Science.gov

Sample records for activation analysis applications

  1. Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLellan, Ryan

    2011-04-01

    The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

  2. Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, Ryan

    2011-04-27

    The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

  3. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  4. Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

  5. Activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 16 chapters on the application of activation analysis in the fields of life sciences, biological materials, coal and its effluents, environmental samples, archaeology, material science, and forensics. Each chapter is processed separately for the data base.

  6. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  7. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  8. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  9. Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.

  10. Applications of organoboron compounds in carbohydrate chemistry and glycobiology: analysis, separation, protection, and activation.

    PubMed

    McClary, Corey A; Taylor, Mark S

    2013-11-15

    The reversible covalent interactions between organoboron compounds and diols have been applied for many years in carbohydrate chemistry. They form the basis of efficient methods for the detection of carbohydrates, and applications in cellular imaging and glycoprotein analysis are beginning to emerge. The interactions are also of widespread utility in carbohydrate synthesis: depending upon the coordination geometry at boron, either protection or activation of a bound diol motif may be achieved. This review article uses recent examples to illustrate the breadth of applications of organoboron compounds in carbohydrate chemistry.

  11. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING AN ISOTOPIC NEUTRON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Raymond Sigg, R

    2006-08-14

    NAA using {sup 252}Cf is used to address important areas of applied interest at SRS. Sensitivity needs for many of the applications are not severe; analyses are accomplished using a 21 mg {sup 252}Cf NAA facility. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, it offers strong advantages for samples in difficult-to-digest matrices when its sensitivity is sufficient. Following radiochemical separation with stable carrier addition, chemical yields for a number methods are determined by neutron activation of the stable carrier. In some of the cases where no suitable stable carriers exist, the source has been used to generate radioactive tracers to yield separations.

  12. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L. Marra, F.

    2015-12-17

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  13. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L.; Marra, F.

    2015-12-01

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  14. [Analysis of membrane expression of the CD63 human basophil activation marker. Applications to allergologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Sainte-Laudy, J; Vallon, C; Guérin, J C

    1994-06-01

    On the basis of the CD 63 bi-modal expression on the membrane of activated basophils, we set up a flow cytometric method for the analysis of human basophils activation by an anti-IgE and anti-CD 63 double labelling. We demonstrated that the statistical characteristics of the percentages of activation obtained by an anti-IgE stimulation allowed the use of this method for pharmacological studies. The percentages of activation were of the same order of magnitude than those obtained by histamine release. CD 63 expression was also observed for a low affinity allergen such as the sulfonyl-HSA conjugate used for sulfites hypersensibility diagnosis, healthy donors being negative. This method, which can be automatized may represent an interesting candidate in the field of hapten hypersensitivity which lacks of reliable diagnostical methods. PMID:7524523

  15. A three-step multimodal analysis framework for modeling corticomuscular activity with application to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xun; Wang, Z Jane; McKeown, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Corticomuscular coupling analysis based on multiple datasets such as electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals provides a useful tool for understanding human motor control systems. A popular conventional method to assess corticomuscular coupling has been the pair-wise magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) between EEG and concomitant EMG recordings. However, there are certain limitations associated with the MSC, including the difficulty in robustly assessing group inference, only dealing with two types of datasets simultaneously and the biologically implausible assumption of pair-wise interactions. To overcome such limitations, in this paper, we propose assessing corticomuscular coupling by combining multiset canonical correlation analysis (M-CCA) and joint independent component analysis (jICA). The proposed method takes advantage of the M-CCA and jICA to ensure that the extracted components are maximally correlated across multiple datasets and meanwhile statistically independent within each dataset. Simulations were performed to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. We also applied the proposed method to concurrent EEG, EMG, and behavior data collected in a Parkinson's disease (PD) study. The results reveal highly correlated temporal patterns among the three types of signals and corresponding spatial activation patterns. In addition to the expected motor areas, the corresponding spatial activation patterns demonstrate enhanced occipital connectivity in the PD subjects, consistent with previous medical findings.

  16. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake; Christian, James F.

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As 6Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for 6Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery was observed

  17. Applications of active microwave imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. P.; Childs, L. F.; Gilbert, R.; Harlan, J. C.; Hoffer, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Parsons, J.; Polcyn, F.; Schardt, B. B.; Smith, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics were discussed in reference to active microwave applications: (1) Use of imaging radar to improve the data collection/analysis process; (2) Data collection tasks for radar that other systems will not perform; (3) Data reduction concepts; and (4) System and vehicle parameters: aircraft and spacecraft.

  18. Active shape models with invariant optimal features: application to facial analysis.

    PubMed

    Sukno, Federico M; Ordás, Sebastián; Butakoff, Constantine; Cruz, Santiago; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2007-07-01

    This work is framed in the field of statistical face analysis. In particular, the problem of accurate segmentation of prominent features of the face in frontal view images is addressed. We propose a method that generalizes linear Active Shape Models (ASMs), which have already been used for this task. The technique is built upon the development of a nonlinear intensity model, incorporating a reduced set of differential invariant features as local image descriptors. These features are invariant to rigid transformations, and a subset of them is chosen by Sequential Feature Selection for each landmark and resolution level. The new approach overcomes the unimodality and Gaussianity assumptions of classical ASMs regarding the distribution of the intensity values across the training set. Our methodology has demonstrated a significant improvement in segmentation precision as compared to the linear ASM and Optimal Features ASM (a nonlinear extension of the pioneer algorithm) in the tests performed on AR, XM2VTS, and EQUINOX databases. PMID:17496371

  19. Systematic functional analysis and application of a cold-active serine protease from a novel Chryseobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Subramanian, Parthiban; Chandrasekaran, Suganthi; Karthikeyan, Sivashanmugam; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukaliannan

    2017-02-15

    Psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from natural and artificially cold environments were screened for synthesis of cold-active protease. The strain IMDY showing the highest protease production at 5°C was selected and phylogenetic analysis revealed that IMDY as novel bacterium with Chryseobacterium soli(T) as its nearest neighbor. Classical optimization enhanced the protease production from 18U/mg to 26U/mg and the enzyme was found to be active at low temperature, activity enhanced by CaCl2, inhibited by PMSF, stable against NaCl, and its activity retained in the presence of surfactants, organic solvents and detergents. On testing, the meat tenderization, myofibril fragmentation, pH, and TBA values were favorable in IMDY-protease treated meat compared to control. SDS profiling and SEM analysis also showed tenderization in meat samples. Hence, this study proposes to consider the cold-active protease from Chryseobacterium sp. IMDY as a pertinent candidate to develop potential applications in food processing industry. PMID:27664603

  20. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  1. Analysis methods for solar heating and cooling applications: passive and active systems. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of analysis methods and design tools which are valuable in performing parametric studies of candidate designs are presented in this brochure. The methods included range from rules-of-thumb for builders to the simulation packages used by researchers. (MHR)

  2. Application of artificial neural network in precise prediction of cement elements percentages based on the neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari Zadeh, E.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Roshani, G. H.; Rezaei, A.

    2016-05-01

    Due to variation of neutron energy spectrum in the target sample during the activation process and to peak overlapping caused by the Compton effect with gamma radiations emitted from activated elements, which results in background changes and consequently complex gamma spectrum during the measurement process, quantitative analysis will ultimately be problematic. Since there is no simple analytical correlation between peaks' counts with elements' concentrations, an artificial neural network for analyzing spectra can be a helpful tool. This work describes a study on the application of a neural network to determine the percentages of cement elements (mainly Ca, Si, Al, and Fe) using the neutron capture delayed gamma-ray spectra of the substance emitted by the activated nuclei as patterns which were simulated via the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, version 2.7. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is developed with four specific peaks related to Ca, Si, Al and Fe, which were extracted as inputs. The proposed RBF model is developed and trained with MATLAB 7.8 software. To obtain the optimal RBF model, several structures have been constructed and tested. The comparison between simulated and predicted values using the proposed RBF model shows that there is a good agreement between them.

  3. The application of moment analysis to the dynamic adsorption of radon by activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Wayne C.

    The adsorption of radon by activated carbon has received a great deal of attention within the academic press because of the importance of determining the radon concentration in the living environment. The deposition of energy from 222Rn decay and the daughter products of 222Rn is considered significant probable cause agent for lung cancer in the general population. Therefore, study of the adsorption by activated carbon has focused on the ability to determine radon concentrations under static conditions. The adsorption of radon under dynamic conditions, from moving air, has not been studied adequately to determine the underlying properties associated with this phenomenon. No method of determining the properties associated with dynamic has been developed. This research has provided a method to accurately determine the attributes that control radon adsorption from moving air at two different temperatures. The characteristics of several common activated carbons were determined and correlated to current theories. Changes in carrier gas velocity were shown to affect the mass transfer characteristics which are represented by the van Deemter equation used in gas chromatography. The methodology can be used to determine specific parameters of gas adsorption from the experimental data and include; (1) the coefficient for axial dispersion (2) the tortuosity factor, and (3) the intraparticle diffusion coefficient. These parameters affect changes in the number of theoretical plates and the height equivalent of a theoretical plate which are related to interparticle and intraparticle diffusion along with resistance to mass transfer.

  4. Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome: diagnostic applications of activity-based probes and lipid analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paulo; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Strijland, Anneke; Scheij, Saskia; Van Eijk, Marco; Aten, Jan; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Balreira, Andrea; Zunke, Friederike; Schwake, Michael; Sá Miranda, Clara; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal integral membrane protein-2 (LIMP2) mediates trafficking of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) to lysosomes. Deficiency of LIMP2 causes action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF). LIMP2-deficient fibroblasts virtually lack GBA like the cells of patients with Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GBA gene. While GD is characterized by the presence of glucosylceramide-laden macrophages, AMRF patients do not show these. We studied the fate of GBA in relation to LIMP2 deficiency by employing recently designed activity-based probes labeling active GBA molecules. We demonstrate that GBA is almost absent in lysosomes of AMRF fibroblasts. However, white blood cells contain considerable amounts of residual enzyme. Consequently, AMRF patients do not acquire lipid-laden macrophages and do not show increased plasma levels of macrophage markers, such as chitotriosidase, in contrast to GD patients. We next investigated the consequences of LIMP2 deficiency with respect to plasma glycosphingolipid levels. Plasma glucosylceramide concentration was normal in the AMRF patients investigated as well as in LIMP2-deficient mice. However, a marked increase in the sphingoid base, glucosylsphingosine, was observed in AMRF patients and LIMP2-deficient mice. Our results suggest that combined measurements of chitotriosidase and glucosylsphingosine can be used for convenient differential laboratory diagnosis of GD and AMRF. PMID:24212238

  5. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bayati, Mohsen; Mahboub Ahari, Alireza; Badakhshan, Abbas; Gholipour, Mahin; Joulaei, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. Objectives: The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs). Materials and Methods: We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Results: Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC) was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. Conclusion: As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI

  6. Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, J. J.

    2001-07-01

    Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a "signature" of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min—compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives—but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly.

  7. Extracurricular activities of medical school applicants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants’ involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Methods: Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females) who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. Results: The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%), nonmedical community services (39.8%), club activities (22.9%), club officials (10%), and research (13.4%). On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Conclusion: Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds. PMID:26996435

  8. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Tim Z.

    1994-07-01

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  9. Biocompatibility analysis of an electrically-activated silver-based antibacterial surface system for medical device applications.

    PubMed

    Samberg, Meghan E; Tan, Zhuo; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Orndorff, Paul E; Shirwaiker, Rohan A

    2013-03-01

    The costs associated with the treatment of medical device and surgical site infections are a major cause of concern in the global healthcare system. To prevent transmission of such infections, a prophylactic surface system that provides protracted release of antibacterial silver ions using low intensity direct electric current (LIDC; 28 μA system current at 6 V) activation has been recently developed. To ensure the safety for future in vivo studies and potential clinical applications, this study assessed the biocompatibility of the LIDC-activated interdigitated silver electrodes-based surface system; in vitro toxicity to human epidermal keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and normal human osteoblasts, and antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated. The study concluded that the technological applications of the surface system for medical devices and surgical tools, which contact human tissues for less than 1.5 h, are expected to be self-sterilizing without causing toxicity in vivo.

  10. Application of the Huang-Hilbert transform and natural time to the analysis of seismic electric signal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulou, K. A.; Skordas, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Huang method is applied to Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activities in order to decompose them into their components, named Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). We study which of these components contribute to the basic characteristics of the signal. The Hilbert transform is then applied to the IMFs in order to determine their instantaneous amplitudes. The results are compared with those obtained from the analysis in a new time domain termed natural time, after having subtracted the magnetotelluric background from the original signal. It is shown that these instantaneous amplitudes, when combined with the natural time analysis, can be used for the distinction of SES from artificial noises.

  11. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

  12. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively.

  13. Application of statistical process control and process capability analysis procedures in orbiter processing activities at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safford, Robert R.; Jackson, Andrew E.; Swart, William W.; Barth, Timothy S.

    1994-01-01

    Successful ground processing at KSC requires that flight hardware and ground support equipment conform to specifications at tens of thousands of checkpoints. Knowledge of conformance is an essential requirement for launch. That knowledge of conformance at every requisite point does not, however, enable identification of past problems with equipment, or potential problem areas. This paper describes how the introduction of Statistical Process Control and Process Capability Analysis identification procedures into existing shuttle processing procedures can enable identification of potential problem areas and candidates for improvements to increase processing performance measures. Results of a case study describing application of the analysis procedures to Thermal Protection System processing are used to illustrate the benefits of the approaches described in the paper.

  14. The development and application of k0-standardization method of neutron activation analysis at Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghem, L.; Ramdhane, M.; Khaled, S.; Akhal, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the k0-NAA method has been applied and developed at the 15 MW Es-Salam research reactor, which includes: (1) the detection efficiency calibration of γ-spectrometer used in k0-NAA, (2) the determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f factors in the irradiation channel, and (3) the validation of the developed k0-NAA procedure by analysing SRM, namely AIEA-Soil7 and CRM, namely IGGE-GSV4. The analysis results obtained by k0-NAA with 27 elements of Soil-7 standard and 14 elements of GSV-4 standard were compared with certified values. The analysis results showed that the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10%. The k0-NAA procedure established at Es-Salam research reactor has been regarded as a reliable standardization method of NAA and as available for practical applications.

  15. Tribological applications of surface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    For some years, surface analysis was used in fundamental studies of solid-solid contacts existing in tribological systems. Analysis was used to detect material transfer in sliding contacts. The effects of surface films on the adhesion of contacts was monitored. Finally electron spectroscopic analysis of interfaces has shed some light on the fundamental electronic nature of the interfacial bond. More recently, surface analysis was applied to many tribological engineering problems. In particular, identification of chemical films formed during the sliding contact of lubricated systems and study of the surface chemistry of lubricant additives were active areas of research. One or more of four properties of the analytical technique will be important in determining its utility. The four are: lateral resolution, specimen damage, depth resolution and the availability of chemical information. In each of the applications discussed here, the important factors are brought out.

  16. Neutron Activation Analysis of Water - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, John D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent developments in this field are emphasized. After a brief review of basic principles, topics discussed include sources of neutrons, pre-irradiation physical and chemical treatment of samples, neutron capture and gamma-ray analysis, and selected applications. Applications of neutron activation analysis of water have increased rapidly within the last few years and may be expected to increase in the future.

  17. An Application of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  18. The Applications of GIS in the Analysis of the Impacts of Human Activities on South Texas Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Merem, Edmund C.; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A.; Wesley, Joan M.; Robinson, Bennetta; Richardson, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    With water resource planning assuming greater importance in environmental protection efforts, analyzing the health of agricultural watersheds using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) becomes essential for decision-makers in Southern Texas. Within the area, there exist numerous threats from conflicting land uses. These include the conversion of land formerly designated for agricultural purposes to other uses. Despite current efforts, anthropogenic factors are greatly contributing to the degradation of watersheds. Additionally, the activities of waste water facilities located in some of the counties, rising populations, and other socioeconomic variables are negatively impacting the quality of water in the agricultural watersheds. To map the location of these stressors spatially and the extent of their impacts across time, the paper adopts a mix scale method of temporal spatial analysis consisting of simple descriptive statistics. In terms of objectives, this research provides geo-spatial analysis of the effects of human activities on agricultural watersheds in Southern Texas and the factors fuelling the concerns under the purview of watershed management. The results point to growing ecosystem decline across time and a geographic cluster of counties experiencing environmental stress. Accordingly, the emergence of stressors such as rising population, increased use of fertilizer treatments on farm land, discharges of atmospheric pollutants and the large presence of municipal and industrial waste treatment facilities emitting pathogens and pesticides directly into the agricultural watersheds pose a growing threat to the quality of the watershed ecosystem. PMID:21776238

  19. The applications of GIS in the analysis of the impacts of human activities on south Texas watersheds.

    PubMed

    Merem, Edmund C; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A; Wesley, Joan M; Robinson, Bennetta; Richardson, Chandra

    2011-06-01

    With water resource planning assuming greater importance in environmental protection efforts, analyzing the health of agricultural watersheds using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) becomes essential for decision-makers in Southern Texas. Within the area, there exist numerous threats from conflicting land uses. These include the conversion of land formerly designated for agricultural purposes to other uses. Despite current efforts, anthropogenic factors are greatly contributing to the degradation of watersheds. Additionally, the activities of waste water facilities located in some of the counties, rising populations, and other socioeconomic variables are negatively impacting the quality of water in the agricultural watersheds. To map the location of these stressors spatially and the extent of their impacts across time, the paper adopts a mix scale method of temporal spatial analysis consisting of simple descriptive statistics. In terms of objectives, this research provides geo-spatial analysis of the effects of human activities on agricultural watersheds in Southern Texas and the factors fuelling the concerns under the purview of watershed management. The results point to growing ecosystem decline across time and a geographic cluster of counties experiencing environmental stress. Accordingly, the emergence of stressors such as rising population, increased use of fertilizer treatments on farm land, discharges of atmospheric pollutants and the large presence of municipal and industrial waste treatment facilities emitting pathogens and pesticides directly into the agricultural watersheds pose a growing threat to the quality of the watershed ecosystem.

  20. The applications of GIS in the analysis of the impacts of human activities on south Texas watersheds.

    PubMed

    Merem, Edmund C; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A; Wesley, Joan M; Robinson, Bennetta; Richardson, Chandra

    2011-06-01

    With water resource planning assuming greater importance in environmental protection efforts, analyzing the health of agricultural watersheds using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) becomes essential for decision-makers in Southern Texas. Within the area, there exist numerous threats from conflicting land uses. These include the conversion of land formerly designated for agricultural purposes to other uses. Despite current efforts, anthropogenic factors are greatly contributing to the degradation of watersheds. Additionally, the activities of waste water facilities located in some of the counties, rising populations, and other socioeconomic variables are negatively impacting the quality of water in the agricultural watersheds. To map the location of these stressors spatially and the extent of their impacts across time, the paper adopts a mix scale method of temporal spatial analysis consisting of simple descriptive statistics. In terms of objectives, this research provides geo-spatial analysis of the effects of human activities on agricultural watersheds in Southern Texas and the factors fuelling the concerns under the purview of watershed management. The results point to growing ecosystem decline across time and a geographic cluster of counties experiencing environmental stress. Accordingly, the emergence of stressors such as rising population, increased use of fertilizer treatments on farm land, discharges of atmospheric pollutants and the large presence of municipal and industrial waste treatment facilities emitting pathogens and pesticides directly into the agricultural watersheds pose a growing threat to the quality of the watershed ecosystem. PMID:21776238

  1. [Application of capillary zone electrophoresis in the interaction analysis of protein C with protein C activator from Agkistrodon acutus venom].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yao; Bao, Pengju; Zhang, Genbao

    2013-01-01

    A new capillary zone electrophoresis method (CZE) has been established for the interaction analysis of protein C (PC) with a protein C activator (PCA) from Agkistrodon acutus venom. The analysis was performed on an uncoated fused-silica capillary with 75 microm i.d. and a total length of 60.2 cm (50 cm to the detector) with a buffer solution of 50 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) and 198 nm of wavelength. The factors which influence the separation of the PCA, such as buffer solution and ion concentration, and the interaction between the PCA and PC incubated for different times at 37.5 degrees C were studied. The linear range was from 10 to 300 mg/L. The limit of detection was 3 mg/L (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the migration time of the PCA was 0.56%. The RSD for the peak area was 3.8% (n = 6). The equal volumes of the PCA (200 mg/L) and PC (60 mg/L) were incubated for five minutes, at which their binding rate reached the maximum. And no hydrolyzed peptide chain from PC was found in the electropherogram. The PCA from Agkistrodon acutus venom could activate PC directly through changing the space conformation of PC. The method is simple, and highly sensitive with high resolution, and will provide important theoretical basis for the rapid detection of venom proteins and their activities in the future. PMID:23667991

  2. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  3. Polyethyleneimine-functionalized platinum nanoparticles with high electrochemiluminescence activity and their applications to amplified analysis of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Du, Yan; Wang, Erkang

    2008-11-13

    Polyethyleneimine-functionalized platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) with excellent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) properties were synthesized and applied to the amplified analysis of biomolecules. These particles were prepared at room temperature, with hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (HBPEI) as the stabilizer. The UV/Vis absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy images clearly confirmed the formation of monodisperse PtNPs. Such particles proved to possess high stability against salt-induced aggregation, enabling them to be employed even under high-salt conditions. Owing to the existence of many tertiary amine groups, these particles exhibited excellent ECL behavior in the presence of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II). An HBPEI-coated particle possessed an ECL activity that was at least 60 times higher than that of a tripropylamine molecule. Furthermore, these particles could be immobilized on the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-treated quartz substrates to amplify the binding sites for carboxyl groups. Through this approach, PtNPs were applied to the amplified analysis of the hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme by using the luminol/H(2)O(2) chemiluminescence method.

  4. Analysis of helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise with application to adaptive-passive and active alleviation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauszig, Lionel Christian

    This study focuses on detection and analysis methods of helicopter blade-vortex interactions (BVI) and applies these methods to two different BVI noise alleviation schemes---an adaptive-passive and an active scheme. A standard free-wake analysis based on relaxation methods is extended in this study to compute high-resolution blade loading, to account for blade-to-blade dissimilarities, and dual vortices when there is negative loading at the blade tips. The free-wake geometry is still calculated on a coarse azimuthal grid and then interpolated to a high-resolution grid to calculate the BVI induced impulsive loading. Blade-to-blade dissimilarities are accounted by allowing the different blades to release their own vortices. A number of BVI detection criteria, including the spherical method (a geometric criterion developed in this thesis) are critically examined. It was determined that high-resolution azimuthal discretization is required in virtually all detection methods except the spherical method which detected the occurrence of parallel BVI even while using a low-resolution azimuthal mesh. Detection methods based on inflow and blade loads were, in addition, found to be sensitive to vortex core size. While most BVI studies use the high-resolution airloads to compute BVI noise, the total noise can often be due to multiple dominant interactions on the advancing and retreating sides. A methodology is developed to evaluate the contribution of an individual interaction to the total BVI noise, based on using the loading due to an individual vortex as an input to the acoustic code WOPWOP. The adaptive-passive BVI alleviation method considered in this study comprises of reducing the length of one set of opposite blades (of a 4-bladed rotor) in low-speed descent. Results showed that differential coning resulting from the blade dissimilarity increases the blade-vortex miss-distances and reduces the BVI noise by 4 dB. The Higher Harmonic Control Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART

  5. Sight Application Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G.

    2014-09-17

    The scale and complexity of scientific applications makes it very difficult to optimize, debug and extend them to support new capabilities. We have developed a tool that supports developers’ efforts to understand the logical flow of their applications and interactions between application components and hardware in a way that scales with application complexity and parallelism.

  6. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  7. Examination of the Early Diagnostic Applicability of Active Dynamic Thermography for Burn Wound Depth Assessment and Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Prindeze, Nicholas J; Fathi, Payam; Mino, Matthew J; Mauskar, Neil A; Travis, Taryn E; Paul, Dereck W; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in perfusion imaging, burn wound imaging technology continues to lag behind that of other fields. Quantification of blood flow is able to predict time for healing, but clear assessment of burn depth is still questionable. Active dynamic thermography (ADT) is a noncontact imaging modality capable of distinguishing tissue of different thermal conductivities. Utilizing the abnormal heat transfer properties of the burn zones, we examined whether ADT was useful in the determination of burn depth in a model of early burn wound evaluation. Duroc pigs (castrated male; n = 3) were anesthetized, and two burns were created with an aluminum billet at 3 and 12 seconds. These contact times resulted in superficial partial and deep partial thickness burn wounds, respectively. ADT and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) imaging were performed every 30 minutes postburn for a total of five imaging sessions ending 150 minutes postburn. For ADT, imaging excitation was performed for 42-120 seconds with dual quartz-infrared lamps, and subsequent infrared image capture was performed for 300 seconds. MATLAB-assisted image analysis was performed to determine burn zone region of interest thermal relaxation and characteristic patterns. LDI was performed with a moorLDI system, and biopsies were captured for histology following the 150-minute imaging session. Both ADT and LDI imaging modalities are able to detect different physical properties at 30, 60, 90 120, and 150 minutes postburn with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Resultant ADT cooling curves characterize greater differences with greater stimulation and a potentially more identifiable differential cooling characteristic. Histological analysis confirmed burn depth. This preliminary work confirms that ADT can measure burn depth and is deserving of further research either as a stand-alone imaging technology or in combination with a device to assess perfusion. PMID:25412050

  8. Prompt-gamma activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    A permenent, full-time instrument for prompt-gamma activation analysis is nearing completion as part of the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The design of the analytical system has been optimized for high gamma detection efficiency and low background, particularly for hydrogen. Because of the purity of the neutron beam, shielding requirements are modest and the scatter-capture background is low. As a result of a compact sample-detector geometry, the sensitivity (counting rate per gram of analyte) is a factor of four better than the existing Maryland-NIST thermal-neutron instrument at the reactor. Hydrogen backgrounds of a few micrograms have already been achieved, which promises to be of value in numerous applications where quantitative nondestructive analysis of small quantities of hydrogen in materials is necessary.

  9. Applicant Analysis: 2001 Entering Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Richard G.; Haden, N. Karl; Ramanna, Satyan; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents findings of the annual analysis of dental school applicant numbers and characteristics conducted by the American Dental Education Association. There were 7,412 applicants to dental schools in 2001, and 57.6% were enrolled in 2001. Provides other data about applicants and admissions. (SLD)

  10. Application Power Signature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Combs, Jacob; Nazor, Jolie; Santiago, Fabian; Thysell, Rachelle; Rivoire, Suzanne; Poole, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community has been greatly concerned about energy efficiency. To address this concern, it is essential to understand and characterize the electrical loads of HPC applications. In this work, we study whether HPC applications can be distinguished by their power-consumption patterns using quantitative measures in an automatic manner. Using a collection of 88 power traces from 4 different systems, we find that basic statistical measures do a surprisingly good job of summarizing applications' distinctive power behavior. Moreover, this study opens up a new area of research in power-aware HPC that has a multitude of potential applications.

  11. [Application of the rough sets theory to the analysis of structure-activity relationships of pyridinium antifungal compounds].

    PubMed

    Krysiński, J

    1994-04-01

    Relationships between chemical structure and antifungal activity of 72 quaternary pyridinium chlorides were analysed using the method of rough sets. In the information system the compounds are described by eight condition attributes and divided into three classes of activity. Using the rough sets approach a smallest set of four condition attributes significant for a high quality of classification and accuracy of classes has been found. The resulting decision algorithm describes relations between structure and antifungal activity in terms of significant condition attributes. It may be helpful in predicting structures of new antifungal compounds to be synthesized. PMID:8204024

  12. Human hair neutron activation analysis: Analysis on population level, mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, L. I.; Kist, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia.

  13. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone.

  14. Accuracy analysis and application of extrapolation of force-free fields in solar active and quiet regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Suo; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jiangtao; Song, Mutao

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the availability, applicability and deviation of nonlinear force-free (NLFF) fields extrapolated by Approximate Vertical Integration (AVI), Boundary Integral Equation (BIE) and Optimization (Opt.) methods are studied based on the comparison with two semi-analytical fields (Low & Lou 1990). These NLFF extrapolations based on the observational vector magnetograms are used to study the spatial magnetic field in the quiet Sun.

  15. Application of SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Casebeer, A

    SWOT analysis is an effective and simple planning technique which addresses one aspect of many strategic planning processes. Given the complex nature of modern health care systems, the ability to use this type of technique can enable health professionals to participate more fully in the analysis and implementation of health care improvement. PMID:8472105

  16. Application of SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Casebeer, A

    SWOT analysis is an effective and simple planning technique which addresses one aspect of many strategic planning processes. Given the complex nature of modern health care systems, the ability to use this type of technique can enable health professionals to participate more fully in the analysis and implementation of health care improvement.

  17. Enzyme inactivation analysis for industrial blanching applications: comparison of microwave, conventional, and combination heat treatments on mushroom polyphenoloxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Devece, C; Rodríguez-López, J N; Fenoll, L G; Tudela, J; Catalá, J M; de Los Reyes, E; García-Cánovas, F

    1999-11-01

    Browning reactions in fruits and vegetables are a serious problem for the food industry. In mushrooms, the principal enzyme responsible for the browning reaction is polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Microwaves have recently been introduced as an alternative for the industrial blanching of mushrooms. However, the direct application of microwave energy to entire mushrooms is limited by the important temperature gradients generated within the samples during heating, which can produce internal water vaporization and associated damage to the mushrooms texture. A microwave applicator has been developed, whereby irradiation conditions can be regulated and the heating process monitored. Whole edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were blanched by conventional, microwave, and combined heating methods to optimize the rate of PPO inactivation. A combined microwave and hot-water bath treatment has achieved complete PPO inactivation in a short time. Both the loss of antioxidant content and the increase of browning were minor in the samples treated with this combined method when compared to the control. This reduction in processing time also decreased mushroom weight loss and shrinkage.

  18. The application of preirradiation combustion and neutron activation analysis technique for the determination of iodine in food and environmental reference materials.

