Since a protooncogene product Ras was shown to be activated by NO, this study investigated the involvement of Ras in the cell survival in response to NO cytotoxicity in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Treatment with Ras inhibitor or constitutive expression of dominant negative Ras markedly increased NO-induced cell death. NO-resistant PC12 cells (PC12-NO-R) exhibited higher steady state Ras activity than the parental PC12 cells. Inducible expression using tetracycline-on (Tet-on) system of Ras mutants (dominant negative Ras or dominant active Ras) demonstrated that blockade of Ras activity increased NO-induced cell death whereas enhancement of Ras activity attenuated NO-induced cell death. Furthermore, inducible expression of NO-insensitive mutant Ras selectively increased cellular vulnerability to NO but not to ROS. NO, Ras inhibitor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) blocker synergistically increased cell death. These observations suggest that Ras activity may be a critical factor for survival response of tumor cells to NO toxicity and pharmacological agents affecting Ras activity may enhance efficacy of NO-mediated tumor therapies. PMID:12635656

  17. Combined Rational Design and a High Throughput Screening Platform for Identifying Chemical Inhibitors of a Ras-activating Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Biesiada, Jacek; Duan, Xin; Tang, Hong; Shang, Xun; Papoian, Ruben; Seibel, William L.; Nelson, Sandra; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Ras family small GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, movement, and gene expression, and are intimately involved in cancer pathogenesis. Activation of these small GTPases is catalyzed by a special class of enzymes, termed guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we developed a small molecule screening platform for identifying lead hits targeting a Ras GEF enzyme, SOS1. We employed an ensemble structure-based virtual screening approach in combination with a multiple tier high throughput experimental screen utilizing two complementary fluorescent guanine nucleotide exchange assays to identify small molecule inhibitors of GEF catalytic activity toward Ras. From a library of 350,000 compounds, we selected a set of 418 candidate compounds predicted to disrupt the GEF-Ras interaction, of which dual wavelength GDP dissociation and GTP-loading experimental screening identified two chemically distinct small molecule inhibitors. Subsequent biochemical validations indicate that they are capable of dose-dependently inhibiting GEF catalytic activity, binding to SOS1 with micromolar affinity, and disrupting GEF-Ras interaction. Mutagenesis studies in conjunction with structure-activity relationship studies mapped both compounds to different sites in the catalytic pocket, and both inhibited Ras signaling in cells. The unique screening platform established here for targeting Ras GEF enzymes could be broadly useful for identifying lead inhibitors for a variety of small GTPase-activating GEF reactions. PMID:25825487

  18. Ras-activated Dsor1 promotes Wnt signaling in Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric T; Verheyen, Esther M

    2015-12-15

    Wnt/Wingless (Wg) and Ras-MAPK signaling both play fundamental roles in growth and cell fate determination, and when dysregulated, can lead to tumorigenesis. Several conflicting modes of interaction between Ras-MAPK and Wnt signaling have been identified in specific cellular contexts, causing synergistic or antagonistic effects on target genes. We find novel evidence that the Drosophila homolog of the dual specificity kinases MEK1/2 (also known as MAP2K1/2), Downstream of Raf1 (Dsor1), is required for Wnt signaling. Knockdown of Dsor1 results in loss of Wg target gene expression, as well as reductions in stabilized Armadillo (Arm; Drosophila β-catenin). We identify a close physical interaction between Dsor1 and Arm, and find that catalytically inactive Dsor1 causes a reduction in active Arm. These results suggest that Dsor1 normally counteracts the Axin-mediated destruction of Arm. We find that Ras-Dsor1 activity is independent of upstream activation by EGFR, and instead it appears to be activated by the insulin-like growth factor receptor to promote Wg signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that there is a new crosstalk pathway between insulin and Wg signaling that is mediated by Dsor1. PMID:26542023

  19. M-Ras induces Ral and JNK activation to regulate MEK/ERK-independent gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ariel F.; Campos, Tania; Babcock, Justin T.; Armijo, Marisol E.; Martinez-Conde, Alfonso; Pincheira, Roxana; Quilliam, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Constitutive activation of M-Ras has previously been reported to cause morphologic and growth transformation of murine cells, suggesting that M-Ras plays a role in tumorigenesis. Cell transformation by M-Ras correlated with weak activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, although contributions from other downstream effectors were suggested. Recent studies indicate that signaling events distinct from the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade are critical for human tumorigenesis. However, it is unknown what signaling events M-Ras triggers in human cells. Using constitutively active M-Ras (Q71L) containing additional mutations within its effector binding loop, we found that M-Ras induces MEK/ERK-dependent and -independent Elk1 activation as well as PI3K/Akt and JNK/cJun activation in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Among several human cell lines examined, M-Ras-induced MEK/ERK-independent Elk1 activation was only detected in MCF-7 cells, and correlated with Rlf /M-Ras interaction and Ral /JNK activation. Supporting a role for M-Ras signaling in breast cancer, EGF activated M-Ras and promoted its interaction with endogenous Rlf. In addition, constitutive activation of M-Ras induced estrogen-independent growth of MCF-7 cells that was dependent on PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK and JNK activation. Thus, our studies demonstrate that M-Ras signaling activity differs between human cells, highlighting the importance of defining Ras protein signaling within each cell type, especially when designing treatments for Ras-induced cancer. These findings also demonstrate that M-Ras activity may be important for progression of EGFR-dependent tumors. PMID:22121046

  20. H-Ras Modulates N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Function via Inhibition of Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Claire; Yaka, Rami; Dinh, Son; Ron, Dorit

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by Src protein-tyrosine kinases modulates receptor channel activity and is necessary for the induction of long term potentiation (LTP). Deletion of H-Ras increases both NR2 tyrosine phosphorylation and NMDA receptor-mediated hippocampal LTP. Here we investigated whether H-Ras regulates phosphorylation and function of the NMDA receptor via Src family protein-tyrosine kinases. We identified Src as a novel H-Ras binding partner. H-Ras bound to Src but not Fyn both in vitro and in brain via the Src kinase domain. Cotransfection of H-Ras and Src inhibited Src activity and decreased NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of rat brain slices with Tat-H-Ras depleted NR2A from the synaptic membrane, decreased endogenous Src activity and NR2A phosphorylation, and decreased the magnitude of hip-pocampal LTP. No change was observed for NR2B. We suggest that H-Ras negatively regulates Src phosphorylation of NR2A and retention of NR2A into the synaptic membrane leading to inhibition of NMDA receptor function. This mechanism is specific for Src and NR2A and has implications for studies in which regulation of NMDA receptor-mediated LTP is important, such as synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and addiction. PMID:12695509

  1. Tyrosine 763 of the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor mediates Ras-dependent activation of the JNK/SAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, O; Marshall, C J

    1997-01-01

    The receptor for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can mediate differentiation and proliferation of hemopoietic cells. A proliferative signal is associated with activation of the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To determine whether other MAPK pathways are activated by G-CSF signalling, we have investigated activation of JNK/SAPK in cells proliferating in response to G-CSF. Here we show that G-CSF and interleukin-3 activate JNK/SAPK in two hemopoietic cell lines. The region of the G-CSF receptor required for G-CSF-induced JNK/SAPK activation is located within the C-terminal 68 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain, which contains Tyr 763. Mutation of Tyr 763 to Phe completely blocks JNK/SAPK activation. However, the C-terminal 68 amino acids are not required for ERK2 activation. We show that activation of JNK/SAPK, like that of ERK2, is dependent on Ras but that higher levels of Ras-GTP are associated with activation of JNK/SAPK than with activation of ERK2. Two separate functional regions of the G-CSF receptor contribute to activation of Ras. The Y763F mutation reduces G-CSF-induced Ras activation from 30 to 35% Ras-GTP to 10 to 13% Ras-GTP. Low levels of Ras activation (10 to 13% Ras-GTP), which are sufficient for ERK2 activation, require only the 100 membrane-proximal amino acids. High levels of Ras-GTP provided by expression of oncogenic Ras are not sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK. An additional signal, also mediated by Tyr 763, is required for activation of JNK/SAPK. PMID:9032244

  2. Protein phosphatase 1α is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayllón, Verónica; Martínez-A, Carlos; García, Alphonse; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita

    2000-01-01

    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to regulate cell death. We utilize an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent murine T-cell line to identify proteins that interact with Bad upon IL-2 stimulation or deprivation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we found that Bad interacts with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α). Serine phosphorylation of Bad is induced by IL-2 and its dephosphorylation correlates with appearance of apoptosis. IL-2 deprivation induces Bad dephosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of a serine phosphatase. A serine/threonine phosphatase activity, sensitive to the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, was detected in Bad immunoprecipitates from IL-2-stimulated cells, increasing after IL-2 deprivation. This enzymatic activity also dephosphorylates in vivo 32P-labeled Bad. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid blocks Bad dephosphorylation and prevents cell death. Finally, Ras activation controls the catalytic activity of PP1α. These results strongly suggest that Bad is an in vitro and in vivo substrate for PP1α phosphatase and that IL-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis may operate by regulating Bad phosphorylation through PP1α phosphatase, whose enzymatic activity is regulated by Ras. PMID:10811615

  3. Anti-tumor activity of ESX1 on cancer cells harboring oncogenic K-ras mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Junta; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Masatomo; Koike, Takao; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2008-05-23

    Human ESX1 is a 65-kilodalton (kDa) paired-like homeoprotein that is proteolytically processed into N-terminal 45-kDa and C-terminal 20-kDa fragments. The N-terminal ESX1 fragment, which contains the homeodomain, localizes to the nucleus and represses mRNA transcription from the K-ras gene. When we inoculated human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 constitutive expressing N-terminal region of ESX1 (N-ESX1) into nude mice, transfectant cells uniformly showed decreased tumor-forming activity compared with that of the parental cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of HCT116 carcinoma cells with a fusion protein consisting of N-ESX1 and the protein-transduction domain derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 TAT protein gave rise to a dramatic reduction in the tumorigenicity of HCT116 cells in nude mice. Our results provide first in vivo evidence for the molecular targeting therapeutic application of the K-ras repressor ESX1, especially TAT-mediated transduction of N-ESX1, in the treatment of human cancers having oncogenic K-ras mutations.

  4. SmgGDS antagonizes BPGAP1-induced Ras/ERK activation and neuritogenesis in PC12 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Aarthi; Low, Boon Chuan

    2013-01-01

    BPGAP1 is a Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) that regulates cell morphogenesis, cell migration, and ERK signaling by the concerted action of its proline-rich region (PRR), RhoGAP domain, and the BNIP-2 and Cdc42GAP homology (BCH) domain. Although multiple cellular targets for the PRR and RhoGAP have been identified, and their functions delineated, the mechanism by which the BCH domain regulates functions of BPGAP1 remains unclear. Here we show that its BCH domain induced robust ERK activation leading to PC12 cell differentiation by targeting specifically to K-Ras. Such stimulatory effect was inhibited, however, by both dominant-negative mutants of Mek2 (Mek2-K101A) and K-Ras (K-Ras-S17N) and also by the small G-protein GDP dissociation stimulator (SmgGDS). Consequently SmgGDS knockdown released this inhibition and resulted in a superinduction of K-Ras activation and PC12 differentiation mediated by BCH domain. These results demonstrate the versatility of the BCH domain of BPGAP1 in regulating ERK signaling by involving K-Ras and SmgGDS and support the unique role of BPGAP1 as a dual regulator for Ras and Rho signaling in cell morphogenesis and differentiation. PMID:23155002

  5. Activating the Expression of Human K-rasG12D Stimulates Oncogenic Transformation in Transgenic Goat Fetal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianhua; Wang, Zhongde; Polejaeva, Irina; Salgia, Ravi; Kao, Chien-Min; Chen, Chin-Tu; Chen, Guangchun; Chen, Liaohai

    2014-01-01

    Humane use of preclinical large animal cancer models plays a critical role in understanding cancer biology and developing therapeutic treatments. Among the large animal candidates, goats have great potentials as sustainable sources for large animal cancer model development. Goats are easier to handle and cheaper to raise. The genome of the goats has been sequenced recently. It has been known that goats develop skin, adrenal cortex, breast and other types of cancers. Technically, goats are subject to somatic cell nuclear transfer more efficiently and exhibit better viability through the cloning process. Towards the development of a goat cancer model, we created a transgenic goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cell as the donor cell for SCNT. Human mutated K-ras (hK-rasG12D) was chosen as the transgene, as it is present in 20% of cancers. Both hK-rasG12D and a herpes simplex viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter genes, flanked by a pair of LoxP sites, were knocked in the GFF endogenous K-ras locus through homologous recombination. Following Cre-mediated activation (with a 95% activation efficiency), hK-rasG12D and HSV1-tk were expressed in the transgenic GFF cells, evidently through the presence of corresponding mRNAs, and confirmed by HSV1-tk protein function assay. The hK-rasG12D expressing GFF cells exhibited enhanced proliferation rates and an anchorage-independent growth behavior. They were able to initiate tumor growth in athymic nude mice. In conclusion, after activating hK-rasG12D gene expression, hK-rasG12D transgenic GFF cells were transformed into tumorgenesis cells. Transgenic goats via SCNT using the above-motioned cells as the donor cells have been established. PMID:24594684

  6. Ras regulates alveolar macrophage formation of CXC chemokines and neutrophil activation in streptococcal M1 protein-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songen; Hwaiz, Rundk; Rahman, Milladur; Herwald, Heiko; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2014-06-15

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is associated with a high mortality rate. The M1 serotype of Streptococcus pyogenes is most frequently associated with STSS. Herein, we examined the role of Ras signaling in M1 protein-induced lung injury. Male C57BL/6 mice received the Ras inhibitor (farnesylthiosalicylic acid, FTS) prior to M1 protein challenge. Bronchoalveolar fluid and lung tissue were harvested for quantification of neutrophil recruitment, edema and CXC chemokine formation. Neutrophil expression of Mac-1 was quantified by use of flow cytometry. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine gene expression of CXC chemokines in alveolar macrophages. Administration of FTS reduced M1 protein-induced neutrophil recruitment, edema formation and tissue damage in the lung. M1 protein challenge increased Mac-1 expression on neutrophils and CXC chemokine levels in the lung. Inhibition of Ras activity decreased M1 protein-induced expression of Mac-1 on neutrophils and secretion of CXC chemokines in the lung. Moreover, FTS abolished M1 protein-provoked gene expression of CXC chemokines in alveolar macrophages. Ras inhibition decreased chemokine-mediated neutrophil migration in vitro. Taken together, our novel findings indicate that Ras signaling is a potent regulator of CXC chemokine formation and neutrophil infiltration in the lung. Thus, inhibition of Ras activity might be a useful way to antagonize streptococcal M1 protein-triggered acute lung injury. PMID:24704370

  7. Epigenomic Regulation of Smad1 Signaling During Cellular Senescence Induced by Ras Activation.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Atsushi; Nonaka, Aya; Fujita, Takanori; Yamanaka, Ryota; Fujimoto, Mai; Miyazono, Kohei; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Epigenomic modification plays important roles in regulating gene expression during development, differentiation, and cellular senescence. When oncogenes are activated, cells fall into stable growth arrest to block cellular proliferation, which is called oncogene-induced senescence. We recently identified through genome-wide analyses that Bmp2-Smad1 signal and its regulation by harmonized epigenomic alteration play an important role in Ras-induced senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. We describe in this chapter the methods for analyses of epigenomic alteration and Smad1 targets on genome-wide scale. PMID:26520136

  8. To RAS or not to RAS? The evidence for and cautions with renin-angiotensin system inhibition in patients with diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    St Peter, Wendy L; Odum, Lauren E; Whaley-Connell, Adam T

    2013-05-01

    Substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs are associated with progressive diabetic kidney disease (DKD). A goal of Healthy People 2020 is to reduce kidney disease attributable to diabetes mellitus and increase the proportion of patients who receive agents that interrupt the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). The mechanisms that contribute to progressive loss of kidney function in patients with diabetes are disrupted by inhibition of the RAS. ACEIs, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) all reduce the effect of angiotensin II, yet each works through a different mechanism and displays properties that may or may not be replicated by the others. As single agents, RAS inhibitors and blockers have been shown to slow the rate of progression of DKD and to reduce new cases of end-stage renal disease in various subsets of patients with diabetes and proteinuria (e.g., albuminuria). However, even with contemporary use of ACEIs, ARBs, and, more recently, DRIs, the burden of kidney disease remains high. Thus investigators sought to explore the utility of combining agents (e.g., dual RAS therapy) in various regimens for cardiovascular and kidney end points. Recent data from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-Renal Endpoints (ALTITUDE) studies suggest that kidney-related outcomes (composite of dialysis initiation, doubling serum creatinine concentration, or death) were increased with ACEI plus ARB or DRI plus ARB combinations. Consequently, dual therapy should not be routinely prescribed in patients with diabetes until further data become available from other future studies. This review provides an introduction to DKD and a rationale for using RAS inhibition; discusses screening, detection, and monitoring of patients with DKD; and summarizes results from meta-analyses and

  9. MK2 Regulates Ras Oncogenesis through Stimulating ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Qi, Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    Ras signals through both mitogenic and stress pathways and studies of Ras regulatory effects of stress pathways hold great promise to control Ras-dependent malignancies. Our previous work showed Ras activation of a stress kinase (MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 [MK2]), and here, we examine regulatory effects of MK2 on Ras oncogenesis. MK2 knockout was shown to increase Ras transformation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in vitro and to enhance the resultant tumor growth in mice, indicating a tumor suppressor activity. In Ras-dependent and -independent human colon cancer, however, MK2-forced expression increases and MK2 depletion decreases the malignant growth, suggesting its oncogenic activity. The oncogenic activity of MK2 couples with its activation by both stress and mitogenic signals through extracellular signal–regulated kinase and p38α pathways, whereas its tumor-suppressing effect links to its stimulation only by stress downstream of p38α. Of interest, MK2 was shown to decrease intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MEFs but increase its production in human colon cancer cells, and experiments with antioxidants revealed that ROS is required for Ras oncogenesis in both systems. These results indicate that MK2 can increase or decrease Ras oncogenesis dependent of its ROS regulatory activities. PMID:23264852

  10. ERK2-dependent reactivation of Akt mediates the limited response of tumor cells with constitutive K-RAS activity to PI3K inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Minjgee, Minjmaa; Saki, Mohammad; Holler, Marina; Meier, Friedegund; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Rodemann, H Peter

    2014-01-01

    K-RAS mutated (K-RASmut) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells are resistant to EGFR targeting strategies. We investigated the impact of K-RAS activity irrespective of mutational status in the EGFR-independent increase in clonogenic cell survival. An analysis of the K-RAS activity status revealed a constitutively high K-RAS activity in K-RASmut NSCLC cells and also in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells overexpressing wild-type K-RAS (K-RASwt). Similar to K-RAS-mutated cells, increased K-RAS activity in HNSCC cells overexpressing K-RASwt was associated with the stimulated production of the EGFR ligand amphiregulin and resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors such as erlotinib. Expression of mutated K-RAS stimulated Akt phosphorylation and increased plating efficiency. Conversely, knockdown of K-RAS in K-RASmut NSCLC cells and in HNSCC cells presenting overexpression of K-RASwt resulted in sensitization to the anti-clonogenic activity of erlotinib. K-RAS activity results in EGFR-dependent and EGFR-independent Akt activity. The short-term treatment (2 h) of cells with EGFR-TK or PI3K inhibitors (erlotinib and PI-103) resulted in the repression of Akt activation, whereas long-term treatment (24 h) with inhibitors led to the reactivation of Akt and improved clonogenicity. The Akt re-activation was MAPK-ERK2-dependent and associated with a lack of complete response to anti-clonogenic activity of PI-103. A complete response was observed when PI-103 was combined with MEK inhibitor PD98059. Together, clonogenicity inhibition in tumor cells presenting constitutive K-RAS activity independent of K-RAS mutational status can be achieved by targeting of EGFR downstream pathways, i.e., PI3K alone or the combination of PI3K and MAPK inhibitors. PMID:24351425

  11. Emerging trends in salmonid RAS - Part II. System enhancements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dozens of land-based, closed containment systems are coming on line to produce salmon. New projects are bringing new principles into the salmon industry. Depuration systems maximize the removal of earthy and musty flavors in harvested fish. An emerging trend has been to apply technologies that incre...

  12. R-Ras protein inhibits autophosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in endothelial cells and suppresses receptor activation in tumor vasculature.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Junko; Li, Fangfei; Komatsu, Masanobu

    2015-03-27

    Abnormal angiogenesis is associated with a broad range of medical conditions, including cancer. The formation of neovasculature with functionally defective blood vessels significantly impacts tumor progression, metastasis, and the efficacy of anticancer therapies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) potently induces vascular permeability and vessel growth in the tumor microenvironment, and its inhibition normalizes tumor vasculature. In contrast, the signaling of the small GTPase R-Ras inhibits excessive angiogenic growth and promotes the maturation of regenerating blood vessels. R-Ras signaling counteracts VEGF-induced vessel sprouting, permeability, and invasive activities of endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of R-Ras on VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation by VEGF, the key mechanism for angiogenic stimulation. We show that tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR2 is significantly elevated in the tumor vasculature and dermal microvessels of VEGF-injected skin in R-Ras knockout mice. In cultured endothelial cells, R-Ras suppressed the internalization of VEGFR2, which is required for full activation of the receptor by VEGF. Consequently, R-Ras strongly suppressed autophosphorylation of the receptor at all five major tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Conversely, silencing of R-Ras resulted in increased VEGFR2 phosphorylation. This effect of R-Ras on VEGFR2 was, at least in part, dependent on vascular endothelial cadherin. These findings identify a novel function of R-Ras to control the response of endothelial cells to VEGF and suggest an underlying mechanism by which R-Ras regulates angiogenesis. PMID:25645912

  13. Activation of RAS/ERK alone is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete retinoic acid in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ai-Guo Song, Ya-Nan; Chen, Jun; Li, Hui-Ling; Dong, Jian-Yi; Cui, Hai-Peng; Yao, Liang; Li, Xue-Feng; Gao, Wen-Ting; Qiu, Ze-Wen; Wang, Fu-Jin; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • The activation of RAS/ERK is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete RA. • The retinoid metabolism-related genes are down-regulated by ras oncogene. • The atRA has no effect on preventing hepatic tumorigenesis or curing the developed hepatic nodules. - Abstract: Activation of RAS/ERK signaling pathway, depletion of retinoid, and phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) are frequent events found in liver tumors and thought to play important roles in hepatic tumorigenesis. However, the relationships among them still remained to be elucidated. By exploring the transgenic mouse model of hepatic tumorigenesis induced by liver-specific expression of H-ras12V oncogene, the activation of RAS/ERK, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes, the contents of retinoid metabolites, and phosphorylation of RXRα were determined. RAS/ERK signaling pathway was gradually and significantly activated in hepatic tumor adjacent normal liver tissues (P) and hepatic tumor tissues (T) of H-ras12V transgenic mice compared with normal liver tissues (Wt) of wild type mice. On the contrary, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes were significantly reduced in P and T compared with Wt. Interestingly, the retinoid metabolites 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the well known ligands for nuclear transcription factor RXR and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), were significantly decreased only in T compared with Wt and P, although the oxidized polar metabolite of atRA, 4-keto-all-trans-retinoic-acid (4-keto-RA) was significantly decreased in both P and T compared with Wt. To our surprise, the functions of RXRα were significantly blocked only in T compared with Wt and P. Namely, the total protein levels of RXRα were significantly reduced and the phosphorylation levels of RXRα were significantly increased only in T compared with Wt and P. Treatment of H-ras12V transgenic mice at 5-week

  14. Cocaine increases Ras-guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 protein expression in the rat striatum in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Chi; Hoffmann, Jason; Parelkar, Nikhil K; Liu, Xian-Yu; Mao, Li-Min; Fibuch, Eugene E; Wang, John Q

    2007-11-01

    Psychostimulants activate the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras-MAPK) cascade in the limbic reward circuit and thereby trigger a transcription-dependent mechanism underlying enduring synaptic plasticity related to addictive properties of drugs of abuse. The Ras-specific activator, Ras-guanine nucleotide-releasing factor (Ras-GRF), is predominantly expressed at synapses and is thought to actively regulate Ras-MAPK responses to changing synaptic signals. In this study, a possible influence of cocaine on Ras-GRF gene expression at the protein level in the rat striatum was investigated in vivo. A single systemic injection of cocaine induced an increase in Ras-GRF1 protein levels in both the dorsal (caudoputamen) and ventral (nucleus accumbens) striatum. The increase in Ras-GRF1 proteins was dose-dependent and was a delayed and transient event. In contrast to Ras-GRF1, a closely related Ras-GRF2 showed no change in its protein abundance following cocaine administration. These data identify the Ras activator, Ras-GRF1, although not Ras-GRF2, as a susceptible target to cocaine stimulation in striatal neurons. PMID:17931779

  15. Final Report: Retrofit Aeration System (RAS) for Francis Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Sullivan; DOE Project Officer Keith Bennett

    2006-08-01

    Osage Plant and Bagnell Dam impounds the Osage River forming the Lake of the Ozarks in Missouri. Since it is nearly 100 feet deep, the lake stratifies during the summer months causing low DO water to be discharged into the Osage river below the dam. To supplement DO, the turbines are vented during the low DO season. AmerenUE is continually researching new methods of DO enhancement. New turbines, manufactured by American Hydro Corporation, were installed in Units 3 & 5 during the spring of 2002. Additional vent capacity and new nosecones were included in the new turbine design. The retrofit aeration system is an attempt to further enhance the DO in the tailrace by installation of additional venting capability on Unit 6 (not upgraded with new turbine) and refining design on special nosecones which will be mounted on both Unit 3 (upgraded turbine) and Unit 6. Baseline DO testing for Units 3 & 6 was conducted mid August, 2002. This data wascompared to further tests planned for the summer of 2003 and 2004 after installation of the retrofit aeration system.

  16. RAS/MAPK Activation Drives Resistance to Smo Inhibition, Metastasis, and Tumor Evolution in Shh Pathway-Dependent Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuesong; Ponomaryov, Tatyana; Ornell, Kimberly J; Zhou, Pengcheng; Dabral, Sukriti K; Pak, Ekaterina; Li, Wei; Atwood, Scott X; Whitson, Ramon J; Chang, Anne Lynn S; Li, Jiang; Oro, Anthony E; Chan, Jennifer A; Kelleher, Joseph F; Segal, Rosalind A

    2015-09-01

    Aberrant Shh signaling promotes tumor growth in diverse cancers. The importance of Shh signaling is particularly evident in medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), where inhibitors targeting the Shh pathway component Smoothened (Smo) show great therapeutic promise. However, the emergence of drug resistance limits long-term efficacy, and the mechanisms of resistance remain poorly understood. Using new medulloblastoma models, we identify two distinct paradigms of resistance to Smo inhibition. Sufu mutations lead to maintenance of the Shh pathway in the presence of Smo inhibitors. Alternatively activation of the RAS-MAPK pathway circumvents Shh pathway dependency, drives tumor growth, and enhances metastatic behavior. Strikingly, in BCC patients treated with Smo inhibitor, squamous cell cancers with RAS/MAPK activation emerged from the antecedent BCC tumors. Together, these findings reveal a critical role of the RAS-MAPK pathway in drug resistance and tumor evolution of Shh pathway-dependent tumors. PMID:26130651

  17. RAS/MAPK activation drives resistance to Smo inhibition, metastasis and tumor evolution in Shh pathway-dependent tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuesong; Ponomaryov, Tatyana; Ornell, Kimberly J.; Zhou, Pengcheng; Dabral, Sukriti K.; Pak, Ekaterina; Li, Wei; Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Chang, Anne Lynn S.; Li, Jiang; Oro, Anthony E.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Kelleher, Joseph F.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant Shh signaling promotes tumor growth in diverse cancers. The importance of Shh signaling is particularly evident in medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), where inhibitors targeting the Shh pathway component Smoothened (Smo) show great therapeutic promise. However, the emergence of drug resistance limits long-term efficacy and the mechanisms of resistance remain poorly understood. Using new medulloblastoma models, we identify two distinct paradigms of resistance to Smo inhibition. Sufu mutations lead to maintenance of the Shh pathway in the presence of Smo inhibitors. Alternatively activation of the RAS/MAPK pathway circumvents Shh pathway-dependency, drives tumor growth and enhances metastatic behavior. Strikingly, in BCC patients treated with Smo inhibitor, squamous cell cancers with RAS/MAPK activation emerged from the antecedent BCC tumors. Together these findings reveal a critical role of RAS/MAPK pathway in drug resistance and tumor evolution of Shh pathway-dependent tumors. PMID:26130651

  18. A Model for Direction Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: Ras Activity and Symmetry Breaking Driven by a Gβγ-Mediated, Gα2-Ric8 -- Dependent Signal Transduction Network

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yougan; Othmer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxis is a dynamic cellular process, comprised of direction sensing, polarization and locomotion, that leads to the directed movement of eukaryotic cells along extracellular gradients. As a primary step in the response of an individual cell to a spatial stimulus, direction sensing has attracted numerous theoretical treatments aimed at explaining experimental observations in a variety of cell types. Here we propose a new model of direction sensing based on experiments using Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty). The model is built around a reaction-diffusion-translocation system that involves three main component processes: a signal detection step based on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) for cyclic AMP (cAMP), a transduction step based on a heterotrimetic G protein Gα2βγ, and an activation step of a monomeric G-protein Ras. The model can predict the experimentally-observed response of cells treated with latrunculin A, which removes feedback from downstream processes, under a variety of stimulus protocols. We show that Gα2βγ cycling modulated by Ric8, a nonreceptor guanine exchange factor for Gα2 in Dicty, drives multiple phases of Ras activation and leads to direction sensing and signal amplification in cAMP gradients. The model predicts that both Gα2 and Gβγ are essential for direction sensing, in that membrane-localized Gα2*, the activated GTP-bearing form of Gα2, leads to asymmetrical recruitment of RasGEF and Ric8, while globally-diffusing Gβγ mediates their activation. We show that the predicted response at the level of Ras activation encodes sufficient ‘memory’ to eliminate the ‘back-of-the wave’ problem, and the effects of diffusion and cell shape on direction sensing are also investigated. In contrast with existing LEGI models of chemotaxis, the results do not require a disparity between the diffusion coefficients of the Ras activator GEF and the Ras inhibitor GAP. Since the signal pathways we study are highly conserved between Dicty

  19. A Model for Direction Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: Ras Activity and Symmetry Breaking Driven by a Gβγ-Mediated, Gα2-Ric8 -- Dependent Signal Transduction Network.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yougan; Othmer, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Chemotaxis is a dynamic cellular process, comprised of direction sensing, polarization and locomotion, that leads to the directed movement of eukaryotic cells along extracellular gradients. As a primary step in the response of an individual cell to a spatial stimulus, direction sensing has attracted numerous theoretical treatments aimed at explaining experimental observations in a variety of cell types. Here we propose a new model of direction sensing based on experiments using Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty). The model is built around a reaction-diffusion-translocation system that involves three main component processes: a signal detection step based on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) for cyclic AMP (cAMP), a transduction step based on a heterotrimetic G protein Gα2βγ, and an activation step of a monomeric G-protein Ras. The model can predict the experimentally-observed response of cells treated with latrunculin A, which removes feedback from downstream processes, under a variety of stimulus protocols. We show that [Formula: see text] cycling modulated by Ric8, a nonreceptor guanine exchange factor for [Formula: see text] in Dicty, drives multiple phases of Ras activation and leads to direction sensing and signal amplification in cAMP gradients. The model predicts that both [Formula: see text] and Gβγ are essential for direction sensing, in that membrane-localized [Formula: see text], the activated GTP-bearing form of [Formula: see text], leads to asymmetrical recruitment of RasGEF and Ric8, while globally-diffusing Gβγ mediates their activation. We show that the predicted response at the level of Ras activation encodes sufficient 'memory' to eliminate the 'back-of-the wave' problem, and the effects of diffusion and cell shape on direction sensing are also investigated. In contrast with existing LEGI models of chemotaxis, the results do not require a disparity between the diffusion coefficients of the Ras activator GEF and the Ras inhibitor GAP. Since

  20. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim7 mediates c-Jun/AP-1 activation by Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Diefenbacher, Markus E.; Mylona, Anastasia; Kassel, Olivier; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor controls key cellular behaviours, including proliferation and apoptosis, in response to JNK and Ras/MAPK signalling. While the JNK pathway has been well characterised, the mechanism of activation by Ras was elusive. Here we identify the uncharacterised ubiquitin ligase Trim7 as a critical component of AP-1 activation via Ras. We found that MSK1 directly phosphorylates Trim7 in response to direct activation by the Ras–Raf–MEK–ERK pathway, and this modification stimulates Trim7 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Trim7 mediates Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the AP-1 coactivator RACO-1, leading to RACO-1 protein stabilisation. Consequently, Trim7 depletion reduces RACO-1 levels and AP-1-dependent gene expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of Trim7 increases lung tumour burden in a Ras-driven cancer model, and knockdown of Trim7 in established xenografts reduces tumour growth. Thus, phosphorylation-ubiquitination crosstalk between MSK1, Trim7 and RACO-1 completes the long sought-after mechanism linking growth factor signalling and AP-1 activation. PMID:25851810

  1. Cardiac remodelling and RAS inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Carlos M

    2016-06-01

    Risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes are known to augment the activity and tissue expression of angiotensin II (Ang II), the major effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Overstimulation of the RAS has been implicated in a chain of events that contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease, including the development of cardiac remodelling. This chain of events has been termed the CV continuum. The concept of CV disease existing as a continuum was first proposed in 1991 and it is believed that intervention at any point within the continuum can modify disease progression. Treatment with antihypertensive agents may result in regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, with different drug classes exhibiting different degrees of efficacy. The greatest decrease in left ventricular mass is observed following treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), which inhibit Ang II formation. Although ACE-Is and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) provide significant benefits in terms of CV events and stroke, mortality remains high. This is partly due to a failure to completely suppress the RAS, and, as our knowledge has increased, an escape phenomenon has been proposed whereby the human sequence of the 12 amino acid substrate angiotensin-(1-12) is converted to Ang II by the mast cell protease, chymase. Angiotensin-(1-12) is abundant in a wide range of organs and has been shown to increase blood pressure in animal models, an effect abolished by the presence of ACE-Is or ARBs. This review explores the CV continuum, in addition to examining the influence of the RAS. We also consider novel pathways within the RAS and how new therapeutic approaches that target this are required to further reduce Ang II formation, and so provide patients with additional benefits from a more complete blockade of the RAS. PMID:27105891

  2. CONTRIBUTION OF INSPIRATORY FLOW TO ACTIVATION OF EGFR, RAS, MAPK, ATF-2 AND C-JUN DURING LUNG STRETCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contribution of Inspiratory Flow to Activation of EGFR, Ras, MAPK, ATF-2 and c-Jun during Lung Stretch

    R. Silbajoris 1, Z. Li 2, J. M. Samet 1 and Y. C. Huang 1. 1 NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC .

    Mechanical ventilation with larg...

  3. Inhibition of RAS in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Rabi; Campbell, Kirk N

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a progressive proteinuric renal disorder in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, particularly in developed countries. Therapeutic targeting of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is the most validated clinical strategy for slowing disease progression. DKD is paradoxically a low systematic renin state with an increased intrarenal RAS activity implicated in its pathogenesis. Angiotensin II (AngII), the main peptide of RAS, is not only a vasoactive peptide but functions as a growth factor, activating interstitial fibroblasts and mesangial and tubular cells, while promoting the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. AngII also promotes podocyte injury through increased calcium influx and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Blockade of the RAS using either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers can attenuate progressive glomerulosclerosis in animal models, and slows disease progression in humans with DKD. In this review, we summarize the role of intrarenal RAS activation in the pathogenesis and progression of DKD and the rationale for RAS inhibition in this population. PMID:25926752

  4. Sur8/Shoc2 promotes cell motility and metastasis through activation of Ras-PI3K signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kaduwal, Saluja; Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Park, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kug Hwa; Lee, Young-Mi; Jeon, Soung-Hoo; Lim, Yong-Beom; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2015-01-01

    Sur8 (also known as Shoc2) is a Ras-Raf scaffold protein that modulates signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Although Sur8 has been shown to be a scaffold protein of the Ras-ERK pathway, its interaction with other signaling pathways and its involvement in tumor malignancy has not been reported. We identified that Sur8 interacts with the p110α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as well as with Ras and Raf, and these interactions are increased in an epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and oncogenic Ras-dependent manner. Sur8 regulates cell migration and invasion via activation of Rac and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Interestingly, using inhibitors of MEK and PI3K we found Sur8 mediates these cellular behaviors predominantly through PI3K pathway. We further found that human metastatic melanoma tissues had higher Sur8 content followed by activations of Akt, ERK, and Rac. Lentivirus-mediated Sur8-knockdown attenuated metastatic potential of highly invasive B16-F10 melanoma cells indicating the role of Sur8 in melanoma metastasis. This is the first report to identify the role of scaffold protein Sur8 in regulating cell motility, invasion, and metastasis through activation of both ERK and PI3K pathways. PMID:26384305

  5. Mechanism of bracken fern carcinogenesis: evidence for H-ras activation via initial adenine alkylation by ptaquiloside.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A S; Pereira, T N; Smith, B L; Shaw, G; Seawright, A A

    1996-01-01

    Bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) causes cancer of the oesophagus and the urinary bladder in cattle and sheep. Ptaquiloside (PT) is believed to be the carcinogenic principle which alkylates DNA when activated to its unstable dienone form (APT) under alkaline conditions. In this report we present evidence for the presence of PT-DNA adducts in the ileum of bracken fem-fed calves using the 32P-postlabelling assay. H-ras mutations were also observed in the ileum using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. Mutations corresponding to adenine to pyrimidine transversions in the codon 61 of H-ras were identified by the cycle sequencing method. In vitro DNA alkylation studies showed that APT alkylated H-ras primarily at the adenines. In addition, the rate of depurination of alkylated adenine was sequence dependent. Investigation of DNA template activity using a plasmid DNA showed that DNA synthesis by T7 DNA polymerase was terminated by the presence of all alkylated bases but certain apurinic sites allowed the DNA synthesis to continue. These results suggest that initial alkylation of adenine by PT in codon 61 followed by depurination and error in DNA synthesis lead to activation of H-ras proto-oncogene. PMID:8946397

  6. K-RAS(V12) Induces Autocrine Production of EGFR Ligands and Mediates Radioresistance Through EGFR-Dependent Akt Signaling and Activation of DNA-PKcs

    SciTech Connect

    Minjgee, Minjmaa; Toulany, Mahmoud; Kehlbach, Rainer; Giehl, Klaudia; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: It is known that postirradiation survival of tumor cells presenting mutated K-RAS is mediated through autocrine activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study the molecular mechanism of radioresistance of cells overexpressing mutated K-RAS(V12) was investigated. Methods and Materials: Head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu) presenting wild-type K-RAS were transfected with empty vector or vector expressing mutated K-RAS(V12). The effect of K-RAS(V12) on autocrine production of EGFR ligands, activation of EGFR downstream pathways, DNA damage repair, and postirradiation survival was analyzed. Results: Conditioned medium collected from K-RAS(V12)-transfected cells enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt pathway and increased postirradiation survival of wild-type K-RAS parental cells when compared with controls. These effects were reversed by amphiregulin (AREG)-neutralizing antibody. In addition, secretion of the EGFR ligands AREG and transforming growth factor {alpha} was significantly increased upon overexpression of K-RAS(V12). Expression of mutated K-RAS(V12) resulted in an increase in radiation-induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation at S2056. This increase was accompanied by increased repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Abrogation of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation by serum depletion or AREG-neutralizing antibody underscored the role of autocrine production of EGFR ligands, namely, AREG, in regulating DNA-PKcs activation in K-RAS mutated cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that radioresistance of K-RAS mutated tumor cells is at least in part due to constitutive production of EGFR ligands, which mediate enhanced repair of DNA double-strand breaks through the EGFR-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt cascade.

  7. Phosphotyrosine-mediated LAT assembly on membranes drives kinetic bifurcation in recruitment dynamics of the Ras activator SOS.

    PubMed

    Huang, William Y C; Yan, Qingrong; Lin, Wan-Chen; Chung, Jean K; Hansen, Scott D; Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T

    2016-07-19

    The assembly of cell surface receptors with downstream signaling molecules is a commonly occurring theme in multiple signaling systems. However, little is known about how these assemblies modulate reaction kinetics and the ultimate propagation of signals. Here, we reconstitute phosphotyrosine-mediated assembly of extended linker for the activation of T cells (LAT):growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2):Son of Sevenless (SOS) networks, derived from the T-cell receptor signaling system, on supported membranes. Single-molecule dwell time distributions reveal two, well-differentiated kinetic species for both Grb2 and SOS on the LAT assemblies. The majority fraction of membrane-recruited Grb2 and SOS both exhibit fast kinetics and single exponential dwell time distributions, with average dwell times of hundreds of milliseconds. The minor fraction exhibits much slower kinetics, extending the dwell times to tens of seconds. Considering this result in the context of the multistep process by which the Ras GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) activity of SOS is activated indicates that kinetic stabilization from the LAT assembly may be important. This kinetic proofreading effect would additionally serve as a stochastic noise filter by reducing the relative probability of spontaneous SOS activation in the absence of receptor triggering. The generality of receptor-mediated assembly suggests that such effects may play a role in multiple receptor proximal signaling processes. PMID:27370798

  8. Activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway alone is not sufficient to induce glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Berghe, N; Ouwens, D M; Maassen, J A; van Mackelenbergh, M G; Sips, H C; Krans, H M

    1994-01-01

    The signal transduction pathway by which insulin stimulates glucose transport is largely unknown, but a role for tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases has been proposed. Since mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is activated by insulin through phosphorylation on both tyrosine and threonine residues, we investigated whether MAP kinase and its upstream regulator, p21ras, are involved in insulin-mediated glucose transport. We did this by examining the time- and dose-dependent stimulation of glucose uptake in relation to the activation of Ras-GTP formation and MAP kinase by thrombin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ras-GTP formation was stimulated transiently by all three agonists, with a peak at 5 to 10 min. Thrombin induced a second peak at approximately 30 min. The activation of p21ras was paralleled by both the phosphorylation and the activation of MAP kinase: transient for insulin and EGF and biphasic for thrombin. However, despite the strong activation of Ras-GTP formation and MAP kinase by EGF and thrombin, glucose uptake was not stimulated by these agonists, in contrast to the eightfold stimulation of 2-deoxy-D-[14C]glucose uptake by insulin. In addition, insulin-mediated glucose transport was not potentiated by thrombin or EGF. Although these results cannot exclude the possibility that p21ras and/or MAP kinase is needed in conjunction with other signaling molecules that are activated by insulin and not by thrombin or EGF, they show that the Ras/MAP kinase signaling pathway alone is not sufficient to induce insulin-mediated glucose transport. Images PMID:7511205

  9. Tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway activation by estradiol-receptor complex in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Castoria, G; de Falco, A; Bontempo, P; Nola, E; Auricchio, F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which estradiol acts on cell multiplication is still unclear. Under conditions of estradiol-dependent growth, estradiol treatment of human mammary cancer MCF-7 cells triggers rapid and transient activation of the mitogen-activated (MAP) kinases, erk-1 and erk-2, increases the active form of p21ras, tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and p190 protein and induces association of p190 to p21ras-GAP. Both Shc and p190 are substrates of activated src and once phosphorylated, they interact with other proteins and upregulate p21ras. Estradiol activates the tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway in MCF-7 cells with kinetics which are similar to those of peptide mitogens. It is only after introduction of the human wild-type 67 kDa estradiol receptor cDNA that Cos cells become estradiol-responsive in terms of erk-2 activity. This finding, together with the inhibition by the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182 780 of the stimulatory effect of estradiol on each step of the pathway in MCF-7 cells proves that the classic estradiol receptor is responsible for the transduction pathway activation. Transfection experiments of Cos cells with the estradiol receptor cDNA and in vitro experiments with c-src show that the estradiol receptor activates c-src and this activation requires occupancy of the receptor by hormone. Our experiments suggest that c-src is an initial and integral part of the signaling events mediated by the estradiol receptor. Images PMID:8635462

  10. Propiconazole-enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras farnesylation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Lynea A.; Moore, Tanya; Nesnow, Stephen

    2012-04-15

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic cholesterol metabolites and bile acids, and transcriptomic studies revealed that genes within the cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol metabolism and bile acid biosyntheses pathways were up-regulated. Hepatic cell proliferation was also increased by propiconazole. AML12 immortalized hepatocytes were used to study propiconazole's effects on cell proliferation focusing on the dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and resulting effects on Ras farnesylation and Erk1/2 activation as a primary pathway. Mevalonate, a key intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, increases cell proliferation in several cancer cell lines and tumors in vivo and serves as the precursor for isoprenoids (e.g. farnesyl pyrophosphate) which are crucial in the farnesylation of the Ras protein by farnesyl transferase. Farnesylation targets Ras to the cell membrane where it is involved in signal transduction, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In our studies, mevalonic acid lactone (MVAL), a source of mevalonic acid, increased cell proliferation in AML12 cells which was reduced by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (L-744,832 or manumycin) or simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, indicating that this cell system responded to alterations in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Cell proliferation in AML12 cells was increased by propiconazole which was reversed by co-incubation with L-744,832 or simvastatin. Increasing concentrations of exogenous cholesterol muted the proliferative effects of propiconazole and the inhibitory effects of L-733,832, results ascribed to reduced stimulation of the endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Western blot analysis of subcellular

  11. A Small Ras-like protein Ray/Rab1c modulates the p53-regulating activity of PRPK

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Yasuhito . E-mail: yasuhito@m.ehime-u.ac.jp; Takeuchi, Takashi; Imai, Yoshinori; Murase, Ryuichi; Kamei, Yoshiaki; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Matsumoto, Suguru; Ueda, Norifumi; Kito, Katsumi; Ogasawara, Masahito; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro

    2006-05-26

    PRPK phosphorylates serine-15 residue of p53 and enhances transcriptional activity. PRPK possesses a bipartite nuclear localization signal and localizes in nucleus when over-expressed in cells. However, intrinsic PRPK localizes mainly in the cytosol in situ. While studying the mechanisms in the distribution of intrinsic PRPK, we identified a PRPK binding protein, an ubiquitously expressed Small Ras-like GTPase, Rab1c, also named Ray or Rab35. The over-expressed Ray was distributed in the nucleus, cytosol, and cell membrane. Both Ray wild type and GTP-restrictively binding mutant Ray-Q67L, but not guanine nucleotide unstable binding mutant Ray-N120I, partially distributed the over-expressed PRPK to the cytosol and also suppressed the PRPK-induced p53-transcriptional activity profoundly. A Small Ras-like GTPase protein Ray was thus indicated to modulate p53 transcriptional activity of PRPK.

  12. RLIP76 regulates Arf6-dependent cell spreading and migration by linking ARNO with activated R-Ras at recycling endosomes.

    PubMed

    Wurtzel, Jeremy G T; Lee, Seunghyung; Singhal, Sharad S; Awasthi, Sanjay; Ginsberg, Mark H; Goldfinger, Lawrence E

    2015-11-27

    R-Ras small GTPase enhances cell spreading and motility via RalBP1/RLIP76, an R-Ras effector that links GTP-R-Ras to activation of Arf6 and Rac1 GTPases. Here, we report that RLIP76 performs these functions by binding cytohesin-2/ARNO, an Arf GTPase guanine exchange factor, and connecting it to R-Ras at recycling endosomes. RLIP76 formed a complex with R-Ras and ARNO by binding ARNO via its N-terminus (residues 1-180) and R-Ras via residues 180-192. This complex was present in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes and the presence of ARNO in recycling endosomes required RLIP76, and was not supported by RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192). Spreading and migration required RLIP76(1-180), and RLIP76(Δ1-180) blocked ARNO recruitment to recycling endosomes, and spreading. Arf6 activation with an ArfGAP inhibitor overcame the spreading defects in RLIP76-depleted cells or cells expressing RLIP76(Δ1-180). Similarly, RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192) suppressed Arf6 activation. Together these results demonstrate that RLIP76 acts as a scaffold at recycling endosomes by binding activated R-Ras, recruiting ARNO to activate Arf6, thereby contributing to cell spreading and migration. PMID:26498519

  13. Mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway predict for antitumor activity of the inhibitor PX-866 while oncogenic Ras is a dominant predictor for resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, NathanT.; Lemos, Robert; Wipf, Peter; Yacoub, Adly; Mitchell, Clint; Siwak, Doris; Mills, Gordon B.; Dent, Paul; Kirkpatrick, D Lynn.; Powis, Garth

    2008-01-01

    The novel phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) inhibitor PX-866 was tested against 13 experimental human tumor xenografts derived from cell lines of various tissue origins. Mutant PI-3-kinase (PIK3CA) and loss of PTEN activity were sufficient but not necessary as predictors of sensitivity to the antitumor activity of the PI-3-K inhibitor PX-866 in the presence of wild type Ras, while mutant oncogenic Ras was a dominant determinant of resistance, even in tumors with coexisting mutations in PIK3CA. The level of activation of PI-3-kinase signaling measured by tumor phospho-Ser473-Akt was insufficient to predict in vivo antitumor response to PX-866. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) revealed that the Ras dependent down stream targets c-Myc and cyclin B were elevated in cell lines resistant to PX-866 in vivo. Studies using an H-Ras construct to constitutively and preferentially activate the three best defined downstream targets of Ras, namely Raf, RalGDS, and PI-3-kinase, showed that mutant Ras mediates resistance through its ability to utilize multiple pathways for tumorigenesis. The identification of Ras and downstream signaling pathways driving resistance to PI-3-kinase inhibition may serve as an important guide for patient selection as inhibitors enter clinical trials, and for the development of rational combinations with other molecularly targeted agents. PMID:19117997

  14. YES oncogenic activity is specified by its SH4 domain and regulates RAS/MAPK signaling in colon carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Fanny; Leroy, Cédric; Simon, Valérie; Benistant, Christine; Roche, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Members of the SRC family of tyrosine kinases (SFK) display important functions in human cancer, but their specific role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that YES regulates a unique oncogenic signaling important for colorectal cancer (CRC) progression that is not shared with SRC. Here, we addressed the underlying mechanism involved in this process. We show that YES oncogenic signaling relies on palmitoylation of its SH4 domain that controls YES localization in cholesterol-enriched membrane micro-domains. Specifically, deletion of the palmitoylation site compromised YES transforming activity, while addition of a palmitoylation site in the SH4 domain of SRC was sufficient for SRC to restore the transforming properties of cells in which YES had been silenced. Subsequently, SILAC phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that micro-domain-associated cell adhesive components and receptor tyrosine kinases are major YES substrates. YES also phosphorylates upstream regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling, including EGFR, SHC and SHP2, which were not targeted by SRC due to the absence of palmitoylation. Accordingly, EGFR-induced MAPK activity was attenuated by YES down-regulation, while increased RAS activity significantly restored cell transformation that was lost upon YES silencing. Collectively, these results uncover a critical role for the SH4 domain in the specification of SFK oncogenic activity and a selective role for YES in the induction of RAS/MAPK signaling in CRC cells. PMID:26269757

  15. Phosphorylation at threonine-235 by a ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is essential for transcription factor NF-IL6.

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, T; Kinoshita, S; Sasagawa, T; Sasaki, K; Naruto, M; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1993-01-01

    NF-IL6, a member of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family transcription factors, is involved in expression of inducible genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. We observed that coexpression of oncogenic p21ras stimulated the transactivating activity of NF-IL6 and induced phosphorylation of Thr-235 located just N-terminal to the DNA binding domain of NF-IL6. Recently, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been shown to be implicated in the cellular response to activated ras. Purified MAP kinases specifically phosphorylated Thr-235 of NF-IL6 in vitro. Mutation of Thr-235 abolished the ras-dependent activation of NF-IL6. From these results, we conclude that NF-IL6 is regulated through phosphorylation by MAP kinases in response to activated ras. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8384717

  16. Colon epithelial cell differentiation is inhibited by constitutive c-myb expression or mutant APC plus activated RAS.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Robert G; Ciznadija, Daniel; Sicurella, Catherine; Reyes, Nancy; Mitchelhill, Ken; Darcy, Phillip K; D'Abaco, Giovanna; Mantamadiotis, Theo

    2005-01-01

    Blocked differentiation is a hallmark of cancer cells and the restoration of differentiation programs in vivo is an actively pursued clinical aim. Understanding the key regulators of cyto-differentiation may focus therapies on molecules that reactivate this process. c-myb expression declines rapidly when human colon cancer epithelial cells are induced to differentiate with the physiologically relevant short-chain fatty acid, sodium butyrate. These cells show increased expression of alkaline phosphatase and cytokeratin 8. Similarly, murine Immorto-epithelial cells derived from wild-type colon cells also show c-myb mRNA declines when induced to differentiate with sodium butyrate. Immorto-cells harboring a single APC mutation are indistinguishable from wild-type cells with regard to differentiation, while addition of activated RAS alone markedly enhances differentiation. In marked contrast, complete differentiation arrest occurs when both APC and RAS are mutated. Expression of MybER, a 4-hydroxytamoxifen-activatable form of c-Myb, blocks differentiation in wildtype and APC mutant Immorto-cell lines as well as LIM1215 human colon carcinoma cells. These data identify two pathways of oncogenic change that lead to retarded epithelial cell differentiation, one involving the presence of a single APC mutation in conjunction with activated RAS or alternatively constitutive c-myb expression. PMID:15684716

  17. The heterotrimeric G q protein-coupled angiotensin II receptor activates p21 ras via the tyrosine kinase-Shc-Grb2-Sos pathway in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sadoshima, J; Izumo, S

    1996-01-01

    p21 ras plays as important role in cell proliferation, transformation and differentiation. Recently, the requirement of p21 ras has been suggested for cellular responses induced by stimulation of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors. However, it remains to be determined how agonists for G protein-coupled receptors activate p21 ras in metazoans. We show here that stimulation of the G q protein-coupled angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor causes activation of p21 ras in cardiac myocytes. The p21 ras activation by Ang II is mediated by an increase in the guanine nucleotide exchange activity, but not by an inhibition of the GTPase-activating protein. Ang II causes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and its association with Grb2 and mSos-1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of p21 ras. This leads to translocation of mSos-1 to the membrane fraction. Shc associates with the SH3 domain of Fyn whose tyrosine kinase activity is activated by Ang II with a similar time course as that of tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. Ang II-induced increase in the guanine nucleotide exchange activity was inhibited by a peptide ligand specific to the SH3 domain of the Src family tyrosine kinases. These results suggest that an agonist for a pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein-coupled receptor may initiate the cross-talk with non-receptor-type tyrosine kinases, thereby activating p21 ras using a similar mechanism as receptor tyrosine kinase-induced p21 ras activation. Images PMID:8631299

  18. Synthesis, biological, and biophysical studies of DAG-indololactones designed as selective activators of RasGRP.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lia C; Donadío, Lucia Gandolfi; Mann, Ella; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Hill, Colin S; Kelsey, Jessica S; Yang, Jing; Esch, Timothy E; Santos, Marina; Peach, Megan L; Kelley, James A; Blumberg, Peter M; Jelinek, Raz; Marquez, Victor E; Comin, Maria J

    2014-06-15

    The development of selective agents capable of discriminating between protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and other diacylglycerol (DAG)-responsive C1 domain-containing proteins represents an important challenge. Recent studies have highlighted the role that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) isoforms play both in immune responses as well as in the development of prostate cancer and melanoma, suggesting that the discovery of selective ligands could have potential therapeutic value. Thus far, the N-methyl-substituted indololactone 1 is the agonist with the highest reported potency and selectivity for RasGRP relative to PKC. Here we present the synthesis, binding studies, cellular assays and biophysical analysis of interactions with model membranes of a family of regioisomers of 1 (compounds 2-5) that differ in the position of the linkage between the indole ring and the lactone moiety. These structural variations were studied to explore the interaction of the active complex (C1 domain-ligand) with cellular membranes, which is believed to be an important factor for selectivity in the activation of DAG-responsive C1 domain containing signaling proteins. All compounds were potent and selective activators of RasGRP when compared to PKCα with selectivities ranging from 6 to 65 fold. However, the parent compound 1 was appreciably more selective than any of the other isomers. In intact cells, modest differences in the patterns of translocation of the C1 domain targets were observed. Biophysical studies using giant vesicles as model membranes did show substantial differences in terms of molecular interactions impacting lipid organization, dynamics and membrane insertion. However, these differences did not yield correspondingly large changes in patterns of biological response, at least for the parameters examined. PMID:24794745

  19. Synthesis, Biological, and Biophysical Studies of DAG-indololactones Designed as Selective Activators of RasGRP

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lia C.; Donadío, Lucia Gandolfi; Mann, Ella; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Hill, Colin S.; Kelsey, Jessica S.; Yang, Jing; Esch, Timothy E.; Santos, Marina; Peach, Megan L.; Kelley, James A.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Jelinek, Raz; Marquez, Victor E.; Comin, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of selective agents capable of discriminating between protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and other diacylglycerol (DAG)-responsive C1 domain-containing proteins represents an important challenge. Recent studies have highlighted the role that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) isoforms play both in immune responses as well as in the development of prostate cancer and melanoma, suggesting that the discovery of selective ligands could have potential therapeutic value. Thus far, the N-methyl-substituted indololactone 1 is the agonist with the highest reported potency and selectivity for RasGRP relative to PKC. Here we present the synthesis, binding studies, cellular assays and biophysical analysis of interactions with model membranes of a family of regioisomers of 1 (compounds 2 to 5) that differ in the position of the linkage between the indole ring and the lactone moiety. These structural variations were studied to explore the interaction of the active complex (C1 domain-ligand) with cellular membranes, which is believed to be an important factor for selectivity in the activation of DAG-responsive C1 domain containing signaling proteins. All compounds were potent and selective activators of RasGRP when compared to PKCα with selectivities ranging from 6 to 65 fold. However, the parent compound 1 was appreciably more selective than any of the other isomers. In intact cells, modest differences in the patterns of translocation of the C1 domain targets were observed. Biophysical studies using giant vesicles as model membranes did show substantial differences in terms of molecular interactions impacting lipid organization, dynamics and membrane insertion. However, these differences did not yield correspondingly large changes in patterns of biological response, at least for the parameters examined. PMID:24794745

  20. Chronic Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Blockade May Not Induce Hypotension During Anaesthesia for Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Guido; Di Salvo, Claudio; Ceccarini, Giovanni; Abramo, Antonio; Fierabracci, Paola; Magno, Silvia; Piaggi, Paolo; Vitti, Paolo; Santini, Ferruccio

    2016-06-01

    The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) for the treatment of hypertensive obese patients is steadily increasing. Some studies have reported that the use of these drugs was associated with an increased risk of hypotensive episodes, during general anaesthesia. The number of bariatric procedures is also increasing worldwide, but there is a lack of studies investigating the hypotensive effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers in severely obese patients during general anaesthesia for bariatric surgery. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate hemodynamic changes induced by general anaesthesia in obese patients chronically treated with ACE-I or ARB compared to a control group not treated with antihypertensive therapy. Fourteen obese subjects (mean body mass index (BMI) 47.5 kg/m(2)) treated with ACE-I or ARB and twelve obese (mean BMI 45.7 kg/m2) controls not treated with antihypertensive therapy underwent general anaesthesia to perform laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored continuously and registered at different time points: T0 before induction, then at 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min after induction, and the last time point taken following recovery from anaesthesia. A progressive reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was observed without significant differences between the two groups. A similar trend of heart rate values was observed. In conclusion, our pilot study suggests that RAS blockers may be continued during the perioperative period in patients undergoing bariatric surgery, without increasing the risk of hypotensive episodes. PMID:26328531

  1. The novel RacE-binding protein GflB sharpens Ras activity at the leading edge of migrating cells

    PubMed Central

    Senoo, Hiroshi; Cai, Huaqing; Wang, Yu; Sesaki, Hiromi; Iijima, Miho

    2016-01-01

    Directional sensing, a process in which cells convert an external chemical gradient into internal signaling events, is essential in chemotaxis. We previously showed that a Rho GTPase, RacE, regulates gradient sensing in Dictyostelium cells. Here, using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify a novel RacE-binding protein, GflB, which contains a Ras GEF domain and a Rho GAP domain. Using biochemical and gene knockout approaches, we show that GflB balances the activation of Ras and Rho GTPases, which enables cells to precisely orient signaling events toward higher concentrations of chemoattractants. Furthermore, we find that GflB is located at the leading edge of migrating cells, and this localization is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton and phosphatidylserine. Our findings provide a new molecular mechanism that connects directional sensing and morphological polarization. PMID:27009206

  2. The novel RacE-binding protein GflB sharpens Ras activity at the leading edge of migrating cells.

    PubMed

    Senoo, Hiroshi; Cai, Huaqing; Wang, Yu; Sesaki, Hiromi; Iijima, Miho

    2016-05-15

    Directional sensing, a process in which cells convert an external chemical gradient into internal signaling events, is essential in chemotaxis. We previously showed that a Rho GTPase, RacE, regulates gradient sensing in Dictyostelium cells. Here, using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify a novel RacE-binding protein, GflB, which contains a Ras GEF domain and a Rho GAP domain. Using biochemical and gene knockout approaches, we show that GflB balances the activation of Ras and Rho GTPases, which enables cells to precisely orient signaling events toward higher concentrations of chemoattractants. Furthermore, we find that GflB is located at the leading edge of migrating cells, and this localization is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton and phosphatidylserine. Our findings provide a new molecular mechanism that connects directional sensing and morphological polarization. PMID:27009206

  3. Analysis of Ras-induced overproliferation in Drosophila hemocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Asha, H; Nagy, Istvan; Kovacs, Gabor; Stetson, Daniel; Ando, Istvan; Dearolf, Charles R

    2003-01-01

    We use the Drosophila melanogaster larval hematopoietic system as an in vivo model for the genetic and functional genomic analysis of oncogenic cell overproliferation. Ras regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in multicellular eukaryotes. To further elucidate the role of activated Ras in cell overproliferation, we generated a collagen promoter-Gal4 strain to overexpress Ras(V12) in Drosophila hemocytes. Activated Ras causes a dramatic increase in the number of circulating larval hemocytes (blood cells), which is caused by cellular overproliferation. This phenotype is mediated by the Raf/MAPK pathway. The mutant hemocytes retain the ability to phagocytose bacteria as well as to differentiate into lamellocytes. Microarray analysis of hemocytes overexpressing Ras(V12) vs. Ras(+) identified 279 transcripts that are differentially expressed threefold or more in hemocytes expressing activated Ras. This work demonstrates that it will be feasible to combine genetic and functional genomic approaches in the Drosophila hematopoietic system to systematically identify oncogene-specific downstream targets. PMID:12586708

  4. Activation of the c-H-ras proto-oncogene by retrovirus insertion and chromosomal rearrangement in a Moloney leukemia virus-induced T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, J N; Smith-White, B; Sisson, B; Parker, D; Blair, D G; Schultz, A; Kozak, C; Lunsford, R D; Askew, D; Weinstein, Y

    1989-01-01

    A rearrangement of the c-H-ras locus was detected in a T-cell line (DA-2) established from a Moloney leukemia virus-induced tumor. This rearrangement was associated with the high-level expression of H-ras RNA and the H-ras gene product, p21. DNA from DA-2 cells transformed fibroblasts in DNA transfection experiments, and the transformed fibroblasts contained the rearranged H-ras locus. The rearrangement involved one allele and was present in tissue from the primary tumor from which the cell line was isolated. Cloning and sequencing of the rearranged allele and comparison with the normal allele demonstrated that the rearrangement was complex and probably resulted from the integration of a retrovirus in the H-ras locus between a 5' noncoding exon and the first coding exon and a subsequent homologous recombination between this provirus and another newly acquired provirus also located on chromosome 7. These events resulted in the translocation of the coding exons of the H-ras locus away from the 5' noncoding exon region to a new genomic site on chromosome 7. Sequencing of the coding regions of the gene failed to detect mutations in the 12th, 13th, 59th, or 61st codons. The possible reasons for the complexity of the rearrangement and the significance of the activation of the H-ras locus to T-cell transformation are discussed. Images PMID:2542606

  5. Therapeutic Strategies for Targeting Ras Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Stephan; Salt, Megan; Young, Amy; McCormick, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Ras genes are frequently activated in cancer. Attempts to develop drugs that target mutant Ras proteins have, so far, been unsuccessful. Tumors bearing these mutations, therefore, remain among the most difficult to treat. Most efforts to block activated Ras have focused on pathways downstream. Drugs that inhibit Raf kinase have shown clinical benefit in the treatment of malignant melanoma. However, these drugs have failed to show clinical benefit in Ras mutant tumors. It remains unclear to what extent Ras depends on Raf kinase for transforming activity, even though Raf proteins bind directly to Ras and are certainly major effectors of Ras action in normal cells and in development. Furthermore, Raf kinase inhibitors can lead to paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway. MEK inhibitors block the Ras-MAPK pathway, but often activate the PI3’-kinase, and have shown little clinical benefit as single agents. This activation is mediated by EGF-R and other receptor tyrosine kinases through relief of a negative feedback loop from ERK. Drug combinations that target multiple points within the Ras signaling network are likely to be necessary to achieve substantial clinical benefit. Other effectors may also contribute to Ras signaling and provide a source of targets. In addition, unbiased screens for genes necessary for Ras transformation have revealed new potential targets and have added to our understanding of Ras cancer biology. PMID:21779505

  6. Activated kRas protects colon cancer cells from cucurbitacin-induced apoptosis; the role of p53 and p21

    PubMed Central

    Escandell, José M.; Kaler, Pawan; Recio, M. Carmen; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard; Ríos, José-Luis; Klampfer, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    Cucurbitacins have been shown to inhibit proliferation in a variety of cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to determine their biological activity in colon cancer cell lines that do not harbor activated STAT3, the key target of cucurbitacin. In order to establish the role of activated kRas in the responsiveness of cells to cucurbitacins, we performed experiments in isogenic colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and Hke-3, which differ only by the presence of an activated kRas allele. We compared the activity of 23, 24-dihydrocucurbitacin B (DHCB) and cucurbitacin R (CCR), two cucurbitacins that we recently isolated, with cucurbitacin I (CCI), a cucurbitacin with established antitumorigenic activity. We showed that cucurbitacins induced dramatic changes in the cytoskeleton (collapse of actin and bundling of tubulin microfilaments), inhibited proliferation and finally induced apoptosis of both HCT116 and Hke3 cells. However, the presence of oncogenic k-Ras significantly decreased the sensitivity of cells to the three cucurbitacins tested, CCR, DHCB and CCI. We confirmed that mutational activation of kRas protects cells from cucurbitacin-induced apoptosis using nontransfromed intestinal epithelial cells with inducible expression of k-RasV12. Cucurbitacins induced the expression of p53 and p21 predominantly in HCT116 cells that harbor mutant Ras. Using HCT116 cells with targeted deletion of p53 or p21 we confirmed that p53 and p21 protect cells from apoptosis induced by cucurbitacins. These results demonstrated that sensitivity of human colon cancer cell lines to cucurbitacins depends on the kRas and p53/p21 status, and established that cucurbitacins can exert antitumorigenic activity in the absence of activated STAT3. PMID:18561895

  7. Activated kRas protects colon cancer cells from cucurbitacin-induced apoptosis: the role of p53 and p21.

    PubMed

    Escandell, José M; Kaler, Pawan; Recio, M Carmen; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard; Ríos, José-Luis; Klampfer, Lidija

    2008-07-15

    Cucurbitacins have been shown to inhibit proliferation in a variety of cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to determine their biological activity in colon cancer cell lines that do not harbor activated STAT3, the key target of cucurbitacin. In order to establish the role of activated kRas in the responsiveness of cells to cucurbitacins, we performed experiments in isogenic colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and Hke-3, which differ only by the presence of an activated kRas allele. We compared the activity of 23, 24-dihydrocucurbitacin B (DHCB) and cucurbitacin R (CCR), two cucurbitacins that we recently isolated, with cucurbitacin I (CCI), a cucurbitacin with established antitumorigenic activity. We showed that cucurbitacins induced dramatic changes in the cytoskeleton (collapse of actin and bundling of tubulin microfilaments), inhibited proliferation and finally induced apoptosis of both HCT116 and Hke-3 cells. However, the presence of oncogenic kRas significantly decreased the sensitivity of cells to the three cucurbitacins tested, CCR, DHCB and CCI. We confirmed that mutational activation of kRas protects cells from cucurbitacin-induced apoptosis using nontransformed intestinal epithelial cells with inducible expression of kRasV12. Cucurbitacins induced the expression of p53 and p21 predominantly in HCT116 cells that harbor mutant Ras. Using HCT116 cells with targeted deletion of p53 or p21 we confirmed that p53 and p21 protect cells from apoptosis induced by cucurbitacins. These results demonstrated that sensitivity of human colon cancer cell lines to cucurbitacins depends on the kRas and p53/p21 status, and established that cucurbitacins can exert antitumorigenic activity in the absence of activated STAT3. PMID:18561895

  8. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of a novel human GAP (GAP1M), GTPase-activating protein of Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaowei; Nakamura, Shun; Hattori, Seisuke

    1996-08-01

    We have previously isolated a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras GAP), Gapl{sup m}, from rat brain. Gap1{sup m} is considered to be a negative regulator of the Ras signaling pathways, like other Ras GAPs, neurofibromin, which is a gene product of the neurofibromatosis type I gene, and p120GAP. In this study we have isolated a human cDNA of this Gap and mapped the gene. The gene encodes a protein of 853 amino acids that shows 89% sequence identity to rat Gapl{sup m}. The human gene was mapped to chromosome 3 by PCR analysis on a panel of human-mouse hybrid cells. FISH analysis refined the location of the gene further to 3q22-q23. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Simvastatin inhibits the activation of p21ras and prevents the loss of dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Roy, Avik; Matras, Joanna; Brahmachari, Saurav; Gendelman, Howard E.; Pahan, Kalipada

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is second only to Alzheimer's disease as the most common devastating human neurodegenerative disorder. Despite intense investigation, no interdictive therapy is available for PD. We investigated whether simvastatin, an FDA-approved cholesterol-lowering drug, could protect against nigrostriatal degeneration following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication to model PD in mice. First, MPP+ induced the activation of p21ras and NF-κB in mouse microglial cells. Inhibition of MPP+-induced activation of NF-κB by Δp21ras, a dominant-negative mutant of p21ras, supported the involvement of p21ras in MPP+-induced microglial activation of NF-κB. Interestingly, simvastatin attenuated activation of both p21ras and NF-κB in MPP+-stimulated microglial cells. Consistently, we found a very rapid activation of p21ras in vivo in the substantia nigra pars compacta of MPTP-intoxicated mice. However, after oral administration, simvastatin entered into the nigra, reduced nigral activation of p21ras, attenuated nigral activation of NF-κB, inhibited nigral expression of proinflammatory molecules, and suppressed nigral activation of glial cells. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Similarly, pravastatin, another cholesterol-lowering drug, suppressed microglial inflammatory responses and protected dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-intoxicated mice; but at levels less than simvastatin. Furthermore, both the statins administered 2 days after initiation of the disease were still capable of inhibiting the demise of dopaminergic neurons and concomitant loss of neurotransmitters suggesting that statins are capable of slowing down the progression of neuronal loss in the MPTP mouse model. Therefore, we conclude that statins may be of therapeutic benefit for PD patients. PMID:19864567

  10. The Telemedical Rescue Assistance System "TemRas"--development, first results, and impact.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Christian; Elsner, Jesko; Schneiders, Marie-Thérèse; Thelen, Sebastian; Brodziak, Tadeusz; Seidenberg, Peter; Schilberg, Daniel; Tobias, Michael; Jeschke, Sabina

    2014-04-01

    German emergency medical services (EMS) face the challenge of ensuring high-quality emergency care against a background of continuously increasing numbers of emergency missions, resource shortages concomitant with greatly increased arrival times, particularly in rural areas. Because German EMS physicians are at maximum capacity, an immediate response is not always possible, and thus delays in commencing advanced life support measures sometimes occur. In such scenarios, paramedics start the initial treatment until the EMS physician arrives. The delayed availability of a physician can defer the decision process of the paramedics and thus postpone the start of the patient's essential treatment, which is particularly dangerous during the care of cardiovascular emergencies. Therefore, the project Telemedical Rescue Assistance System (TemRas) has developed an innovative concept to improve quality of emergency care. The objective is to introduce so-called tele-EMS physicians providing remote medical support for the emergency team on site by transmitting audio and video data as well as vital signs and 12-lead-ECG from the emergency site to a teleconsultation center. In this article, the development process as well as the first results of the evaluation phase and the impact for further use of telemedicine in EMS are presented. PMID:24445230

  11. A New View of Ras Isoforms in Cancers.

    PubMed

    Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chakrabarti, Mayukh; Jang, Hyunbum

    2016-01-01

    Does small GTPase K-Ras4A have a single state or two states, one resembling K-Ras4B and the other N-Ras? A recent study of K-Ras4A made the remarkable observation that even in the absence of the palmitoyl, K-Ras4A can be active at the plasma membrane. Importantly, this suggests that K-Ras4A may exist in two distinct signaling states. In state 1, K-Ras4A is only farnesylated, like K-Ras4B; in state 2, farnesylated and palmitoylated, like N-Ras. The K-Ras4A hypervariable region sequence is positively charged, in between K-Ras4B and N-Ras. Taken together, this raises the possibility that the farnesylated but nonpalmitoylated state 1, like K-Ras4B, binds calmodulin and is associated with colorectal and other adenocarcinomas like lung cancer and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. On the other hand, state 2 may be associated with melanoma and other cancers where N-Ras is a major contributor, such as acute myeloid leukemia. Importantly, H-Ras has two, singly and doubly, palmitoylated states that may also serve distinct functional roles. The multiple signaling states of palmitoylated Ras isoforms question the completeness of small GTPase Ras isoform statistics in different cancer types and call for reevaluation of concepts and protocols. They may also call for reconsideration of oncogenic Ras therapeutics. PMID:26659836

  12. Impact of The Protective Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) on The Vasoreparative Function of CD34+ CACs in Diabetic Retinopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duan, Yaqian; Moldovan, Leni; Miller, Rehae C.; Beli, Eleni; Salazar, Tatiana; Hazra, Sugata; Al-Sabah, Jude; Chalam, KV; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Grant, Maria B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In diabetes, the impaired vasoreparative function of Circulating Angiogenic Cells (CACs) is believed to contribute to the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Accumulating evidence suggests that the protective arm of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) ACE2 Angiotensin-(1-7) Mas plays an important role in restoring the function of diabetic CACs. We examined the protective RAS in CACs in diabetic individuals with different stages of retinopathy. Methods: Study subjects (n43) were recruited as controls or diabetics with either no DR, mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR or proliferative DR (PDR). Fundus photography and fluorescein angiograms were analyzed using Vessel Generation Analysis (VESGEN) software in a cohort of subjects. CD34+ CACs were isolated from peripheral blood of diabetics and control subjects. RAS gene expressions in CACs were measured by qPCR. The vasoreparative function of CACs was assessed by migration ability toward CXCL12 using the QCM 5M 96-well chemotaxis cell migration assay. Results: ACE2 gene is a key enzyme converting the deleterious Angiotensin II to the beneficial Angiotensin-(1-7). ACE2 expression in CACs from diabetic subjects without DR was increased compared to controls, suggestive of compensation (p0.0437). The expression of Mas (Angiotensin-(1-7) receptor) in CACs was also increased in diabetics without DR, while was reduced in NPDR compared to controls (p0.0002), indicating a possible loss of compensation of the protective RAS at this stage of DR. The presence of even mild NPDR was associated with CD34+ CAC migratory dysfunction. When pretreating CACs of DR subjects with Angiotensin-(1-7), migratory ability to a chemoattractant CXCL12 was restored (p0.0008). By VESGEN analysis, an increase in small vessel density was observed in NPDR subjects when compared with the controls. Conclusions: These data suggest the protective RAS axis within diabetic CACs may help maintain their vasoreparative potential

  13. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  14. The RAS Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    NCI established the RAS Initiative to explore innovative approaches for attacking the proteins encoded by mutant forms of RAS genes and to ultimately create effective, new therapies for RAS-related cancers.

  15. RAS Mutations and Oncogenesis: Not all RAS Mutations are Created Equally

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark Steven; Miller, Lance D.

    2012-01-01

    Mutation in RAS proteins is one of the most common genetic alterations observed in human and experimentally induced rodent cancers. In vivo, oncogenic mutations have been shown to occur at exons 12, 13, and 61, resulting in any 1 of 19 possible point mutations in a given tumor for a specific RAS isoform. While some studies have suggested a possible role of different mutant alleles in determining tumor severity and phenotype, no general consensus has emerged on the oncogenicity of different mutant alleles in tumor formation and progression. Part of this may be due to a lack of a single, signature pathway that shows significant alterations between different mutations. Rather, it is likely that subtle differences in the activation, or lack thereof, of downstream effectors by different RAS mutant alleles may determine the eventual outcome in terms of tumor phenotype. This paper reviews our current understanding of the potential role of different RAS mutations on tumorigenesis, highlights studies in model cell culture and in vivo systems, and discusses the potential of expression array and computational network modeling to dissect out differences in activated RAS genes in conferring a transforming phenotype. PMID:22303394

  16. A single amino acid change in Raf-1 inhibits Ras binding and alters Raf-1 function.

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, J R; Vojtek, A B; Cooper, J A; Morrison, D K

    1994-01-01

    Ras and Raf-1 are key proteins involved in the transmission of developmental and proliferative signals generated by receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that Raf-1 functions downstream of Ras in many signaling pathways. Although Raf-1 directly associates with GTP-bound Ras, an effect of this interaction on Raf-1 activity in vivo has not been established. To examine the biological consequence of the Ras/Raf-1 interaction in vivo, we set out to identify key residues of Raf-1 required for Ras binding. In this report, we show that a single amino acid mutation in Raf-1 (Arg89 to Leu) disrupted the interaction with Ras in vitro and in the yeast two-hybrid system. This mutation prevented Ras-mediated but not tyrosine kinase-mediated enzymatic activation of Raf-1 in the baculovirus/Sf9 expression system. Furthermore, kinase-defective Raf-1 proteins containing the Arg89-->Leu mutation were no longer dominant-inhibitory or capable of blocking Ras-mediated signal transduction in Xenopus laevis oocytes. These results demonstrate that the association of Raf-1 and Ras modulates both the kinase activity and the biological function of Raf-1 and identify Arg89 as a critical residue involved in this interaction. In addition, the finding that tyrosine kinases can stimulate the enzymatic activity of Raf-1 proteins containing a mutation at the Ras-interaction site suggests that Raf-1 can be activated by Ras-independent pathways. Images PMID:8016101

  17. The combinatorial activation of the PI3K and Ras/MAPK pathways is sufficient for aggressive tumor formation, while individual pathway activation supports cell persistence

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Keyata N.; Whipple, Rebecca A.; Yoon, Jennifer R.; Lipsky, Michael; Charpentier, Monica S.; Boggs, Amanda E.; Chakrabarti, Kristi R.; Bhandary, Lekhana; Hessler, Lindsay K.; Martin, Stuart S.; Vitolo, Michele I.

    2015-01-01

    A high proportion of human tumors maintain activation of both the PI3K and Ras/MAPK pathways. In basal-like breast cancer (BBC), PTEN expression is decreased/lost in over 50% of cases, leading to aberrant activation of the PI3K pathway. Additionally, BBC cell lines and tumor models have been shown to exhibit an oncogenic Ras-like gene transcriptional signature, indicating activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway. To directly test how the PI3K and Ras/MAPK pathways contribute to tumorigenesis, we deleted PTEN and activated KRas within non-tumorigenic MCF-10A breast cells. Neither individual mutation was sufficient to promote tumorigenesis, but the combination promoted robust tumor growth in mice. However, in vivo bioluminescence reveals that each mutation has the ability to promote a persistent phenotype. Inherent in the concept of tumor cell dormancy, a stage in which residual disease is present but remains asymptomatic, viable cells with each individual mutation can persist in vivo during a period of latency. The persistent cells were excised from the mice and showed increased levels of the cell cycle arrest proteins p21 and p27 compared to the aggressively growing PTEN−/−KRAS(G12V) cells. Additionally, when these persistent cells were placed into growth-promoting conditions, they were able to re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate. These results highlight the potential for either PTEN loss or KRAS activation to promote cell survival in vivo, and the unique ability of the combined mutations to yield rapid tumor growth. This could have important implications in determining recurrence risk and disease progression in tumor subtypes where these mutations are common. PMID:26497685

  18. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 and ras activity as a new strategy in the treatment of HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Misso, Gabriella; Giuberti, Gaia; Lombardi, Angela; Grimaldi, Anna; Ricciardiello, Filippo; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Abbruzzese, Alberto; Caraglia, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is currently treated with taxane-based chemotherapy. We have previously shown that docetaxel (DTX) induces a ras-dependent survival signal that can be antagonized by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTI) such as tipifarnib (TIP). Here we show that the synergistic TIP/DTX combination determines synergistic apoptotic conditions but, at the same time, it modulates the expression of the components of the multichaperone complex that is, in turn, involved in the regulation of the stability of members of the ras-mediated pathway. Therefore, we have stably transfected HNSCC KB and Hep-2 cells with a plasmid encoding for HSP90. The expression of the protein was increased in both transfected cell lines but its activation status was increased in Hep-2 clones and decreased in KB clones. On the basis of these results, we have treated both parental and HSP90-transfected cells with a HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA). We have found that the antiproliferative activity of GA is dependent upon the activation status of HSP90 and that it is strongly synergistic when added in combination with TIP but not with DTX in cells overexpressing HSP90 and even more in cells with increased HSP90 activity. These data were paralleled by the decreased expression and activity of the components belonging to the ras→mediated signal transduction pathway. The present results suggest that multichaperone complex activation could be a resistance mechanism to the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects induced by TIP and that the combination of FTIs such as TIP with GA could be a suitable therapeutic strategy in the treatment of HSP90-overexpressing HNSCC. PMID:22566192

  19. RAS and Hedgehog--partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Lauth, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Both RAS and Hedgehog (HH) pathway activation can be found in approximately one third of all cancers. In many cases, this activation occurs in the same tumor types, suggesting a positive impact of a simultaneous activation of RAS and HH on tumor development. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about the molecular and functional crosstalk of RAS and HH signaling in the development of hyperproliferative disease. PMID:21622175

  20. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Ras Protein (BmRas1) from Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Yanping; Liu, Guangqiang; Yu, Wei; Nie, Zuoming; Chen, Jian; Lv, Zhengbing; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2012-01-01

    The Ras subfamily is the member of small G proteins superfamily involved in cellular signal transduction. Activation of Ras signaling causes cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Bombyx mori Ras-like protein (BmRas1) may belong to the Ras subfamily. It contained an H-N-K-Ras-like domain. The BmRas1 mRNA consisted of 1459 bp. The open reading frame contained 579 bp, encoding 192 amino acids. The protein had such secondary structures as α-helices, extended strand, and random coil. BmRas1 was expressed successfully in E. coli BL21. The recombinant protein was purified with metal-chelating affinity chromatography. The GTPase activity of purified protein was determined by FeSO4-(NH4)2MoO4 assay. The results showed that purified recombinant protein had intrinsic activity of GTPase. High titer polyclonal antibodies were generated by New Zealand rabbit immunized with purified protein. The gene expression features of BmRas1 at different stages and in different organs of the fifth instar larvae were analyzed by Western blot. The results showed that BmRas1 was expressed highly in three development stages including egg, pupae, and adult, but low expression in larva. BmRas1 was expressed in these tissues including head, malpighian tubule, genital gland, and silk gland. The purified recombinant protein would be utilized to further function studies of BmRas1. PMID:22536118

  1. Inhibitors of Ras-SOS Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-19

    Activating Ras mutations are found in about 30 % of human cancers. Ras activation is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, such as the son of sevenless (SOS), which form protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with Ras and catalyze the exchange of GDP by GTP. This is the rate-limiting step in Ras activation. However, Ras surfaces lack any evident suitable pockets where a molecule might bind tightly, rendering Ras proteins still 'undruggable' for over 30 years. Among the alternative approaches is the design of inhibitors that target the Ras-SOS PPI interface, a strategy that is gaining increasing recognition for treating Ras mutant cancers. Herein we focus on data that has accumulated over the past few years pertaining to the design of small-molecule modulators or peptide mimetics aimed at the interface of the Ras-SOS PPI. We emphasize, however, that even if such Ras-SOS therapeutics are potent, drug resistance may emerge. To counteract this development, we propose "pathway drug cocktails", that is, drug combinations aimed at parallel (or compensatory) pathways. A repertoire of classified cancer, cell/tissue, and pathway/protein combinations would be beneficial toward this goal. PMID:26630662

  2. Lead acetate induces EGFR activation upstream of SFK and PKC{alpha} linkage to the Ras/Raf-1/ERK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-Y.; Wang, Y.-T.; Tzeng, D.-W.; Yang, J.-L.

    2009-03-01

    Lead acetate (Pb), a probable human carcinogen, can activate protein kinase C (PKC) upstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Yet, it remains unclear whether Pb activation of PKC {yields} ERK1/2 involves receptor/non-receptor tyrosine kinases and the Ras signaling transducer. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism elicited by Pb for transmitting ERK1/2 signaling in CL3 human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma cells. Pb induction of higher steady-state levels of Ras-GTP was essential for increasing phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Pre-treatment of the cells with a conventional PKC inhibitor Goe6976 or depleting PKC{alpha} using specific small interfering RNA blocked Pb induction of Ras-GTP. Pb also activated cellular tyrosine kinases. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, PD153035 for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and SU6656 for Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK), but not AG1296 for platelet-derived growth factor receptor, could suppress the Pb-induced tyrosine kinases, PKC{alpha}, Ras-GTP, phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Furthermore, phosphorylation of tyrosines on the EGFR multiple autophosphorylation sites and the conserved SFK autophosphorylation site occurred during exposure of cells to Pb for 1-5 min and 5-30 min, respectively. Intriguingly, Pb activation of EGFR required the intrinsic kinase activity but not dimerization of the receptor. Inhibition of SFK or PKC{alpha} activities did not affect EGFR phosphorylation, while knockdown of EGFR blocked SFK phosphorylation and PKC{alpha} activation following Pb. Together, these results indicate that immediate activation of EGFR in response to Pb is obligatory for activation of SFK and PKC{alpha} and subsequent the Ras-Raf-1-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade.

  3. Tfs1p, a Member of the PEBP Family, Inhibits the Ira2p but Not the Ira1p Ras GTPase-Activating Protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chautard, Hélène; Jacquet, Michel; Schoentgen, Françoise; Bureaud, Nicole; Bénédetti, Hélène

    2004-01-01

    Ras proteins are guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that are highly conserved among eukaryotes. They are involved in signal transduction pathways and are tightly regulated by two sets of antagonistic proteins: GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) inhibit Ras proteins, whereas guanine exchange factors activate them. In this work, we describe Tfs1p, the first physiological inhibitor of a Ras GAP, Ira2p, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. TFS1 is a multicopy suppressor of the cdc25-1 mutation in yeast and corresponds to the so-called Ic CPY cytoplasmic inhibitor. Moreover, Tfs1p belongs to the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family, one member of which is RKIP, a kinase and serine protease inhibitor and a metastasis inhibitor in prostate cancer. In this work, the results of (i) a two-hybrid screen of a yeast genomic library, (ii) glutathione S-transferase pulldown experiments, (iii) multicopy suppressor tests of cdc25-1 mutants, and (iv) stress resistance tests to evaluate the activation level of Ras demonstrate that Tfs1p interacts with and inhibits Ira2p. We further show that the conserved ligand-binding pocket of Tfs1—the hallmark of the PEBP family—is important for its inhibitory activity. PMID:15075275

  4. Involvement of deregulated epiregulin expression in tumorigenesis in vivo through activated Ki-Ras signaling pathway in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Baba, I; Shirasawa, S; Iwamoto, R; Okumura, K; Tsunoda, T; Nishioka, M; Fukuyama, K; Yamamoto, K; Mekada, E; Sasazuki, T

    2000-12-15

    To identify the genes located downstream of the activated Ki-Ras signaling pathways in human colon cancer cells, a PCR-based cDNA subtraction library was constructed between HCT116 cells and HCT116-derived activated Ki-ras-disrupted cells (HKe3). One of the genes in HCT116 that was evidently up-regulated was epiregulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor family that is expressed in many kinds of human cancer cells. HKe3-stable transfectants expressing activated Ki-Ras regained over-expression of epiregulin. To further elucidate the biochemical structure and significance of epiregulin expression in tumorigenesis, HKe3-stable transfectants expressing epiregulin (e3-pSE cells) were established. Epiregulin existed as highly glycosylated membrane-bound forms, and TPA rapidly induced ectodomain shedding of epiregulin. Furthermore, the conditioned medium of e3-pSE cells showed more DNA synthesis for 32D cells expressing epidermal growth factor receptor (DER) cells than that of HKe3. Although anchorage-independent growth in soft agar was not observed for e3-pSE cells, tumorigenicity in nude mice was observed evidently, and their growth rate was correlated with each amount of exogenous epiregulin expression. These results suggested that activated Ki-Ras will be one of the factors contributing to the overexpression of epiregulin in human colon cancer cells, and that epiregulin will play a critical role in human tumorigenesis in vivo. PMID:11156386

  5. SRC-DEPENDENT PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 IS REQUIRED FOR ZINC-INDUCED RAS ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Src-dependent Phosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor on Tyrosine 845 Is Required for Zinc-induced Ras Activation
    Weidong Wu 1 , Lee M. Graves 2 , Gordon N. Gill 3 , Sarah J. Parsons 4 , and James M. Samet 5
    1 Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biolo...

  6. Special data base of Informational - Computational System 'INM RAS - Black Sea' for solving inverse and data assimilation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Piskovatsky, Nicolay; Gusev, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The above problems are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for personal computers. In this work the results on the Special data base development for ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the presentation the input information for ICS is discussed, some special data processing procedures are described. In this work the results of forecast using ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" with operational observation data assimilation are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 13-01-00753) and by Presidium Program of Russian Academy of Sciences (project P-23 "Black sea as an imitational ocean model"). References 1. V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 5-31. 2. E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 69-94. 3. V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin, S.N. Moshonkin, S.G. Demyshev, Numerical model of the circulation of Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 95-111. 4. Agoshkov V.I.,Assovsky M.B., Giniatulin S. V., Zakharova N.B., Kuimov G.V., Parmuzin E.I., Fomin V.V. Informational Computational system of variational assimilation of observation data "INM RAS - Black sea"// Ecological

  7. Regulation of RNA Polymerase I-Dependent Promoters by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein via Activated Ras and TATA-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Horng-Dar; Trivedi, Alpa; Johnson, Deborah L.

    1998-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein is essential for viral infectivity, and evidence indicates that it is a strong contributor to HBV-mediated oncogenesis. X has been shown to transactivate a wide variety of RNA polymerase (Pol) II-dependent, as well as RNA Pol III-dependent, promoters. In this study, we have investigated the possibility that X modulates RNA Pol I-dependent rRNA transcription. In both human hepatoma Huh7 and Drosophila Schneider S2 cell lines, X expression stimulated rRNA promoter activity. Extracts prepared from X-expressing cells stably transfected with an X gene also exhibited an increased ability to transcribe the rRNA promoter. The mechanism for X transactivation was examined by determining whether this regulatory event was dependent on Ras activation and increased TATA-binding protein (TBP) levels. Our previous studies have demonstrated that X, and the activation of Ras, produces an increase in the cellular levels of TBP (H.-D. Wang, A. Trivedi, and D. L. Johnson, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:6838–6846, 1997). Expression of a dominant negative form of Ras blocked the X-mediated induction of the rRNA promoters, whereas expression of a constitutively activated form of Ras mimicked the enhancing effect of X on rRNA promoter activity. When TBP was overexpressed in either Huh7 or S2 cells, a dose-dependent increase in rRNA promoter activity was observed. To analyze whether the increase in TBP was modulating rRNA promoter activity indirectly, by increasing activity of RNA Pol II-dependent promoters, a Drosophila TBP cDNA was constructed with a mutation that eliminated its ability to stimulate RNA Pol II-dependent promoters. Transient expression of wild-type TBP in S2 cells increased the activities of specific RNA Pol I- and Pol II-dependent promoters. Expression of the mutant TBP protein failed to enhance the activity of the RNA Pol II-dependent promoters, yet the protein completely retained its ability to stimulate the rRNA promoter. Furthermore, the

  8. RAS oncogenes: weaving a tumorigenic web

    PubMed Central

    Pylayeva-Gupta, Yuliya; Grabocka, Elda; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    RAS proteins are essential components of signalling pathways that emanate from cell surface receptors. Oncogenic activation of these proteins owing to missense mutations is frequently detected in several types of cancer. A wealth of biochemical and genetic studies indicates that RAS proteins control a complex molecular circuitry that consists of a wide array of interconnecting pathways. In this Review, we describe how RAS oncogenes exploit their extensive signalling reach to affect multiple cellular processes that drive tumorigenesis. PMID:21993244

  9. A novel quinoline, MT477: suppresses cell signaling through Ras molecular pathway, inhibits PKC activity, and demonstrates in vivo anti-tumor activity against human carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jasinski, Piotr; Welsh, Brandon; Galvez, Jorge; Land, David; Zwolak, Pawel; Ghandi, Lori; Terai, Kaoru; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z

    2008-06-01

    MT477 is a novel thiopyrano[2,3-c]quinoline that has been identified using molecular topology screening as a potential anticancer drug with a high activity against protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. The objective of the present study was to determine the mechanism of action of MT477 and its activity against human cancer cell lines. MT477 interfered with PKC activity as well as phosphorylation of Ras and ERK1/2 in H226 human lung carcinoma cells. It also induced poly-caspase-dependent apoptosis. MT477 had a dose-dependent (0.006 to 0.2 mM) inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation of H226, MCF-7, U87, LNCaP, A431 and A549 cancer cell lines as determined by in vitro proliferation assays. Two murine xenograft models of human A431 and H226 lung carcinoma were used to evaluate tumor response to intraperitoneal administration of MT477 (33 microg/kg, 100 microg/kg, and 1 mg/kg). Tumor growth was inhibited by 24.5% in A431 and 43.67% in H226 xenografts following MT477 treatment, compared to vehicle controls (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our empirical findings are consistent with molecular modeling of MT477's activity against PKC. We also found, however, that its mechanism of action occurs through suppressing Ras signaling, indicating that its effects on apoptosis and tumor growth in vivo may be mediated by Ras as well as PKC. We propose, therefore, that MT477 warrants further development as an anticancer drug. PMID:17957339

  10. Structural analysis of autoinhibition in the Ras-specific exchange factor RasGRP1

    PubMed Central

    Iwig, Jeffrey S; Vercoulen, Yvonne; Das, Rahul; Barros, Tiago; Limnander, Andre; Che, Yan; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Wemmer, David E; Roose, Jeroen P; Kuriyan, John

    2013-01-01

    RasGRP1 and SOS are Ras-specific nucleotide exchange factors that have distinct roles in lymphocyte development. RasGRP1 is important in some cancers and autoimmune diseases but, in contrast to SOS, its regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Activating signals lead to the membrane recruitment of RasGRP1 and Ras engagement, but it is unclear how interactions between RasGRP1 and Ras are suppressed in the absence of such signals. We present a crystal structure of a fragment of RasGRP1 in which the Ras-binding site is blocked by an interdomain linker and the membrane-interaction surface of RasGRP1 is hidden within a dimerization interface that may be stabilized by the C-terminal oligomerization domain. NMR data demonstrate that calcium binding to the regulatory module generates substantial conformational changes that are incompatible with the inactive assembly. These features allow RasGRP1 to be maintained in an inactive state that is poised for activation by calcium and membrane-localization signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00813.001 PMID:23908768

  11. Hyphal Guidance and Invasive Growth in Candida albicans Require the Ras-Like GTPase Rsr1p and Its GTPase-Activating Protein Bud2p

    PubMed Central

    Hausauer, Danielle L.; Gerami-Nejad, Maryam; Kistler-Anderson, Cassandra; Gale, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, causes superficial mycoses, invasive mucosal infections, and disseminated systemic disease. Many studies have shown an intriguing association between C. albicans morphogenesis and the pathogenesis process. For example, hyphal cells have been observed to penetrate host epithelial cells at sites of wounds and between cell junctions. Ras- and Rho-type GTPases regulate many morphogenetic processes in eukaryotes, including polarity establishment, cell proliferation, and directed growth in response to extracellular stimuli. We found that the C. albicans Ras-like GTPase Rsr1p and its predicted GTPase-activating protein Bud2p localized to the cell cortex, at sites of incipient daughter cell growth, and provided landmarks for the positioning of daughter yeast cells and hyphal cell branches, similar to the paradigm in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, CaRsr1p and CaBud2p were important for morphogenesis: C. albicans strains lacking Rsr1p or Bud2p had abnormal yeast and hyphal cell shapes and frequent bends and promiscuous branching along the hypha and were unable to invade agar. These defects were associated with abnormal actin patch polarization, unstable polarisome localization at hyphal tips, and mislocalized septin rings, consistent with the idea that GTP cycling of Rsr1p stabilizes the axis of polarity primarily to a single focus, thus ensuring normal cell shape and a focused direction of polarized growth. We conclude that the Rsr1p GTPase functions as a polarity landmark for hyphal guidance and may be an important mediator of extracellular signals during processes such as host invasion. PMID:16002653

  12. Disruption of the ARF transcriptional activator DMP1 facilitates cell immortalization, Ras transformation, and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazushi; Wen, Renren; Rehg, Jerold E.; Adachi, Masashi; Cleveland, John L.; Roussel, Martine F.; Sherr, Charles J.

    2000-01-01

    The DMP1 transcription factor induces the ARF tumor suppressor gene in mouse fibroblasts, leading to cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner. We disrupted sequences encoding the DNA-binding domain of DMP1 in mouse embryonic stem cells and derived animals lacking the functional protein. DMP1-null animals are small at birth, and males develop more slowly than their wild-type littermates. Some adult animals exhibit seizures and/or obstuctive uropathy, each of unknown cause. The growth of explanted DMP1-null mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) is progressively retarded as cells are passaged in culture on defined transfer protocols; but, unlike the behavior of normal cells, p19ARF, Mdm2, and p53 levels remain relatively low and DMP1-null MEFs do not senesce. Whereas the establishment of cell lines from MEFs is usually always accompanied by either p53 or ARF loss of function, continuously passaged DMP1-null cells readily give rise to established 3T3 and 3T9 cell lines that retain wild-type ARF and functional p53 genes. Early-passage DMP1-null cells, like MEFs from either ARF-null or p53-null mice, can be morphologically transformed by oncogenic Ha-Ras (Val-12) alone. Splenic lymphocytes harvested from both DMP1-null and ARF-null mice exhibit enhanced proliferative responses in long-term cultures when stimulated to divide with antibody to CD3 and interleukin-2. Although only 1 of 40 DMP1-null animals spontaneously developed a tumor in the first year of life, neonatal treatment with dimethylbenzanthracene or ionizing radiation induced tumors of various histologic types that were not observed in similarly treated DMP1+/+ animals. Karyotypic analyses of MEFs and lymphomas from DMP1-null animals revealed pseudodiploid chromosome numbers, consistent with the retention of wild-type p53. Together, these data suggest that ARF function is compromised, but not eliminated, in animals lacking functional DMP1. PMID:10898794

  13. Targeting oncogenic Ras signaling in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ashley F.; Braun, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    Ras proteins are critical nodes in cellular signaling that integrate inputs from activated cell surface receptors and other stimuli to modulate cell fate through a complex network of effector pathways. Oncogenic RAS mutations are found in ∼ 25% of human cancers and are highly prevalent in hematopoietic malignancies. Because of their structural and biochemical properties, oncogenic Ras proteins are exceedingly difficult targets for rational drug discovery, and no mechanism-based therapies exist for cancers with RAS mutations. This article reviews the properties of normal and oncogenic Ras proteins, the prevalence and likely pathogenic role of NRAS, KRAS, and NF1 mutations in hematopoietic malignancies, relevant animal models of these cancers, and implications for drug discovery. Because hematologic malignancies are experimentally tractable, they are especially valuable platforms for addressing the fundamental question of how to reverse the adverse biochemical output of oncogenic Ras in cancer. PMID:22898602

  14. Suppression of ras-transformants (review).

    PubMed

    Kuzumaki, N

    1991-01-01

    Transforming ras genes are the oncogenes most frequently identified in human cancers. This justifies the intense interest in finding ways to suppress oncogenicity in these gene family-mediated transformants. The methods of suppression can be classified as 1) genetical, 2) biological and 3) pharmacological. Most of the reagents used for the suppression inhibit rodent transformants induced by transfected viral or activated cellular ras oncogenes, but some of the reagents are also effective when applied to natural human transformants that contain activated ras oncogenes. The growth and tumorigenicity of the ras-transformants are suppressed by the inhibition of the integration, transcription, translation or post-translational modification of the ras genes and p21 ras proteins, as well as the inhibition of the expression of genes which collaborate in the ras-transformation or the enhancement of some tumor suppressor genes. These observations offer novel approaches to the investigation of malignant transformation by ras-oncogenes, and have potential application in treatment of ras-oncogene-induced tumors. PMID:2018365

  15. Past, Present, and Future of Targeting Ras for Cancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi; Zhang, Shuxing

    2016-01-01

    For decades, mutant Ras (mut-Ras) proteins have been identified as drivers of multiple cancers including pancreatic, lung, and colon cancers. However, targeting this oncogene has been challenging and no Ras inhibitors are on the market to date. Lately several candidates targeting the downstream pathways of Ras signaling, including PI3K and Raf, were approved for cancer treatment. However, they do not present promising therapeutic effects on patients harboring Ras mutations. Recently, a variety of compounds have been reported to impair the activity of Ras, and these exciting discoveries reignite the hope for development of novel drugs targeting mut-Ras. In this article, we will review the progress made in this field and the current state-of-the-art technologies to develop Ras inhibitors. Also we will discuss the future direction of targeting Ras. PMID:26423695

  16. Ras trafficking, localization and compartmentalized signalling

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Ian A.; Hancock, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Ras proteins are proto-oncogenes that are frequently mutated in human cancers. Three closely related isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are expressed in all cells and have overlapping but distinctive functions. Recent work has revealed how differences between the Ras isoforms in their trafficking, localization and protein-membrane orientation enable signalling specificity to be determined. We review the various strategies used to characterize compartmentalized Ras localization and signalling. Localization is an important contextual modifier of signalling networks and insights from the Ras system are of widespread relevance for researchers interested in signalling initiated from membranes. PMID:21924373

  17. RasGRP1 and RasGRP3 Are Required for Efficient Generation of Early Thymic Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Golec, Dominic P; Henao Caviedes, Laura M; Baldwin, Troy A

    2016-09-01

    T cell development is dependent on the migration of progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the thymus. Upon reaching the thymus, progenitors undergo a complex developmental program that requires inputs from various highly conserved signaling pathways including the Notch and Wnt pathways. To date, Ras signaling has not been implicated in the very earliest stages of T cell differentiation, but members of a family of Ras activators called RasGRPs have been shown to be involved at multiple stages of T cell development. We examined early T cell development in mice lacking RasGRP1, RasGRP3, and RasGRPs 1 and 3. We report that RasGRP1- and RasGRP3-deficient thymi show significantly reduced numbers of early thymic progenitors (ETPs) relative to wild type thymi. Furthermore, RasGRP1/3 double-deficient thymi show significant reductions in ETP numbers compared with either RasGRP1 or RasGRP3 single-deficient thymi, suggesting that both RasGRP1 and RasGRP3 regulate the generation of ETPs. In addition, competitive bone marrow chimera experiments reveal that RasGRP1/3 double-deficient progenitors intrinsically generate ETPs less efficiently than wild type progenitors. Finally, RasGRP1/3-deficient progenitors show impaired migration toward the CCR9 ligand, CCL25, suggesting that RasGRP1 and RasGRP3 may regulate progenitor entry into the thymus through a CCR9-dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate that, in addition to Notch and Wnt, the highly conserved Ras pathway is critical for the earliest stages of T cell development and further highlight the importance of Ras signaling during thymocyte maturation. PMID:27465532

  18. Targeting RAS Membrane Association: Back to the Future for Anti-RAS Drug Discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Adrienne D.; Der, Channing J.; Philips, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    RAS proteins require membrane association for their biological activity, making this association a logical target for anti-RAS therapeutics. Lipid modification of RAS proteins by a farnesyl isoprenoid is an obligate step in that association, and is an enzymatic process. Accordingly, farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) were developed as potential anti-RAS drugs. The lack of efficacy of FTIs as anti-cancer drugs was widely seen as indicating that blocking RAS membrane association was a flawed approach to cancer treatment. However, a deeper understanding of RAS modification and trafficking has revealed that this was an erroneous conclusion. In the presence of FTIs, KRAS and NRAS, which are the RAS isoforms most frequently mutated in cancer, become substrates for alternative modification, can still associate with membranes, and can still function. Thus, FTIs failed not because blocking RAS membrane association is an ineffective approach, but because FTIs failed to accomplish that task. Recent findings regarding RAS isoform trafficking and the regulation of RAS subcellular localization have rekindled interest in efforts to target these processes. In particular, improved understanding of the palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle that regulates RAS interaction with the plasma membrane, endomembranes and cytosol, and of the potential importance of RAS chaperones, have led to new approaches. Efforts to validate and target other enzymatically regulated post-translational modifications are also ongoing. In this review, we revisit lessons learned, describe the current state of the art, and highlight challenging but promising directions to achieve the goal of disrupting RAS membrane association and subcellular localization for anti-RAS drug development. PMID:25878363

  19. Oncogenic RAS pathway activation promotes resistance to anti-VEGF therapy through G-CSF–induced neutrophil recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Vernon T.; Wu, Xiumin; Cheng, Jason H.; Sheng, Rebecca X.; Chung, Alicia S.; Zhuang, Guanglei; Tran, Christopher; Song, Qinghua; Kowanetz, Marcin; Sambrone, Amy; Tan, Martha; Meng, Y. Gloria; Jackson, Erica L.; Peale, Franklin V.; Junttila, Melissa R.; Ferrara, Napoleone

    2013-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) promotes mobilization of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells and has been implicated in resistance to anti-VEGF therapy in mouse models. High G-CSF production has been associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Here we show that activation of the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway regulates G-CSF expression through the Ets transcription factor. Several growth factors induced G-CSF expression by a MEK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of G-CSF release with a MEK inhibitor markedly reduced G-CSF production in vitro and synergized with anti-VEGF antibodies to reduce CD11b+Ly6G+ neutrophil mobilization and tumor growth and led to increased survival in animal models of cancer, including a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Analysis of biopsies from pancreatic cancer patients revealed increased phospho-MEK, G-CSF, and Ets expression and enhanced neutrophil recruitment compared with normal pancreata. These results provide insights into G-CSF regulation and on the mechanism of action of MEK inhibitors and point to unique anticancer strategies. PMID:23530240

  20. T24 human bladder carcinoma cells with activated Ha-ras protooncogene: Nontumorigenic cells susceptible to malignant transformation with carcinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Senger, D.R.; Perruzzi, C.A.; Ali, I.U. )

    1988-07-01

    A comparative analysis of T24 human bladder carcinoma cells and N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MeNNG)-transformed derivatives (MeNNG-T24) revealed the following: (i) The presence of an activated c-Ha-ras gene (in the absence of the normal allele) is sufficient to confer upon T24 cells a tumor-associated phenotype. (ii) MeNNG-transformed T24 cells not only acquire tumor-associated (in vitro) traits (growth in soft agar and rhodamine retention) but, are highly tumorigenic in nude mice. (iii) It is possible to render T24 cells tumorigenic by chemical transformation; therefore, the reason that T24 cells lack tumorigenicity is not because of possible incompatibilities between these cells and nude mice but, in fact, because T24 cells are not malignant. (iv) The loss of expression of a transformation-related M{sub r} 67,000 phosphoprotein by MeNNG-T24 cells after explanation of these cells from nude mouse tumors to in vitro culture indicates that culture conditions can be responsible for rapid phenotypic conversion of human tumor cell lines.

  1. Oncogenic RAS pathway activation promotes resistance to anti-VEGF therapy through G-CSF-induced neutrophil recruitment.

    PubMed

    Phan, Vernon T; Wu, Xiumin; Cheng, Jason H; Sheng, Rebecca X; Chung, Alicia S; Zhuang, Guanglei; Tran, Christopher; Song, Qinghua; Kowanetz, Marcin; Sambrone, Amy; Tan, Martha; Meng, Y Gloria; Jackson, Erica L; Peale, Franklin V; Junttila, Melissa R; Ferrara, Napoleone

    2013-04-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) promotes mobilization of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells and has been implicated in resistance to anti-VEGF therapy in mouse models. High G-CSF production has been associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients. Here we show that activation of the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway regulates G-CSF expression through the Ets transcription factor. Several growth factors induced G-CSF expression by a MEK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of G-CSF release with a MEK inhibitor markedly reduced G-CSF production in vitro and synergized with anti-VEGF antibodies to reduce CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) neutrophil mobilization and tumor growth and led to increased survival in animal models of cancer, including a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Analysis of biopsies from pancreatic cancer patients revealed increased phospho-MEK, G-CSF, and Ets expression and enhanced neutrophil recruitment compared with normal pancreata. These results provide insights into G-CSF regulation and on the mechanism of action of MEK inhibitors and point to unique anticancer strategies. PMID:23530240

  2. Correlation of renin angiotensin system (RAS) candidate gene polymorphisms with response to Ramipril in patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Chattopadhyaya, I; Agrawal, BK; Sehajpal, PK; Goel, RK

    2015-01-01

    Background: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important facet of blood pressure regulation physiology. Treatment of essential hypertension targets the RAS using Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs are not uniformly effective and show inter-individual pharmacodynamic variations. Aim: To assess the correlation between genetic polymorphisms in the genes coding for RAS components (angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE I/D), α-adducin (ADD1) and β1-adrenoreceptor (β1-ADR)) and response to Ramipril. Materials and Methods: We recruited 120 patients with essential hypertension who were administered Ramipril monotherapy initially, followed by combination therapy, if needed, based on their responses. Relationship between genotypes of the three candidate genes and decrease in the blood pressure (BP) was analyzed. Results: One hundred and six patients were evaluable at the end of the study period and 21 different genotypes were observed among them. Seven of them were classified as responders after 8 weeks and at the end of 12 weeks, an additional 77 (72.64%) were deemed responders. 19/22 non-responders were treated with combination therapy and 7/19 (36.84%) showed a response to the same. There was a significant difference between the proportions of responders and non-responders among the genotypes of the ADD1 and β1-ADR genes (P = 0.005 and 0.003, respectively). The best predictors of response to Ramipril 5 mg daily were the II/GG/SS, II/TG/SS, II/GG/SG, ID/GG/SS, ID/GG/SG and ID/TT/SS and DD/GG/SS; II/GG/GG, II/TT/SG, ID/TG/SG, ID/TT/SG, DD/GG/SG and DD/GG/GG were moderately predictive and II/TT/SS, II/TG/GG, ID/TG/GG, DD/TG/SG and DD/TG/GG were poorly predictive of response. Discussion: Variable responses to Ramipril may be the result of genetic factors. Conclusion: Pre-prescription genotyping may help individualize treatment. PMID:25511213

  3. Paradoxical activation of MEK/ERK signaling induced by B-Raf inhibition enhances DR5 expression and DR5 activation-induced apoptosis in Ras-mutant cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You-Take; Deng, Jiusheng; Yue, Ping; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    B-Raf inhibitors have been used for the treatment of some B-Raf–mutated cancers. They effectively inhibit B-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling in cancers harboring mutant B-Raf, but paradoxically activates MEK/ERK in Ras-mutated cancers. Death receptor 5 (DR5), a cell surface pro-apoptotic protein, triggers apoptosis upon ligation with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or aggregation. This study focused on determining the effects of B-Raf inhibition on DR5 expression and DR5 activation-induced apoptosis in Ras-mutant cancer cells. Using chemical and genetic approaches, we have demonstrated that the B-Raf inhibitor PLX4032 induces DR5 upregulation exclusively in Ras-mutant cancer cells; this effect is dependent on Ras/c-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling activation. PLX4032 induces DR5 expression at transcriptional levels, largely due to enhancing CHOP/Elk1-mediated DR5 transcription. Pre-exposure of Ras-mutated cancer cells to PLX4032 sensitizes them to TRAIL-induced apoptosis; this is also a c-Raf/MEK/ERK-dependent event. Collectively, our findings highlight a previously undiscovered effect of B-Raf inhibition on the induction of DR5 expression and the enhancement of DR5 activation-induced apoptosis in Ras-mutant cancer cells and hence may suggest a novel therapeutic strategy against Ras-mutated cancer cells by driving their death due to DR5-dependent apoptosis through B-Raf inhibition. PMID:27222248

  4. Paradoxical activation of MEK/ERK signaling induced by B-Raf inhibition enhances DR5 expression and DR5 activation-induced apoptosis in Ras-mutant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, You-Take; Deng, Jiusheng; Yue, Ping; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    B-Raf inhibitors have been used for the treatment of some B-Raf-mutated cancers. They effectively inhibit B-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling in cancers harboring mutant B-Raf, but paradoxically activates MEK/ERK in Ras-mutated cancers. Death receptor 5 (DR5), a cell surface pro-apoptotic protein, triggers apoptosis upon ligation with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or aggregation. This study focused on determining the effects of B-Raf inhibition on DR5 expression and DR5 activation-induced apoptosis in Ras-mutant cancer cells. Using chemical and genetic approaches, we have demonstrated that the B-Raf inhibitor PLX4032 induces DR5 upregulation exclusively in Ras-mutant cancer cells; this effect is dependent on Ras/c-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling activation. PLX4032 induces DR5 expression at transcriptional levels, largely due to enhancing CHOP/Elk1-mediated DR5 transcription. Pre-exposure of Ras-mutated cancer cells to PLX4032 sensitizes them to TRAIL-induced apoptosis; this is also a c-Raf/MEK/ERK-dependent event. Collectively, our findings highlight a previously undiscovered effect of B-Raf inhibition on the induction of DR5 expression and the enhancement of DR5 activation-induced apoptosis in Ras-mutant cancer cells and hence may suggest a novel therapeutic strategy against Ras-mutated cancer cells by driving their death due to DR5-dependent apoptosis through B-Raf inhibition. PMID:27222248

  5. Optimizing depuration of salmon in RAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can acquire "earthy" or "musty" off-flavors due to bioaccumulation of the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, which are produced by certain bacterial species present in RAS biosolids and microbial biofilms. ...