    PubMed

    Norman, B R; Iyengar, V

    1998-09-01

    The pre-irradiation combustion (PC) of samples to liberate iodine, followed by trapping the iodine on charcoal and quantifying the element by neutron activation analysis (NAA), has been used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology for the determination of iodine in biological materials. The applicability of this technique to numerous environmental and dietary matrices is illustrated by analysis of a range of certified reference materials (CRMs) and a powdered grass material that was prepared as an in-house reference material (RM). Because of the combustion step involved, samples with low or no fat content (e.g., cereal products, selected botanical specimens, and nonfat milk powder) and inorganic materials (e.g., coal fly ash and dried sediments) are more suited for analysis by this method. In general, the results for several types of samples obtained by this method agreed with those obtained by a second radiochemical (R) NAA, as well as by a third method using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). PC-NAA is a useful technique for determining iodine in biological and environmental samples, especially for verification of iodine results obtained from other methods.

  19. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Deraman, M. Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R.; Kanwal, S.

    2015-04-16

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g{sup −1} respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g{sup −1}, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  20. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Awitdrus, Farma, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R.; Kanwal, S.

    2015-04-01

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H2SO4 electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g-1 respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g-1, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  1. [Analysis of the applicability of model systems to measuring the activity of lipid-soluble antioxidants by the electrochemiluminescent method].

    PubMed

    Lukin, Iu L

    1976-11-01

    A comparative study of two most common model systems (methanol-sodium citrate and chloroform-aceton-maleic acid (10(-3) M)) was carried out to measure lipid-soluble antioxidants by the method of electrochemiluminescence. alpha-naftole, pyrogalole, phenole, hydroquinone, acrylamide, cholesterine and alkohol lipid extract from rat liver were used as inhibitors. The analysis has shown that it is worthwhile to apply only the system chloroform-aceton-maleic acid as a model of electroluminescent studies.

  2. IMS applications analysis

    SciTech Connect

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  3. A signal processing approach for enhanced Acoustic Emission data analysis in high activity systems: Application to organic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharrat, M.; Ramasso, E.; Placet, V.; Boubakar, M. L.

    2016-03-01

    Structural elements made of Organic Matrix Composites (OMC) under complex loading may suffer from high Acoustic Emission (AE) activity caused by the emergence of different emission sources at high rates with high noise level, which finally engender continuous emissions. The detection of hits in this situation becomes a challenge particularly during fatigue tests. This work suggests an approach based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) denoising applied on signal segments. A particular attention is paid to the adjustment of the denoising parameters based on pencil lead breaks and their influence on the quality of the denoised AE signals. The validation of the proposed approach is performed on a ring-shaped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) under in-service-like conditions involving continuous emissions with superimposed damage-related transients. It is demonstrated that errors in hit detection are greatly reduced leading to a better identification of the natural damage scenario based on AE signals.

  4. Characterization of the aroma-active compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava, L.) by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-06-11

    The volatiles present in fresh, pink-fleshed Colombian guavas ( Psidium guajava, L.), variety regional rojo, were carefully isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, and the aroma-active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2 H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, and 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, ( Z)-3-hexenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, cinnamyl alcohol, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, methional, and cinnamyl acetate as important aroma contributors. Enantioselective gas chromatography revealed an enantiomeric distribution close to the racemate in 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate as well as in 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol. In addition, two fruity smelling diastereomeric methyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoates were identified as the ( R,S)- and the ( S,S)-isomers, whereas the ( S,R)- and ( R,R)-isomers were absent. Seven odorants were identified for the first time in guavas, among them 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5 H)-furanone, trans-4,5-epoxy-( E)-2-decenal, and methional were the most odor-active.

  5. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Green, J.; Segebade, C.

    2011-06-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  6. An Innovative Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures and Studies on Change of Activation Energies of the Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz Dikko, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient changes with addition of contaminants to the original liquid. This forms the basis of a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer designed and constructed for this purpose. We find that the viscosity coefficient μ of alcohol increased almost linearly with water concentration at a rate that depends on the type of alcohol and water concentration. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration. This increase also depends on type of alcohol. Our detailed investigation on alcohol-water mixtures for both ethyl and methyl alcohol along with discussion on possible future potential application of such a simple, yet very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. A comparison is made of our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. A part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage in order to explain some of the observed properties is presented.

  7. Military housing foam application and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

  8. Planning applications in image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

  9. Constructivism theory analysis and application to curricula.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Amy F; All, Anita C

    2010-01-01

    Today's nursing programs are struggling to accommodate the changing needs of the health care environment and need to make changes in how students are taught. Using constructivism theory, whereby learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current or past knowledge, leaders in nursing education can make a paradigm shift toward concept-based curricula. This article presents a summary and analysis of constructivism and an innovative application of its active-learning principles to curriculum development, specifically for the education of nursing students.

  10. Active damping application to the shuttle RMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Kenny, Sean P.

    1991-01-01

    Control Structure Interaction (CSI) is a relatively new technology developed over the last 10 to 15 years for application to large flexible space vehicles. The central issue is recognition that high performance control systems necessary for good spacecraft performance may adversely interact with the dynamics of the spacecraft structures, a problem increasingly aggravated by the large size and reduced stiffness of modern spacecraft structural designs. The CSI analysis and design methods were developed to avoid interactions while maintaining spacecraft performance without exceeding structural capabilities, but they remain largely unvalidated by hardware experiments or demonstrations, particularly in-space flight demonstrations. One recent proposal for a low cost flight validation of CSI technology is to demonstrate active damping augmentation of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS). An analytical effort to define the potential for such an active damping augmentation demonstration to improve the structural dynamic response of the RMS following payload maneuvers is described. It is hoped that this study will lead to an actual inflight CSI test with the RMS using existing shuttle hardware to the maximum extent possible. By using the existing hardware, the flight demonstration results may eventually be of direct benefit to actual Space Shuttle RMS operations, especially during the construction of the Space Station Freedom.

  11. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Robin P. Gardner

    2006-04-11

    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  12. Fringe analysis for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gordon M.

    The capabilities of Ford USA's Computer Aided Holometry (CAH) system for stepped phase interferometry are presented. Holographic test equipment and facilities are briefly reviewed. Fringe analysis algorithms and procedures for practical semi-automated processing of stepped phase interferograms of complex real life structures for quantitative measurement of deformation and shape are discussed. Several automative applications illustrating the fringe analysis technique are presented, including: (1) the use of CAH combined with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) methods to study frictional effects of the thermal insertion of a wrist pin into a connecting rod; (2) a study of engine deformation due to hydraulic loading of the cylinders; and (3) the computation of sound pressure from CAH measured vibration amplitude/phase and shape using the Rayleigh integral and SYSNOISE TM methods. In the past, holometry methods have been used primarily for problem solving in structures that were already in production, often where limited opportunities existed to make expensive modifications to existing tooling. Infrequently holometry was used by knowledgeable engineers to develop optimized components in the prototype stage even without the current CAE methods. The opportunity and challenge of our day is to closely couple CAE (FEM, EFA) methods and experimental methods (CAH, modal, etc.) to optimize structural performance in the upstream product development process where necessary tooling modifications can and will be made.

  13. Development of Novel Rifampicin-Derived P-Glycoprotein Activators/Inducers. Synthesis, In Silico Analysis and Application in the RBE4 Cell Model, Using Paraquat as Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Sousa, Emília; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remião, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa transmembrane protein involved in the outward transport of many structurally unrelated substrates. P-gp activation/induction may function as an antidotal pathway to prevent the cytotoxicity of these substrates. In the present study we aimed at testing rifampicin (Rif) and three newly synthesized Rif derivatives (a mono-methoxylated derivative, MeORif, a peracetylated derivative, PerAcRif, and a reduced derivative, RedRif) to establish their ability to modulate P-gp expression and activity in a cellular model of the rat’s blood–brain barrier, the RBE4 cell line P-gp expression was assessed by western blot using C219 anti-P-gp antibody. P-gp function was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the accumulation of rhodamine123. Whenever P-gp activation/induction ability was detected in a tested compound, its antidotal effect was further tested using paraquat as cytotoxicity model. Interactions between Rif or its derivatives and P-gp were also investigated by computational analysis. Rif led to a significant increase in P-gp expression at 72 h and RedRif significantly increased both P-gp expression and activity. No significant differences were observed for the other derivatives. Pre- or simultaneous treatment with RedRif protected cells against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity, an effect reverted by GF120918, a P-gp inhibitor, corroborating the observed P-gp activation ability. Interaction of RedRif with P-gp drug-binding pocket was consistent with an activation mechanism of action, which was confirmed with docking studies. Therefore, RedRif protection against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in RBE4 cells, through P-gp activation/induction, suggests that it may be useful as an antidote for cytotoxic substrates of P-gp. PMID:23991219

  14. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) applications activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP mea...

  15. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a "naturally" energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted.

  16. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Vyrsokinos, Konstantinos; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Hassan, Karim; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Kumar, Ashwani; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Baus, Matthias; Tekin, Tolga; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Pleros, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a “naturally” energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry. The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4×10 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM-enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power × response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted. PMID:22973502

  17. Film analysis systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekura, Y.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    The different components that can be used in modern film analysis systems are reviewed. TV camera and charge-coupled device sensors coupled to computers provide low cost systems for applications such as those described. The autoradiography (ARG) method provides an important tool for medical research and is especially useful for the development of new radiopharmaceutical compounds. Biodistribution information is needed for estimation of radiation dose, and for interpretation of the significance of observed patterns. The need for such precise information is heightened when one seeks to elucidate physiological principles/factors in normal and experimental models of disease. The poor spatial resolution achieved with current PET-imaging systems limits the information on radioreceptor mapping, neutrotransmitter, and neuroleptic drug distribution that can be achieved from patient studies. The artful use of ARG in carefully-controlled animal studies will be required to provide the additional information needed to fully understand results obtained with this new important research tool. (ERB)

  18. Application of epithermal neutron activation in multielement analysis of silicate rocks employing both coaxial Ge(Li) and low energy photon detector systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Rowe, J.J.; Steinnes, E.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental activation analysis of silicate rocks using epithermal neutrons has been studied using both high resolution coaxial Ge(Li) detectors and low energy photon detectors, and applied to the determination of 23 elements in eight new U.S.G.S. standard rocks. The analytical use X-ray peaks associated with electron capture or internal conversion processes has been evaluated. Of 28 elements which can be considered to be determinable by instrumental means, the epithermal activation approach is capable of giving improved sensitivity and precision in 16 cases, over the normal INAA procedure. In eleven cases the use of the low energy photon detector is thought to show advantages over convertional coaxial Ge(Li) spectroscopy. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  19. [Establishment of hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC(HE-HPLC) and application in analysis of active components in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides extract].

    PubMed

    Hong, Min; Ma, Hongyu; Zhu, Quan

    2009-02-01

    To screen effective principles from traditional Chinese medicine, a method named hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC (HE-HPLC) was establish in this study. The active principles in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis extract were combined with the hepatocytes under imitated physiological environments. Then the unattached substances were washed off by PBS with pH 7.4. After that the conjugated compounds were eluted by PBS with pH 4.0. These compounds released from target sites were collected and handled through SPE to be condensed, and analyzed by HPLC. The results indicated that two characteristic active compounds in the fruits of G. jasminoides extract binded to the hepatocytes. One of them is geniposide. The other is continued to be identified. It is showed that active principles which could bind to hepotocyte (through receptors, Channels, enzymes, etc.) could be detected, at least partly, by HE-HPLC analysis. There was a significant correlation between the retention properties of the active compounds which was obtained by HE-HPLC and their pharmacological effects on hepotocytes. PMID:19459310

  20. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  1. US--ITER activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Attaya, H.; Gohar, Y.; Smith, D.

    1990-09-01

    Activation analysis has been made for the US ITER design. The radioactivity and the decay heat have been calculated, during operation and after shutdown for the two ITER phases, the Physics Phase and the Technology Phase. The Physics Phase operates about 24 full power days (FPDs) at fusion power level of 1100 MW and the Technology Phase has 860 MW fusion power and operates for about 1360 FPDs. The point-wise gamma sources have been calculated everywhere in the reactor at several times after shutdown of the two phases and are then used to calculate the biological dose everywhere in the reactor. Activation calculations have been made also for ITER divertor. The results are presented for different continuous operation times and for only one pulse. The effect of the pulsed operation on the radioactivity is analyzed. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Moran, Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP measurements will allow global and high-resolution mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state at resolutions from 3-40 km. These measurements will have high value for a wide range of environmental applications that underpin many weather-related decisions including drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate predictions, and human health risk. In 2007, NASA was tasked by The National Academies to ensure that emerging scientific knowledge is actively applied to obtain societal benefits by broadening community participation and improving means for use of information. SMAP is one of the first missions to come out of this new charge, and its Applications Plan forms the basis for ensuring its commitment to its users. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methods and approaches of the SMAP applications activity, which is designed to increase and sustain the interaction between users and scientists involved in mission development.

  3. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD. PMID:26471181

  4. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD.

  5. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  6. Integrated FDIR Analysis Tool for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Annamaria; Malucchi, Giovanni; Di Tommaso, Umberto

    2013-08-01

    The crucial role of health management in space applications has been the subject of many studies carried out by NASA and ESA and is held in high regard by Thales Alenia Space. The common objective is to improve reliability and availability of space systems. This paper will briefly illustrate the evolution of IDEHAS (IntegrateD Engineering Harness Avionics and Software), an advanced tool currently used in Thales Alenia Space - Italy in several space programs and recently enhanced to fully support FDIR (Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery) analysis. The FDIR analysis logic flow will be presented, emphasizing the improvements offered to Mission Support & Operations activities. Finally the benefits provided to the Company and a list of possible future enhancements will be given.

  7. Application of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in detecting and quantifying forest loss caused by artisanal gold mining activities in Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengisteab, B. S.; Blesius, L.; Hennessy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal gold mining in Guyana is mostly done in forest covered areas, causing forest loss and land degradation. Data from the Guyana Geology and Mining commission show there has been an increase of 2074% between 1986 and 2009. Our analysis of Landsat data between 1986 and 2013 for a part of the Upper Mazaruni area shows an increase from 34.2 to 278.4 hectares, which amounts to more than 800%. While the frequent coverage of Landsat data is useful for multitemporal studies, the lower resolution may not be adequate for accurate detection of mining sites. Therefore, RapidEye imagery from 2011 at a resolution of 5m was used to detect gold mining activity and to compare the results with the Landsat study. Processing was conducted in eCognition, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) software. OBIA is an image processing technique that has proven to be advantageous over traditional pixel based image processing techniques, with the primary advantage being the ability of the approach in combining both the spatial and spectral information. The satellite image was subjected to segmentation at multiple scales and classified using fuzzy sets of membership functions. Classification explicitly incorporated the different scales in order to accommodate different sizes of real-world objects and spatial relationships were utilized to establish connections between related objects. For example the presence or absence of water in pits, or the existence of sediments in the river may serve as additional indicators of mining sites besides the spectral components. Preliminary results show that OBIA approach was able to successfully detect and quantify small scale mining activities in the basin, and that the Landsat data were giving an acceptable estimate of mining sites over time. Keywords:Object Based Image Analysis, Gold Mining, Remote Sensing, Guyana

  8. Patterns of Treatment Switching in Multiple Sclerosis Therapies in US Patients Active on Social Media: Application of Social Media Content Analysis to Health Outcomes Research

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Deepanshu; Bonzani, Ian; Huisman, Alice; Olson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media analysis has rarely been applied to the study of specific questions in outcomes research. Objective The aim was to test the applicability of social media analysis to outcomes research using automated listening combined with filtering and analysis of data by specialists. After validation, the process was applied to the study of patterns of treatment switching in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods A comprehensive listening and analysis process was developed that blended automated listening with filtering and analysis of data by life sciences-qualified analysts and physicians. The population was patients with MS from the United States. Data sources were Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and online forums. Sources were searched for mention of specific oral, injectable, and intravenous (IV) infusion treatments. The representativeness of the social media population was validated by comparison with community survey data and with data from three large US administrative claims databases: MarketScan, PharMetrics Plus, and Department of Defense. Results A total of 10,260 data points were sampled for manual review: 3025 from Twitter, 3771 from Facebook, 2773 from Internet forums, and 691 from blogs. The demographics of the social media population were similar to those reported from community surveys and claims databases. Mean age was 39 (SD 11) years and 14.56% (326/2239) of the population was older than 50 years. Women, patients aged 30 to 49 years, and those diagnosed for more than 10 years were represented by more data points than other patients were. Women also accounted for a large majority (82.6%, 819/991) of reported switches. Two-fifths of switching patients had lived with their disease for more than 10 years since diagnosis. Most reported switches (55.05%, 927/1684) were from injectable to oral drugs with switches from IV therapies to orals the second largest switch (15.38%, 259/1684). Switches to oral drugs accounted for more than 80% (927/1114) of the

  9. Bioaccessibility of AhR-active PAHs in sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill: Application of Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Shim, Won Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bioaccessibility of toxic substances in sedimentary residual oil is a crucial factor that needs to be considered for accurate risk assessments posed by oil spills. However, information on oil weathering processes and bioaccessibility of residual oil is often not sufficient and clear. In the present study, bioaccessibility of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments near the site of the Hebei Spirit oil spill (Korea, 2007) was assessed by Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis (EDA). Sediment samples collected 6 years after the oil spill were extracted using Soxhlet or Tenax, and EDA was performed using a battery of H4IIE-luc bioassay and GC/MSD analysis. Concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Soxhlet extracts ranged from 210 to 53,000 μg kg(-1) dry mass. However, concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Tenax extracts were approximately 20-fold less compared to those in Soxhlet extracts. In Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, the major AhR-active PAHs were identified as C1-chrysene, C3-chrysene, and C4-phenanthrene. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQ(PAHs)) explained 31% and 60% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQ concentrations in Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, respectively. Overall, bioaccessibility of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in sedimentary residual oils depended on hydrophobicity (log K(ow)) and degree of weathering of crude oil. The results of the present study provide further evidence in support of the biological and ecological recoveries of oil spill sites.

  10. Bioaccessibility of AhR-active PAHs in sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill: Application of Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Shim, Won Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bioaccessibility of toxic substances in sedimentary residual oil is a crucial factor that needs to be considered for accurate risk assessments posed by oil spills. However, information on oil weathering processes and bioaccessibility of residual oil is often not sufficient and clear. In the present study, bioaccessibility of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments near the site of the Hebei Spirit oil spill (Korea, 2007) was assessed by Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis (EDA). Sediment samples collected 6 years after the oil spill were extracted using Soxhlet or Tenax, and EDA was performed using a battery of H4IIE-luc bioassay and GC/MSD analysis. Concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Soxhlet extracts ranged from 210 to 53,000 μg kg(-1) dry mass. However, concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Tenax extracts were approximately 20-fold less compared to those in Soxhlet extracts. In Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, the major AhR-active PAHs were identified as C1-chrysene, C3-chrysene, and C4-phenanthrene. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQ(PAHs)) explained 31% and 60% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQ concentrations in Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, respectively. Overall, bioaccessibility of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in sedimentary residual oils depended on hydrophobicity (log K(ow)) and degree of weathering of crude oil. The results of the present study provide further evidence in support of the biological and ecological recoveries of oil spill sites. PMID:26408977

  11. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  12. Applications analysis of high energy lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.; Mackay, J. S.; Nishioka, K.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and comparison of laser technology with competing technologies were made to determine possible laser applications. The analysis was undertaken as follows: (1) possible applications were listed and categorized; (2) required components were enumerated and the characteristics of these components were extrapolated; (3) complete system characteristics were calculated parametrically for selected applications using the postulated component characteristics; and (4) where possible and appropriate, comparisons were made with competing systems. It was found that any large scale replacement of existing systems and methods by lasers requires many technological advances in laser and associated systems. However, several applications appear feasible, such as low orbit drag make-up, orbit changing, communications, and illumination applications.

  13. Thermal and tectonic history in the steamboat hills geothermal field: Determination of the age of active hydrothermal activity by application of AFTA{sup {trademark}} (apatite fission track analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Kamp, P.C. van de

    1995-12-31

    This study, in the Steamboat Hills area of the Carson segment of the northern Walker Lane Belt, was initiated to provide a regional thermal history framework and to investigate the age of the active local hydrothermal system. Seven outcrop samples, representing ?Cretaceous granodiorite and ?Triassic Peavine sequence metamorphosed volcanic flow and volcaniclastic rocks plus six samples of Peavine rocks in vertical sequence from an 0.8 km deep geothermal corehole have been analyzed using AFTA (apatite fission track analysis) and zircon fission track analysis.

  14. [Clinical application of skin sympathetic nerve activity].

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi

    2009-03-01

    Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is microneurographically recorded from the skin nerve fascicle in the peripheral nerves. It is characterized by the following features: 1) irregular, pulse asynchronous, burst activity with respiratory variation, 2) burst activity followed by vasoconstriction and/or sweating, 3) elicited by mental stress and arousal stimuli, e.g., sound, pain, electric stimulation, 4) burst with longer duration as compared with sympathetic outflow to muscles, and 5) burst activity following sudden inspiratory action. It comprises vasoconstrictor (VC) and sudomotor(SM) activity, as well as vasodilator (VD) activity. VC and SM discharge independently, whereas VD is the same activity with different neurotransmission. The VC and SM are differentiated by effector response, e.g., laser Doppler flowmetry and skin potential changes. SSNA function in thermoregulation in the human body; however it is also elicited by mental stress. SSNA is the lowest at thermoneutral ambient temperature (approximately 27 degrees C), and is enhanced in the pressence of ambient warm and cool air. The burst amplitude is well-correlated to both skin blood flow reduction rate or sweat rate change. The clinical application of SSNA comprises the following: 1) clarification of sweating phenomenon, 2) clarification and diagnosis of anhidrosis, 3) clarification and diagnosis of hyperhidrosis, 4) clarification of thermoregulatory function and diagnosis of thermoregulatory disorder, 5) clarification of pathophysiology and diagnosis of vascular diseases, e.g., Raynaud and Buerger diseases. 6) clarification of the relation between cognitive function and SSNA and 7) determination of pharmacological effect attributable to change in neuroeffector responses. PMID:19301594

  15. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  16. Instrumented Shoes for Real-Time Activity Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Moufawad El Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Major, Kristof; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Activity monitoring in daily life is gaining momentum as a health assessment tool, especially in older adults and at-risk populations. Several research-based and commercial systems have been proposed with varying performances in classification accuracy. Configurations with many sensors are generally accurate but cumbersome, whereas single sensors tend to have lower accuracies. To this end, we propose an instrumented shoes system capable of accurate activity classification and gait analysis that contains sensors located entirely at the level of the shoes. One challenge in daily activity monitoring is providing punctual and subject-tailored feedback to improve mobility. Therefore, the instrumented shoe system was equipped with a Bluetooth® module to transmit data to a smartphone and perform detailed activity profiling of the monitored subjects. The potential applications of such a system are numerous in mobility and fall risk-assessment as well as in fall prevention. PMID:27332298

  17. Application of sequential injection analysis to pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, A M; Montenegro, M C B S M; Araújo, A N; Calatayud, J Martínez

    2006-01-23

    Sequential injection analysis is a well established tool for automation of pharmaceutical analysis. A short historical background of this technique is given as well as a brief discussion on the basic principles and potentials. The current applications of SIA in the pharmaceutical analysis are also described and discussed. The manifolds developed offer good analytical characteristics and are suitable for analysis of drug formulations, process analysis, drug-dissolution, drug-release testing and functional assays for screening potential drugs. The results obtained are in good agreement with those furnished by the application of the reference methods presented in the pharmacopoeias.

  18. Method for Systematic Assessment of Chemical Changes in Molecular Scaffolds with Conserved Topology and Application to the Analysis of Scaffold-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Zhang, Bijun; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Sets of scaffolds with conserved molecular topology are abundant among drugs and bioactive compounds. Core structure topology is one of the determinants of biological activity. Heteroatom replacements and/or bond order variation render topologically equivalent scaffolds chemically distinct and also contribute to differences in the biological activity of compounds containing these scaffolds. Relationships between core structure topology, chemical modifications, and observed activity profiles are difficult to analyze. A computational method is introduced to consistently assess chemical transformations that distinguish scaffolds with conserved topology. The methodology is applied to quantify chemical differences in conserved topological environments and systematically relate chemical changes in topologically equivalent scaffolds to associated activity profiles.

  19. Method for Systematic Assessment of Chemical Changes in Molecular Scaffolds with Conserved Topology and Application to the Analysis of Scaffold-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Zhang, Bijun; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Sets of scaffolds with conserved molecular topology are abundant among drugs and bioactive compounds. Core structure topology is one of the determinants of biological activity. Heteroatom replacements and/or bond order variation render topologically equivalent scaffolds chemically distinct and also contribute to differences in the biological activity of compounds containing these scaffolds. Relationships between core structure topology, chemical modifications, and observed activity profiles are difficult to analyze. A computational method is introduced to consistently assess chemical transformations that distinguish scaffolds with conserved topology. The methodology is applied to quantify chemical differences in conserved topological environments and systematically relate chemical changes in topologically equivalent scaffolds to associated activity profiles. PMID:27490499

  20. Human activity discrimination for maritime application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Evelyn; Deaver, Dawne M.; Krapels, Keith

    2008-04-01

    The US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is investigating how motion affects the target acquisition model (NVThermIP) sensor performance estimates. This paper looks specifically at estimating sensor performance for the task of discriminating human activities on watercraft, and was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Traditionally, sensor models were calibrated using still images. While that approach is sufficient for static targets, video allows one to use motion cues to aid in discerning the type of human activity more quickly and accurately. This, in turn, will affect estimated sensor performance and these effects are measured in order to calibrate current target acquisition models for this task. The study employed an eleven alternative forced choice (11AFC) human perception experiment to measure the task difficulty of discriminating unique human activities on watercrafts. A mid-wave infrared camera was used to collect video at night. A description of the construction of this experiment is given, including: the data collection, image processing, perception testing and how contrast was defined for video. These results are applicable to evaluate sensor field performance for Anti-Terrorism and Force Protection (AT/FP) tasks for the U.S. Navy.

  1. Ion Beam Analysis Techniques in Interdisciplinary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J.

    1999-12-31

    The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

  2. Ion beam analysis techniques in interdisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect

    Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J.

    1999-11-16

    The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

  3. An analysis of practice activities and instructional behaviours used by youth soccer coaches during practice: exploring the link between science and application.

    PubMed

    Ford, Paul R; Yates, Ian; Williams, A Mark

    2010-03-01

    We examined the practice activities and instructional behaviours employed by 25 youth soccer coaches during 70 different practice sessions. We evaluated the extent to which these activities and behaviours differ from those shown in contemporary research to best facilitate skill acquisition. Nine coaches worked with the under-9 years age group and eight coaches each with the under-13 and under-16 years age groups; nine of those coaches were employed at the elite level, nine at the sub-elite level, and seven at the non-elite level. Coaches had players spend more time in activities that were deemed less relevant to soccer match performance, termed "training form" (e.g. physical training, technique and skills practices), than activities deemed more relevant, termed "playing form" (e.g. small-sided/conditioned games and phase of play activities). Coaches provided high levels of instruction, feedback, and management, irrespective of the activity in which players engaged. Few differences in practice activities and instructional behaviours were reported across skill and age groups, implying the absence of any notable age- or skill-related progression. Findings are discussed with reference to recent research in the areas of skill acquisition, motor learning, and expert performance.

  4. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100 C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changed suddenly.

  5. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  6. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  7. Small wind systems application analysis. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The potential market for SWECS, or wind machines smaller than 100 kW for five selected applications was estimated. The goals of the study were to aid manufacturers in attaining financing by convincing venture capital investors of the potential of SWECS and to aid government planners in allocating R and D expenditures that will effectively advance SWECS commercialization. The five applications were selected through an initial screening and priority-ranking analysis. The year of analysis was 1985, but all dollar amounts, such as fuel costs, are expressed in 1980 dollars. The five SWECS applications investigated were farm residences, non-farm residences rural electric cooperatives, feed grinders, and remote communities.

  8. Quantitative analysis of rat activity in the home cage by infrared monitoring. Application to the acute toxicity testing of acetanilide and phenylmercuric acetate.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, P; Sigg, H; Zbinden, G

    1989-01-01

    A new method for continuous in-cage monitoring of the activity of rats using passive sensors to detect the animals' infrared emissions, and its usefulness for toxicological screening tests is described. In order to obtain baseline values for toxicological tests, the differences between day and night activity, adaptation to changing day/night rhythm, the effects of handling the animals (measurement of body weight, food and water consumption) and the effect on activity patterns of the female estrus cycle were investigated. In two separate experiments, single doses of acetanilide and phenylmercuric acetate were administered. Passive infrared monitoring of motor activity proved to be a sensitive and discriminating method suitable for quantitative and qualitative assessment of acute toxic effects.

  9. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are…

  10. Microcomputer Applications in Interaction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadham, Rex A.

    The Timed Interval Categorical Observation Recorder (TICOR), a portable, battery powered microcomputer designed to automate the collection of sequential and simultaneous behavioral observations and their associated durations, was developed to overcome problems in gathering subtle interaction analysis data characterized by sequential flow of…

  11. Analyses of Oxyanion Materials by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Leung, K.-N.; Garabedian, G.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-03-24

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to analyze metal ion oxyanion materials that have multiple applications, including medicine, materials, catalysts, and electronics. The significance for the need for accurate, highly sensitive analyses for the materials is discussed in the context of quality control of end products containing the parent element in each material. Applications of the analytical data for input to models and theoretical calculations related to the electronic and other properties of the materials are discussed.

  12. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  13. Pathway network analysis and an application to the ODE model of MMP2 activation in the early stage of cancer cell invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minerva, D.; Kawasaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is known as the leading causes of death in the world, particularly in developing countries. Metastasis is believed as factor that make the situation worse. Cancer cell has the ability to invade and metastasize to a distant part of body. The mechanism of cancer cell invasion involving three molecules; MT1-MMP, TIMP2, and MMP2. The interaction of the three molecules activates MMP2 by cutting the MMP2 binding from a specific complex. The MMP2 activation leads to the release of cancer cell from its primary state towards distant part of body. In this paper, we will present the result of recent studies about MMP2 activation from mathematical point of view. We study the MMP2 activation model using law of mass action and conservation. We propose a method based on attachment and detachment rules and conservation law to analyze the ordinary differential equations system of pathway network associated with the MMP2 activation. As the result, we obtain possible way to suppress the spread of cancer cell.