  6. Hybridization specificity, enzymatic activity and biological (Ha-ras) activity of oligonucleotides containing 2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-erythro-hexopyranosyl nucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Augustyns, K; Godard, G; Hendrix, C; Van Aerschot, A; Rozenski, J; Saison-Behmoaras, T; Herdewijn, P

    1993-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides with a 2,4-dideoxyhexopyranosyl nucleoside incorporated at the 3'-end and at a mutation site of the Ha-ras oncogene mRNA were synthesized. Melting temperature studies revealed that an A*-G mismatch is more stable than an A*-T mismatch with these hexopyranosyl nucleosides incorporated at the mutation site. The oligonucleotides are stable against enzymatic degradation. RNase H mediated cleavage studies revealed selective cleavage of mutated Ha-ras mRNA. The oligonucleotide containing two pyranose nucleosides at the penultimate position activates RNase H more strongly than natural oligonucleotides. No correlation, however, was found between DNA - DNA or RNA - DNA melting temperatures and RNase H mediated cleavage capacity. Although the A*-G mismatch gives more stable hybridization than the A*-T base pairing, only the oligonucleotides containing an A*-T base pair are recognized by RNase H. This modification is situated 3 base pairs upstream to the cleavage site. Finally, the double pyranose modified oligonucleotide was able to reduce the growth of T24 cells (bladder carcinoma) while the unmodified antisense oligonucleotide was not. Images PMID:7694231

  7. The Ras Inhibitors Caveolin-1 and Docking Protein 1 Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ through Spatial Relocalization at Helix 7 of Its Ligand-Binding Domain ▿

    PubMed Central

    Burgermeister, Elke; Friedrich, Teresa; Hitkova, Ivana; Regel, Ivonne; Einwächter, Henrik; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Röcken, Christoph; Perren, Aurel; Wright, Matthew B.; Schmid, Roland M.; Seger, Rony; Ebert, Matthias P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that promotes differentiation and cell survival in the stomach. PPARγ upregulates and interacts with caveolin-1 (Cav1), a scaffold protein of Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The cytoplasmic-to-nuclear localization of PPARγ is altered in gastric cancer (GC) patients, suggesting a so-far-unknown role for Cav1 in spatial regulation of PPARγ signaling. We show here that loss of Cav1 accelerated proliferation of normal stomach and GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of Cav1 increased Ras/MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of serine 84 in PPARγ and enhanced nuclear translocation and ligand-independent transcription of PPARγ target genes. In contrast, Cav1 overexpression sequestered PPARγ in the cytosol through interaction of the Cav1 scaffolding domain (CSD) with a conserved hydrophobic motif in helix 7 of PPARγ's ligand-binding domain. Cav1 cooperated with the endogenous Ras/MAPK inhibitor docking protein 1 (Dok1) to promote the ligand-dependent transcriptional activity of PPARγ and to inhibit cell proliferation. Ligand-activated PPARγ also reduced tumor growth and upregulated the Ras/MAPK inhibitors Cav1 and Dok1 in a murine model of GC. These results suggest a novel mechanism of PPARγ regulation by which Ras/MAPK inhibitors act as scaffold proteins that sequester and sensitize PPARγ to ligands, limiting proliferation of gastric epithelial cells. PMID:21690289

  8. RalA, a GTPase targeted by miR-181a, promotes transformation and progression by activating the Ras-related signaling pathway in chronic myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaochuang; Yang, Juhua; Li, Yumin; Li, Tianfu; Wang, Ruirui; Fei, Jia

    2016-01-01

    BCR/ABL is a well-known activator of multiple signaling pathways. RalA, a Ras downstream signaling molecule and a small GTPase, plays an important role in Bcr-Abl-induced leukemogenesis but the exact mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that RalA GTPase activity is commonly high in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell lines and patient samples. Overexpression of RalA results in malignant transformation and progression, and induces resistance to imatinib (IM) in BaF3 and K562 cell lines. RalA reduced survival and led to IM resistance in a xenografted mouse model. Ablation of RalA by either siRNA or miR-181a, a RalA targeting microRNA, attenuated the malignant phenotypes in K562 cells. RBC8, a selective Ral inhibitor, enhanced the inhibitory effects of IM in K562, KCL22 and BaF3-P210 cells. Interestingly, the phospho-specific protein microarray assay revealed that multiple phosphorylation signal proteins were decreased by RalA inhibition, including SAPK, JNK, SRC, VEGFR2, P38 MAPK, c-Kit, JunB, and Keratin18. Among them, P38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK are Ras downstream signaling kinases. Taken together, RalA GTPase might be an important oncogene activating the Ras-related signaling pathway in CML. PMID:26967392

  9. RasGRP3 regulates the migration of glioma cells via interaction with Arp3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Poisson, Laila M.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, are highly infiltrative. Although GBM express high Ras activity and Ras proteins have been implicated in gliomagenesis, Ras-activating mutations are not frequent in these tumors. RasGRP3, an important signaling protein responsive to diacylglycerol (DAG), increases Ras activation. Here, we examined the expression and functions of RasGRP3 in GBM and glioma cells. RasGRP3 expression was upregulated in GBM specimens and glioma stem cells compared with normal brains and neural stem cells, respectively. RasGRP3 activated Ras and Rap1 in glioma cells and increased cell migration and invasion partially via Ras activation. Using pull-down assay and mass spectroscopy we identified the actin-related protein, Arp3, as a novel interacting protein of RasGRP3. The interaction of RasGRP3 and Arp3 was validated by immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation, and PMA, which activates RasGRP3 and induces its translocation to the peri-nuclear region, increased the association of Arp3 and RasGRP3. Arp3 was upregulated in GBM, regulated cell spreading and migration and its silencing partially decreased these effects of RasGRP3 in glioma cells. In summary, RasGRP3 acts as an important integrating signaling protein of the DAG and Ras signaling pathways and actin polymerization and represents an important therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:25682201

  10. A Mouse Strain Defective in Both T Cells and NK Cells Has Enhanced Sensitivity to Tumor Induction by Plasmid DNA Expressing Both Activated H-Ras and c-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Sheng-Fowler, Li; Tu, Wei; Fu, Haiqing; Murata, Haruhiko; Lanning, Lynda; Foseh, Gideon; Macauley, Juliete; Blair, Donald; Hughes, Stephen H.; Coffin, John M.; Lewis, Andrew M.; Peden, Keith

    2014-01-01

    As part of safety studies to evaluate the risk of residual cellular DNA in vaccines manufactured in tumorigenic cells, we have been developing in vivo assays to detect and quantify the oncogenic activity of DNA. We generated a plasmid expressing both an activated human H-ras gene and murine c-myc gene and showed that 1 µg of this plasmid, pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc, was capable of inducing tumors in newborn NIH Swiss mice. However, to be able to detect the oncogenicity of dominant activated oncogenes in cellular DNA, a more sensitive system was needed. In this paper, we demonstrate that the newborn CD3 epsilon transgenic mouse, which is defective in both T-cell and NK-cell functions, can detect the oncogenic activity of 25 ng of the circular form of pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc. When this plasmid was inoculated as linear DNA, amounts of DNA as low as 800 pg were capable of inducing tumors. Animals were found that had multiple tumors, and these tumors were independent and likely clonal. These results demonstrate that the newborn CD3 epsilon mouse is highly sensitive for the detection of oncogenic activity of DNA. To determine whether it can detect the oncogenic activity of cellular DNA derived from four human tumor-cell lines (HeLa, A549, HT-1080, and CEM), DNA (100 µg) was inoculated into newborn CD3 epsilon mice both in the presence of 1 µg of linear pMSV-T24-H-ras/MSV-c-myc as positive control and in its absence. While tumors were induced in 100% of mice with the positive-control plasmid, no tumors were induced in mice receiving any of the tumor DNAs alone. These results demonstrate that detection of oncogenes in cellular DNA derived from four human tumor-derived cell lines in this mouse system was not possible; the results also show the importance of including a positive-control plasmid to detect inhibitory effects of the cellular DNA. PMID:25302710

  11. Effect of Holocene sea level change on aeolian activity in the coastal plain of Ras El Hekma area, NW coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, Enas; Torab, Magdy

    2015-04-01

    Ras El Hekma area located in north western coast of Egypt, west of Alexandria city for about 220 km, in this area, environmental changes during the Holocene can be interpreted based on morphological and sedimentological similarities between Holocene geomorphic features such as cemented beaches and fossilized dunes with recent coastal features. Sand dunes and nebkhas are the most common aeolian landforms and they occur in semi-arid climatic conditions. The active separated coastal dunes and nebkhas dunes of Ras El-Hekma area are located between the swash zone and the coastal limestone ridges as well as in the coastal sabkhas. The effect of waves during storms reaches far beyond the actual beach and can cause great changes to sandy beaches at an exceptional speed. Sand accumulated by swash drifts with the wind on open beaches and bays. The aeolian sand, which originates from fluvial-marine sediments washed by sea waves. the available sediment depends on fluvial transport to the littoral zone and on biological activity in the carbonate environments as well as on longshore and cross-shore currents. This paper treats the coastal dunes in Ras El Hekma area in their entirety and defines the effects of sea level change on coastal sand dunes and sabkhas dunes, it depends upon field geomorphic surveying, sampling and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation using ENVI software and GIS techniques.

  12. A novel role for copper in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Turski, Michelle L; Brady, Donita C; Kim, Hyung J; Kim, Byung-Eun; Nose, Yasuhiro; Counter, Christopher M; Winge, Dennis R; Thiele, Dennis J

    2012-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is essential for development and proliferation, yet the cellular requirements for Cu in these processes are not well defined. We report that Cu plays an unanticipated role in the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Ablation of the Ctr1 high-affinity Cu transporter in flies and mouse cells, mutation of Ctr1, and Cu chelators all reduce the ability of the MAP kinase kinase Mek1 to phosphorylate the MAP kinase Erk. Moreover, mice bearing a cardiac-tissue-specific knockout of Ctr1 are deficient in Erk phosphorylation in cardiac tissue. in vitro investigations reveal that recombinant Mek1 binds two Cu atoms with high affinity and that Cu enhances Mek1 phosphorylation of Erk in a dose-dependent fashion. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Cu is important for promoting the Mek1-Erk physical interaction that precedes the phosphorylation of Erk by Mek1. These results demonstrate a role for Ctr1 and Cu in activating a pathway well known to play a key role in normal physiology and in cancer. PMID:22290441

  13. Effects of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Denggao; Xu, Shihong; Song, Changbin; Chi, Liang; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Baoliang; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting regimes have been successfully used to inhibit sexual maturity of Atlantic salmon in confinement. However, when these operations are applied in commercial recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) using standard lighting technology, sexual maturation is not suppressed. In this study, an L9 (33) orthogonal design was used to determine the effects of three factors (spectral composition, photoperiod, and light intensity) on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon in RAS. We demonstrated that the photoperiod at the tested levels had a much greater effect on the gonadosomatic index and female Fulton condition factor than spectral composition and light intensity. The photoperiod had a significant effect on the secretion of sex steroids and melatonin ( P<0.05), and a short photoperiod delayed sex steroid and melatonin level increases. The three test factors had no significant effects on the survival rate, specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and male Fulton condition factor ( P>0.05). The optimum lighting levels in female and male Atlantic salmon were LD 8:16, 455 nm (or 625 nm), 8.60 W/m2; and LD 8:16, 8.60 W/m2, 455 nm respectively. These conditions not only delayed gonadal development, but also had no negative effects on Atlantic salmon growth in RAS. These results demonstrate that a combination of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity is effective at delaying the gonadal development of both male and female salmon in RAS.

  14. Differentiation of central nervous system neuronal cells by fibroblast-derived growth factor requires at least two signaling pathways: roles for Ras and Src.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, W L; Chung, K C; Rosner, M R

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and other signaling pathways in neuronal cell differentiation by basic fibroblast-derived growth factor (bFGF), we used a conditionally immortalized cell line from rat hippocampal neurons (H19-7). Previous studies have shown that activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK) is insufficient to induce neuronal differentiation of H19-7 cells. To test the requirement for MEK and MAP kinase (ERK1 and ERK2), H19-7 cells were treated with the MEK inhibitor PD098059. Although the MEK inhibitor blocked the induction of differentiation by constitutively activated Raf, the H19-7 cells still underwent differentiation by bFGF. These results suggest that an alternative pathway is utilized by bFGF for differentiation of the hippocampal neuronal cells. Expression in the H19-7 cells of a dominant-negative Ras (N17-Ras) or Raf (C4-Raf) blocked differentiation by bFGF, suggesting that Ras and probably Raf are required. Expression of dominant-negative Src (pcSrc295Arg) or microinjection of an anti-Src antibody blocked differentiation by bFGF in H19-7 cells, indicating that bFGF also signals through a Src kinase-mediated pathway. Although neither constitutively activated MEK (MEK-2E) nor v-Src was sufficient individually to differentiate the H19-7 cells, coexpression of constitutively activated MEK and v-Src induced neurite outgrowth. These results suggest that (i) activation of MAP kinase (ERK1 and ERK2) is neither necessary nor sufficient for differentiation by bFGF; (ii) activation of Src kinases is necessary but not sufficient for differentiation by bFGF; and (iii) differentiation of H19-7 neuronal cells by bFGF requires at least two signaling pathways activated by Ras and Src. PMID:9234720

  15. The roles of calcium/calmodulin-dependent and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases in the development of psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Licata, Stephanie C; Pierce, R Christopher

    2003-04-01

    Although the development of behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine is confined mainly to one nucleus in the brain, the ventral tegmental area (VTA), this process is nonetheless complex, involving a complicated interplay between neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and trophic factors. In the present review we present the hypothesis that calcium-stimulated second messengers, including the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases, represent the major biochemical pathways whereby converging extracellular signals are integrated and amplified, resulting in the biochemical and molecular changes in dopaminergic neurons in the VTA that represent the critical neuronal correlates of the development of behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants. Moreover, given the important role of calcium-stimulated second messengers in the expression of behavioral sensitization, these signal transduction systems may represent the biochemical substrate through which the transient neurochemical changes associated with the development of behavioral sensitization are translated into the persistent neurochemical, biochemical and molecular alterations in neuronal function that underlie the long-term expression of psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. PMID:12641723

  16. ASPP2 Is a Novel Pan-Ras Nanocluster Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Posada, Itziar M. D.; Serulla, Marc; Zhou, Yong; Oetken-Lindholm, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Ras-induced senescence mediated through ASPP2 represents a barrier to tumour formation. It is initiated by ASPP2’s interaction with Ras at the plasma membrane, which stimulates the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Ras to Raf signalling requires Ras to be organized in nanoscale signalling complexes, called nanocluster. We therefore wanted to investigate whether ASPP2 affects Ras nanoclustering. Here we show that ASPP2 increases the nanoscale clustering of all oncogenic Ras isoforms, H-ras, K-ras and N-ras. Structure-function analysis with ASPP2 truncation mutants suggests that the nanocluster scaffolding activity of ASPP2 converges on its α-helical domain. While ASPP2 increased effector recruitment and stimulated ERK and AKT phosphorylation, it did not increase colony formation of RasG12V transformed NIH/3T3 cells. By contrast, ASPP2 was able to suppress the transformation enhancing ability of the nanocluster scaffold Gal-1, by competing with the specific effect of Gal-1 on H-rasG12V- and K-rasG12V-nanoclustering, thus imposing ASPP2’s ERK and AKT signalling signature. Similarly, ASPP2 robustly induced senescence and strongly abrogated mammosphere formation irrespective of whether it was expressed alone or together with Gal-1, which by itself showed the opposite effect in Ras wt or H-ras mutant breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that Gal-1 and ASPP2 functionally compete in nanocluster for active Ras on the plasma membrane. ASPP2 dominates the biological outcome, thus switching from a Gal-1 supported growth-promoting setting to a senescence inducing and stemness suppressive program in cancer cells. Our results support Ras nanocluster as major integrators of tumour fate decision events. PMID:27437940

  17. Functional determinants of ras interference 1 mutants required for their inhbitory activity on endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis, Adriana; Giambini, Hugo; Villasana, Zoilmar; Barbieri, M. Alejandro

    2009-03-10

    In this study, we initiated experiments to address the structure-function relationship of Rin1. A total of ten substitute mutations were created, and their effects on Rin1 function were examined. Of the ten mutants, four of them (P541A, E574A, Y577F, T580A) were defective in Rab5 binding, while two other Rin1 mutants (D537A, Y561F) partially interacted with Rab5. Mutations in several other residues (Y506F, Y523F, T572A, Y578F) resulted in partial loss of Rab5 function. Biochemical studies showed that six of them (D537A, P541A, Y561F, E574A, Y577F, T580A) were unable to activate Rab5 in an in vitro assay. In addition, Rin1: D537A and Rin1: Y561F mutants showed dominant inhibition of Rab5 function. Consistent with the biochemical studies, we observed that these two Rin1 mutants have lost their ability to stimulate the endocytosis of EGF, form enlarged Rab5-positive endosomes, or support in vitro endosome fusion. Based on these data, our results showed that mutations in the Vps9 domain of Rin1 lead to a loss-of-function phenotype, indicating a specific structure-function relationship between Rab5 and Rin1.

  18. Antisense treatment directed against mutated Ki-ras in human colorectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Andreyev, H; Ross, P; Cunningham, D; Clarke, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Kirsten ras (Ki-ras) mutations are common in gastrointestinal cancer and one codon 12 mutation, glycine to valine, is particularly aggressive in colorectal cancer.
AIMS—To investigate if this valine point mutation could be targeted with antisense oligonucleotides and to determine the efficacy of any antisense/mRNA interaction.
METHODS—Twenty nine antisense oligonucleotides were screened against target and control Ki-ras RNA in a cell free system and against target and control cell lines in culture.
RESULTS—The activity and specificity of the oligonucleotides varied. Results for the individual oligonucleotides were consistent in a cell free model and in cell culture using two different uptake promoters. Only one oligonucleotide was specific in its cleavage of target Ki-ras mRNA in the cell free system and appeared specific in cell culture, although changes in Ki-ras mRNA and protein expression following a single treatment could not be detected. Experiments in the cell free system showed that the point mutation is relatively inaccessible to oligonucleotides. Other sites on the Ki-ras RNA molecule, away from the point mutation, can be targeted more effectively.
CONCLUSIONS—Successful targeting of the clinically relevant Ki-ras point mutation with antisense oligonucleotides is difficult because of RNA structure at the mutated site and is inefficient compared with other sites on the Ki-ras mRNA.


Keywords: Ki-ras mutation; antisense treatment; colorectal carcinoma PMID:11156646

  19. Intermolecular biparatopic trapping of ErbB2 prevents compensatory activation of PI3K/AKT via RAS-p110 crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Tamaskovic, Rastislav; Schwill, Martin; Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Jost, Christian; Schaefer, Dagmar C; Verdurmen, Wouter P R; Schaefer, Jonas V; Honegger, Annemarie; Plückthun, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory mechanisms, such as relief of AKT-ErbB3-negative feedback, are known to desensitize ErbB2-dependent tumours to targeted therapy. Here we describe an adaptation mechanism leading to reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway during trastuzumab treatment, which occurs independently of ErbB3 re-phosphorylation. This signalling bypass of phospho-ErbB3 operates in ErbB2-overexpressing cells via RAS-PI3K crosstalk and is attributable to active ErbB2 homodimers. As demonstrated by dual blockade of ErbB2/RAS and ErbB3 by means of pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference or by specific protein binders obstructing the RAS-p110α interaction, both routes must be blocked to prevent reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Applying these general principles, we developed biparatopic designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) trapping ErbB2 in a dimerization-incompetent state, which entail pan-ErbB inhibition and a permanent OFF state in the oncogenic signalling, thereby triggering extensive apoptosis in ErbB2-addicted tumours. Thus, these novel insights into mechanisms underlying network robustness provide a guide for overcoming adaptation response to ErbB2/ErbB3-targeted therapy. PMID:27255951

  20. Interaction between a Domain of the Negative Regulator of the Ras-ERK Pathway, SPRED1 Protein, and the GTPase-activating Protein-related Domain of Neurofibromin Is Implicated in Legius Syndrome and Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yasuko; Brems, Hilde; Suzuki, Mayu; Kanamori, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Masahiro; Morita, Rimpei; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Ose, Toyoyuki; Messiaen, Ludwine; Legius, Eric; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2016-02-12

    Constitutional heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene cause a phenotype known as Legius syndrome, which consists of symptoms of multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling, learning disabilities, and macrocephaly. Legius syndrome resembles a mild neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) phenotype. It has been demonstrated that SPRED1 functions as a negative regulator of the Ras-ERK pathway and interacts with neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product. However, the molecular details of this interaction and the effects of the mutations identified in Legius syndrome and NF1 on this interaction have not yet been investigated. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid system and an immunoprecipitation assay in HEK293 cells, we found that the SPRED1 EVH1 domain interacts with the N-terminal 16 amino acids and the C-terminal 20 amino acids of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) of neurofibromin, which form two crossing α-helix coils outside the GAP domain. These regions have been shown to be dispensable for GAP activity and are not present in p120(GAP). Several mutations in these N- and C-terminal regions of the GRD in NF1 patients and pathogenic missense mutations in the EVH1 domain of SPRED1 in Legius syndrome reduced the binding affinity between the EVH1 domain and the GRD. EVH1 domain mutations with reduced binding to the GRD also disrupted the ERK suppression activity of SPRED1. These data clearly demonstrate that SPRED1 inhibits the Ras-ERK pathway by recruiting neurofibromin to Ras through the EVH1-GRD interaction, and this study also provides molecular basis for the pathogenic mutations of NF1 and Legius syndrome. PMID:26635368

  1. Detection Of Ras GTPase Protein Radicals Through Immuno-Spin Trapping*

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael F.; Zhou, Li; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Ranguelova, Kalina; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Chen, Xian; Bonini, Marcelo; Mason, Ronald P.; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade immuno-spin trapping (IST) has been used to detect and identify protein radical sites in numerous heme and metalloproteins. To date, however, the technique has had little application toward non-metalloproteins. In this study, we demonstrate the successful application of IST in a system free of transition metals and present the first conclusive evidence of ·NO-mediated protein radical formation in the HRas GTPase. HRas is a non-metalloprotein that plays a critical role in regulating cell growth control. Protein radical formation in Ras GTPases has long been suspected of initiating premature release of bound guanine nucleotide. This action results in altered Ras activity both in vitro and in vivo. As described herein, successful application of IST may provide a means for detecting and identifying radical-mediated Ras activation in many different cancers and disease states where Ras GTPases play an important role. PMID:22819983

  2. Biochemical similarity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ras1 protein with RAS2 protein of Saccharomyces cervisiae.

    PubMed

    Onozawa, T; Danjoh, I; Fujiyama, A

    1995-07-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains single ras oncogene homologue, ras1, that functions in the signal transduction pathway conducting the cell's mating processes. To understand the biochemical basis of yeast ras proteins, we have purified the ras1 protein and compared the major biochemical constants with those of RAS2 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian ras proteins. The purified ras1 protein showed a remarkably high Kd value for GDP binding (178 nM) and for binding with ATP. In contrast, the Kd value for GTP binding and the rate of GTPase activity were 64 nM and 77 x 10(-6) s-1 at 37 degrees C, respectively; both were higher than normal p21ras protein, but at the same level as the RAS2 protein. We directly measured rate of GTP binding and GDP binding which were 3.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and 1.8 x 10(-3) s-1 at 30 degrees C, respectively. On the other hand, exchange rates between bound and free nucleotides remained almost constant throughout the tested combination of GTP and GDP, and were several-fold lower than the binding rate. These results suggest that the release of the guanine nucleotide is the rate-limiting step in the ras-GTP/GDP cycle. As a whole, the biochemical properties of the ras1 protein are close to those of the RAS2 protein, although these two proteins function differently in the signal transduction pathway in the cells. PMID:7483844

  3. RasGRP1 overexpression in T-ALL increases basal nucleotide exchange on Ras rendering the Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway responsive to protumorigenic cytokines.

    PubMed

    Ksionda, O; Melton, A A; Bache, J; Tenhagen, M; Bakker, J; Harvey, R; Winter, S S; Rubio, I; Roose, J P

    2016-07-14

    Ras GTPases are activated by RasGEFs and inactivated by RasGAPs, which stimulate the hydrolysis of RasGTP to inactive RasGDP. GTPase-impairing somatic mutations in RAS genes, such as KRAS(G12D), are among the most common oncogenic events in metastatic cancer. A different type of cancer Ras signal, driven by overexpression of the RasGEF RasGRP1 (Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein 1), was recently implicated in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients and murine models, in which RasGRP1 T-ALLs expand in response to treatment with interleukins (ILs) 2, 7 and 9. Here, we demonstrate that IL-2/7/9 stimulation activates Erk and Akt pathways downstream of Ras in RasGRP1 T-ALL but not in normal thymocytes. In normal lymphocytes, RasGRP1 is recruited to the membrane by diacylglycerol (DAG) in a phospholipase C-γ (PLCγ)-dependent manner. Surprisingly, we find that leukemic RasGRP1-triggered Ras-Akt signals do not depend on acute activation of PLCγ to generate DAG but rely on baseline DAG levels instead. In agreement, using three distinct assays that measure different aspects of the RasGTP/GDP cycle, we established that overexpression of RasGRP1 in T-ALLs results in a constitutively high GTP-loading rate of Ras, which is constantly counterbalanced by hydrolysis of RasGTP. KRAS(G12D) T-ALLs do not show constitutive GTP loading of Ras. Thus, we reveal an entirely novel type of leukemogenic Ras signals that is based on a RasGRP1-driven increased in flux through the RasGTP/GDP cycle, which is mechanistically very different from KRAS(G12D) signals. Our studies highlight the dynamic balance between RasGEF and RasGAP in these T-ALLs and put forth a new model in which IL-2/7/9 decrease RasGAP activity. PMID:26549032

  4. The Pore-Forming α-Toxin from Clostridium septicum Activates the MAPK Pathway in a Ras-c-Raf-Dependent and Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Anjana; Awad, Milena M.; Cheung, Jackie K.; Hiscox, Thomas J.; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of atraumatic gas gangrene, with α-toxin, an extracellular pore-forming toxin, essential for disease. How C. septicum modulates the host’s innate immune response is poorly defined, although α-toxin-intoxicated muscle cells undergo cellular oncosis, characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction and release of reactive oxygen species. Nonetheless, the signalling events that occur prior to the initiation of oncosis are poorly characterised. Our aims were to characterise the ability of α-toxin to activate the host mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of Vero cells with purified α-toxin activated the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 arms of the MAPK pathway and stimulated the release of TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Studies using inhibitors of all three MAPK components suggested that activation of ERK occurred in a Ras-c-Raf dependent manner, whereas activation of JNK and p38 occurred by a Ras-independent mechanism. Toxin-mediated activation was dependent on efficient receptor binding and pore formation and on an influx of extracellular calcium ions. In the mouse myonecrosis model we showed that the MAPK pathway was activated in tissues of infected mice, implying that it has an important role in the disease process. PMID:25675415

  5. The pore-forming α-toxin from clostridium septicum activates the MAPK pathway in a Ras-c-Raf-dependent and independent manner.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Anjana; Awad, Milena M; Cheung, Jackie K; Hiscox, Thomas J; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I

    2015-02-01

    Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of atraumatic gas gangrene, with α-toxin, an extracellular pore-forming toxin, essential for disease. How C. septicum modulates the host's innate immune response is poorly defined, although α-toxin-intoxicated muscle cells undergo cellular oncosis, characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction and release of reactive oxygen species. Nonetheless, the signalling events that occur prior to the initiation of oncosis are poorly characterised. Our aims were to characterise the ability of α-toxin to activate the host mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of Vero cells with purified α-toxin activated the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 arms of the MAPK pathway and stimulated the release of TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Studies using inhibitors of all three MAPK components suggested that activation of ERK occurred in a Ras-c-Raf dependent manner, whereas activation of JNK and p38 occurred by a Ras-independent mechanism. Toxin-mediated activation was dependent on efficient receptor binding and pore formation and on an influx of extracellular calcium ions. In the mouse myonecrosis model we showed that the MAPK pathway was activated in tissues of infected mice, implying that it has an important role in the disease process. PMID:25675415

  6. Adhesion-related kinase induction of migration requires phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and ras stimulation of rac activity in immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Nielsen-Preiss, Sheila M; Allen, Melissa P; Xu, Mei; Linseman, Daniel A; Pawlowski, John E; Bouchard, R J; Varnum, Brian C; Heidenreich, Kim A; Wierman, Margaret E

    2007-06-01

    GnRH neurons migrate into the hypothalamus during development. Although migratory defects may result in disordered activation of the reproductive axis and lead to delayed or absent sexual maturation, specific factors regulating GnRH neuronal migration remain largely unknown. The receptor tyrosine kinase, adhesion-related kinase (Ark) (also known as Axl, UFO, and Tyro7), has been implicated in the migration of GnRH neuronal cells. Binding of its ligand, growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), promotes cytoskeletal remodeling and migration of NLT GnRH neuronal cells via Rac and p38 MAPK. Here, we examined the Axl effectors proximal to Rac in the signaling pathway. Gas6/Axl-induced lamellipodia formation and migration were blocked after phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition in GnRH neuronal cells. The p85 subunit of PI3K coimmunoprecipitated with Axl and was phosphorylated in a Gas6-sensitive manner. In addition, PI3K inhibition in GnRH neuronal cells diminished Gas6-induced Rac activation. Exogenous expression of a dominant-negative form of Ras also decreased GnRH neuronal lamellipodia formation, migration, and Rac activation. PI3K inhibition blocked Ras in addition to Rac activation and migration. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of the phospholipase C gamma effectors, protein kinase C or calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II, had no effect on Gas6/Axl signaling to promote Rac activation or stimulate cytoskeletal reorganization and migration. Together, these data show that the PI3K-Ras pathway is a major mediator of Axl actions upstream of Rac to induce GnRH neuronal cell migration. PMID:17332061

  7. The Differential Palmitoylation States of N-Ras and H-Ras Determine Their Distinct Golgi Sub-compartment Localizations

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Stephen J.; Snitkin, Harriet; Gumper, Iwona; Philips, Mark R.; Sabatini, David; Pellicer, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Despite a high degree of structural homology and shared exchange factors, effectors and GTPase activating proteins, a large body of evidence suggests functional heterogeneity among Ras isoforms. One aspect of Ras biology that may explain this heterogeneity is the differential subcellular localizations driven by the C-terminal hypervariable regions of Ras proteins. Spatial heterogeneity has been documented at the level of organelles: palmitoylated Ras isoforms (H-Ras and N-Ras) localize on the Golgi apparatus whereas K-Ras4B does not. We tested the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity also exists at the sub-organelle level by studying the localization of differentially palmitoylated Ras isoforms within the Golgi apparatus. Using confocal, live cell fluorescent imaging and immunogold electron microscopy we found that, whereas the doubly palmitoylated H-Ras is distributed throughout the Golgi stacks, the singly palmitoylated N-Ras is polarized with a relative paucity of expression on the trans Golgi. Using palmitoylation mutants we show that the different sub-Golgi distributions of the Ras proteins are a consequence of their differential degree of palmitoylation. Thus, the acylation state of Ras proteins controls not only their distribution between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane but also their distribution within the Golgi stacks. PMID:25158650

  8. Cyclin E1 and RTK/RAS signaling drive CDK inhibitor resistance via activation of E2F and ETS.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Harding, Barbie; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Cheon, Dong-Joo; Mizuno, Takako; Greenberg, Danielle; Allen, Jenieke R; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Wang, Qiang; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth Y; Wiedemeyer, W Ruprecht

    2015-01-20

    High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) are genomically complex, heterogeneous cancers with a high mortality rate, due to acquired chemoresistance and lack of targeted therapy options. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) target the retinoblastoma (RB) signaling network, and have been successfully incorporated into treatment regimens for breast and other cancers. Here, we have compared mechanisms of response and resistance to three CDKi that target either CDK4/6 or CDK2 and abrogate E2F target gene expression. We identify CCNE1 gain and RB1 loss as mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition, whereas receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and RAS signaling is associated with CDK2 inhibitor resistance. Mechanistically, we show that ETS factors are mediators of RTK/RAS signaling that cooperate with E2F in cell cycle progression. Consequently, CDK2 inhibition sensitizes cyclin E1-driven but not RAS-driven ovarian cancer cells to platinum-based chemotherapy. In summary, this study outlines a rational approach for incorporating CDKi into treatment regimens for HGSOC. PMID:25557169

  9. NSD2 contributes to oncogenic RAS-driven transcription in lung cancer cells through long-range epigenetic activation

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpizo, Verónica; Sarmentero, Jacinto; Han, Bomie; Graña, Osvaldo; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Pisano, David G.; Serrano, Manuel; Brooks, Harold B.; Campbell, Robert M.; Barrero, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    The histone methyltransferase NSD2/WHSC1/MMSET is overexpressed in a number of solid tumors but its contribution to the biology of these tumors is not well understood. Here, we describe that NSD2 contributes to the proliferation of a subset of lung cancer cell lines by supporting oncogenic RAS transcriptional responses. NSD2 knock down combined with MEK or BRD4 inhibitors causes co-operative inhibitory responses on cell growth. However, while MEK and BRD4 inhibitors converge in the downregulation of genes associated with cancer-acquired super-enhancers, NSD2 inhibition affects the expression of clusters of genes embedded in megabase-scale regions marked with H3K36me2 and that contribute to the RAS transcription program. Thus, combinatorial therapies using MEK or BRD4 inhibitors together with NSD2 inhibition are likely to be needed to ensure a more comprehensive inhibition of oncogenic RAS-driven transcription programs in lung cancers with NSD2 overexpression. PMID:27604143

  10. NSD2 contributes to oncogenic RAS-driven transcription in lung cancer cells through long-range epigenetic activation.

    PubMed

    García-Carpizo, Verónica; Sarmentero, Jacinto; Han, Bomie; Graña, Osvaldo; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Pisano, David G; Serrano, Manuel; Brooks, Harold B; Campbell, Robert M; Barrero, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    The histone methyltransferase NSD2/WHSC1/MMSET is overexpressed in a number of solid tumors but its contribution to the biology of these tumors is not well understood. Here, we describe that NSD2 contributes to the proliferation of a subset of lung cancer cell lines by supporting oncogenic RAS transcriptional responses. NSD2 knock down combined with MEK or BRD4 inhibitors causes co-operative inhibitory responses on cell growth. However, while MEK and BRD4 inhibitors converge in the downregulation of genes associated with cancer-acquired super-enhancers, NSD2 inhibition affects the expression of clusters of genes embedded in megabase-scale regions marked with H3K36me2 and that contribute to the RAS transcription program. Thus, combinatorial therapies using MEK or BRD4 inhibitors together with NSD2 inhibition are likely to be needed to ensure a more comprehensive inhibition of oncogenic RAS-driven transcription programs in lung cancers with NSD2 overexpression. PMID:27604143

  11. Cyclin E1 and RTK/RAS signaling drive CDK inhibitor resistance via activation of E2F and ETS

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Harding, Barbie; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Cheon, Dong-Joo; Mizuno, Takako; Greenberg, Danielle; Allen, Jenieke R.; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Wang, Qiang; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth Y.; Wiedemeyer, W. Ruprecht

    2015-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) are genomically complex, heterogeneous cancers with a high mortality rate, due to acquired chemoresistance and lack of targeted therapy options. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) target the retinoblastoma (RB) signaling network, and have been successfully incorporated into treatment regimens for breast and other cancers. Here, we have compared mechanisms of response and resistance to three CDKi that target either CDK4/6 or CDK2 and abrogate E2F target gene expression. We identify CCNE1 gain and RB1 loss as mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition, whereas receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and RAS signaling is associated with CDK2 inhibitor resistance. Mechanistically, we show that ETS factors are mediators of RTK/RAS signaling that cooperate with E2F in cell cycle progression. Consequently, CDK2 inhibition sensitizes cyclin E1-driven but not RAS-driven ovarian cancer cells to platinum-based chemotherapy. In summary, this study outlines a rational approach for incorporating CDKi into treatment regimens for HGSOC. PMID:25557169

  12. RAS Interaction with PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Esther; Downward, Julian

    2011-01-01

    RAS proteins are small GTPases known for their involvement in oncogenesis: around 25% of human tumors present mutations in a member of this family. RAS operates in a complex signaling network with multiple activators and effectors, which allows them to regulate many cellular functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and senescence. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is one of the main effector pathways of RAS, regulating cell growth, cell cycle entry, cell survival, cytoskeleton reorganization, and metabolism. However, it is the involvement of this pathway in human tumors that has attracted most attention. PI3K has proven to be necessary for RAS-induced transformation in vitro, and more importantly, mice with mutations in the PI3K catalytic subunit p110α that block its ability to interact with RAS are highly resistant to endogenous oncogenic KRAS-induced lung tumorigenesis and HRAS-induced skin carcinogenesis. These animals also have a delayed development of the lymphatic vasculature. Many PI3K inhibitors have been developed that are now in clinical trials. However, it is a complex pathway with many feedback loops, and interactions with other pathways make the results of its inhibition hard to predict. Combined therapy with another RAS-regulated pathway such as RAF/MEK/ERK may be the most effective way to treat cancer, at least in animal models mimicking the human disease. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge about how RAS regulates one of its best-known effectors, PI3K. PMID:21779497

  13. H-ras activation is an early event in the ptaquiloside-induced carcinogenesis: comparison of acute and chronic toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Shahin, M; Moore, M R; Worrall, S; Smith, B L; Seawright, A A; Prakash, A S

    1998-09-18

    Bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) produces cancer of the urinary bladder and oesophagus in grazing animals and is a suspected human carcinogen. The carcinogenic principle ptaquiloside (PT), when activated to a dienone (APT), forms DNA adducts which eventually leads to tumor. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a chronic dose of 3 mg APT weekly for 10 weeks either by intravenous (i.v.) tail vein or by intragastric (i.g.) route. A third group was given a weekly dose of 6 mg of APT for 3 weeks by the i.g. route corresponding to acute dosing. Both chronic i.v. and i.g. dosed animals showed ischemic tubular necrosis in the kidney but only i.v. dosed animals developed adenocarcinomas of the mammary glands. Acutely dosed i.g. animals produced apoptotic bodies in the liver, necrosis of blood cell precursors in the bone marrow and ischemic tubular necrosis in the kidney but they did not develop tumors. No mutations were found in the H-ras and p53 genes in the mammary glands of either the i.g. rats or the tumor-bearing i.v. rats. However, the mammary glands of a fourth group of rats, which received APT by i.v. and killed before tumor development, carried Pu to Pu and Pu to Py double mutations in codons 58 and 59 of H-ras. This study indicates that the route of administration plays a role in the nature of the disease expression from ptaquiloside exposure. In addition to confirming the role of APT in the PT-induced carcinogenesis our finding suggests that activation of H-ras is an early event in the PT-carcinogenesis model. PMID:9753659

  14. MECP2 Is a Frequently Amplified Oncogene with a Novel Epigenetic Mechanism that Mimics the Role of Activated RAS in Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Manish; Clark, Allison P.; Landini, Serena; Birkbak, Nicolai J.; Eklund, Aron C.; Lim, Elgene; Culhane, Aedin C.; Barry, William T.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Szallasi, Zoltan; Vidal, Marc; Hill, David E.; Silver, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    An unbiased genome-scale screen for unmutated genes that drive cancer growth when overexpressed identified MECP2 as a novel oncogene. MECP2 resides in a region of the X-chromosome that is significantly amplified across 18% of cancers, and many cancer cell lines have amplified, overexpressed MECP2 and are dependent on MECP2 expression for growth. MECP2 copy number gain and RAS family member alterations are mutually exclusive in several cancer types. The MECP2 splicing isoforms activate the major growth factor pathways targeted by activated RAS, the MAPK and PI3K pathways. MECP2 rescued the growth of a KRASG12C-addicted cell line after KRAS down-regulation, and activated KRAS rescues the growth of an MECP2-addicted cell line after MECP2 downregulation. MECP2 binding to the epigenetic modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is required for efficient transformation. These observations suggest that MECP2 is a commonly amplified oncogene with an unusual epigenetic mode of action. PMID:26546296

  15. XRP44X, an Inhibitor of Ras/Erk Activation of the Transcription Factor Elk3, Inhibits Tumour Growth and Metastasis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Semenchenko, Kostyantyn; Wasylyk, Christine; Cheung, Henry; Tourrette, Yves; Maas, Peter; Schalken, Jack A; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Wasylyk, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors have an important role in cancer but are difficult targets for the development of tumour therapies. These factors include the Ets family, and in this study Elk3 that is activated by Ras oncogene /Erk signalling, and is involved in angiogenesis, malignant progression and epithelial-mesenchymal type processes. We previously described the identification and in-vitro characterisation of an inhibitor of Ras / Erk activation of Elk3 that also affects microtubules, XRP44X. We now report an initial characterisation of the effects of XRP44X in-vivo on tumour growth and metastasis in three preclinical models mouse models, subcutaneous xenografts, intra-cardiac injection-bone metastasis and the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer progression. XRP44X inhibits tumour growth and metastasis, with limited toxicity. Tumours from XRP44X-treated animals have decreased expression of genes containing Elk3-like binding motifs in their promoters, Elk3 protein and phosphorylated Elk3, suggesting that perhaps XRP44X acts in part by inhibiting the activity of Elk3. Further studies are now warranted to develop XRP44X for tumour therapy. PMID:27427904

  16. XRP44X, an Inhibitor of Ras/Erk Activation of the Transcription Factor Elk3, Inhibits Tumour Growth and Metastasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Henry; Tourrette, Yves; Maas, Peter; Schalken, Jack A; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors have an important role in cancer but are difficult targets for the development of tumour therapies. These factors include the Ets family, and in this study Elk3 that is activated by Ras oncogene /Erk signalling, and is involved in angiogenesis, malignant progression and epithelial-mesenchymal type processes. We previously described the identification and in-vitro characterisation of an inhibitor of Ras / Erk activation of Elk3 that also affects microtubules, XRP44X. We now report an initial characterisation of the effects of XRP44X in-vivo on tumour growth and metastasis in three preclinical models mouse models, subcutaneous xenografts, intra-cardiac injection-bone metastasis and the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer progression. XRP44X inhibits tumour growth and metastasis, with limited toxicity. Tumours from XRP44X-treated animals have decreased expression of genes containing Elk3-like binding motifs in their promoters, Elk3 protein and phosphorylated Elk3, suggesting that perhaps XRP44X acts in part by inhibiting the activity of Elk3. Further studies are now warranted to develop XRP44X for tumour therapy. PMID:27427904

  17. Serum-dependent transcriptional networks identify distinct functional roles for H-Ras and N-Ras during initial stages of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we compared transcriptional profiles corresponding to the initial cell cycle stages of mouse fibroblasts lacking the small GTPases H-Ras and/or N-Ras with those of matching, wild-type controls. Results Serum-starved wild-type and knockout ras fibroblasts had very similar transcriptional profiles, indicating that H-Ras and N-Ras do not significantly control transcriptional responses to serum deprivation stress. In contrast, genomic disruption of H-ras or N-ras, individually or in combination, determined specific differential gene expression profiles in response to post-starvation stimulation with serum for 1 hour (G0/G1 transition) or 8 hours (mid-G1 progression). The absence of N-Ras caused significantly higher changes than the absence of H-Ras in the wave of transcriptional activation linked to G0/G1 transition. In contrast, the absence of H-Ras affected the profile of the transcriptional wave detected during G1 progression more strongly than did the absence of N-Ras. H-Ras was predominantly functionally associated with growth and proliferation, whereas N-Ras had a closer link to the regulation of development, the cell cycle, immunomodulation and apoptosis. Mechanistic analysis indicated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) mediates the regulatory effect of N-Ras on defense and immunity, whereas the pro-apoptotic effects of N-Ras are mediated through ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Conclusions Our observations confirm the notion of an absolute requirement for different peaks of Ras activity during the initial stages of the cell cycle and document the functional specificity of H-Ras and N-Ras during those processes. PMID:19895680

  18. A Ras GAP is essential for cytokinesis and spatial patterning in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Escalante, R; Firtel, R A

    1997-03-01

    Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified developmentally regulated Dictyostelium genes whose encoded proteins interact with Ras-GTP but not Ras-GDP. By sequence homology and biochemical function, one of these genes encodes a Ras GAP (DdRasGAP1). Cells carrying a DdRasGAP1 gene disruption (ddrasgap1 null cells) have multiple, very distinct growth and developmental defects as elucidated by examining the phenotypes of ddrasgap1 null strains. First, vegetative ddrasgap1 null cells are very large and highly multinucleate cells when grown in suspension, indicating a severe defect in cytokinesis. When suspension-grown cells are plated in growth medium on plastic where they attach and can move, the cells rapidly become mono- and dinucleate by traction-mediated cell fission and continue to grow vegetatively with a number of nuclei (1-2) per cell, similar to wild-type cells. The multinucleate phenotype, combined with results indicating that constitutive expression of activated Ras does not yield highly multinucleate cells and data on Ras null mutants, suggest that Ras may need to cycle between GTP- and GDP-bound states for proper cytokinesis. After starvation, the large null cells undergo rapid fission when they start to move at the onset of aggregation, producing mononucleate cells that form a normal aggregate. Second, ddrasgap1 null cells also have multiple developmental phenotypes that indicate an essential role of DdRasGAP1 in controlling cell patterning. Multicellular development is normal through the mid-slug stage, after which morphological differentiation is very abnormal and no culminant is formed: no stalk cells and very few spores are detected. lacZ reporter studies show that by the mid-finger stage, much of the normal cell-type patterning is lost, indicating that proper DdRasGAP1 function and possibly normal Ras activity are necessary to maintain spatial organization and for induction of prestalk to stalk and prespore to spore cell differentiation

  19. CD8(+) T cells mediate RAS-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation through IFN-γ.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Andrew J; Mohammed, Javed; Horvath, Frank J; Podolsky, Michael A; Anderson, Cherie R; Glick, Adam B

    2013-04-01

    The RAS signaling pathway is constitutively activated in psoriatic keratinocytes. We expressed activated H-RAS(V12G) in suprabasal keratinocytes of adult mice and observed rapid development of a psoriasis-like skin phenotype characterized by basal keratinocyte hyperproliferation, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, intraepidermal neutrophil microabscesses, and increased T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 and T cell type 1 (Tc1)/Tc17 skin infiltration. The majority of skin-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells coexpressed IFN-γ and IL-17A. When RAS was expressed on a Rag1-/- background, microabscess formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation were suppressed. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells reduced cutaneous and systemic inflammation, the RAS-induced increase in cutaneous Th17 and IL-17(+) γδ T cells, and epidermal hyperproliferation to levels similar to a Rag1-/- background. Reconstitution of Rag1-/- inducible RAS mice with purified CD8(+) T cells restored microabscess formation and epidermal hyperproliferation. Neutralization of IFN-γ, but not of IL-17A, in CD8(+) T-cell-reconstituted Rag1-/- mice expressing RAS blocked CD8-mediated skin inflammation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. These results show that CD8(+) T cells can orchestrate skin inflammation with psoriasis-like pathology in response to constitutive RAS activation in keratinocytes, and this is primarily mediated through IFN-γ. PMID:23151849

  20. The RAS Problem

    Cancer.gov

    More than 30% of all human cancers, including a high percentage of lung and colon cancers and 95% of pancreatic cancers are driven by mutations and possibly amplification (increased copies) of RAS genes.

  1. RAS Ordinary Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    Here are summarized talks from the February and March RAS Ordinary Meetings. The February meeting also enjoyed the Eddington Lecture from Prof. Lisa Kewley (Australian National University) on galaxy evolution in 3D.

  2. Tumor suppressor role of phospholipase Cε in Ras-triggered cancers

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Marta; McCarthy, Afshan; Baxendale, Rhona; Guichard, Sabrina; Magno, Lorenza; Kessaris, Nicoletta; El-Bahrawy, Mona; Yu, Philipp; Katan, Matilda

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase Cε (PLCε) has been characterized as a direct effector of Ras in vitro and in cellular systems; however, the role of PLCε in tumorigenesis and its link to Ras in this context remain unclear. To assess the role of PLCε in Ras-driven cancers, we generated two new mouse strains: one carrying a targeted deletion of Plce (Plce−/−) and the other carrying mutant alleles of Plce unable to bind to Ras (PlceRAm/RAm). The Plce−/− and, to a lesser degree, PlceRAm/RAm transgenic mice exhibited increased susceptibility to tumor formation in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol, revealing a tumor suppressor function for this PLC. This result also suggests that in this context Ras binding in part regulates functions of PLCε. Although significant differences were not seen in the LSL-KrasG12D nonsmall cell lung carcinoma model, down-regulation of PLCε was found in animal tumors and in cellular systems following expression of the oncogenic Ras. An inhibitory impact of PLCε on cell growth requires intact lipase activity and is likely mediated by protein kinase C enzymes. Further cellular studies suggest involvement of histone deacetylase in the mechanism of PLCε down-regulation. Taken together, our results show a previously unidentified tumor suppressor role for this PLC in animal models and, together with observations of marked down-regulation in colorectal, lung, and skin tumors, suggest its use as a biological marker in cancer. PMID:24591640

  3. Visualizing and Quantitating the Spatiotemporal Regulation of Ras/ERK Signaling by Dual-Specificity Mitogen-Activated Protein Phosphatases (MKPs).

    PubMed

    Caunt, Christopher J; Kidger, Andrew M; Keyse, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway is critical in determining the physiological and pathophysiological outcome of signaling. Dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (DUSPs or MKPs) are key regulators of pathway activity and may also localize ERK to distinct subcellular locations. Here we present methods largely based on the use of high content microscopy to both visualize and quantitate the subcellular distribution of activated (p-ERK) and total ERK in populations of mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from mice lacking DUSP5, a nuclear ERK-specific MKP. Such methods in combination with rescue experiments using adenoviral vectors encoding wild-type and mutant forms of DUSP5 have allowed us to visualize specific defects in ERK regulation in these cells thus confirming the role of this phosphatase as both a nuclear regulator of ERK activity and localization. PMID:27514808

  4. Ras activity late in G1 phase required for p27kip1 downregulation, passage through the restriction point, and entry into S phase in growth factor-stimulated NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Takuwa, N; Takuwa, Y

    1997-01-01

    It is well documented that Ras functions as a molecular switch for reentry into the cell cycle at the border between G0 and G1 by transducing extracellular growth stimuli into early G1 mitogenic signals. In the present study, we investigated the role of Ras during the late stage of the G1 phase by using NIH 3T3 (M17) fibroblasts in which the expression of a dominant negative Ras mutant, p21(Ha-Ras[Asn17]), is induced in response to dexamethasone treatment. We found that delaying the expression of Ras(Asn17) until late in the G1 phase by introducing dexamethasone 3 h after the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) abolished the downregulation of the p27kip1 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor which normally occurred during this period, with resultant suppression of cyclin Ds/CDK4 and cyclin E/CDK2 and G1 arrest. The immunodepletion of p27kip1 completely eliminated the CDK inhibitor activity from EGF-stimulated, dexamethasone-treated cell lysate. The failure of p27kip1 downregulation and G1 arrest was also observed in cells in which Ras(Asn17) was induced after growth stimulation with a phorbol ester or alpha-thrombin and was mimicked by the addition late in the G1 phase of inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase. Ras-mediated downregulation of p27kip1 involved both the suppression of synthesis and the stimulation of the degradation of the protein. Unlike the earlier expression of Ras(Asn17) at the border between G0 and G1, its delayed expression did not compromise the EGF-stimulated transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases or inhibit the stimulated expression of a principal D-type cyclin, cyclin D1, until close to the border between G1 and S. We conclude that Ras plays temporally distinct, phase-specific roles throughout the G1 phase and that Ras function late in G1 is required for p27kip1 downregulation and passage through the restriction point, a prerequisite for entry into the S phase. PMID:9271412

  5. Resistance of R-Ras knockout mice to skin tumour induction

    PubMed Central

    May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart; Vähätupa, Maria; Laitinen, Anni M.; Nieminen, Katriina; Uusitalo-Järvinen, Hannele; Järvinen, Tero A. H.

    2015-01-01

    The R-ras gene encodes a small GTPase that is a member of the Ras family. Despite close sequence similarities, R-Ras is functionally distinct from the prototypic Ras proteins; no transformative activity and no activating mutations of R-Ras in human malignancies have been reported for it. R-Ras activity appears inhibitory towards tumour proliferation and invasion, and to promote cellular quiescence. Contrary to this, using mice with a deletion of the R-ras gene, we found that R-Ras facilitates DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumour induction. The tumours appeared in wild-type (WT) mice on average 6 weeks earlier than in R-Ras knockout (R-Ras KO) mice. WT mice developed almost 6 times more tumours than R-Ras KO mice. Despite strong R-Ras protein expression in the dermal blood vessels, no R-Ras could be detected in the epidermis from where the tumours arose. The DMBA/TPA skin tumourigenesis-model is highly dependent upon inflammation, and we found a greatly attenuated skin inflammatory response to DMBA/TPA-treatment in the R-Ras KO mice in the context of leukocyte infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, these data suggest that despite its characterised role in promoting cellular quiescence, R-Ras is pro-tumourigenic in the DMBA/TPA tumour model and important for the inflammatory response to DMBA/TPA treatment. PMID:26133397

  6. Diesel Exhaust Particles Activate the Matrix-Metalloproteinase-1 Gene in Human Bronchial Epithelia in a β-Arrestin–Dependent Manner via Activation of RAS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinju; Ghio, Andrew J.; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.; Simon, Sidney A.; Liedtke, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are globally relevant air pollutants that exert a detrimental human health impact. However, mechanisms of damage by DEP exposure to human respiratory health and human susceptibility factors are only partially known. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been implied as an (etio)pathogenic factor in human lung and airway diseases such as emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic asthma, tuberculosis, and bronchial carcinoma and has been reported to be regulated by DEPs. Objective We elucidated the molecular mechanisms of DEPs’ up-regulation of MMP-1. Methods/Results Using permanent and primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells at air–liquid interface, we show that DEPs activate the human MMP-1 gene via RAS and subsequent activation of RAF-MEK-ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, which can be scaffolded by β-arrestins. Short interfering RNA mediated β-arrestin1/2 knockout eliminated formation, subsequent nuclear trafficking of phosphorylated ERK1/2, and resulting MMP-1 transcriptional activation. Transcriptional regulation of the human MMP-1 promoter was strongly influenced by the presence of the –1607GG polymorphism, present in 60–80% of humans, which led to striking up-regulation of MMP-1 transcriptional activation. Conclusion Our results confirm up-regulation of MMP-1 in response to DEPs in HBE and provide new mechanistic insight into how these epithelia, the first line of protection against environmental insults, up-regulate MMP-1 in response to DEP inhalation. These mechanisms include a role for the human –1607GG polymorphism as a susceptibility factor for an accentuated response, which critically depends on the ability of β-arrestin1/2 to generate scaffolding and nuclear trafficking of phosphorylated ERK1/2. PMID:19337515

  7. Renewing the conspiracy theory debate: does Raf function alone to mediate Ras oncogenesis?

    PubMed

    Repasky, Gretchen A; Chenette, Emily J; Der, Channing J

    2004-11-01

    Ras proteins function as signal transducers and are mutationally activated in many human cancers. In 1993, Raf was identified as a key downstream effector of Ras signaling, and it was believed then that the primary function of Ras was simply to facilitate Raf activation. However, the subsequent discovery of other proteins that are effectors of Ras function suggested that oncogenic activities of Ras are mediated by both Raf-dependent and Raf-independent signaling. Further complexity arose with the identification of Ras effectors with putative tumor suppressor, rather than oncogenic, functions. However, the recent identification of B-raf mutations in human cancers has renewed the debate regarding whether Raf activation alone promotes Ras-mediated oncogenesis. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of the contribution of Ras effectors in Ras-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:15519853

  8. R-Ras contributes to LTP and contextual discrimination.

    PubMed

    Darcy, M J; Jin, S-X; Feig, L A

    2014-09-26

    The ability to discriminate between closely related contexts is a specific form of hippocampal-dependent learning that may be impaired in certain neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Down Syndrome. However, signaling pathways regulating this form of learning are poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the calcium-dependent exchange factor Ras-GRF1, an activator of Rac, Ras and R-Ras GTPases, is important for this form of learning and memory. Moreover, the ability to discriminate contexts was linked to the ability of Ras-GRF1 to promote high-frequency stimulation long-term potentiation (HFS-LTP) via the activation of p38 Map kinase. Here, we show that R-Ras is involved in this form of learning by using virally-delivered miRNAs targeting R-Ras into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and observing impaired contextual discrimination. Like the loss of GRF1, knockdown of R-Ras in the CA1 also impairs the induction of HFS-LTP and p38 Map kinase. Nevertheless, experiments indicate that this involvement of R-Ras in HFS-LTP that is required for contextual discrimination is independent of Ras-GRF1. Thus, R-Ras is a novel regulator of a form of hippocampal-dependent LTP as well as learning and memory that is affected in certain forms of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25043327

  9. P120-GAP associated with syndecan-2 to function as an active switch signal for Src upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.-W.; Chen, C.-L.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-04-15

    BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus were applied to reveal a complex of p120-GAP/syndecan-2 being highly expressed upon transformation. Of interest, most of the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was localized at caveolae, a membrane microdomain enriched with caveolin-1. To confirm the molecular interaction between syndecan-2 and p120-GAP, we further purified p120-GAP protein from mouse brains by using an affinity column of HiTrap-RACK1 and expressed mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein and mouse syndecan-2-encoded fusion protein in bacteria. We report molecular affinities exist between p120-GAP and RACK1, syndecan-2 and RACK1 as well as p120-GAP and syndecan-2. The selective affinity between p120-GAP and syndecan-2 was found to be sufficient to detach RACK1. The p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was demonstrated to keep Src tyrosine kinase in an activated form. On the other hand, the syndecan-2/RACK1 complex was found to have Src in an inactivated form. These data indicate that the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex at caveolae could provide a docking site for Src to transmit tyrosine signaling, implying that syndecan-2/p120-GAP functions as a tumor promoter upon transformation with oncogenic ras of shrimp P. japonicus.