  14. Failure environment analysis tool applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Wadsworth, David B.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding risks and avoiding failure are daily concerns for the women and men of NASA. Although NASA's mission propels us to push the limits of technology, and though the risks are considerable, the NASA community has instilled within it, the determination to preserve the integrity of the systems upon which our mission and, our employees lives and well-being depend. One of the ways this is being done is by expanding and improving the tools used to perform risk assessment. The Failure Environment Analysis Tool (FEAT) was developed to help engineers and analysts more thoroughly and reliably conduct risk assessment and failure analysis. FEAT accomplishes this by providing answers to questions regarding what might have caused a particular failure; or, conversely, what effect the occurrence of a failure might have on an entire system. Additionally, FEAT can determine what common causes could have resulted in other combinations of failures. FEAT will even help determine the vulnerability of a system to failures, in light of reduced capability. FEAT also is useful in training personnel who must develop an understanding of particular systems. FEAT facilitates training on system behavior, by providing an automated environment in which to conduct 'what-if' evaluation. These types of analyses make FEAT a valuable tool for engineers and operations personnel in the design, analysis, and operation of NASA space systems.

  15. Failure environment analysis tool applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Wadsworth, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding risks and avoiding failure are daily concerns for the women and men of NASA. Although NASA's mission propels us to push the limits of technology, and though the risks are considerable, the NASA community has instilled within, the determination to preserve the integrity of the systems upon which our mission and, our employees lives and well-being depend. One of the ways this is being done is by expanding and improving the tools used to perform risk assessment. The Failure Environment Analysis Tool (FEAT) was developed to help engineers and analysts more thoroughly and reliably conduct risk assessment and failure analysis. FEAT accomplishes this by providing answers to questions regarding what might have caused a particular failure; or, conversely, what effect the occurrence of a failure might have on an entire system. Additionally, FEAT can determine what common causes could have resulted in other combinations of failures. FEAT will even help determine the vulnerability of a system to failures, in light of reduced capability. FEAT also is useful in training personnel who must develop an understanding of particular systems. FEAT facilitates training on system behavior, by providing an automated environment in which to conduct 'what-if' evaluation. These types of analyses make FEAT a valuable tool for engineers and operations personnel in the design, analysis, and operation of NASA space systems.

  16. Actively Controlled Shaft Seals for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  17. Analysis of active renin heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Katz, S A; Malvin, R L; Lee, J; Kim, S H; Murray, R D; Opsahl, J A; Abraham, P A

    1991-09-01

    Active renin is a heterogeneous enzyme that can be separated into multiple forms with high-resolution isoelectric focusing. The isoelectric heterogeneity may result from differences in glycosylation between the different forms. In order to determine the relationship between active renin heterogeneity and differences in composition or attachment of oligosaccharides, two separate experiments were performed: (i) Tunicamycin, which interferes with normal glycosylation processing, increased the proportion of relatively basic renin forms secreted into the incubation media by rat renal cortical slices. (ii) Endoglycosidase F, which enzymatically removes carbohydrate from some classes of glycoprotein, similarly increased the proportion of relatively basic forms when incubated with active human recombinant renin. In addition, further studies with inhibitors of human renin activity revealed that the heterogeneous renin forms were similarly inhibited by two separate renin inhibitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that renin isoelectric heterogeneity is due in part to differences in carbohydrate moiety attachment and that the heterogeneity of renin does not influence access of direct renin inhibitors to the active site of renin.

  18. Analysis of active renin heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Katz, S A; Malvin, R L; Lee, J; Kim, S H; Murray, R D; Opsahl, J A; Abraham, P A

    1991-09-01

    Active renin is a heterogeneous enzyme that can be separated into multiple forms with high-resolution isoelectric focusing. The isoelectric heterogeneity may result from differences in glycosylation between the different forms. In order to determine the relationship between active renin heterogeneity and differences in composition or attachment of oligosaccharides, two separate experiments were performed: (i) Tunicamycin, which interferes with normal glycosylation processing, increased the proportion of relatively basic renin forms secreted into the incubation media by rat renal cortical slices. (ii) Endoglycosidase F, which enzymatically removes carbohydrate from some classes of glycoprotein, similarly increased the proportion of relatively basic forms when incubated with active human recombinant renin. In addition, further studies with inhibitors of human renin activity revealed that the heterogeneous renin forms were similarly inhibited by two separate renin inhibitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that renin isoelectric heterogeneity is due in part to differences in carbohydrate moiety attachment and that the heterogeneity of renin does not influence access of direct renin inhibitors to the active site of renin. PMID:1908097

  19. Neutron activation analysis of a penny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Richard E.

    2000-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used for many years as an analysis tool and as an educational tool to teach students about nuclear properties. This article presents an exercise in the neutron activation analysis of a penny which, due to the simplicity of the resulting gamma-ray spectra, is appropriate for general physics classes. Students express a great deal of interest both in seeing the reactor in use as well as determining the composition of something that is familiar to them.

  20. LACBWR primary shield activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L.L.; Lahti, G.P.; Johnson, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    Nuclear power plants in the US are required to estimate the costs of decommissioning to ensure that adequate funds are accumulated during the useful life of the plant. A major component of the decommissioning cost is the disposal of radioactive material, including material near the reactor created by neutron activation. An accurate assessment of the residual radioactivity in the reactor`s primary shield is necessary to determine this portion of the decommissioning demolition and disposal cost. This paper describes the efforts used to determine the activation levels remaining in the primary shield of the LaCrosse boiling water reactor (LACBWR), owned and operated by Dairyland Power Cooperative.

  1. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ≥2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ≥128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars.

  2. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ≥2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ≥128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars. PMID:24766361

  3. Analysis and Application of Microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lu

    New trends of generating electricity locally and utilizing non-conventional or renewable energy sources have attracted increasing interests due to the gradual depletion of conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The new type of power generation is called Distributed Generation (DG) and the energy sources utilized by Distributed Generation are termed Distributed Energy Sources (DERs). With DGs embedded in the distribution networks, they evolve from passive distribution networks to active distribution networks enabling bidirectional power flows in the networks. Further incorporating flexible and intelligent controllers and employing future technologies, active distribution networks will turn to a Microgrid. A Microgrid is a small-scale, low voltage Combined with Heat and Power (CHP) supply network designed to supply electrical and heat loads for a small community. To further implement Microgrids, a sophisticated Microgrid Management System must be integrated. However, due to the fact that a Microgrid has multiple DERs integrated and is likely to be deregulated, the ability to perform real-time OPF and economic dispatch with fast speed advanced communication network is necessary. In this thesis, first, problems such as, power system modelling, power flow solving and power system optimization, are studied. Then, Distributed Generation and Microgrid are studied and reviewed, including a comprehensive review over current distributed generation technologies and Microgrid Management Systems, etc. Finally, a computer-based AC optimization method which minimizes the total transmission loss and generation cost of a Microgrid is proposed and a wireless communication scheme based on synchronized Code Division Multiple Access (sCDMA) is proposed. The algorithm is tested with a 6-bus power system and a 9-bus power system.

  4. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  5. Soils Activity Mobility Study: Methodology and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, Alissa; Yucel, Vefa

    2014-09-29

    This report presents a three-level approach for estimation of sediment transport to provide an assessment of potential erosion risk for sites at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are posted for radiological purposes and where migration is suspected or known to occur due to storm runoff. Based on the assessed risk, the appropriate level of effort can be determined for analysis of radiological surveys, field experiments to quantify erosion and transport rates, and long-term monitoring. The method is demonstrated at contaminated sites, including Plutonium Valley, Shasta, Smoky, and T-1. The Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee (PSIAC) procedure is selected as the Level 1 analysis tool. The PSIAC method provides an estimation of the total annual sediment yield based on factors derived from the climatic and physical characteristics of a watershed. If the results indicate low risk, then further analysis is not warranted. If the Level 1 analysis indicates high risk or is deemed uncertain, a Level 2 analysis using the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) is proposed. In addition, if a sediment yield for a storm event rather than an annual sediment yield is needed, then the proposed Level 2 analysis should be performed. MUSLE only provides sheet and rill erosion estimates. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) provides storm peak runoff rate and storm volumes, the inputs necessary for MUSLE. Channel Sediment Transport (CHAN-SED) I and II models are proposed for estimating sediment deposition or erosion in a channel reach from a storm event. These models require storm hydrograph associated sediment concentration and bed load particle size distribution data. When the Level 2 analysis indicates high risk for sediment yield and associated contaminant migration or when there is high uncertainty in the Level 2 results, the sites can be further evaluated with a Level 3 analysis using more complex

  6. Graphene active plasmonics for terahertz device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi; Dubinov, Alexander; Ryzhii, Maxim; Boubanga Tombet, Stephane; Satou, Akira; Mitin, Vladimir; Shur, Michael S.; Ryzhii, Victor

    2015-05-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the double-graphene-layer (DGL) active plasmonic heterostructures for the terahertz (THz) device applications. The DGL consists of a core shell in which a thin tunnel barrier layer is sandwiched by the two GLs being independently connected with the side contacts and outer gate stack layers at both sides. The DGL core shell works as a nano-capacitor, exhibiting inter-GL resonant tunneling (RT) when the band offset between the two GLs is aligned. The RT produces a strong nonlinearity with a negative differential conductance in the DGL current-voltage characteristics. The excitation of the graphene plasmons by the THz radiation resonantly modulates the tunneling currentvoltage characteristics. When the band offset is aligned to the THz photon energy, the DGL structure can mediate photonassisted RT, resulting in resonant emission or detection of the THz radiation. The cooperative double-resonant excitation with structure-sensitive graphene plasmons gives rise to various functionalities such as rectification (detection), photomixing, higher harmonic generation, and self-oscillation, in the THz device implementations.

  7. Azaglycomimetics: Natural Occurrence, Biological Activity, and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Naoki

    A large number of alkaloids mimicking the structures of monosaccharides or oligosaccharides have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. The sugar mimicking alkaloids with a nitrogen in the ring are called azasugars or iminosugars. Naturally occurring azasugars are classified into five structural classes: polyhydroxylated piperidines, pyrrolidines, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and nortropanes. They are easily soluble in water because of their polyhydroxylated structures and inhibit glycosidases because of a structural resemblance to the sugar moiety of the natural substrate. Glycosidases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic processes, such as digestion, lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, biosynthesis of glycoproteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and ER-associated degradation of glycoproteins. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo by inhibitors is of great interest from a therapeutic point of view. Azasugars are an important class of glycosidase inhibitors and are arousing great interest for instance as antidiabetics, antiobesity drugs, antivirals, and therapeutic agents for some genetic disorders. This review describes the recent studies on isolation, characterization, glycosidase inhibitory activity, and therapeutic application of azaglycomimetics.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and applications of polyanilineTi(IV)arsenophosphate adsorbent for the analysis of organic and inorganic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bushra, Rani; Shahadat, Mohammad; Ahmad, Anees; Nabi, S A; Umar, Khalid; Oves, M; Raeissi, A S; Muneer, M

    2014-01-15

    A novel polyaniline based composite cation exchange material has been synthesized by simple chemical route and characterized on the basis of sophisticated techniques. XRD and SEM analyses reveal the amorphous morphology of the material. The partition coefficient studies of different metal ions on the material were performed in DMW and diverse concentrations of HClO4 solutions. On the basis of high Kd values some significant separations of heavy toxic metal ions were achieved from synthetic mixtures as well as tap water samples by using columns of this exchanger. For the optimum adsorption of dye on the material, the effect of various parameters along with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm were examined. The observed result of conducting measurement indicates that the material covers semiconductor range. The photochemical degradation of industrial dyes and antimicrobial activity were also investigated which show significant results than some of the known antibiotics. On the basis of good ion exchange capacity along with photochemical degradation and microbial activity, polyanilineTi(IV)arsenophosphate can be considered as an excellent conducting material for the treatment metal ions and degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:24238807

  9. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and applications of polyanilineTi(IV)arsenophosphate adsorbent for the analysis of organic and inorganic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bushra, Rani; Shahadat, Mohammad; Ahmad, Anees; Nabi, S A; Umar, Khalid; Oves, M; Raeissi, A S; Muneer, M

    2014-01-15

    A novel polyaniline based composite cation exchange material has been synthesized by simple chemical route and characterized on the basis of sophisticated techniques. XRD and SEM analyses reveal the amorphous morphology of the material. The partition coefficient studies of different metal ions on the material were performed in DMW and diverse concentrations of HClO4 solutions. On the basis of high Kd values some significant separations of heavy toxic metal ions were achieved from synthetic mixtures as well as tap water samples by using columns of this exchanger. For the optimum adsorption of dye on the material, the effect of various parameters along with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm were examined. The observed result of conducting measurement indicates that the material covers semiconductor range. The photochemical degradation of industrial dyes and antimicrobial activity were also investigated which show significant results than some of the known antibiotics. On the basis of good ion exchange capacity along with photochemical degradation and microbial activity, polyanilineTi(IV)arsenophosphate can be considered as an excellent conducting material for the treatment metal ions and degradation of organic pollutants.

  10. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. The techniques include a finite difference step size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with plans for dealing with some of those needs.

  11. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications, and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Some innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. These techniques include a finite-difference step-size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, a simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Finally, some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with Langley plans for dealing with some of these needs.

  12. Voxel-Based LIDAR Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrom, Shea T.

    One of the greatest recent changes in the field of remote sensing is the addition of high-quality Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments. In particular, the past few decades have been greatly beneficial to these systems because of increases in data collection speed and accuracy, as well as a reduction in the costs of components. These improvements allow modern airborne instruments to resolve sub-meter details, making them ideal for a wide variety of applications. Because LIDAR uses active illumination to capture 3D information, its output is fundamentally different from other modalities. Despite this difference, LIDAR datasets are often processed using methods appropriate for 2D images and that do not take advantage of its primary virtue of 3-dimensional data. It is this problem we explore by using volumetric voxel modeling. Voxel-based analysis has been used in many applications, especially medical imaging, but rarely in traditional remote sensing. In part this is because the memory requirements are substantial when handling large areas, but with modern computing and storage this is no longer a significant impediment. Our reason for using voxels to model scenes from LIDAR data is that there are several advantages over standard triangle-based models, including better handling of overlapping surfaces and complex shapes. We show how incorporating system position information from early in the LIDAR point cloud generation process allows radiometrically-correct transmission and other novel voxel properties to be recovered. This voxelization technique is validated on simulated data using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software, a first-principles based ray-tracer developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Voxel-based modeling of LIDAR can be useful on its own, but we believe its primary advantage is when applied to problems where simpler surface-based 3D models conflict with the requirement of realistic geometry. To

  13. Environmental applications of the particle analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.

    1993-09-28

    This study demonstrates the applicability of particle counting technology for analysis of various water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Particle Analysis System described in this study determined the water quality of samples from environmental remediation, stormwater treatment, and drinking water treatment operations. Samples were measured in either discrete or on-line mode. This data showed filtration efficiencies, particle counts, particle size distributions, and real-time treatment system performance. Particle counting proved more sensitive than the turbidimetric measurement technique commonly used by the water treatment industry. Particle counting is a two-dimensional measurement of counts and sizes, whereas turbidity is a one-dimensional measurement of water clarity. Samples showing identical turbidities could be distinguished easily with the Particle Analysis System. The Particle Analysis System proved to be an efficient and reliable water quality measurement tool, and it is applicable to a variety of water treatment systems at the Rocky Flats Plant.

  14. Diffractive micro-arrays for active spectroscopy and interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Xu, Bai; Gutin, Olga N.; Lavrijsen, Rein; Stollenwerk, Andrew

    2002-06-01

    The use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology has opened the door for many applications. In particular, by exploiting the reconfigurability of optical surfaces fabricated with this technology, many sensor, communication and spectroscopic systems can benefit. The controlled re-direction of single or multiple optical input sources can lend itself to high throughput sample analysis or massively parallel optical connectivity. In addition, the change in a MEMS-based optical surface can result in a flexible spectral analysis of incoming radiation. We report on the recent advances in our projects which are focused on the design/simulation, materials processing and integration issues involved with the creation and optimized operation of such diffractive micro-arrays. In this presentation, the state of the art in such devices will be presented which will include the process flow associated with production, structural metrology, optical performance, and parallel switching capabilities of the systems. The use of numerous materials including polysilicon, silicon dioxide and selected polymers as structural layers has enabled the production of devices which can be tailored for specific, performance related applications. Examples to be presented include diffractive surfaces with substantial (1 cm x 1 cm) active areas as well as large arrays with sub-micron feature sizes. Functional integration of the prototype devices include optical interconnects, active spectroscopy and bio/chem diagnostic systems.

  15. Principles and clinical applications of image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1988-12-01

    Image processing has traveled to the lunar surface and back, finding its way into the clinical laboratory. Advances in digital computers have improved the technology of image analysis, resulting in a wide variety of medical applications. Offering improvements in turnaround time, standardized systems, increased precision, and walkaway automation, digital image analysis has likely found a permanent home as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of microscopic as well as macroscopic laboratory images.

  16. Adaptive Multi-Layer LMS Controller Design and Application to Active Vibration Suppression on a Truss and Proposed Impact Analysis Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Timothy A.; Shin, Y. S.; Agrawal, B. N.

    2001-01-01

    This research develops an adaptive controller that actively suppresses a single frequency disturbance source at a remote position and tests the system on the NPS Space Truss. The experimental results are then compared to those predicted by an ANSYS finite element model. The NPS space truss is a 3.7-meter long truss that simulates a space-borne appendage with sensitive equipment mounted at its extremities. One of two installed piezoelectric actuators and an Adaptive Multi-Layer LMS control law were used to effectively eliminate an axial component of the vibrations induced by a linear proof mass actuator mounted at one end of the truss. Experimental and analytical results both demonstrate reductions to the level of system noise. Vibration reductions in excess of 50dB were obtained through experimentation and over 100dB using ANSYS, demonstrating the ability to model this system with a finite element model. This report also proposes a method to use distributed quartz accelerometers to evaluate the location, direction, and energy of impacts on the NPS space truss using the dSPACE data acquisition and processing system to capture the structural response and compare it to known reference Signals.

  17. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  18. Energy analysis: a review of theory and applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, N.J.; Baines, J.T.

    1986-02-01

    Energy analysis is a means of developing a precise physical description of the operation of real-world processes. Its main application is in the determination of the energy consequences of carrying out physical activities such as the production of goods and services in an economy. To a significant extent, energy analysis has grown up because of what a number of workers believe to be inadequacies in the ability of conventional economic methodologies to handle problems relating to the use of resources, particularly nonrenewable reserves of fossil fuel. The review describes the history and development of energy analysis, its theoretical origins in thermodynamics, and its applications. The different perspectives of energetic and economic methods of analysis are contrasted, and their conflicts and complementarities are illuminated.

  19. A forensic application of PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Warren, M. W.; Falsetti, A. B.

    2001-07-01

    PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone.

  20. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in yeast.

    PubMed

    Elion, Elaine A; Sahoo, Rupam

    2010-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play central roles in transmitting extracellular and intracellular information in a wide variety of situations in eukaryotic cells. Their activities are perturbed in a large number of diseases, and their activating kinases are currently therapeutic targets in cancer. MAPKs are highly conserved among all eukaryotes. MAPKs were first cloned from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast has five MAPKs and one MAPK-like kinase. The mating MAPK Fus3 is the best characterized yeast MAPK. Members of all subfamilies of human MAPKs can functionally substitute S. cerevisiae MAPKs, providing systems to use genetic approaches to study the functions of either yeast or human MAPKs and to identify functionally relevant amino acid residues that enhance or reduce the effects of therapeutically relevant inhibitors and regulatory proteins. Here, we describe an assay to measure Fus3 activity in immune complexes prepared from S. cerevisiae extracts. The assay conditions are applicable to other MAPKs, as well. PMID:20811996

  1. Applications toolkit for accelerator control and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1997-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has taken a unique approach to creating high-level software applications for accelerator operation and analysis. The approach is based on self-describing data, modular program toolkits, and scripts. Self-describing data provide a communication standard that aids the creation of modular program toolkits by allowing compliant programs to be used in essentially arbitrary combinations. These modular programs can be used as part of an arbitrary number of high-level applications. At APS, a group of about 70 data analysis, manipulation, and display tools is used in concert with about 20 control-system-specific tools to implement applications for commissioning and operations. High-level applications are created using scripts, which are relatively simple interpreted programs. The Tcl/Tk script language is used, allowing creating of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and a library of algorithms that are separate from the interface. This last factor allows greater automation of control by making it easy to take the human out of the loop. Applications of this methodology to operational tasks such as orbit correction, configuration management, and data review will be discussed.

  2. Medically related activities of application team program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Application team methodology identifies and specifies problems in technology transfer programs to biomedical areas through direct contact with users of aerospace technology. The availability of reengineering sources increases impact of the program on the medical community and results in broad scale application of some bioinstrumentation systems. Examples are given that include devices adapted to the rehabilitation of neuromuscular disorders, power sources for artificial organs, and automated monitoring and detection equipment in clinical medicine.

  3. Programmable multi-timer for TRU waste analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.S.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tsang, F.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable, multiple-function timing module has been developed for use in transuranic (TRU) waste analysis applications at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Programmable Multi-Timer (PRMT) is an expanded version of a module originally built for accelerator-based active photon interrogation experiments. During the course of the experiments, it became obvious that a more versatile timer was needed to meet several unforeseen requirements. The PRMT was designed to meet the new requirements and to serve as a general-purpose timing module for other applications.

  4. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  5. Application of critical path analysis in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research operates in a strictly regulated environment under various management models, but a distinct management model of clinical trial (CT) still needs exploration and research. Critical path analysis (CPA) is a management approach can be used for monitoring, analysis, and prediction of success of its time-bound operational activities. A model CT was compiled with 78 activities, which were further merged into 35 major activities. After performing dependence analysis, the list was finalized with 25 activities which were taken in activity predecessor to create a network diagram and perform CPA considering patients, conduct, and outcome. Activities were inclusive, described the trial entirely with accuracy, and were in chronological and logical sequences. This approach does not replace an understanding of or adherence to the requirements contained in all applicable regulations, guidelines or standard operating procedures governing clinical studies but ensures the proper use of operational and decisional approaches including optimal resource management. As the need to meet deadlines becomes more important and the need to produce good, stable project plans, CPA is very useful for determining activities that can lead to project delay. With this approach, project may be effectively monitored, and realistic schedules can be maintained. PMID:26955606

  6. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  7. IR Activities. IR Applications, Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Stephen; Gerek, Mary Louise

    2007-01-01

    Institutional research is the sum total of all activities directed at describing the full spectrum of functions (educational, administrative, and support) occurring within a college or university. Institutional research activities examine those functions in their broadest definitions, and embrace data collection and analytical strategies in…

  8. Applications of gray relational analysis in gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xue-Rui; Li, Yu-Guang; Chen, Ming-Zhe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To introduce the basic methods of gray relational analysis (GRA) and to illustrate its applications in gastroenterology. METHODS: With the essential formulae of GRA and several typically practical examples, the procedure of GRA was introduced. Examples were drawn from the gastroenterological studies. Thus the trait of GRA could be demonstrated. RESULTS: The superiority of GRA in gastroenterological study was proved by the examples. CONCLUSION: GRA can be applied mechanically or flexibly in gastroenterology. PMID:15948254

  9. Radioactivity analysis in niobium activation foils

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.E.

    1995-06-01

    The motivation for this study was to measure and analyze the activity of six (6) niobium (Nb) foils (the x-rays from an internal transition in Nb-93m) and apply this information with previously obtained activation foil data. The niobium data was used to determine the epithermal to MeV range for the neutron spectrum and fluence. The foil activation data was re-evaluated in a spectrum analysis code (STAY`SL) to provide new estimates of the exposure at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effect Facility (LASREF). The activity of the niobium foils was measured and analyzed at the University of Missouri-Columbia (UMC) under the direction of Professor William Miller. The spectrum analysis was performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) by Professor Gary Mueller.

  10. Fractal analysis of granular activated carbons using isotherm data

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, N.R.; Pan, M.; Sandi, G.

    1997-08-01

    Utilization of adsorption on solid surfaces was exercised for the first time in 1785. Practical application of unactivated carbon filters, and powdered carbon were first demonstrated in the American water treatment plant, and a municipal treatment plant in New Jersey, in 1883 and 1930, respectively. The use of activated carbon became widespread in the next few decades. At present, adsorption on carbons has a wide spread application in water treatment and removal of taste, odor, removal of synthetic organic chemicals, color-forming organics, and desinfection by-products and their naturally occurring precursors. This paper presents an analysis of the surface fractal dimension and adsorption capacity of a group of carbons.

  11. Image analysis to measure activity index of animals.

    PubMed

    Bloemen, H; Aerts, J M; Berckmans, D; Goedseels, V

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the study was to present a method to quantify the behavioural response of animals to their micro-environment by using a camera system and a digitiser board. An algorithm was developed for analysing images and calculating activity, occupied zone and boundary of the animals. The developed method was tested on 3 different applications and animals. In the first application, the behavioural responses of broiler chickens to their thermal environment was measured. In the second application behavioural responses of pigs to their thermal environment were measured. In the third application, the response of water fleas to a chromium pollution was measured using the developed technique. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the developed image analysis technique can be employed to quantify the behavioural responses of the tested animals to their micro-environment, in an easy and accurate way.

  12. Au@Ag Heterogeneous Nanorods as Nanozyme Interfaces with Peroxidase-Like Activity and Their Application for One-Pot Analysis of Glucose at Nearly Neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Li, Cuncheng; Zhang, Tao; Lang, Qiaolin; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-01

    As substitutes for natural peroxidases, most nanomaterial-based enzyme mimetics (nanozymes) have unique properties such as high stability, low-cost, large surface area, and high catalytic activity. However, they usually work in acidic conditions and thus impede their real applications. In this work, by modulating the nanostructure, composition, and surface property of the bimetallic materials, the positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium)-stabilized Au@Ag heterogeneous nanorods (NRs) were developed as synergistic peroxidase-like interfaces, which exhibited high activity over a wide pH range (pH 4.0-6.5) using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as the chromogenic substrate. At pH 6.5, the peroxidase-like activity for the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs was stable and optimal within 20-40 °C. Moreover, the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs showed excellent temperature stability and long-term storage stability. Given these characters, the detection of H2O2 at pH 6.5 was proposed on the basis of the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs catalyzing the colorimetric reaction of H2O2 and ABTS, where the oxidized ABTS showed a typical absorption peak at 414 nm. The absorbance at 414 nm was linear with H2O2 concentration from 0.01 to 10 mM. Further, considering that Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs and glucose oxidase (GOx) have similar optimal pH for catalytic activities, a novel one-pot method for the detection of glucose was developed by the coupled catalytic reaction using GOx, Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, and ABTS at nearly neutral pH (pH 6.5) and 37 °C. This proposed method had simple and rapid processes, wide linear range (0.05-20 mM), and reliability for the successful analysis of real samples. On the basis of these attractive and unique characteristics, Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs can become promising substitutes for peroxidase in analytical chemistry and environmental science.

  13. Au@Ag Heterogeneous Nanorods as Nanozyme Interfaces with Peroxidase-Like Activity and Their Application for One-Pot Analysis of Glucose at Nearly Neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Li, Cuncheng; Zhang, Tao; Lang, Qiaolin; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-01

    As substitutes for natural peroxidases, most nanomaterial-based enzyme mimetics (nanozymes) have unique properties such as high stability, low-cost, large surface area, and high catalytic activity. However, they usually work in acidic conditions and thus impede their real applications. In this work, by modulating the nanostructure, composition, and surface property of the bimetallic materials, the positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium)-stabilized Au@Ag heterogeneous nanorods (NRs) were developed as synergistic peroxidase-like interfaces, which exhibited high activity over a wide pH range (pH 4.0-6.5) using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as the chromogenic substrate. At pH 6.5, the peroxidase-like activity for the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs was stable and optimal within 20-40 °C. Moreover, the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs showed excellent temperature stability and long-term storage stability. Given these characters, the detection of H2O2 at pH 6.5 was proposed on the basis of the Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs catalyzing the colorimetric reaction of H2O2 and ABTS, where the oxidized ABTS showed a typical absorption peak at 414 nm. The absorbance at 414 nm was linear with H2O2 concentration from 0.01 to 10 mM. Further, considering that Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs and glucose oxidase (GOx) have similar optimal pH for catalytic activities, a novel one-pot method for the detection of glucose was developed by the coupled catalytic reaction using GOx, Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, and ABTS at nearly neutral pH (pH 6.5) and 37 °C. This proposed method had simple and rapid processes, wide linear range (0.05-20 mM), and reliability for the successful analysis of real samples. On the basis of these attractive and unique characteristics, Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs can become promising substitutes for peroxidase in analytical chemistry and environmental science. PMID:26076372

  14. Gamete activation: basic knowledge and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Ménézo, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The first clues to the process of gamete activation date back to nearly 60 years ago. The mutual activation of gametes is a crucial event during fertilization. In the testis and ovaries, spermatozoa and oocytes are in a state of meiotic and metabolic quiescence and require reciprocal signals in order to undergo functional changes that lead to competence for fertilization. First, the oocyte activates sperm by triggering motility, chemoattraction, binding and the acrosome reaction, culminating with the fusion of the two plasma membranes. At the end of this cascade of events, collectively known as sperm capacitation, sperm-induced oocyte activation occurs, generating electrical, morphological and metabolic modifications in the oocyte. Objective and rationale The aim of this review is to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the entire process of gamete activation in selected specific animal models that have contributed to our understanding of fertilization in mammals, including humans. Here we describe in detail the reciprocal induction of the two activation processes, the molecules involved and the mechanisms of cell interaction and signal transduction that ultimately result in successful embryo development and creation of a new individual. Search methods We carried out a literature survey with no restrictions on publication date (from the early 1950s to March 2016) using PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Knowledge by utilizing common keywords applied in the field of fertilization and embryo development. We also screened the complete list of references published in the most recent research articles and relevant reviews published in English (both animal and human studies) on the topics investigated. Outcomes Literature on the principal animal models demonstrates that gamete activation is a pre-requisite for successful fertilization, and is a process common to all species studied to date. We provide a detailed description of the dramatic

  15. Multidisciplinary analysis of actively controlled large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    The control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program has supported the development of an analysis capability at the Langley Research Center called the Integrated Multidisciplinary Analysis Tool (IMAT) which provides an efficient data storage and transfer capability among commercial computer codes to aid in the dynamic analysis of actively controlled structures. IMAT is a system of computer programs which transfers Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) configurations, structural finite element models, material property and stress information, structural and rigid-body dynamic model information, and linear system matrices for control law formulation among various commercial applications programs through a common database. Although general in its formulation, IMAT was developed specifically to aid in the evaluation of the structures. A description of the IMAT system and results of an application of the system are given.

  16. Pharmacological Activities and Applications of Spicatoside A

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Mahesh; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Liriopogons (Liriope and Opiopogon) species are used as a main medicinal ingredient in several Asian countries. The Liriopes Radix (tuber, root of Liriope platyphylla) has to be a promising candidate due to their source of phytochemicals. Steroidal saponins and their glycosides, phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites are considered of active constituents in Liriopes Radix. Spicatoside A, a steroidal saponin, could be more efficacious drug candidate in future. In this review, we summarized the available knowledge on phytochemical and pharmacological activities for spicatoside A. It significantly suppressed the level of NF-κB, NO, iNOS, Cox-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and MAPKs in LPS-stimulated inflammation. The production of MUC5AC mucin was increased. MMP-13 expression was down-regulated in IL-1β-treated cells and reduced glycosaminoglycan release from IL-1α-treated cells. The neurite outgrowth activity, PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, TrkA and CREB phosphorylation and neurotropic factors such as NGF and BDNF were upregulated with increased latency time. It also showed cell growth inhibitory activity on various carcinoma cells. From this, spicatoside A exerts anti-inflammation, anti-asthma, anti-osteoclastogenesis, neurite outgrowth, memory consolidation and anticancer activities. Further studies are needed on spicatoside A in order to understand mechanisms of action to treat various human diseases. PMID:27169821

  17. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.

  18. Applications of magnetically active fibre reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etches, Julie; Bond, Ian; Mellor, Philip

    2005-05-01

    As the application of fibre reinforced polymer composites (FRP) becomes more widespread there is a desire to add functionality beyond that of simple mechanical properties in order to facilitate the development of 'smart' materials. For example, the functionality being discussed in this paper is the imparting of significant magnetic properties to a FRP. This can take the form of soft magnetic performance for use in electrical machines or hard magnetic performance for novel forms of sensing or power generation. It has been demonstrated that by using hollow glass fibres as a reinforcement, magnetic material can be introduced into these fibres without significant effects on the structural behaviour of the FRP. The current studies have included the assessment of such a magnetic FRP in a variety of applications. The addition of hard magnetic materials, e.g. magnetite and barium ferrite, has been achieved through the use of nanopowders and the resulting FRP has been assessed for morphing structures applications. The magnitude of magnetic performance that can be currently achieved is controlled by the availability of suitable magnetic materials in fine powder form and the volume of magnetic material which can be incorporated within the fibres.

  19. Information theory applications for biological sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Vinga, Susana

    2014-05-01

    Information theory (IT) addresses the analysis of communication systems and has been widely applied in molecular biology. In particular, alignment-free sequence analysis and comparison greatly benefited from concepts derived from IT, such as entropy and mutual information. This review covers several aspects of IT applications, ranging from genome global analysis and comparison, including block-entropy estimation and resolution-free metrics based on iterative maps, to local analysis, comprising the classification of motifs, prediction of transcription factor binding sites and sequence characterization based on linguistic complexity and entropic profiles. IT has also been applied to high-level correlations that combine DNA, RNA or protein features with sequence-independent properties, such as gene mapping and phenotype analysis, and has also provided models based on communication systems theory to describe information transmission channels at the cell level and also during evolutionary processes. While not exhaustive, this review attempts to categorize existing methods and to indicate their relation with broader transversal topics such as genomic signatures, data compression and complexity, time series analysis and phylogenetic classification, providing a resource for future developments in this promising area.

  20. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  1. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-01

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  2. Semi-active suspension for automotive application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venhovens, Paul J. T.; Devlugt, Alex R.

    The theoretical considerations for semi-active damping system evaluation, with respect to semi-active suspension and Kalman filtering, are discussed in terms of the software. Some prototype hardware developments are proposed. A significant improvement in ride comfort performance can be obtained, indicated by root mean square body acceleration values and frequency responses, using a switchable damper system with two settings. Nevertheless the improvement is accompanied by an increase in dynamic tire load variations. The main benefit of semi-active suspensions is the potential of changing the low frequency section of the transfer function. In practice this will support the impression of extra driving stability. It is advisable to apply an adaptive control strategy like the (extended) skyhook version switching more to the 'comfort' setting for straight (and smooth/moderate roughness) road running and switching to 'road holding' for handling maneuvers and possibly rough roads and discrete, severe events like potholes.

  3. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  4. Computer-automated neutron activation analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. 5 references.

  5. Risk assessment and its application to flight safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, D.L.; Barton, W.R.

    1989-12-01

    Potentially hazardous test activities have historically been a part of Sandia National Labs mission to design, develop, and test new weapons systems. These test activities include high speed air drops for parachute development, sled tests for component and system level studies, multiple stage rocket experiments, and artillery firings of various projectiles. Due to the nature of Sandia's test programs, the risk associated with these activities can never be totally eliminated. However, a consistent set of policies should be available to provide guidance into the level of risk that is acceptable in these areas. This report presents a general set of guidelines for addressing safety issues related to rocket flight operations at Sandia National Laboratories. Even though the majority of this report deals primarily with rocket flight safety, these same principles could be applied to other hazardous test activities. The basic concepts of risk analysis have a wide range of applications into many of Sandia's current operations. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of brain activity in magnetic influenced Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Adamopoulos, A V; Kotini, A; Tsagas, N

    2000-01-01

    Magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings were obtained from the brain of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) using the Superconductive Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). For each patient the magnetic activity was recorded from a total of 64 points of the skull (32 points from each temporal lobe) as defined by a recording reference system, which is based on the 10-20 Electrode Placement System. Some of the recorded points were observed to exhibit abnormal rhythmic activity, characterized by high amplitudes and low frequencies. External magnetic stimulation (EMS) with intensity 1-7.5pT, and frequency the alpha-rhythm of the patient (8-13 Hz) was applied in the left-right temporal, frontal-occipital and vertex (2 minutes over each of the above regions) and the brain magnetic activity was recorded again. The application of the EMS resulted in rapid attenuation of the MEG activity of PD patients. Furthermore, chaotic dynamic methods were used, in order to estimate the correlation dimension D of the reconstructed phase spaces. The estimated values of D, in conjunction with the results derived from the other data analysis methods, strongly support the existence of low dimension chaotic structures in the dynamics of cortical activity of PD patients. In addition, the increased values of D of the MEG after the application of EMS when compared with the corresponding ones obtained from the MEGs prior to the EMS, suggest that the neural dynamics are strongly influenced by the application of EMS. PMID:11154103

  7. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Virology and Microbial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harz, Michaela; Stöckel, Stephan; Ciobotă, Valerian; Cialla, Dana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    This chapter reports from the utilization of Raman spectroscopic techniques like Raman microscopy, Raman optical activity (ROA), UV-resonance Raman (UVRR)-spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for the investigation of viruses and microorganisms, especially bacteria and yeasts for medical and pharmaceutical applications. The application of these Raman techniques allows for the analysis of chemical components of cells and subcellular regions, as well as the monitoring of chemical differences occurring as a result of the growth of microorganisms. In addition, the interaction of microorganisms with active pharmaceutical agents can be investigated. In combination with chemometric methods Raman spectroscopy can also be applied to identify microorganisms both in micro colonies and even on single cells.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Corey Thuen

    2013-01-01

    The On-Device Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Applications (ODAMA) project was started in an effort to protect mobile devices used in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from cyber attack. Because mobile devices hide as much of the “computer” as possible, the user’s ability to assess the software running on their system is limited. The research team chose Google’s Android platform for this initial research because it is open source and it would give us freedom in our approach, including the ability to modify the mobile device’s operating system itself. The research team concluded that a Privileged Application was the right approach, and the result was ODAMA. This project is an important piece of the work to secure the expanding use of mobile devices with our nation’s critical infrastructure.

  9. Potential Applications of Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xu; Li, Yimin; Lu, Zheng-Tian

    2000-06-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis, based on the techniques of laser cooling and trapping, has recently been used to detect the rare 81Kr (isotope abundance 10-12) atoms in atmospheric krypton samples [1]. This method can be used to analyze many other isotope tracers for a wide range of applications including measuring solar neutrino flux, searching for exotic particles, tracing atmospheric and oceanic currents, archeological and geological dating, monitoring bone-loss rates in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis, monitoring fission products in the environment for nuclear waste management, etc. We will discuss these potential applications at this poster. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics Division (Contract W-31-109-ENG-38). [1] C.Y. Chen et. al., Science 286, 1139 (1999).

  10. Various applications of Active Field Control (AFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Hideo; Kishinaga, Shinji; Kawakami, Fukushi

    2003-10-01

    AFC is an electro-acoustic enhancement system, which has been under development at Yamaha Corporation. In this paper, several types of various AFC applications are discussed, while referring to representative projects for each application in Japan. (1) Realization of acoustics in a huge hall to classical music program, e.g., Tokyo International Forum. This venue is a multipurpose hall with approximately 5000 seats. AFC achieves loudness and reverberance equivalent to those of a hall with 2500 seats or fewer. (2) Optimization of acoustics for a variety of programs, e.g., Arkas Sasebo. AFC is used to create the optimum acoustics for each program, such as reverberance for classical concerts, acoustical support for opera singers, uniformity throughout the hall from the stage to under-balcony area, etc. (3) Control of room shape acoustical effect, e.g., Osaka Central Public Hall: In this renovation project, preservation of historically important architecture in the original form is required. AFC is installed to vary only the acoustical environment without architectural changes. (4) Assistance with crowd enthusiasm for sports entertainment, e.g., Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium. In this venue, which is designed as a very absorptive space for speech intelligibility, AFC is installed to enhance the atmosphere of live sports entertainment.

  11. Automated reasoning applications to design validation and sneak function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is actively involved in the LMFBR Man-Machine Integration (MMI) Safety Program. The objective of this program is to enhance the operational safety and reliability of fast-breeder reactors by optimum integration of men and machines through the application of human factors principles and control engineering to the design, operation, and the control environment. ANL is developing methods to apply automated reasoning and computerization in the validation and sneak function analysis process. This project provides the element definitions and relations necessary for an automated reasoner (AR) to reason about design validation and sneak function analysis. This project also provides a demonstration of this AR application on an Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) system, the Argonne Cooling System (ACS).

  12. Modeling the Benchmark Active Control Technology Wind-Tunnel Model for Active Control Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the formulation of a model of the dynamic behavior of the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for active control design and analysis applications. The model is formed by combining the equations of motion for the BACT wind tunnel model with actuator models and a model of wind tunnel turbulence. The primary focus of this report is the development of the equations of motion from first principles by using Lagrange's equations and the principle of virtual work. A numerical form of the model is generated by making use of parameters obtained from both experiment and analysis. Comparisons between experimental and analytical data obtained from the numerical model show excellent agreement and suggest that simple coefficient-based aerodynamics are sufficient to accurately characterize the aeroelastic response of the BACT wind tunnel model. The equations of motion developed herein have been used to aid in the design and analysis of a number of flutter suppression controllers that have been successfully implemented.

  13. Vehicle-mounted mine detection: test methodology, application, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, Terilee

    1998-09-01

    The Mine/Minefield detection community's maturing technology base has become a developmental resource for world wide military and humanitarian applications. During the last decade, this community has developed a variety of single and multi-sensor applications incorporating a diversity of sensor and processor technologies. These diverse developments from the Mine/Minefield detection community require appropriate metrics to objectively bound technology and to define applicability to expected military and humanitarian applications. This paper presents a survey of the test methodology, application and analysis activities conducted by the U.S. Army Communications and Electronics Command's, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) on behalf of the Mine/Minefield detection community. As needs of world wide military and humanitarian mine detection activities are being responded to by notable technology base advances, a diverse pool of knowledge has been developed. The maturity of these technology base advances must be evaluated in a more systematic method. As these technologies mature, metrics have been developed to support the development process and to define the applicability of these technology base advances. The author will review the diversity of the mine detection technology and their related testing strategies. Consideration is given to the impact of history and global realism on the U.S. Army's present mine detection testing program. Further, definitions of testing metrics and analysis will be reviewed. Finally the paper will outline future U.S. Army testing plans with a special consideration given to the Vehicular Mounted Mine Detection/Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (VMMD/GSTAMIDS) Advanced Technology Demonstration and related issues.

  14. Guidebook for analysis of tether applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended as a tool to facilitate initial analyses of proposed tether applications in space. The guiding philosophy is that a brief analysis of all the common problem areas is far more useful than a detailed study in any one area. Such analyses can minimize the waste of resources on elegant but fatally flawed concepts, and can identify the areas where more effort is needed on concepts which do survive the initial analyses. The simplified formulas, approximations, and analytical tools included should be used only for preliminary analyses. For detailed analyses, the references with each topic and in the bibliography may be useful.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.; Silverman, A.; Ouellet, C.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z

    1992-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  16. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  17. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  18. Application of Electromigration Techniques in Environmental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bald, Edward; Kubalczyk, Paweł; Studzińska, Sylwia; Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Inherently trace-level concentration of pollutants in the environment, together with the complexity of sample matrices, place a strong demand on the detection capabilities of electromigration methods. Significant progress is continually being made, widening the applicability of these techniques, mostly capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and capillary electrochromatography, to the analysis of real-world environmental samples, including the concentration sensitivity and robustness of the developed analytical procedures. This chapter covers the recent major developments in the domain of capillary electrophoresis analysis of environmental samples for pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, amines, carboxylic acids, explosives, pharmaceuticals, and ionic liquids. Emphasis is made on pre-capillary and on-capillary chromatography and electrophoresis-based concentration of analytes and detection improvement.

  19. Infrared active polarimetric imaging system controlled by image segmentation algorithms: application to decamouflage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Nicolas; Goudail, François; Plassart, Corentin; Boffety, Matthieu; Feneyrou, Patrick; Leviandier, Luc; Galland, Frédéric; Bertaux, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    We describe an active polarimetric imager with laser illumination at 1.5 µm that can generate any illumination and analysis polarization state on the Poincar sphere. Thanks to its full polarization agility and to image analysis of the scene with an ultrafast active-contour based segmentation algorithm, it can perform adaptive polarimetric contrast optimization. We demonstrate the capacity of this imager to detect manufactured objects in different types of environments for such applications as decamouflage and hazardous object detection. We compare two imaging modes having different number of polarimetric degrees of freedom and underline the characteristics that a polarimetric imager aimed at this type of applications should possess.

  20. Applications of cellular fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, D F

    1991-01-01

    More than ever, new technology is having an impact on the tools of clinical microbiologists. The analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) has become markedly more practical with the advent of the fused-silica capillary column, computer-controlled chromatography and data analysis, simplified sample preparation, and a commercially available GLC system dedicated to microbiological applications. Experience with applications in diagnostic microbiology ranges from substantial success in work with mycobacteria, legionellae, and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli to minimal involvement with fungi and other nonbacterial agents. GLC is a good alternative to other means for the identification of mycobacteria or legionellae because it is rapid, specific, and independent of other specialized testing, e.g., DNA hybridization. Nonfermenters show features in their cellular fatty acid content that are useful in identifying species and, in some cases, subspecies. Less frequently encountered nonfermenters, including those belonging to unclassified groups, can ideally be characterized by GLC. Information is just beginning to materialize on the usefulness of cellular fatty acids for the identification of gram-positive bacteria and anaerobes, despite the traditional role of GLC in detecting metabolic products as an aid to identification of anaerobes. When species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci is called for, GLC may offer an alternative to biochemical testing. Methods for direct analysis of clinical material have been developed, but in practical and economic terms they are not yet ready for use in the clinical laboratory. Direct analysis holds promise for detecting markers of infection due to an uncultivable agent or in clinical specimens that presently require cultures and prolonged incubation to yield an etiologic agent. PMID:1747860

  1. Analysis of the activity pattern of volcanoes through self-organized crack networks: The effect of density barriers—An application to Vesuvius activity in the period 1631-1944

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegari, E.; Di Maio, R.; Scandone, R.

    2013-06-01

    We simulated the pattern of activity of a strato-volcano by using a cellular automaton model where magma is allowed to ascend to the surface through self-organized crack networks. Magma rises toward the surface by filling connected paths of fractures until the magma's density is less than that of surrounding rocks. If magma enters a region with negative or neutral buoyancy, it cools and solidifies; as a result, the local density profile is modified, and magmatic dikes are formed. We simulated the temporal evolution of high-density pathways of dikes that magma may eventually utilize to reach the surface. We showed that if a shallow neutral-negative buoyancy zone is restored after eruptions, due to, for example, piecemeal or chaotic collapses, a characteristic timescale appears in the inter-event repose time distribution. Such characteristic repose time represents the average time that magma takes to form a high-density pathway through the less dense rock layer, and it may give a hint to predict possible eruptive scenarios. Even if the model includes many simplifying assumptions in the definition of magma-rock interaction, the results obtained from simulations are consistent with the eruptive behavior of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano for the 1631-1944 period.

  2. Remote sensing application to regional activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahrokhi, F.; Jones, N. L.; Sharber, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    Two agencies within the State of Tennessee were identified whereby the transfer of aerospace technology, namely remote sensing, could be applied to their stated problem areas. Their stated problem areas are wetland and land classification and strip mining studies. In both studies, LANDSAT data was analyzed with the UTSI video-input analog/digital automatic analysis and classification facility. In the West Tennessee area three land-use classifications could be distinguished; cropland, wetland, and forest. In the East Tennessee study area, measurements were submitted to statistical tests which verified the significant differences due to natural terrain, stripped areas, various stages of reclamation, water, etc. Classifications for both studies were output in the form of maps of symbols and varying shades of gray.

  3. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naillon, Martine

    1994-01-01

    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  4. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  5. Active-Twist Rotor Control Applications for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2004-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in active-twist rotor control is discussed using representative examples from analytical and experimental studies, and the application to rotary-wing UAVs is considered. Topics include vibration and noise reduction, rotor performance improvement, active blade tracking, stability augmentation, and rotor blade de-icing. A review of the current status of piezoelectric fiber composite actuator technology, the class of piezoelectric actuators implemented in active-twist rotor systems, is included.

  6. Applications of chemiluminescence to bacterial analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searle, N. D.

    1975-01-01

    Luminol chemiluminescence method for detecting bacteria was based on microbial activation of the oxidation of the luminol monoanion by hydrogen peroxide. Elimination of the prior lysing step, previously used in the chemiluminescence technique, was shown to improve considerably the reproducibility and accuracy of the method in addition to simplifying it. An inexpensive, portable photomultiplier detector was used to measure the maximum light intensity produced when the sample is added to the reagent. Studies of cooling tower water show that the luminol chemiluminescence technique can be used to monitor changes in viable cell population both under normal conditions and during chlorine treatment. Good correlation between chemiluminescence and plate counts was also obtained in the analysis of process water used in paper mills. This method showed good potential for monitoring the viable bacteria populations in activated sludge used in waste treatment plants to digest organic matter.

  7. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  8. Development of multiscale analysis and some applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lipo

    2014-11-01

    For most complex systems the interaction of different scales is among the most interesting and challenging features. Typically different scale regimes have different physical properties. The commonly used analysis approaches such as structure function and Fourier analysis have their respective limitations, for instance the mixing of large and small scale information, i.e. the so-called infrared and ultraviolet effects. To make improvement in this regard, a new method, segment structure analysis (SSA), has been developed to study the multiscale statistics. Such method can detect the regime scaling based on the conditional extremal points, depicting the geometrical features directly in physical space. From standard test cases (e.g. fractal Brownian motion) to real turbulence data, results show that SSA can appropriately distinguish the different scale effects. A successful application is the scaling of the Lagrangian velocity structure function. This long-time controversial topic has been confirmed using the present method. In principle SSA can generally be applied to various problems.

  9. Acceleration of Data Analysis Applications using GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillmore, D.; Messmer, P.; Mullowney, P.; Amyx, K.

    2008-12-01

    The vast amount of data collected by present and future scientific instruments, sensors and numerical models requires a significant increase in computing power for analysis. In many cases, processing time on a single workstation becomes impractical. While clusters of commodity processors can be utilized to accelerate some of these tasks, the relatively high software development cost, as well as acquisition and operational costs, make them less attractive for broad use. Over the past few years, another class of architectures has gained some popularity, namely heterogeneous architectures, which consist of general purpose processors connected to specialized processors. One of the most prominent examples are Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which offer a tremendous amount of floating-point processing power due to demand for high-quality graphics in the computer game market. However, in order to harness this processing power, software developers have to develop with a detailed understanding of the underlying hardware. This burden on the developer is often hardly justifiable considering the rapid evolution of the hardware. In this talk, we will introduce GPULib, an open source library that enables scientists to accelerate their data analysis tasks using the GPUs already installed in their system from within high-level languages like IDL or MATLAB, and present examples and possible speedup from real-world data analysis applications. This work is funded through NASA Phase II SBIR Grant NNG06CA13C.

  10. Application of PRA to HEMP vulnerability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mensing, R.W.

    1985-09-01

    Vulnerability analyses of large systems, e.g., control and communication centers, aircraft, ships, are subject to many uncertainties. A basic source of uncertainty is the random variation inherent in the physical world. Thus, vulnerability is appropriately described by an estimate of the probability of survival (or failure). A second source of uncertainty that also needs to be recognized is the uncertainty associated with the analysis or estimation process itself. This uncertainty, often called modeling uncertainty, has many contributors. There are the approximations introduced by using mathematical models to describe reality. Also, the appropriate values of the model parameters are derived from several sources, e.g., based on experimental or test data, based on expert judgment and opinion. In any case, these values are subject to uncertainty. This uncertainty must be considered in the description of vulnerability. Thus, the estimate of the probability of survival is not a single value but a range of values. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) is a methodology which deals with these uncertainty issues. This report discusses the application of PRA to HEMP vulnerability analyses. Vulnerability analysis and PRA are briefly outlined and the need to distinguish between random variation and modeling uncertainty is discussed. Then a sequence of steps appropriate for applying PRA to vulnerability problems is outlined. Finally, methods for handling modeling uncertainty are identified and discussed.

  11. Application of redundancy analysis for aerobiological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadyś, Magdalena; Strzelczak, Agnieszka; Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Kennedy, Roy

    2015-01-01

    An aerobiological survey was conducted through five consecutive years (2006-2010) at Worcester (England). The concentration of 20 allergenic fungal spore types was measured using a 7-day volumetric spore trap. The relationship between investigated fungal spore genera and selected meteorological parameters (maximum, minimum, mean and dew point temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, air pressure, wind direction) was examined using an ordination method (redundancy analysis) to determine which environmental factors favoured their most abundance in the air and whether it would be possible to detect similarities between different genera in their distribution pattern. Redundancy analysis provided additional information about the biology of the studied fungi through the results of the Spearman's rank correlation. Application of the variance inflation factor in canonical correspondence analysis indicated which explanatory variables were auto-correlated and needed to be excluded from further analyses. Obtained information will be consequently implemented in the selection of factors that will be a foundation for forecasting models for allergenic fungal spores in the future.

  12. Analysis of wavelet technology for NASA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. O., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to introduce a broad group of NASA researchers and administrators to wavelet technology and to determine its future role in research and development at NASA JSC. The activities of several briefings held between NASA JSC scientists and Rice University researchers are discussed. An attached paper, 'Recent Advances in Wavelet Technology', summarizes some aspects of these briefings. Two proposals submitted to NASA reflect the primary areas of common interest. They are image analysis and numerical solutions of partial differential equations arising in computational fluid dynamics and structural mechanics.

  13. Extreme learning machine for ranking: generalization analysis and applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Peng, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yicong; Li, Luoqing; Pan, Zhibin

    2014-05-01

    The extreme learning machine (ELM) has attracted increasing attention recently with its successful applications in classification and regression. In this paper, we investigate the generalization performance of ELM-based ranking. A new regularized ranking algorithm is proposed based on the combinations of activation functions in ELM. The generalization analysis is established for the ELM-based ranking (ELMRank) in terms of the covering numbers of hypothesis space. Empirical results on the benchmark datasets show the competitive performance of the ELMRank over the state-of-the-art ranking methods. PMID:24590011

  14. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  15. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  16. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  17. 3D Network Analysis for Indoor Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiliakou, E.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2016-10-01

    Indoor space differs from outdoor environments, since it is characterized by a higher level of structural complexity, geometry, as well as topological relations. Indoor space can be considered as the most important component in a building's conceptual modelling, on which applications such as indoor navigation, routing or analysis are performed. Therefore, the conceptual meaning of sub spaces or the activities taking place in physical building boundaries (e.g. walls), require the comprehension of the building's indoor hierarchical structure. The scope of this paper is to perform 3D network analysis in a building's interior and is structured as follows: In Section 1 the definition of indoor space is provided and indoor navigation requirements are analysed. Section 2 describes the processes of indoor space modeling, as well as routing applications. In Section 3, a case study is examined involving a 3D building model generated in CityEngine (exterior shell) and ArcScene (interior parts), in which the use of commercially available software tools (ArcGIS, ESRI), in terms of indoor routing and 3D network analysis, are explored. The fundamentals of performing 3D analysis with the ArcGIS Network Analyst extension were tested. Finally a geoprocessing model was presented, which was specifically designed to be used to interactively find the best route in ArcScene. The paper ends with discussion and concluding remarks on Section 4.

  18. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  19. Generic element processor (application to nonlinear analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Gary

    1989-01-01

    The focus here is on one aspect of the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed: finite element technology. The approach involves a Generic Element Processor: a command-driven, database-oriented software shell that facilitates introduction of new elements into the testbed. This shell features an element-independent corotational capability that upgrades linear elements to geometrically nonlinear analysis, and corrects the rigid-body errors that plague many contemporary plate and shell elements. Specific elements that have been implemented in the Testbed via this mechanism include the Assumed Natural-Coordinate Strain (ANS) shell elements, developed with Professor K. C. Park (University of Colorado, Boulder), a new class of curved hybrid shell elements, developed by Dr. David Kang of LPARL (formerly a student of Professor T. Pian), other shell and solid hybrid elements developed by NASA personnel, and recently a repackaged version of the workhorse shell element used in the traditional STAGS nonlinear shell analysis code. The presentation covers: (1) user and developer interfaces to the generic element processor, (2) an explanation of the built-in corotational option, (3) a description of some of the shell-elements currently implemented, and (4) application to sample nonlinear shell postbuckling problems.

  20. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  1. Electrodermal activity analysis during affective haptic elicitation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Alberto; Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Bianchi, Matteo; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates how the autonomic nervous system dynamics, quantified through the analysis of the electrodermal activity (EDA), is modulated according to affective haptic stimuli. Specifically, a haptic display able to convey caress-like stimuli is presented to 32 healthy subjects (16 female). Each stimulus is changed according to six combinations of three velocities and two forces levels of two motors stretching a strip of fabric. Subjects were also asked to score each stimulus in terms of arousal (high/low activation) and valence (pleasant/unpleasant), in agreement with the circumplex model of affect. EDA was processed using a deconvolutive method, separating tonic and phasic components. A statistical analysis was performed in order to identify significant differences in EDA features among force and velocity levels, as well as in their valence and arousal scores. Results show that the simulated caress induced by the haptic display significantly affects the EDA. In detail, the phasic component seems to be inversely related to the valence score. This finding is new and promising, since it can be used, e.g., as an additional cue for haptics design. PMID:26737605

  2. Analysis and applications of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrow, James Peter

    This thesis is concerned with three main areas of complex networks research. One is on developing and testing new methods to find communities, especially methods that do not need knowledge of the entire network. The second is on the application of shells and their usage when characterizing and identifying important network properties. Finally, we offer several contributions toward the usage of complex networks as a tool for studying social dynamics. The study of communities, densely interconnected subsets of nodes, is a difficult and important problem. Methods to identify communities are developed which have the rare ability to function with only local knowledge of the network. A new bench-marking and evaluation procedure is introduced to compare the performance of both existing and new local community algorithms. Using shells, we introduce a new matrix structure that allows for quantitative comparison and visualization of networks of all sizes, even extremely large ones. This "portrait" encodes a great deal of information including dimensionality and regularity, and imparts immediate intuition about the network at hand. A distance metric generated by comparing two portraits allows one to test if, e.g., two networks were created by the same underlying generating mechanism. Generalizations to weighted networks are studied, as is applicability to the Graph Isomorphism problem. We introduce the Patron-Artwork model as a new means of generating a distribution of fame or knowledge from an underlying social network, and give a full analysis for a network where all members are neighbors. In addition, the so-called Small World Phenomenon has been studied in the context of social networks, specifically that of Kleinberg navigation. We studied the impact of modifying the underlying Kleinberg lattice by introducing an anisotropy: the lattice is either stretched along one axis or long-distance connections are made more favorable along a preferred direction.

  3. Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, R.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the

  4. Passive and active structural monitoring experience: Civil engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. D.; Westermo, B. D.; Crum, D. B.; Law, W. R.; Trombi, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    State Departments of Transportation and regional city government officials are beginning to view the long-term monitoring of infrastructure as being beneficial for structural damage accumulation assessment, condition based maintenance, life extension, and post-earthquake or -hurricane (-tornado, -typhoon, etc.) damage assessment. Active and passive structural monitoring systems were installed over the last few years to monitor concerns in a wide range of civil infrastructure applications. This paper describes the monitoring technologies and systems employed for such applications. Bridge system applications were directed at monitoring corrosion damage accumulation, composite reinforcements for life extension, general service cracking damage related to fatigue and overloads, and post-earthquake damage. Residential system applications were directed primarily at identifying damage accumulation and post-earthquake damage assessment. A professional sports stadium was monitored for isolated ground instability problems and for post-earthquake damage assessment. Internet-based, remote, data acquisition system experience is discussed with examples of long-term passive and active system data collected from many of the individual sites to illustrate the potential for both passive and active structural health monitoring. A summary of system-based operating characteristics and key engineering recommendations are provided to achieve specific structural monitoring objectives for a wide range of civil infrastructure applications.

  5. Forensic analysis of social networking application on iOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Wang, Lianhai

    2013-12-01

    The increased use of social networking application on iPhone and iPad make these devices a goldmine for forensic investigators. Besides, QQ, Wechat, Sina Weibo and skype applications are very popular in China and didn't draw attention to researchers. These social networking applications are used not only on computers, but also mobile phones and tablets. This paper focuses on conducting forensic analysis on these four social networking applications on iPhone and iPad devices. The tests consisted of installing the social networking applications on each device, conducting common user activities through each application and correlation analysis with other activities. Advices to the forensic investigators are also given. It could help the investigators to describe the crime behavior and reconstruct the crime venue.