  10. Distinct roles of the RasGAP family proteins in C. elegans associative learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Gyurkó, M. Dávid; Csermely, Péter; Sőti, Csaba; Steták, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The Ras GTPase activating proteins (RasGAPs) are regulators of the conserved Ras/MAPK pathway. Various roles of some of the RasGAPs in learning and memory have been reported in different model systems, yet, there is no comprehensive study to characterize all gap genes in any organism. Here, using reverse genetics and neurobehavioural tests, we studied the role of all known genes of the rasgap family in C. elegans in associative learning and memory. We demonstrated that their proteins are implicated in different parts of the learning and memory processes. We show that gap-1 contribute redundantly with gap-3 to the chemosensation of volatile compounds, gap-1 plays a major role in associative learning, while gap-2 and gap-3 are predominantly required for short- and long-term associative memory. Our results also suggest that the C. elegans Ras orthologue let-60 is involved in multiple processes during learning and memory. Thus, we show that the different classes of RasGAP proteins are all involved in cognitive function and their complex interplay ensures the proper formation and storage of novel information in C. elegans. PMID:26469632

  11. The renewed battle against RAS-mutant cancers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuquan; Cheong, Jit Kong

    2016-05-01

    The RAS genes encode for members of a large superfamily of guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins that control diverse intracellular signaling pathways to promote cell proliferation. Somatic mutations in the RAS oncogenes are the most common activating lesions found in human cancers. These mutations invariably result in the gain-of-function of RAS by impairing GTP hydrolysis and are frequently associated with poor responses to standard cancer therapies. In this review, we summarize key findings of past and present landmark studies that have deepened our understanding of the RAS biology in the context of oncogenesis. We also discuss how emerging areas of research could further bolster a renewed global effort to target the largely undruggable oncogenic RAS and/or its activated downstream effector signaling cascades to achieve better treatment outcomes for RAS-mutant cancer patients. PMID:26892781

  12. Ras-activated RSK1 phosphorylates EBP50 to regulate its nuclear localization and promote cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, HooiCheng; Jou, Tzuu-Shuh

    2016-01-01

    Differential subcellular localization of EBP50 leads to its controversial role in cancer biology either as a tumor suppressor when it resides at the membrane periphery, or a tumor facilitator at the nucleus. However, the mechanism behind nuclear localization of EBP50 remains unclear. A RNA interference screening identified the downstream effector of the Ras-ERK cascade, RSK1, as the molecule unique for nuclear transport of EBP50. RSK1 binds to EBP50 and phosphorylates it at a conserved threonine residue at position 156 (T156) under the regulation of growth factor. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed the significance of T156 residue in nuclear localization of EBP50, cellular proliferation, and oncogenic transformation. Our study sheds light on a possible therapeutic strategy targeting at this aberrant nuclear expression of EBP50 without affecting the normal physiological function of EBP50 at other subcellular localization. PMID:26862730

  13. Interaction of Ras with phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, I; Rodriguez-Viciana, P; Downward, J; Wetzker, R

    1997-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) can be activated in vitro by both alpha and betagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins and does not interact with p85, the regulatory subunit of PI3Kalpha. Here we demonstrate the binding of Ras to PI3Kgamma in vitro. An N-terminal region of PI3Kgamma was identified as a binding site for Ras. After co-expression with PI3Kgamma in COS-7 cells, Ras induced only a modest increase in PI3K activity compared with the stimulation of PI3Kalpha by Ras in the same cells. PMID:9307042

  14. RAS diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Charlotte M.

    2014-01-01

    RAS genes encode a family of 21 kDa proteins that are an essential hub for a number of survival, proliferation, differentiation and senescence pathways. Signaling of the RAS-GTPases through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first identified mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is essential in development. A group of genetic syndromes, named “RASopathies”, had been identified which are caused by heterozygosity for germline mutations in genes that encode protein components of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Several of these clinically overlapping disorders, including Noonan syndrome, Noonan-like CBL syndrome, Costello syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, and Legius syndrome, predispose to cancer and abnormal myelopoiesis in infancy. This review focuses on juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), a malignancy of early childhood characterized by initiating germline and/or somatic mutations in five genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway: PTPN11, CBL, NF-1, KRAS and NRAS. Natural courses of these five subtypes differ, although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapy option for most children with JMML. With whole-exome sequencing studies revealing few secondary lesions it will be crucial to better understand the RAS/MAPK signaling network with its crosstalks and feed-back loops to carefully design early clinical trials with novel pharmacological agents in this still puzzling leukemia. PMID:25420281

  15. Ras Conformational Ensembles, Allostery, and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Muratcioglu, Serena; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Ras proteins are classical members of small GTPases that function as molecular switches by alternating between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. Ras activation is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors that catalyze the exchange of GDP by GTP, and inactivation is terminated by GTPase-activating proteins that accelerate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate by orders of magnitude. In this review, we focus on data that have accumulated over the past few years pertaining to the conformational ensembles and the allosteric regulation of Ras proteins and their interpretation from our conformational landscape standpoint. The Ras ensemble embodies all states, including the ligand-bound conformations, the activated (or inactivated) allosteric modulated states, post-translationally modified states, mutational states, transition states, and nonfunctional states serving as a reservoir for emerging functions. The ensemble is shifted by distinct mutational events, cofactors, post-translational modifications, and different membrane compositions. A better understanding of Ras biology can contribute to therapeutic strategies. PMID:26815308

  16. Differential involvement of Ras-GRF1 and Ras-GRF2 in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Bido, Simone; Solari, Nicola; Indrigo, Marzia; D’Antoni, Angela; Brambilla, Riccardo; Morari, Michele; Fasano, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent findings have shown that pharmacogenetic manipulations of the Ras-ERK pathway provide a therapeutic means to tackle l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID). First, we investigated whether a prolonged l-DOPA treatment differentially affected ERK signaling in medium spiny neurons of the direct pathway (dMSNs) and in cholinergic aspiny interneurons (ChIs) and assessed the role of Ras-GRF1 in both subpopulations. Second, using viral-assisted technology, we probed Ras-GRF1 and Ras-GRF2 as potential targets in this pathway. We investigated how selective blockade of striatal Ras-GRF1 or Ras-GRF2 expression impacted on LID (induction, maintenance, and reversion) and its neurochemical correlates. Methods We used both Ras-GRF1 knockout mice and lentiviral vectors (LVs) delivering short-hairpin RNA sequences (shRNAs) to obtain striatum-specific gene knockdown of Ras-GRF1 and Ras-GRF2. The consequences of these genetic manipulations were evaluated in the 6-hydroxydopamine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Escalating doses of l-DOPA were administered and then behavioral analysis with immunohistochemical assays and in vivo microdialysis were performed. Results Ras-GRF1 was found essential in controlling ERK signaling in dMSNs, but its ablation did not prevent ERK activation in ChIs. Moreover, striatal injection of LV-shRNA/Ras-GRF1 attenuated dyskinesia development and ERK-dependent signaling, whereas LV-shRNA/Ras-GRF2 was without effect, ruling out the involvement of Ras-GRF2 in LID expression. Accordingly, Ras-GRF1 but not Ras-GRF2 striatal gene-knockdown reduced l-DOPA-induced GABA and glutamate release in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a neurochemical correlate of dyskinesia. Finally, inactivation of Ras-GRF1 provided a prolonged anti-dyskinetic effect for up to 7 weeks and significantly attenuated symptoms in animals with established LID. Interpretation Our results suggest that Ras-GRF1 is a promising target for LID

  17. Gamma Band Activity in the Reticular Activating System

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Francisco J.; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high-threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep–wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep–wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem–thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep–wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by pre-conscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the processes of

  18. Pharmacological modulation of oncogenic Ras by natural products and their derivatives: Renewed hope in the discovery of novel anti-Ras drugs.

    PubMed

    Quah, Shun Ying; Tan, Michelle Siying; Teh, Yuan Han; Stanslas, Johnson

    2016-06-01

    Oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) is linked to the most fatal cancers such as those of the pancreas, colon, and lung. Decades of research to discover an efficacious drug that can block oncogenic Ras signaling have yielded disappointing results; thus, Ras was considered "undruggable" until recently. Inhibitors that directly target Ras by binding to previously undiscovered pockets have been recently identified. Some of these molecules are either isolated from natural products or derived from natural compounds. In this review, we described the potential of these compounds and other inhibitors of Ras signaling in drugging Ras. We highlighted the modes of action of these compounds in suppressing signaling pathways activated by oncogenic Ras, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. The anti-Ras strategy of these compounds can be categorized into four main types: inhibition of Ras-effector interaction, interference of Ras membrane association, prevention of Ras-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) formation, and downregulation of Ras proteins. Another promising strategy that must be validated experimentally is enhancement of the intrinsic Ras-guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity by small chemical entities. Among the inhibitors of Ras signaling that were reported thus far, salirasib and TLN-4601 have been tested for their clinical efficacy. Although both compounds passed phase I trials, they failed in their respective phase II trials. Therefore, new compounds of natural origin with relevant clinical activity against Ras-driven malignancies are urgently needed. Apart from salirasib and TLN-4601, some other compounds with a proven inhibitory effect on Ras signaling include derivatives of salirasib, sulindac, polyamine, andrographolide, lipstatin, levoglucosenone, rasfonin, and quercetin. PMID:27016467

  19. Proposal of RAS-diuretic vs. RAS-calcium antagonist strategies in high-risk hypertension: insight from the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure profile and central pressure.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2010-01-01

    I here propose an individualized renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor-based combination therapy with calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) or with diuretics, based on the 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (BP) profiles and central pressure in relation to the target organ damage in high-risk hypertensive patients. For high-risk patients with increased circulating volume, such as that caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) or congestive heart failure (CHF), who are likely to exhibit a non-dipper/riser pattern of nocturnal BP fall, diuretics are recommended in combination with a RAS inhibitor to reduce nocturnal BP preferentially. For high-risk patients with arterial diseases such as cardiovascular disease and increased arterial stiffness, who are likely to exhibit exaggerated BP variability, such as morning BP surge and day-to-day BP variability, a CCB is recommended for use in combination with a RAS inhibitor to reduce BP variability and central BP. In particular, bedtime dosing of a RAS inhibitor targeting sleep-early morning activation of RAS may be particularly effective for cardiorenal protection. PMID:20728424

  20. Regulation of H-Ras-driven MAPK signaling, transformation and tumorigenesis, but not PI3K signaling and tumor progression, by plasma membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Michael, J V; Wurtzel, J G T; Goldfinger, L E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the contributions of plasma membrane (PM) microdomain targeting to the functions of H-Ras and R-Ras. These paralogs have identical effector-binding regions, but variant C-terminal targeting domains (tDs) which are responsible for lateral microdomain distribution: activated H-Ras targets to lipid ordered/disordered (Lo/Ld) domain borders, and R-Ras to Lo domains (rafts). We hypothesized that PM distribution regulates Ras-effector interactions and downstream signaling. We used tD swap mutants, and assessed effects on signal transduction, cell proliferation, transformation and tumorigenesis. R-Ras harboring the H-Ras tD (R-Ras-tH) interacted with Raf, and induced Raf and ERK phosphorylation similar to H-Ras. R-Ras-tH stimulated proliferation and transformation in vitro, and these effects were blocked by both MEK and PI3K inhibition. Conversely, the R-Ras tD suppressed H-Ras-mediated Raf activation and ERK phosphorylation, proliferation and transformation. Thus, Ras access to Raf at the PM is sufficient for MAPK activation and is a principal component of Ras mitogenesis and transformation. Fusion of the R-Ras extended N-terminal domain to H-Ras had no effect on proliferation, but inhibited transformation and tumor progression, indicating that the R-Ras N-terminus also contributes negative regulation to these Ras functions. PI3K activation was tD independent; however, H-Ras was a stronger activator of PI3K than R-Ras, with either tD. PI3K inhibition nearly ablated transformation by R-Ras-tH, H-Ras and H-Ras-tR, whereas MEK inhibition had a modest effect on Ras-tH-driven transformation but no effect on H-Ras-tR transformation. R-Ras-tH supported tumor initiation, but not tumor progression. While H-Ras-tR-induced transformation was reduced relative to H-Ras, tumor progression was robust and similar to H-Ras. H-Ras tumor growth was moderately suppressed by MEK inhibition, which had no effect on H-Ras-tR tumor growth. In contrast, PI3K inhibition

  1. Dimerize RACK1 upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, L.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-05-06

    From our previous studies, we learned that syndecan-2/p120-GAP complex provided docking site for Src to prosecute tyrosine kinase activity upon transformation with oncogenic ras. And, RACK1 protein was reactive with syndecan-2 to keep Src inactivated, but not when Ras was overexpressed. In the present study, we characterized the reaction between RACK1 protein and Ras. RACK1 was isolated from BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus and RACK1 was revealed to react with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), not GDP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K). This selective interaction between RACK1 and GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) was further confirmed with RACK1 of human placenta and mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein. We found that RACK1 was dimerized upon reaction with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), as well as with 14-3-3{beta} and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, as revealed by phosphorylation with Src tyrosine kinase. We reported the complex of RACK1/GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) reacted selectively with p120-GAP. This interaction was sufficient to dissemble RACK1 into monomers, a preferred form to compete for the binding of syndecan-2. These data indicate that the reaction of GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) with RACK1 in dimers may operate a mechanism to deplete RACK1 from reaction with syndecan-2 upon transformation by oncogenic ras and the RACK1/GTP-Ras complex may provide a route to react with p120-GAP and recycle monomeric RACK1 to syndecan-2.

  2. Characterization of the Ras homologue of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Niles, E G; LoVerde, P T

    1999-05-15

    Ras is a member of a super-family of guanine-binding or G-proteins. Ras functions as a molecular switch in the transduction of signals generated by the activation of a variety of cell surface receptors and relays the signals to downstream effectors. Little is known about signal transduction in schistosomes. In order for Schistosoma mansoni to survive different immune responses triggered by the host as well as to migrate from the site of penetration at the skin to the final destination in portal circulation, they must receive signals from the host environment and respond to them in a way that allows their survival. We have isolated the schistosome Ras cDNA by using sequence information of the schistosome Ras homologue submitted to the Genbank database. Analysis of the encoded peptide revealed 81% identity and 92% similarity with K-Ras from various species. Ras is a single copy gene as determined by quantitative hybridization experiments. The cDNA was cloned into pGEX-4T and the expressed peptide was used to generate specific antibody reagents. Affinity purified antibodies identified a 23 kDa native protein that localizes to the subtegument. Ras is not associated with the tegument. Ras is expressed in all the developmental stages of the parasite. However, Ras is over-expressed in female worms compared to males. Schistosome Ras was also shown to be post-translationally modified by addition of farnesyl isoprenoid moiety to the cysteine residue in the C-terminal box. Using a schistosome extract in vitro SmRas farnesylation was inhibited by the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, FTI-277, at concentrations comparable to those required to inhibit K-Ras processing. These initial studies on signal transduction in schistosomes should provide a solid basis for improving our understanding of schistosome-host interactions. PMID:10376991

  3. Activation of systemic, but not local, renin-angiotensin system is associated with upregulation of TNF-α during prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miwa; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Viscarra, Jose A; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-09-01

    Northern elephant seal pups naturally endure a 2-3 month post-weaning fast that is associated with activation of systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a decrease in plasma adiponectin (Acrp30), and insulin resistance (IR)-like conditions. Angiotensin II (Ang II) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are potential causal factors of IR, while Acrp30 may improve insulin signaling. However, the effects of fasting-induced activation of RAS on IR-like conditions in seals are not well described. To assess the effects of prolonged food deprivation on systemic and local RAS, and their potential contribution to TNF-α as they relate to an IR condition, the mRNA expressions of adipose and muscle RAS components and immuno-relevant molecules were measured along with plasma RAS components. Mean plasma renin activity and Ang II concentrations increased by 89 and 1658%, respectively, while plasma angiotensinogen (AGT) decreased by 49% over the fast, indicative of systemic RAS activation. Prolonged fasting was associated with decreases in adipose and muscle AGT mRNA expressions of 69 and 68%, respectively, corresponding with decreases in tissue protein content, suggesting suppression of local AGT production. Muscle TNF-α mRNA and protein increased by 239 and 314%, whereas those of adipose Acrp30 decreased by 32 and 98%, respectively. Collectively, this study suggests that prolonged fasting activates a systemic RAS, which contributes to an increase in muscle TNF-α and suppression of adipose Acrp30. This targeted and tissue-specific regulation of TNF-α and Acrp30 is likely coordinated to synergistically contribute to the development of an IR-like condition, independent of local RAS activity. These data enhance our understanding of the adaptive mechanisms evolved by elephant seals to tolerate potentially detrimental conditions. PMID:23685967

  4. Signal Integration by Lipid-Mediated Spatial Cross Talk between Ras Nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Rodkey, Travis; Ariotti, Nicholas; Parton, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid-anchored Ras GTPases form transient, spatially segregated nanoclusters on the plasma membrane that are essential for high-fidelity signal transmission. The lipid composition of Ras nanoclusters, however, has not previously been investigated. High-resolution spatial mapping shows that different Ras nanoclusters have distinct lipid compositions, indicating that Ras proteins engage in isoform-selective lipid sorting and accounting for different signal outputs from different Ras isoforms. Phosphatidylserine is a common constituent of all Ras nanoclusters but is only an obligate structural component of K-Ras nanoclusters. Segregation of K-Ras and H-Ras into spatially and compositionally distinct lipid assemblies is exquisitely sensitive to plasma membrane phosphatidylserine levels. Phosphatidylserine spatial organization is also modified by Ras nanocluster formation. In consequence, Ras nanoclusters engage in remote lipid-mediated communication, whereby activated H-Ras disrupts the assembly and operation of spatially segregated K-Ras nanoclusters. Computational modeling and experimentation reveal that complex effects of caveolin and cortical actin on Ras nanoclustering are similarly mediated through regulation of phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics. We conclude that phosphatidylserine maintains the lateral segregation of diverse lipid-based assemblies on the plasma membrane and that lateral connectivity between spatially remote lipid assemblies offers important previously unexplored opportunities for signal integration and signal processing. PMID:24366544

  5. Hyaluronan Activates Cell Motility of v-Src-transformed Cells via Ras-Mitogen–activated Protein Kinase and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt in a Tumor-specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sohara, Yasuyoshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Machida, Kazuya; Kurata, Hisashi; Thant, Aye Aye; Senga, Takeshi; Matsuda, Satoru; Kimata, Koji; Iwata, Hisashi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the production of hyaluronan (HA) and its effect on cell motility in cells expressing the v-src mutants. Transformation of 3Y1 by v-src virtually activated HA secretion, whereas G2A v-src, a nonmyristoylated form of v-src defective in cell transformation, had no effect. In cells expressing the temperature-sensitive mutant of v-Src, HA secretion was temperature dependent. In addition, HA as small as 1 nM, on the other side, activated cell motility in a tumor-specific manner. HA treatment strongly activated the motility of v-Src–transformed 3Y1, whereas it showed no effect on 3Y1- and 3Y1-expressing G2A v-src. HA-dependent cell locomotion was strongly blocked by either expression of dominant-negative Ras or treatment with a Ras farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Similarly, both the MEK1 inhibitor and the kinase inhibitor clearly inhibited HA-dependent cell locomotion. In contrast, cells transformed with an active MEK1 did not respond to the HA. Finally, an anti-CD44–neutralizing antibody could block the activation of cell motility by HA as well as the HA-dependent phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that simultaneous activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway by the HA-CD44 interaction is required for the activation of HA-dependent cell locomotion in v-Src–transformed cells. PMID:11408591

  6. Genomic classification of the RAS network identifies a personalized treatment strategy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    El-Chaar, Nader N.; Piccolo, Stephen R.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Cohen, Adam L.; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Moos, Philip J.; Bild, Andrea H.

    2014-01-01

    Better approaches are needed to evaluate a single patient's drug response at the genomic level. Targeted therapy for signaling pathways in cancer has met limited success in part due to the exceedingly interwoven nature of the pathways. In particular, the highly complex RAS network has been challenging to target. Effectively targeting the pathway requires development of techniques that measure global network activity to account for pathway complexity. For this purpose, we used a gene-expression-based biomarker for RAS network activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and screened for drugs whose efficacy were significantly highly correlated to RAS network activity. Results identified EGFR and MEK co-inhibition as the most effective treatment for RAS-active NSCLC amongst a panel of over 360 compounds and fractions. RAS activity was identified in both RAS-mutant and wild-type lines, indicating broad characterization of RAS signaling inclusive of multiple mechanisms of RAS activity, and not solely based on mutation status. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that co-inhibition of EGFR and MEK induced apoptosis and blocked both EGFR-RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK and EGFR-PI3K-AKT-RPS6 nodes simultaneously in RAS-active, but not RAS-inactive NSCLC. These results provide a comprehensive strategy to personalize treatment of NSCLC based on RAS network dysregulation and provide proof-of-concept of a genomic approach to classify and target complex signaling networks. PMID:24908424

  7. Resveratrol induces apoptosis by directly targeting Ras-GTPase activating protein SH3 domain binding protein 1 (G3BP1)

    PubMed Central

    Oi, Naomi; Yuan, Jian; Malakhova, Margarita; Luo, Kuntian; Li, Yunhui; Ryu, Joohyun; Zhang, Lei; Bode, Ann M.; Xu, Zengguang; Li, Yan; Lou, Zhenkun; Dong, Zigang

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol possesses a strong anticancer activity exhibited as the induction of apoptosis through p53 activation. However, the molecular mechanism and direct target(s) of resveratrol-induced p53 activation remain elusive. Here, the Ras-GTPase activating protein SH3 domain binding protein 1 (G3BP1) was identified as a potential target of resveratrol, and in vitro binding assay results using resveratrol (RSVL)-conjugated Sepharose 4B beads confirmed their direct binding. Depletion of G3BP1 significantly diminishes resveratrol-induced p53 expression and apoptosis. We also found that G3BP1 negatively regulates p53 expression by interacting with ubiquitin-specific protease 10 (USP10), a deubiquitinating enzyme of p53. Disruption of the interaction of p53 with USP10 by G3BP1 interference leads to suppression of p53 deubiquitination. Resveratrol, on the other hand, directly binds to G3BP1 and prevents the G3BP1/USP10 interaction, resulting in enhanced USP10-mediated deubiquitination of p53 and consequently increased p53 expression. These findings disclose a novel mechanism of resveratrol-induced p53 activation and resveratrol-induced apoptosis by direct targeting of G3BP1. PMID:24998844

  8. Abnormal Ras signaling in Costello syndrome (CS) negatively regulates enamel formation

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Alice F.; Tidyman, William E.; Jheon, Andrew H.; Sharir, Amnon; Zheng, Xu; Charles, Cyril; Fagin, James A.; McMahon, Martin; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Ganss, Bernhard; Rauen, Katherine A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    RASopathies are syndromes caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Ras signaling pathway. One of these conditions, Costello syndrome (CS), is typically caused by an activating de novo germline mutation in HRAS and is characterized by a wide range of cardiac, musculoskeletal, dermatological and developmental abnormalities. We report that a majority of individuals with CS have hypo-mineralization of enamel, the outer covering of teeth, and that similar defects are present in a CS mouse model. Comprehensive analysis of the mouse model revealed that ameloblasts, the cells that generate enamel, lacked polarity, and the ameloblast progenitor cells were hyperproliferative. Ras signals through two main effector cascades, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. To determine through which pathway Ras affects enamel formation, inhibitors targeting either PI3K or MEK 1 and 2 (MEK 1/2), kinases in the MAPK pathway, were utilized. MEK1/2 inhibition rescued the hypo-mineralized enamel, normalized the ameloblast polarity defect and restored normal progenitor cell proliferation. In contrast, PI3K inhibition only corrected the progenitor cell proliferation phenotype. We demonstrate for the first time the central role of Ras signaling in enamel formation in CS individuals and present the mouse incisor as a model system to dissect the roles of the Ras effector pathways in vivo. PMID:24057668

  9. Compartmentalized Ras Proteins Transform NIH 3T3 Cells with Different Efficiencies▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chiang-Min; Li, Huiling; Gasman, Stéphane; Huang, Jian; Schiff, Rachel; Chang, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Ras GTPases were long thought to function exclusively from the plasma membrane (PM). However, a current model suggests that Ras proteins can compartmentalize to regulate different functions, and an oncogenic H-Ras mutant that is restricted to the endomembrane can still transform cells. In this study, we demonstrated that cells transformed by endomembrane-restricted oncogenic H-Ras formed tumors in nude mice. To define downstream targets of endomembrane Ras pathways, we analyzed Cdc42, which concentrates in the endomembrane and has been shown to act downstream of Ras in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our data show that cell transformation induced by endomembrane-restricted oncogenic H-Ras was blocked when Cdc42 activity was inhibited. Moreover, H-Ras formed a complex with Cdc42 on the endomembrane, and this interaction was enhanced when H-Ras was GTP bound or when cells were stimulated by growth factors. H-Ras binding evidently induced Cdc42 activation by recruiting and/or activating Cdc42 exchange factors. In contrast, when constitutively active H-Ras was restricted to the PM by fusing to a PM localization signal from the Rit GTPase, the resulting protein did not detectably activate Cdc42 although it activated Raf-1 and efficiently induced hallmarks of Ras-induced senescence in human BJ foreskin fibroblasts. Surprisingly, PM-restricted oncogenic Ras when expressed alone could only weakly transform NIH 3T3 cells; however, when constitutively active Cdc42 was coexpressed, together they transformed cells much more efficiently than either one alone. These data suggest that efficient cell transformation requires Ras proteins to interact with Cdc42 on the endomembrane and that in order for a given Ras protein to fully transform cells, multiple compartment-specific Ras pathways need to work cooperatively. PMID:21189290

  10. P68 RNA Helicase (DDX5) Alters Activity of Cis- and Trans-Acting Factors of the Alternative Splicing of H-Ras

    PubMed Central

    Kokolo, Mariette; Bach-Elias, Montse

    2008-01-01

    Background H-Ras pre-mRNA undergoes an alternative splicing process to render two proteins, namely p21 H-Ras and p19 H-Ras, due to either the exclusion or inclusion of the alternative intron D exon (IDX), respectively. p68 RNA helicase (p68) is known to reduce IDX inclusion. Principal Findings Here we show that p68 unwinds the stem-loop IDX-rasISS1 structure and prevents binding of hnRNP H to IDX-rasISS1. We also found that p68 alters the dynamic localization of SC35, a splicing factor that promotes IDX inclusion. The knockdown of hnRNP A1, FUS/TLS and hnRNP H resulted in upregulation of the expression of the gene encoding the SC35-binding protein, SFRS2IP. Finally, FUS/TLS was observed to upregulate p19 expression and to stimulate IDX inclusion, and in vivo RNAi-mediated depletion of hnRNP H decreased p19 H-Ras abundance. Significance Taken together, p68 is shown to be an essential player in the regulation of H-Ras expression as well as in a vital transduction signal pathway tied to cell proliferation and many cancer processes. PMID:18698352

  11. RasGRP1 opposes proliferative EGFR–SOS1–Ras signals and restricts intestinal epithelial cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Depeille, Philippe; Henricks, Linda M.; van de Ven, Robert A. H.; Lemmens, Ed; Wang, Chih-Yang; Matli, Mary; Werb, Zena; Haigis, Kevin M.; Donner, David; Warren, Robert; Roose, Jeroen P.

    2015-01-01

    The character of EGFR signals can influence cell fate but mechanistic insights into intestinal EGFR-Ras signalling are limited. Here we show that two distinct Ras nucleotide exchange factors, RasGRP1 and SOS1, lie downstream of EGFR but act in functional opposition. RasGRP1 is expressed in intestinal crypts where it restricts epithelial growth. High RasGRP1 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) patient samples correlates with a better clinical outcome. Biochemically, we find that RasGRP1 creates a negative feedback loop that limits proliferative EGFR–SOS1–Ras signals in CRC cells. Genetic Rasgrp1 depletion from mice with either an activating mutation in KRas or with aberrant Wnt signalling due to a mutation in Apc resulted in both cases in exacerbated Ras–ERK signalling and cell proliferation. The unexpected opposing cell biological effects of EGFR–RasGRP1 and EGFR–SOS1 signals in the same cell shed light on the intricacy of EGFR-Ras signalling in normal epithelium and carcinoma. PMID:26005835

  12. A novel Ras GTPase (Ras3) regulates conidiation, multi-stress tolerance and virulence by acting upstream of Hog1 signaling pathway in Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yi; Wang, Ding-Yi; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2015-09-01

    Two Ras ATPases (Ras1 and Ras2) are well known to regulate antagonistically or cooperatively various cellular events in many fungi. Here we show the significance of a novel Ras homolog (Ras3) for Beauveria bassiana. Ras3 possesses five domains and two GTP/GDP switches typical for Ras family and was proven to localize to plasma membrane despite the position change of a membrane-targeting cysteine in C-terminal CAAX motif. Deletion of ras3 altered temporal transcription pattern of ras1 instead of ras2. Compared with wild-type, Δras3 grew significantly faster in a rich medium but slower in some minimal media, and produced far fewer conidia with impaired quality, which was evident with slower germination, attenuated virulence, reduced thermotolerance and decreased UV-B resistance. Moreover, Δras3 was much more sensitive to the oxidative stress of menadione than of H2O2 and to the stress of high osmolarity than of cell wall perturbation during growth. The high sensitivity of Δras3 to menadione was concurrent with reductions in both gene transcripts and total activity of superoxide dismutases. Intriguingly, the high osmosensitivity was concurrent with not only reduced transcripts of a critical transcription factor (Msn2) and most signaling proteins in the high-osmolarity-glycerol pathway of Δras3 but nearly undetectable phosphorylation signal of Hog1 hallmarking the pathway. All the changes were restored by ras3 complementation. Taken together, Ras3 is involved in the Hog1 pathway required for osmoregulation and hence can positively regulate conidiation, germination, multi-stress tolerance and virulence linked to the biological control potential of the filamentous insect pathogen. PMID:26162967

  13. K-Ras4B proteins are expressed in the nucleolus: Interaction with nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Birchenall-Roberts, Maria C; Fu, Tao; Kim, Soo-Gyung; Huang, Ying K; Dambach, Michael; Resau, James H; Ruscetti, Francis W

    2006-09-22

    Kirsten Ras4B (K-Ras4B) is a potent onco-protein that is expressed in the majority of human cell types and is frequently mutated in carcinomas. K-Ras4B, like other members of the Ras family of proteins, is considered to be a cytoplasmic protein that must be localized to the plasma membrane for activation. Here, using confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis, we show that K-Ras4B, but not H-Ras or the closely related K-Ras4A, is also present in the nucleoli of normal and transformed cells. Subcellular fractionation and immunostaining show that K-Ras4B is located not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleolar compartment. Modification of a C-terminal hexa-lysine motif unique to K-Ras4B results in exclusively cytoplasmic forms of the protein. Nucleolin, a pleiotropic regulator of cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, is also characterized by a nucleolar-like nuclear appearance. We show that K-Ras4B and nucleolin co-localize within the nucleus and that nucleolin physically associates with K-Ras4B. Inhibition of K-Ras4B/nucleolin association blocked nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B. Using siRNA to knockdown the expression of nucleolin eliminated the nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and significantly repressed the activation of the well-characterized K-Ras4B transcriptional target Ap-1, but stimulated Elk1. These data provide evidence of a nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and describe a functional association between K-Ras4B and nucleolin. PMID:16889753

  14. K-Ras4B proteins are expressed in the nucleolus: Interaction with nucleolin

    SciTech Connect

    Birchenall-Roberts, Maria C. . E-mail: birchena@mail.ncifcrf.gov; Fu, Tao; Kim, Soo-Gyung; Huang, Ying K.; Dambach, Michael; Resau, James H.; Ruscetti, Francis W.

    2006-09-22

    Kirsten Ras4B (K-Ras4B) is a potent onco-protein that is expressed in the majority of human cell types and is frequently mutated in carcinomas. K-Ras4B, like other members of the Ras family of proteins, is considered to be a cytoplasmic protein that must be localized to the plasma membrane for activation. Here, using confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis, we show that K-Ras4B, but not H-Ras or the closely related K-Ras4A, is also present in the nucleoli of normal and transformed cells. Subcellular fractionation and immunostaining show that K-Ras4B is located not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleolar compartment. Modification of a C-terminal hexa-lysine motif unique to K-Ras4B results in exclusively cytoplasmic forms of the protein. Nucleolin, a pleiotropic regulator of cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, is also characterized by a nucleolar-like nuclear appearance. We show that K-Ras4B and nucleolin co-localize within the nucleus and that nucleolin physically associates with K-Ras4B. Inhibition of K-Ras4B/nucleolin association blocked nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B. Using siRNA to knockdown the expression of nucleolin eliminated the nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and significantly repressed the activation of the well-characterized K-Ras4B transcriptional target Ap-1, but stimulated Elk1. These data provide evidence of a nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and describe a functional association between K-Ras4B and nucleolin.

  15. Regulating the Regulator: Post-Translational Modification of Ras

    PubMed Central

    Ahearn, Ian M.; Haigis, Kevin; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Philips, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Ras proteins are monomeric GTPases that act as binary molecular switches to regulate a wide range of cellular processes. The exchange of GTP for GDP on Ras is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which regulate the activation state of Ras without covalently modifying it. In contrast, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of Ras proteins direct them to various cellular membranes and, in some cases, modulate GTP–GDP exchange. Important Ras PTMs include the constitutive and irreversible remodelling of its C-terminal CAAX motif by farnesylation, proteolysis and methylation, reversible palmitoylation, and conditional modifications including phosphorylation, peptidyl-proly isomerisation, mono- and di-ubiquitination, nitrosylation, ADP ribosylation and glucosylation. PMID:22189424

  16. Novel triterpenoids isolated from raisins exert potent antiproliferative activities by targeting mitochondrial and Ras/Raf/ERK signaling in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Yihai; Liu, Rui Hai; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-07-13

    Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking and brewing. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of raisins was used to determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents. Seven triterpenoids, including three novel triterpenoids, were isolated and identified. The novel triterpenoids were elucidated to be 3β,13β-dihydroxy-12,13-dihydrooleanolic acid (1), 3β,12β,13β-trihydroxy-12,13-dihydrooleanolic acid (2, TOA), and 3β,13β-dihydroxy-12,13-dihydroursolic acid (7), respectively. TOA showed the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7/DOX cells, with an EC50 value of 3.60 ± 0.55 μM. Compounds 1, 3 and 7 also exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against MCF-7/DOX cells, with an EC50 value of 7.10 ± 0.65, 10.22 ± 0.90 and 8.91 ± 1.12 μM. Compounds 1 and 2 also exhibited potent antioxidant activities. Moreover, the detailed cytotoxic mechanisms of TOA were investigated by targeting the mitochondrial and protein tyrosine kinase signaling (Ras/Raf/ERK). The results strongly demonstrated that the novel triterpenoids isolated from raisins could be promising candidates for therapy of breast cancer. PMID:27359376

  17. H-Ras regulation of TRAIL death receptor mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Bozza, William P.; Di, Xu; Zhang, Yaqin; Hallett, William; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through the death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the cell surface. Multiple clinical trials are underway to evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 or DR5. However, their therapeutic potential is limited by the high frequency of cancer resistance. Here we provide evidence demonstrating the role of H-Ras in TRAIL receptor mediated apoptosis. By analyzing the genome wide mRNA expression data of the NCI60 cancer cell lines, we found that H-Ras expression was consistently upregulated in TRAIL-resistant cell lines. By contrast, no correlation was found between TRAIL sensitivity and K-Ras expression levels or their mutational profiles. Notably, H-Ras upregulation associated with a surface deficiency of TRAIL death receptors. Selective inhibition of H-Ras activity in TRAIL-resistant cells restored the surface expression of both DR4 and DR5 without changing their total protein levels. The resulting cells became highly susceptible to both TRAIL and agonistic DR5 antibody, whereas K-Ras inhibition had little or no effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating H-Ras plays a distinct role in the regulation of TRAIL death receptors. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of H-Ras-specific inhibitors in combination with TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25026275

  18. A non-cell-autonomous role for Ras signaling in C. elegans neuroblast delamination

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Jean M.; Sundaram, Meera V.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling through Ras influences many aspects of normal cell behavior, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and aberrant signaling promotes both tumorigenesis and metastasis. Although many such effects are cell-autonomous, here we show a non-cell-autonomous role for RTK-Ras signaling in the delamination of a neuroblast from an epithelial organ. The C. elegans renal-like excretory organ is initially composed of three unicellular epithelial tubes, namely the canal, duct and G1 pore cells; however, the G1 cell later delaminates from the excretory system to become a neuroblast and is replaced by the G2 cell. G1 delamination and G2 intercalation involve cytoskeletal remodeling, interconversion of autocellular and intercellular junctions and migration over a luminal extracellular matrix, followed by G1 junction loss. LET-23/EGFR and SOS-1, an exchange factor for Ras, are required for G1 junction loss but not for initial cytoskeletal or junction remodeling. Surprisingly, expression of activated LET-60/Ras in the neighboring duct cell, but not in the G1 or G2 cells, is sufficient to rescue sos-1 delamination defects, revealing that Ras acts non-cell-autonomously to permit G1 delamination. We suggest that, similarly, oncogenic mutations in cells within a tumor might help create a microenvironment that is permissive for other cells to detach and ultimately metastasize. PMID:25371363

  19. Galectin-1 dimers can scaffold Raf-effectors to increase H-ras nanoclustering.

    PubMed

    Blaževitš, Olga; Mideksa, Yonatan G; Šolman, Maja; Ligabue, Alessio; Ariotti, Nicholas; Nakhaeizadeh, Hossein; Fansa, Eyad K; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ahmadian, Mohammad R; Abankwa, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) dimers crosslink carbohydrates on cell surface receptors. Carbohydrate-derived inhibitors have been developed for cancer treatment. Intracellularly, Gal-1 was suggested to interact with the farnesylated C-terminus of Ras thus specifically stabilizing GTP-H-ras nanoscale signalling hubs in the membrane, termed nanoclusters. The latter activity may present an alternative mechanism for how overexpressed Gal-1 stimulates tumourigenesis. Here we revise the current model for the interaction of Gal-1 with H-ras. We show that it indirectly forms a complex with GTP-H-ras via a high-affinity interaction with the Ras binding domain (RBD) of Ras effectors. A computationally generated model of the Gal-1/C-Raf-RBD complex is validated by mutational analysis. Both cellular FRET as well as proximity ligation assay experiments confirm interaction of Gal-1 with Raf proteins in mammalian cells. Consistently, interference with H-rasG12V-effector interactions basically abolishes H-ras nanoclustering. In addition, an intact dimer interface of Gal-1 is required for it to positively regulate H-rasG12V nanoclustering, but negatively K-rasG12V nanoclustering. Our findings suggest stacked dimers of H-ras, Raf and Gal-1 as building blocks of GTP-H-ras-nanocluster at high Gal-1 levels. Based on our results the Gal-1/effector interface represents a potential drug target site in diseases with aberrant Ras signalling. PMID:27087647

  20. Galectin-1 dimers can scaffold Raf-effectors to increase H-ras nanoclustering

    PubMed Central

    Blaževitš, Olga; Mideksa, Yonatan G.; Šolman, Maja; Ligabue, Alessio; Ariotti, Nicholas; Nakhaeizadeh, Hossein; Fansa, Eyad K.; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.; Abankwa, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) dimers crosslink carbohydrates on cell surface receptors. Carbohydrate-derived inhibitors have been developed for cancer treatment. Intracellularly, Gal-1 was suggested to interact with the farnesylated C-terminus of Ras thus specifically stabilizing GTP-H-ras nanoscale signalling hubs in the membrane, termed nanoclusters. The latter activity may present an alternative mechanism for how overexpressed Gal-1 stimulates tumourigenesis. Here we revise the current model for the interaction of Gal-1 with H-ras. We show that it indirectly forms a complex with GTP-H-ras via a high-affinity interaction with the Ras binding domain (RBD) of Ras effectors. A computationally generated model of the Gal-1/C-Raf-RBD complex is validated by mutational analysis. Both cellular FRET as well as proximity ligation assay experiments confirm interaction of Gal-1 with Raf proteins in mammalian cells. Consistently, interference with H-rasG12V-effector interactions basically abolishes H-ras nanoclustering. In addition, an intact dimer interface of Gal-1 is required for it to positively regulate H-rasG12V nanoclustering, but negatively K-rasG12V nanoclustering. Our findings suggest stacked dimers of H-ras, Raf and Gal-1 as building blocks of GTP-H-ras-nanocluster at high Gal-1 levels. Based on our results the Gal-1/effector interface represents a potential drug target site in diseases with aberrant Ras signalling. PMID:27087647

  1. Dose-dependent carcinogenicity and frequent Ki-ras proto-oncogene activation by dietary N-nitrosodiethylamine in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, J D; Cheng, R; Shelton, D W; Pereira, C B; Bailey, G S

    1994-07-01

    While the experimental data upon which current concepts in mechanistically based risk assessment and molecular epidemiology are grounded derive almost entirely from rodent models, fish models have several attributes (e.g., low background incidence, extremely low cost tumor studies, nonmammalian comparative status for extrapolation of mechanisms to humans) that make them valuable adjuncts for addressing these concepts. This report provides an initial characterization of the dose dependency of dietary N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) hepatocarcinogenicity in Shasta strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the potential of DEN to elicit ras proto-oncogene activation in this species. Carcinogen was administered in the diet at five concentrations for 12 months. Necropsies were performed at 9, 12, and 18 months, the latter on fish maintained on control diet for 6 months after cessation of DEN exposure. The incidence of hepatic neoplasms at the lower dietary concentrations (< or = 70 ppm) did not consistently exceed that for control groups, which were higher in this particular study (2%) than expected (historically 0.1%). For the higher DEN concentrations, a linear relationship between the hepatic tumor incidence (expressed as log odds, log [p/(1-p)], where p = proportion of fish bearing tumors), and the logarithm of total cumulative dose was observed, with response being independent of the length of time (9 or 12 months) during which the dose was accumulated. The dose-response curve for fish maintained an additional 6 months postexposure was shifted toward higher incidence but was parallel to the curve for fish killed at cessation of exposure. The model predicts that doubling the dose will produce somewhat more than a doubling of the odds (p/(100-p)) for tumor incidence and that the odds for lesions 6 months postexposure will be approximately double those at cessation of exposure. Comparison of these results with previous studies using rats suggests an overall

  2. Inhibition of SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation of Ras suppresses oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bunda, Severa; Burrell, Kelly; Heir, Pardeep; Zeng, Lifan; Alamsahebpour, Amir; Kano, Yoshihito; Raught, Brian; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Zadeh, Gelareh; Ohh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ras is phosphorylated on a conserved tyrosine at position 32 within the switch I region via Src kinase. This phosphorylation inhibits the binding of effector Raf while promoting the engagement of GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and GTP hydrolysis. Here we identify SHP2 as the ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase that preferentially binds to and dephosphorylates Ras to increase its association with Raf and activate downstream proliferative Ras/ERK/MAPK signalling. In comparison to normal astrocytes, SHP2 activity is elevated in astrocytes isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-prone H-Ras(12V) knock-in mice as well as in glioma cell lines and patient-derived GBM specimens exhibiting hyperactive Ras. Pharmacologic inhibition of SHP2 activity attenuates cell proliferation, soft-agar colony formation and orthotopic GBM growth in NOD/SCID mice and decelerates the progression of low-grade astrocytoma to GBM in a spontaneous transgenic glioma mouse model. These results identify SHP2 as a direct activator of Ras and a potential therapeutic target for cancers driven by a previously ‘undruggable' oncogenic or hyperactive Ras. PMID:26617336

  3. The adipose renin-angiotensin system modulates sysemic markers of insulin sensitivity activates the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suyeon; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Massiera, Florence; Teboul, Michele; Ailhaud, Gerard; Kim, Jung; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; Voy, Brynn H

    2006-07-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing body of data provides increasing evidence that the adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass. Beyond its paracrine actions within adipose tissue, adipocyte-derived angiotensin II (Ang II) may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a genetic approach to manipulate adipose RAS activity in mice and then study the consequences on metabolic parameters and on feedback regulation of the RAS. The models included deletion of the angiotensinogen (Agt) gene (Agt-KO), its expression solely in adipose tissue under the control of an adipocyte-specific promoter (aP2-Agt/ Agt-KO), and overexpression in adipose tissue of wild type mice (aP2-Agt). Total body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and circulating levels of leptin, insulin and resistin were significantly decreased in Agt-KO mice, while plasma adiponectin levels were increased. Overexpression of Agt in adipose tissue resulted in increased adiposity and plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to wild type (WT) controls. Angiotensinogen and type I Ang II receptor protein levels were also markedly elevated in kidney of aP2-Agt mice, suggesting that hypertension in these animals may be in part due to stimulation of the intrarenal RAS. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results from this study demonstrate that alterations in adipose RAS activity significantly alter both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.

  4. Hyperactivation of Ha-ras oncogene, but not Ink4a/Arf deficiency, triggers bladder tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Mo, Lan; Zheng, Xiaoyong; Huang, Hong-Ying; Shapiro, Ellen; Lepor, Herbert; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2007-02-01

    Although ras is a potent mitogenic oncogene, its tumorigenicity depends on cellular context and cooperative events. Here we show that low-level expression of a constitutively active Ha-ras in mouse urothelium induces simple urothelial hyperplasia that is resistant to progression to full-fledged bladder tumors even in the absence of Ink4a/Arf. In stark contrast, doubling of the gene dosage of the activated Ha-ras triggered early-onset, rapidly growing, and 100% penetrant tumors throughout the urinary tract. Tumor initiation required superseding a rate-limiting step between simple and nodular hyperplasia, the latter of which is marked by the emergence of mesenchymal components and the coactivation of AKT and STAT pathways as well as PTEN inactivation. These results indicate that overactivation of Ha-ras is both necessary and sufficient to induce bladder tumors along a low-grade, noninvasive papillary pathway, and they shed light on the recent findings that ras activation, via point mutation, overexpression, or intensified signaling from FGF receptor 3, occurs in 70%-90% of these tumors in humans. Our results highlight the critical importance of the dosage/strength of Ha-ras activation in dictating its tumorigenicity--a mechanism of oncogene activation not fully appreciated to date. Finally, our results have clinical implications, as inhibiting ras and/or its downstream effectors, such as AKT and STAT3/5, could provide alternative means to treat low-grade, superficial papillary bladder tumors, the most common tumor in the urinary system. PMID:17256055

  5. Ras and autophagy in cancer development and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schmukler, Eran; Kloog, Yoel; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, a process of self-degradation and turnover of cellular components, plays a complex role in cancer. Evidence exists to show that autophagy may support tumor growth and cell survival, whereas it can also contribute to tumor suppression and have anti-survival characteristics in different cellular systems. Numerous studies have described the effects of various oncogenes and tumor suppressors on autophagy. The small GTPase Ras is an oncogene involved in the regulation of various cell-signaling pathways, and is mutated in 33% of human cancers. In the present review, we discuss the interplay between Ras and autophagy in relation to oncogenesis. It appears that Ras can upregulate or downregulate autophagy through several signaling pathways. In turn, autophagy can affect the tumorigenicity driven by Ras, resulting in either tumor progression or repression, depending on the cellular context. Furthermore, Ras inhibitors were shown to induce autophagy in several cancer cell lines. PMID:24583697

  6. Andrographolide derivatives inhibit guanine nucleotide exchange and abrogate oncogenic Ras function.

    PubMed

    Hocker, Harrison J; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Chen, Chung-Ying K; Rambahal, Nandini; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Hancock, John F; Gorfe, Alemayehu A

    2013-06-18

    Aberrant signaling by oncogenic mutant rat sarcoma (Ras) proteins occurs in ∼15% of all human tumors, yet direct inhibition of Ras by small molecules has remained elusive. Recently, several small-molecule ligands have been discovered that directly bind Ras and inhibit its function by interfering with exchange factor binding. However, it is unclear whether, or how, these ligands could lead to drugs that act against constitutively active oncogenic mutant Ras. Using a dynamics-based pocket identification scheme, ensemble docking, and innovative cell-based assays, here we show that andrographolide (AGP)--a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata--and its benzylidene derivatives bind to transient pockets on Kirsten-Ras (K-Ras) and inhibit GDP-GTP exchange. As expected for inhibitors of exchange factor binding, AGP derivatives reduced GTP loading of wild-type K-Ras in response to acute EGF stimulation with a concomitant reduction in MAPK activation. Remarkably, however, prolonged treatment with AGP derivatives also reduced GTP loading of, and signal transmission by, oncogenic mutant K-RasG12V. In sum, the combined analysis of our computational and cell biology results show that AGP derivatives directly bind Ras, block GDP-GTP exchange, and inhibit both wild-type and oncogenic K-Ras signaling. Importantly, our findings not only show that nucleotide exchange factors are required for oncogenic Ras signaling but also demonstrate that inhibiting nucleotide exchange is a valid approach to abrogating the function of oncogenic mutant Ras. PMID:23737504

  7. Andrographolide derivatives inhibit guanine nucleotide exchange and abrogate oncogenic Ras function

    PubMed Central

    Hocker, Harrison J.; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Chen, Chung-Ying K.; Rambahal, Nandini; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant signaling by oncogenic mutant rat sarcoma (Ras) proteins occurs in ∼15% of all human tumors, yet direct inhibition of Ras by small molecules has remained elusive. Recently, several small-molecule ligands have been discovered that directly bind Ras and inhibit its function by interfering with exchange factor binding. However, it is unclear whether, or how, these ligands could lead to drugs that act against constitutively active oncogenic mutant Ras. Using a dynamics-based pocket identification scheme, ensemble docking, and innovative cell-based assays, here we show that andrographolide (AGP)—a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata—and its benzylidene derivatives bind to transient pockets on Kirsten-Ras (K-Ras) and inhibit GDP–GTP exchange. As expected for inhibitors of exchange factor binding, AGP derivatives reduced GTP loading of wild-type K-Ras in response to acute EGF stimulation with a concomitant reduction in MAPK activation. Remarkably, however, prolonged treatment with AGP derivatives also reduced GTP loading of, and signal transmission by, oncogenic mutant K-RasG12V. In sum, the combined analysis of our computational and cell biology results show that AGP derivatives directly bind Ras, block GDP–GTP exchange, and inhibit both wild-type and oncogenic K-Ras signaling. Importantly, our findings not only show that nucleotide exchange factors are required for oncogenic Ras signaling but also demonstrate that inhibiting nucleotide exchange is a valid approach to abrogating the function of oncogenic mutant Ras. PMID:23737504

  8. Yes-Associated Protein Contributes to the Development of Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Activation of RAS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinjing; Li, Changji; Luo, Suju; Liu-Smith, Feng; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Xin; Wang, Nanping; Lai, Baochang; Lei, Ting; Wang, Qiongyu; Xiao, Shengxiang; Shao, Yongping; Zheng, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common skin malignant tumors with an increasing incidence. Studies have shown that Yes-associated protein (YAP) participates in the development of a variety of tumors as an oncogene, but to our knowledge its role in cSCC has not been reported. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to show that YAP expression was elevated in cSCC samples of different stages versus in normal skin and that it was well correlated with the progression of the disease. Down-regulation of YAP in cSCC cell lines A431 and SCL-1 inhibited cell proliferation by inducing growth arrest during the G1/S phase transition, promoted apoptosis, and reduced invasion and migration abilities in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of YAP promoted cell proliferation and protected cells against basal and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These oncogenic effects of YAP were associated with activation of the RAS protein and its downstream AKT and ERK. Using a mouse xenograft model, we further showed that YAP depletion inhibited cSCC tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggested that YAP is involved in the carcinogenesis and development of cSCC and that it may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target of this disease. PMID:26902922

  9. The GTPase-activating protein of Ras suppresses platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor signaling by silencing phospholipase C-gamma 1.

    PubMed Central

    Valius, M; Secrist, J P; Kazlauskas, A

    1995-01-01

    The beta receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (beta PDGFR) is activated by binding of PDGF and undergoes phosphorylation at multiple tyrosine residues. The tyrosine-phosphorylated receptor associates with numerous SH2-domain-containing proteins which include phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC gamma), the GTPase-activating protein of Ras (GAP), the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), the phosphotyrosine phosphatase Syp, and several other proteins. Our previous studies indicated that PI3K and PLC gamma were required for relay of the mitogenic signal of beta PDGFR, whereas GAP and Syp did not appear to be required for this response. In this study, we further investigated the role of GAP and Syp in mitogenic signaling by beta PDGFR. Focusing on the PLC gamma-dependent branch of beta PDGFR signaling, we constructed a series of mutant beta PDGFRs that contained the binding sites for pairs of the receptor-associated proteins: PLC gamma and PI3K, PLC gamma and GAP, or PLC gamma and Syp. Characterization of these mutants showed that while all receptors were catalytically active and bound similar amounts of PLC gamma, they differed dramatically in their ability to initiate DNA synthesis. This signaling deficiency related to an inability to efficiently tyrosine phosphorylate and activate PLC gamma. Surprisingly, the crippled receptor was the one that recruited PLC gamma and GAP. Thus, GAP functions to suppress signal relay by the beta PDGFR, and it does so by silencing PLC gamma. These findings demonstrate that the biological response to PDGF depends not only on the ability of the beta PDGFR to recruit signal relay enzymes but also on the blend of these receptor-associated proteins. PMID:7760802

  10. CaM interaction and Ser181 phosphorylation as new K-Ras signaling modulators

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Moya, Blanca; Barceló, Carles; Tebar, Francesc; Jaumot, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    The small G-protein Ras was the first oncogene to be identified and has a very important contribution to human cancer development (20–23% prevalence). K-RasB, one of the members of the Ras family, is the one that is most mutated and plays a prominent role in pancreatic, colon and lung cancer development. Ras proteins are membrane bound GTPases that cycle between inactive, GDP-bound and active, GTP-bound, states. Most of the research into K-RasB activity regulation has focused on the analysis of how GTP-exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) are regulated by external and internal signals. In contrast, oncogenic K-RasB has a very low GTPase activity and furthermore is not deactivated by GAPs. Consequently, the consensus was that activity of oncogenic K-RasB was not modulated. In this extra view we recapitulate some recent data showing that calmodulin binding to K-RasB inhibits phosphorylation of K-RasB at Ser181, near to the membrane anchoring domain, modulating signaling of both non-oncogenic and oncogenic K-RasB. This may be relevant to normal cell physiology, but also opens new therapeutic perspectives for the inhibition of oncogenic K-RasB signaling in tumors. PMID:21776410

  11. Oncogenicity of human N-ras oncogene and proto-oncogene introduced into retroviral vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Souyri, M.; Vigon, I.; Charon, M.; Tambourin, P. )

    1989-09-01

    The N-ras gene is the only member of the ras family which has never been naturally transduced into a retrovirus. In order to study the in vitro and in vivo oncogenicity of N-ras and to compare its pathogenicity to that of H-ras, the authors have inserted an activated or a normal form of human N-ras cDNA into a slightly modified Harvey murine sarcoma virus-derived vector in which the H-ras p21 coding region had been deleted. The resulting constructions were transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. The activated N-ras-containing construct (HSN) induced 10{sup 4} foci per {mu}g of DNA and was found to be as transforming as H-ras was. After infection of the transfected cells by either the ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus or the amphotropic 4070A helper viruses, rescued transforming viruses were injected into newborn mice. Both pseudotypes of HSN virus containing activated N-ras induced the typical Harvey disease with similar latency. However, they found that the virus which contained normal N-ras p21 (HSn) was also pathogenic and induced splenomegaly, lymphadenopathies, and sarcoma in mice after a latency of 3 to 7 weeks. In addition, Moloney murine leukemia virus pseudotypes of N-ras caused neurological disorders in 30% of the infected animals. These results differed markedly from those of previous experiments in which the authors had inserted the activated form of N-ras in the pSV(X) vector: the resulting SVN-ras virus was transforming on NIH 3T3 cells but was poorly oncogenic in vivo. Altogether, these data demonstrated unequivocally that N-ras is potentially as oncogenic as H-ras and that such oncogenic effect could depend on the vector environment.

  12. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Protein Synthesis Inhibitors as H-Ras-Nanocluster-Increasing Tumor Growth Inducers.