  6. Six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Leonard S.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 Jan. - 31 Mar. 1993 on six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application is presented. A performance and cost report is included. Topics covered include: actuator testing; mechanical amplifier design; and neural network control system development and experimental evaluation.

  7. Digraph matrix analysis applications to systems interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Altenbach, T.; Lappa, D.; Kimura, C.; Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Fromme, D.; Smith, C.F.; Williams, W.

    1984-01-01

    Complex events such as Three Mile Island-2, Brown's Ferry-3 and Crystal River-3 have demonstrated that previously unidentified system interdependencies can be important to safety. A major aspect of these events was dependent faults (common cause/mode failures). The term systems interactions has been introduced by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to identify the concepts of spatial and functional coupling of systems which can lead to system interdependencies. Spatial coupling refers to dependencies resulting from a shared environmental condition; functional coupling refers to both dependencies resulting from components shared between safety and/or support systems, and to dependencies involving human actions. The NRC is currently developing guidelines to search for and evaluate adverse systems interactions at light water reactors. One approach utilizes graph theoretical methods and is called digraph matrix analysis (DMA). This methodology has been specifically tuned to the systems interaction problem. The objective of this paper is to present results from two DMA applications and to contrast them with the results from more traditional fault tree approaches.

  8. Decision analysis applications and the CERCLA process

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.T.; Lyon, B.F. |

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative decision methods can be developed during environmental restoration projects that incorporate stakeholder input and can complement current efforts that are undertaken for data collection and alternatives evaluation during the CERCLA process. These decision-making tools can supplement current EPA guidance as well as focus on problems that arise as attempts are made to make informed decisions regarding remedial alternative selection. In examining the use of such applications, the authors discuss the use of decision analysis tools and their impact on collecting data and making environmental decisions from a risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based perspective. They will look at the construction of objective functions for quantifying different risk-based decision rules that incorporate stakeholder concerns. This represents a quantitative method for implementing the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. These objective functions can be expressed using a variety of indices to analyze problems that currently arise in the environmental field. Examples include cost, magnitude of risk, efficiency, and probability of success or failure. Based on such defined objective functions, a project can evaluate the impact of different risk and decision selection strategies on data worth and alternative selection.

  9. Uncertainty Analysis of Instrument Calibration and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping

    1999-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic researchers require estimated precision and bias uncertainties of measured physical quantities, typically at 95 percent confidence levels. Uncertainties of final computed aerodynamic parameters are obtained by propagation of individual measurement uncertainties through the defining functional expressions. In this paper, rigorous mathematical techniques are extended to determine precision and bias uncertainties of any instrument-sensor system. Through this analysis, instrument uncertainties determined through calibration are now expressed as functions of the corresponding measurement for linear and nonlinear univariate and multivariate processes. Treatment of correlated measurement precision error is developed. During laboratory calibration, calibration standard uncertainties are assumed to be an order of magnitude less than those of the instrument being calibrated. Often calibration standards do not satisfy this assumption. This paper applies rigorous statistical methods for inclusion of calibration standard uncertainty and covariance due to the order of their application. The effects of mathematical modeling error on calibration bias uncertainty are quantified. The effects of experimental design on uncertainty are analyzed. The importance of replication is emphasized, techniques for estimation of both bias and precision uncertainties using replication are developed. Statistical tests for stationarity of calibration parameters over time are obtained.

  10. System Safety Analysis Application Guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. SARs include Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), which are specific technical and administrative requirements that prescribe limits and controls to ensure safe operation of DOE facilities. These documented descriptions and analyses contribute to the authorization basis for facility operation. Energy Systems has established a process to perform Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations (USQDs) for planned changes and as-found conditions that are not described and analyzed in existing safety analyses. The process evaluates changes and as-found conditions to determine whether revisions to the authorization basis must be reviewed and approved by DOE. There is an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) if a change introduces conditions not bounded by the facility authorization basis. When it is necessary to request DOE approval to revise the authorization basis, preparation of a System Safety Analysis (SSA) is recommended. This application guide describes the process of preparing an SSA and the desired contents of an SSA. Guidance is provided on how to identify items and practices which are important to safety; how to determine the credibility and significance of consequences of proposed accident scenarios; how to evaluate accident prevention and mitigation features of the planned change; and how to establish special requirements to ensure that a change can be implemented with adequate safety.

  11. Computer programs for absolute neutron activation analysis on the nuclear data 6620 data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, J.W.; Emery, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    Five computer programs that provide multielement neutron activation analysis are discussed. The software package was designed for use on the Nuclear Data 6620 Data Acquisition System and interacts with existing Nuclear Data Corporation software. The programs were developed to make use of the capabilities of the 6620 system to analyze large numbers of samples and assist in a large sample workload that had begun in the neutron activation analysis facility of the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Nuclear Data neutron activation software is unable to perform absolute activation analysis and therefore was inefficient and inadequate for our applications.

  12. Injury causation in the great outdoors: A systems analysis of led outdoor activity injury incidents.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G; Finch, Caroline F; Cassell, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Despite calls for a systems approach to assessing and preventing injurious incidents within the led outdoor activity domain, applications of systems analysis frameworks to the analysis of incident data have been sparse. This article presents an analysis of 1014 led outdoor activity injury and near miss incidents whereby a systems-based risk management framework was used to classify the contributing factors involved across six levels of the led outdoor activity 'system'. The analysis identified causal factors across all levels of the led outdoor activity system, demonstrating the framework's utility for accident analysis efforts in the led outdoor activity injury domain. In addition, issues associated with the current data collection framework that potentially limited the identification of contributing factors outside of the individuals, equipment, and environment involved were identified. In closing, the requirement for new and improved data systems to be underpinned by the systems philosophy and new models of led outdoor activity accident causation is discussed.

  13. Eye movement analysis for activity recognition using electrooculography.

    PubMed

    Bulling, Andreas; Ward, Jamie A; Gellersen, Hans; Tröster, Gerhard

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. Eye movement data were recorded using an electrooculography (EOG) system. We first describe and evaluate algorithms for detecting three eye movement characteristics from EOG signals-saccades, fixations, and blinks-and propose a method for assessing repetitive patterns of eye movements. We then devise 90 different features based on these characteristics and select a subset of them using minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) feature selection. We validate the method using an eight participant study in an office environment using an example set of five activity classes: copying a text, reading a printed paper, taking handwritten notes, watching a video, and browsing the Web. We also include periods with no specific activity (the NULL class). Using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and person-independent (leave-one-person-out) training, we obtain an average precision of 76.1 percent and recall of 70.5 percent over all classes and participants. The work demonstrates the promise of eye-based activity recognition (EAR) and opens up discussion on the wider applicability of EAR to other activities that are difficult, or even impossible, to detect using common sensing modalities.

  14. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  15. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  16. Analysis of retrotransposon activity in plants.

    PubMed

    Defraia, Christopher; Slotkin, R Keith

    2014-01-01

    Retrotransposons are transposable elements that duplicate themselves by converting their transcribed RNA genome into cDNA, which is then integrated back into the genome. Retrotransposons can be divided into two major classes based on their mechanism of transposition and the presence or absence of long terminal repeats (LTRs). In contrast to mammalian genomes, in which non-LTR retrotransposons have proliferated, plant genomes show evolutionary evidence of an explosion in LTR retrotransposon copy number. These retrotransposons can comprise a large fraction of the genome (75 % in maize). Although often viewed as molecular parasites, retrotransposons have been shown to influence neighboring gene expression and play a structural and potential regulatory role in the centromere. To prevent retrotransposon activity, eukaryotic cells have evolved overlapping mechanisms to repress transposition. Plants are an excellent system for studying the mechanisms of LTR retrotransposon inhibition such as DNA methylation and small RNA-mediated degradation of retrotransposon transcripts. However, analysis of these multi-copy, mobile elements is considerably more difficult than analysis of single-copy genes located in stable regions of the genome. In this chapter we outline methods for analyzing the progress of LTR retrotransposons through their replication cycle in plants. We describe a mixture of traditional molecular biology experiments, such as Southern, Northern, and Western blotting, in addition to nontraditional techniques designed to take advantage of the specific mechanism of LTR retrotransposition.

  17. A Review of Smartphone Applications for Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. Methods In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. Results After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Discussion Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity. PMID:27034992

  18. Analysis and Applications of Photothermal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanton, Jeffrey T.

    1990-01-01

    Photothermal microscopy is a technique for measuring thermal properties on a small scale by using focussed laser beams as heat sources and as temperature probes. Typically used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials, its main advantage is its ability to measure types of flaws that are not visible optically or acoustically. Examples of these kinds of defects include disbonds and poor adhesion in layered media, subsurface cracks or crystal damage in opaque solids, and electrical defects in active circuits. The greatest limitation of these systems is their relatively poor signal-to-noise ratios and, consequently, slow imaging speeds. To circumvent this problem, a variety of approaches to the detection of thermal waves has been pursued in recent years. This thesis compares the relative merits of a common class of techniques that rely on direct observation of physical changes in the heated sample, including a novel approach to interferometric measurement of the thermal expansion. It is found that the optimum approach depends not only on the physical properties of the sample being studied, but also upon the resolution of the experiment and the damage threshold of the specimen. These points are illustrated in an assortment of examples of photothermal NDE. Finally, this dissertation describes our applications of photothermal microscopy to the study of the anisotropic thermal properties of the new high-T_{ rm c} superconductors. Because of their micron resolution, photothermal techniques are well suited for studying single-crystal specimens which tend to be too small or irregularly shaped for conventional bulk methods. Our measurements of the anisotropic thermal conductivity demonstrate that the heat flow along the superconducting planes is enhanced below the transition, and that no such enhancement exists in the non-superconducting direction. These effects can be explained as a product of the electron-phonon coupling. Furthermore, we present evidence that thermal

  19. Assessing physical activity intensity by video analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, P; Santiago, C; Reis, L P; Sousa, A; Mota, J; Welk, G

    2015-05-01

    Assessing physical activity (PA) is a challenging task and many different approaches have been proposed. Direct observation (DO) techniques can objectively code both the behavior and the context in which it occurred, however, they have significant limitations such as the cost and burden associated with collecting and processing data. Therefore, this study evaluated the utility of an automated video analysis system (CAM) designed to record and discriminate the intensity of PA using a subject tracking methodology. The relative utility of the CAM system and DO were compared with criterion data from an objective accelerometry-based device (Actigraph GT3X+). Eight 10 year old children (three girls and five boys) wore the GT3X+ during a standard basketball session. PA was analyzed by two observers using the SOPLAY instrument and by the CAM system. The GT3X+ and the CAM were both set up to collect data at 30 Hz while the DO was performed every two minutes, with 10 s of observation for each gender. The GT3X+ was processed using cut points by Evanson and the outcome measure was the percentage of time spent in different intensities of PA. The CAM data were processed similarly using the same speed thresholds as were used in establishing the Evenson cut-off points (light: <2 mph; walking: 2-4 mph; very active: >4 mph). Similar outcomes were computed from the SOPLAY default analyses. A chi-square test was used to test differences in the percentage of time at the three intensity zones (light, walking and very active). The Yates' correction was used to prevent overestimation of statistical significance for small data. When compared with GT3X+, the CAM had better results than the SOPLAY. The chi-square test yielded the following pairwise comparisons: CAM versus GT3x+ was χ(2) (5) = 24.18, p < .001; SOPLAY2 versus GT3x+ was χ(2) (5) = 144.44, p < .001; SOPLAY1 versus GT3x+ was χ(2) (5) = 119.55, p < .001. The differences were smaller between CAM and GT3x

  20. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  1. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  2. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-07

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.

  3. The activity-stress paradigm: possible mechanisms and applications.

    PubMed

    Lambert, K G

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms and applications of the activity-stress (A-S) research paradigm are examined in this article. Past research has reflected the value of this paradigm in the investigation of ulcerogenesis. Evidence is offered to support a theory explaining the excessive running observed in the A-S animals, according to which, animals commence running to increase body temperature after failing to adapt to the restricted feeding regime. Further, excessive running levels are hypothesized to be sustained by reinforcement resulting from increased mesolimbic dopaminergic activity. Finally, parallels between the behavior observed in the A-S animals and some forms of maladaptive behavior observed in humans are discussed.

  4. Cellulose Electro-Active Paper: From Discovery to Technology Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2014-09-01

    Cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap) is an attractive material of electro-active polymers (EAPs) family due to its smart characteristics. EAPap is thin cellulose film coated with metal electrodes on both sides. Its large displacement output, low actuation voltage and low power consumption can be used for biomimetic sensors/actuators and electromechanical system. Because cellulose EAPap is ultra-lightweight, easy to manufacture, inexpensive, biocompatible, and biodegradable, it has been employed for many applications such as bending actuator, vibration sensor, artificial muscle, flexible speaker, and can be advantageous in areas such as micro-insect robots, micro-flying objects, microelectromechanical systems, biosensors, and flexible displays.

  5. Application considerations and compensation characteristics of shunt active and series active filters in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    This paper characterizes typical nonlinear loads into two types of harmonic sources -harmonic current source and harmonic voltage source, which produce highly distorted currents and voltages, respectively. The conventional approach of active harmonic compensation has been the parallel type or `shunt active filter.` It is shown in this paper that the shunt active filter is effective only to harmonic current sources but not to harmonic voltage sources. On the other hand, the active filter connected in series with the system or `series active filter` is very effective in suppression of the harmonic voltage sources. General compensation characteristics of shunt active filters and series active filters are given analytically. The features, required operation conditions, and application considerations of both filters are described analytically and demonstrated experimentally.

  6. Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Eickhoff, Simon B.; Bzdok, Danilo; Laird, Angela R.; Kurth, Florian; Fox, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    A widely used technique for coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging data is activation likelihood estimation (ALE), which determines the convergence of foci reported from different experiments. ALE analysis involves modelling these foci as probability distributions whose width is based on empirical estimates of the spatial uncertainty due to the between-subject and between-template variability of neuroimaging data. ALE results are assessed against a null-distribution of random spatial association between experiments, resulting in random-effects inference. In the present revision of this algorithm, we address two remaining drawbacks of the previous algorithm. First, the assessment of spatial association between experiments was based on a highly time-consuming permutation test, which nevertheless entailed the danger of underestimating the right tail of the null-distribution. In this report, we outline how this previous approach may be replaced by a faster and more precise analytical method. Second, the previously applied correction procedure, i.e. controlling the false discovery rate (FDR), is supplemented by new approaches for correcting the family-wise error rate and the cluster-level significance. The different alternatives for drawing inference on meta-analytic results are evaluated on an exemplary dataset on face perception as well as discussed with respect to their methodological limitations and advantages. In summary, we thus replaced the previous permutation algorithm with a faster and more rigorous analytical solution for the null-distribution and comprehensively address the issue of multiple-comparison corrections. The proposed revision of the ALE-algorithm should provide an improved tool for conducting coordinate-based meta-analyses on functional imaging data. PMID:21963913

  7. Analysis of sprinting activities of professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Marcin; Chmura, Jan; Pluta, Beata; Strzelczyk, Ryszard; Kasprzak, Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was a detailed analysis of the sprinting activity of professional soccer players. The study involved 147 players who played in 10 matches of the 2008-09 and 2010-11 UEFA Europa League seasons. The number of performed sprints and total sprint distances covered by the players were examined using collected statistical material. Two types of sprints were distinguished based on their duration: S, short-duration sprint (below 5 seconds) and L, long-duration sprint (above 5 seconds). Additionally, sprints were classified according to their distance: 0-10, 10.1-20.0, and >20 m, respectively. The analysis of the sprinting activity of soccer players also involved their respective positions of play. The study was carried out using Amisco Pro (version. 1.0.2), one of the most comprehensive up-to-date computer systems for match analysis. The statistical analysis revealed that the mean total sprint distance covered by players (≥24 km·h) amounted to 237 ± 123 m. With regard to the position of play, the forwards covered the longest sprint distance (345 ± 129 m), that is, 9% longer than midfielders (313 ± 119 m) and over 100% longer than central midfielders (167 ± 87 m). The average number of sprints performed by the soccer players was 11.2 ± 5.3. It should also be emphasized that about 90% of sprints performed by professional soccer players were shorter than 5 seconds, whereas only 10% were longer than 5 seconds. Analysis of physical loads of soccer players during matches can be useful for individualization of training of soccer players' speed capabilities. It is an essential instrument of modern planning and application of training loads.

  8. Active and passive multispectral scanner for earth resources applications: An advanced applications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.

  9. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  10. Design and Application of the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Terry, Michelle; Crillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce; Maxwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conducting human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will present unique challenges in the areas of supportability and maintainability. The durations of proposed missions can be relatively long and re-supply of logistics, including maintenance and repair items, will be limited or non-existent. In addition, mass and volume constraints in the transportation system will limit the total amount of logistics that can be flown along with the crew. These constraints will require that new strategies be developed with regards to how spacecraft systems are designed and maintained. NASA is currently developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) as an initial step in defining future human missions. These DRMs establish destinations and concepts of operation for future missions, and begin to define technology and capability requirements. Because of the unique supportability challenges, historical supportability data and models are not directly applicable for establishing requirements for beyond LEO missions. However, supportability requirements could have a major impact on the development of the DRMs. The mass, volume, and crew resources required to support the mission could all be first order drivers in the design of missions, elements, and operations. Therefore, there is a need for enhanced analysis capabilities to more accurately establish mass, volume, and time requirements for supporting beyond LEO missions. Additionally, as new technologies and operations are proposed to reduce these requirements, it is necessary to have accurate tools to evaluate the efficacy of those approaches. In order to improve the analysis of supportability requirements for beyond LEO missions, the Space Missions Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool (EMAT). This tool is a probabilistic simulator that evaluates the need for repair and maintenance activities during space missions and the logistics and crew

  11. 78 FR 17702 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Action on an Approved Application or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and... Coordination Division, Office of Policy and Strategy, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department...

  12. Modified Activated Carbon to be Used in Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, M. S.; de Silva, W. R. M.; de Silva, K. M. N.

    2014-11-01

    In this study a novel nano composite of hydroxyapatite nano particles impregnated activated carbon (C-HAp), which was synthesized in our own method, was used in iron adsorption studies. The study was conducted in order to investigate the potential of using C-HAp nanocomposite to be used in clinical detoxifications such as acute iron toxicity where the use of Activated carbon (GAC) is not very effective. Adsorption studies were conducted for synthetic solutions of Fe2+, Fe3+ and iron syrup using GAC, C-HAp and neat HAp as adsorbents. According to the results C-HAp nano composite showed improved properties than GAC in adsorbing Fe2+, Fe3+ and also Fe ions in iron syrup solutions. Thus the results of the in-vitro studies of iron adsorption studies indicated the potential of using C-HAp as an alternative to activated carbon in such clinical applications.

  13. Advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of chuanxiong.

    PubMed

    Li, Weixia; Tang, Yuping; Chen, Yanyan; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2012-01-01

    Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX's use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques. PMID:22955453

  14. On the self-shielding factors in neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trkov, A.; Žerovnik, G.; Snoj, L.; Ravnik, M.

    2009-11-01

    Whenever the sample size in neutron activation analysis cannot be made small enough, self-shielding effects need to be taken into account. When several resonance absorbers are present in the sample, resonance interference must also be considered. Estimation of the self-shielding factors by the Monte Carlo technique is too cumbersome for routine application. Various simplified approaches were compared to rigorous Monte Carlo calculations, pointing out their potential limitations. Good results are obtained using self-shielding factors calculated from evaluated nuclear data libraries and tabulated as a function of the dilution cross-section. The dilution cross-section depends on the material composition and the sample dimensions through the equivalence principle, which is well known in reactor physics. Resonance interference is calculated by solving the neutron spectrum slowing-down equation from cross-sections in 640-group representation. The MATSSF code was written for the purpose and is available on request.

  15. Regression Analysis: Legal Applications in Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizell, Julie A.; Shippen, Benjamin S., Jr.; Luna, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews multiple regression analysis, describes how its results should be interpreted, and instructs institutional researchers on how to conduct such analyses using an example focused on faculty pay equity between men and women. The use of multiple regression analysis will be presented as a method with which to compare salaries of…

  16. Miscue Analysis: Applications to Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.

    This book is a series of essays on the subject of miscue analysis, a diagnostic procedure rooted in the psycholinguistic view of reading. The focus of miscue analysis is on the broad field of reading comprehension rather than the isolated decoding of individual words and letters. The contents of this book include: "Introduction" by Sister Rosemary…

  17. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  18. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  19. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits.

  20. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits. PMID:27480693

  1. Guidebook for analysis of tether applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended as a tool to facilitate initial analyses of proposed tether applications in space. Topics disscussed include: orbit and orbit transfer equations; orbital perturbations; aerodynamic drag; thermal balance; micrometeoroids; gravity gradient effects; tether control strategies; momentum transfer; orbit transfer by tethered release/rendezvous; impact hazards for tethers; electrodynamic tether principles; and electrodynamic libration control issues.

  2. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  3. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  4. Dielectric elastomer laminates for active membrane pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Kimberly; Tews, Alyson; Frecker, Mary I.; Mockensturm, Eric; Goulbourne, Nakhiah C.; Snyder, Alan J.

    2004-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated promise for the use of dielectric elastomer (DE) films in diaphragm pump applications. Because the films tend to be quite thin, single layers operate at very low pressures. To make this technology suitable for practical applications, the films may be organized into laminates which will operate at increased pressures. Radially stretched circular diaphragms of two materials were tested: 3M VHB 4905 polyacrylate and spin-cast Nusil CF19-2186 silicone. The diaphragms were stacked, each layer sharing an electrode with the adjacent layer. The stack was mounted on a sealed chamber and energized at varied electric fields while regulated pressure was applied to the interior chamber, displacing the diaphragm. The pressure-volume properties of the stacks were recorded for each activation state.

  5. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  6. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  7. Single Cell Analysis of Transcriptional Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U.; Powers, Sara Lawrence; Joo, Lucy M.; LeRoy, Gary; Janicki, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene activation is thought to occur through a series of temporally defined regulatory steps. However, this process has not been completely evaluated in single living mammalian cells. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the timing and coordination of gene activation events, we tracked the recruitment of GCN5 (histone acetyltransferase), RNA polymerase II, Brd2 and Brd4 (acetyl-lysine binding proteins), in relation to a VP16-transcriptional activator, to a transcription site that can be visualized in single living cells. All accumulated rapidly with the VP16 activator as did the transcribed RNA. RNA was also detected at significantly more transcription sites in cells expressing the VP16-activator compared to a p53-activator. After α-amanitin pre-treatment, the VP16-activator, GCN5, and Brd2 are still recruited to the transcription site but the chromatin does not decondense. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that a strong activator can rapidly overcome the condensed chromatin structure of an inactive transcription site and supercede the expected requirement for regulatory events to proceed in a temporally defined order. Additionally, activator strength determines the number of cells in which transcription is induced as well as the extent of chromatin decondensation. As chromatin decondensation is significantly reduced after α-amanitin pre-treatment, despite the recruitment of transcriptional activation factors, this provides further evidence that transcription drives large-scale chromatin decondensation. PMID:20422051

  8. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  9. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  10. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  11. Potential applications of computational fluid dynamics to biofluid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.; Kwak, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was developed to the stage where it has become an indispensable part of aerospace research and design. In view of advances made in aerospace applications, the computational approach can be used for biofluid mechanics research. Several flow simulation methods developed for aerospace problems are briefly discussed for potential applications to biofluids, especially to blood flow analysis.

  12. A miniature shock-activated thermal battery for munitions applications

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Kirby, D.L.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of a small, fast-rise thermal battery for non-spinning munitions applications was examined by studying the response of conventional thermal cells to impact (mechanical) energy to simulate a setback environment. This is an extension of earlier work that demonstrated that shock activation could be used to produce power from a conventional thermal-battery cell. The results of tests with both single and multiple cells are presented, along with data for a 5-cell miniature (5-mm diameter) thermal battery. The issues needing to be resolved before such a device can become a commercial reality are also discussed.

  13. Microwave noise field: active radiometry principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivka, Jiri

    2012-06-01

    Principles of Active Radiometry are presented. Noise radiators are used to generate the low-coherence microwave noise field, and radiometers to evaluate its intensity, polarization and coherence. Several types of noise radiators are described as well as radiometers and antennas. The following applications are introduced: Material evaluation where insertion loss and reflectivity of grainy, irregular and moving objects are preferable. Microwave Coherence Tomography allowing the depth irregularity to be detected in low-loss objects. Near-Field antenna testing, field coherence evaluation, and spatial combining of noise radiators.

  14. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons.

  15. Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 and -D2 produced in an inflammatory cell reaction and its application for activity screening and potency evaluation using turbulent flow chromatography liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Sook; Peng, Lei; Kang, Kyungsu; Choi, Yongsoo

    2016-09-01

    Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) and -D2 (PGD2) produced from a RAW264.7 cell-based reaction was performed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), which was online coupled with turbulent flow chromatography (TFC). The capability of this method to accurately measure PG levels in cell reaction medium containing cytokines or proteins as a reaction byproduct was cross-validated by two conventional methods. Two methods, including an LC-HRMS method after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the sample and a commercial PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed PGE2 and/or PGD2 levels almost similar to those obtained by TFC LC-HRMS over the reaction time after LPS stimulation. After the cross-validation, significant analytical throughputs, allowing simultaneous screening and potency evaluation of 80 natural products including 60 phytochemicals and 20 natural product extracts for the inhibition of the PGD2 produced in the cell-based inflammatory reaction, were achieved using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed. Among the 60 phytochemicals screened, licochalcone A and formononetin inhibited PGD2 production the most with IC50 values of 126 and 151nM, respectively. For a reference activity, indomethacin and diclofenac were used, measuring IC50 values of 0.64 and 0.21nM, respectively. This method also found a butanol extract of Akebia quinata Decne (AQ) stem as a promising natural product for PGD2 inhibition. Direct and accurate analysis of PGs in the inflammatory cell reaction using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed enables the high-throughput screening and potency evaluation of as many as 320 samples in less than 48h without changing a TFC column.

  16. Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 and -D2 produced in an inflammatory cell reaction and its application for activity screening and potency evaluation using turbulent flow chromatography liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Sook; Peng, Lei; Kang, Kyungsu; Choi, Yongsoo

    2016-09-01

    Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) and -D2 (PGD2) produced from a RAW264.7 cell-based reaction was performed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), which was online coupled with turbulent flow chromatography (TFC). The capability of this method to accurately measure PG levels in cell reaction medium containing cytokines or proteins as a reaction byproduct was cross-validated by two conventional methods. Two methods, including an LC-HRMS method after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the sample and a commercial PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed PGE2 and/or PGD2 levels almost similar to those obtained by TFC LC-HRMS over the reaction time after LPS stimulation. After the cross-validation, significant analytical throughputs, allowing simultaneous screening and potency evaluation of 80 natural products including 60 phytochemicals and 20 natural product extracts for the inhibition of the PGD2 produced in the cell-based inflammatory reaction, were achieved using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed. Among the 60 phytochemicals screened, licochalcone A and formononetin inhibited PGD2 production the most with IC50 values of 126 and 151nM, respectively. For a reference activity, indomethacin and diclofenac were used, measuring IC50 values of 0.64 and 0.21nM, respectively. This method also found a butanol extract of Akebia quinata Decne (AQ) stem as a promising natural product for PGD2 inhibition. Direct and accurate analysis of PGs in the inflammatory cell reaction using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed enables the high-throughput screening and potency evaluation of as many as 320 samples in less than 48h without changing a TFC column. PMID:27524299

  17. Automated shock detection and analysis algorithm for space weather application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotnikov, Vasiliy S.; Smith, Charles W.; Hu, Qiang; Szabo, Adam; Skoug, Ruth M.; Cohen, Christina M. S.

    2008-03-01

    Space weather applications have grown steadily as real-time data have become increasingly available. Numerous industrial applications have arisen with safeguarding of the power distribution grids being a particular interest. NASA uses short-term and long-term space weather predictions in its launch facilities. Researchers studying ionospheric, auroral, and magnetospheric disturbances use real-time space weather services to determine launch times. Commercial airlines, communication companies, and the military use space weather measurements to manage their resources and activities. As the effects of solar transients upon the Earth's environment and society grow with the increasing complexity of technology, better tools are needed to monitor and evaluate the characteristics of the incoming disturbances. A need is for automated shock detection and analysis methods that are applicable to in situ measurements upstream of the Earth. Such tools can provide advance warning of approaching disturbances that have significant space weather impacts. Knowledge of the shock strength and speed can also provide insight into the nature of the approaching solar transient prior to arrival at the magnetopause. We report on efforts to develop a tool that can find and analyze shocks in interplanetary plasma data without operator intervention. This method will run with sufficient speed to be a practical space weather tool providing useful shock information within 1 min of having the necessary data to ground. The ability to run without human intervention frees space weather operators to perform other vital services. We describe ways of handling upstream data that minimize the frequency of false positive alerts while providing the most complete description of approaching disturbances that is reasonably possible.

  18. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  19. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  20. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  1. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  2. Applications of electrochemical techniques in mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yusheng; Sun, Fengyue; Xu, Yuanhong; Cong, Zhichao; Wang, Erkang

    2014-09-01

    This review, covering reports published in recent decade from 2004 to 2013, shows how electrochemical (EC) techniques such as voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiometry, coulometry, etc., have made significant contributions in the analysis of minerals such as clay, sulfide, oxide, and oxysalt. It was discussed based on the classifications of both the types of the used EC techniques and kinds of the analyzed minerals. Furthermore, minerals as electrode modification materials for EC analysis have also been summarized. Accordingly, research vacancies and future development trends in these areas are discussed.

  3. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  4. 76 FR 44090 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Individualized Tutorial Assistance) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Individualized Tutorial Assistance) Activity... solicits comments on the information needed to determine an applicant's eligibility for tutorial assistance.... Title: Application for Individualized Tutorial Assistance, VA Form 22-1990t. ] OMB Control Number:...

  5. Measurements and analysis in imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Timothy L.

    2009-02-01

    A Total Quality Management (TQM) approach can be used to analyze data from biomedical optical and imaging platforms of tissues. A shift from individuals to teams, partnerships, and total participation are necessary from health care groups for improved prognostics using measurement analysis. Proprietary measurement analysis software is available for calibrated, pixel-to-pixel measurements of angles and distances in digital images. Feature size, count, and color are determinable on an absolute and comparative basis. Although changes in images of histomics are based on complex and numerous factors, the variation of changes in imaging analysis to correlations of time, extent, and progression of illness can be derived. Statistical methods are preferred. Applications of the proprietary measurement software are available for any imaging platform. Quantification of results provides improved categorization of illness towards better health. As health care practitioners try to use quantified measurement data for patient diagnosis, the techniques reported can be used to track and isolate causes better. Comparisons, norms, and trends are available from processing of measurement data which is obtained easily and quickly from Scientific Software and methods. Example results for the class actions of Preventative and Corrective Care in Ophthalmology and Dermatology, respectively, are provided. Improved and quantified diagnosis can lead to better health and lower costs associated with health care. Systems support improvements towards Lean and Six Sigma affecting all branches of biology and medicine. As an example for use of statistics, the major types of variation involving a study of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) are examined. Typically, special causes in medicine relate to illness and activities; whereas, common causes are known to be associated with gender, race, size, and genetic make-up. Such a strategy of Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) involves comparison of patient results

  6. Interaction Analysis: Theory, Research and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidon, Edmund J., Ed.; Hough, John J., Ed.

    This volume of selected readings developed for students and practitioners at various levels of sophistication is intended to be representative of work done to date on interaction analysis. The contents include journal articles, papers read at professional meetings, abstracts of doctoral dissertations, and selections from larger monographs, plus 12…

  7. Electron Spectroscopy: Applications for Chemical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heercules, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of XPS as an effective method for surface analysis during the period 1964-1977 is presented. The study shows that unlike other surface methods, XPS data can be obtained for both conductors and insulators and a variety of samples can be handled effectively, which is one of the major reasons for the popularity of the technique.

  8. Relative error covariance analysis techniques and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Peter, J.; Williams, Bobby G.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for computing the error covariance of the difference between two estimators derived from different (possibly overlapping) data arcs is presented. The relative error covariance is useful for predicting the achievable consistency between Kalman-Bucy filtered estimates generated from two (not necessarily disjoint) data sets. The relative error covariance analysis technique is then applied to a Venus Orbiter simulation.

  9. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…

  10. Solar applications analysis for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, T.

    1980-01-01

    The role of energy storage as it relates to solar energy systems is considered. Storage technologies to support solar energy applications, the status of storage technologies, requirements and specifications for storage technologies, and the adequacy of the current storage research and development program to meet these requirements are among the factors discussed. Emphasis is placed on identification of where the greatest potential exists for energy storage in support of those solar energy systems which could have a significant impact on the U.S. energy mix.

  11. Ordinal symbolic analysis and its application to biomedical recordings

    PubMed Central

    Amigó, José M.; Keller, Karsten; Unakafova, Valentina A.

    2015-01-01

    Ordinal symbolic analysis opens an interesting and powerful perspective on time-series analysis. Here, we review this relatively new approach and highlight its relation to symbolic dynamics and representations. Our exposition reaches from the general ideas up to recent developments, with special emphasis on its applications to biomedical recordings. The latter will be illustrated with epilepsy data. PMID:25548264

  12. Unified Approach to Vulnerability Analysis of Web Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, H. T.; Loh, P. K. K.

    2008-11-01

    Web vulnerabilities in web-based applications may be detected, classified and documented. Several Web scanners exist for vulnerabilities in Web applications implemented via different technologies. However, none of them provides the technology-independent, generic coverage of possible vulnerabilities. In this project that is funded by Mindef Singapore, we propose a new approach for Web application security and vulnerability analysis. The design addresses the categorization of scanner results with a generic data model and the design of a language-independent rule-based engine that detects, analyses and reports suspected vulnerabilities in web-based applications.

  13. Conversion of agricultural residues into activated carbons for water purification: Application to arsenate removal.

    PubMed

    Torres-Perez, Jonatan; Gerente, Claire; Andres, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of two agricultural wastes, sugar beet pulp and peanut hulls, into sustainable activated carbons is presented and their potential application for the treatment of arsenate solution is investigated. A direct and physical activation is selected as well as a simple chemical treatment of the adsorbents. The material properties, such as BET surface areas, porous volumes, elemental analysis, ash contents and pH(PZC), of these alternative carbonaceous porous materials are determined and compared with a commercial granular activated carbon. An adsorption study based on experimental kinetic and equilibrium data is conducted in a batch reactor and completed by the use of different models (intraparticle diffusion, pseudo-second-order, Langmuir and Freundlich) and by isotherms carried out in natural waters. It is thus demonstrated that sugar beet pulp and peanut hulls are good precursors to obtain activated carbons for arsenate removal.

  14. Biomass compositional analysis for energy applications.

    PubMed

    Hames, Bonnie R

    2009-01-01

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  15. Biomass Compositional Analysis for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  16. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  17. Analysis, Characterization and Application of Microwave Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedral, James L.

    Metamaterials are an extremely fast growing and interesting field of study. The promise of new materials whose constitutive parameters are based on structure inclusions have drawn the interest of thousands and continue to inspire. Despite these promises not much in the way of applied technologies has come from the research. This thesis is the result of numerous years of work into the characterization and application of microwave metamaterials. The aim of the research was to develop a design process, characterize fully, and apply metamaterials to some current technology. The thesis first details the enhanced directivity of a metamaterial slab and a plausible explanation for the phenomenon. It looks into the design process of low loss metamaterials, and the use of infra-red imaging to help characterize them. Then it details how a metamaterial, the S-shaped split ring resonator, behaves with changes in polarization and angle of incidence. It details the ambiguity issues that come with constitutive parameter extraction and how to resolve them. The thesis ends with the ongoing work to explore a new metamaterial design and application to millimeter wave notch filters.

  18. The technical analysis of the stock exchange and physics: Japanese candlesticks for solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, C.; Atanasov, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we use the Japanese candlesticks, a method popular in the technical analysis of the Stock/Forex markets and apply it to a variable in physics-the solar activity. This method is invented and used exclusively for economic analysis and its application to a physical problem produced unexpected results. We found that the Japanese candlesticks are convenient tool in the analysis of the variables in the physics of the Sun. Based on our observations, we differentiated a new cycle in the solar activity.

  19. CFD applications in tunnel ventilation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.E. Jr.; Zigh, A.

    1999-07-01

    Longitudinal ventilation systems in transit and rail tunnels are typically analyzed by one dimensional ventilation network simulation models, such as the Subway Environment Simulation (SES) program. However, in recent years computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been utilized in conjunction with one-dimensional ventilation network programs to study ventilation systems for large volume spaces such as transit stations and rail overbuilds, as well as for vehicular tunnels. CFD uses numerical methods to simulate complex fluid flow phenomena in three dimensions to predict the distribution of velocity, pressure, temperature, concentration, and other relevant variables throughout the volume. This paper presents an overview of CFD study results from emergency ventilation analysis for a transit station and both emergency ventilation and diesel emissions analysis for a rail overbuild.

  20. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  1. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  2. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  3. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  4. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  5. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  6. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  7. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  8. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  9. Towards sentiment analysis application in housing projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadzir, Nurul Husna; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2016-08-01

    In becoming a develop nation by 2020, Malaysia Government realized the need in providing affordable house to the public. Since Second Malaysia Plan, government has implemented various affordable housing projects and it continues until recent Malaysia Plan. To measure the effectiveness of the initiatives taken, public opinion is necessary. A social media platform has been seen as the most effective mechanism to get information on people's thought and feeling towards certain issues. One of the best ways to extract emotions and thoughts from what people post in social media is through Sentiment Analysis (SA). There are three different levels of analysis: document level, sentence level and feature level. Most of previous research focused on the classification of sentiment at document or sentence level. Unfortunately, both document and sentence level does not discover what exactly people like or not. While the analysis based on feature, there exist accuracy problem when classifying the sentiment scores. This paper will propose a new framework that focuses on sentiment classification scores at feature level to overcome the uncertainty and accuracy issues on the result.

  10. Persuasive Technology in Mobile Applications Promoting Physical Activity: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John; Win, Khin Than; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Freeman, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Persuasive technology in mobile applications can be used to influence the behaviour of users. A framework known as the Persuasive Systems Design model has been developed for designing and evaluating systems that influence the attitudes or behaviours of users. This paper reviews the current state of mobile applications for health behavioural change with an emphasis on applications that promote physical activity. The inbuilt persuasive features of mobile applications were evaluated using the Persuasive Systems Design model. A database search was conducted to identify relevant articles. Articles were then reviewed using the Persuasive Systems Design model as a framework for analysis. Primary task support, dialogue support, and social support were found to be moderately represented in the selected articles. However, system credibility support was found to have only low levels of representation as a persuasive systems design feature in mobile applications for supporting physical activity. To ensure that available mobile technology resources are best used to improve the wellbeing of people, it is important that the design principles that influence the effectiveness of persuasive technology be understood. PMID:26748792

  11. Persuasive Technology in Mobile Applications Promoting Physical Activity: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John; Win, Khin Than; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Freeman, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Persuasive technology in mobile applications can be used to influence the behaviour of users. A framework known as the Persuasive Systems Design model has been developed for designing and evaluating systems that influence the attitudes or behaviours of users. This paper reviews the current state of mobile applications for health behavioural change with an emphasis on applications that promote physical activity. The inbuilt persuasive features of mobile applications were evaluated using the Persuasive Systems Design model. A database search was conducted to identify relevant articles. Articles were then reviewed using the Persuasive Systems Design model as a framework for analysis. Primary task support, dialogue support, and social support were found to be moderately represented in the selected articles. However, system credibility support was found to have only low levels of representation as a persuasive systems design feature in mobile applications for supporting physical activity. To ensure that available mobile technology resources are best used to improve the wellbeing of people, it is important that the design principles that influence the effectiveness of persuasive technology be understood.

  12. Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology.

    PubMed

    Walter, W David; Kurle, Carolyn M; Hopkins, John B

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial, we provide a brief introduction and summarize the 10 research articles included in this Special Issue on Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology. The first three articles report correction and discrimination factors that can be used to more accurately estimate the diets of extinct and extant mammals using stable isotope analysis. The remaining seven applied research articles use stable isotope analysis to address a variety of wildlife conservation and management questions from the oceans to the mountains.

  13. Strategic marketing applications of conjoint analysis: an HMO perspective.

    PubMed

    Rosko, M D; DeVita, M; McKenna, W F; Walker, L R

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how data from a conjoint analysis study can be used to help determine the most appropriate marketing mix for an operational HMO which is entering a new market--the geriatric population. Included are two features which are absent in previous articles on health care applications of conjoint analysis: external validation of results, and a demonstration of how conjoint analysis can be used to simulate market responses to changes in the provider's marketing mix.

  14. Applications of ripple analysis in hydro-acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leducq, D.; Schlegel, R.

    Software developed for ripple analysis in hydro-acoustic applications is described. Noise and vibration analysis using this software is shown to be particularly effective. The importance of post treatment of the data in order to obtain dependable results is stressed. Examples are presented of the use of the ripple analysis software in measuring the noise and vibration produced by a pump. The software is used in the analysis of cavitation noise. Cavitation noise frequency graphs are presented to illustrate the experimented results. The advantages of the ripple analysis techniques in obtaining a better understanding of the underlying physics of the processes studied are stressed.

  15. Quaternion Singular Spectrum Analysis of Electroencephalogram With Application in Sleep Analysis.

    PubMed

    Enshaeifar, Shirin; Kouchaki, Samaneh; Took, Clive Cheong; Sanei, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    A novel quaternion-valued singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is introduced for multichannel analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG). The analysis of EEG typically requires the decomposition of data channels into meaningful components despite the notoriously noisy nature of EEG--which is the aim of SSA. However, the singular value decomposition involved in SSA implies the strict orthogonality of the decomposed components, which may not reflect accurately the sources which exhibit similar neural activities. To allow for the modelling of such co-channel coupling, the quaternion domain is considered for the first time to formulate the SSA using the augmented statistics. As an application, we demonstrate how the augmented quaternion-valued SSA (AQSSA) can be used to extract the sources, even at a signal-to-noise ratio as low as -10 dB. To illustrate the usefulness of our quaternion-valued SSA in a rehabilitation setting, we employ the proposed SSA for sleep analysis to extract statistical descriptors for five-stage classification (Awake, N1, N2, N3 and REM). The level of agreement using these descriptors was 74% as quantified by the Cohen's kappa.

  16. Quaternion Singular Spectrum Analysis of Electroencephalogram With Application in Sleep Analysis.

    PubMed

    Enshaeifar, Shirin; Kouchaki, Samaneh; Took, Clive Cheong; Sanei, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    A novel quaternion-valued singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is introduced for multichannel analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG). The analysis of EEG typically requires the decomposition of data channels into meaningful components despite the notoriously noisy nature of EEG--which is the aim of SSA. However, the singular value decomposition involved in SSA implies the strict orthogonality of the decomposed components, which may not reflect accurately the sources which exhibit similar neural activities. To allow for the modelling of such co-channel coupling, the quaternion domain is considered for the first time to formulate the SSA using the augmented statistics. As an application, we demonstrate how the augmented quaternion-valued SSA (AQSSA) can be used to extract the sources, even at a signal-to-noise ratio as low as -10 dB. To illustrate the usefulness of our quaternion-valued SSA in a rehabilitation setting, we employ the proposed SSA for sleep analysis to extract statistical descriptors for five-stage classification (Awake, N1, N2, N3 and REM). The level of agreement using these descriptors was 74% as quantified by the Cohen's kappa. PMID:26276995

  17. Linking New Learning with Previous Experiences: An Activity in Teaching Dimensional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Werner, Jana Rae

    Throughout America's secondary science classrooms, students struggle to master fundamental science principles, especially when math-related applications are involved. For example, in chemistry students struggle to solve quantitative problems. This paper presents an activity that leads to a useful understanding of dimensional analysis; i.e., unit…

  18. Acceleration of reverse analysis method using hyperbolic activation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pwasong, Augustine; Sathasivam, Saratha

    2015-10-01

    Hyperbolic activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing data mining by using a technique named as Reverse Analysis method. In this paper, we describe how Hopfield network perform better with hyperbolic activation function and able to induce logical rules from large database by using reverse analysis method: given the values of the connections of a network, we can hope to know what logical rules are entrenched in the database. We limit our analysis to Horn clauses.

  19. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chichester, D. L.; Seabury, E. H.

    2009-03-10

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  20. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  1. An Analysis of Solar Global Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Zadig

    2013-02-01

    This article proposes a unified observational model of solar activity based on sunspot number and the solar global activity in the rotation of the structures, both per 11-year cycle. The rotation rates show a variation of a half-century period and the same period is also associated to the sunspot amplitude variation. The global solar rotation interweaves with the observed global organisation of solar activity. An important role for this assembly is played by the Grand Cycle formed by the merging of five sunspot cycles: a forgotten discovery by R. Wolf. On the basis of these elements, the nature of the Dalton Minimum, the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Grand Minima are presented.

  2. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  3. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  4. Application of multidisciplinary analysis to gene expression.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuefel; Kang, Huining; Fields, Chris; Cowie, Jim R.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Sibirtsev, Valeriy; Mosquera-Caro, Monica P.; Xu, Yuexian; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Helman, Paul; Andries, Erik; Ar, Kerem; Potter, Jeffrey; Willman, Cheryl L.; Murphy, Maurice H.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cancer, at the genomic level, could lead to individualized patient diagnostics and treatments. The developments to follow will signal a significant paradigm shift in the clinical management of human cancer. Despite our initial hopes, however, it seems that simple analysis of microarray data cannot elucidate clinically significant gene functions and mechanisms. Extracting biological information from microarray data requires a complicated path involving multidisciplinary teams of biomedical researchers, computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and computational linguists. The integration of the diverse outputs of each team is the limiting factor in the progress to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with the molecular biology of cancer. Specifically, one must deal with sets of significant genes identified by each method and extract whatever useful information may be found by comparing these different gene lists. Here we present our experience with such comparisons, and share methods developed in the analysis of an infant leukemia cohort studied on Affymetrix HG-U95A arrays. In particular, spatial gene clustering, hyper-dimensional projections, and computational linguistics were used to compare different gene lists. In spatial gene clustering, different gene lists are grouped together and visualized on a three-dimensional expression map, where genes with similar expressions are co-located. In another approach, projections from gene expression space onto a sphere clarify how groups of genes can jointly have more predictive power than groups of individually selected genes. Finally, online literature is automatically rearranged to present information about genes common to multiple groups, or to contrast the differences between the lists. The combination of these methods has improved our understanding of infant leukemia. While the complicated reality of the biology dashed our initial, optimistic hopes for simple answers from

  5. Application of TIMS data in stratigraphic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    An in-progress study demonstrates the utility of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data for unraveling the stratigraphic sequence of a western interior, North American foreland basin. The TIMS data can be used to determine the stratigraphic distribution of minerals that are diagnostic of specific depositional distribution. The thematic mapper (TM) and TIMS data were acquired in the Wind River/Bighorn area of central Wyoming in November 1982, and July 1983, respectively. Combined image processing, photogeologic, and spectral analysis methods were used to: map strata; construct stratigraphic columns; correlate data; and identify mineralogical facies.

  6. Hand geometry field application data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, M.; Ahrens, J.

    1997-03-01

    Over the last fifteen years, Sandia National Laboratories Security Systems and Technology Center, Department 5800, has been involved in several laboratory tests of various biometric identification devices. These laboratory tests were conducted to verify the manufacturer`s performance claims, to determine strengths and weaknesses of particular devices, and to evaluate which devices meet the US Department of Energy`s unique needs for high-security devices. However, during a recent field installation of one of these devices, significantly different performance was observed than had been predicted by these laboratory tests. This report documents the data analysis performed in the search for an explanation of these differences.

  7. The use of non-linear analysis for differentiating the biomagnetic activity in ovarian lesions.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Anastasiadis, P; Kotini, A

    1999-05-01

    In this study we investigated the biomagnetic activity measured with the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in benign and malignant ovarian lesions using non-linear analysis. We used a single channel biomagnetometer SQUID in order to measure the magnetic field emitted from benign and malignant ovarian lesions. We can differentiate such biomagnetic activities using non-linear analysis. Using the application of non-linear analysis in the ovarian lesions together with the use of dimensional calculations we have observed a clear saturation value for the dimension of malignant ovarian lesions and non-saturation for benign ovarian lesions. The biomagnetic measurements with the SQUID and the application of non-linear analysis in benign and malignant ovarian lesions, is a promising procedure in assessing and differentiating ovarian tumours. PMID:15512296

  8. Active CPW-fed slot antennas for power combining applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kormanyos, Brian K.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    We have combined integrated circuit antenna technology with microwave oscillator design to build an active slot-oscillator. The design is planar, does not require via holes and is compatible with monolithic transistor technology. The CPW-fed antenna impedance is calculated using a full-wave analysis technique. Slot-oscillators were built at 7, 13, and 22 GHz, and the predicted oscillation frequencies agree well with experiments. The design is easily scaled to millimeter-wave frequencies and can be extended to power combining arrays.

  9. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dunscombe, Peter B. Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-05-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources.

  10. Applications of Ergodic Theory to Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    The study of differential equations, or dynamical systems in general, has two fundamentally different approaches. We are most familiar with the construction of solutions to differential equations. Another approach is to study the statistical behavior of the solutions. Ergodic Theory is one of the most developed methods to study the statistical behavior of the solutions of differential equations. In the theory of satellite orbits, the statistical behavior of the orbits is used to produce 'Coverage Analysis' or how often a spacecraft is in view of a site on the ground. In this paper, we consider the use of Ergodic Theory for Coverage Analysis. This allows us to greatly simplify the computation of quantities such as the total time for which a ground station can see a satellite without ever integrating the trajectory, see Lo 1,2. More over, for any quantity which is an integrable function of the ground track, its average may be computed similarly without the integration of the trajectory. For example, the data rate for a simple telecom system is a function of the distance between the satellite and the ground station. We show that such a function may be averaged using the Ergodic Theorem.

  11. 78 FR 26334 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; 2014-2015 Federal Student Aid Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; 2014- 2015 Federal Student Aid Application... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: 2014-2015 Federal Student Aid Application... applicants for the application cycle. The total application projection for 2014-2015 is based upon...

  12. Integrated expressional analysis: application to the drug discovery process.

    PubMed

    Ilyin, Sergey E; Horowitz, Daniel; Belkowski, Stanley M; Xin, Hong; Eckardt, Annette J; Darrow, Andrew L; Chen, Cailin; Maley, Derrick; D'Andrea, Michael; Plata-Salamán, Carlos R; Derian, Claudia K

    2005-11-01

    Microarray technology enables high-throughput testing of gene expression to investigate various neuroscience related questions. This in turn creates a demand for scalable methods to confirm microarray results and the opportunity to use this information to discover and test novel pathways and therapeutic applications. Discovery of new central nervous system (CNS) treatments requires a comprehensive understanding of multiple aspects including the biology of a target, the pathophysiology of a disease/disorder, and the selection of successful lead compounds as well as efficient biomarker and drug disposition strategies such as absorption (how a drug is absorbed), distribution (how a drug spreads through an organism), metabolism (chemical conversion of a drug, if any, and into which substances), and elimination (how is a drug eliminated) (ADME). Understanding of the toxicity is also of paramount importance. These approaches, in turn, require novel high-content integrative assay technologies that provide thorough information about changes in cell biology. To increase efficiency of profiling, characterization, and validation, we established a new screening strategy that combines high-content image-based testing on Array Scan (Cellomics) with a confocal system and the multiplexed TaqMan RT-PCR method for quantitative mRNA expression analysis. This approach could serve as an interface between high-throughput microarray testing and specific application of markers discovered in the course of a microarray experiment. Markers could pinpoint activation or inhibition of a molecular pathway related, for instance, to neuronal viability. We demonstrate the successful testing of the same cell population in an image-based translocational assay followed by poly(A) mRNA capture and multiplexed single tube RT-PCR. In addition, Ciphergen ProteinChip analysis can be performed on the supernatant, thus allowing significant complementarity in the data output and interpretation by also

  13. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  14. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  15. Application of Ice Nucleation - Active Bacteria to Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Soichi; Watanabe, Michiko

    Ice nucleation-active bacteria act as nuclei and are able to freeze water without supercooling to a great degree. They are known as a major cause of the frost damage to crops. We have been trying with success to positively apply these bacteria to freeze texturing of food materials, freeze concentration of fresh liquid foods, formation of new physical properties of foods by freezing, and so forth. The most useful species for these applications is Xanthomonas campestris which has recently been designated as a food additive by the Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare and produced on an industrial scale. This paper reviews these topics, with some practical examples quoted primarily from our studies.

  16. Analysis of protein therapeutics by capillary electrophoresis: applications and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ma, S

    2005-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been increasingly used for the analysis of recombinant protein therapeutics in the biotechnology industry over the past several years. In this paper, an overview of the major applications implemented at Genentech Inc. is presented. The applications highlighted in this article are divided into the following three general areas: (i) CE as a replacement for slab gel electrophoresis, particularly capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecylsulphate and capillary isoelectric focusing; (ii) CE to monitor protein charge heterogeneity as an orthogonal technique to the traditional on-exchange chromatographic methods; and (iii) CE for carbohydrate analysis, including both oligosaccharide and monosaccharide analysis. Overall, the advantages of these CE-based methodologies include automation, ease of quantification, rapid analysis time, enhanced resolution, and robustness when compared to the traditional methods. There are, however, still some challenges in applying CE for protein analysis, particularly in the area of characterization due to the miniaturization nature of CE.

  17. Application of flow analysis in determination of selected radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kołacińska, Kamila; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2014-07-01

    The subject of this article is the review of developed applications of flow analysis methods for determination of radionuclides hard-to-detect in reactor cooling waters ((90)Sr, (239,240)Pu, and (241)Am), and also (99)Tc, which are released to the environment primarily through nuclear fuel processing. Flow analysis, which developed for decades parallel to flow methods of chemical synthesis, is widely employed in modern chemical analysis, mainly for environmental, food analysis and pharmaceutical applications. It allows the simplification of design of analytical instruments and procedures, the shortening of analysis time, improvement of precision, and often the automation of whole analytical procedure. All those factors can be also advantageous for determination of critical radionuclides for process needs and protection of environment. The review is based on 84 references, published mainly in leading analytical journals. PMID:24840425

  18. Application of active and passive neutron non destructive assay methods to concrete radioactive waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Brackx, E.

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with the application of non-destructive neutron measurement methods to control and characterize 200 l radioactive waste drums filled with a concrete matrix. Due to its composition, and particularly to hydrogen, concrete penalizes the use of such methods to quantify uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) components, which are mainly responsible of the α-activity of the waste. The determination of the alpha activity is the main objective of neutron measurements, in view to verify acceptance criteria in surface storage. Calibration experiments of the Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI) method lead to Detection Limit Masses (DLM) of about 1 mg of 239Pu eff in the total counting mode, and of about 10 mg of 239Pu eff in the coincidence counting mode, in case of a homogeneous Pu source and measurement times between one and two hours. Monte Carlo calculation results show a very satisfactory agreement between experimental values and calculated ones. Results of the application of passive and active neutron methods to control two real drums are presented in the last part of the paper. They show a good agreement between measured data and values declared by the waste producers. The main difficulties that had to be overcome are the low neutron signal in passive and active coincidence counting modes due to concrete, the analysis of the passive neutron signal in presence of 244Cm in the drum, which is a strong spontaneous fission neutron emitter, the variation of the active background with the concrete composition, and the analysis of the active prompt neutron signal due to the simultaneous presence of U and Pu in the drums.

  19. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  20. Application of Optical Biosensors in Small-Molecule Screening Activities

    PubMed Central

    Geschwindner, Stefan; Carlsson, Johan F.; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have seen remarkable progress and improvements in optical biosensor systems such that those are currently seen as an important and value-adding component of modern drug screening activities. In particular the introduction of microplate-based biosensor systems holds the promise to match the required throughput without compromising on data quality thus representing a sought-after complement to traditional fluidic systems. This article aims to highlight the application of the two most prominent optical biosensor technologies, namely surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and optical waveguide grating (OWG), in small-molecule screening and will present, review and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different assay formats on these platforms. A particular focus will be on the specific advantages of the inhibition in solution assay (ISA) format in contrast to traditional direct binding assays (DBA). Furthermore we will discuss different application areas for both fluidic as well as plate-based biosensor systems by considering the individual strength of the platforms. PMID:22666031

  1. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is one of the many potentially catastrophic hazards associated with the operation of crewed spacecraft. A major lesson learned by NASA from the Apollo 204 fire in 1966 was that ignition sources in an electrically powered vehicle should and can be minimized, but can never be eliminated completely. For this reason, spacecraft fire control is based on minimizing potential ignition sources and eliminating materials that can propagate fire. Fire extinguishers are always provided on crewed spacecraft, but are not considered as part of the fire control process. "Eliminating materials that can propagate fire" does not mean eliminating all flammable materials - the cost of designing and building spacecraft using only nonflammable materials is extraordinary and unnecessary. It means controlling the quantity and configuration of such materials to eliminate potential fire propagation paths and thus ensure that any fire would be small, localized, and isolated, and would self-extinguish without harm to the crew. Over the years, NASA has developed many solutions for controlling the configuration of flammable materials (and potentially flammable materials in commercial "off-the-shelf" hardware) so that they can be used safely in air and oxygen-enriched environments in crewed spacecraft. This document describes and explains these design solutions so payload customers and other organizations can use them in designing safe and cost-effective flight hardware. Proper application of these guidelines will produce acceptable flammability configurations for hardware located in any compartment of the International Space Station or other program crewed vehicles and habitats. However, use of these guidelines does not exempt hardware organizations of the responsibility for safety of the hardware under their control.

  2. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  3. Techniques of EMG signal analysis: detection, processing, classification and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M.S.; Mohd-Yasin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals can be used for clinical/biomedical applications, Evolvable Hardware Chip (EHW) development, and modern human computer interaction. EMG signals acquired from muscles require advanced methods for detection, decomposition, processing, and classification. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the various methodologies and algorithms for EMG signal analysis to provide efficient and effective ways of understanding the signal and its nature. We further point up some of the hardware implementations using EMG focusing on applications related to prosthetic hand control, grasp recognition, and human computer interaction. A comparison study is also given to show performance of various EMG signal analysis methods. This paper provides researchers a good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis procedures. This knowledge will help them develop more powerful, flexible, and efficient applications. PMID:16799694

  4. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M. Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μVrms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented. PMID:26861324

  5. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-02-04

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μV rms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented.

  6. Performance Analysis of Multilevel Parallel Applications on Shared Memory Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Caubet, Jordi; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe how to apply powerful performance analysis techniques to understand the behavior of multilevel parallel applications. We use the Paraver/OMPItrace performance analysis system for our study. This system consists of two major components: The OMPItrace dynamic instrumentation mechanism, which allows the tracing of processes and threads and the Paraver graphical user interface for inspection and analyses of the generated traces. We describe how to use the system to conduct a detailed comparative study of a benchmark code implemented in five different programming paradigms applicable for shared memory

  7. Passive versus active mitigation cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.; Galbraith, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The scope of this task is to assess the impact of mitigation alternatives for Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103 on the Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. This assessment and other related tasks are part of an Action Plan Path Forward prepared by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Life Extension and Transition Program. Task 3.7 of the Action Plan for Project W-236A MWTF analyzed the comparative cost/risk of two hydrogen gas mitigation alternatives (active versus passive) to recommend the most appropriate course of action to resolve the hydrogen gas safety issue. The qualitative success of active mitigation has been demonstrated through Tank 241-SY-101 testing. Passive mitigation has not been demonstrated but will be validated by laboratory test work performed under Task 3.1 of the Action Plan. It is assumed for this assessment that the uncertainties associated with the performance of either alternative is comparable. Determining alternative specific performance measures beyond those noted are not in the scope of this effort.