    PubMed

    Najumudeen, Arafath K; Posada, Itziar M D; Lectez, Benoit; Zhou, Yong; Landor, Sebastian K-J; Fallarero, Adyary; Vuorela, Pia; Hancock, John; Abankwa, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Ras isoforms H-, N-, and K-ras are each mutated in specific cancer types at varying frequencies and have different activities in cell fate control. On the plasma membrane, Ras proteins are laterally segregated into isoform-specific nanoscale signaling hubs, termed nanoclusters. As Ras nanoclusters are required for Ras signaling, chemical modulators of nanoclusters represent ideal candidates for the specific modulation of Ras activity in cancer drug development. We therefore conducted a chemical screen with commercial and in-house natural product libraries using a cell-based H-ras-nanoclustering FRET assay. Next to established Ras inhibitors, such as a statin and farnesyl-transferase inhibitor, we surprisingly identified five protein synthesis inhibitors as positive regulators. Using commonly employed cycloheximide as a representative compound, we show that protein synthesis inhibition increased nanoclustering and effector recruitment specifically of active H-ras but not of K-ras. Consistent with these data, cycloheximide treatment activated both Erk and Akt kinases and specifically promoted H-rasG12V-induced, but not K-rasG12V-induced, PC12 cell differentiation. Intriguingly, cycloheximide increased the number of mammospheres, which are enriched for cancer stem cells. Depletion of H-ras in combination with cycloheximide significantly reduced mammosphere formation, suggesting an exquisite synthetic lethality. The potential of cycloheximide to promote tumor cell growth was also reflected in its ability to increase breast cancer cell tumors grown in ovo. These results illustrate the possibility of identifying Ras-isoform-specific modulators using nanocluster-directed screening. They also suggest an unexpected feedback from protein synthesis inhibition to Ras signaling, which might present a vulnerability in certain tumor cell types. PMID:26568031

  13. Tregs utilize beta-galactoside-binding protein to transiently inhibit PI3K/p21ras activity of human CD8+ T cells to block their TCR-mediated ERK activity and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Baatar, Dolgor; Olkhanud, Purevdorj B; Wells, Valerie; Indig, Fred E; Mallucci, Livio; Biragyn, Arya

    2009-10-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and beta-galactoside-binding protein (betaGBP), a regulatory protein often found expressed at sites of immunological privilege, have similar functions. Their presence affects the outcome of harmful autoimmunity and cancers, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and malignant gliomas. Here we report a novel pathway by which Tregs express and utilize betaGBP to control CD8(+) T cell responses partially activating TCR signaling but blocking PI3K activity. As a result, this leads to a loss of p21(ras), ERK and Akt activities despite activation of TCR proximal signals, such as phosphorylation of CD3zeta, Zap70, Lat and PKCtheta. Although non-processive TCR signaling often leads to cell anergy, Tregs/betaGBP did not affect cell viability. Instead, betaGBP/Tregs transiently prevented activation of CD8(+) T cells with self-antigens, while keeping their responses to xenogeneic antigens unaffected. PMID:19520156

  14. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Pamela Y.; Johnson, Christian W.; Fang, Cong; Cao, Xiaoqing; Graeber, Thomas G.; Mattos, Carla; Colicelli, John

    2015-01-01

    RAS proteins are signal transduction gatekeepers that mediate cell growth, survival, and differentiation through interactions with multiple effector proteins. The RAS effector RAS- and RAB-interacting protein 1 (RIN1) activates its own downstream effectors, the small GTPase RAB5 and the tyrosine kinase Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase (ABL), to modulate endocytosis and cytoskeleton remodeling. To identify ABL substrates downstream of RAS-to-RIN1 signaling, we examined human HEK293T cells overexpressing components of this pathway. Proteomic analysis revealed several novel phosphotyrosine peptides, including Harvey rat sarcoma oncogene (HRAS)-pTyr137. Here we report that ABL phosphorylates tyrosine 137 of H-, K-, and NRAS. Increased RIN1 levels enhanced HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation by nearly 5-fold, suggesting that RAS-stimulated RIN1 can drive ABL-mediated RAS modification in a feedback circuit. Tyr137 is well conserved among RAS orthologs and is part of a transprotein H-bond network. Crystal structures of HRASY137F and HRASY137E revealed conformation changes radiating from the mutated residue. Although consistent with Tyr137 participation in allosteric control of HRAS function, the mutations did not alter intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates in vitro. HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation enhanced HRAS signaling capacity in cells, however, as reflected by a 4-fold increase in the association of phosphorylated HRASG12V with its effector protein RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RAF1). These data suggest that RAS phosphorylation at Tyr137 allosterically alters protein conformation and effector binding, providing a mechanism for effector-initiated modulation of RAS signaling.—Ting, P. Y., Johnson, C. W., Fang, C., Cao, X., Graeber, T. G., Mattos, C., Colicelli, J. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding. PMID:25999467

  15. Involvement of H- and N-Ras isoforms in transforming growth factor-{beta}1-induced proliferation and in collagen and fibronectin synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Salgado, Carlos . E-mail: carloms@usal.es; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Garcia-Cenador, Begona; Santos, Eugenio; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M.

    2006-07-01

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) has a relevant role in the origin and maintenance of glomerulosclerosis and tubule-interstitial fibrosis. TGF-{beta} and Ras signaling pathways are closely related: TGF-{beta}1 overcomes Ras mitogenic effects and Ras counteracts TGF-{beta} signaling. Tubule-interstitial fibrosis is associated to increases in Ras, Erk, and Akt activation in a renal fibrosis model. We study the role of N- and H-Ras isoforms, and the involvement of the Ras effectors Erk and Akt, in TGF-{beta}1-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and proliferation, using embrionary fibroblasts from double knockout (KO) mice for H- and N-Ras (H-ras {sup -/-}/N-ras {sup -/-}) isoforms and from heterozygote mice (H-ras {sup +/-}/N-ras {sup +/-}). ECM synthesis is increased in basal conditions in H-ras {sup -/-}/N-ras {sup -/-} fibroblasts, this increase being higher after stimulation with TGF-{beta}1. TGF-{beta}1-induced fibroblast proliferation is smaller in H-ras {sup -/-}/N-ras {sup -/-} than in H-ras {sup +/-}/N-ras {sup +/-} fibroblasts. Erk activation is decreased in H-ras {sup -/-}/N-ras {sup -/-} fibroblasts; inhibition of Erk activation reduces fibroblast proliferation. Akt activation is higher in double KO fibroblasts than in heterozygotes; inhibition of Akt activation also inhibits ECM synthesis. We suggest that H- and N-Ras isoforms downregulate ECM synthesis, and mediate proliferation, in part through MEK/Erk activation. PI3K-Akt pathway activation may be involved in the increase in ECM synthesis observed in the absence of H- and N-Ras.

  16. Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-system in murine polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Saigusa, Takamitsu; Dang, Yujing; Bunni, Marlene A; Amria, May Y; Steele, Stacy L; Fitzgibbon, Wayne R; Bell, P Darwin

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism for early hypertension in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has not been elucidated. One potential pathway that may contribute to the elevation in blood pressure in PKD is the activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS). For example, it has been shown that kidney cyst and cystic fluid contains renin, angiotensin II (AngII), and angiotensinogen (Agt). Numerous studies suggest that ciliary dysfunction plays an important role in PKD pathogenesis. However, it is unknown whether the primary cilium affects the intrarenal RAS in PKD. The purpose of this study was to determine whether loss of cilia or polycystin 1 (PC1) increases intrarenal RAS in mouse model of PKD. Adult Ift88 and Pkd1 conditional floxed allele mice with or without cre were administered tamoxifen to induce global knockout of the gene. Three months after tamoxifen injection, kidney tissues were examined by histology, immunofluorescence, western blot, and mRNA to assess intrarenal RAS components. SV40 immortalized collecting duct cell lines from hypomorphic Ift88 mouse were used to assess intrarenal RAS components in collecting duct cells. Mice without cilia and PC1 demonstrated increased kidney cyst formation, systolic blood pressure, prorenin, and kidney and urinary angiotensinogen levels. Interestingly immunofluorescence study of the kidney revealed that the prorenin receptor was localized to the basolateral membrane of principal cells in cilia (−) but not in cilia (+) kidneys. Collecting duct cAMP responses to AngII administration was greater in cilia (−) vs. cilia (+) cells indicating enhanced intrarenal RAS activity in the absence of cilia. These data suggest that in the absence of cilia or PC1, there is an upregulation of intrarenal RAS components and activity, which may contribute to elevated blood pressure in PKD. PMID:25999403

  17. Performance of McRAS-AC in the GEOS-5 AGCM: Part 1, Aerosol-Activated Cloud Microphysics, Precipitation, Radiative Effects, and Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Lee, D.; Oreopoulos, L.; Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.; Suarez, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A revised version of the Microphysics of clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert and Aerosol-Cloud interaction (McRAS-AC), including, among others, the Barahona and Nenes ice nucleation parameterization, is implemented in the GEOS-5 AGCM. Various fields from a 10-year long integration of the AGCM with McRAS-AC were compared with their counterparts from an integration of the baseline GEOS-5 AGCM, and with satellite data as observations. Generally using McRAS-AC reduced biases in cloud fields and cloud radiative effects are much better over most of the regions of the Earth. Two weaknesses are identified in the McRAS-AC runs, namely, too few cloud particles around 40S-60S, and too high cloud water path during northern hemisphere summer over the Gulf Stream and North Pacific. Sensitivity analyses showed that these biases potentially originated from biases in the aerosol input. The first bias is largely eliminated in a sensitivity test using 50% smaller aerosol particles, while the second bias is much reduced when interactive aerosol chemistry was turned on. The main drawback of McRAS-AC is dearth of low-level marine stratus clouds, probably due to lack of dry-convection, not yet implemented into the cloud scheme. Despite these biases, McRAS-AC does simulate realistic clouds and their optical properties that can improve with better aerosol-input and thereby has the potential to be a valuable tool for climate modeling research because of its aerosol indirect effect simulation capabilities involving prediction of cloud particle number concentration and effective particle size for both convective and stratiform clouds is quite realistic.

  18. Activating mutations in human c-Ha-ras-1 gene induced by reactive derivatives of safrole and the glutamic pyrolysis product, Glu-P-3.

    PubMed

    Ireland, C M; Cooper, C S; Marshall, C J; Hebert, E; Phillips, D H

    1988-09-01

    Foci of transformed NIH3T3 cells were observed after transfection of plasmids containing the c-Ha-ras-1 protooncogene modified in vitro either with the 3-N,N-acetoxyacetyl derivative (N-AcO-AGlu-P-3) of the mutagenic L-glutamic acid pyrolysis product 3-amino-4,6-dimethyldipyrido-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-3) or with 1'-acetoxysafrole (AcO-S), a reactive derivative of the carcinogen safrole. DNA isolated from these foci were used in a second round of transfection, and the DNA obtained from the secondary transformants was analysed to determine the nature of mutations responsible for activating the protooncogene. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify sequences of the gene likely to contain activating mutations, and these regions were then subjected to selective hybridization with specific oligonucleotides to locate and identify the point mutations. Five out of six transformants induced by N-AcO-AGlu-P-3 contained mutations at codon 61. Three of the codon 61 mutations were at the first base and the other two were at the third base, all were GC----TA transversions. Two AcO-S-induced transformants contained a GC----TA transversion, in one case at the first base of codon 61, in the other at the first base of codon 12. Another AcO-S-induced transformant, and the sixth transformant induced by N-AcO-AGlu-P-3 were apparently not mutated in codon 12, 61 or 117. Both N-AcO-AGlu-P-3 and AcO-S react predominantly with guanine residues in DNA, and all the mutations identified here were at GC base pairs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3070278

  19. Function of RasGRP3 in the formation and progression of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) mediate the activation of the Ras signaling pathway that is over activated in many human cancers. The RasGRP3, an activator of H-Ras and R-Ras protein exerts oncogenic effects and the overexpression of the protein is observed in numerous malignant cancer types. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of expression and potential function of RasGRP3 in the formation and progression of human breast cancer. Methods The RasGRP3 and phosphoRasGRP3 expressions were examined in human invasive ductal adenocarcinoma derived samples and cell lines (BT-474, JIMT-1, MCF7, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-453, T-47D) both in mRNA (Q-PCR) and protein (Western blot; immunohistochemistry) levels. To explore the biological function of the protein, RasGRP3 knockdown cultures were established. To assess the role of RasGRP3 in the viability of cells, annexin-V/PI staining and MitoProbe™ DilC1 (5) assay were performed. To clarify the function of the protein in cell proliferation and in the development of chemotherapeutic resistance, CyQuant assay was performed. To observe the RasGRP3 function in tumor formation, the Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model was used. To investigate the role of the protein in Ras-related signaling Q-PCR and Western blot experiments were performed. Results RasGRP3 expression was elevated in human breast tumor tissue samples as well as in multiple human breast cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of RasGRP3 expression in breast cancer cells decreased cell proliferation, induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells, and sensitized T-47D cells to the action of drugs Tamoxifen and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Gene silencing of RasGRP3 reduced tumor formation in mouse xenografts as well. Inhibition of RasGRP3 expression also reduced Akt, ERK1/2 and estrogen receptor alpha phosphorylation downstream from IGF-I insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation confirming the functional

  20. RasGRP1 Transgenic Mice Develop Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Response to Skin Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Federico R.; Garrido, Ann A.; Sharma, Amrish; Luke, Courtney T.; Stone, James C.; Dower, Nancy A.; Cline, J. Mark; Lorenzo, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Models of epidermal carcinogenesis have demonstrated that Ras is a critical molecule involved in tumor initiation and progression. Previously, we have shown that RasGRP1 increases the susceptibility of mice to skin tumorigenesis when overexpressed in the epidermis by a transgenic approach, related to its ability to activate Ras. Moreover, RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop spontaneous papillomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, some of which appear to originate in sites of injury, suggesting that RasGRP1 may be responding to signals generated during the wound-healing process. In this study, we examined the response of the RasGRP1 transgenic animals to full-thickness incision wounding of the skin, and demonstrated that they respond by developing tumors along the wounded site. The tumors did not present mutations in the H-ras gene, but Rasgrp1 transgene dosage correlated with tumor susceptibility and size. Analysis of serum cytokines showed increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic animals after wounding. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with primary keratinocytes showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated Ras activation, although RasGRP1 was dispensable for this effect. Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has been recently associated with proliferation of skin cancer cells, our results may help in the elucidation of pathways that activate Ras in the epidermis during tumorigenesis in the absence of oncogenic ras mutations. PMID:19497993

  1. Identification of a ternary protein-complex as a therapeutic target for K-Ras-dependent colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Songwang; Li, Gang; Yin, Ning; Dong, Lei; Lepp, Adrienne; Chesnik, Marla A.; Mirza, Shama P.; Szabo, Aniko; Tsai, Susan; Basir, Zainab; Wu, Shixiu; Chen, Guan

    2014-01-01

    A cancer phenotype is driven by several proteins and targeting a cluster of functionally interdependent molecules should be more effective for therapeutic intervention. This is specifically important for Ras-dependent cancer, as mutated (MT) Ras is non-druggable and targeting its interaction with effectors may be essential for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report that a protein-complex activated by the Ras effector p38γ MAPK is a novel therapeutic target for K-Ras-dependent colon cancer. Unbiased proteomic screening and immune-precipitation analyses identified p38γ interaction with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and K-Ras in K-Ras MT, but not wild-type (WT), colon cancer cells, indicating a role of this complex in Ras-dependent growth. Further experiments showed that this complex requires p38γ and Hsp90 activity to maintain MT, but not WT, K-Ras protein expression. Additional studies demonstrated that this complex is activated by p38γ-induced Hsp90 phosphorylation at S595, which is important for MT K-Ras stability and for K-Ras dependent growth. Of most important, pharmacologically inhibition of Hsp90 or p38γ activity disrupts the complex, decreases K-Ras expression, and selectively inhibits the growth of K-Ras MT colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that the p38γ-activated ternary complex is a novel therapeutic target for K-Ras-dependent colon cancer. PMID:24962213

  2. Ras1-Mediated Modulation of Drosophila Homeotic Function in Cell and Segment Identity

    PubMed Central

    Boube, M.; Benassayag, C.; Seroude, L.; Cribbs, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Mutations of the Drosophila homeotic proboscipedia gene (pb; the Hox-A2/B2 homologue) provoke dose-sensitive defects. These were used to search for dose-sensitive dominant modifiers of pb function. Two identified interacting genes were the proto-oncogene Ras1 and its functional antagonist Gap1, prominent intermediaries in known signal transduction pathways. Ras1(+) is a positive modifier of pb activity both in normal and ectopic cell contexts, while the Ras1-antagonist Gap1 has an opposite effect. A general role for Ras1 in homeotic function is likely, since Ras1(+) activity also modulates functions of the homeotic loci Sex combs reduced and Ultrabithorax. Our data suggest that the modulation occurs by a mechanism independent of transcriptional control of the homeotic loci themselves, or of the Ras1/Gap1 genes. Taken together our data support a role for Ras1-mediated cell signaling in the homeotic control of segmental differentiation. PMID:9178011

  3. Dysregulated RasGRP1 Responds to Cytokine Receptor Input in T Cell Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hartzell, Catherine; Ksionda, Olga; Lemmens, Ed; Coakley, Kristen; Yang, Ming; Dail, Monique; Harvey, Richard C.; Govern, Christopher; Bakker, Jeroen; Lenstra, Tineke L.; Ammon, Kristin; Boeter, Anne; Winter, Stuart S.; Loh, Mignon; Shannon, Kevin; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Wabl, Matthias; Roose, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced signaling by the small guanosine triphosphatase Ras is common in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1 (Rasgrp1 in mice) as a Ras activator that contributes to leukemogenesis. We found increased RasGRP1 expression in many pediatric T-ALL patients, which we did not observe in rare early T cell precursor (ETP) T-ALL patients with KRAS and NRAS mutations, such as K-RasG12D. Leukemia screens in wild-type mice, but not in mice expressing the mutant K-RasG12D that encodes a constitutively active Ras, yielded frequent retroviral insertions that led to increased Rasgrp1 expression. Rasgrp1 and oncogenic K-RasG12D promoted T-ALL through distinct mechanisms. In K-RasG12D T-ALLs, we found that enhanced Ras activation did not lead to cell cycle arrest. In mouse T-ALL cells with increased Rasgrp1 expression, we found that Rasgrp1 contributed to a previously uncharacterized cytokine receptor–activated Ras pathway that stimulated the proliferation of T-ALL cells in vivo, which was accompanied by dynamic patterns of activation of effector kinases downstream of Ras in individual T-ALLs. Reduction of Rasgrp1 abundance reduced cytokine-stimulated Ras signaling and decreased the proliferation of T-ALL in vivo, suggesting that patients with this cancer should be screened for increased abundance of RasGRP1 to customize treatment. PMID:23532335

  4. RAS Synthetic Lethal Screens Revisited: Still Seeking the Elusive Prize?

    PubMed Central

    Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The RAS genes are critical oncogenic drivers activated by point mutation in some 20% of human malignancies. However, no pharmacological approaches to targeting RAS proteins directly have yet succeeded, leading to suggestions that these proteins may be “undruggable.” This has led to two alternative indirect approaches to targeting RAS function in cancer. One has been to target RAS signaling pathways downstream at tractable enzymes such as kinases, particularly in combination. The other, which is the focus of this review, has been to seek targets that are essential in cells bearing an activated RAS oncogene, but not those without. This synthetic lethal approach, while rooted in ideas from invertebrate genetics, has been inspired most strongly by the successful use of PARP inhibitors, such as olaparib, in the clinic to treat BRCA defective cancers. Several large-scale screens have been carried out using RNA interference-mediated expression silencing to find genes that are uniquely essential to RAS mutant but not wild type cells. These screens have been notable for the low degree of overlap between their results, with the possible exception of proteasome components, and have yet to lead to successful new clinical approaches to the treatment of RAS mutant cancers. Possible reasons for these disappointing results are discussed here, along with a re-evaluation of the approaches taken. Based on experience to date, RAS synthetic lethality has so far fallen some way short of its original promise and remains unproven as an approach to finding effective new ways of tackling RAS mutant cancers. PMID:25878361

  5. Discovery of 1-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-methyl-5-(7-methyl-2-(methylamino)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-yl)phenyl)urea (LY3009120) as a pan-RAF inhibitor with minimal paradoxical activation and activity against BRAF or RAS mutant tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Henry, James R; Kaufman, Michael D; Peng, Sheng-Bin; Ahn, Yu Mi; Caldwell, Timothy M; Vogeti, Lakshminarayana; Telikepalli, Hanumaiah; Lu, Wei-Ping; Hood, Molly M; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Smith, Bryan D; Vogeti, Subha; Miller, David; Wise, Scott C; Chun, Lawrence; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Youyan; Kays, Lisa; Hipskind, Philip A; Wrobleski, Aaron D; Lobb, Karen L; Clay, Julia M; Cohen, Jeffrey D; Walgren, Jennie L; McCann, Denis; Patel, Phenil; Clawson, David K; Guo, Sherry; Manglicmot, Danalyn; Groshong, Chris; Logan, Cheyenne; Starling, James J; Flynn, Daniel L

    2015-05-28

    The RAS-RAF-MEK-MAPK cascade is an essential signaling pathway, with activation typically mediated through cell surface receptors. The kinase inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib, which target oncogenic BRAF V600E, have shown significant clinical efficacy in melanoma patients harboring this mutation. Because of paradoxical pathway activation, both agents were demonstrated to promote growth and metastasis of tumor cells with RAS mutations in preclinical models and are contraindicated for treatment of cancer patients with BRAF WT background, including patients with KRAS or NRAS mutations. In order to eliminate the issues associated with paradoxical MAPK pathway activation and to provide therapeutic benefit to patients with RAS mutant cancers, we sought to identify a compound not only active against BRAF V600E but also wild type BRAF and CRAF. On the basis of its superior in vitro and in vivo profile, compound 13 was selected for further development and is currently being evaluated in phase I clinical studies. PMID:25965804

  6. A novel antitubulin agent, DPQZ, induces cell apoptosis in human oral cancer cells through Ras/Raf inhibition and MAP kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Hour, Mann-Jen; Lee, Kun-Tsung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Wu, Chi-Yu; You, Bang-Jau; Chen, Tai-Lin; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2013-05-01

    6-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-2-(naphthalene-1-yl)-4-quinazolinone (DPQZ)-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the characteristics of DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine externalization in human oral cancer HSC-3 cells. The IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value of DPQZ is about 0.25 μM at 24 h. The interference in the dynamics of tubulin and cell division of DPQZ, like vinblastine (0.01 μM), has been proven in this study. Treatment of HSC-3 cells with DPQZ resulted in many of mitotic cells with multipolar spindles. Up-regulation of MAP kinases, such as ERK, JNK, and p38, mediated by DPQZ appears to be involved in DPQZ-induced apoptosis in HSC-3 cells. It is worthy of note that the expression of Ras and c-Raf that lie upstream of ERK were inhibited by DPQZ. In addition, the DPQZ-induced cell death was attenuated by JNK inhibitor SP600125 (3 or 10 μM), not by the ERK or p38 inhibitors. JNK inhibitor abolished the DPQZ-induced increase in the phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and the protein levels of proform caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, indicating that JNK is an upstream activator of Bcl-2 and caspase family members and plays a key role in DPQZ-induced HSC-3 cell apoptosis. We also attempted to develop an anticancer drug that is designed to kill rapidly dividing cancer cells while causing less damage to normal cells. The DPQZ-induced cytotoxicity against human gingival fibroblasts was less than that against HSC-3 cells. Our work provides a new strategy and mechanism for developing anticancer drug and may contribute to clinical anticancer drug discovery and application. PMID:23212307

  7. The hypervariable region of K-Ras4B is responsible for its specific interactions with Calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sherwin J.; Nolet, Ryan P.; Calvert, Richard J.; Anderson, Lucy M.; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    K-Ras4B belongs to the family of p21 Ras GTPases, which play an important role in cell proliferation, survival and motility. The p21 Ras proteins such as K-Ras4B, K-Ras4A, H-Ras, and N-Ras, share 85% sequence homology and activate very similar signaling pathways. Only the C-terminal hypervariable regions differ significantly. A growing body of literature demonstrates that each Ras isoform possesses unique functions in normal physiological processes as well as in pathogenesis. One of the central questions in the field of Ras biology is how these very similar proteins achieve such remarkable specificity in protein-protein interactions that regulate signal transduction pathways. Here we explore specific binding of K-Ras4B to calmodulin. Using NMR techniques and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrate that the hypervariable region of K-Ras contributes in a major way to the interaction with calmodulin while the catalytic domain of K-Ras4B provides a way to control the interaction by nucleotide binding. The hypervariable region of K-Ras4B binds specifically to the C-terminal domain of Ca2+-loaded calmodulin with micromolar affinity, while the GTP-γ-S loaded catalytic domain of K-Ras4B may interact with the N-terminal domain of calmodulin. PMID:19583261

  8. Oncogenic Ras stimulates Eiger/TNF exocytosis to promote growth

    PubMed Central

    Chabu, Chiswili; Xu, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in Ras deregulate cell death and proliferation to cause cancer in a significant number of patients. Although normal Ras signaling during development has been well elucidated in multiple organisms, it is less clear how oncogenic Ras exerts its effects. Furthermore, cancers with oncogenic Ras mutations are aggressive and generally resistant to targeted therapies or chemotherapy. We identified the exocytosis component Sec15 as a synthetic suppressor of oncogenic Ras in an in vivo Drosophila mosaic screen. We found that oncogenic Ras elevates exocytosis and promotes the export of the pro-apoptotic ligand Eiger (Drosophila TNF). This blocks tumor cell death and stimulates overgrowth by activating the JNK-JAK-STAT non-autonomous proliferation signal from the neighboring wild-type cells. Inhibition of Eiger/TNF exocytosis or interfering with the JNK-JAK-STAT non-autonomous proliferation signaling at various steps suppresses oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth. Our findings highlight important cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic roles of exocytosis during oncogenic growth and provide a new class of synthetic suppressors for targeted therapy approaches. PMID:25411211

  9. Analysis of K-Ras Nuclear Expression in Fibroblasts and Mesangial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; Santos, Eugenio; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Ras GTPases are considered cytoplasmic proteins that must be localized to cell membranes for activation, and there are few evidences of the presence of any Ras isoform in nuclei of eukaryotic cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Using conventional antibodies and inmunocytochemistry, differential centrifugation and western blot, we have observed the putative presence of K-Ras isoform in the nuclei of fibroblasts and mesangial cells. In order to avoid cross-reactions with other Ras isoforms, and using antibodies against K-Ras (R-3400, H3845-M01, sc-30) or pan-Ras (05-516, OP40) in cells that only expressed the K-Ras isoform (fibroblasts obtained from H-ras−/−,N-ras−/− mice) we also detected some nuclear positive expression. To further probe the identity of nuclear K-Ras, we have generated K-Ras knockout (K-ras−/−) embrionary fibroblasts by mating of K-ras+/− heterozygote mice. Using specific antibodies, only H- and N-Ras isoforms were observed in the cytoplasm of K-ras−/− fibroblasts. However, both K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B positive signals were detected by immunocytochemistry and Western blot with two commercial antibodies (sc-522 and sc-521 against each isoforms, respectively) in both cytoplasm and nuclei from K-ras−/− fibroblasts. Conclusions/Significance We show that the presence of K-Ras4B in fibroblast nuclei, already described by other authors, is probably due to a cross-reaction of the antibody with an undetermined nucleolar protein. Although this study also shows the possible nuclear expression of K-Ras isoform in fibroblasts or in mesangial cells, it also reveals the importance of being cautious in these studies about distribution of protein isoforms due to some important limitations imposed by the unspecificity of the antibodies or contaminations in cellular preparations. PMID:20090846

  10. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei; Fairn, Gregory D; Hancock, John F

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization. PMID:26572827

  11. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization. PMID:26572827

  12. Para-phenylenediamine-induces apoptosis via a pathway dependent on PTK-Ras-Raf-JNK activation but independent of the PI3K/Akt pathway in NRK-52E cells.

    PubMed

    Kasi, Reena A P; Moi, Chye Soi; Kien, Yip Wai; Yian, Koh Rhun; Chin, Ng Wei; Yen, Ng Khuen; Ponnudurai, Gnanajothy; Fong, Seow Heng

    2015-03-01

    para‑Phenylenediamine (p‑PD) is a potential carcinogen, and widely used in marketed hair dye formulations. In the present study, the role of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK)/Ras/Raf/c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3k)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathways on the growth of NRK‑52E cells was investigated. The results demonstrated that p‑PD reduced cell viability in a dose‑dependent manner. The cell death due to apoptosis was confirmed by cell cycle analysis and an Annexin‑V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate binding assay. Subsequent to staining with 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescin diacetate, the treated cells demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation compared with the controls. The effects of p‑PD on the signalling pathways were analysed by western blotting. p‑PD‑treated cells exhibited an upregulated phospho‑stress‑activated protein kinase/JNK protein expression level and downregulated Ras and Raf protein expression levels; however, Akt, Bcl‑2, Bcl‑XL and Bad protein expression levels were not significantly altered compared with the control. In conclusion, p‑PD induced apoptosis by a PTK/Ras/Raf/JNK‑dependent pathway and was independent of the PI3K/Akt pathway in NRK‑52E cells. PMID:25411820

  13. Characterization of a novel oncogenic K-ras mutation in colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Akagi, Kiwamu . E-mail: akagi@cancer-c.pref.saitama.jp; Uchibori, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Kurosawa, Keiko; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Kozu, Tomoko

    2007-01-19

    Activating mutations of RAS are frequently observed in subsets of human cancers, indicating that RAS activation is involved in tumorigenesis. Here, we identified and characterized a novel G to T transversion mutation of the K-ras gene at the third position of codon 19 (TTG) which substituted phenylalanine for leucine in 3 primary colon carcinomas. Biological and biochemical activity was examined using transformed NIH3T3 cells expressing mutant or wild-type K-ras. Transformants harboring the K-ras mutation at codon 19 showed proliferative capacity under serum-starved conditions, less contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, tumorigenicity in nude mice and elevation of active Ras-GTP levels. These results indicated that this novel mutation possesses high oncogenic activity.

  14. The world pandemic of vitamin D deficiency could possibly be explained by cellular inflammatory response activity induced by the renin-angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Ferder, Marcelo; Inserra, Felipe; Manucha, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This review attempts to show that there may be a relationship between inflammatory processes induced by chronic overstimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the worldwide deficiency of vitamin D (VitD) and that both disorders are probably associated with environmental factors. Low VitD levels represent a risk factor for several apparently different diseases, such as infectious, autoimmune, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as diabetes, osteoporosis, and cancer. Moreover, VitD insufficiency seems to predispose to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and chronic vascular inflammation. On the other hand, inappropriate stimulation of the RAS has also been associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension, heart attack, stroke, and hypertrophy of the left ventricle and vascular smooth muscle cells. Because VitD receptors (VDRs) and RAS receptors are almost distributed in the same tissues, a possible link between VitD and the RAS is even more plausible. Furthermore, from an evolutionary point of view, both systems were developed simultaneously, actively participating in the regulation of inflammatory and immunological mechanisms. Changes in RAS activity and activation of the VDR seem to be inversely related; thus any changes in one of these systems would have a completely opposite effect on the other, making it possible to speculate that the two systems could have a feedback relationship. In fact, the pandemic of VitD deficiency could be the other face of increased RAS activity, which probably causes lower activity or lower levels of VitD. Finally, from a therapeutic point of view, the combination of RAS blockade and VDR stimulation appears to be more effective than either RAS blockade or VDR stimulation individually. PMID:23364265

  15. The inflammatory cytokine TNFα cooperates with Ras in elevating metastasis and turns WT-Ras to a tumor-promoting entity in MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the present study we determined the relative contribution of two processes to breast cancer progression: (1) Intrinsic events, such as activation of the Ras pathway and down-regulation of p53; (2) The inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β, shown in our published studies to be highly expressed in tumors of >80% of breast cancer patients with recurrent disease. Methods Using MCF-7 human breast tumor cells originally expressing WT-Ras and WT-p53, we determined the impact of the above-mentioned elements and cooperativity between them on the expression of CXCL8 (ELISA, qRT-PCR), a member of a “cancer-related chemokine cluster” that we have previously identified. Then, we determined the mechanisms involved (Ras-binding-domain assays, Western blot, luciferase), and tested the impact of Ras + TNFα on angiogenicity (chorioallantoic membrane assays) and on tumor growth at the mammary fat pad of mice and on metastasis, in vivo. Results Using RasG12V that recapitulates multiple stimulations induced by receptor tyrosine kinases, we found that RasG12V alone induced CXCL8 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, whereas down-regulation of p53 did not. TNFα and IL-1β potently induced CXCL8 expression and synergized with RasG12V, together leading to amplified CXCL8 expression. Testing the impact of WT-Ras, which is the common form in breast cancer patients, we found that WT-Ras was not active in promoting CXCL8; however, TNFα has induced the activation of WT-Ras: joining these two elements has led to cooperative induction of CXCL8 expression, via the activation of MEK, NF-κB and AP-1. Importantly, TNFα has led to increased expression of WT-Ras in an active GTP-bound form, with properties similar to those of RasG12V. Jointly, TNFα + Ras activities have given rise to increased angiogenesis and to elevated tumor cell dissemination to lymph nodes. Conclusions TNFα cooperates with Ras in promoting the metastatic phenotype of MCF-7 breast tumor cells

  16. J-104,871, a novel farnesyltransferase inhibitor, blocks Ras farnesylation in vivo in a farnesyl pyrophosphate-competitive manner.

    PubMed

    Yonemoto, M; Satoh, T; Arakawa, H; Suzuki-Takahashi, I; Monden, Y; Kodera, T; Tanaka, K; Aoyama, T; Iwasawa, Y; Kamei, T; Nishimura, S; Tomimoto, K

    1998-07-01

    Farnesylation of the activated ras oncogene product by protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) is a critical step for its oncogenic function. Because squalene synthase and FTase recruit farnesyl pyrophosphate as a common substrate, we modified squalene synthase (SS) inhibitors to develop FTase inhibitors. Among the compounds tested, a novel FTase inhibitor termed J-104,871 inhibited rat brain FTase with an IC50 of 3.9 nM in the presence of 0.6 microM farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), whereas it scarcely inhibited rat brain protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I or SS. The in vitro inhibition of rat brain FTase by J-104,871 depends on the FPP concentration but not on the concentration of Ras peptide. Thus, in vitro studies strongly suggest that J-series compounds have an FPP-competitive nature. J-104,871 also inhibited Ras processing in activated H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells with an IC50 value of 3.1 microM. We tested the effects of lovastatin and zaragozic acid A, which modify cellular FPP levels, on Ras processing of J-104,871. Lovastatin, a hepatic hydroxymenthyl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor that reduced the cellular FPP pool, increased the activity of J-104,871, whereas 3 microM zaragozic acid A, an SS inhibitor that raised the FPP level, completely abrogated the activity of J-104,871 even at 100 microM. These results suggest that J-104,871 inhibits FTase in an FPP-competitive manner in whole cells as well as in the in vitro system. Furthermore, J-104,871 suppressed tumor growth in nude mice transplanted with activated H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. PMID:9658183

  17. LCZ696: the next step in improving RAS inhibition?

    PubMed

    Gradman, Alan H

    2015-05-01

    LCZ696 is a single molecule which combines the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan with the neprilysn inhibitor sacubitril (AHU377). In the recently published PARADIGM-HF trial, LCZ696 proved superior to enalapril in reducing overall mortality, heart failure hospitalizations, and other endpoints in patients with systolic dysfunction heart failure. Increases in counter-regulatory natriuretic peptides which oppose sodium retention, vasoconstriction, and the deleterious structural changes which follow neurohormonal activation are thought to account for these improved outcomes. In two large hypertension studies, LCZ696 has proved to be a potent, effective antihypertensive agent with tolerability similar to valsartan and placebo and potency comparable to amlodipine. Although several have occurred in the heart failure population, there have been no cases of angioedema noted in the hypertension trials, although few black patients-a group at high risk for its occurrence-have been studied. Whether LCZ696 will displace angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) as preferred renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blocking agents in hypertension will require demonstration of improved long-term outcomes compared with currently preferred first-line drugs. In this regard, experience has shown that it is difficult to extrapolate results achieved in heart failure to the treatment of hypertension, a condition in which neurohormonal activation is less critical in determining long-term prognosis. It will be particularly important to demonstrate renal protection with LCZ696 in patients with diabetes, proteinuria, and hypertension-the only therapeutic area other than heart failure in which RAS blockade has proved essential for optimal endpoint reduction. Superiority over available RAS blockers in terms of 'vascular protection' in high-risk populations represents another path to acceptance of LCZ696 as a preferred agent in cardiovascular medicine

  18. Plk2 Raps up Ras to subdue synapses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kea Joo; Hoe, Hyang-Sook

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified the activity-inducible protein kinase Plk2 as a novel overseer of the balance between Ras and Rap small GTPases. Plk2 achieves a profound level of regulatory control by interacting with and phosphorylating at least four Ras and Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). Combined, these actions result in synergistic suppression of Ras and hyperstimulation of Rap signaling. Perturbation of Plk2 function abolished homeostatic adaptation of synapses to enhanced activity and impaired behavioral adaptation in various learning tasks, indicating that this regulation was critical for maintaining appropriate Ras/Rap levels. These studies provide insights into the highly cooperative nature of Ras and Rap regulation in neurons. However, different GEF and GAP substrates of Plk2 also controlled specific aspects of dendritic spine morphology, illustrating the ability of individual GAPs/GEFs to assemble microdomains of Ras and Rap signaling that respond to different stimuli and couple to distinct output pathways. PMID:21776418

  19. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor, LB42708, inhibits growth and induces apoptosis irreversibly in H-ras and K-ras-transformed rat intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han-Soo; Kim, Ju Won; Gang, Jingu; Wen, Jing; Koh, Sang Seok; Koh, Jong Sung; Chung, Hyun-Ho; Song, Si Young . E-mail: gisong@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    LB42708 (LB7) and LB42908 (LB9) are pyrrole-based orally active farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) that have similar structures. The in vitro potencies of these compounds against FTase and GGTase I are remarkably similar, and yet they display different activity in apoptosis induction and morphological reversion of ras-transformed rat intestinal epithelial (RIE) cells. Both FTIs induced cell death despite K-ras prenylation, implying the participation of Ras-independent mechanism(s). Growth inhibition by these two FTIs was accompanied by G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrests in H-ras and K-ras-transformed RIE cells, respectively. We identified three key markers, p21{sup CIP1/WAF1}, RhoB and EGFR, that can explain the differences in the molecular mechanism of action between two FTIs. Only LB7 induced the upregulation of p21{sup CIP1/WAF1} and RhoB above the basal level that led to the cell cycle arrest and to distinct morphological alterations of ras-transformed RIE cells. Both FTIs successfully inhibited the ERK and activated JNK in RIE/K-ras cells. While the addition of conditioned medium from RIE/K-ras reversed the growth inhibition of ras-transformed RIE cells by LB9, it failed to overcome the growth inhibitory effect of LB7 in both H-ras- and K-ras-transformed RIE cells. We found that LB7, but not LB9, decreased the expression of EGFRs that confers the cellular unresponsiveness to EGFR ligands. These results suggest that LB7 causes the induction of p21{sup CIP1/WAF1} and RhoB and downregulation of EGFR that may serve as critical steps in the mechanism by which FTIs trigger irreversible inhibitions on the cell growth and apoptosis in ras-transformed cells.

  20. Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb) Enhances Apoptotic Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Karassek, Sascha; Berghaus, Carsten; Schwarten, Melanie; Goemans, Christoph G.; Ohse, Nadine; Kock, Gerd; Jockers, Katharina; Neumann, Sebastian; Gottfried, Sebastian; Herrmann, Christian; Heumann, Rolf; Stoll, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Rheb is a homolog of Ras GTPase that regulates cell growth, proliferation, and regeneration via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because of the well established potential of activated Ras to promote survival, we sought to investigate the ability of Rheb signaling to phenocopy Ras. We found that overexpression of lipid-anchored Rheb enhanced the apoptotic effects induced by UV light, TNFα, or tunicamycin in an mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent manner. Knocking down endogenous Rheb or applying rapamycin led to partial protection, identifying Rheb as a mediator of cell death. Ras and c-Raf kinase opposed the apoptotic effects induced by UV light or TNFα but did not prevent Rheb-mediated apoptosis. To gain structural insight into the signaling mechanisms, we determined the structure of Rheb-GDP by NMR. The complex adopts the typical canonical fold of RasGTPases and displays the characteristic GDP-dependent picosecond to nanosecond backbone dynamics of the switch I and switch II regions. NMR revealed Ras effector-like binding of activated Rheb to the c-Raf-Ras-binding domain (RBD), but the affinity was 1000-fold lower than the Ras/RBD interaction, suggesting a lack of functional interaction. shRNA-mediated knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) strongly reduced UV or TNFα-induced apoptosis and suppressed enhancement by Rheb overexpression. In conclusion, Rheb-mTOR activation not only promotes normal cell growth but also enhances apoptosis in response to diverse toxic stimuli via an ASK-1-mediated mechanism. Pharmacological regulation of the Rheb/mTORC1 pathway using rapamycin should take the presence of cellular stress into consideration, as this may have clinical implications. PMID:20685651

  1. NF2 loss promotes oncogenic RAS-induced thyroid cancers via YAP-dependent transactivation of RAS proteins and sensitizes them to MEK inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E.R.; Ricarte-Filho, Julio C.; Untch, Brian R.; Landa, Iňigo; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Voza, Francesca; Smith, Vicki E.; Ganly, Ian; Taylor, Barry S.; Persaud, Yogindra; Oler, Gisele; Fang, Yuqiang; Jhanwar, Suresh C.; Viale, Agnes; Heguy, Adriana; Huberman, Kety H.; Giancotti, Filippo; Ghossein, Ronald; Fagin, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Ch22q LOH is preferentially associated with RAS mutations in papillary and in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC). The 22q tumor suppressor NF2, encoding merlin, is implicated in this interaction because of its frequent loss of function in human thyroid cancer cell lines. Nf2 deletion or Hras mutation are insufficient for transformation, whereas their combined disruption leads to murine PDTC with increased MAPK signaling. Merlin loss induces RAS signaling in part through inactivation of Hippo, which activates a YAP-TEAD transcriptional program. We find that the three RAS genes are themselves YAP-TEAD1 transcriptional targets, providing a novel mechanism of promotion of RAS-induced tumorigenesis. Moreover, pharmacological disruption of YAP-TEAD with verteporfin blocks RAS transcription and signaling, and inhibits cell growth. The increased MAPK output generated by NF2 loss in RAS-mutant cancers may inform therapeutic strategies, as it generates greater dependency on the MAPK pathway for viability. PMID:26359368

  2. Protocatechuic acid inhibits cancer cell metastasis involving the down-regulation of Ras/Akt/NF-κB pathway and MMP-2 production by targeting RhoB activation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is plentiful in edible fruits and vegetables and is thus one anti-oxidative component of normal human diets. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the chemopreventive activity of PCA are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-metastatic potential of PCA. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used AGS cells in a wound healing model and Boyden chamber assays in vitro and injection of B16/F10 melanoma cells in mice (metastasis model in vivo) to analyse the effect of PCA on cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The activities and expression of molecular proteins were measured by zymographic assay, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. KEY RESULTS PCA inhibited cell migration and invasion at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and a coincident increase in tissue inhibitor of MMP followed treatment with PCA. The PCA-inhibited MMP-2 activity and expression was accompanied by inactivation of NF-κB. All these effects of PCA could be mediated via the RhoB/ protein kinase Cε (PKCε) and Ras/Akt cascade pathways, as demonstrated by inhibition of PKCε and transfection of PKCε siRNA and ras overexpression vector. Finally, PCA inhibited metastasis of B16/F10 melanoma cells to the liver in mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Our data imply that PCA down-regulated the Ras/Akt/NF-κB pathway by targeting RhoB activation, which in turn led to a reduction of MMP-mediated cellular events in cancer cells and provides a new mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of PCA. PMID:20840540

  3. Society News: PhD theses could win prizes; Last chance for IYA2009 grants; New Fellows; RAS Fellows win prizes; Need a job? Need staff? RAS Library Saturdays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    Fellows who are PhD student supervisors should be on the lookout for exceptionally good work from research students submitting their theses this year, for nomination for the RAS Michael Penston Astronomy Prize and the RAS Keith Runcorn Prize. The RAS is offering one last chance to apply for grants towards International Year of Astronomy activities, but you'll have to apply soon. The Society sends congratulations to Fellows of the RAS who have recently received prestigious awards for their work.

  4. Cooperative loss of RAS feedback regulation drives myeloid leukemognesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhen; Chen, Chi-Chao; Rillahan, Cory D.; Shen, Ronglai; Kitzing, Thomas; McNerney, Megan E.; Diaz-Flores, Ernesto; Zuber, Johannes; Shannon, Kevin; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Spector, Mona S.; Kogan, Scott C.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    RAS network activation is common in human cancers and, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), achieved mainly through gain-of-function mutations in KRAS, NRAS, or the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase1. In mice, we show that premalignant myeloid cells harboring a KrasG12D allele retain low Ras signaling owing to a negative feedback involving Spry4 that prevents transformation. In humans, SPRY4 is located on chromosome 5q, a region affected by large heterozygous deletion that are associated with an aggressive disease in which gain-of-function RAS pathway mutations are rare. These 5q deletions often co-occur with chromosome 17 alterations involving deletion of NF1 - another RAS negative regulator - and TP53. Accordingly, combined suppression of Spry4, Nf1 and Trp53 produces high Ras signaling and drives AML in mice. Therefore, SPRY4 is a 5q tumor suppressor whose disruption contributes to a lethal AML subtype that appears to acquire RAS pathway activation through loss of negative regulators. PMID:25822087

  5. Ras and Rap Signaling in Synaptic Plasticity and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stornetta, Ruth L.; Zhu, J. Julius

    2011-01-01

    The Ras family GTPases (Ras, Rap1, and Rap2) and their downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK) and PI3K signaling cascades control various physiological processes. In neuronal cells, recent studies have shown that these parallel cascades signal distinct forms of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptor trafficking during experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and adaptive behavior. Interestingly, both hypo- and hyper-activation of Ras/Rap signaling impair the capacity of synaptic plasticity, underscoring the importance of a “happy-medium” dynamic regulation of the signaling. Moreover, accumulating reports have linked various genetic defects that either up- or down-regulate Ras/Rap signaling with a number of mental disorders associated with learning disability (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Angelman syndrome, autism, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Coffin-Lowry syndrome, Costello syndrome, Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes, fragile X syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, schizophrenia, tuberous sclerosis, and X-linked mental retardation), highlighting the necessity of happy-medium dynamic regulation of Ras/Rap signaling in learning behavior. Thus, the recent advances in understanding of neuronal Ras/Rap signaling provide a useful guide for developing novel treatments for mental diseases. PMID:20431046

  6. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System Promotes Colitis Development

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yongyan; Liu, Tianjing; He, Lei; Dougherty, Urszula; Chen, Li; Adhikari, Sarbani; Alpert, Lindsay; Zhou, Guolin; Liu, Weicheng; Wang, Jiaolong; Deb, Dilip K.; Hart, John; Liu, Shu Q.; Kwon, John; Pekow, Joel; Rubin, David T.; Zhao, Qun; Bissonnette, Marc; Li, Yan Chun

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays pathogenic roles in renal and cardiovascular disorders, but whether it is involved in colitis is unclear. Here we show that RenTgMK mice that overexpress active renin from the liver developed more severe colitis than wild-type controls. More than 50% RenTgMK mice died whereas all wild-type mice recovered. RenTgMK mice exhibited more robust mucosal TH17 and TH1/TH17 responses and more profound colonic epithelial cell apoptosis compared to wild-type controls. Treatment with aliskiren (a renin inhibitor), but not hydralazine (a smooth muscle relaxant), ameliorated colitis in RenTgMK mice, although both drugs normalized blood pressure. Chronic infusion of angiotensin II into wild-type mice mimicked the severe colitic phenotype of RenTgMK mice, and treatment with losartan [an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB)] ameliorated colitis in wild-type mice, confirming a colitogenic role for the endogenous RAS. In human biopsies, pro-inflammatory cytokines were suppressed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were on ARB therapy compared to patients not receiving ARB therapy. These observations demonstrate that activation of the RAS promotes colitis in a blood pressure independent manner. Angiotensin II appears to drive colonic mucosal inflammation by promoting intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal TH17 responses in colitis development. PMID:27271344

  7. Ras transformation uncouples the kinesin-coordinated cellular nutrient response.

    PubMed

    Zaganjor, Elma; Weil, Lauren M; Gonzales, Joshua X; Minna, John D; Cobb, Melanie H

    2014-07-22

    The kinesin family members (KIFs) KIF2A and KIF2C depolymerize microtubules, unlike the majority of other kinesins, which transport cargo along microtubules. KIF2A regulates the localization of lysosomes in the cytoplasm, which assists in activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosomal surface. We find that the closely related kinesin KIF2C also influences lysosomal organization in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Expression of KIF2C and, to a lesser extent, KIF2A in untransformed and mutant K-Ras-transformed cells is regulated by ERK1/2. Prolonged inhibition of ERK1/2 activation with PD0325901 mimics nutrient deprivation by disrupting lysosome organization and decreasing mTORC1 activity in HBEC, suggesting a long-term mechanism for optimization of mTORC1 activity by ERK1/2. We tested the hypothesis that up-regulation of KIF2C and KIF2A by ERK1/2 caused aberrant lysosomal positioning and mTORC1 activity in a mutant K-Ras-dependent cancer and cancer model. In Ras-transformed cells, however, mTORC1 activity and lysosome organization appear independent of ERK1/2 and these kinesins although ERK1/2 activity and the kinesins are required for Ras-dependent proliferation and migration. We conclude that mutant K-Ras repurposes these signaling and regulatory proteins to support the transformed phenotype. PMID:25002494

  8. A Drosophila immune response against Ras-induced overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Hauling, Thomas; Krautz, Robert; Markus, Robert; Volkenhoff, Anne; Kucerova, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our goal is to characterize the innate immune response against the early stage of tumor development. For this, animal models where genetic changes in specific cells and tissues can be performed in a controlled way have become increasingly important, including the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Many tumor mutants in Drosophila affect the germline and, as a consequence, also the immune system itself, making it difficult to ascribe their phenotype to a specific tissue. Only during the past decade, mutations have been induced systematically in somatic cells to study the control of tumorous growth by neighboring cells and by immune cells. Here we show that upon ectopic expression of a dominant-active form of the Ras oncogene (RasV12), both imaginal discs and salivary glands are affected. Particularly, the glands increase in size, express metalloproteinases and display apoptotic markers. This leads to a strong cellular response, which has many hallmarks of the granuloma-like encapsulation reaction, usually mounted by the insect against larger foreign objects. RNA sequencing of the fat body reveals a characteristic humoral immune response. In addition we also identify genes that are specifically induced upon expression of RasV12. As a proof-of-principle, we show that one of the induced genes (santa-maria), which encodes a scavenger receptor, modulates damage to the salivary glands. The list of genes we have identified provides a rich source for further functional characterization. Our hope is that this will lead to a better understanding of the earliest stage of innate immune responses against tumors with implications for mammalian immunity. PMID:24659248

  9. Design, dimensioning, and performance of a research facility for studies on the requirements of fish in RAS environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are increasingly being used for Atlantic salmon smolt production. However, knowledge of how the RAS environment affects welfare and performance of Atlantic salmon is limited. For instance, safe limits for chronic exposure to typical compounds in RAS, such as N...

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of compartmentalised Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Valladares, Maria; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are membrane bound signalling hubs that operate from both the cell surface and endomembrane compartments. However, the extent to which intracellular pools of Ras can contribute to cell signalling is debated. To address this, we have performed a global screen of compartmentalised Ras signalling. We find that whilst ER/Golgi- and endosomal-Ras only generate weak outputs, Ras localised to the mitochondria or Golgi significantly and distinctly influence both the abundance and phosphorylation of a wide range of proteins analysed. Our data reveal that ~80% of phosphosites exhibiting large (≥1.5-fold) changes compared to control can be modulated by organellar Ras signalling. The majority of compartmentalised Ras-specific responses are predicted to influence gene expression, RNA splicing and cell proliferation. Our analysis reinforces the concept that compartmentalisation influences Ras signalling and provides detailed insight into the widespread modulation of responses downstream of endomembranous Ras signalling. PMID:26620772

  11. Predictive value of K-ras and PIK3CA in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKIs: a systemic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie-Ying; Cheng, Ya-Nan; Han, Lei; Wei, Feng; Yu, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Cao, Shui; Yu, Jin-Pu

    2015-01-01

    Objective A meta-analysis was performed to augment the insufficient data on the impact of mutative EGFR downstream phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways on the clinical efficiency of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Network databases were explored in April, 2015. Papers that investigated the clinical outcomes of NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs according to the status of K-ras and/or PIK3CA gene mutation were included. A quantitative meta-analysis was conducted using standard statistical methods. Odds ratios (ORs) for objective response rate (ORR) and hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Results Mutation in K-ras significantly predicted poor ORR [OR =0.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.13-0.35], shorter PFS (HR =1.56; 95% CI, 1.27-1.92), and shorter OS (HR =1.59; 95% CI, 1.33-1.91) in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. Mutant PIK3CA significantly predicted shorter OS (HR =1.83; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20), showed poor ORR (OR =0.70; 95% CI, 0.22-2.18), and shorter PFS (HR =1.79; 95% CI, 0.91-3.53) in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. Conclusion K-ras mutation adversely affected the clinical response and survival of NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. PIK3CA mutation showed similar trends. In addition to EGFR, adding K-ras and PIK3CA as routine gene biomarkers in clinical genetic analysis is valuable to optimize the effectiveness of EGFR-TKI regimens and identify optimal patients who will benefit from EGFR-TKI treatment. PMID:26175928

  12. Effect of Boschniakia rossica on expression of GST-P, p53 and p21(ras)proteins in early stage of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and its anti-inflammatory activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zong-Zhu; Jin, Hai-Ling; Yin, Xue-Zhe; Li, Tian-Zhu; Quan, Ji-Shu; Jin, Zeng-Nan

    2000-12-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of Boschniakia rossica (BR) extract on expression of GST-P, p53 and p21(ras) proteins in early stage of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and its anti-inflammatory activities.METHODS:The expression of tumor marker-placental form glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), p53 and p21(ras) proteins were investigated by immunohisto-chemical techniques and ABC method. Anti-inflammatory activities of BR were studied by xylene and croton oil-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenin, histamine and hot scald-induced rat pow edema, adjuvant-induced rat arthritis and cotton pellet induced mouse granuloma formation methods.RESULTS:The 500mg/kg of BR-H2O extract frac-tionated from BR-Methanol extract had inhibitory effect on the formation of DEN-induced GST-P-positive foci in rat liver (GST-P staining was 78% positive in DEN+AAF group vs 20% positive in DEN+AAF+BR group, P<0.05) and the expression of mutant p53 and p21(ras) protein was lower than that of hepatic preneoplastic lesions (33% and 22% positive respectively in DEN+AAF group vs negative in DEN+AAF+BR group). Both CH(2)Cl(2) and H(2)O extracts from BR had anti-inflamatory effect in xylene and crotonoil induced mouse ear edema (inhibitory rates were 26%-29% and 35%-59%, respectively). BR H(2)O extract exhibited inhibitory effect in carrageenin, histamine and hot scald-induced hind paw edema and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice.CONCLUSION:BR extract exhibited inhibitory effect on formation of preneoplastic hepatic foci in early stage of rat chemical hepato-carcinogenesis.Both CH(2)Cl(2) and H(2)O extracts from BR exerted anti-inflammatory effect in rats and mice. PMID:11819701

  13. Loss of oncogenic ras expression does not correlate with loss of tumorigenicity in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Plattner, R; Anderson, M J; Sato, K Y; Fasching, C L; Der, C J; Stanbridge, E J

    1996-01-01

    ras oncogenes are mutated in at variety of human tumors, which suggests that they play an important role in human carcinogenesis. To determine whether continued oncogenic ras expression is necessary to maintain the malignant phenotype, we studied the human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, which contains one mutated and one wild-type N-ras allele. We isolated a variant of this cell line that no longer contained the mutated copy of the N-ras gene. Loss of mutant N-ras resulted in cells that displayed a less transformed phenotype characterized by a flat morphology, decreased growth rate, organized actin stress fibers, and loss of anchorage-independent growth. The transformed phenotype was restored following reintroduction of mutant N-ras. Although loss of the oncogenic N-ras drastically affected in vitro growth parameters, the variant remained tumorigenic in nude mice indicating that mutated N-ras expression is not necessary for maintenance of the tumorigenic phenotype. We confirmed this latter observation in colon carcinoma cell lines that have lost activated K-ras expression via targeted knockout of the mutant K-ras gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8692875

  14. Effects of RAS on the genesis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Langenau, David M.; Keefe, Matthew D.; Storer, Narie Y.; Guyon, Jeffrey R.; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Le, Xiuning; Goessling, Wolfram; Neuberg, Donna S.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2007-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is a devastating cancer with specific features of muscle differentiation that can result from mutational activation of RAS family members. However, to date, RAS pathway activation has not been reported in a majority of ERMS patients. Here, we have created a zebrafish model of RAS-induced ERMS, in which animals develop externally visible tumors by 10 d of life. Microarray analysis and cross-species comparisons identified two conserved gene signatures found in both zebrafish and human ERMS, one associated with tumor-specific and tissue-restricted gene expression in rhabdomyosarcoma and a second comprising a novel RAS-induced gene signature. Remarkably, our analysis uncovered that RAS pathway activation is exceedingly common in human RMS. We also created a new transgenic coinjection methodology to fluorescently label distinct subpopulations of tumor cells based on muscle differentiation status. In conjunction with fluorescent activated cell sorting, cell transplantation, and limiting dilution analysis, we were able to identify the cancer stem cell in zebrafish ERMS. When coupled with gene expression studies of this cell population, we propose that the zebrafish RMS cancer stem cell shares similar self-renewal programs as those found in activated satellite cells. PMID:17510286

  15. Oncogenic synergism between ErbB1, nucleolin, and mutant Ras.

    PubMed

    Farin, Keren; Schokoroy, Sari; Haklai, Roni; Cohen-Or, Ifat; Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Reyes-Reyes, Merit E; Bates, Paula J; Cox, Adrienne D; Kloog, Yoel; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2011-03-15

    Alterations in the ErbB family of growth factor receptors, their signaling components, and mutational activation of Ras proteins are major contributors to malignant transformation. Recently, mutant Ras was shown to be capable of activating ErbB receptors in a ligand-independent manner. Furthermore, it was observed that nucleolin, a transcriptional regulator and ribosome biogenesis factor, can bind both K-Ras and the cytoplasmic tail of ErbB receptors to enhance ErbB receptor activation. However, the functional significance of these interactions to cancer pathogenesis has not been probed. Here, we show that endogenous nucleolin interacts simultaneously in vivo with endogenous Ras and ErbB1 (EGFR) in cancer cells. The C-terminal 212 amino acids of nucleolin were determined to be sufficient to interact with ErbB1 and all Ras protein isoforms (H-, N-, and K-Ras). Nucleolin partially colocalizes with Ras at the plasma membrane. Moreover, activated but not wild-type Ras facilitates nucleolin interaction with ErbB1 and stabilizes ErbB1 receptor levels. Most importantly, these three oncogenes synergistically facilitate anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Our findings suggest strategies to target nucleolin as a general approach to inhibiting ErbB- and Ras-driven cancers. PMID:21257709

  16. Oncolytic reovirus induces intracellular redistribution of Ras to promote apoptosis and progeny virus release.

    PubMed

    Garant, K A; Shmulevitz, M; Pan, L; Daigle, R M; Ahn, D-G; Gujar, S A; Lee, P W K

    2016-02-11

    Reovirus is a naturally oncolytic virus that preferentially replicates in Ras-transformed cells and is currently undergoing clinical trials as a cancer therapeutic. Ras transformation promotes reovirus oncolysis by enhancing virion disassembly during entry, viral progeny production, and virus release through apoptosis; however, the mechanism behind the latter is not well understood. Here, we show that reovirus alters the intracellular location of oncogenic Ras to induce apoptosis of H-RasV12-transformed fibroblasts. Reovirus infection decreases Ras palmitoylation levels and causes accumulation of Ras in the Golgi through Golgi fragmentation. With the Golgi being the site of Ras palmitoylation, treatment of target cells with the palmitoylation inhibitor, 2-bromopalmitate (2BP), prompts a greater accumulation of H-RasV12 in the Golgi, and a dose-dependent increase in progeny virus release and subsequent spread. Conversely, tethering H-RasV12 to the plasma membrane (thereby preventing its movement to the Golgi) allows for efficient virus production, but results in basal levels of reovirus-induced cell death. Analysis of Ras downstream signaling reveals that cells expressing cycling H-RasV12 have elevated levels of phosphorylated JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and that Ras retained at the Golgi body by 2BP increases activation of the MEKK1/MKK4/JNK signaling pathway to promote cell death. Collectively, our data suggest that reovirus induces Golgi fragmentation of target cells, and the subsequent accumulation of oncogenic Ras in the Golgi body initiates apoptotic signaling events required for virus release and spread. PMID:25961930

  17. The inhibition of the GTPase activating protein-Ha-ras interaction by acidic lipids is due to physical association of the C-terminal domain of the GTPase activating protein with micellar structures.