  8. Final Report 02-ERD-056 Active Load Control& Mitigation Using Microtabs: A Wind Energy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Nakafuji, D Y

    2003-02-24

    With public concern over the security and reliability of our existing electricity infrastructure and the resurgence of wind energy, the wind industry offers an immediate, first point of entry for the application and demonstration of an active load control technology. An innovative microtab approach is being investigated and demonstrated for active aerodynamic load control applications under the mid-year LDRD (June-Sept. 2002) effort. With many of these million dollar turbines failing at only half the design lifespans, conventional techniques for stiffening rotors, enlarging generators and gearboxes, and reinforcing towers are insufficient to accommodate the demands for bigger, taller and more powerful turbines. The DOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports R&D efforts to develop lighter, more efficient and longer lasting wind turbines and advance turbine components. However, as wind turbine systems continue to increase in size and complexity, fundamental research and technology development has not kept pace with needs. New technologies to increase turbine life spans and to reduce costs are needed to realize wind electricity generation potentials. It is becoming quite evident that without a better understanding of static and dynamic response to normal and abnormal operating loads coupled with sophisticated flow analysis and control techniques, large turbine operating life and component life will be severely limited. Promising technologies include active load control and load alleviation systems to mitigate peak loads from damaging key components. This project addresses science and engineering challenges of developing enabling technologies for active load control for turbine applications using an innovative, translational microtab approach. Figure 1.1 illustrates the microtabs as applied on a wind turbine system. Extending wind turbine operating life is a crucial component for reducing the cost of wind-generated electricity, enabling wind

  9. Activity analysis of telemedicine in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, D

    2004-01-01

    Background: Telemedicine is a new way of delivering health care to people, particularly in remote areas. The UK has experienced a surge of telematic projects in recent years. However, there is little information available in the literature regarding the past and present of telemedicine in the UK. Objectives: To evaluate the state of telemedicine in the UK. Methods: All the projects that took place in UK since 1991 were considered for the study and evaluated according to the population and area served. Results: A total of 216 projects were identified. The number of projects was highest in England (172). Emergency medicine, medical specialties, and educational projects received most consideration (9.7% each). With the exception of Wales, the number of projects increased steadily with time. The projects, when correlated in accordance with the area (per 10 000 sq km) and population (per million), were found to be highest in England (49.5%) and Northern Ireland (36.2%) respectively. No dedicated educational project took place in Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales. Conclusions: The UK embraced telemedicine in the early 1990s and the overall growth had been steady. Scotland, in spite of being the most likely beneficiary in UK, has lagged behind in telemedicine schemes and merits more projects. The issue of tele-education needs urgent review. Multisite trials and a combined approach involving the government, health professionals, technologists, and patients' representatives would facilitate such developments and help widen the application of telemedicine. PMID:15192165

  10. Applications of Mass Spectrometry to Structural Analysis of Marine Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Yinzhi; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Lili; Yu, Guangli

    2014-01-01

    Marine oligosaccharides have attracted increasing attention recently in developing potential drugs and biomaterials for their particular physical and chemical properties. However, the composition and sequence analysis of marine oligosaccharides are very challenging for their structural complexity and heterogeneity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important technique for carbohydrate analysis by providing more detailed structural information, including molecular mass, sugar constituent, sequence, inter-residue linkage position and substitution pattern. This paper provides an overview of the structural analysis based on MS approaches in marine oligosaccharides, which are derived from some biologically important marine polysaccharides, including agaran, carrageenan, alginate, sulfated fucan, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and GAG-like polysaccharides. Applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) are mainly presented and the general applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are also outlined. Some technical challenges in the structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides by MS have also been pointed out. PMID:24983643

  11. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak.

  12. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  13. Wavelet analysis and applications to some dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendjoya, Ph.; Slezak, E.

    1993-05-01

    The main properties of the wavelet transform as a new time-frequency method which is particularly well suited for detecting and localizing discontinuities and scaling behavior in signals are reviewed. Particular attention is given to first applications of the wavelet transform to dynamical systems including solution of partial differential equations, fractal and turbulence characterization, and asteroid family determination from cluster analysis. Advantages of the wavelet transform over classical analysis methods are summarized.

  14. Applications of Mass Spectrometry for Cellular Lipid Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of cellular lipids is an enabling technology for lipidomics, which is a rapidly-developing research field. In this review, we briefly discuss the principles, advantages, and possible limitations of electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry-based methodologies for the analysis of lipid species. The applications of these methodologies to lipidomic research are also summarized. PMID:25598407

  15. Calculation of Raman optical activity spectra for vibrational analysis.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Shaun T; Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A; Blanch, Ewan W

    2015-05-01

    By looking back on the history of Raman Optical Activity (ROA), the present article shows that the success of this analytical technique was for a long time hindered, paradoxically, by the deep level of detail and wealth of structural information it can provide. Basic principles of the underlying theory are discussed, to illustrate the technique's sensitivity due to its physical origins in the delicate response of molecular vibrations to electromagnetic properties. Following a short review of significant advances in the application of ROA by UK researchers, we dedicate two extensive sections to the technical and theoretical difficulties that were overcome to eventually provide predictive power to computational simulations in terms of ROA spectral calculation. In the last sections, we focus on a new modelling strategy that has been successful in coping with the dramatic impact of solvent effects on ROA analyses. This work emphasises the role of complementarity between experiment and theory for analysing the conformations and dynamics of biomolecules, so providing new perspectives for methodological improvements and molecular modelling development. For the latter, an example of a next-generation force-field for more accurate simulations and analysis of molecular behaviour is presented. By improving the accuracy of computational modelling, the analytical capabilities of ROA spectroscopy will be further developed so generating new insights into the complex behaviour of molecules.

  16. Design and Analysis of Turbines for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.; Huber, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    In order to mitigate the risk of rocket propulsion development, efficient, accurate, detailed fluid dynamics analysis of the turbomachinery is necessary. This analysis is used for component development, design parametrics, performance prediction, and environment definition. To support this requirement, a task was developed at NASAh4arshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to improve turbine aerodynamic performance through the application of advanced design and analysis tools. There are four major objectives of this task: 1) to develop, enhance, and integrate advanced turbine aerodynamic design and analysis tools; 2) to develop the methodology for application of the analytical techniques; 3) to demonstrate the benefits of the advanced turbine design procedure through its application to a relevant turbine design point; and 4) to verify the optimized design and analysis with testing. The turbine chosen on which to demonstrate the procedure was a supersonic design suitable for a reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The hot gas path and blading were redesigned to obtain an increased efficiency. The redesign of the turbine was conducted with a consideration of system requirements, realizing that a highly efficient turbine that, for example, significantly increases engine weight, is of limited benefit. Both preliminary and detailed designs were considered. To generate an improved design, one-dimensional (1D) design and analysis tools, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), response surface methodology (RSM), and neural nets (NN) were used.

  17. Applications of a broad-spectrum tool for conservation and fisheries analysis: aquatic gap analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Steen, Paul J.; Lyons, John; Stewart, Jana S.

    2009-01-01

    Natural resources support all of our social and economic activities, as well as our biological existence. Humans have little control over most of the physical, biological, and sociological conditions dictating the status and capacity of natural resources in any particular area. However, the most rapid and threatening influences on natural resources typically are anthropogenic overuse and degradation. In addition, living natural resources (i.e., organisms) do not respect political boundaries, but are aware of their optimal habitat and environmental conditions. Most organisms have wider spatial ranges than the jurisdictional boundaries of environmental agencies that deal with them; even within those jurisdictions, information is patchy and disconnected. Planning and projecting effects of ecological management are difficult, because many organisms, habitat conditions, and interactions are involved. Conservation and responsible resource use involves wise management and manipulation of the aspects of the environment and biological communities that can be effectively changed. Tools and data sets that provide new insights and analysis capabilities can enhance the ability of resource managers to make wise decisions and plan effective, long-term management strategies. Aquatic gap analysis has been developed to provide those benefits. Gap analysis is more than just the assessment of the match or mis-match (i.e., gaps) between habitats of ecological value and areas with an appropriate level of environmental protection (e.g., refuges, parks, preserves), as the name suggests. Rather, a Gap Analysis project is a process which leads to an organized database of georeferenced information and previously available tools to examine conservation and other ecological issues; it provides a geographic analysis platform that serves as a foundation for aquatic ecological studies. This analytical tool box allows one to conduct assessments of all habitat elements within an area of interest

  18. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a

  19. Tomato Plant Proteins Actively Responding to Fungal Applications and Their Role in Cell Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Zoobia; Shafique, Sobiya; Ahmad, Aqeel; Shafique, Shazia; Yasin, Nasim A.; Ashraf, Yaseen; Ibrahim, Asma; Akram, Waheed; Noreen, Sibgha

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of protein induction in tomato plants has been investigated after the applications of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal species. Moreover, particular roles of the most active protein against biological applications were also determined using chromatographic techniques. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium oxalicum were applied as a pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal species, respectively. Protein profile analysis revealed that a five protein species (i.e., protein 1, 6, 10, 12, and 13) possessed completely coupled interaction with non-pathogenic inducer application (P. oxalicum). However, three protein species (i.e., 10, 12, and 14) recorded a strong positive interaction with both fungal species. Protein 14 exhibited the maximum interaction with fungal applications, and its role in plant metabolism was studied after its identification as protein Q9M1W6. It was determined that protein Q1M1W6 was involved in guaiacyl lignin biosynthesis, and its inhibition increased the coumarin contents in tomato plants. Moreover, it was also observed that the protein Q9M1W6 takes significant part in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and Indole acetic acid contents, which are defense and growth factors of tomato plants. The study will help investigators to design fundamental rules of plant proteins affecting cell physiology under the influence of external fungal applications. PMID:27445848

  20. Tomato Plant Proteins Actively Responding to Fungal Applications and Their Role in Cell Physiology.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Zoobia; Shafique, Sobiya; Ahmad, Aqeel; Shafique, Shazia; Yasin, Nasim A; Ashraf, Yaseen; Ibrahim, Asma; Akram, Waheed; Noreen, Sibgha

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of protein induction in tomato plants has been investigated after the applications of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal species. Moreover, particular roles of the most active protein against biological applications were also determined using chromatographic techniques. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium oxalicum were applied as a pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal species, respectively. Protein profile analysis revealed that a five protein species (i.e., protein 1, 6, 10, 12, and 13) possessed completely coupled interaction with non-pathogenic inducer application (P. oxalicum). However, three protein species (i.e., 10, 12, and 14) recorded a strong positive interaction with both fungal species. Protein 14 exhibited the maximum interaction with fungal applications, and its role in plant metabolism was studied after its identification as protein Q9M1W6. It was determined that protein Q1M1W6 was involved in guaiacyl lignin biosynthesis, and its inhibition increased the coumarin contents in tomato plants. Moreover, it was also observed that the protein Q9M1W6 takes significant part in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and Indole acetic acid contents, which are defense and growth factors of tomato plants. The study will help investigators to design fundamental rules of plant proteins affecting cell physiology under the influence of external fungal applications. PMID:27445848

  1. [Application of capillary electrophoresis in analysis of intact mammalian cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Qu, Feng; Lou, Beilei

    2012-02-01

    Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of human body. The research of cells' structure, function and behavior is very important. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful tool for the separation and analysis, the application of which in cell analysis has progressed significantly. In this paper, the developments of CE applied in the intact mammalian cell analysis are reviewed, which consist of cell population and single cell analysis. The erythrocyte, boar sperm, HeLa cells, SH-SY5Y cells, Caco-2 cells, K562 cells and rat cerebellar granule cells are involved in this review. The methods and conditions for the intact mammalian cell analysis are summarized. In addition, the problems caused by the breakage, aggregation, sedimentation, adsorption and electrophoretic heterogeneity of the cell in the intact mammalian cell analysis by CE are discussed, and the corresponding solutions are introduced. Also, the future research trends are presented. Forty nine papers in all are reviewed.

  2. Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

  3. Determination of sodium in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, W C; Capar, S G; Anderson, D L

    1997-01-01

    A formalized method for determining sodium in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis is presented. The method includes common procedures from the numerous options available to this historically nonformalized analytical technique. The number of procedural options is restricted to minimize the method's complexity, yet the method is still applicable to a variety of neutron activation facilities. High accuracy and precision are achieved by placing bounds on allowed uncertainty at critical stages of the analysis. Analytical results from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration laboratory and 4 other laboratories demonstrate the method's performance.

  4. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v). PMID:24792543

  5. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v).

  6. MCT SWIR modules for passive and active imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Benecke, M.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Weber, A.; Wendler, J.; Sieck, A.

    2016-05-01

    Based on AIM's state-of-the-art MCT IR technology, detector modules for the SWIR spectral range have been developed, fabricated and characterized. While LPE grown MCT FPAs with extended 2.5μm cut-off have been fabricated and integrated also MBE grown MCT on GaAs is considered for future production. Two imaging applications have been in focus operating either in passive mode by making use of e.g. the night glow, or in active mode by laser illumination for gated viewing. Dedicated readout integrated circuits (ROIC), realized in 0.18μm Si-CMOS technology providing the required functionality for passive imaging and gated imaging, have been designed and implemented. For both designs a 640x512 15μm pitch format was chosen. The FPAs are integrated in compact dewar cooler configurations using AIM's split linear coolers. A command and control electronics (CCE) provides supply voltages, biasing, clocks, control and video digitization for easy system interfacing. For imaging under low-light conditions a low-noise 640x512 15μm pitch ROIC with CTIA input stages and correlated double sampling was designed. The ROIC provides rolling shutter and snapshot integration. To reduce size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) a 640x512 format detector in a 10μm pitch is under development. The module makes use of the extended SWIR spectral cut-off up to 2.5μm. To be used for active gated-viewing operation SWIR MCT avalanche photodiodes have been implemented and characterized on FPA level in a 640x512 15μm pitch format. The specific ROIC provides also the necessary functions for range gate control and triggering by the laser illumination. First lab and field tests of a gated viewing demonstrator have been carried out. The paper will present the development status and performance results of AIM's MCT based SWIR Modules for imaging applications.

  7. Predictive Analysis of Landslide Activity Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuzon, N.; Regan, J.; Slesnick, C.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides are historically one of the most damaging geohazard phenomena in terms of death tolls and socio-economic losses. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of landslides and how environmental phenomena affect their frequency and severity is of critical importance. Of specific importance for mitigating future damage is increasing our understanding of how climate change will affect landslide severity, occurrence rates, and damage. We are developing data driven models aimed at predicting landslide activity. The models learn multi-dimensional weather and geophysical patterns associated with historical landslides and estimate location-dependent probabilities for landslides under current or future weather and geophysical conditions. Our approach uses machine learning algorithms capable of determining non-linear associations between dependent variables and landslide occurrence without requiring detailed knowledge of geomorphology. Our primary goal in year one of the project is to evaluate the predictive capabilities of data mining models in application to landslide activity, and to analyze if the approach will discover previously unknown variables and/or relationships important to landslide occurrence, frequency or severity. The models include remote sensing and ground-based data, including weather, landcover, slope, elevation and drainage information as well as urbanization data. The historical landslide dataset we used to build our preliminary models was compiled from City of Seattle landslide files, United States Geological Survey reports, newspaper articles, and a verified subset of the Seattle Landslide Database that consists of all reported landslides within Seattle, WA, between 1948 and 1999. Most of the landslides analyzed to-date are shallow. Using statistical analysis and unsupervised clustering methods we have thus far identified subsets of weather conditions that lead to a significantly higher landslide probability, and have developed

  8. The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool: A Web Application

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, William H. Jr.

    2012-08-02

    The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool is a type of Google maps for adversaries. It's a web-based Geospatial application similar to Google Maps. It helps the U.S. government plan operations that predict where an adversary might be. It's easily accessible and maintainble and it's simple to use without much training.

  9. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis. PMID:21985357

  10. Application of Sediment Backstripping Corrections for Basin Analysis Using Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Marlon Scott; Hsui, Albert Tong-Kwan

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a program created to serve as an instructional tool for teaching basin analysis. Described is the use of the program for interpreting plots resulting from backstripping methods. Included in the discussion are implementation, applications and availability of the "Subside!" program. (CW)

  11. Boundary element techniques - Applications in stress analysis and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Brebbia, C.A.; Venturini, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume includes contributions in the field of stress analysis, soil and rock mechanics, non-linear problems, dynamics and vibrations, plate bending and heat transfer. The companion volume includes contributions dealing with viscous and inviscid fluid flow, aerodynamics and hydrodynamics applications, elastostatics and computational and mathematical aspects.

  12. Dynamic mechanical analysis: A practical introduction to techniques and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, K.

    1999-01-01

    This book introduces DMA, its history, and its current position as part of thermal analysis on polymers. It discusses major types of instrumentation, including oscillatory rotational, oscillatory axial, and torsional pendulum. It also describes analytical techniques in terms of utility, quality of data, methods of calibration, and suitability for different types of materials and assesses applications for thermoplastics, thermosetting systems, and thermosets.

  13. Household Refuse Analysis: Theory, Method, and Applications in Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathje, William L., Ed.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl K., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The articles in this issue explore the current parameters of household refuse analysis. An overview of garbage research studies is presented; research methodology, theories, and applications are examined. U.S. household refuse is compared to the discards of households in Mexico City. (RM)

  14. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  15. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  16. Understanding Tensions: Activity Systems Analysis of Cross-Continental Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, LanHui Zhang; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Using the lens of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, activity theory, and Engeström's activity systems analysis, this qualitative study explores students' experiences in the context of a sixteen-week transpacific collaboration between seven students at Northern Illinois University (NIU) and seven students from Shandong Normal…

  17. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  18. Application of independent component analysis in face images: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuchi; Lu, Hanqing

    2003-09-01

    Face technologies which can be applied to access control and surveillance, are essential to intelligent vision-based human computer interaction. The research efforts in this field include face detecting, face recognition, face retrieval, etc. However, these tasks are challenging because of variability in view point, lighting, pose and expression of human faces. The ideal face representation should consider the variability so as to we can develop robust algorithms for our applications. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as an unsupervised learning technique has been used to find such a representation and obtained good performances in some applications. In the first part of this paper, we depict the models of ICA and its extensions: Independent Subspace Analysis (ISA) and Topographic ICA (TICA).Then we summaraize the process in the applications of ICA and its extension in Face images. At last we propose a promising direction for future research.

  19. Reconstruction of human brain spontaneous activity based on frequency-pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography data

    PubMed Central

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Ustinin, Mikhail N.; Rykunov, Stanislav D.; Boyko, Anna I.; Sychev, Vyacheslav V.; Walton, Kerry D.; Rabello, Guilherme M.; Garcia, John

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis and localization of brain activity has been developed, based on multichannel magnetic field recordings, over minutes, superimposed on the MRI of the individual. Here, a high resolution Fourier Transform is obtained over the entire recording period, leading to a detailed multi-frequency spectrum. Further analysis implements a total decomposition of the frequency components into functionally invariant entities, each having an invariant field pattern localizable in recording space. The method, addressed as functional tomography, makes it possible to find the distribution of magnetic field sources in space. Here, the method is applied to the analysis of simulated data, to oscillating signals activating a physical current dipoles phantom, and to recordings of spontaneous brain activity in 10 healthy adults. In the analysis of simulated data, 61 dipoles are localized with 0.7 mm precision. Concerning the physical phantom the method is able to localize three simultaneously activated current dipoles with 1 mm precision. Spatial resolution 3 mm was attained when localizing spontaneous alpha rhythm activity in 10 healthy adults, where the alpha peak was specified for each subject individually. Co-registration of the functional tomograms with each subject's head MRI localized alpha range activity to the occipital and/or posterior parietal brain region. This is the first application of this new functional tomography to human brain activity. The method successfully provides an overall view of brain electrical activity, a detailed spectral description and, combined with MRI, the localization of sources in anatomical brain space. PMID:26528119

  20. Genre Analysis of Personal Statements: Analysis of Moves in Application Essays to Medical and Dental Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Huiling

    2007-01-01

    Despite the important role the personal statement plays in the graduate school application processes, little research has been done on its functional features and little instruction has been given about it in academic writing courses. The author conducted a multi-level discourse analysis on a corpus of 30 medical/dental school application letters,…

  1. Analysis of estimation algorithms for CDTI and CAS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goka, T.

    1985-01-01

    Estimation algorithms for Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) and Collision Avoidance System (CAS) applications were analyzed and/or developed. The algorithms are based on actual or projected operational and performance characteristics of an Enhanced TCAS II traffic sensor developed by Bendix and the Federal Aviation Administration. Three algorithm areas are examined and discussed. These are horizontal x and y, range and altitude estimation algorithms. Raw estimation errors are quantified using Monte Carlo simulations developed for each application; the raw errors are then used to infer impacts on the CDTI and CAS applications. Applications of smoothing algorithms to CDTI problems are also discussed briefly. Technical conclusions are summarized based on the analysis of simulation results.

  2. A small active dosimeter for applications in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Birgit; Maršálek, Karel; Berger, Thomas; Burmeister, Sönke; Reitz, Günther; Heber, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    The radiation field in low Earth orbits (LEO) differs significantly from the radiation environment on Earth's surface. Exposures are by far higher and pose an additional health risk for astronauts. Continuous monitoring is therefore a necessary task in the frame of radiation protection measures. A small battery-driven active dosimeter telescope based on silicon detectors meeting the requirements for LEO applications has been developed. The instrument, the Mobile Dosimetric Telescope (MDT), is designed to measure the absorbed dose rate and the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. From the latter the mean quality factor of the radiation field can be derived and hence an estimate of the dose equivalent as a measure of the exposure. The calibration of the device is done using radioactive isotopes and heavy ions. Fragmentation products of heavy ions are used to show the ability of the MDT to reliably detect energy depositions from high energetic nuclei. Radiation measurements inside aircraft during long distance flights, serving as field tests of the instrument, prove the good performance of the instrument.

  3. A Micro Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter for Astrobiology Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Donald W.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    A micro-scale Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (microFACS) for astrobiology applications is under development. This device is designed to have a footprint of 7 cm x 7 cm x 4 cm and allow live-dead counts and sorting of cells that have fluorescent characteristics from staining. The FACS system takes advantage of microfluidics to create a cell sorter that can fit in the palm of the hand. A micron-scale channel allows cells to pass by a blue diode which causes emission of marker-expressed cells which are detected by a filtered photodetector. A small microcontroller then counts cells and operates high speed valves to select which chamber the cell is collected in (a collection chamber or a waste chamber). Cells with the expressed characteristic will be collected in the collection chamber. This system has been built and is currently being tested. We are also designing a system with integrated MEMS-based pumps and valves for a small and compact unit to fly on small satellite-based biology experiments.

  4. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaza, E.; Symonds-Tayler, R.; Collins, D. J.; McDonald, F.; McNair, H. A.; Scurr, E.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.

    2015-02-01

    A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment.

  5. Passive and active optical fibers for space and terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mansoor; Abramczyk, Jaroslaw; Farroni, Julia; Manyam, Upendra; Guertin, Douglas

    2006-08-01

    Being the new frontier of science and technology, as the near earth space begins to attract attention, low cost and rapidly deployable earth observation satellites are becoming more important. Among other things these satellites are expected to carry out missions in the general areas of science and technology, remote sensing, national defense and telecommunications. Except for critical missions, constraints of time and money practically mandate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components as the only viable option. The near earth space environment (~50-50000 miles) is relatively hostile and among other things components/devices/systems are exposed to ionizing radiation. Photonic devices/systems are and will continue to be an integral part of satellites and their payloads. The ability of such devices/systems to withstand ionizing radiation is of extreme importance. Qualification of such devices/systems is time consuming and very expensive. As a result, manufacturers of satellites and their payloads have started to ask for radiation performance data on components from the individual vendors. As an independent manufacturer of both passive and active specialty silica optical fibers, Nufern is beginning to address this issue. Over the years, Nufern has developed fiber designs, compositions and processes to make radiation hard fibers. Radiation performance data (both gamma and proton) of a variety of singlemode (SM), multimode (MM), polarization maintaining (PM) and rare-earth doped (RED) fibers that find applications in space environment are presented.

  6. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M.H.; Overvliet, Geke M.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Backes, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

  7. Neutron activation analysis for antimetabolites. [in food samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Determination of metal ion contaminants in food samples is studied. A weighed quantity of each sample was digested in a concentrated mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and perchloric acids to affect complete solution of the food products. The samples were diluted with water and the pH adjusted according to the specific analysis performed. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis, polarography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The solid food samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analysis for increased sensitivity and lower levels of detectability. The results are presented in tabular form.

  8. Prediction of the applicability of active damping elements in high-precision machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holterman, Jan; de Vries, Theo J. A.

    2004-07-01

    The Smart Disc project at the Drebbel Institute of the University of Twente is aimed at the development of active structural elements for high-precision machines. The active elements consist of a piezoelectric position actuator and a collocated piezoelectric force sensor. As the actuators and sensors are collocated, the elements are especially suited for implementing robust active damping. The decision whether or not to incorporate active damping elements in a high-precision machine should ideally be made in an early design stage, i.e., at a time at which only limited knowledge of the vibration problem is available. Despite the uncertainties that may exist at that stage, one would like to be able to roughly predict the amount of damping that could possibly be obtained. For that reason, the present paper is concerned with the development of an analysis tool that may help in predicting the applicability of active damping elements in a mechanical structure of which only a rough model is available. Based on extensive simulations, several practical rules of thumb are given for the requirements for the mechanical structure and the active elements, in order to enable the realisation of relative damping values as high as 10%.

  9. Analysis and synthesis of distributed-lumped-active networks by digital computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The use of digital computational techniques in the analysis and synthesis of DLA (distributed lumped active) networks is considered. This class of networks consists of three distinct types of elements, namely, distributed elements (modeled by partial differential equations), lumped elements (modeled by algebraic relations and ordinary differential equations), and active elements (modeled by algebraic relations). Such a characterization is applicable to a broad class of circuits, especially including those usually referred to as linear integrated circuits, since the fabrication techniques for such circuits readily produce elements which may be modeled as distributed, as well as the more conventional lumped and active ones.

  10. 77 FR 24268 - Agency Information Collection (Dependents' Application for VA Educational Benefits) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dependents' Application for VA Educational Benefits) Activity Under... INFORMATION: Title: Dependents' Application for VA Educational Benefits (Under Provisions of Chapters 33 and... spouses and children of veterans or servicemembers to apply for Survivors' and Dependents'...

  11. 77 FR 20887 - Proposed Information Collection (Educational/Vocational Counseling Application) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Educational/Vocational Counseling Application) Activity: Comment... comments for information needed to determine an applicant's entitlement to counseling services. DATES... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Educational/Vocational...

  12. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register...

  13. 77 FR 67804 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Application for Client Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Application for Client Assistance Program... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Application for Client Assistance Program... request funds to establish and carry out Client Assistance Programs (CAP). CAP is mandated by...

  14. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment... Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified...

  15. 77 FR 3845 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (Application for Annual Clothing Allowance) Under OMB... No. 2900-0198.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Annual Clothing Allowance (Under... ] determine if a veteran is eligible for clothing allowance benefits due to a service connected...

  16. Exploring the applicability of equine blood to bloodstain pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Bethany A J; Banks, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic application of the interpretation of distinct patterns which blood exhibits during a bloodletting incident, providing key evidence with its ability to map the sequence of events. Here, we explore the use of equine blood and investigate its suitability within the field of BPA. Blood is a complex fluid, and finding a suitable safe substitute to human blood that encompasses all of its characteristics has been the focus of many investigations. Animal blood has been concluded as the closest and therefore the most suitable alternate. However, it seems that currently only porcine blood is most prominently utilised.In this study, equine blood was investigated, using two different anti-clotting methods, where blood impacts were explored over a typical range of varying impact velocities upon a selection of commonly encountered surfaces. Key BPA parameters, such as the diameters of the resulting bloodstains, number of spines and area of origin were measured, which were subsequently applied into previously derived BPA equations.We find that defibrinated equine blood is a suitable alternative and offers the same conclusive outcomes to human blood. This gives bloodstain pattern investigators and researchers an additional choice of blood which can be of benefit when certain bloods are difficult to attain or when the activity involves the usage of a large quantity of blood. Additionally we explore the effect on BPA of aged blood, which revealed a significant decrease in stain diameter of up to 12.78 % when blood has been left for 57 days. A shelf life of no more than 12 days is recommended when blood is refrigerated at 4℃. PMID:25013163

  17. Monitoring of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensing for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Park, Chan - Yik; Jun, Seung - Moon

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of an initial investigation into tracking and monitoring the integrity of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensors. The target application of this study is a fitting lug assembly of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), where a composite wing is mounted to a UAV fuselage. The SHM methods deployed in this study are impedance-based SHM techniques, time-series analysis, and high-frequency response functions measured by piezoelectric active-sensors. Different types of simulated damage are introduced into the structure, and the capability of each technique is examined and compared. Additional considerations encountered in this initial investigation are made to guide further thorough research required for the successful field deployment of this technology.

  18. Polyglot Programming in Applications Used for Genetic Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Applications used for the analysis of genetic data process large volumes of data with complex algorithms. High performance, flexibility, and a user interface with a web browser are required by these solutions, which can be achieved by using multiple programming languages. In this study, I developed a freely available framework for building software to analyze genetic data, which uses C++, Python, JavaScript, and several libraries. This system was used to build a number of genetic data processing applications and it reduced the time and costs of development. PMID:25197633

  19. Steady-state rate analysis: application to biological transport.

    PubMed

    Wagg, J; Chapman, J B

    1995-05-01

    A novel method for defining the steady-state unidirectional rates of complex reactions has previously been developed (Wagg, 1988 Ph.D. Thesis, Monash University, Australia). This methodology is based upon the method of Wagg (1987, J. theor. Biol. 128, 375-385) for defining the steady-state unidirectional fluxes of chemical species through branched chemical, osmotic and chemiosmotic reactions. It offers a number of distinct advantages over existing approaches to steady-state rate analysis: it is relatively simple to apply to complex reactions and is readily amenable to computer-based application. The method is demonstrated by direct application to a number of hypothetical models for biological transport phenomena.

  20. Polyglot programming in applications used for genetic data analysis.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Applications used for the analysis of genetic data process large volumes of data with complex algorithms. High performance, flexibility, and a user interface with a web browser are required by these solutions, which can be achieved by using multiple programming languages. In this study, I developed a freely available framework for building software to analyze genetic data, which uses C++, Python, JavaScript, and several libraries. This system was used to build a number of genetic data processing applications and it reduced the time and costs of development. PMID:25197633

  1. Polyglot programming in applications used for genetic data analysis.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Applications used for the analysis of genetic data process large volumes of data with complex algorithms. High performance, flexibility, and a user interface with a web browser are required by these solutions, which can be achieved by using multiple programming languages. In this study, I developed a freely available framework for building software to analyze genetic data, which uses C++, Python, JavaScript, and several libraries. This system was used to build a number of genetic data processing applications and it reduced the time and costs of development.