    PubMed Central

    Serth, J; Lautwein, A; Frech, M; Wittinghofer, A; Pingoud, A

    1991-01-01

    The effects of fatty acids and phospholipids on the interaction of the full-length GTPase activating protein (GAP) as well as its isolated C-terminal domain and the Ha-ras proto-oncogene product p21 were studied by various methods, viz. GTPase activity measurements, fluorescence titrations and gel permeation chromatography. It is shown that all fatty acids and acidic phospholipids tested, provided the critical micellar concentration and the critical micellar temperature are reached, inhibit the GAP stimulated p21 GTPase activity. This is interpreted to mean that it is not the molecular structure of acidic lipid molecules per se but rather their physical state of aggregation which is responsible for the inhibitory effect of lipids on the GTPase activity. The relative inhibitory potency of various lipids was measured under defined conditions with mixed Triton X-100 micelles to follow the order: unsaturated fatty acids greater than saturated acids approximately phosphatidic acids greater than or equal to phosphatidylinositol phosphates much greater than phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. GTPase experiments with varying concentrations of p21 and constant concentrations of GAP and lipids indicate that the binding of GAP by the lipid micelles is responsible for the inhibition, a finding which was confirmed by fluorescence titrations and gel filtrations which show that the C-terminal domain of GAP is bound by lipid micelles. PMID:2026138

  18. Oncogenic Ras/Src cooperativity in pancreatic neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shields, DJ; Murphy, EA; Desgrosellier, JS; Mielgo, A; Lau, SKM; Barnes, LA; Lesperance, J; Huang, M; Schmedt, C; Tarin, D; Lowy, AM; Cheresh, DA

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies and is characterized by activating mutations of Kras, present in 95% of patients. More than 60% of pancreatic cancers also display increased c-Src activity, which is associated with poor prognosis. Although loss of tumor suppressor function (for example, p16, p53, Smad4) combined with oncogenic Kras signaling has been shown to accelerate pancreatic duct carcinogenesis, it is unclear whether elevated Src activity contributes to Kras-dependent tumorigenesis or is simply a biomarker of disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that in the context of oncogenic Kras, activation of c-Src through deletion of C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) results in the development of invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) by 5–8 weeks. In contrast, deletion of CSK alone fails to induce neoplasia, while oncogenic Kras expression yields PDA at low frequency after a latency of 12 months. Analysis of cell lines derived from Ras/Src-induced PDA’s indicates that oncogenic Ras/Src cooperativity may lead to genomic instability, yet Ras/Src-driven tumor cells remain dependent on Src signaling and as such, Src inhibition suppresses growth of Ras/Src-driven tumors. These findings demonstrate that oncogenic Ras/Src cooperate to accelerate PDA onset and support further studies of Src-directed therapies in pancreatic cancer. PMID:21242978

  19. Mutant K-RAS Promotes Invasion and Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Through GTPase Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Padavano, Julianna; Henkhaus, Rebecca S; Chen, Hwudaurw; Skovan, Bethany A; Cui, Haiyan; Ignatenko, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, characterized by the local invasion into surrounding tissues and early metastasis to distant organs. Oncogenic mutations of the K-RAS gene occur in more than 90% of human pancreatic cancers. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional significance and downstream effectors of mutant K-RAS oncogene in the pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. We applied the homologous recombination technique to stably disrupt K-RAS oncogene in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2, which carries the mutant K-RASG12C oncogene in both alleles. Using in vitro assays, we found that clones with disrupted mutant K-RAS gene exhibited low RAS activity, reduced growth rates, increased sensitivity to the apoptosis inducing agents, and suppressed motility and invasiveness. In vivo assays showed that clones with decreased RAS activity had reduced tumor formation ability in mouse xenograft model and increased survival rates in the mouse orthotopic pancreatic cancer model. We further examined molecular pathways downstream of mutant K-RAS and identified RhoA GTP activating protein 5, caveolin-1, and RAS-like small GTPase A (RalA) as key effector molecules, which control mutant K-RAS-dependent migration and invasion in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Our study provides rational for targeting RhoA and RalA GTPase signaling pathways for inhibition of pancreatic cancer metastasis. PMID:26512205

  20. Therapeutic Implications of the Vasoprotective Axis of the Ras in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Anderson J; Santos, Robson A S; Bradford, Chastity N; Mecca, Adam; Sumners, Colin; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the Mas receptor has resulted in the recognition of a counterregulatory, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas, axis within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Any disturbance in the balance between this and the ACE/AngII/AT1 receptor axis is suggested to lead to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has been an obvious target for CVD therapeutics. In this review, we will focus on the current status of the RAS, highlight evidence for the existence of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis, and discuss, the role of this axis in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary and central nervous systems and its potential for future CVD therapeutics. PMID:20038757

  1. Rational design of small molecule inhibitors targeting the Ras GEF, SOS1

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Duan, Xin; Biesiada, Jacek; Seibel, William L.; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ras GTPases regulate intracellular signaling involved in cell proliferation. Elevated Ras signaling activity has been associated with human cancers. Ras activation is catalyzed by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), of which SOS1 is a major member that transduces receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Ras. We have developed a rational approach coupling virtual screening with experimental screening in identifying small-molecule inhibitors targeting the catalytic site of SOS1 and SOS1-regulated Ras activity. A lead inhibitor, NSC-658497, is found to bind to SOS1, competitively suppresses SOS1-Ras interaction, and dose-dependently inhibits SOS1 GEF activity. Mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship studies map the NSC-658497 site of action to the SOS1 catalytic site, and define the chemical moieties in the inhibitor essential for the activity. NSC-658497 showed dose-dependent efficacy in inhibiting Ras, downstream signaling activities, and associated cell proliferation. These studies establish a proof of principle for rational design of small-molecule inhibitors targeting Ras GEF enzymatic activity. PMID:25455859

  2. Di-Ras2 Protein Forms a Complex with SmgGDS Protein in Brain Cytosol in Order to Be in a Low Affinity State for Guanine Nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Yoshitaka; Egami, Sachiko; Ebihara, Arisa; Ueda, Nami; Katada, Toshiaki; Kontani, Kenji

    2015-08-14

    The Ras family of small GTPases function in a wide variety of biological processes as "molecular switches" by cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. Di-Ras1 and Di-Ras2 were originally identified as small GTPases forming a distinct subgroup of the Ras family. Di-Ras1/Di-Ras2 mRNAs are detected predominantly in brain and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of Di-Ras1/Di-Ras2 has revealed that they have little GTPase activity and that their intrinsic guanine-nucleotide exchange rates are much faster than that of H-Ras. Yet little is known about the biological role(s) of Di-Ras1/Di-Ras2 or of how their activities are regulated. In the present study we found that endogenous Di-Ras2 co-purifies with SmgGDS from rat brain cytosol. Size-exclusion chromatography of purified recombinant proteins showed that Di-Ras2 forms a high affinity complex with SmgGDS. SmgGDS is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with multiple armadillo repeats and has recently been shown to specifically activate RhoA and RhoC. In contrast to the effect on RhoA, SmgGDS does not act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Di-Ras2 but instead tightly associates with Di-Ras2 to reduce its binding affinity for guanine nucleotides. Finally, pulse-chase analysis revealed that Di-Ras2 binds, in a C-terminal CAAX motif-dependent manner, to SmgGDS immediately after its synthesis. This leads to increased Di-Ras2 stability. We thus propose that isoprenylated Di-Ras2 forms a tight complex with SmgGDS in cytosol immediately after its synthesis, which lowers its affinity for guanine nucleotides. PMID:26149690

  3. Uric acid induces oxidative stress via an activation of the renin-angiotensin system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-xia; Zhang, Yu-ping; Wu, Qi-nan; Chen, Bing

    2015-02-01

    Hyperuricemia is recently reported involving in various obesity-related cardiovascular disorders, especially hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated whether uric acid upregulates renin-angiotensin system (RAS) expression in adipocytes. We also examined whether RAS activation plays a role in uric acid-induced oxidative stress in adipocytes. The adipocytes of different phenotypes were incubated with uric acid for 48 h, respectively. Losartan (10(-4) M) or captopril (10(-4) M) was used to block adipose tissue RAS activation. mRNA expressions of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1), renin, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), and angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) were evaluated with real-time PCR. Angiotensin II concentrations in supernatant were measured by ELISA. Intracellular reactive species (ROS) levels were measured by fluorescent probe DCFH-DA, DHR, or NBT assay. The uric acid upregulated both RAS (AGT, ACE1, renin, AT1R, and AT2R) mRNA expressions and angiotensin II protein secretion and caused a significant increase in ROS production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These effects could be prevented by RAS inhibitors, either losartan or captopril. RAS activation has been causally implicated in oxidative stress induced by uric acid in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting a plausible mechanism through which hyperuricemia contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671741

  4. RasGRF1 regulates proliferation and metastatic behavior of human alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Tarnowski, Maciej; Schneider, Gabriela; Amann, Gabriele; Clark, Geoffrey; Houghton, Peter; Barr, Frederic G; Kenner, Lukas; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Kucia, Magda

    2012-09-01

    The involvement of the Ras superfamily of GTPases in the pathogenesis of rhabdomysarcoma (RMS) is not well understood. While mutant H-Ras leads to embryonal RMS (ERMS) formation in experimental animals and in Costello syndrome patients, no data exists on the potential role of Ras GTPases in the pathogenesis of alveolar RMS (ARMS). To address this issue better, we focused on the role of the GTP exchange factor RasGRF1 in this process. We observed that, in comparison to normal skeletal muscle cells, RasGRF1 mRNA is upregulated in the majority of human ARMS cell lines and subsequently confirmed its high expression in patient samples. By employing confocal microscopy analysis, we observed RasGRF1 accumulation in cell filopodia, which suggests its involvement in ARMS cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that RasGRF1 becomes phosphorylated in ARMS after stimulation by several pro-metastatic factors, such as SDF-1 and HGF/SF, as well as after exposure to growth-promoting Igf-2 and insulin. More importantly, activation of RasGRF1 expression correlated with activation of p42/44 MAPK and AKT. When the expression of RasGRF1 was down-regulated in ARMS cells by an shRNA strategy, these RasGRF1-kd RMS cells did not respond to stimulation by SDF-1, HGF/SF, Igf-2 or insulin by phosphorylation of p42/44 MAPK and AKT and lost their chemotactic responsiveness; however, their adhesion was not affected. We also observed that RasGRF1-kd ARMS cells proliferated at a very low rate in vitro, and, more importantly, after inoculation into immunodeficient SCID/beige inbred mice they formed significantly smaller tumors. We conclude that RasGRF1 plays an important role in ARMS pathogenesis and is a new potential therapeutic target to inhibit ARMS growth. PMID:22752028

  5. Oncogenic Ras suppresses ING4-TDG-Fas axis to promote apoptosis resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie; Shen, Qi; Lu, Haiqi; Jiang, Zhinong; Xu, Wenxia; Feng, Lifeng; Li, Ling; Wang, Xian; Cai, Xiujun; Jin, Hongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Ras is aberrantly activated in many cancers and active DNA demethylation plays a fundamental role to establish DNA methylation pattern which is of importance to cancer development. However, it was unknown whether and how Ras regulate DNA demethylation during carcinogenesis. Here we found that Ras downregulated thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), a DNA demethylation enzyme, by inhibiting the interaction of transcription activator ING4 with TDG promoter. TDG recruited histone lysine demethylase JMJD3 to the Fas promoter and activated its expression, thus restoring sensitivity to apoptosis. TDG suppressed in vivo tumorigenicity of xenograft pancreatic cancer. Thus, we speculate that reversing Ras-mediated ING4 inhibition to activate Fas expression is a potential therapeutic approach for Ras-driven cancers. PMID:26544625

  6. Ras GTPases Modulate Morphogenesis, Sporulation and Cellulase Gene Expression in the Cellulolytic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Yaohua; Qu, Yinbo; Wang, Tianhong

    2012-01-01

    Background The model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is capable of responding to environmental cues to compete for nutrients in its natural saprophytic habitat despite its genome encodes fewer degradative enzymes. Efficient signalling pathways in perception and interpretation of environmental signals are indispensable in this process. Ras GTPases represent a kind of critical signal proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression. In T. reesei the genome contains two Ras subfamily small GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 homologous to Ras1 and Ras2 from S. cerevisiae, but their functions remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have investigated the roles of GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 during fungal morphogenesis and cellulase gene expression. We show that both TrRas1 and TrRas2 play important roles in some cellular processes such as polarized apical growth, hyphal branch formation, sporulation and cAMP level adjustment, while TrRas1 is more dominant in these processes. Strikingly, we find that TrRas2 is involved in modulation of cellulase gene expression. Deletion of TrRas2 results in considerably decreased transcription of cellulolytic genes upon growth on cellulose. Although the strain carrying a constitutively activated TrRas2G16V allele exhibits increased cellulase gene transcription, the cbh1 and cbh2 expression in this mutant still strictly depends on cellulose, indicating TrRas2 does not directly mediate the transmission of the cellulose signal. In addition, our data suggest that the effect of TrRas2 on cellulase gene is exerted through regulation of transcript abundance of cellulase transcription factors such as Xyr1, but the influence is independent of cAMP signalling pathway. Conclusions/Significance Together, these findings elucidate the functions for Ras signalling of T. reesei in cellular morphogenesis, especially in cellulase gene expression, which contribute to deciphering the

  7. Revisiting G3BP1 as a RasGAP Binding Protein: Sensitization of Tumor Cells to Chemotherapy by the RasGAP 317–326 Sequence Does Not Involve G3BP1

    PubMed Central

    Annibaldi, Alessandro; Dousse, Aline; Martin, Sophie; Tazi, Jamal; Widmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    RasGAP is a multifunctional protein that controls Ras activity and that is found in chromosomal passenger complexes. It also negatively or positively regulates apoptosis depending on the extent of its cleavage by caspase-3. RasGAP has been reported to bind to G3BP1 (RasGAP SH3-domain-binding protein 1), a protein regulating mRNA stability and stress granule formation. The region of RasGAP (amino acids 317–326) thought to bind to G3BP1 corresponds exactly to the sequence within fragment N2, a caspase-3-generated fragment of RasGAP, that mediates sensitization of tumor cells to genotoxins. While assessing the contribution of G3BP1 in the anti-cancer function of a cell-permeable peptide containing the 317–326 sequence of RasGAP (TAT-RasGAP317–326), we found that, in conditions where G3BP1 and RasGAP bind to known partners, no interaction between G3BP1 and RasGAP could be detected. TAT-RasGAP317–326 did not modulate binding of G3BP1 to USP10, stress granule formation or c-myc mRNA levels. Finally, TAT-RasGAP317–326 was able to sensitize G3BP1 knock-out cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Collectively these results indicate that G3BP1 and its putative RasGAP binding region have no functional influence on each other. Importantly, our data provide arguments against G3BP1 being a genuine RasGAP-binding partner. Hence, G3BP1-mediated signaling may not involve RasGAP. PMID:22205990

  8. Specific Conformational States of Ras GTPase upon Effector Binding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To uncover the structural and dynamical determinants involved in the highly specific binding of Ras GTPase to its effectors, the conformational states of Ras in uncomplexed form and complexed to the downstream effectors Byr2, PI3Kγ, PLCε, and RalGDS were investigated using molecular dynamics and cross-comparison of the trajectories. The subtle changes in the dynamics and conformations of Ras upon effector binding require an analysis that targets local changes independent of global motions. Using a structural alphabet, a computational procedure is proposed to quantify local conformational changes. Positions detected by this approach were characterized as either specific for a particular effector, specific for an effector domain type, or as effector unspecific. A set of nine structurally connected residues (Ras residues 5–8, 32–35, 39–42, 55–59, 73–78, and 161–165), which link the effector binding site to the distant C-terminus, changed dynamics upon effector binding, indicating a potential effector-unspecific signaling route within the Ras structure. Additional conformational changes were detected along the N-terminus of the central β-sheet. Besides the Ras residues at the effector interface (e.g., D33, E37, D38, and Y40), which adopt effector-specific local conformations, the binding signal propagates from the interface to distant hot-spot residues, in particular to Y5 and D57. The results of this study reveal possible conformational mechanisms for the stabilization of the active state of Ras upon downstream effector binding and for the structural determinants responsible for effector specificity. PMID:23316125

  9. Inhibition of RAF Isoforms and Active Dimers by LY3009120 Leads to Anti-tumor Activities in RAS or BRAF Mutant Cancers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sheng-Bin; Henry, James R; Kaufman, Michael D; Lu, Wei-Ping; Smith, Bryan D; Vogeti, Subha; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Wise, Scott; Chun, Lawrence; Zhang, Youyan; Van Horn, Robert D; Yin, Tinggui; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Yadav, Vipin; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Gong, Xueqian; Ma, Xiwen; Webster, Yue; Buchanan, Sean; Mochalkin, Igor; Huber, Lysiane; Kays, Lisa; Donoho, Gregory P; Walgren, Jennie; McCann, Denis; Patel, Phenil; Conti, Ilaria; Plowman, Gregory D; Starling, James J; Flynn, Daniel L

    2015-09-14

    LY3009120 is a pan-RAF and RAF dimer inhibitor that inhibits all RAF isoforms and occupies both protomers in RAF dimers. Biochemical and cellular analyses revealed that LY3009120 inhibits ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF isoforms with similar affinity, while vemurafenib or dabrafenib have little or modest CRAF activity compared to their BRAF activities. LY3009120 induces BRAF-CRAF dimerization but inhibits the phosphorylation of downstream MEK and ERK, suggesting that it effectively inhibits the kinase activity of BRAF-CRAF heterodimers. Further analyses demonstrated that LY3009120 also inhibits various forms of RAF dimers including BRAF or CRAF homodimers. Due to these unique properties, LY3009120 demonstrates minimal paradoxical activation, inhibits MEK1/2 phosphorylation, and exhibits anti-tumor activities across multiple models carrying KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF mutation. PMID:26343583

  10. Modeling the Transcriptional Consequences of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ablation in Ras-Initiated Squamous Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Lisa Nolan; Ryscavage, Andrew; Merlino, Glenn; Yuspa, Stuart H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose EGFR targeted therapy is in clinical use to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and other cancers of lining epithelium. Ras mutations in these tumors are a negative prognostic factor for response and skin inflammation is an adverse reaction to therapy. We investigated transcriptional and biochemical changes that could account for the confounding effects of RAS activation and inflammation in a squamous tissue. Experimental Design We performed gene expression profiling on oncogenic Ras transformed and wildtype mouse and human keratinocytes with EGFR ablated chronically by genetic deletion or acutely by drug treatment and followed leads provided by pathway analysis with biochemical studies. Results We identified a 25 gene signature specific to the Ras-EGFR ablation interaction and a distinct 19 gene EGFR ablation signature on normal keratinocytes. EGFR ablation in the context of wildtype Ras reduces ontologies favoring cell cycle control and transcription while oncogenic Ras enriches ontologies for ion channels and membrane transporters, particularly focused on calcium homeostasis. Ontologies between chronic EGFR ablation and acute pharmacological ablation were unique, both with and without Ras activation. p38α is activated in response to abrogation of EGFR signaling under conditions of Ras activation in both mouse and human keratinocytes and in RAS transformed tumor orthografts of EGFR ablated mouse keratinocytes. EGFR ablation in the absence of oncogenic Ras revealed Erk and IL-1β related pathways. Conclusion These findings reveal unrecognized interactions between Ras and EGFR signaling in squamous tumor cells that could influence the therapeutic response to EGFR ablation therapy. PMID:22068661

  11. Cellular transformation and malignancy induced by ras require c-jun.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R; Spiegelman, B; Hanahan, D; Wisdom, R

    1996-01-01

    ras is an important oncogene in experimental animals and humans. In addition, activated ras proteins are potent inducers of the transcription factor AP-1, which is composed of heterodimeric complexes of Fos and Jun proteins. Together with the fact that deregulated expression of some AP-1 proteins can cause neoplastic transformation, this finding suggests that AP-1 may function as a critical ras effector. We have tested this hypothesis directly by analyzing the response to activated ras in cells that harbor a null mutation in the c-jun gene. The transcriptional response of AP-1-responsive genes to activated ras is severely impaired in c-jun null fibroblasts. Compared with wild-type cells, the c-jun null cells lack many characteristics of ras transformation, including loss of contact inhibition, anchorage independence, and tumorigenicity in nude mice; these properties are restored by forced expression of c-jun. Rare tumorigenic variants of ras-expressing c-jun null fibroblasts do arise. Analysis of these variants reveals a consistent restoration of AP-1 activity. The results provide genetic evidence that c-jun is a crucial effector for transformation by activated ras proteins. PMID:8754851

  12. R-Ras interacts with filamin a to maintain endothelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, G S; Grundl, M; Allen, J S; Matter, M L

    2011-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating vascular barrier integrity remain incompletely elucidated. We have previously reported an association between the GTPase R-Ras and repeat 3 of Filamin A (FLNa). Loss of FLNa has been linked to increased vascular permeability. We sought to determine whether FLNa's association with R-Ras affects endothelial barrier function. We report that in endothelial cells endogenous R-Ras interacts with endogenous FLNa as determined by co-immunoprecipitations and pulldowns with the FLNa-GST fusion protein repeats 1-10. Deletion of FLNa repeat 3 (FLNaΔ3) abrogated this interaction. In these cells FLNa and R-Ras co-localize at the plasma membrane. Knockdown of R-Ras and/or FLNa by siRNA promotes vascular permeability, as determined by TransEndothelial Electrical Resistance and FITC-dextran transwell assays. Re-expression of FLNa restored endothelial barrier function in cells lacking FLNa whereas re-expression of FLNaΔ3 did not. Immunostaining for VE-Cadherin in cells with knocked down R-Ras and FLNa demonstrated a disorganization of VE-Cadherin at adherens junctions. Loss of R-Ras and FLNa or blocking R-Ras function via GGTI-2133, a selective R-Ras inhibitor, induced vascular permeability and increased phosphorylation of VE-Cadherin (Y731) and Src (Y416). Expression of dominant negative R-Ras promoted vascular permeability that was blocked by the Src inhibitor PP2. These findings demonstrate that maintaining endothelial barrier function is dependent upon active R-Ras and association between R-Ras and FLNa and that loss of this interaction promotes VE-Cadherin phosphorylation and changes in downstream effectors that lead to endothelial leakiness. PMID:21660952

  13. Chimeric proteins define variable and essential regions of Ha-ras-encoded protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, D.G.; Ricketts, M.; Levinson, A.D.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1988-02-01

    The biological role of amino acid differences between the human 21-kDa Ha-ras protein (p21) and the human 23-kDa R-ras protein (p23) was investigated by engineering mutant Ha-ras p21 molecules containing divergent amino acid sequences from R-ras p23. Variant amino acids from R-ras p23 regions 1-30, 52-57, 67-78, 1-30 and 67-78 together, and 112-124 were substituted for the corresponding Ha-ras p21 amino acid regions 1-4, 26-31, 41-52, 1-4 and 41-52 together, and 86-98, respectively. Rat fibroblasts transfected with genes encoding these position-12 valine-substituted chimeric Ha-ras proteins displayed the same properties of morphological transformation and anchorage-independent growth as Ha-ras T24 oncogene-transformed fibroblasts. However, substitution of variant amino acids from the 80 C-terminal residues (amino acids 138-218) of R-ras p23 for the corresponding p21 amino acids (residues 112-189) inactivated the transforming activity of position-12 valine-substituted p21. The converse substitution of Ha-ras p21 C-terminal residues into R-ras p23 did not result in transformation by position-38 valine-substituted p232. These data are discussed in terms of the structure of ras proteins and the nature of interactions determining the specificity of effector function.

  14. Disrupting the Oncogenic Synergism between Nucleolin and Ras Results in Cell Growth Inhibition and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Schokoroy, Sari; Juster, Dolly; Kloog, Yoel; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2013-01-01

    Background The ErbB receptors, Ras proteins and nucleolin are major contributors to malignant transformation. The pleiotropic protein nucleolin can bind to both Ras protein and ErbB receptors. Previously, we have demonstrated a crosstalk between Ras, nucleolin and the ErbB1 receptor. Activated Ras facilitates nucleolin interaction with ErbB1 and stabilizes ErbB1 levels. The three oncogenes synergistically facilitate anchorage independent growth and tumor growth in nude mice. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we used several cancer cell lines. The effect of Ras and nucleolin inhibition was determined using cell growth, cell death and cell motility assays. Protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. We found that inhibition of Ras and nucleolin reduces tumor cell growth, enhances cell death and inhibits anchorage independent growth. Our results reveal that the combined treatment affects Ras and nucleolin levels and localization. Our study also indicates that Salirasib (FTS, Ras inhibitor) reduces cell motility, which is not affected by the nucleolin inhibitor. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that targeting both nucleolin and Ras may represent an additional avenue for inhibiting cancers driven by these oncogenes. PMID:24086490

  15. Bibliography of Selected SCSD, URBS, SSP, SEF, and RAS Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.

    The annotated bibliography contains publications and report listings of the following sources--(1) School Construction Systems Development (SCSD), (2) University Residential Building Systems (URBS), (3) Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project (SSP), (4) Study of Educational Facilities (SEF), and (5) Recherches en Amenagements Scolaires (RAS) Building…

  16. The clinical development candidate CCT245737 is an orally active CHK1 inhibitor with preclinical activity in RAS mutant NSCLC and Eμ-MYC driven B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mike I.; Eve, Paul D.; Hayes, Angela; Henley, Alan T.; Valenti, Melanie R.; De Haven Brandon, Alexis K.; Box, Gary; Boxall, Kathy J.; Tall, Matthew; Swales, Karen; Matthews, Thomas P.; McHardy, Tatiana; Lainchbury, Michael; Osborne, James; Hunter, Jill E.; Perkins, Neil D.; Aherne, G. Wynne; Reader, John C.; Raynaud, Florence I.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    CCT245737 is the first orally active, clinical development candidate CHK1 inhibitor to be described. The IC50 was 1.4nM against CHK1 enzyme and it exhibited>1,000-fold selectivity against CHK2 and CDK1. CCT245737 potently inhibited cellular CHK1 activity (IC50 30-220nM) and enhanced gemcitabine and SN38 cytotoxicity in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor xenograft models. Mouse oral bioavailability was complete (100%) with extensive tumor exposure. Genotoxic-induced CHK1 activity (pS296 CHK1) and cell cycle arrest (pY15 CDK1) were inhibited both in vitro and in human tumor xenografts by CCT245737, causing increased DNA damage and apoptosis. Uniquely, we show CCT245737 enhanced gemcitabine antitumor activity to a greater degree than for higher doses of either agent alone, without increasing toxicity, indicating a true therapeutic advantage for this combination. Furthermore, development of a novel ELISA assay for pS296 CHK1 autophosphorylation, allowed the quantitative measurement of target inhibition in a RAS mutant human tumor xenograft of NSCLC at efficacious doses of CCT245737. Finally, CCT245737 also showed significant single-agent activity against a MYC-driven mouse model of B-cell lymphoma. In conclusion, CCT245737 is a new CHK1 inhibitor clinical development candidate scheduled for a first in man Phase I clinical trial, that will use the novel pS296 CHK1 ELISA to monitor target inhibition. PMID:26295308

  17. The clinical development candidate CCT245737 is an orally active CHK1 inhibitor with preclinical activity in RAS mutant NSCLC and Eµ-MYC driven B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Walton, Mike I; Eve, Paul D; Hayes, Angela; Henley, Alan T; Valenti, Melanie R; De Haven Brandon, Alexis K; Box, Gary; Boxall, Kathy J; Tall, Matthew; Swales, Karen; Matthews, Thomas P; McHardy, Tatiana; Lainchbury, Michael; Osborne, James; Hunter, Jill E; Perkins, Neil D; Aherne, G Wynne; Reader, John C; Raynaud, Florence I; Eccles, Suzanne A; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D

    2016-01-19

    CCT245737 is the first orally active, clinical development candidate CHK1 inhibitor to be described. The IC50 was 1.4 nM against CHK1 enzyme and it exhibited>1,000-fold selectivity against CHK2 and CDK1. CCT245737 potently inhibited cellular CHK1 activity (IC50 30-220 nM) and enhanced gemcitabine and SN38 cytotoxicity in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor xenograft models. Mouse oral bioavailability was complete (100%) with extensive tumor exposure. Genotoxic-induced CHK1 activity (pS296 CHK1) and cell cycle arrest (pY15 CDK1) were inhibited both in vitro and in human tumor xenografts by CCT245737, causing increased DNA damage and apoptosis. Uniquely, we show CCT245737 enhanced gemcitabine antitumor activity to a greater degree than for higher doses of either agent alone, without increasing toxicity, indicating a true therapeutic advantage for this combination. Furthermore, development of a novel ELISA assay for pS296 CHK1 autophosphorylation, allowed the quantitative measurement of target inhibition in a RAS mutant human tumor xenograft of NSCLC at efficacious doses of CCT245737. Finally, CCT245737 also showed significant single-agent activity against a MYC-driven mouse model of B-cell lymphoma. In conclusion, CCT245737 is a new CHK1 inhibitor clinical development candidate scheduled for a first in man Phase I clinical trial, that will use the novel pS296 CHK1 ELISA to monitor target inhibition. PMID:26295308

  18. Cholangiocyte N-Ras Protein Mediates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Interleukin 6 Secretion and Proliferation*

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Steven P.; Splinter, Patrick L.; Trussoni, Christy E.; Gajdos, Gabriella B.; Lineswala, Pooja N.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2011-01-01

    Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts in the liver, are periodically exposed to potentially injurious microbes and/or microbial products. As a result, cholangiocytes actively participate in microbe-associated, hepatic proinflammatory responses. We previously showed that infection of cultured human cholangiocytes with the protozoan parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, or treatment with Gram-negative bacteria-derived LPS, activates NFκB in a myeloid differentiation 88 (MyD88)-dependent manner. Here, we describe a novel signaling pathway initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) involving the small GTPase, Ras, that mediates cholangiocyte proinflammatory cytokine production and induction of cholangiocyte proliferation. Using cultured human cholangiocytes and a Ras activation assay, we found that agonists of plasma membrane TLRs (TLR 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6) rapidly (<10 min) activated N-Ras, but not other p21 Ras isoforms, resulting in the rapid (<15 min) phosphorylation of the downstream Ras effector, ERK1/2. RNA interference-induced depletion of TRAF6, a downstream effector of MyD88 and known activator of MAPK signaling, had no effect on N-Ras activation. Following N-Ras activation the proinflammatory cytokine, IL6, is rapidly secreted. Using a luciferase reporter, we demonstrated that LPS treatment induced IL6 promoter-driven luciferase which was suppressed using MEK/ERK pharmacologic inhibitors (PD98059 or U0126) and RNAi-induced depletion of N-Ras. Finally, we showed that LPS increased cholangiocyte proliferation (1.5-fold), which was inhibited by depletion of N-Ras; TLR agonist-induced proliferation was also inhibited following pretreatment with an IL6 receptor-blocking antibody. Together, our results support a novel signaling axis involving microbial activation of N-Ras likely involved in the cholangiocyte pathogen-induced proinflammatory response. PMID:21757746

  19. Genetic and Proteomic Evidence for Roles of Drosophila SUMO in Cell Cycle Control, Ras Signaling, and Early Pattern Formation

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Minghua; Xie, Yongming; Loo, Joseph A.; Courey, Albert J.

    2009-01-01

    SUMO is a protein modifier that is vital for multicellular development. Here we present the first system-wide analysis, combining multiple approaches, to correlate the sumoylated proteome (SUMO-ome) in a multicellular organism with the developmental roles of SUMO. Using mass-spectrometry-based protein identification, we found over 140 largely novel SUMO conjugates in the early Drosophila embryo. Enriched functional groups include proteins involved in Ras signaling, cell cycle, and pattern formation. In support of the functional significance of these findings, sumo germline clone embryos exhibited phenotypes indicative of defects in these same three processes. Our cell culture and immunolocalization studies further substantiate roles for SUMO in Ras signaling and cell cycle regulation. For example, we found that SUMO is required for efficient Ras-mediated MAP kinase activation upstream or at the level of Ras activation. We further found that SUMO is dynamically localized during mitosis to the condensed chromosomes, and later also to the midbody. Polo kinase, a SUMO substrate found in our screen, partially colocalizes with SUMO at both sites. These studies show that SUMO coordinates multiple regulatory processes during oogenesis and early embryogenesis. In addition, our database of sumoylated proteins provides a valuable resource for those studying the roles of SUMO in development. PMID:19529778

  20. Oncogenic Ras influences the expression of multiple lncRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Yojiro; Naemura, Madoka; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Niida, Hiroyuki; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Shirasawa, Senji; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2016-08-01

    Recent ultrahigh-density tiling array and large-scale transcriptome analysis have revealed that large numbers of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed in mammals. Several lncRNAs have been implicated in transcriptional regulation, organization of nuclear structure, and post-transcriptional processing. However, the regulation of expression of lncRNAs is less well understood. Here, we show that the exogenous and endogenous expression of an oncogenic form of small GTPase Ras (called oncogenic Ras) decrease the expression of lncRNA ANRIL (antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus), which is involved in the regulation of cellular senescence. We also show that forced expression of oncogenic Ras increases the expression of lncRNA PANDA (p21 associated ncRNA DNA damage activated), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Microarray analysis demonstrated that expression of multiple lncRNAs fluctuated by forced expression of oncogenic Ras. These findings indicate that oncogenic Ras regulates the expression of a large number of lncRNAs including functional lncRNAs, such as ANRIL and PANDA. PMID:25501747

  1. Inhibition of ras oncogene: a novel approach to antineoplastic therapy.

    PubMed

    Scharovsky, O G; Rozados, V R; Gervasoni, S I; Matar, P

    2000-01-01

    The most frequently detected oncogene alterations, both in animal and human cancers, are the mutations in the ras oncogene family. These oncogenes are mutated or overexpressed in many human tumors, with a high incidence in tumors of the pancreas, thyroid, colon, lung and certain types of leukemia. Ras is a small guanine nucleotide binding protein that transduces biological information from the cell surface to cytoplasmic components within cells. The signal is transduced to the cell nucleus through second messengers, and it ultimately induces cell division. Oncogenic forms of p21(ras) lead to unregulated, sustained signaling through downstream effectors. The ras family of oncogenes is involved in the development of both primary tumors and metastases making it a good therapeutic target. Several therapeutic approaches to cancer have been developed pointing to reducing the altered gene product or to eliminating its biological function: (1) gene therapy with ribozymes, which are able to break down specific RNA sequences, or with antisense oligonucleotides, (2) immunotherapy through passive or active immunization protocols, and (3) inhibition of p21(ras) farnesylation either by inhibition of farnesyl transferase or synthesis inhibition of farnesyl moieties. PMID:10895051

  2. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in the RAS2 and CYR1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuzawa, Hiroshi; Uno, Isao; Ishikawa, Tatsuo ); Oshima, Takehiro )

    1989-12-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two ras homologues, RAS1 and RAS2, whose products have been shown to modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase encoded by the CYR1 gene. To isolate temperature-sensitive mutations in the RAS2 gene, the authors constructed a plasmid carrying a RAS2 gene whose expression is under the control of the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. A ras1 strain transformed with this plasmid was subjected to ethyl methanesfulfonate mutagenesis and nystatin enrichment. Screening of approximately 13,000 mutagenized colonies for galactose-dependent growth at a high temperature (37{degree}) yielded six temperature-sensitive ras2(ras2{sup ts}) mutations and one temperature-sensitive cry1 (cyr1{sup ts}) mutation than can be suppressed by overexpression or increased dosage of RAS2. Some ras2{sup ts} mutations were shown to be suppressed by an extra copy of CYR1. Therefore increased dosage of either RAS2 or CYR1 can suppress the temperature sensitivity caused by a mutation in the other.

  3. Comparison of liver oncogenic potential among human RAS isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sook In; Moon, Hyuk; Ju, Hye-Lim; Kim, Dae Yeong; Cho, Kyung Joo; Ribback, Silvia; Dombrowski, Frank; Calvisi, Diego F.; Ro, Simon Weonsang

    2016-01-01

    Mutation in one of three RAS genes (i.e., HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS) leading to constitutive activation of RAS signaling pathways is considered a key oncogenic event in human carcinogenesis. Whether activated RAS isoforms possess different oncogenic potentials remains an unresolved question. Here, we compared oncogenic properties among RAS isoforms using liver-specific transgenesis in mice. Hydrodynamic transfection was performed using transposons expressing short hairpin RNA downregulating p53 and an activated RAS isoform, and livers were harvested at 23 days after gene delivery. No differences were found in the hepatocarcinogenic potential among RAS isoforms, as determined by both gross examination of livers and liver weight per body weight ratio (LW/BW) of mice expressing HRASQ61L, KRAS4BG12V and NRASQ61K. However, the tumorigenic potential differed significantly between KRAS splicing variants. The LW/BW ratio in KRAS4AG12V mice was significantly lower than in KRAS4BG12V mice (p < 0.001), and KRAS4AG12V mice lived significantly longer than KRRAS4BG12V mice (p < 0.0001). Notably, tumors from KRAS4AG12V mice displayed higher expression of the p16INK4A tumor suppressor when compared with KRAS4BG12V tumors. Forced overexpression of p16INK4A significantly reduced tumor growth in KRAS4BG12V mice, suggesting that upregulation of p16INK4A by KRAS4AG12V presumably delays tumor development driven by the latter oncogene. PMID:26799184

  4. Ras in Cancer and Developmental Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Medarde, Alberto; Santos, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Somatic, gain-of-function mutations in ras genes were the first specific genetic alterations identified in human cancer about 3 decades ago. Studies during the last quarter century have characterized the Ras proteins as essential components of signaling networks controlling cellular proliferation, differentiation, or survival. The oncogenic mutations of the H-ras, N-ras, or K-ras genes frequently found in human tumors are known to throw off balance the normal outcome of those signaling pathways, thus leading to tumor development. Oncogenic mutations in a number of other upstream or downstream components of Ras signaling pathways (including membrane RTKs or cytosolic kinases) have been detected more recently in association with a variety of cancers. Interestingly, the oncogenic Ras mutations and the mutations in other components of Ras/MAPK signaling pathways appear to be mutually exclusive events in most tumors, indicating that deregulation of Ras-dependent signaling is the essential requirement for tumorigenesis. In contrast to sporadic tumors, separate studies have identified germline mutations in Ras and various other components of Ras signaling pathways that occur in specific association with a number of different familial, developmental syndromes frequently sharing common phenotypic cardiofaciocutaneous features. Finally, even without being a causative force, defective Ras signaling has been cited as a contributing factor to many other human illnesses, including diabetes and immunological and inflammatory disorders. We aim this review at summarizing and updating current knowledge on the contribution of Ras mutations and altered Ras signaling to development of various tumoral and nontumoral pathologies. PMID:21779504

  5. H-Ras Increases Urokinase Expression and Cell Invasion in Genetically Modified Human Astrocytes Through Ras/Raf/MEK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YUNGE; XIAO, AIZHEN; DIPIERRO, CHARLES G.; ABDEL-FATTAH, RANA; AMOS, SAMSON; REDPATH, GERARD T.; CARPENTER, JOAN E.; PIEPER, RUSSELL O.; HUSSAINI, ISA M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous study reported that the activation of Ras pathway cooperated with E6/E7-mediated inactivation of p53/pRb to transform immortalized normal human astrocytes (NHA/hTERT) into intracranial tumors strongly resembling human astrocytomas. The mechanism of how H-Ras contributes to astrocytoma formation is unclear. Using genetically modified NHA cells (E6/E7/hTERT and E6/E7/hTERT/Ras cells) as models, we investigated the mechanism of Ras-induced tumorigenesis. The overexpression of constitutively active H-RasV12 in E6/E7/hTERT cells robustly increased the levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) mRNA, protein, activity and invasive capacity of the E6/E7/hTERT/Ras cells. However, the expressions of MMP-9 and MMP-2 did not significantly change in the E6/E7/hTERT and E6/E7/hTERT/Ras cells. Furthermore, E6/E7/hTERT/Ras cells also displayed higher level of uPA activity and were more invasive than E6/E7/hTERT cells in 3D culture, and formed an intracranial tumor mass in a NOD-SCID mouse model. uPA specific inhibitor (B428) and uPA neutralizing antibody decreased uPA activity and invasion in E6/E7/hTERT/Ras cells. uPA-deficient U-1242 glioblastoma cells were less invasive in vitro and exhibited reduced tumor growth and infiltration into normal brain in xenograft mouse model. Inhibitors of Ras (FTA), Raf (Bay 54−9085) and MEK (UO126), but not of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) (LY294002) and of protein kinase C (BIM) pathways, inhibited uPA activity and cell invasion. Our results suggest that H-Ras increased uPA expression and activity via the Ras/Raf/MEK signaling pathway leading to enhanced cell invasion and this may contribute to increased invasive growth properties of astrocytomas. PMID:18383343

  6. Ras regulation of DNA-methylation and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Samir Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Genome wide hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation of cancer cells and tissues remain a paradox, though it has received a convincing confirmation that epigenetic switching systems, including DNA-methylation represent a fundamental regulatory mechanism that has an impact on genome maintenance and gene transcription. Methylated cytosine residues of vertebrate DNA are transmitted by clonal inheritance through the strong preference of DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1, for hemimethylated-DNA. Maintenance of methylation patterns is necessary for normal development of mice, and aberrant methylation patterns are associated with many human tumours. DNMT1 interacts with many proteins during cell cycle progression, including PCNA, p53, EZH2 and HP1. Ras family of GTPases promotes cell proliferation by its oncogenic nature, which transmits signals by multiple pathways in both lipid raft dependent and independent fashion. DNA-methylation-mediated repression of DNA-repair protein O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene and increased rate of K-Ras mutation at codon for amino acids 12 and 13 have been correlated with a secondary role for Ras-effector homologues (RASSFs) in tumourigenesis. Lines of evidence suggest that DNA-methylation associated repression of tumour suppressors and apoptotic genes and ceaseless proliferation of tumour cells are regulated in part by Ras-signaling. Control of Ras GTPase signaling might reduce the aberrant methylation and accordingly may reduce the risk of cancer development.

  7. GHF-1/Pit-1 functions as a cell-specific integrator of Ras signaling by targeting the Ras pathway to a composite Ets-1/GHF-1 response element.

    PubMed

    Bradford, A P; Conrad, K E; Tran, P H; Ostrowski, M C; Gutierrez-Hartmann, A

    1996-10-01

    Activation of the rat prolactin (rPRL) promoter by Ras is a prototypical example of tissue-specific transcriptional regulation in a highly differentiated cell type. Using a series of site-specific mutations and deletions of the proximal rPRL promoter we have mapped the major Ras/Raf response element (RRE) to a composite Ets-1/GHF-1 binding site located between positions -217 and -190. Mutation of either the Ets-1 or GHF-1 binding sites inhibits Ras and Raf activation of the rPRL promoter, and insertion of this RRE into the rat growth hormone promoter confers Ras responsiveness. We show that Ets-1 is expressed in GH4 cells and, consistent with their functional synergistic interaction, both Ets-1 and GHF-1 are able to bind specifically to this bipartite RRE. We confirm that Ets-1 or a related Ets factor is the nuclear target of the Ras pathway leading to activation of the rPRL promoter and demonstrate that Elk-1 and Net do not mediate the Ras response. Thus, the pituitary-specific POU homeodomain transcription factor, GHF-1, serves as a cell-specific signal integrator by functionally interacting with an Ets-1-like factor, at uniquely juxtaposed binding sites, thereby targeting an otherwise ubiquitous Ras signaling pathway to a select subset of cell-specific GHF-1-dependent genes. PMID:8798730

  8. Novel Ras pathway inhibitor induces apoptosis and growth inhibition of K-ras-mutated cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jasinski, Piotr; Zwolak, Pawel; Terai, Kaoru; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z

    2008-11-01

    MT477 is a novel quinoline with potential activity in Ras-mutated cancers. In this study, MT477 preferentially inhibited the proliferation of K-ras-mutated human pulmonary (A549) and pancreatic (MiaPaCa-2) adenocarcinoma cell lines, compared with a non-Ras-mutated human lung squamous carcinoma cell line (H226) and normal human lung fibroblasts. MT477 treatment induced apoptosis in A549 cells and was associated with caspase-3 activation. MT477 also induced sub-G1 cell-cycle arrest in A549 cells. Although we found that MT477 partially inhibited protein kinase C (PKC), it inhibited Ras directly followed in time by inhibition of 2 Ras downstream molecules, Erk1/2 and Ral. MT477 also caused a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and formation of filopodias in A549 cells; this event may lead to decreased migration and invasion of tumor cells. In a xenograft mouse model, A549 tumor growth was inhibited significantly by MT477 at a dose of 1 mg/kg (P < 0.05 vs vehicle control). Taken together, these results support the conclusion that MT477 acts as a direct Ras inhibitor. This quinoline, therefore, could potentially be active in Ras-mutated cancers and could be developed extensively as an anticancer molecule with this in mind. PMID:19010291

  9. Retraction: "Activated K-Ras and INK4a/Arf Deficiency Promote Aggressiveness of Pancreatic Cancer by Induction of EMT Consistent With Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype" by Wang et al.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The above article, published online on November 23, 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figure 4B and C to be inappropriately manipulated and re-labeled. Literature Cited Wang Z, Ali S, Banerjee S, Bao B, Li Y, Azmi AS, Korc M, Sarkar FH. 2013. Activated K-Ras and INK4a/Arf deficiency promote aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer by induction of EMT consistent with cancer stem cell phenotype. J Cell Physiol 228:556-562; doi: 10.1002/jcp.24162. PMID:27315162

  10. Association of MEK1 with p21ras.GMPPNP is dependent on B-Raf.

    PubMed Central

    Moodie, S A; Paris, M J; Kolch, W; Wolfman, A

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported that immobilized p21ras forms a GMPPNP-dependent complex with a MEK activity. Furthermore, the association of the MEK activity was found to be independent of the presence of Raf-1. We have extended those observations to show that MEK1 is the MEK activity previously described to associate with immobilized p21ras.GMPPNP. The association between MEK1 and immobilized p21ras.GMPPNP increased its specific activity towards p42MAPK. We detected the specific association of B-Raf with immobilized p21ras.GMPPNP. In contrast to Raf-1-immunodepleted lysates, preclearance of the cytosolic B-Raf significantly reduced, by 96%, the amount of MEK1 activity associated with immobilized p21ras.GMPPNP. The decrease in MEK1 activity correlated with complete loss in the binding of both B-Raf and MEK1 proteins with immobilized p21ras.GMPPNP. These data suggest that the p21ras.GMPPNP-dependent activation of MEK1 in brain extracts is dependent on the presence of the B-Raf protein kinase. Images PMID:7935430

  11. Ras regulates kinesin 13 family members to control cell migration pathways in transformed human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zaganjor, Elma; Osborne, Jihan K.; Weil, Lauren M.; Diaz-Martinez, Laura A.; Gonzales, Joshua X.; Singel, Stina M.; Larsen, Jill E.; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D.; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2014-01-01

    We show that expression of the microtubule depolymerizing kinesin KIF2C is induced by transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells by expression of K-RasG12V and knockdown of p53. Further investigation demonstrates that this is due to the K-Ras/ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, as loss of p53 had little effect on KIF2C expression. In addition to KIF2C, we also found that the related kinesin KIF2A is modestly upregulated in this model system; both proteins are expressed more highly in many lung cancer cell lines compared to normal tissue. As a consequence of their depolymerizing activity, these kinesins increase dynamic instability of microtubules. Depletion of either of these kinesins impairs the ability of cells transformed with mutant K-Ras to migrate and invade matrigel. However, depletion of these kinesins does not reverse the epithelial-mesenchymal transition caused by mutant K-Ras. Our studies indicate that increased expression of microtubule destabilizing factors can occur during oncogenesis to support enhanced migration and invasion of tumor cells. PMID:24240690

  12. Selective inhibition of farnesyl-protein transferase blocks ras processing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, J B; Pompliano, D L; Mosser, S D; Rands, E; Lingham, R B; Singh, S B; Scolnick, E M; Kohl, N E; Oliff, A

    1993-04-15

    The ras oncogene product, Ras, is synthesized in vivo as a precursor protein that requires post-translational processing to become biologically active and to be capable of transforming mammalian cells. Farnesylation appears to be a critical modification of Ras, and thus inhibitors of the farnesyl-protein transferase (FPTase) that catalyzes this reaction may block ras-dependent tumorigenesis. Three structural classes of FPTase inhibitors were identified: (alpha-hydroxyfarnesyl)phosphonic acid, chaetomellic acids, and zaragozic acids. By comparison, these compounds were weaker inhibitors of geranylgeranyl-protein transferases. Each of these inhibitors was competitive with respect to farnesyl diphosphate in the FPTase reaction. All compounds were assayed for inhibition of Ras processing in Ha-ras-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Ras processing was inhibited by 1 microM (alpha-hydroxyfarnesyl)phosphonic acid. Neither chaetomellic acid nor zaragozic acid were active in this assay. These results are the first demonstration that a small organic chemical selected for inhibition of FPTase can inhibit Ras processing in vivo. PMID:8463291

  13. Absence of K-Ras Reduces Proliferation and Migration But Increases Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Félix, José M; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Cuesta, Cristina; Eleno, Nélida; Crespo, Piero; López-Novoa, José M; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The involvement of Ras-GTPases in the development of renal fibrosis has been addressed in the last decade. We have previously shown that H- and N-Ras isoforms participate in the regulation of fibrosis. Herein, we assessed the role of K-Ras in cellular processes involved in the development of fibrosis: proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins synthesis. K-Ras knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (K-ras(-/-) ) stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibited reduced proliferation and impaired mobility than wild-type fibroblasts. Moreover, an increase on ECM production was observed in K-Ras KO fibroblasts in basal conditions. The absence of K-Ras was accompanied by reduced Ras activation and ERK phosphorylation, and increased AKT phosphorylation, but no differences were observed in TGF-β1-induced Smad signaling. The MEK inhibitor U0126 decreased cell proliferation independently of the presence of K-ras but reduced migration and ECM proteins expression only in wild-type fibroblasts, while the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis in both types of fibroblasts. Thus, our data unveil that K-Ras and its downstream effector pathways distinctively regulate key biological processes in the development of fibrosis. Moreover, we show that K-Ras may be a crucial mediator in TGF-β1-mediated effects in this cell type. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2224-2235, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26873620

  14. Bi-transgenic Mice Reveal that K-rasVal12 Augments a p53-independent Apoptosis When Small Intestinal Villus Enterocytes Reenter the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Coopersmith, Craig M.; Chandrasekaran, Chitra; McNevin, M. Shane; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    1997-01-01

    Studies in cell culture systems have indicated that oncogenic forms of Ras can affect apoptosis. Activating mutations of Ras occur in ∼30% of all human tumors and 50% of colorectal carcinomas. Since these mutations appear at early or intermediate stages in multistep journeys to neoplasia, an effect on apoptosis may help determine whether initiated cells progress towards a more neoplastic state. We have tested the effects of K-rasVal12 on apoptosis in transgenic mice. A lineage-specific promoter was used to direct expression of human K-rasVal12, with or without wild-type (wt) or mutant SV-40 T antigens (TAg), in postmitotic villus enterocytes, the principal cell type of the small intestinal epithelium. Enterocytes can be induced to reenter the cell cycle by TAgWt. Reentry is dependent upon the ability of TAg to bind pRB and is associated with a p53-independent apoptosis. Analyses of K-rasVal12 × TAgWt bi-transgenic animals indicated that K-rasVal12 can enhance this apoptosis threefold but only in cycling cells; increased apoptosis does not occur when K-rasVal12 is expressed alone or with a TAg containing Glu107,108→ Lys107,108 substitutions that block its ability to bind pRB. Analysis of bi-transgenic K-rasVal12 × TAgWt mice homozygous for wild-type or null p53 alleles established that the enhancement of apoptosis occurs through a p53-independent mechanism, is not attributable to augmented proliferation or to an increase in abortive cell cycle reentry (compared to TAgWt mice), and is not associated with detectable changes in the crypt–villus patterns of expression of apoptotic regulators (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bak, and Bax) or mediators of epithelial cell–matrix interactions and survival (e.g., α5β1 integrin and its ligand, fibronectin). Coexpression of K-rasVal12 and TAgWt produces dysplasia. The K-rasVal12-augmented apoptosis is unrelated to this dysplasia; enhanced apoptosis is also observed in cycling nondysplastic enterocytes that produce K-rasVal12 and a

  15. Analysis of Binding Site Hot Spots on the Surface of Ras GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Buhrman, Greg; O’Connor, Casey; Zerbe, Brandon; Kearney, Bradley M.; Napoleon, Raeanne; Kovrigina, Elizaveta A.; Vajda, Sandor; Kozakov, Dima; Kovrigin, Evgenii L.; Mattos, Carla

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered an allosteric switch in Ras, bringing an additional level of complexity to this GTPase whose mutants are involved in nearly 30% of cancers. Upon activation of the allosteric switch, there is a shift in helix 3/loop 7 associated with a disorder to order transition in the active site. Here, we use a combination of multiple solvent crystal structures and computational solvent mapping (FTMap) to determine binding site hot spots in the “off” and “on” allosteric states of the GTP-bound form of H-Ras. Thirteen sites are revealed, expanding possible target sites for ligand binding well beyond the active site. Comparison of FTMaps for the H and K isoforms reveals essentially identical hot spots. Furthermore, using NMR measurements of spin relaxation, we determined that K-Ras exhibits global conformational dynamics very similar to those we previously reported for H-Ras. We thus hypothesize that the global conformational rearrangement serves as a mechanism for allosteric coupling between the effector interface and remote hot spots in all Ras isoforms. At least with respect to the binding sites involving the G domain, H-Ras is an excellent model for K-Ras and probably N-Ras as well. Ras has so far been elusive as a target for drug design. The present work identifies various unexplored hot spots throughout the entire surface of Ras, extending the focus from the disordered active site to well-ordered locations that should be easier to target. PMID:21945529

  16. Exacerbation of acute kidney injury by bone marrow stromal cells from rats with persistent renin-angiotensin system activation.

    PubMed

    Kankuri, Esko; Mervaala, Elina E; Storvik, Markus; Ahola, Aija M J; Levijoki, Jouko; Müller, Dominik N; Finckenberg, Piet; Mervaala, Eero M

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension and persistent activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are predisposing factors for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Although bone-marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) have shown therapeutic promise in treatment of AKI, the impact of pathological RAS on BMSC functionality has remained unresolved. RAS and its local components in the bone marrow are involved in several key steps of cell maturation processes. This may also render the BMSC population vulnerable to alterations even in the early phases of RAS pathology. We isolated transgenic BMSCs (TG-BMSCs) from young end-organ-disease-free rats with increased RAS activation [human angiotensinogen/renin double transgenic rats (dTGRs)] that eventually develop hypertension and die of end-organ damage and kidney failure at 8 weeks of age. Control cells (SD-BMSCs) were isolated from wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats. Cell phenotype, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and respiration were assessed, and gene expression profiling was carried out using microarrays. Cells' therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in a rat model of acute ischaemia/reperfusion-induced AKI. Serum urea and creatinine were measured at 24 h and 48 h. Acute tubular damage was scored and immunohistochemistry was used for evaluation for markers of inflammation [monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), ED-1], and kidney injury [kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)]. TG-BMSCs showed distinct mitochondrial morphology, decreased cell respiration and increased production of ROS. Gene expression profiling revealed a pronounced pro-inflammatory phenotype. In contrast with the therapeutic effect of SD-BMSCs, administration of TG-BMSCs in the AKI model resulted in exacerbation of kidney injury and high mortality. Our results demonstrate that early persistent RAS activation can dramatically compromise therapeutic potential of BMSCs by causing a shift into a pro

  17. Mutational analysis of PI3K/AKT and RAS/RAF pathway activation in malignant salivary gland tumours with a new mutation of PIK3CA.

    PubMed

    Shalmon, B; Drendel, M; Wolf, M; Hirshberg, A; Cohen, Y

    2016-06-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3)/v-akt murine thymoma (AKT) oncogene pathway and the RAS/RAF pathway are involved in regulating the signalling of multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell growth. Mutations in the genes within these pathways are frequently found in several tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of mutations in the PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS genes in cases of malignant salivary gland tumours. Mutational analysis of the PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF genes was performed by direct sequencing of material from 21 patients with malignant salivary gland tumours who underwent surgery between 1992 and 2001. No mutations were found in the KRAS exon 2, BRAF exon 15, or PIK3CA exon 9 genes. However, an unpublished mutation of the PIK3CA gene in exon 20 (W1051 stop mutation) was found in one case of adenocarcinoma NOS. The impact of this mutation on the biological behaviour of the tumour has yet to be explored, however the patient with adenocarcinoma NOS harbouring this mutation has survived for over 20 years following surgery despite a high stage at presentation. Further studies with more homogeneous patient cohorts are needed to address whether this mutation reflects a different clinical presentation and may benefit from targeted treatment strategies. PMID:26811072

  18. Literature review of the potential effects of formalin on nitrogen oxidation efficiency of the biofilters of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for freshwater finfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, Kim T.

    2015-01-01

    After the initial screening, the remaining 1,287 papers underwent a second screening. Titles and abstracts (when available) were again read to verify that the topic of the paper was related to RAS. During the second screening, a second person verified that the papers proposed for elimination were not related to RAS. A combined reference list of the 443 remaining papers was created and submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) librarian to obtain the actual papers; electronic copies of those citations were obtained and reviewed. The UMESC librarian also would receive weekly updates from Scopus (a bibliographic database containing abstracts and citations for academic journal articles) using the search terms. Any resulting papers from those updates also were screened using the inclusion criteria, and any relevant papers were requested. From those, 82 were cited in the literature review. An additional 10 references were obtained from weekly updates or reference mining other sources and were incorporated into the final literature review.

  19. Literature review of the potential effects of hydrogen peroxide on nitrogen oxidation efficiency of the biofilters of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for freshwater finfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, Kim T.

    2015-01-01

    After the initial screening, the remaining 1,405 papers underwent a second screening. Titles and abstracts (when available) were again read to verify that the topic of the paper was related to RAS. During the second screening, a second person verified that the papers proposed for elimination were not related to RAS. A combined reference list of the 512 remaining papers was created and submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) librarian in order to obtain the actual papers; electronic copies of those citations were obtained and reviewed. The UMESC librarian also received weekly updates from Scopus (a bibliographic database containing abstracts and citations for academic journal articles) using the search terms. Any resulting papers from those updates were screened using the inclusion criteria and relevant papers were requested. From those, 86 were cited in the literature review. An additional 11 papers from other search methods (e.g., mining references lists) also were obtained.

  20. RotundRacGAP functions with Ras during spermatogenesis and retinal differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bergeret, E; Pignot-Paintrand, I; Guichard, A; Raymond, K; Fauvarque, M O; Cazemajor, M; Griffin-Shea, R

    2001-09-01

    Our analysis of rotund (rn) null mutations in Drosophila melanogaster revealed that deletion of the rn locus affects both spermatid and retinal differentiation. In the male reproductive system, the absence of RnRacGAP induced small testes, empty seminal vesicles, short testicular cysts, reduced amounts of interspermatid membrane, the absence of individualization complexes, and incomplete mitochondrial condensation. Flagellar growth continued within the short rn null cysts to produce large bulbous terminations of intertwined mature flagella. Organization of the retina was also severely perturbed as evidenced by grossly misshapen ommatidia containing reduced numbers of photoreceptor and pigment cells. These morphological phenotypes were rescued by genomic rnRacGAP transgenes, demonstrating that RnRacGAP function is critical to spermatid and retinal differentiation. The testicular phenotypes were suppressed by heterozygous hypomorphic mutations in the Dras1 and drk genes, indicating cross talk between RacGAP-regulated signaling and that of the Ras pathway. The observed genetic interactions are consistent with a model in which Rac signaling is activated by Ras and negatively regulated by RnRacGAP during spermatid differentiation. RnRacGAP and Ras cross talk also operated during retinal differentiation; however, while the heterozygous hypomorphic drk mutation continued to act as a suppressor of the rn null mutation, the heterozygous hypomorphic Dras1 mutation induced novel retinal phenotypes. PMID:11509670

  1. Regulation of an H-ras-related transcript by parathyroid hormone in rat osteosarcoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. K.; Weaver, W. R.; Clohisy, J. C.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Kahn, A. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    The rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106-01 is a commonly used model system for the study of osteoblast function. However, it also expresses a phenotype characteristic of transformed cells. To test whether the latter could be accounted for by aberrant oncogene expression, we probed Northern blots of UMR and other osteoblastic cells with a panel of oncogene probes. These blots, when probed with a cDNA specific for v-H-ras, revealed a 7.0-kilobase (kb) H-ras-related transcript (designated HRRT) in UMR 106-01 cells that was not expressed in other osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-enriched calvarial cells expressed the typical 1.1-kb H-ras mRNA, which was absent in UMR cells. Additionally, Western blots of lysates of UMR cells documented the presence of three proteins immunologically related to H-rasp21. To determine whether HRRT represented a recombinant retrovirus product, Northern blots were probed with a cDNA specific for the highly conserved gag-pol region of Moloney murine leukemia virus. These blots showed parallel cross-reactivity with an apparently identical transcript of 7.0 kb. The 7.0-kb transcripts detected by both v-H-ras and gag-pol probes declined to the same extent after treatment with concentrations of PTH known to inhibit proliferation of these cells. PTH regulated the abundance of HRRT in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with greatest repression of the transcript after 8 h of treatment with 10(-8) M PTH. The decrease in HRRT could not be completely accounted for by changes in transcriptional activity, as determined by nuclear run-on assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  2. Inhibition of malignant thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation by Ras and galectin-3 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Menachem, A; Bodner, O; Pastor, J; Raz, A; Kloog, Y

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic Thyroid carcinoma is an extremely aggressive solid tumor that resists most treatments and is almost always fatal. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an important marker for thyroid carcinomas and a scaffold of the K-Ras protein. S-trans, transfarnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS; Salirasib) is a Ras inhibitor that inhibits the active forms of Ras proteins. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) is a water-soluble citrus-fruit-derived polysaccharide fiber that specifically inhibits Gal-3. The aim of this study was to develop a novel drug combination designed to treat aggressive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Combined treatment with FTS and MCP inhibited anaplastic thyroid cells proliferation in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and increasing apoptosis rate. Immunoblot analysis revealed a significant decrease in Pan-Ras, K-Ras, Ras-GTP, p-ERK, p53, and Gal-3 expression levels and significant increase in p21 expression levels. In nude mice, treatment with FTS and MCP inhibited tumor growth. Levels of Gal-3, K-Ras-GTP, and p-ERK were significantly decreased. To conclude, our results suggest K-Ras and Gal-3 as potential targets in anaplastic thyroid tumors and herald a novel treatment for highly aggressive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27551476

  3. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  4. Brain renin-angiotensin system and dopaminergic cell vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira-García, Jose L.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Valenzuela, Rita; Borrajo, Ana; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was classically considered as a circulating system that regulates blood pressure, many tissues are now known to have a local RAS. Angiotensin, via type 1 receptors, is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, which mediates several key events in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes involved in the pathogenesis of major aging-related diseases. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of RAS components in the basal ganglia, and particularly in the nigrostriatal system. In the nigrostriatal system, RAS hyperactivation, via NADPH-oxidase complex activation, exacerbates OS and the microglial inflammatory response and contributes to progression of dopaminergic degeneration, which is inhibited by angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Several factors may induce an increase in RAS activity in the dopaminergic system. A decrease in dopaminergic activity induces compensatory upregulation of local RAS function in both dopaminergic neurons and glia. In addition to its role as an essential neurotransmitter, dopamine may also modulate microglial inflammatory responses and neuronal OS via RAS. Important counterregulatory interactions between angiotensin and dopamine have also been observed in several peripheral tissues. Neurotoxins and proinflammatory factors may also act on astrocytes to induce an increase in RAS activity, either independently of or before the loss of dopamine. Consistent with a major role of RAS in dopaminergic vulnerability, increased RAS activity has been observed in the nigra of animal models of aging, menopause and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which also showed higher dopaminergic vulnerability. Manipulation of the brain RAS may constitute an effective neuroprotective strategy against dopaminergic vulnerability and progression of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25071471

  5. Ras does not contribute to the facilitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity enabled by environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Novkovic, T; Heumann, R; Manahan-Vaughan, D

    2015-11-19

    Environmental enrichment (EE), which mimics the wealth of sensory, motor and cognitive stimuli that arise through intense interactions with the ambient environment, results in enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning. A key molecular factor in the mediation of these changes is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). One of the downstream cascades that is activated by BDNF is the cascade linked to the small GTPase, Ras, that triggers mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and is part of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway that can lead to synaptic restructuring to support LTP. Here, we explored whether persistent activation of Ras in neurons further enhances LTP following EE of rodents. Immediately following weaning, transgenic mice that expressed constitutively activated neuronal Ras, or their wildtype (Wt) littermates, underwent 3weeks of constant EE. In the absence of EE, theta burst stimulation (TBS) evoked LTP in the CA1 region of transgenic mice that was not significantly different from LTP in Wts. After 3weeks of EE, hippocampal LTP was improved in Wt mice. Enriched transgenic mice showed an equivalent level of LTP to enriched Wts, but it was not significantly different from non-enriched synRas controls. Western blot analysis performed after a pull-down assay showed that non-enriched transgenic mice expressed higher Ras activity compared to non-enriched Wts. Following EE, Ras activity was reduced in transgenics to levels detected in Wts. These results show that constitutive activation of Ras does not mimic the effects of EE on LTP. In addition, EE results in an equivalent enhancement of LTP transgenics and Wts, coupled with a decrease in Ras activity to Wt levels. This suggests that permanent activation of Ras in neurons of synRas animals following EE results in an altered feedback regulation of endogenous Ras activity that is not a key factor in LTP enhancements. The maintenance of Ras within

  6. c-Myc inhibits Ras-mediated differentiation of pheochromocytoma cells by blocking c-Jun up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Vaqué, José P; Fernández-García, Belén; García-Sanz, Pablo; Ferrandiz, Nuria; Bretones, Gabriel; Calvo, Fernando; Crespo, Piero; Marín, María C; León, Javier

    2008-02-01

    Although mutant Ras proteins were originally described as transforming oncoproteins, they induce growth arrest, senescence, and/or differentiation in many cell types. c-Myc is an oncogenic transcription factor that cooperates with Ras in cellular transformation and oncogenesis. However, the Myc-Ras relationship in cellular differentiation is largely unknown. Here, we have analyzed the effects of c-Myc on PC12-derived cells (UR61 cell line), harboring an inducible N-Ras oncogene. In these cells, Ras activation induces neuronal-like differentiation by a process involving c-Jun activation. We found that c-Myc inhibited Ras-mediated differentiation by a mechanism that involves the blockade of c-Jun induction in response to Ras signal. Accordingly, ectopically expressed c-Jun could bypass c-Myc impediment of Ras-induced differentiation and activator protein 1 activation. Interestingly, it did not rescue the proliferative arrest elicited by Ras and did not enhance the differentiation-associated apoptosis. The blockade of Ras-mediated induction of c-Jun takes place at the level of c-Jun proximal promoter. Mutational analysis revealed that c-Myc regions involved in DNA binding and transactivation are required to block differentiation and c-Jun induction. c-Myc does not seem to require Miz-1 to inhibit differentiation and block c-Jun induction. Furthermore, Max is not required for c-Myc activity, as UR61 cells lack a functional Max gene. c-Myc-inhibitory effect on the Ras/c-Jun connection is not restricted to UR61 cells as it can occur in other cell types as K562 or HEK293. In conclusion, we describe a novel interplay between c-Myc and c-Jun that controls the ability of Ras to trigger the differentiation program of pheochromocytoma cells. PMID:18314492

  7. Semaphorin-7a reverses the ERF-induced inhibition of EMT in Ras-dependent mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Maryline; Zaragkoulias, Andreas; Vorgia, Elena; Ioannou, Marina; Litos, Gabriele; Beug, Hartmut; Mavrothalassitis, George

    2012-10-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in cancer progression and metastasis, requiring cooperation of the epidermal growth factor/Ras with the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway in a multistep process. The molecular mechanisms by which Ras signaling contributes to EMT, however, remain elusive to a large extent. We therefore examined the transcriptional repressor Ets2-repressor factor (ERF)-a bona fide Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase effector-for its ability to interfere with TGF-β-induced EMT in mammary epithelial cells (EpH4) expressing oncogenic Ras (EpRas). ERF-overexpressing EpRas cells failed to undergo TGF-β-induced EMT, formed three-dimensional tubular structures in collagen gels, and retained expression of epithelial markers. Transcriptome analysis indicated that TGF-β signaling through Smads was mostly unaffected, and ERF suppressed the TGF-β-induced EMT via Semaphorin-7a repression. Forced expression of Semaphorin-7a in ERF-overexpressing EpRas cells reestablished their ability to undergo EMT. In contrast, inhibition of Semaphorin-7a in the parental EpRas cells inhibited their ability to undergo TGF-β-induced EMT. Our data suggest that oncogenic Ras may play an additional role in EMT via the ERF, regulating Semaphorin-7a and providing a new interconnection between the Ras- and the TGF-β-signaling pathways. PMID:22875994

  8. Ras Effector Switching Promotes Divergent Cell Fates in C. elegans Vulval Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Tanya P.; Reiner, David J.; Der, Channing J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The C. elegans vulva is patterned by epidermal growth factor (EGF) activation of Ras to control 1° fate, and 1° fate induces antagonistic Notch-dependent 2° fate. Furthermore, a spatial EGF gradient, in addition to inducing 1° fate, directly contributes to 2° fate via an unknown pathway. We find that in addition to its canonical effector, Raf, vulval Ras utilizes an exchange factor for the Ral small GTPase (RalGEF), such that Ras-RalGEF-Ral antagonizes Ras-Raf pro-1° fate activity. Consistent with its restricted expression pattern, Ral participates in EGF pro-2° activity. Thus, we have delineated a Ras effector-switching mechanism whereby position within the morphogen gradient dictates that Ras effector usage is switched to RalGEF from Raf to promote 2° instead of 1° fate. Our observations define the utility of Ras effector switching during normal development, and may provide a possible mechanistic basis for cell and cancer type differences in effector dependency and activation. PMID:21238927

  9. 8-Hydroxyquinoline-based inhibitors of the Rce1 protease disrupt Ras membrane localization in human cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Idrees; Hampton, Shahienaz E; Ashall, Louise; Hildebrandt, Emily R; Kutlik, Robert A; Manandhar, Surya P; Floyd, Brandon J; Smith, Haley E; Dozier, Jonathan K; Distefano, Mark D; Schmidt, Walter K; Dore, Timothy M

    2016-01-15

    Ras converting enzyme 1 (Rce1) is an endoprotease that catalyzes processing of the C-terminus of Ras protein by removing -aaX from the CaaX motif. The activity of Rce1 is crucial for proper localization of Ras to the plasma membrane where it functions. Ras is responsible for transmitting signals related to cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. The disregulation of these pathways due to constitutively active oncogenic Ras can ultimately lead to cancer. Ras, its effectors and regulators, and the enzymes that are involved in its maturation process are all targets for anti-cancer therapeutics. Key enzymes required for Ras maturation and localization are the farnesyltransferase (FTase), Rce1, and isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT). Among these proteins, the physiological role of Rce1 in regulating Ras and other CaaX proteins has not been fully explored. Small-molecule inhibitors of Rce1 could be useful as chemical biology tools to understand further the downstream impact of Rce1 on Ras function and serve as potential leads for cancer therapeutics. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of a previously reported Rce1 inhibitor, NSC1011, has been performed to generate a new library of Rce1 inhibitors. The new inhibitors caused a reduction in Rce1 in vitro activity, exhibited low cell toxicity, and induced mislocalization of EGFP-Ras from the plasma membrane in human colon carcinoma cells giving rise to a phenotype similar to that observed with siRNA knockdowns of Rce1 expression. Several of the new inhibitors were more effective at mislocalizing K-Ras compared to a potent farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), which is significant because of the preponderance of K-Ras mutations in cancer. PMID:26706114

  10. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence*

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L.; Embrey, Kevin J.; Golovanov, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly 15N-labeled Ras as well as [13C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. PMID:26565026

  11. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-01-22

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly (15)N-labeled Ras as well as [(13)C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. PMID:26565026

  12. Characterization of p21Ras-mediated apoptosis induced by protein kinase C inhibition and application to human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liou, James S; Chen, James S; Faller, Douglas V

    2004-02-01

    Suppression of PKC activity can selectively induce apoptosis in cells expressing a constitutively activated p21Ras protein. We demonstrate that continued expression of p21Ras activity is required in PKC-mediated apoptosis because farnesyltransferase inhibitors abrogated the loss of viability in p21Ras-transformed cells occurring following PKC inhibition. Studies utilizing gene transfer or viral vectors demonstrate that transient expression of oncogenic p21Ras activity is sufficient for induction of apoptosis by PKC inhibition, whereas physiologic activation of p21Ras by growth factor is not sufficient to induce apoptosis. Mechanistically, the p21Ras-mediated apoptosis induced by PKC inhibition is dependent upon mitochondrial dysregulation, with a concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (psim). Cyclosporine A, which prevented the loss of psim, also inhibited HMG-induced DNA fragmentation in cells expressing an activated p21Ras. Induction of apoptosis by PKC inhibition in human tumors with oncogenic p21Ras mutations was demonstrated. Inhibition of PKC caused increased apoptosis in MIA-PaCa-2, a human pancreatic tumor line containing a mutated Ki-ras allele, when compared to HS766T, a human pancreatic tumor line with normal Ki-ras alleles. Furthermore, PKC inhibition induced apoptosis in HCT116, a human colorectal tumor line containing an oncogenic Ki-ras allele but not in a subline (Hke3) in which the mutated Ki-ras allele had been disrupted. The PKC inhibitor 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (HMG), significantly reduced p21Ras-mediated tumor growth in vivo in a nude mouse MIA-PaCa-2 xenograft model. Collectively these studies suggest the therapeutic feasibility of targeting PKC activity in tumors expressing an activated p21Ras oncoprotein. PMID:14603530

  13. Lead identification for the K-Ras protein: virtual screening and combinatorial fragment-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Akbar Ali Khan; Panthi, Bhavana; Khan, Zahid; Koppula, Purushotham Reddy; Alanazi, Mohammed Saud; Sachchidanand; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Chourasia, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kirsten rat sarcoma (K-Ras) protein is a member of Ras family belonging to the small guanosine triphosphatases superfamily. The members of this family share a conserved structure and biochemical properties, acting as binary molecular switches. The guanosine triphosphate-bound active K-Ras interacts with a range of effectors, resulting in the stimulation of downstream signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Efforts to target K-Ras have been unsuccessful until now, placing it among high-value molecules against which developing a therapy would have an enormous impact. K-Ras transduces signals when it binds to guanosine triphosphate by directly binding to downstream effector proteins, but in case of guanosine diphosphate-bound conformation, these interactions get disrupted. Methods In the present study, we targeted the nucleotide-binding site in the “on” and “off” state conformations of the K-Ras protein to find out suitable lead compounds. A structure-based virtual screening approach has been used to screen compounds from different databases, followed by a combinatorial fragment-based approach to design the apposite lead for the K-Ras protein. Results Interestingly, the designed compounds exhibit a binding preference for the “off” state over “on” state conformation of K-Ras protein. Moreover, the designed compounds’ interactions are similar to guanosine diphosphate and, thus, could presumably act as a potential lead for K-Ras. The predicted drug-likeness properties of these compounds suggest that these compounds follow the Lipinski’s rule of five and have tolerable absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity values. Conclusion Thus, through the current study, we propose targeting only “off” state conformations as a promising strategy for the design of reversible inhibitors to pharmacologically inhibit distinct conformations of K-Ras protein. PMID:27217775

  14. Keratinocyte p38δ loss inhibits Ras-induced tumor formation, while systemic p38δ loss enhances skin inflammation in the early phase of chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Alexi; Koppel, Aaron C; Anders, Joanna; Cataisson, Christophe; Yuspa, Stuart H; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Efimova, Tatiana

    2016-05-01

    p38δ expression and/or activity are increased in human cutaneous malignancies, including invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and head and neck SCC, but the role of p38δ in cutaneous carcinogenesis has not been well-defined. We have reported that mice with germline loss of p38δ exhibited a reduced susceptibility to skin tumor development compared with wild-type mice in the two-stage 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) chemical skin carcinogenesis model. Here, we report that p38δ gene ablation inhibited the growth of tumors generated from v-ras(Ha) -transformed keratinocytes in skin orthografts to nude mice, indicating that keratinocyte-intrinsic p38δ is required for Ras-induced tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of v-ras(Ha) -transformed p38δ-null keratinocytes revealed transcriptional changes associated with cellular responses linked to tumor suppression, such as reduced proliferation and increased differentiation, cell adhesion, and cell communications. Notably, a short-term DMBA/TPA challenge, modeling the initial stages of chemical skin carcinogenesis treatment, elicited an enhanced inflammation in p38δ-null skin compared with skin of wild-type mice, as assessed by measuring the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNFα. Additionally, p38δ-null skin and p38δ-null keratinocytes exhibited increased p38α activation and signaling in response to acute inflammatory challenges, suggesting a role for p38α in stimulating the elevated inflammatory response in p38δ-null skin during the initial phases of the DMBA/TPA treatment compared with similarly treated p38δ(+/+) skin. Altogether, our results indicate that p38δ signaling regulates skin carcinogenesis not only by keratinocyte cell-autonomous mechanisms, but also by influencing the interaction between between the epithelial compartment of the developing skin tumor and its stromal microenvironment. © 2015 Wiley

  15. The adenovirus E1A protein overrides the requirement for cellular ras in initiating DNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, D W; Dobrowolski, S F; Piotrkowski, A; Harter, M L

    1994-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A protein can induce cellular DNA synthesis in growth-arrested cells by interacting with the cellular protein p300 or pRb. In addition, serum- and growth factor-dependent cells require ras activity to initiate DNA synthesis and recently we have shown that Balb/c 3T3 cells can be blocked in either early or late G1 following microinjection of an anti-ras antibody. In this study, the E1A 243 amino acid protein is shown through microinjection not only to shorten the G0 to S phase interval but, what is more important, to override the inhibitory effects exerted by the anti-ras antibody in either early or late G1. Specifically, whether E1A is co-injected with anti-ras into quiescent cells or injected 18 h following a separate injection of anti-ras after serum stimulation, it efficiently induces cellular DNA synthesis in cells that would otherwise be blocked in G0/G1. Moreover, injection of a mutant form of E1A that can no longer associate with p300 is just as efficient as wild-type E1A in stimulating DNA synthesis in cells whose ras activity has been neutralized by anti-ras. The results presented here show that E1A is capable of overriding the requirement of cellular ras activity in promoting the entry of cells into S phase. Moreover, the results suggest the possibility that pRb and/or pRb-related proteins may function in a ras-dependent pathway that enables E1A to achieve this activity. Images PMID:7813447

  16. Ras-Mediated Deregulation of the Circadian Clock in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Relógio, Angela; Thomas, Philippe; Medina-Pérez, Paula; Reischl, Silke; Bervoets, Sander; Gloc, Ewa; Riemer, Pamela; Mang-Fatehi, Shila; Maier, Bert; Schäfer, Reinhold; Leser, Ulf; Herzel, Hanspeter; Kramer, Achim; Sers, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are essential to the temporal regulation of molecular processes in living systems and as such to life itself. Deregulation of these rhythms leads to failures in biological processes and eventually to the manifestation of pathological phenotypes including cancer. To address the questions as to what are the elicitors of a disrupted clock in cancer, we applied a systems biology approach to correlate experimental, bioinformatics and modelling data from several cell line models for colorectal and skin cancer. We found strong and weak circadian oscillators within the same type of cancer and identified a set of genes, which allows the discrimination between the two oscillator-types. Among those genes are IFNGR2, PITX2, RFWD2, PPARγ, LOXL2, Rab6 and SPARC, all involved in cancer-related pathways. Using a bioinformatics approach, we extended the core-clock network and present its interconnection to the discriminative set of genes. Interestingly, such gene signatures link the clock to oncogenic pathways like the RAS/MAPK pathway. To investigate the potential impact of the RAS/MAPK pathway - a major driver of colorectal carcinogenesis - on the circadian clock, we used a computational model which predicted that perturbation of BMAL1-mediated transcription can generate the circadian phenotypes similar to those observed in metastatic cell lines. Using an inducible RAS expression system, we show that overexpression of RAS disrupts the circadian clock and leads to an increase of the circadian period while RAS inhibition causes a shortening of period length, as predicted by our mathematical simulations. Together, our data demonstrate that perturbations induced by a single oncogene are sufficient to deregulate the mammalian circadian clock. PMID:24875049

  17. Ras-mediated deregulation of the circadian clock in cancer.

    PubMed

    Relógio, Angela; Thomas, Philippe; Medina-Pérez, Paula; Reischl, Silke; Bervoets, Sander; Gloc, Ewa; Riemer, Pamela; Mang-Fatehi, Shila; Maier, Bert; Schäfer, Reinhold; Leser, Ulf; Herzel, Hanspeter; Kramer, Achim; Sers, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are essential to the temporal regulation of molecular processes in living systems and as such to life itself. Deregulation of these rhythms leads to failures in biological processes and eventually to the manifestation of pathological phenotypes including cancer. To address the questions as to what are the elicitors of a disrupted clock in cancer, we applied a systems biology approach to correlate experimental, bioinformatics and modelling data from several cell line models for colorectal and skin cancer. We found strong and weak circadian oscillators within the same type of cancer and identified a set of genes, which allows the discrimination between the two oscillator-types. Among those genes are IFNGR2, PITX2, RFWD2, PPARγ, LOXL2, Rab6 and SPARC, all involved in cancer-related pathways. Using a bioinformatics approach, we extended the core-clock network and present its interconnection to the discriminative set of genes. Interestingly, such gene signatures link the clock to oncogenic pathways like the RAS/MAPK pathway. To investigate the potential impact of the RAS/MAPK pathway - a major driver of colorectal carcinogenesis - on the circadian clock, we used a computational model which predicted that perturbation of BMAL1-mediated transcription can generate the circadian phenotypes similar to those observed in metastatic cell lines. Using an inducible RAS expression system, we show that overexpression of RAS disrupts the circadian clock and leads to an increase of the circadian period while RAS inhibition causes a shortening of period length, as predicted by our mathematical simulations. Together, our data demonstrate that perturbations induced by a single oncogene are sufficient to deregulate the mammalian circadian clock. PMID:24875049

  18. Oncogenic ras alters sensitivity of mouse colonocytes to butyrate and fatty acid mediated growth arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nancy D; Zhang, Jianhu; Davidson, Laurie A; Lupton, Joanne R; Chapkin, Robert S

    2002-12-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and butyrate favorably modulate colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis. In order to elucidate how oncogenic Ras modulates responses to these chemopreventive nutrients, we incubated isogenic non-transformed and Ras malignant transformed mouse colon cells with butyrate and DHA or linoleic acid (LA). Combining DHA with 1mM butyrate decreased proliferation relative to LA or no PUFA treatment in both cell lines. At a higher butyrate dose (5mM), caspase 3 activity was elevated to a greater extent in Ras transformed cells. Only non-transformed cells were sensitive to the apoptogenic effects of DHA, indicating that Ras transformation alters sensitivity to dietary chemopreventive agents. PMID:12183072

  19. Ras transformation uncouples the kinesin-coordinated cellular nutrient response

    PubMed Central

    Zaganjor, Elma; Weil, Lauren M.; Gonzales, Joshua X.; Minna, John D.; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2014-01-01

    The kinesin family members (KIFs) KIF2A and KIF2C depolymerize microtubules, unlike the majority of other kinesins, which transport cargo along microtubules. KIF2A regulates the localization of lysosomes in the cytoplasm, which assists in activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosomal surface. We find that the closely related kinesin KIF2C also influences lysosomal organization in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Expression of KIF2C and, to a lesser extent, KIF2A in untransformed and mutant K-Ras–transformed cells is regulated by ERK1/2. Prolonged inhibition of ERK1/2 activation with PD0325901 mimics nutrient deprivation by disrupting lysosome organization and decreasing mTORC1 activity in HBEC, suggesting a long-term mechanism for optimization of mTORC1 activity by ERK1/2. We tested the hypothesis that up-regulation of KIF2C and KIF2A by ERK1/2 caused aberrant lysosomal positioning and mTORC1 activity in a mutant K-Ras–dependent cancer and cancer model. In Ras-transformed cells, however, mTORC1 activity and lysosome organization appear independent of ERK1/2 and these kinesins although ERK1/2 activity and the kinesins are required for Ras-dependent proliferation and migration. We conclude that mutant K-Ras repurposes these signaling and regulatory proteins to support the transformed phenotype. PMID:25002494

  20. RAS signalling through PI3-Kinase controls cell migration via modulation of Reelin expression

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Esther; Molina-Arcas, Miriam; Krygowska, Agata Adelajda; East, Philip; Warne, Patricia; Nicol, Alastair; Downward, Julian

    2016-01-01

    RAS signalling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-Kinase) has been shown to have an essential role in tumour initiation and maintenance. RAS also regulates cell motility and tumour invasiveness, but the role of direct RAS binding to PI3-Kinase in this remains uncertain. Here, we provide evidence that disruption of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase p110α decreases cell motility and prevents activation of Rac GTPase. Analysis of gene expression in cells lacking RAS interaction with p110α reveals increased levels of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin and activation of its downstream pathway resulting in upregulation of E-cadherin expression. Induction of the Reelin/E-cadherin axis is also observed in Kras mutant lung tumours that are regressing due to blockade of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase. Furthermore, loss of Reelin correlates with decreased survival of lung and breast cancer patients. Reelin thus plays a role in restraining RAS and PI3-kinase promotion of cell motility and potentially tumour metastasis. PMID:27071537

  1. Ras, Rac1, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in nitric oxide induced endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Eller-Borges, Roberta; Batista, Wagner L; da Costa, Paulo E; Tokikawa, Rita; Curcio, Marli F; Strumillo, Scheilla T; Sartori, Adriano; Moraes, Miriam S; de Oliveira, Graciele A; Taha, Murched O; Fonseca, Fábio V; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P

    2015-05-01

    The small GTP-binding proteins Ras and Rac1 are molecular switches exchanging GDP for GTP and converting external signals in response to a variety of stimuli. Ras and Rac1 play an important role in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell migration. Rac1 is directly involved in the reorganization and changes in the cytoskeleton during cell motility. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates the Ras - ERK1/2 MAP kinases signaling pathway and is involved in the interaction between Ras and the phosphatidyl-inositol-3 Kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and cell migration. This study utilizes bradykinin (BK), which promotes endogenous production of NO, in an investigation of the role of NO in the activation of Rac1 in rabbit aortic endothelial cells (RAEC). NO-derived from BK stimulation of RAEC and incubation of the cells with the s-nitrosothiol S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) activated Rac1. NO-derived from BK stimulation promoted RAEC migration over a period of 12 h. The use of RAEC permanently transfected with the dominant negative mutant of Ras (Ras(N17)) or with the non-nitrosatable mutant of Ras (Ras(C118S)); and the use of specific inhibitors of: Ras, PI3K, and Rac1 resulted in inhibition of NO-mediated Rac1 activation. BK-stimulated s-nitrosylation of Ras in RAEC mediates Rac1 activation and cell migration. Inhibition of NO-mediated Rac1 activation resulted in inhibition of endothelial cell migration. In conclusion, the NO indirect activation of Rac1 involves the direct participation of Ras and PI3K in the migration of endothelial cells stimulated with BK. PMID:25819133

  2. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L.; Ogata, Fernando T.; Monteiro, Hugo P. Arai, Roberto J.

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras{sup C118S}) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.

  3. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L; Ogata, Fernando T; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P; Arai, Roberto J

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras(C118S)) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG. PMID:18325324

  4. Structural Basis for the Failure of the C1 Domain of Ras Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Protein 2 (RasGRP2) to Bind Phorbol Ester with High Affinity.

    PubMed

    Czikora, Agnes; Lundberg, Daniel J; Abramovitz, Adelle; Lewin, Nancy E; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L; Zhou, Xiaoling; Merritt, Raymond C; Craft, Elizabeth A; Braun, Derek C; Blumberg, Peter M

    2016-05-20

    The C1 domain represents the recognition module for diacylglycerol and phorbol esters in protein kinase C, Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein (RasGRP), and related proteins. RasGRP2 is exceptional in that its C1 domain has very weak binding affinity (Kd = 2890 ± 240 nm for [(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. We have identified four amino acid residues responsible for this lack of sensitivity. Replacing Asn(7), Ser(8), Ala(19), and Ile(21) with the corresponding residues from RasGRP1/3 (Thr(7), Tyr(8), Gly(19), and Leu(21), respectively) conferred potent binding affinity (Kd = 1.47 ± 0.03 nm) in vitro and membrane translocation in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in LNCaP cells. Mutant C1 domains incorporating one to three of the four residues showed intermediate behavior with S8Y making the greatest contribution. Binding activity for diacylglycerol was restored in parallel. The requirement for anionic phospholipid for [(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding was determined; it decreased in going from the single S8Y mutant to the quadruple mutant. The full-length RasGRP2 protein with the mutated C1 domains also showed strong phorbol ester binding, albeit modestly weaker than that of the C1 domain alone (Kd = 8.2 ± 1.1 nm for the full-length protein containing all four mutations), and displayed translocation in response to phorbol ester. RasGRP2 is a guanyl exchange factor for Rap1. Consistent with the ability of phorbol ester to induce translocation of the full-length RasGRP2 with the mutated C1 domain, phorbol ester enhanced the ability of the mutated RasGRP2 to activate Rap1. Modeling confirmed that the four mutations helped the binding cleft maintain a stable conformation. PMID:27022025

  5. Established and emerging fluorescence-based assays for G-protein function: Ras-superfamily GTPases.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rafael J; Kimple, Randall J; Rossman, Kent L; Siderovski, David P; Sondek, John

    2003-06-01

    Ras and Rho GTPases are signaling proteins that regulate a variety of physiological events and are intimately linked to the progression of cancer. Recently, a variety of fluorescence-based assays have been refined to monitor activation of these GTPases. This review summarizes current fluorescence-based techniques for studying Ras superfamily GTPases with an emphasis on practical examples and high-throughput applications. These techniques are not only useful for biochemical characterization of Ras superfamily members, but will also facilitate the discovery of small molecule therapeutics designed to inhibit signal transduction mediated by GTPases. PMID:12769685

  6. Stabilization of C-RAF:KSR1 complex by DiRas3 reduces availability of C-RAF for dimerization with B-RAF.

    PubMed

    Baljuls, Angela; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Rauch, Jens; Rauch, Nora; Kolch, Walter

    2016-10-01

    RAF family kinases are central components of the Ras-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade. Dimerization is a key mechanism of RAF activation in response to physiological, pathological and pharmacological signals. It is mediated by a dimer interface region in the RAF kinase domain that is also conserved in KSR, a scaffolding protein that binds RAF, MEK and ERK. The regulation of RAF dimerization is incompletely understood. Especially little is known about the molecular mechanism involved in the selection of the dimerization partner. Previously, we reported that Ras-dependent binding of the tumour suppressor DiRas3 to C-RAF inhibits the C-RAF:B-RAF heterodimerization. Here we show that DiRas3 binds to KSR1 independently of its interaction with activated Ras and RAF. Our data also suggest that depending on the local stoichiometry between DiRas3 and oncogenic Ras, DiRas3 can either enhance homodimerization of KSR1 or recruit KSR1 to the Ras:C-RAF complex and thereby reduce the availability of C-RAF for binding to B-RAF. This mechanism, which is shared between A-RAF and C-RAF, may be involved in the regulation of Ras12V-induced cell transformation by DiRas3. PMID:27368419

  7. Functional Cross-talk between Ras and Rho Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Mamta; Dvorsky, Radovan; Amin, Ehsan; Risse, Sarah L.; Fansa, Eyad K.; Zhang, Si-Cai; Taha, Mohamed S.; Gauhar, Aziz R.; Nakhaei-Rad, Saeideh; Kordes, Claus; Koessmeier, Katja T.; Cirstea, Ion C.; Olayioye, Monilola A.; Häussinger, Dieter; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    The three deleted in liver cancer genes (DLC1–3) encode Rho-specific GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs). Their expression is frequently silenced in a variety of cancers. The RhoGAP activity, which is required for full DLC-dependent tumor suppressor activity, can be inhibited by the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of a Ras-specific GAP (p120RasGAP). Here, we comprehensively investigated the molecular mechanism underlying cross-talk between two distinct regulators of small GTP-binding proteins using structural and biochemical methods. We demonstrate that only the SH3 domain of p120 selectively inhibits the RhoGAP activity of all three DLC isoforms as compared with a large set of other representative SH3 or RhoGAP proteins. Structural and mutational analyses provide new insights into a putative interaction mode of the p120 SH3 domain with the DLC1 RhoGAP domain that is atypical and does not follow the classical PXXP-directed interaction. Hence, p120 associates with the DLC1 RhoGAP domain by targeting the catalytic arginine finger and thus by competitively and very potently inhibiting RhoGAP activity. The novel findings of this study shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the DLC inhibitory effects of p120 and suggest a functional cross-talk between Ras and Rho proteins at the level of regulatory proteins. PMID:24443565

  8. H2S Inhibits Hyperglycemia-Induced Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System Activation via Attenuation of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Li, Chen; Shao, Decui; Liu, Jia; Shen, Yang; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yu; Yu, Chen; Wang, Rui; Lu, Limin

    2013-01-01

    Decrease in endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was reported to participate in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study is aimed at exploring the relationship between the abnormalities in H2S metabolism, hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and the activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Cultured renal mesangial cells (MCs) and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were used for the studies. The expressions of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang II) type I receptor (AT1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and collagen IV were measured by real time PCR and Western blot. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed by fluorescent probe assays. Cell proliferation was analyzed by 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay. Ang II concentration was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. AGT, ACE and AT1 receptor mRNA levels and Ang II concentration were increased in high glucose (HG) -treated MCs, the cell proliferation rate and the production of TGF-β1 and of collagen IV productions were also increased. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylenechloride iodonium (DPI) was able to reverse the HG-induced RAS activation and the changes in cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Supplementation of H2S attenuated HG-induced elevations in ROS and RAS activation. Blockade on H2S biosynthesis from cystathione-γ-lyase (CSE) by DL-propargylglycine (PPG) resulted in effects similar to that of HG treatment. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, the changes in RAS were also reversed by H2S supplementation without affecting blood glucose concentration. These data suggested that the decrease in H2S under hyperglycemic condition leads to an imbalance between oxidative and reductive species. The increased oxidative species results in intrarenal RAS activation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. PMID:24058553

  9. The Ras-Erk-ETS-Signaling Pathway Is a Drug Target for Longevity.

    PubMed

    Slack, Cathy; Alic, Nazif; Foley, Andrea; Cabecinha, Melissa; Hoddinott, Matthew P; Partridge, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms that underlie aging and their pharmacological manipulation are key aims for improving lifelong human health. Here, we identify a critical role for Ras-Erk-ETS signaling in aging in Drosophila. We show that inhibition of Ras is sufficient for lifespan extension downstream of reduced insulin/IGF-1 (IIS) signaling. Moreover, direct reduction of Ras or Erk activity leads to increased lifespan. We identify the E-twenty six (ETS) transcriptional repressor, Anterior open (Aop), as central to lifespan extension caused by reduced IIS or Ras attenuation. Importantly, we demonstrate that adult-onset administration of the drug trametinib, a highly specific inhibitor of Ras-Erk-ETS signaling, can extend lifespan. This discovery of the Ras-Erk-ETS pathway as a pharmacological target for animal aging, together with the high degree of evolutionary conservation of the pathway, suggests that inhibition of Ras-Erk-ETS signaling may provide an effective target for anti-aging interventions in mammals. PMID:26119340

  10. Tissue Renin–Angiotensin Systems: A Unifying Hypothesis of Metabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Skov, Jeppe; Persson, Frederik; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2014-01-01

    The actions of angiotensin peptides are diverse and locally acting tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS) are present in almost all tissues of the body. An activated RAS strongly correlates to metabolic disease (e.g., diabetes) and its complications and blockers of RAS have been demonstrated to prevent diabetes in humans. Hyperglycemia, obesity, hypertension, and cortisol are well-known risk factors of metabolic disease and all stimulate tissue RAS whereas glucagon-like peptide-1, vitamin D, and aerobic exercise are inhibitors of tissue RAS and to some extent can prevent metabolic disease. Furthermore, an activated tissue RAS deteriorates the same risk factors creating a system with several positive feedback pathways. The primary effector hormone of the RAS, angiotensin II, stimulates reactive oxygen species, induces tissue damage, and can be associated to most diabetic complications. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that an activated tissue RAS is the principle cause of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and additionally is mediating the majority of the metabolic complications. The involvement of positive feedback pathways may create a self-reinforcing state and explain why metabolic disease initiate and progress. The hypothesis plausibly unifies the major predictors of metabolic disease and places tissue RAS regulation in the center of metabolic control. PMID:24592256

  11. A Flt3 and Ras-dependent Pathway Primes B Cell Development by Inducing A State of IL7-responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Xi; Goetz, Christine A.; Katerndahl, Casey D.S.; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Farrar, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Ras plays an important role in B cell development. However, the stage at which Ras governs B cell development remains unclear. Moreover, the upstream receptors and downstream effectors of Ras that govern B cell differentiation remain undefined. Using mice that express a dominant negative form of Ras, we demonstrate that Ras-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the development of common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). This developmental block parallels that found in flt3−/− mice, suggesting that Flt3 is an important upstream activator of Ras in early B cell progenitors. Ras inhibition impaired proliferation of CLP and pre-pro-B cells but not pro-B cells. Rather, Ras promotes STAT5-dependent pro-B cell differentiation by enhancing IL7Rα levels and suppressing socs2 and socs3 expression. Our results suggest a model in which Flt3/Ras-dependent signals play a critical role in B cell development by priming early B cell progenitors for subsequent STAT5-dependent B cell differentiation. PMID:20065110

  12. Metabolic Dependencies in RAS-Driven Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kimmelman, Alec C

    2015-04-15

    The ability to inhibit the RAS oncogene has been the holy grail of oncology because of the critical role of this gene in a multitude of tumor types. In addition, RAS-mutant tumors are among the most aggressive and refractory to treatment. Although directly targeting the RAS oncogene has proven challenging, an alternative approach for treating RAS-driven cancers is to inhibit critical downstream events that are required for tumor maintenance. Indeed, much focus has been put on inhibiting signaling cascades downstream of RAS. Recent studies have shown that oncogenic RAS promotes a metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, shifting them toward an anabolic metabolism necessary to produce biomass to support unconstrained proliferation. These cancers also use a diverse set of fuel sources to meet their metabolic needs and have even developed a variety of mechanisms to act as metabolic scavengers to obtain necessary metabolic substrates from both extracellular and intracellular sources. Collectively, these adaptations can create "metabolic bottlenecks" whereby tumor cells rely on particular pathways or rate-limiting metabolites. In this regard, inhibiting individual or combinations of these metabolic pathways can attenuate growth in preclinical models. Because these dependencies are tumor selective and downstream of oncogenic RAS, there is the opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Although targeting tumor metabolism is still in the early days of translation to patients, our continued advances in understanding critical metabolic adaptations in RAS-driven cancers, as well as the ability to study this altered metabolism in relevant tumor models, will accelerate the development of new therapeutic approaches. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1828-34. ©2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers." PMID:25878364

  13. G9a/RelB regulates self-renewal and function of colon-cancer-initiating cells by silencing Let-7b and activating the K-RAS/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Cha, Shih-Ting; Tan, Ching-Ting; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Chu, Chia-Yu; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Lin, Been-Zen; Lin, Ming-Tsan; Kuo, Min-Liang

    2016-09-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming has been associated with the functional plasticity of cancer-initiating cells (CICs); however, the regulatory pathway has yet to be elucidated. A siRNA screen targeting known epigenetic genes revealed that G9a profoundly impairs the chemo-resistance, self-renewal and metastasis of CICs obtained from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients with elevated G9a were shown to face a high risk of relapse and poor survival rates. From a mechanistic perspective, G9a binds with and stabilizes RelB, thereby recruiting DNA methyltransferase 3 on the Let-7b promoter and repressing its expression. This leads to the activation of the K-RAS/β-catenin pathway and regulates self-renewal and function of CICs. These findings indicate that the G9a/RelB/Let-7b axis acts as a critical regulator in the maintenance of CIC phenotypes and is strongly associated with negative clinical outcomes. Thus, these findings may have diagnostic as well as therapeutic implications for the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant or metastatic CRC. PMID:27525719

  14. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, Inna; Kazanov, Dina; Lisiansky, Victoria; Starr, Alex; Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah; Arber, Nadir

    2012-01-15

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our 'gene therapy' approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce {approx} 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by {approx} 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  15. ras-induced Up-regulation of CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase α Contributes to Malignant Transformation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Daniel J.; Yoo, Byong H.; Rosen, Kirill V.; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells have enhanced lipogenic capacity characterized by increased synthesis of fatty acids and complex lipids, including phosphatidylcholine (PC). As the rate-limiting enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway for PC synthesis, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) is implicated in the provision of membranes and bioactive lipids necessary of cell proliferation. In this study, we assessed the role of CCTα in malignant intestinal epithelial cells transformed with activated H-ras (IEC-ras). Three IEC-ras clones had significant up-regulation CCTα expression, but PC synthesis and in vitro activity of CCTα were similar to control IEC. RNA interference of CCTα in adherent IEC-ras did not affect PC synthesis, confirming that the enzyme was relatively inactive. However, CCTα silencing in ras-transformed IEC reduced anchorage-independent growth, a criterion for malignant transformation, as well as tumorigenicity in mice. Relative to their adherent counterparts, detached IEC-ras had increased PC synthesis that was attenuated by inducible CCTα silencing. Detachment of IEC-ras was accompanied by increased CCTα phosphorylation and cytosolic enzyme activity. We conclude that the expanded pool of CCTα in IEC-ras is activated by detachment. This provides the increased PC biosynthetic capacity that contributes to malignant transformation of intestinal epithelial cells when detached from the extracellular matrix. PMID:23155050

  16. IRF1 Downregulation by Ras/MEK Is Independent of Translational Control of IRF1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Yumiko; Derwish, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of Ras/MEK downregulates the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), which is a prerequisite for oncolytic viruses to replicate in cancer cells [1]. Moreover, restoration of IRF1 expression is essential to induce apoptosis of cancer cells treated with a MEK inhibitor [2]. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK remain unclear. In this study, we determined whether Ras/MEK activation modulates IRF1 expression at its translational level. MEK inhibition increased the activity of IRF1 promoter construct in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells and wild type MEF, but not in IRF1 deficient MEF, indicating that IRF1 protein is required for the transcriptional activation of IRF1. By conducting reporter analysis using IRF1 5’- and 3’- UTR constructs, we determined that cis elements on 5’- and 3’-UTR of IRF1 mRNA are not involved in the IRF1 regulation by Ras/MEK. We further compared the recruitment of ribosomes to IRF1 mRNA in RasV12 cells treated with or without the MEK inhibitor by conducting polysome analysis. No difference was observed in the polysomal distribution of IRF1 mRNA between RasV12 cells treated with and without the MEK inhibitor. These results suggest that regulation of IRF1 translation is independent of IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK. PMID:27508303

  17. IRF1 Downregulation by Ras/MEK Is Independent of Translational Control of IRF1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Yumiko; Derwish, Leena; Hirasawa, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of Ras/MEK downregulates the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), which is a prerequisite for oncolytic viruses to replicate in cancer cells [1]. Moreover, restoration of IRF1 expression is essential to induce apoptosis of cancer cells treated with a MEK inhibitor [2]. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK remain unclear. In this study, we determined whether Ras/MEK activation modulates IRF1 expression at its translational level. MEK inhibition increased the activity of IRF1 promoter construct in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells and wild type MEF, but not in IRF1 deficient MEF, indicating that IRF1 protein is required for the transcriptional activation of IRF1. By conducting reporter analysis using IRF1 5'- and 3'- UTR constructs, we determined that cis elements on 5'- and 3'-UTR of IRF1 mRNA are not involved in the IRF1 regulation by Ras/MEK. We further compared the recruitment of ribosomes to IRF1 mRNA in RasV12 cells treated with or without the MEK inhibitor by conducting polysome analysis. No difference was observed in the polysomal distribution of IRF1 mRNA between RasV12 cells treated with and without the MEK inhibitor. These results suggest that regulation of IRF1 translation is independent of IRF1 downregulation by Ras/MEK. PMID:27508303

  18. Solar cell activation system

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian, L.

    1983-07-05

    A system for activating solar cells involves the use of phosphorescent paint, the light from which is amplified by a thin magnifying lens and used to activate solar cells. In a typical system, a member painted with phosphorescent paint is mounted adjacent a thin magnifying lens which focuses the light on a predetermined array of sensitive cells such as selenium, cadmium or silicon, mounted on a plastic board. A one-sided mirror is mounted adjacent the cells to reflect the light back onto said cells for purposes of further intensification. The cells may be coupled to rechargeable batteries or used to directly power a small radio or watch.

  19. Ras Oncogene-Mediated Progressive Silencing of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cammarota, Francesca; de Vita, Gabriella; Salvatore, Marco; Laukkanen, Mikko O.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is a secreted enzyme that uses superoxide anion as a substrate in a dismutase reaction that results in the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Both of these reactive oxygen species affect growth signaling in cells. Although SOD3 has growth-supporting characteristics, the expression of SOD3 is downregulated in epithelial cancer cells. In the current work, we studied the mechanisms regulating SOD3 expression in vitro using thyroid cell models representing different stages of thyroid cancer. We demonstrate that a low level of RAS activation increases SOD3 mRNA synthesis that then gradually decreases with increasing levels of RAS activation and the decreasing degree of differentiation of the cancer cells. Our data indicate that SOD3 regulation can be divided into two classes. The first class involves RAS–driven reversible regulation of SOD3 expression that can be mediated by the following mechanisms: RAS GTPase regulatory genes that are responsible for SOD3 self-regulation; RAS-stimulated p38 MAPK activation; and RAS-activated increased expression of the mir21 microRNA, which inversely correlates with sod3 mRNA expression. The second class involves permanent silencing of SOD3 mediated by epigenetic DNA methylation in cells that represent more advanced cancers. Therefore, the work suggests that SOD3 belongs to the group of ras oncogene-silenced genes. PMID:26550576

  20. Rasfonin, a novel 2-pyrone derivative, induces ras-mutated Panc-1 pancreatic tumor cell death in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z; Li, L; Li, Y; Zhou, W; Cheng, J; Liu, F; Zheng, P; Zhang, Y; Che, Y

    2014-01-01

    Rasfonin is a novel 2-pyrone derivative reported to induce apoptosis in ras-dependent cells. In this study, its effects on ras-mutated pancreatic cancer cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Two human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 (mutated K-ras) and BxPC-3 (wild-type K-ras) were selected to test the effects of rasfonin on cell proliferation, clone formation, migration and invasion in vitro. Immunoblotting was used to detect the expressions of EGFR-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway proteins. Ras activity was measured using a pull-down ELISA kit and guanine exchange factor (GEF)/GTPase-activating proteins (GAP) activity was measured by [(3)H]-GDP radiometric ligand binding. For an in vivo study, CD1 nude mice bearing Panc-1 cells were treated with rasfonin or Salirasib (FTS). We found that rasfonin suppressed proliferation more strongly in Panc-1 cells (IC50=5.5 μM) than BxPC-3 cells (IC50=10 μM) in vitro. Clone formation, migration and invasion by Panc-1 cells were also reduced by rasfonin. Rasfonin had little effect on the farnesylation of Ras, but it strongly downregulated Ras activity and consequently phosphorylation of c-Raf/MEK/ERK. Further experiments indicated that rasfonin reduced Son of sevenless (Sos1) expression but did not alter GEF and GAP activities. The in vivo experiments also revealed that rasfonin (30 mg/kg) delayed the growth of xenograft tumors originating from Panc-1 cells. Tumor weight was ultimately decreased after 20 days of treatment of rasfonin. Rasfonin is a robust inhibitor of pancreatic cancers with the K-ras mutation. The reduction of Sos1 expression and the consequently depressed Ras-MAPK activity could be important in its anticancer activity. PMID:24853419

  1. Mapping the functional versatility and fragility of Ras GTPase signaling circuits through in vitro network reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Scott M; Lim, Wendell A

    2016-01-01

    The Ras-superfamily GTPases are central controllers of cell proliferation and morphology. Ras signaling is mediated by a system of interacting molecules: upstream enzymes (GEF/GAP) regulate Ras’s ability to recruit multiple competing downstream effectors. We developed a multiplexed, multi-turnover assay for measuring the dynamic signaling behavior of in vitro reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems. By including both upstream regulators and downstream effectors, we can systematically map how different network configurations shape the dynamic system response. The concentration and identity of both upstream and downstream signaling components strongly impacted the timing, duration, shape, and amplitude of effector outputs. The distorted output of oncogenic alleles of Ras was highly dependent on the balance of positive (GAP) and negative (GEF) regulators in the system. We found that different effectors interpreted the same inputs with distinct output dynamics, enabling a Ras system to encode multiple unique temporal outputs in response to a single input. We also found that different Ras-to-GEF positive feedback mechanisms could reshape output dynamics in distinct ways, such as signal amplification or overshoot minimization. Mapping of the space of output behaviors accessible to Ras provides a design manual for programming Ras circuits, and reveals how these systems are readily adapted to produce an array of dynamic signaling behaviors. Nonetheless, this versatility comes with a trade-off of fragility, as there exist numerous paths to altered signaling behaviors that could cause disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12435.001 PMID:26765565

  2. Oncogenic K-ras confers SAHA resistance by up-regulating HDAC6 and c-myc expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Tan, Zhiping; Su, Bing; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) represent a new class of anticancer drugs. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the first HDI approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), is currently being tested in clinical trials for other cancers. However, SAHA has been ineffective against solid tumors in many clinical trials. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms of SAHA resistance may provide the basis for improved patient selection and the enhancement of clinical efficacy. Here we demonstrate that oncogenic K-ras contributes to SAHA resistance by upregulating HDAC6 and c-myc expression. We find that the high levels of HDAC6 expression are associated with activated K-ras mutant in colon cancer patients. And expressions of HDAC6 and c-myc are increased in fibroblasts transformed with activated K-ras. Surprisingly, we find that activated K-ras transformed cells are more resistant to SAHA inhibition on cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation. We show that a K-ras inhibitor sensitizes K-ras mutated lung cancer cells to SAHA induced growth inhibition. We also find that mutant K-ras induces HDAC6 expression by a MAP kinase dependent pathway. Our study suggests that combined treatment with SAHA and K-ras inhibitors may represent an effective strategy to overcome SAHA resistance. PMID:26848526

  3. Oncogenic K-ras confers SAHA resistance by up-regulating HDAC6 and c-myc expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qun; Tan, Rong; Zhu, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Zhiping; Su, Bing; Li, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) represent a new class of anticancer drugs. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the first HDI approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), is currently being tested in clinical trials for other cancers. However, SAHA has been ineffective against solid tumors in many clinical trials. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms of SAHA resistance may provide the basis for improved patient selection and the enhancement of clinical efficacy. Here we demonstrate that oncogenic K-ras contributes to SAHA resistance by upregulating HDAC6 and c-myc expression. We find that the high levels of HDAC6 expression are associated with activated K-ras mutant in colon cancer patients. And expressions of HDAC6 and c-myc are increased in fibroblasts transformed with activated K-ras. Surprisingly, we find that activated K-ras transformed cells are more resistant to SAHA inhibition on cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation. We show that a K-ras inhibitor sensitizes K-ras mutated lung cancer cells to SAHA induced growth inhibition. We also find that mutant K-ras induces HDAC6 expression by a MAP kinase dependent pathway. Our study suggests that combined treatment with SAHA and K-ras inhibitors may represent an effective strategy to overcome SAHA resistance. PMID:26848526

  4. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  5. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  6. Nitric oxide induces thioredoxin-1 nuclear translocation: Possible association with the p21Ras survival pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Roberto J.; Yodoi, J.; Debbas, V.; Laurindo, Francisco R.; Stern, A.; Monteiro, Hugo P. . E-mail: hpmonte@uol.com.br

    2006-10-06

    One of the major redox-regulating molecules with thiol reducing activity is thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1). TRX-1 is a multifunctional protein that exists in the extracellular millieu, cytoplasm, and nucleus, and has a distinct role in each environment. It is well known that TRX-1 promptly migrates to the nuclear compartment in cells exposed to oxidants. However, the intracellular location of TRX-1 in cells exposed to nitrosothiols has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrated that the exposure of HeLa cells to increasing concentrations of the nitrosothiol S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) promoted TRX-1 nuclear accumulation. The SNAP-induced TRX-1 translocation to the nucleus was inhibited by FPTIII, a selective inhibitor of p21Ras. Furthermore, TRX-1 migration was attenuated in cells stably transfected with NO insensitive p21Ras (p21{sup RasC118S}). Downstream to p21Ras, the MAP Kinases ERK1/2 were activated by SNAP under conditions that promote TRX-1 nuclear translocation. Inhibition of MEK prevented SNAP-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and TRX-1 nuclear migration. In addition, cells treated with p21Ras or MEK inhibitor showed increased susceptibility to cell death induced by SNAP. In conclusion, our observations suggest that the nuclear translocation of TRX-1 is induced by SNAP involving p21Ras survival pathway.

  7. Inhibition of the Ras-Net (Elk-3) pathway by a novel pyrazole that affects microtubules.

    PubMed

    Wasylyk, Christine; Zheng, Hong; Castell, Christelle; Debussche, Laurent; Multon, Marie-Christine; Wasylyk, Bohdan

    2008-03-01

    Net (Elk-3/SAP-2/Erp) is a transcription factor that is phosphorylated and activated by the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling pathway and is involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. In a cell-based screen for small molecule inhibitors of Ras activation of Net transcriptional activity, we identified a novel pyrazole, XRP44X. XRP44X inhibits fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2)-induced Net phosphorylation by the Ras-Erk signaling upstream from Ras. It also binds to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin, depolymerizes microtubules, stimulates cell membrane blebbing, and affects the morphology of the actin skeleton. Interestingly, Combretastin-A4, which produces similar effects on the cytoskeleton, also inhibits FGF-2 Ras-Net signaling. This differs from other classes of agents that target microtubules, which have either little effect (vincristine) or no effect (docetaxel and nocodazole) on the Ras-Net pathway. XRP44X inhibits various cellular properties, including cell growth, cell cycle progression, and aortal sprouting, similar to other molecules that bind to the tubulin colchicine site. XRP44X has the potentially interesting property of connecting two important pathways involved in cell transformation and may thereby represent an interesting class of molecules that could be developed for cancer treatment. PMID:18316589

  8. Role of Ras signaling in the induction of snail by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kana; Shirakihara, Takuya; Nakano, Ayako; Imamura, Takeshi; Miyazono, Kohei; Saitoh, Masao

    2009-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial morphological event that occurs during the progression of epithelial tumors. EMT can be induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in some tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate the molecular mechanism whereby Snail, a key regulator of EMT, is induced by TGF-beta in tumor cells. Snail induction by TGF-beta was highly dependent on cooperation with active Ras signals, and silencing of Ras abolished Snail induction by TGF-beta in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. Transfection of constitutively active Ras into HeLa cells led to induction of Snail by TGF-beta, while representative direct targets of TGF-beta, including Smad7 and PAI-1, were not affected by Ras signaling. Using mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or Smad3 or Smad2 mutants, we found that phosphorylation at the linker region of Smad2/3 was not required for the induction of Snail by TGF-beta. Taken together, these findings indicate that Ras and TGF-beta-Smad signaling selectively cooperate in the induction of Snail, which occurs in a Smad-dependent manner, but independently of phosphorylation at the linker region of R-Smads by Ras signaling. PMID:19010789

  9. Casein kinase 1α–dependent feedback loop controls autophagy in RAS-driven cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Jit Kong; Zhang, Fuquan; Chua, Pei Jou; Bay, Boon Huat; Thorburn, Andrew; Virshup, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations in the RAS oncogene are common in cancer but are difficult to therapeutically target. RAS activation promotes autophagy, a highly regulated catabolic process that metabolically buffers cells in response to diverse stresses. Here we report that casein kinase 1α (CK1α), a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase, is a key negative regulator of oncogenic RAS–induced autophagy. Depletion or pharmacologic inhibition of CK1α enhanced autophagic flux in oncogenic RAS–driven human fibroblasts and multiple cancer cell lines. FOXO3A, a master longevity mediator that transcriptionally regulates diverse autophagy genes, was a critical target of CK1α, as depletion of CK1α reduced levels of phosphorylated FOXO3A and increased expression of FOXO3A-responsive genes. Oncogenic RAS increased CK1α protein abundance via activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In turn, elevated levels of CK1α increased phosphorylation of nuclear FOXO3A, thereby inhibiting transactivation of genes critical for RAS-induced autophagy. In both RAS-driven cancer cells and murine xenograft models, pharmacologic CK1α inactivation synergized with lysosomotropic agents to inhibit growth and promote tumor cell death. Together, our results identify a kinase feedback loop that influences RAS-dependent autophagy and suggest that targeting CK1α-regulated autophagy offers a potential therapeutic opportunity to treat oncogenic RAS–driven cancers. PMID:25798617

  10. NAM: The 2004 RAS National Astronomy Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barrie; Norton, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    This year's RAS National Astronomy Meeting was held at the Open University's Milton Keynes campus from 29 March to 2 April. The event was organized by members of the OU Physics & Astronomy Department and Planetary & Space Science Research Institute. Around 450 people attended the meeting, at which more than 220 talks were presented, along with around 90 posters. Co-chairs of RAS NAM04, Barrie Jones and Andrew Norton, summarize.

  11. The Adipose Renin-Angiotensin System Modulates Systemic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Activates the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Suyeon; Soltani-Bejnood, Morvarid; Quignard-Boulange, Annie; Massiera, Florence; Teboul, Michele; Ailhaud, Gerard; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; Voy, Brynn H.

    2006-01-01

    Background . The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass and may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism. Methods and results . A panel of mouse models including mice lacking angiotensinogen, Agt ( Agt -KO), mice expressing Agt solely in adipose tissue (aP2- Agt/Agt -KO), and mice overexpressing Agt in adipose tissue (aP2- Agt ) was studied. Total body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and circulating levels of leptin, insulin, and resistin were significantly decreased in Agt -KO mice, while plasma adiponectin levels were increased. aP2- Agt mice exhibited increased adipositymore » and plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to wild type (WT) controls. Angiotensinogen and type I Ang II receptor protein levels were also elevated in kidney of aP2- Agt mice. Conclusion . These findings demonstrate that alterations in adipose RAS activity significantly impact both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.« less

  12. sar1, a gene from Schizosaccharomyces pombe encoding a protein that regulates ras1.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Boguski, M; Riggs, M; Rodgers, L; Wigler, M

    1991-01-01

    Proper ras1 function is required for normal sexual function in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We have found a gene in S. pombe, sar1, that encodes a product capable of regulating ras1 function. sar1 is a member of an expanding family of RAS GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that includes mammalian GAP, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae IRA proteins, and the product of the human neurofibromatosis locus, NF1 sar1, like these other proteins, can complement the loss of IRA function in S. cerevisiae. Computer analysis shows that the highest degree of sequence conservation is restricted to a very small number of diagnostic residues represented by the motif Phe-Leu-Arg-X-X-X-Pro-Ala-X-X-X-Pro. We find no evidence that sar1 is required for the effector function of ras1. Images PMID:1883874

  13. Systemic and uteroplacental renin–angiotensin system in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by an increase in many of the different components of the circulating renin–angiotensin system [RAS]. However, the physiological mechanisms of stimulated RAS activity during pregnancy are unknown. Even less understood is how this system may be altered in pre-eclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Additional studies have shown the presence of a local tissue specific RAS in the uteroplacental unit of normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Differences in normal pregnant and pre-eclamptic RAS component regulation may provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the clinical pathological features of pre-eclampsia. Specifically, this review summarizes the key findings in the circulating and uteroplacental RAS in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. PMID:19124433

  14. Relapsed neuroblastomas show frequent RAS-MAPK pathway mutations.

    PubMed

    Eleveld, Thomas F; Oldridge, Derek A; Bernard, Virginie; Koster, Jan; Daage, Leo Colmet; Diskin, Sharon J; Schild, Linda; Bentahar, Nadia Bessoltane; Bellini, Angela; Chicard, Mathieu; Lapouble, Eve; Combaret, Valérie; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Michon, Jean; Pugh, Trevor J; Hart, Lori S; Rader, JulieAnn; Attiyeh, Edward F; Wei, Jun S; Zhang, Shile; Naranjo, Arlene; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Hogarty, Michael D; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Smith, Malcolm A; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M; Watkins, Thomas B K; Zwijnenburg, Danny A; Ebus, Marli E; van Sluis, Peter; Hakkert, Anne; van Wezel, Esther; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Westerhout, Ellen M; Schulte, Johannes H; Tytgat, Godelieve A; Dolman, M Emmy M; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Gerhard, Daniela S; Caron, Huib N; Delattre, Olivier; Khan, Javed; Versteeg, Rogier; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Molenaar, Jan J; Maris, John M

    2015-08-01

    The majority of patients with neuroblastoma have tumors that initially respond to chemotherapy, but a large proportion will experience therapy-resistant relapses. The molecular basis of this aggressive phenotype is unknown. Whole-genome sequencing of 23 paired diagnostic and relapse neuroblastomas showed clonal evolution from the diagnostic tumor, with a median of 29 somatic mutations unique to the relapse sample. Eighteen of the 23 relapse tumors (78%) showed mutations predicted to activate the RAS-MAPK pathway. Seven of these events were detected only in the relapse tumor, whereas the others showed clonal enrichment. In neuroblastoma cell lines, we also detected a high frequency of activating mutations in the RAS-MAPK pathway (11/18; 61%), and these lesions predicted sensitivity to MEK inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide a rationale for genetic characterization of relapse neuroblastomas and show that RAS-MAPK pathway mutations may function as a biomarker for new therapeutic approaches to refractory disease. PMID:26121087

  15. Relapsed neuroblastomas show frequent RAS-MAPK pathway mutations

    PubMed Central

    Eleveld, Thomas F.; Oldridge, Derek A.; Bernard, Virginie; Koster, Jan; Daage, Leo Colmet; Diskin, Sharon J.; Schild, Linda; Bentahar, Nadia Bessoltane; Bellini, Angela; Chicard, Mathieu; Lapouble, Eve; Combaret, Valérie; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Michon, Jean; Pugh, Trevor J.; Hart, Lori S.; Rader, JulieAnn; Attiyeh, Edward F.; Wei, Jun S.; Zhang, Shile; Naranjo, Arlene; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Hogarty, Michael D.; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Smith, Malcolm A.; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M.; Watkins, Thomas B. K.; Zwijnenburg, Danny A.; Ebus, Marli E.; van Sluis, Peter; Hakkert, Anne; van Wezel, Esther; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Schulte, Johannes H.; Tytgat, Godelieve A.; Dolman, M. Emmy M.; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Caron, Huib N.; Delattre, Olivier; Khan, Javed; Versteeg, Rogier; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Molenaar, Jan J.; Maris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of neuroblastoma patients have tumors that initially respond to chemotherapy, but a large proportion of patients will experience therapy-resistant relapses. The molecular basis of this aggressive phenotype is unknown. Whole genome sequencing of 23 paired diagnostic and relapsed neuroblastomas showed clonal evolution from the diagnostic tumor with a median of 29 somatic mutations unique to the relapse sample. Eighteen of the 23 relapse tumors (78%) showed mutations predicted to activate the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Seven events were detected only in the relapse tumor while the others showed clonal enrichment. In neuroblastoma cell lines we also detected a high frequency of activating mutations in the RAS-MAPK pathway (11/18, 61%) and these lesions predicted for sensitivity to MEK inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide the rationale for genetic characterization of relapse neuroblastoma and show that RAS-MAPK pathway mutations may function as a biomarker for new therapeutic approaches to refractory disease. PMID:26121087

  16. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A; Chan, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5'-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras-/-). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras-/- mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras-/- mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras-/- mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras-/- T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras-/- T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras-/- T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  17. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  18. Peroxiredoxin II promotes hepatic tumorigenesis through cooperation with Ras/Forkhead box M1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Y-H; Kim, S-U; Kwon, T-H; Kim, J-M; Song, I-S; Shin, H-J; Lee, B-K; Bang, D-H; Lee, S-J; Lee, D-S; Chang, K-T; Kim, B-Y; Yu, D-Y

    2016-07-01

    The current study was carried out to define the involvement of Peroxiredoxin (Prx) II in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying molecular mechanism(s). Expression and function of Prx II in HCC was determined using H-ras(G12V)-transformed HCC cells (H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells) and the tumor livers from H-ras(G12V)-transgenic (Tg) mice and HCC patients. Prx II was upregulated in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg mouse tumor livers, the expression pattern of which highly similar to that of forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1). Moreover, either knockdown of FoxM1 or site-directed mutagenesis of FoxM1-binding site of Prx II promoter significantly reduced Prx II levels in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells, indicating FoxM1 as a direct transcription factor of Prx II in HCC. Interestingly, the null mutation of Prx II markedly decreased the number and size of tumors in H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Consistent with this, knockdown of Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells reduced the expression of cyclin D1, cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in athymic nude mice, whereas overexpression of Prx II increased or aggravated the tumor phenotypes. Importantly, the expression of Prx II was correlated with that of FoxM1 in HCC patients. The activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway and the expression of FoxM1 and cyclin D1 were highly dependent on Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Prx II is FoxM1-dependently-expressed antioxidant in HCC and function as an enhancer of Ras(G12V) oncogenic potential in hepatic tumorigenesis through activation of ERK/FoxM1/cyclin D1 cascade. PMID:26500057

  19. Gankyrin plays an essential role in Ras-induced tumorigenesis through regulation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Man, Jiang-Hong; Liang, Bing; Gu, Yue-Xi; Zhou, Tao; Li, Ai-Ling; Li, Tao; Jin, Bao-Feng; Bai, Bing; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Wei-Na; Li, Wei-Hua; Gong, Wei-Li; Li, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Min

    2010-01-01

    Activating mutations in Ras proteins are present in about 30% of human cancers. Despite tremendous progress in the study of Ras oncogenes, many aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying Ras-induced tumorigenesis remain unknown. Through proteomics analysis, we previously found that the protein Gankyrin, a known oncoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma, was upregulated during Ras-mediated transformation, although the functional consequences of this were not clear. Here we present evidence that Gankyrin plays an essential role in Ras-initiated tumorigenesis in mouse and human cells. We found that the increased Gankyrin present following Ras activation increased the interaction between the RhoA GTPase and its GDP dissociation inhibitor RhoGDI, which resulted in inhibition of the RhoA effector kinase Rho-associated coiled coil–containing protein kinase (ROCK). Importantly, Gankyrin-mediated ROCK inhibition led to prolonged Akt activation, a critical step in activated Ras–induced transformation and tumorigenesis. In addition, we found that Gankyrin is highly expressed in human lung cancers that have Ras mutations and that increased Gankyrin expression is required for the constitutive activation of Akt and tumorigenesis in these lung cancers. Our findings suggest that Gankyrin is a key regulator of Ras-mediated activation of Akt through inhibition of the downstream RhoA/ROCK pathway and thus plays an essential role in Ras-induced tumorigenesis. PMID:20628200

  20. Involvement of Ras/Raf/AP-1 in BMP-4 signaling during Xenopus embryonic development.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, R H; Dong, Z; Maeno, M; Kim, J; Suzuki, A; Ueno, N; Sredni, D; Colburn, N H; Kung, H F

    1996-01-01

    Previously, we elucidated the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in the dorsal-ventral patterning of the Xenopus embryo by using a dominant negative mutant of the BMP-4 receptor (DN-BR). The present paper describes the involvement of Ras, Raf, and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in BMP-4 signaling during Xenopus embryonic development. The AP-1 activity was determined by injecting an AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene into two-cell-stage Xenopus embryos and measuring the luciferase activity at various developmental stages. We found that injection of BMP-4 mRNA increased AP-1 activity, whereas injection of DN-BR mRNA inhibited AP-1 activity. Similar inhibitory effects were seen with injection of mRNAs encoding dominant negative mutants of c-Ha-Ras, c-Raf, or c-Jun. These results suggest that the endogenous AP-1 activity is regulated by BMP-4/Ras/Raf/Jun signals. We next investigated the effects of Ras/Raf/AP-1 signals on the biological functions of BMP-4. DN-BR-induced dorsalization of the embryo, revealed by the formation of a secondary body axis or dorsalization of the ventral mesoderm explant analyzed by histological and molecular criteria, was significantly reversed by coinjection of [Val12]Ha-Ras, c-Raf, or c-Jun mRNA. Furthermore, the BMP-4-stimulated erythroid differentiation in the ventral mesoderm was substantially inhibited by coinjection with the dominant negative c-Ha-Ras, c-Raf, or c-Jun mutant. Our results suggest the involvement of Ras/Raf/AP-1 in the BMP-4 signaling pathway. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8570644

  1. Dexras1 a unique ras-GTPase interacts with NMDA receptor activity and provides a novel dissociation between anxiety, working memory and sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Carlson, G C; Lin, R E; Chen, Y; Brookshire, B R; White, R S; Lucki, I; Siegel, S J; Kim, S F

    2016-05-13

    Dexras1 is a novel GTPase that acts at a confluence of signaling mechanisms associated with psychiatric and neurological disease including NMDA receptors, NOS1AP and nNOS. Recent work has shown that Dexras1 mediates iron trafficking and NMDA-dependent neurodegeneration but a role for Dexras1 in normal brain function or psychiatric disease has not been studied. To test for such a role, mice with germline knockout (KO) of Dexras1 were assayed for behavioral abnormalities as well as changes in NMDA receptor subunit protein expression. Because Dexras1 is up-regulated during stress or by dexamethasone treatment, we included measures associated with emotion including anxiety and depression. Baseline anxiety-like measures (open field and zero maze) were not altered, nor were depression-like behavior (tail suspension). Measures of memory function yielded mixed results, with no changes in episodic memory (novel object recognition) but a significant decrement on working memory (T-maze). Alternatively, there was an increase in pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), without concomitant changes in either startle amplitude or locomotor activity. PPI data are consistent with the direction of change seen following exposure to dopamine D2 antagonists. An examination of NMDA subunit expression levels revealed an increased expression of the NR2A subunit, contrary to previous studies demonstrating down-regulation of the receptor following antipsychotic exposure (Schmitt et al., 2003) and up-regulation after exposure to isolation rearing (Turnock-Jones et al., 2009). These findings suggest a potential role for Dexras1 in modulating a selective subset of psychiatric symptoms, possibly via its interaction with NMDARs and/or other disease-related binding-partners. Furthermore, data suggest that modulating Dexras1 activity has contrasting effects on emotional, sensory and cognitive domains. PMID:26946266

  2. Ras/MEK/MAPK-mediated regulation of heparin sulphate proteoglycans promotes retinal fate in the Drosophila eye-antennal disc.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vilaiwan M; Pradhan-Sundd, Tirthadipa; Blaquiere, Jessica A; Verheyen, Esther M

    2015-06-01

    Generating cellular heterogeneity is crucial to the development of complex organs. Organ-fate selector genes and signalling pathways generate cellular diversity by subdividing and patterning naïve tissues to assign them regional identities. The Drosophila eye-antennal imaginal disc is a well-characterised system in which to study regional specification; it is first divided into antennal and eye fates and subsequently retinal differentiation occurs within only the eye field. During development, signalling pathways and selector genes compete with and mutually antagonise each other to subdivide the tissue. Wingless (Wg) signalling is the main inhibitor of retinal differentiation; it does so by promoting antennal/head-fate via selector factors and by antagonising Hedgehog (Hh), the principal differentiation-initiating signal. Wg signalling must be suppressed by JAK/STAT at the disc posterior in order to initiate retinal differentiation. Ras/MEK/MAPK signalling has also been implicated in initiating retinal differentiation but its mode of action is not known. We find that compromising Ras/MEK/MAPK signalling in the early larval disc results in expanded antennal/head cuticle at the expense of the compound eye. These phenotypes correspond both to perturbations in selector factor expression, and to de-repressed wg. Indeed, STAT activity is reduced due to decreased mobility of the ligand Unpaired (Upd) along with a corresponding loss in Dally-like protein (Dlp), a heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) that aids Upd diffusion. Strikingly, blocking HSPG biogenesis phenocopies compromised Ras/MEK/MAPK, while restoring HSPG expression rescues the adult phenotype significantly. This study identifies a novel mode by which the Ras/MEK/MAPK pathway regulates regional-fate specification via HSPGs during development. PMID:25848695

  3. Intratumor Cellular Heterogeneity and Alterations in ras Oncogene and p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Noboru; Hiasa, Yoshio; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Tao, Ming; Tsuzuki, Toshihide; Hayashi, Isao; Kitahori, Yoshiteru; Shiraishi, Taizo; Yatani, Ryuichi; Shimazaki, Jun; Lin, Jung-Chung

    1995-01-01

    To assess the potential role of ras oncogene activation and P53 tumor suppressor gene mutations in the development of human prostate carcinoma, nine cases of histologically heterogeneous prostate tumors obtained from total prostatectomies were probed for these specific events. Each tumor was divided into 5 to 10 areas according to different growth or histological patterns. Targeted DNA sequences coding for ras and p53 were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, analyzed by single-strand conformational polymorphisms, and confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Point mutations of the ras gene were found in three of the nine tumors. Two contained K-ras codon 13 and H-ras codon 61 mutations, found in only one and three areas of each lesion, respectively. The third tumor contained two different point mutations in K-ras codons 13 and 61 in different foci of the sample. Loss of heterozygosity at the polymorphic codon 72 in the p53 gene was detected in two of four informative cases (50%) showing fragment cleavage by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Mutations in p53, missense transversions, single base insertions, and two base deletions were also detected in three tumors. The present results reveal mutated ras and p53 occasionally occurring in small foci of the tumor and that genetic mutations in p53, as opposed to those in ras, are more closely associated with invasive growth of heterogeneous prostate carcinoma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7573356

  4. The Structural Basis of Oncogenic Mutations G12, G13 and Q61 in Small GTPase K-Ras4B

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ras mediates cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Mutations in K-Ras4B are predominant at residues G12, G13 and Q61. Even though all impair GAP-assisted GTP → GDP hydrolysis, the mutation frequencies of K-Ras4B in human cancers vary. Here we aim to figure out their mechanisms and differential oncogenicity. In total, we performed 6.4 μs molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type K-Ras4B (K-Ras4BWT-GTP/GDP) catalytic domain, the K-Ras4BWT-GTP–GAP complex, and the mutants (K-Ras4BG12C/G12D/G12V-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BG13D-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BQ61H-GTP/GDP) and their complexes with GAP. In addition, we simulated ‘exchanged’ nucleotide states. These comprehensive simulations reveal that in solution K-Ras4BWT-GTP exists in two, active and inactive, conformations. Oncogenic mutations differentially elicit an inactive-to-active conformational transition in K-Ras4B-GTP; in K-Ras4BG12C/G12D-GDP they expose the bound nucleotide which facilitates the GDP-to-GTP exchange. These mechanisms may help elucidate the differential mutational statistics in K-Ras4B-driven cancers. Exchanged nucleotide simulations reveal that the conformational transition is more accessible in the GTP-to-GDP than in the GDP-to-GTP exchange. Importantly, GAP not only donates its R789 arginine finger, but stabilizes the catalytically-competent conformation and pre-organizes catalytic residue Q61; mutations disturb the R789/Q61 organization, impairing GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Together, our simulations help provide a mechanistic explanation of key mutational events in one of the most oncogenic proteins in cancer. PMID:26902995

  5. MicroRNA-based Therapeutic Strategies for Targeting Mutant and Wild Type RAS in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sriganesh B.; Ruppert, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) have been causally implicated in the progression and development of a wide variety of cancers. miRs modulate the activity of key cell signaling networks by regulating the translation of pathway component proteins. Thus, the pharmacological targeting of miRs that regulate cancer cell signaling networks, either by promoting (using miR-supplementation) or by suppressing (using anti-sense oligonucleotide based strategies) miR activity is an area of intense research. The RAS-Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathway represents a major miR-regulated signaling network that endows cells with some of the classical hallmarks of cancer, and is often inappropriately activated in malignancies by somatic genetic alteration through point mutation or alteration of gene copy number. In addition, recent progress indicates that many tumors may be deficient in GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) due to the collaborative action of oncogenic microRNAs. Recent studies also suggest that in tumors harboring a mutant RAS allele there is a critical role for wild type RAS proteins in determining overall RAS-ERK pathway activity. Together, these two advances comprise a new opportunity for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we evaluate miR-based therapeutic strategies for modulating RAS-ERK signaling in cancers, in particular for more direct modulation of RAS-GTP levels, with the potential to complement current strategies in order to yield more durable treatment responses. To this end, we discuss the potential for miR-based therapies focused on three prominent miRs including the pan-RAS regulator let-7 and the GAP regulator comprised of miR-206 and miR-21 (miR-206/21). PMID:26284568

  6. The Ras-association domain family (RASSF) members and their role in human tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    van der Weyden, Louise; Adams, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Ras proteins play a direct causal role in human cancer with activating mutations in Ras occurring in ∼ 30% of tumours. Ras effectors also contribute to cancer, as mutations occur in Ras effectors, notably B-Raf and PI3-K, and drugs blocking elements of these pathways are in clinical development. In 2000, a new Ras effector was identified, RAS-association domain family 1 (RASSF1), and expression of the RASSF1A isoform of this gene is silenced in tumours by methylation of its promoter. Since methylation is reversible and demethylating agents are currently being used in clinical trials, detection of RASSF1A silencing by promoter hypermethylation has potential clinical uses in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. RASSF1A belongs to a new family of RAS effectors, of which there are currently 8 members (RASSF1–8). RASSF1–6 each contain a variable N-terminal segment followed by a Ras-association (RA) domain of the Ral-GDS/AF6 type, and a specialised coiled-coil structure known as a SARAH domain extending to the C-terminus. RASSF7–8 contain an N-terminal RA domain and a variable C-terminus. Members of the RASSF family are thought to function as tumour suppressors by regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis. This review will summarise our current knowledge of each member of the RASSF family and in particular what role they play in tumourigenesis, with a special focus on RASSF1A, whose promoter methylation is one of the most frequent alterations found in human tumours. PMID:17692468

  7. Combined Inactivation of MYC and K-Ras Oncogenes Reverses Tumorigenesis in Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Shan; Komatsubara, Kim; Chen, Joy; Horng, George; Bellovin, David I.; Giuriato, Sylvie; Wang, Craig S.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Conditional transgenic models have established that tumors require sustained oncogene activation for tumor maintenance, exhibiting the phenomenon known as “oncogene-addiction.” However, most cancers are caused by multiple genetic events making it difficult to determine which oncogenes or combination of oncogenes will be the most effective targets for their treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings To examine how the MYC and K-rasG12D oncogenes cooperate for the initiation and maintenance of tumorigenesis, we generated double conditional transgenic tumor models of lung adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. The ability of MYC and K-rasG12D to cooperate for tumorigenesis and the ability of the inactivation of these oncogenes to result in tumor regression depended upon the specific tissue context. MYC-, K-rasG12D- or MYC/K-rasG12D-induced lymphomas exhibited sustained regression upon the inactivation of either or both oncogenes. However, in marked contrast, MYC-induced lung tumors failed to regress completely upon oncogene inactivation; whereas K-rasG12D-induced lung tumors regressed completely. Importantly, the combined inactivation of both MYC and K-rasG12D resulted more frequently in complete lung tumor regression. To account for the different roles of MYC and K-rasG12D in maintenance of lung tumors, we found that the down-stream mediators of K-rasG12D signaling, Stat3 and Stat5, are dephosphorylated following conditional K-rasG12D but not MYC inactivation. In contrast, Stat3 becomes dephosphorylated in lymphoma cells upon inactivation of MYC and/or K-rasG12D. Interestingly, MYC-induced lung tumors that failed to regress upon MYC inactivation were found to have persistent Stat3 and Stat5 phosphorylation. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our findings point to the importance of the K-Ras and associated down-stream Stat effector pathways in the initiation and maintenance of lymphomas and lung tumors. We suggest that combined targeting of oncogenic

  8. Disorders of dysregulated signal traffic through the RAS-MAPK pathway: phenotypic spectrum and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    RAS GTPases control a major signaling network implicated in several cellular functions, including cell fate determination, proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, and senescence. Within this network, signal flow through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first identified mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates early and late developmental processes controlling morphology determination, organogenesis, synaptic plasticity and growth. Signaling through the RAS-MAPK cascade is tightly controlled, and its enhanced activation represents a well-known event in oncogenesis. Unexpectedly, in the past few years, inherited dysregulation of this pathway has been recognized as the cause underlying a group of clinically related disorders sharing facial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, reduced postnatal growth, ectodermal anomalies, variable cognitive deficits and susceptibility to certain malignancies as major features. These disorders are caused by heterozygosity for mutations in genes encoding RAS proteins, regulators of RAS function, modulators of RAS interaction with effectors or downstream signal transducers. Here, we provide an overview of the phenotypic spectrum associated with germline mutations perturbing RAS-MAPK signaling, the unpredicted molecular mechanisms converging towards the dysregulation of this signaling cascade, and major genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:20958325

  9. Aliskiren inhibits the renin-angiotensin system in retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Simão, Sónia; Santos, Daniela F; Silva, Gabriela A

    2016-09-20

    Observations of increased angiotensin II levels and activation of the (pro)renin receptor in retinopathies support the role of ocular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of retinal diseases. While targeting RAS presents significant therapeutic potential, current RAS-based therapies are ineffective halting the progression of these diseases. A new class of drugs, the direct renin inhibitors such as aliskiren, is a potential therapeutic alternative. However, it is unclear how aliskiren acts in the retina, in particular in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the structure responsible for the maintenance of retinal homeostasis whose role is deeply compromised in retinal diseases. We firstly analyzed the expression and activity of the main RAS components in RPE cells. Time- and concentration-dependent treatments with aliskiren were performed to modulate different pathways of the RAS in RPE cells. Our data demonstrate that RPE cells express the main RAS constituents. Exposure of RPE cells to aliskiren inhibited the activity of renin and consequently decreased the levels of angiotensin II. Additionally, aliskiren reduced the translocation of the (pro)renin receptor to the cellular membrane of RPE cells preventing the activation of ERK1/2. Our findings of the RPE well-defined RAS, together with the demonstration that aliskiren effectively blocks this system at different steps of the cascade, suggest that aliskiren might be an alternative and successful drug in preventing the deleterious effects derived from the overactivation of the RAS, known to contribute to the pathogenesis of different retinal diseases. PMID:27343695

  10. Basal but not luminal mammary epithelial cells require PI3K/mTOR signaling for Ras-driven overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Plichta, Kristin A; Mathers, Jessica L; Gestl, Shelley A; Glick, Adam B; Gunther, Edward J

    2012-11-15

    The mammary ducts of humans and mice are comprised of two main mammary epithelial cell (MEC) subtypes: a surrounding layer of basal MECs and an inner layer of luminal MECs. Breast cancer subtypes show divergent clinical behavior that may reflect properties inherent in their MEC compartment of origin. How the response to a cancer-initiating genetic event is shaped by MEC subtype remains largely unexplored. Using the mouse mammary gland, we designed organotypic three-dimensional culture models that permit challenge of discrete MEC compartments with the same oncogenic insult. Mammary organoids were prepared from mice engineered for compartment-restricted coexpression of oncogenic H-RAS(G12V) together with a nuclear fluorescent reporter. Monitoring of H-RAS(G12V)-expressing MECs during extended live cell imaging permitted visualization of Ras-driven phenotypes via video microscopy. Challenging either basal or luminal MECs with H-RAS(G12V) drove MEC proliferation and survival, culminating in aberrant organoid overgrowth. In each compartment, Ras activation triggered modes of collective MEC migration and invasion that contrasted with physiologic modes used during growth factor-initiated branching morphogenesis. Although basal and luminal Ras activation produced similar overgrowth phenotypes, inhibitor studies revealed divergent use of Ras effector pathways. Blocking either the phosphoinositide 3-kinase or the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway completely suppressed Ras-driven invasion and overgrowth of basal MECs, but only modestly attenuated Ras-driven phenotypes in luminal MECs. We show that MEC subtype defines signaling pathway dependencies downstream of Ras. Thus, cells-of-origin may critically determine the drug sensitivity profiles of mammary neoplasia. PMID:23010075

  11. Specific repression of mutant K-RAS by 10-23 DNAzyme: Sensitizing cancer cell to anti-cancer therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.-H.; Wang, T.-H.; Au, L.-C.

    2009-01-09

    Point mutations of the Ras family are frequently found in human cancers at a prevalence rate of 30%. The most common mutation K-Ras(G12V), required for tumor proliferation, survival, and metastasis due to its constitutively active GTPase activity, has provided an ideal target for cancer therapy. 10-23 DNAzyme, an oligodeoxyribonucleotide-based ribonuclease consisting of a 15-nucleotide catalytical domain flanked by two target-specific complementary arms, has been shown to effectively cleave the target mRNA at purine-pyrimidine dinucleotide. Taking advantage of this specific property, 10-23 DNAzyme was designed to cleave mRNA of K-Ras(G12V)(GGU {yields} GUU) at the GU dinucleotide while left the wild-type (WT) K-Ras mRNA intact. The K-Ras(G12V)-specific 10-23 DNAzyme was able to reduce K-Ras(G12V) at both mRNA and protein levels in SW480 cell carrying homozygous K-Ras(G12V). No effect was observed on the WT K-Ras in HEK cells. Although K-Ras(G12V)-specific DNAzymes alone did not inhibit proliferation of SW480 or HEK cells, pre-treatment of this DNAzyme sensitized the K-Ras(G12V) mutant cells to anti-cancer agents such as doxorubicin and radiation. These results offer a potential of using allele-specific 10-23 DNAzyme in combination with other cancer therapies to achieve better effectiveness on cancer treatment.

  12. EGFR/Ras/MAPK signaling mediates adult midgut epithelial homeostasis and regeneration in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Huaqi; Grenley, Marc O.; Bravo, Maria-Jose; Blumhagen, Rachel Z.; Edgar, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Many tissues in higher animals undergo dynamic homeostatic growth, wherein damaged or aged cells are replaced by the progeny of resident stem cells. To maintain homeostasis, stem cells must respond to tissue needs. Here we show that in response to damage or stress in the intestinal (midgut) epithelium of adult Drosophila, multiple EGFR ligands and rhomboids (intramembrane proteases that activate some EGFR ligands) are induced, leading to the activation of EGFR signaling in intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Activation of EGFR signaling promotes ISC division and midgut epithelium regeneration, thus maintaining tissue homeostasis. ISCs defective in EGFR signaling cannot grow or divide, are poorly maintained, and cannot support midgut epithelium regeneration following enteric infection by the bacterium, Pseudomonas entomophila. Furthermore, ISC proliferation induced by Jak/Stat signaling is dependent upon EGFR signaling. Thus the EGFR/Ras/MAPK signaling pathway plays central, essential roles in ISC maintenance and the feedback system that mediates intestinal homeostasis. PMID:21167805

  13. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  14. Label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics with novel pairwise abundance normalization reveals synergistic RAS and CIP2A signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kauko, Otto; Laajala, Teemu Daniel; Jumppanen, Mikael; Hintsanen, Petteri; Suni, Veronika; Haapaniemi, Pekka; Corthals, Garry; Aittokallio, Tero; Westermarck, Jukka; Imanishi, Susumu Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperactivated RAS drives progression of many human malignancies. However, oncogenic activity of RAS is dependent on simultaneous inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. Although PP2A is known to regulate some of the RAS effector pathways, it has not been systematically assessed how these proteins functionally interact. Here we have analyzed phosphoproteomes regulated by either RAS or PP2A, by phosphopeptide enrichment followed by mass-spectrometry-based label-free quantification. To allow data normalization in situations where depletion of RAS or PP2A inhibitor CIP2A causes a large uni-directional change in the phosphopeptide abundance, we developed a novel normalization strategy, named pairwise normalization. This normalization is based on adjusting phosphopeptide abundances measured before and after the enrichment. The superior performance of the pairwise normalization was verified by various independent methods. Additionally, we demonstrate how the selected normalization method influences the downstream analyses and interpretation of pathway activities. Consequently, bioinformatics analysis of RAS and CIP2A regulated phosphoproteomes revealed a significant overlap in their functional pathways. This is most likely biologically meaningful as we observed a synergistic survival effect between CIP2A and RAS expression as well as KRAS activating mutations in TCGA pan-cancer data set, and synergistic relationship between CIP2A and KRAS depletion in colony growth assays. PMID:26278961

  15. The RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF linear signaling cascade mediates the motile and mitogenic phenotype of thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Melillo, Rosa Marina; Castellone, Maria Domenica; Guarino, Valentina; De Falco, Valentina; Cirafici, Anna Maria; Salvatore, Giuliana; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Basolo, Fulvio; Giannini, Riccardo; Kruhoffer, Mogens; Orntoft, Torben; Fusco, Alfredo; Santoro, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    In papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), rearrangements of the RET receptor (RET/PTC) and activating mutations in the BRAF or RAS oncogenes are mutually exclusive. Here we show that the 3 proteins function along a linear oncogenic signaling cascade in which RET/PTC induces RAS-dependent BRAF activation and RAS- and BRAF-dependent ERK activation. Adoptive activation of the RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF axis induced cell proliferation and Matrigel invasion of thyroid follicular cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the 3 oncogenes activate a common transcriptional program in thyroid cells that includes upregulation of the CXCL1 and CXCL10 chemokines, which in turn stimulate proliferation and invasion. Thus, motile and mitogenic properties are intrinsic to transformed thyroid cells and are governed by an epistatic oncogenic signaling cascade. PMID:15761501

  16. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  17. Calcium-dependent immediate-early gene induction in lymphocytes is negatively regulated by p21Ha-ras.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C Y; Forman, L W; Faller, D V

    1996-01-01

    The induction of immediate-early (IE) response genes, such as egr-1, c-fos, and c-jun, occurs rapidly after the activation of T lymphocytes. The process of activation involves calcium mobilization, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), and phosphorylation of tyrosine kinases. p21(ras), a guanine nucleotide binding factor, mediates T-cell signal transduction through PKC-dependent and PKC-independent pathways. The involvement of p21(ras) in the regulation of calcium-dependent signals has been suggested through analysis of its role in the activation of NF-AT. We have investigated the inductions of the IE genes in response to calcium signals in Jurkat cells (in the presence of activated p21(ras)) and their correlated consequences. The expression of activated p21(ras) negatively regulated the induction of IE genes by calcium ionophore. This inhibition of calcium-activated IE gene induction was reversed by treatment with cyclosporin A, suggesting the involvement of calcineurin in this regulation. A later result of inhibition of this activation pathway by p21(ras) was down-regulation of the activity of the transcription factor AP-1 and subsequent coordinate reductions in IL-2 gene expression and protein production. These results suggest that p2l(ras) is an essential mediator in generating not only positive but also negative modulatory mechanisms controlling the competence of T cells in response to inductive stimulations. PMID:8887687

  18. Lovastatin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha exhibit potentiated antitumor effects against Ha-ras-transformed murine tumor via inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feleszko, W; Bałkowiec, E Z; Sieberth, E; Marczak, M; Dabrowska, A; Giermasz, A; Czajka, A; Jakóbisiak, M

    1999-05-17

    Lovastatin, a drug commonly used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, has previously been reported to exert potentiated antitumor activity when combined with either tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cisplatin or doxorubicin in a melanoma model in mice. Since lovastatin interferes with the function of ras oncogene-encoded (Ras) proteins, we have investigated the antitumor activity of lovastatin and TNF-alpha using a Ha-ras-transformed murine tumor model. In in vitro studies, lovastatin inhibited the growth of cells transformed with Ha-ras oncogene (Ras-3T3 and HBL100-ras cells) more effectively than control NIH-3T3 and HBL100-neo cells. In in vivo experiments, the Ras-3T3 tumor demonstrated significantly increased sensitivity to combined treatment with both lovastatin (50 mg/kg) and TNF-alpha (1 microg/day) compared with either agent alone. Combined treatment with both agents also resulted in greater inhibition of blood-vessel formation. Ras-3T3 tumor cells produced increased amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and lovastatin effectively suppressed VEGF production by these cells. Our results suggest that lovastatin increases antitumor activity of TNF-alpha against tumor cells transformed with v-Ha-ras oncogene via inhibition of tumor-induced blood-vessel formation. PMID:10225445

  19. Impairment of cocaine-mediated behaviours in mice by clinically relevant Ras-ERK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Papale, Alessandro; Morella, Ilaria Maria; Indrigo, Marzia Tina; Eugene Bernardi, Rick; Marrone, Livia; Marchisella, Francesca; Brancale, Andrea; Spanagel, Rainer; Brambilla, Riccardo; Fasano, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Ras-ERK signalling in the brain plays a central role in drug addiction. However, to date, no clinically relevant inhibitor of this cascade has been tested in experimental models of addiction, a necessary step toward clinical trials. We designed two new cell-penetrating peptides - RB1 and RB3 - that penetrate the brain and, in the micromolar range, inhibit phosphorylation of ERK, histone H3 and S6 ribosomal protein in striatal slices. Furthermore, a screening of small therapeutics currently in clinical trials for cancer therapy revealed PD325901 as a brain-penetrating drug that blocks ERK signalling in the nanomolar range. All three compounds have an inhibitory effect on cocaine-induced ERK activation and reward in mice. In particular, PD325901 persistently blocks cocaine-induced place preference and accelerates extinction following cocaine self-administration. Thus, clinically relevant, systemically administered drugs that attenuate Ras-ERK signalling in the brain may be valuable tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:27557444

  20. Impairment of cocaine-mediated behaviours in mice by clinically relevant Ras-ERK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Alessandro; Morella, Ilaria Maria; Indrigo, Marzia Tina; Bernardi, Rick Eugene; Marrone, Livia; Marchisella, Francesca; Brancale, Andrea; Spanagel, Rainer; Brambilla, Riccardo; Fasano, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Ras-ERK signalling in the brain plays a central role in drug addiction. However, to date, no clinically relevant inhibitor of this cascade has been tested in experimental models of addiction, a necessary step toward clinical trials. We designed two new cell-penetrating peptides - RB1 and RB3 - that penetrate the brain and, in the micromolar range, inhibit phosphorylation of ERK, histone H3 and S6 ribosomal protein in striatal slices. Furthermore, a screening of small therapeutics currently in clinical trials for cancer therapy revealed PD325901 as a brain-penetrating drug that blocks ERK signalling in the nanomolar range. All three compounds have an inhibitory effect on cocaine-induced ERK activation and reward in mice. In particular, PD325901 persistently blocks cocaine-induced place preference and accelerates extinction following cocaine self-administration. Thus, clinically relevant, systemically administered drugs that attenuate Ras-ERK signalling in the brain may be valuable tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17111.001 PMID:27557444

  1. RAS Symposium Draws Hundreds of Attendees | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    They call themselves “rasologists”: scientists who study the RAS family of genes and the cancers that can arise due to mutations within them. This field of research is at the heart of some sobering numbers. Almost a third of all human cancers, including 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, are driven by mutated RAS genes. The American Cancer Society estimates there were 48,960 new cases of pancreatic cancer in the United States in 2015 and 40,560 deaths from the disease.

  2. Hypertrophic response to hemodynamic overload: role of load vs. renin-angiotensin system activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koide, M.; Carabello, B. A.; Conrad, C. C.; Buckley, J. M.; DeFreyte, G.; Barnes, M.; Tomanek, R. J.; Wei, C. C.; Dell'Italia, L. J.; Cooper, G. 4th; Zile, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy is one of the basic mechanisms by which the heart compensates for hemodynamic overload. The mechanisms by which hemodynamic overload is transduced by the cardiac muscle cell and translated into cardiac hypertrophy are not completely understood. Candidates include activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin II receptor (AT1) stimulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that load, independent of the RAS, is sufficient to stimulate cardiac growth. Four groups of cats were studied: 14 normal controls, 20 pulmonary artery-banded (PAB) cats, 7 PAB cats in whom the AT1 was concomitantly and continuously blocked with losartan, and 8 PAB cats in whom the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was concomitantly and continuously blocked with captopril. Losartan cats had at least a one-log order increase in the ED50 of the blood pressure response to angiotensin II infusion. Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy was assessed using the RV mass-to-body weight ratio and ventricular cardiocyte size. RV hemodynamic overload was assessed by measuring RV systolic and diastolic pressures. Neither the extent of RV pressure overload nor RV hypertrophy that resulted from PAB was affected by AT1 blockade with losartan or ACE inhibition with captopril. RV systolic pressure was increased from 21 +/- 3 mmHg in normals to 68 +/- 4 mmHg in PAB, 65 +/- 5 mmHg in PAB plus losartan and 62 +/- 3 mmHg in PAB plus captopril. RV-to-body weight ratio increased from 0.52 +/- 0.04 g/kg in normals to 1.11 +/- 0.06 g/kg in PAB, 1.06 +/- 0.06 g/kg in PAB plus losartan and 1.06 +/- 0.06 g/kg in PAB plus captopril. Thus 1) pharmacological modulation of the RAS with losartan and captopril did not change the extent of the hemodynamic overload or the hypertrophic response induced by PAB; 2) neither RAS activation nor angiotensin II receptor stimulation is an obligatory and necessary component of the signaling pathway that acts as an intermediary coupling load to the

  3. K-Ras(V14I) -induced Noonan syndrome predisposes to tumour development in mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Garcia-Medina, Raquel; Jiménez, Beatriz; Cañamero, Marta; de Martino, Alba; Guerra, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    The Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. A significant proportion of NS patients may also develop myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), including juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML). Surprisingly, scarce information is available in relation to other tumour types in these patients. We have previously developed and characterized a knock-in mouse model that carries one of the most frequent KRAS-NS-related mutations, the K-Ras(V14I) substitution, which recapitulates most of the alterations described in NS patients, including MPDs. The K-Ras(V14I) mutation is a mild activating K-Ras protein; thus, we have used this model to study tumour susceptibility in comparison with mice expressing the classical K-Ras(G12V) oncogene. Interestingly, our studies have shown that these mice display a generalized tumour predisposition and not just MPDs. In fact, we have observed that the K-Ras(V14I) mutation is capable of cooperating with the p16Ink4a/p19Arf and Trp53 tumour suppressors, as well as with other risk factors such as pancreatitis, thereby leading to a higher cancer incidence. In conclusion, our results illustrate that the K-Ras(V14I) activating protein is able to induce cancer, although at a much lower level than the classical K-Ras(G12V) oncogene, and that it can be significantly modulated by both genetic and non-genetic events. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27174785

  4. The RAS Problem: Turning Off a Broken Switch

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS gene is commonly mutated in cancer and researchers are working to better understand how to develop drugs that can target the RAS protein, which for many years has been considered to be “undruggable.”

  5. RAS Projects at the NCI Frederick National Lab

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative involves a number of projects focusing on ways to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells by mutant RAS proteins. Projects are conducted at the FNLCR hub, with collaboration from the research community nationwide.

  6. Geomorphic changes in Ras Al-Subiyah area, Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hurban, A.; El-Gamily, H.; El-Sammak, A.

    2008-06-01

    The Ras Al-Subiyah area is considered one of the most promising areas in Kuwait for future development. This development will include a new town called Subiyah and its associated infrastructure. This area is also being considered as the location for connection between Boubyan Island, which is now undergoing major development and the Kuwait mainland. The present study investigates the geomorphology of the Ras Al-Sabiyah area in the northern sector of Kuwait. The study area is generally flat, and it is located west of the Jal Az-Zor escarpment. It is bordered on the east by the Khor Al-Sabiyah tidal channel and on the south by Kuwait Bay. The area receives sediments from several sources; currently the most important are aeolian sediments and the deposition of mud delivered through the Khor Al-Sabiyah from the Iraqi marshes. The study area has been subjected to severe environmental changes due to the Gulf wars and the drainage of Iraqi marshes and the associated artificial changes in fluvial system. Twenty-two surface sediments were collected from the Ras Al-Subiyah area. Samples were collected to include the main geomorphologic characteristic features of the study area. Field observations and remote sensing images from 1990 and 2001 were used to produce an updated geomorphologic map for the Ras Al-Subiyah and a map showing geomorphic changes between 1990 and 2001. Grain size of the surface sediment ranges from gravel to medium sand. In general, grain size statistical analysis indicates that most of the areas are composed of two or more classes of sands transported and deposited from different sources including aeolian, sabkhas, river and the bays. The variability in the grain size statistical parameters may be attributed to the complexity of surface morphology as well as the diversity in the type of depositional environment in the Ras Al-Subiyah area. The total area subjected to change during the 12-year period (1990 2001) is about 32 km2 as calculated using GIS

  7. Small-molecule binding of the axin RGS domain promotes β-catenin and Ras degradation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Cho, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, JaeHeon; Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Moon, Byoung-San; Yun, Ji-Hye; Yang, Jee Sun; Choi, Sooho; Yoon, Juyong; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kaduwal, Saluja; Lee, Weontae; Min, Do Sik; Kim, Hoguen; Han, Gyoonhee; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2016-08-01

    Both the Wnt/β-catenin and Ras pathways are aberrantly activated in most human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and interact cooperatively in tumor promotion. Inhibition of these signaling may therefore be an ideal strategy for treating CRC. We identified KY1220, a compound that destabilizes both β-catenin and Ras, via targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and synthesized its derivative KYA1797K. KYA1797K bound directly to the regulators of G-protein signaling domain of axin, initiating β-catenin and Ras degradation through enhancement of the β-catenin destruction complex activating GSK3β. KYA1797K effectively suppressed the growth of CRCs harboring APC and KRAS mutations, as shown by various in vitro studies and by in vivo studies using xenograft and transgenic mouse models of tumors induced by APC and KRAS mutations. Destabilization of both β-catenin and Ras via targeting axin is a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of CRC and other type cancers activated Wnt/β-catenin and Ras pathways. PMID:27294323

  8. Society News: Monica Grady awarded CBE; Grubb Parsons Lecture 2012; Join the RAS; Astronomy on radio for kids; New Fellows; Peter D Hingley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-08-01

    RAS Fellow Prof. Monica Grady has been made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE), in recognition of her services to space science. The RAS sponsors the annual Grubb Parsons Lecture, which this year took place on 6 June at the University of Durham. If you are a professional astronomer, geophysicist, or similar, a student studying these disciplines, or simply someone with a serious interest in them, we urge you to apply for membership of the RAS. Outreach is an important activity for the RAS. We recently supported an astronomy series called Deep Space High on the digital radio channel Fun Kids.

  9. κB-Ras proteins regulate both NF-κB-dependent inflammation and Ral-dependent proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Postler, Thomas S.; Rao, Ping; Schmitt, Heike; Schmitt, Verena; Grinberg-Bleyer, Yenkel; Kühn, Lars I.; Gruber, Christian W.; Lienhard, Gustav E.; Ghosh, Sankar

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of cells generally involves multiple genetic lesions that undermine control of both cell death and proliferation. We now report that κB-Ras proteins act as regulators of NF-κB and Ral pathways, which control inflammation/cell death and proliferation, respectively. Cells lacking κB-Ras therefore not only show increased NF-κB activity, that results in increased expression of inflammatory mediators, but also exhibit elevated Ral activity, that leads to enhanced anchorage-independent proliferation (AIP). κB-Ras deficiency consequently leads to significantly increased tumor growth that can be dampened by inhibiting either Ral or NF-κB pathways, revealing the unique tumor suppressive potential of κB-Ras proteins. Remarkably, numerous human tumors show reduced levels of κB-Ras, and increasing the level of κB-Ras in these tumor cells impairs their ability to undergo AIP, thereby implicating κB-Ras proteins in human disease. PMID:25220458

  10. Ras protein/cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling is negatively regulated by a deubiquitinating enzyme, Ubp3, in yeast.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Yuqi

    2013-04-19

    Ras proteins and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) are important components of a nutrient signaling pathway that mediates cellular responses to glucose in yeast. The molecular mechanisms that regulate Ras/PKA-mediated signaling remain to be fully understood. Here, we provide evidence that Ras/PKA signaling is negatively regulated by a deubiquitinating enzyme, Ubp3. Disrupting the activity of Ubp3 leads to hyperactivation of PKA, as evidenced by much enhanced phosphorylation of PKA substrates, decreased accumulation of glycogen, larger cell size, and increased sensitivity to heat shock. Levels of intracellular cAMP and the active forms of Ras proteins are also elevated in the ubp3Δ mutant. Consistent with a possibility that the increased cAMP is responsible for the abnormal signaling behavior of the ubp3Δ mutant, overexpressing PDE2, which encodes a phosphodiesterase that hydrolyzes cAMP, significantly relieves the cell size increase and heat shock sensitivity of the mutant. Further analysis reveals that Ubp3 interacts with a Ras GTPase-accelerating protein, Ira2, and regulates its level of ubiquitination. Together, our data indicate that Ubp3 is a new regulator of the Ras/PKA signaling pathway and suggest that Ubp3 regulates this pathway by controlling the ubiquitination of Ras GTPase-accelerating protein Ira2. PMID:23476013

  11. c-Ha-ras down regulates the alpha-fetoprotein gene but not the albumin gene in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, K; Lawless, D; Ohe, Y; Miyao, Y; Nakabayashi, H; Kamiya, H; Miura, K; Ohtsuka, E; Tamaoki, T

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of transfection of the normal c-Ha-ras gene, rasGly-12, and its oncogenic mutant, rasVal-12, on expression of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin genes in a human hepatoma cell line, HuH-7. The mutant and, to a lesser extent, the normal ras gene caused reduction of the AFP mRNA but not the albumin mRNA level in transfected HuH-7 cells. Cotransfection experiments with a rasVal-12 expression plasmid and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene fused to AFP regulatory sequences showed that rasVal-12 suppressed the activity of enhancer and promoter regions containing A + T-rich sequences (AT motif). In contrast, rasVal-12 did not affect the promoter activity of the albumin and human hepatitis B virus pre-S1 genes even though these promoters contain homologous A + T-rich elements. ras transfection appeared to induce phosphorylation of nuclear proteins that interact with the AFP AT motif, since gel mobility analysis revealed the formation of slow-moving complexes which was reversed by phosphatase treatment. However, similar changes in complex formation were observed with the albumin and hepatitis B surface antigen pre-S1 promoters. Therefore, this effect alone cannot explain the specific down regulation of the AFP promoter and enhancer activity. ras-mediated suppression of the AFP gene may reflect the process of developmental gene regulation in which AFP gene transcription is controlled by a G-protein-linked signal transduction cascade triggered by external growth stimuli. Images PMID:1690841

  12. ARF-GEF cytohesin-2/ARNO regulates R-Ras and α5-integrin recycling through an EHD1-positive compartment

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Joseph C.; Reviriego-Mendoza, Marta M.; Santy, Lorraine C.

    2015-01-01

    When expressed in epithelial cells, cytohesin-2/ARNO, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for ARF small GTPases, causes a robust migration response. Recent evidence suggests that cytohesin-2/ARNO acts downstream of small the GTPase R-Ras to promote spreading and migration. We hypothesized that cytohesin-2/ARNO could transmit R-Ras signals by regulating the recycling of R-Ras through ARF activation. We found that Eps15-homology domain 1 (EHD1), a protein that associates with the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), colocalizes with active R-Ras in transiently expressed HeLa cells. In addition, we show that EHD1-positive recycling endosomes are a novel compartment for cytohesin-2/ARNO. Knockdown or expression of GEF-inactive (E156K) cytohesin-2/ARNO causes R-Ras to accumulate on recycling endosomes containing EHD1 and inhibits cell spreading. E156K-ARNO also causes a reduction in focal adhesion size and number. Finally, we demonstrate that R-Ras/ARNO signaling is required for recycling of α5-integrin and R-Ras to the plasma membrane. These data establish a role for cytohesin-2/ARNO as a regulator of R-Ras and integrin recycling and suggest that ARF-regulated trafficking of R-Ras is required for R-Ras–dependent effects on spreading and adhesion formation. PMID:26378252

  13. Ras-induced reactive oxygen species promote growth factor-independent proliferation in human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Hole, Paul S; Pearn, Lorna; Tonks, Amanda J; James, Philip E; Burnett, Alan K; Darley, Richard L; Tonks, Alex

    2010-02-11

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a feature of human malignancy and is often triggered by activation of oncogenes such as activated Ras. ROS act as second messengers and can influence a variety of cellular process including growth factor responses and cell survival. We have examined the contribution of ROS production to the effects of N-Ras(G12D) and H-Ras(G12V) on normal human CD34(+) progenitor cells. Activated Ras strongly up-regulated the production of both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide through the stimulation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, without affecting the expression of endogenous antioxidants or the production of mitochondrially derived ROS. Activated Ras also promoted both the survival and the growth factor-independent pr