  2. Desired features of smartphone applications promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Bock, Beth

    2011-12-01

    Approximately one-third of adults in the United States are physically inactive. This is a significant public health concern as physical activity (PA) can influence the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. To minimize these health risks, effective PA interventions must be developed and disseminated to the vast number of individuals who remain sedentary. Smartphone technology presents an exciting opportunity for delivering PA interventions remotely. Although a number of PA applications are currently available for smartphones, these "apps" are not based on established theories of health behavior change and most do not include evidence-based features (e.g., reinforcement and goal setting). Our aim was to collect formative data to develop a smartphone PA app that is empirically and theoretically-based and incorporates user preferences. We recruited 15 sedentary adults to test three currently available PA smartphone apps and provide qualitative and quantitative feedback. Findings indicate that users have a number of specific preferences with regard to PA app features, including that apps provide automatic tracking of PA (e.g., steps taken and calories burned), track progress toward PA goals, and integrate a music feature. Participants also preferred that PA apps be flexible enough to be used with several types of PA, and have well-documented features and user-friendly interfaces (e.g., a one-click main page). When queried by the researcher, most participants endorsed including goal-setting and problem-solving features. These findings provide a blue print for developing a smartphone PA app that incorporates evidence-based components and user preferences. PMID:22010977

  3. Applications of electroencephalography to characterize brain activity: perspectives in stroke.

    PubMed

    Borich, Michael R; Brown, Katlyn E; Lakhani, Bimal; Boyd, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    A wide array of neuroimaging technologies are now available that offer unprecedented opportunities to study the brain in health and disease. Each technology has associated strengths and weaknesses that need to be considered to maximize their utility, especially when used in combination. One imaging technology, electroencephalography (EEG), has been in use for more than 80 years, but as a result of recent technologic advancements EEG has received renewed interest as an inexpensive, noninvasive and versatile technique to evaluate neural activity in the brain. In part, this is due to new opportunities to combine EEG not only with other imaging modalities, but also with neurostimulation and robotics technologies. When used in combination, noninvasive brain stimulation and EEG can be used to study cause-and-effect relationships between interconnected brain regions providing new avenues to study brain function. Although many of these approaches are still in the developmental phase, there is substantial promise in their ability to deepen our understanding of brain function. The ability to capture the causal relationships between brain function and behavior in individuals with neurologic disorders or injury has important clinical implications for the development of novel biomarkers of recovery and response to therapeutic interventions. The goals of this paper are to provide an overview of the fundamental principles of EEG; discuss past, present, and future applications of EEG in the clinical management of stroke; and introduce the technique of combining EEG with a form of noninvasive brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, as a powerful synergistic research paradigm to characterize brain function in both health and disease.Video Abstract available (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A87) for more insights from the authors. PMID:25522236

  4. Desired features of smartphone applications promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Bock, Beth

    2011-12-01

    Approximately one-third of adults in the United States are physically inactive. This is a significant public health concern as physical activity (PA) can influence the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. To minimize these health risks, effective PA interventions must be developed and disseminated to the vast number of individuals who remain sedentary. Smartphone technology presents an exciting opportunity for delivering PA interventions remotely. Although a number of PA applications are currently available for smartphones, these "apps" are not based on established theories of health behavior change and most do not include evidence-based features (e.g., reinforcement and goal setting). Our aim was to collect formative data to develop a smartphone PA app that is empirically and theoretically-based and incorporates user preferences. We recruited 15 sedentary adults to test three currently available PA smartphone apps and provide qualitative and quantitative feedback. Findings indicate that users have a number of specific preferences with regard to PA app features, including that apps provide automatic tracking of PA (e.g., steps taken and calories burned), track progress toward PA goals, and integrate a music feature. Participants also preferred that PA apps be flexible enough to be used with several types of PA, and have well-documented features and user-friendly interfaces (e.g., a one-click main page). When queried by the researcher, most participants endorsed including goal-setting and problem-solving features. These findings provide a blue print for developing a smartphone PA app that incorporates evidence-based components and user preferences.

  5. The relevance of particle flux monitors in accelerator-based activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Segebade, Chr.; Maimaitimin, M.; Sun Zaijing

    2013-04-19

    One of the most critical parameters in activation analysis is the flux density of the activating radiation, its spatial distribution in particular. The validity of the basic equation for calculating the activity induced to the exposed item depends upon the fulfilment of several conditions, the most relevant of them being equal doses of incident activating radiation received by the unknown sample, the calibration material and the reference material, respectively. This requirement is most problematic if accelerator-produced radiation is used for activation. Whilst nuclear research reactors usually are equipped with exposure positions that provide fairly homogenous activation fields for thermal neutron activation analysis accelerator-generated particle beams (neutrons, photons, charged particles) usually exhibit axial and, in particular, sharp radial flux gradients. Different experimental procedures have been developed to fulfil the condition mentioned above. In this paper, three variants of the application of flux monitors in photon activation analysis are discussed (external monitor, additive and inherent internal monitor). Experiments have indicated that the latter technique yields highest quality of the analytical results.

  6. Applications of nuclear technologies for in-vivo elemental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Wielopolski, L.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement facilities developed, to date, include a unique whole-body-counter, (WBC); a total-body neutron-activation facility (TBNAA); and a partial-body activation facility (PBNAA). A variation of the prompt-gamma neutron-activation technique for measuring total-body nitrogen was developed to study body composition of cancer patients and the effect of nutritional regimens on the composition. These new techniques provide data in numerous clinical studies not previously amenable to investigation. The development and perfection of these techniques provide unique applications of radiation and radioisotopes to the early diagnosis of certain diseases and the evaluation of therapeutic programs. The PBNAA technique has been developed and calibrated for in-vivo measurement of metals. Development has gone forward on prompt-gamma neutron activation for the measurement of cadmium, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for measurement of iron. Other techniques are being investigated for in-vivo measurement of metals such as silicon and beryllium.

  7. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical;...

  8. Trace element analysis of K, U and Th in high purity materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pillalamarri, Ila

    2005-09-08

    The concept and usage of 'high purity' are explained. Trace element analysis of K, U and Th by neutron activation analysis is described, the radio-isotopes and their corresponding gamma-rays used to identify the elements are listed. The interfering elements are described. The advantages and disadvantages of using neutron activation analysis are discussed. Some examples of trace impurity determinations in high purity materials are provided.

  9. Application Of Shakedown Analysis To Cyclic Creep Damage Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Peter; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Shakedown analysis may be used to provide a conservative estimate of local rupture and hence cyclic creep damage for use in a creep-fatigue assessment. The shakedown analysis is based on an elastic-perfectly plastic material with a temperature-dependent pseudo yield stress defined to guarantee that a shakedown solution exists which does not exceed rupture stress and temperature for a defined life. The ratio of design life to the estimated maximum cyclic life is the shakedown creep damage. The methodology does not require stress classification and is also applicable to cycles over the full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Full cyclic creep and damage analysis is the alternative when shakedown analysis appears to be excessively conservative.

  10. Market penetration analysis for direct heat geothermal energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.; Nelson, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    This study is concerned with the estimation of the National geothermal market potential and penetration in direct heat applications for residences and certain industry segments. An important aspect of this study is that the analysis considers both known and anticipated goethermal resources. This allows for an estimation of the longer-range potential for geothermal applications. Thus the approach and results of this study provide new insights and valuable information not obtained from more limited, site-specific types of analyses. Estimates made in this study track geothermal market potential and projected penetration from the present to the year 2020. Private sector commercialization of geothermal energy over this period requires assistance in the identification of markets and market sizes, potential users, and appropriate technical applications.

  11. Inspectional analysis to search for symmetric solutions. Applications in electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Marrero, José Luis

    2014-12-01

    A group of symmetries of a mathematical equation is a set of transformations of the dependent and independent variables that leaves the equation invariant. Invariance under symmetry groups is important because it often reduces the set of partial differential equations that describe a problem of continuum physics to a simpler set of ordinary differential equations, which can always be integrated numerically. It is also important because one can make useful inferences about the properties of their solutions without actually solving those equations. Testing differential equations for invariance under groups of transformations is termed inspectional analysis. Examples of the applications of inspectional analysis to electromagnetic problems are discussed. Two groups of symmetries and their associated solutions are studied: the group of scalings with self-similar solutions, and the group of translations with travelling-wave solutions. Also, applications of symmetry groups to boundary value problems are considered. Finally, dimensional analysis, used to reduce the number of variables, parameters, and physical constants in physical problems, is reviewed as a special case of the group of scalings of the fundamental units. It is argued that inspectional analysis is more adequate than dimensional analysis to reduce the number of variables in a differential equation.

  12. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  13. Single-molecule detection: applications to ultrasensitive biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Alonso; Shera, E. Brooks

    1995-06-01

    Recent developments in laser-based detection of fluorescent molecules have made possible the implementation of very sensitive techniques for biochemical analysis. We present and discuss our experiments on the applications of our recently developed technique of single-molecule detection to the analysis of molecules of biological interest. These newly developed methods are capable of detecting and identifying biomolecules at the single-molecule level of sensitivity. In one case, identification is based on measuring fluorescence brightness from single molecules. In another, molecules are classified by determining their electrophoretic velocities.

  14. Application of integrated fluid-thermal-structural analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieting, Allan R.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Bey, Kim S.; Thornton, Earl A.; Morgan, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles operate in a hostile aerothermal environment which has a significant impact on their aerothermostructural performance. Significant coupling occurs between the aerodynamic flow field, structural heat transfer, and structural response creating a multidisciplinary interaction. Interfacing state-of-the-art disciplinary analysis methods is not efficient, hence interdisciplinary analysis methods integrated into a single aerothermostructural analyzer are needed. The NASA Langley Research Center is developing such methods in an analyzer called LIFTS (Langley Integrated Fluid-Thermal-Structural) analyzer. The evolution and status of LIFTS is reviewed and illustrated through applications.

  15. Why social network analysis is important to Air Force applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, Paul R.; McIntire, John P.; Geiselman, Eric; Mohd-Zaid, Fairul

    2012-06-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool used to help analysts discover relationships amongst groups of people as well as individuals. It is the mathematics behind such social networks as Facebook and MySpace. These networks alone cause a huge amount of data to be generated and the issue is only compounded once one adds in other electronic media such as e-mails and twitter. In this paper we outline the basics of social network analysis and how it may be used in current and future Air Force applications.

  16. Application of nanomaterials in environmental analysis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Minmin; Guo, Liang-Hong

    2009-04-01

    Recent advances in the development and application of nanomaterials in analytical chemistry for environmental analysis and monitoring are reviewed, with focus on sensors, separation and extraction techniques, including the use of nanomaterials as transducer elements for electrochemical sensors, as nanolabels for optical sensors, as stationary phases for liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, as pseudostationary phases or buffer additives in capillary electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, and microchip electrophoresis, as well as extraction materials for enrichment prior to chromatographic analysis. Examples of different nanomaterials-based analytical techniques for the detection of major families of environmental pollutants, i.e., organic contaminants, heavy metals and air pollutants, are presented.

  17. Steady-state flux ratio analysis: application to biological transport.

    PubMed

    Wagg, J; Chapman, J B

    1995-05-01

    A thermodynamically constrained method of flux ratio analysis, based upon a previously developed thermodynamic rate ratio equation has been developed. In this paper it is demonstrated that, for a complex reaction, application of the thermodynamic rate ratio equation may provide a useful tool for the interpretation of unidirectional flux data thought to be mediated by the reaction, provided that: (i) a clearly defined mechanism for the reaction has been proposed; (ii) a set of partial reaction components may be defined for the reaction from the proposed mechanism, with the rate ratio of at least one of these components being amenable to experimental measurement. This paper defines the conditions for which the rate ratio of a component reaction may be measured, and illustrates the basic principles underlying this approach to flux ratio analysis by direct application to a number of hypothetical mechanisms for biological transport phenomena.

  18. Performance Analysis of Web Applications Based on User Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quanshu; Ye, Hairong; Ding, Zuohua

    This paper proposes a method to conduct performance eanalysis of web applications. The behavior model is firstly built from log file after user navigation, then an extended state diagram is extracted from this log file, finally multiple Markov model is cooperated to this state diagram and the performance analysis can be obtained from the Markov model. Five indexes are used to measure the performance and they are: service response time, service path length, service utilization, service implementation rate and access error rate. Our performance analysis result will provide a suggestion to improve the design of web applications and optimize the services. A case study of Zhejiang Chess web site has been used to demonstrate the advantage of our method.

  19. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  20. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  1. Environmental applications activity at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paludan, C. T. N.

    1972-01-01

    MSFC environmental applications demonstration projects have emphasized application of aerospace technology to community needs of southeastern U.S. Some of the typical projects underway are: hydrological parameter determination; land use surveys; agricultural stress detection; new community site surveys; pollution monitoring; urban transportation studies; and urban environmental quality.

  2. Applications of functional data analysis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional data analysis (FDA) is increasingly being used to better analyze, model and predict time series data. Key aspects of FDA include the choice of smoothing technique, data reduction, adjustment for clustering, functional linear modeling and forecasting methods. Methods A systematic review using 11 electronic databases was conducted to identify FDA application studies published in the peer-review literature during 1995–2010. Papers reporting methodological considerations only were excluded, as were non-English articles. Results In total, 84 FDA application articles were identified; 75.0% of the reviewed articles have been published since 2005. Application of FDA has appeared in a large number of publications across various fields of sciences; the majority is related to biomedicine applications (21.4%). Overall, 72 studies (85.7%) provided information about the type of smoothing techniques used, with B-spline smoothing (29.8%) being the most popular. Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for extracting information from functional data was reported in 51 (60.7%) studies. One-quarter (25.0%) of the published studies used functional linear models to describe relationships between explanatory and outcome variables and only 8.3% used FDA for forecasting time series data. Conclusions Despite its clear benefits for analyzing time series data, full appreciation of the key features and value of FDA have been limited to date, though the applications show its relevance to many public health and biomedical problems. Wider application of FDA to all studies involving correlated measurements should allow better modeling of, and predictions from, such data in the future especially as FDA makes no a priori age and time effects assumptions. PMID:23510439

  3. On One Application of Fourier Analysis in Plastic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimov, Abdumalik; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    In present paper, we discuss the spectral methods of measurement of the degree of speech and/or quality of sound by comparing the coefficient of performance indicators depending on energy distributions, ratio of energy of the fundamental tone and energy of overtones. Such a method is very efficient for string oscillation with different initial conditions and it is useful for justification of applications of Fourier analysis in plastic surgery in treatment of some medical diseases.

  4. Analysis of small crack behavior for airframe applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, R. C.; Chan, K. S.; Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Davidson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The small fatigue crack problem is critically reviewed from the perspective of airframe applications. Different types of small cracks-microstructural, mechanical, and chemical-are carefully defined and relevant mechanisms identified. Appropriate analysis techniques, including both rigorous scientific and practical engineering treatments, are briefly described. Important materials data issues are addressed, including increased scatter in small crack data and recommended small crack test methods. Key problems requiring further study are highlighted.

  5. Global-local methodologies and their application to nonlinear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    An assessment is made of the potential of different global-local analysis strategies for predicting the nonlinear and postbuckling responses of structures. Two postbuckling problems of composite panels are used as benchmarks and the application of different global-local methodologies to these benchmarks is outlined. The key elements of each of the global-local strategies are discussed and future research areas needed to realize the full potential of global-local methodologies are identified.

  6. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    PubMed

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  7. Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencini, Massimo; Ginelli, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    stable and unstable directions associated with Lyapunov exponents. Recently, novel and efficient algorithms for computing CLVs have become available, turning them into a practical tool for the study and characterization of chaotic dynamical systems, especially when many degrees of freedom are considered. Applications include—but are not limited to—the characterization of collective chaotic modes and the study of intermittency in shell models for turbulence. This section also includes a pedagogical discussion of CLVs in low dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Time series analysis. The computation of Lyapunov exponents from time series data is a very active field of research playing a crucial role in experimental studies, with applications ranging from nonlinear optics to neuroscience. The need to reconstruct a higher dimensional phase space from scalar or lower dimensional data poses fundamental issues, introducing spurious Lyapunov exponents and limiting the accuracy when quantities such as the Kaplan-Yorke-dimension or the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy are concerned. Recent advances based on CLVs, however, may help in identifying such spurious exponents, increasing the accuracy of embedding techniques. Many-body systems. The study of many-body dynamical systems plays a fundamental role in the debate on the foundations of statistical physics. In this respect, the discovery of long wavelength tangent space modes associated with close-to-zero Lyapunov exponents, the so-called hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, has raised hopes that a clear link could be established between hydrodynamic transport coefficients and microscopic dynamical properties. In this section, three contributions discuss Lyapunov analysis applied to many-body systems such as hard disks and lattices of interacting classical spins. Spatiotemporal chaos and hyperbolicity. Spatially extended chaotic systems pose a number of new issues when spatiotemporal chaos is considered, ranging from questions on its extensivity

  8. Analysis of initial in-plant active neutron multiplicity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Harker, W.C.

    1993-08-01

    This paper analyzes initial in-plant measurements made by active neutron multiplicity counting, a new technique currently under development for the assay of bulk uranium containing kilograms of {sup 235}U. The measurements were made at Savannah River and Y-12 using active well coincidence counters and prototype multiplicity electronics and software from Los Alamos. For one of the sets of highly enriched uranium samples measured to data, we improved the assay accuracy by an order-of-magnitude by adding the multiplicity analysis to the conventional coincidence analysis. This paper summarizes our results and describes areas where further work is needed.

  9. Physical basis for prompt-neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The technique called prompt ..gamma..-ray neutron activation analysis has been applied to rapid materials analysis. The radiation following the neutron radiation capture is prompt in the sense that the nuclear decay time is on the order of 10/sup -15/ second, and thus the technique is not strictly activation, but should be called radiation neutron capture spectroscopy or neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. This paper reviews the following: sources and detectors, theory of radiative capture, nonstatistical capture, giant dipole resonance, fast neutron capture, and thermal neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectra. 14 figures.

  10. Distributed analysis environment for HEP and interdisciplinary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mościcki, J. T.

    2003-04-01

    Huge data volumes of Larger Hadron Collider experiment require parallel end-user analysis on clusters of hundreds of machines. While the focus of end-user High-Energy Physics analysis is on ntuples, the master-worker model of parallel processing may be also used in other contexts such as detector simulation. The aim of DIANE R&D project ( http://cern.ch/it-proj-diane) currently held by CERN IT/API group is to create a generic, component-based framework for distributed, parallel data processing in master-worker model. Pre-compiled user analysis code is loaded dynamically at runtime in component libraries and called back when appropriate. Such application-oriented framework must be flexible enough to integrate with the emerging GRID technologies as they become available in the time to come. Therefore, common services such as environment reconstruction, code distribution, load balancing and authentication are designed and implemented as pluggable modules. This approach allows to easily replace them with modules implemented with newer technology as necessary. The paper gives an overview of DIANE architecture and explains the main design choices. Selected examples of diverse applications from a variety of domains applicable to DIANE are presented. As well as preliminary benchmarking results.

  11. Modeling the Benchmark Active Control Technology Wind-Tunnel Model for Application to Flutter Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation of a model of the dynamic behavior of the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind-tunnel model for application to design and analysis of flutter suppression controllers. The model is formed by combining the equations of motion for the BACT wind-tunnel model with actuator models and a model of wind-tunnel turbulence. The primary focus of this paper is the development of the equations of motion from first principles using Lagrange's equations and the principle of virtual work. A numerical form of the model is generated using values for parameters obtained from both experiment and analysis. A unique aspect of the BACT wind-tunnel model is that it has upper- and lower-surface spoilers for active control. Comparisons with experimental frequency responses and other data show excellent agreement and suggest that simple coefficient-based aerodynamics are sufficient to accurately characterize the aeroelastic response of the BACT wind-tunnel model. The equations of motion developed herein have been used to assist the design and analysis of a number of flutter suppression controllers that have been successfully implemented.

  12. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  13. Metatranscriptome analysis of active microbial communities in produced water samples from the Marcellus Shale.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Lipus, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle

    2016-10-01

    Controlling microbial activity is a primary concern during the management of the large volumes of wastewater (produced water) generated during high-volume hydraulic fracturing. In this study we analyzed the transcriptional activity (metatranscriptomes) of three produced water samples from the Marcellus Shale. The goal of this study was to describe active metabolic pathways of industrial concern for produced water management and reuse, and to improve understanding of produced water microbial activity. Metatranscriptome analysis revealed active biofilm formation, sulfide production, and stress management mechanisms of the produced water microbial communities. Biofilm-formation and sulfate-reduction pathways were identified in all samples. Genes related to a diverse array of stress response mechanisms were also identified with implications for biocide efficacy. Additionally, active expression of a methanogenesis pathway was identified in a sample of produced water collected prior to holding pond storage. The active microbial community identified by metatranscriptome analysis was markedly different than the community composition as identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, highlighting the value of evaluating the active microbial fraction during assessments of produced water biofouling potential and evaluation of biocide application strategies. These results indicate biofouling and corrosive microbial processes are active in produced water and should be taken into consideration while designing produced water reuse strategies. PMID:27457653

  14. Electro-Active Polymer (EAP) Actuators for Planetary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Leary, S.; Shahinpoor, M.; Harrison, J. O.; Smith, J.

    1999-01-01

    NASA is seeking to reduce the mass, size, consumed power, and cost of the instrumentation used in its future missions. An important element of many instruments and devices is the actuation mechanism and electroactive polymers (EAP) are offering an effective alternative to current actuators. In this study, two families of EAP materials were investigated, including bending ionomers and longitudinal electrostatically driven elastomers. These materials were demonstrated to effectively actuate manipulation devices and their performance is being enhanced in this on-going study. The recent observations are reported in this paper, include the operation of the bending-EAP at conditions that exceed the harsh environment on Mars, and identify the obstacles that its properties and characteristics are posing to using them as actuators. Analysis of the electrical characteristics of the ionomer EAP showed that it is a current driven material rather than voltage driven and the conductivity distribution on the surface of the material greatly influences the bending performance. An accurate equivalent circuit modeling of the ionomer EAP performance is essential for the design of effective drive electronics. The ionomer main limitations are the fact that it needs to be moist continuously and the process of electrolysis that takes place during activation. An effective coating technique using a sprayed polymer was developed extending its operation in air from a few minutes to about four months. The coating technique effectively forms the equivalent of a skin to protect the moisture content of the ionomer. In parallel to the development of the bending EAP, the development of computer control of actuated longitudinal EAP has been pursued. An EAP driven miniature robotic arm was constructed and it is controlled by a MATLAB code to drop and lift the arm and close and open EAP fingers of a 4-finger gripper. Keywords: Miniature Robotics, Electroactive Polymers, Electroactive Actuators, EAP

  15. Seismic Analysis Issues in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.; Morante, R.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of several seismic analysis issues encountered during a review of recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  16. Statistical Scalability Analysis of Communication Operations in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, J S; McCracken, M O

    2001-02-27

    Current trends in high performance computing suggest that users will soon have widespread access to clusters of multiprocessors with hundreds, if not thousands, of processors. This unprecedented degree of parallelism will undoubtedly expose scalability limitations in existing applications, where scalability is the ability of a parallel algorithm on a parallel architecture to effectively utilize an increasing number of processors. Users will need precise and automated techniques for detecting the cause of limited scalability. This paper addresses this dilemma. First, we argue that users face numerous challenges in understanding application scalability: managing substantial amounts of experiment data, extracting useful trends from this data, and reconciling performance information with their application's design. Second, we propose a solution to automate this data analysis problem by applying fundamental statistical techniques to scalability experiment data. Finally, we evaluate our operational prototype on several applications, and show that statistical techniques offer an effective strategy for assessing application scalability. In particular, we find that non-parametric correlation of the number of tasks to the ratio of the time for individual communication operations to overall communication time provides a reliable measure for identifying communication operations that scale poorly.

  17. Application of Synchrotron-XRF to Quantitative Elemental Aerosol Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliff, S. S.; Perry, K. D.; Jimenez-Cruz, M. P.; Cahill, T. A.

    2001-12-01

    Recent advances in synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (s-XRF) analysis of atmospheric particulate matter have improved elemental sensitivity, quantification and time-resolution. Analysis of both filter and impactor based aerosol samples have yielded quantitative data for elements Na-U, if present, in ambient aerosols. The increased sensitivity allows higher time resolution through either smaller spatial analysis of time-resolved impactor samples or shorter sample time-integration using filter-based samplers. Of particular interest is the application of s-XRF to aerodynamically sized rotating substrate impactor samples. These samplers, 8- and 3-stage DRUM's, have the ability to aerodynamically size-classify particles in either 8 or 3 categories, respectively. In addition, the rotating substrate allows time-resolved analysis of samples with little or no loss in elemental sensitivity. The s-XRF analyses are performed on Beamline 10.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source-Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (ALS-LBL). Beamline 10.3.1, originally designed for materials analysis, has been supplemented with aerosol analysis capability from several substrate options. Typical analysis involves Teflon filters or Mylar impaction substrates. The newly formed Participating Research Team (PRT) for beamline 10.3.1 encompasses both global climate and material science research. The s-XRF capabilities of beamline 10.3.1 are now available for PRT researchers and independent investigators through a proposal process to the ALS. The technology, application to aerosol research and monitoring, and availability of the facility to the aerosol research community will be presented.

  18. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission: Improving Science Application Tools and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.; Moran, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    NASA depends on the science community to identify and prioritize leading-edge scientific questions and the observations required to answer them. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission has been identified as a priority for NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the most recent decadal survey. Following launch in 2014, SMAP will deliver global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial hydrologic and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer that share a deployable mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at spatial scales. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with a 2-3 day revisit frequency and 1-2 day revisit in boreal latitudes. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit frequency. SMAP data are valuable for both scientific research and practical applications. SMAP has the potential to drive a diverse range of novel research in drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate prediction, human health risk analysis and defense systems. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will provide new information for many science and applications disciplines. A SMAP Applications Team will explore ways to measure interaction and integration of SMAP data with the Emergency Management User community of Maryland in order to produce quantitative metrics related to long-term projects, milestone completion, and movement of SMAP products into routine operations for emergency response.

  19. Surface electromyography analysis in long-term recordings: application to head rest comfort in cars.

    PubMed

    Duchêne, J; Lamotte, T

    2001-02-20

    Analysis of long-term surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals has many applications in ergonomics when related to muscle fatigue. The present work proposes a set of processing methods reporting SEMG modifications during long-term driving tests in various situations (with or without head rest). A segmentation/classification algorithm allows signal splitting into homogeneous parts (postural activity and EMG bursts) and an efficient artefact suppression. Postural activity modifications are evaluated from time-varying amplitude probability density function (TAPDF) parameters. EMG burst analysis is achieved taking into account the relationships of these bursts with accelerometric events. This segmentation/classification procedure improves repeatability but does not significantly modify the overall results obtained before segmentation, as far as the analysis of head rest influence is concerned.

  20. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  1. 78 FR 72688 - Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Drill; Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Drill... data and information that is submitted with an Application for Permit to Drill (APD), a Revised APD... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR part 250, Application for Permit to Drill and all supporting documentation....

  2. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Titles a. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary...

  3. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  4. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations. PMID:25580080

  5. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  6. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimizationmore » problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.« less

  7. New Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Lipid Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robert C.; Gaskell, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool for the analysis of all lipids. Lipidomic analysis of biological systems using various approaches is now possible with a quantitative measurement of hundreds of lipid molecular species. Although availability of reference and internal standards lags behind the field, approaches using stable isotope-labeled derivative tagging permit precise determination of specific phospholipids in an experimental series. The use of reactivity of ozone has enabled assessment of double bond positions in fatty acyl groups even when species remain in complex lipid mixtures. Rapid scanning tandem mass spectrometers are capable of quantitative analysis of hundreds of targeted lipids at high sensitivity in a single on-line chromatographic separation. Imaging mass spectrometry of lipids in tissues has opened new insights into the distribution of lipid molecular species with promising application to study pathophysiological events and diseases. PMID:21632539

  8. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  9. Summary of the Active Microwave Workshop, chapter 1. [utilization in applications and aerospace programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the utility, feasibility, and advantages of active microwave sensors for a broad range of applications, including aerospace. In many instances, the material provides an in-depth examination of the applicability and/or the technology of microwave remote sensing, and considerable documentation is presented in support of these techniques. An assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of active microwave sensor data indicates that satisfactory data are obtainable for several significant applications.

  10. The Analysis and Reconciliation of Students' Rebuttals in Argumentation Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ren; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the guidance provided by science teachers to resolve conflicts during socioscientific issue-based argumentation activities. A graphical representation (GR) was developed as a tool to code and analyze the dialogue interaction process. Through the GR and qualitative analysis, we identified three types of dialogue…

  11. Making Sense of Total VET Activity: An Initial Market Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    Following the successful first national publication of total vocational education and training (VET) activity and presentation of various informative data products, NCVER has continued to undertake further analysis of the submitted data. This paper is the first in a suite of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) authored…

  12. Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity. Interim Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Raymond C.

    This interim report discusses progress toward three major goals of the Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity: increased pupil inquiry, changed teacher behavior to facilitate pupil inquiry, and the development of a 32-week course of instruction to provide for these behavioral changes. Data currently available deals with the emotional…

  13. Concurrent Validity For an Activity Vector Analysis Index of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing 182 subjects, this study determined the concurrent validity between the Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) index of anxiety and scores on the IPAT Anxiety Scale. The IPAT and the AVA index of anxiety seem essentially to measure the same construct of basic anxiety. (Author/PN)

  14. Application of Open Source Technologies for Oceanographic Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Gangl, M.; Quach, N. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Chin, T. M.; Greguska, F.

    2015-12-01

    NEXUS is a data-intensive analysis solution developed with a new approach for handling science data that enables large-scale data analysis by leveraging open source technologies such as Apache Cassandra, Apache Spark, Apache Solr, and Webification. NEXUS has been selected to provide on-the-fly time-series and histogram generation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission for Level 2 and Level 3 Active, Passive, and Active Passive products. It also provides an on-the-fly data subsetting capability. NEXUS is designed to scale horizontally, enabling it to handle massive amounts of data in parallel. It takes a new approach on managing time and geo-referenced array data by dividing data artifacts into chunks and stores them in an industry-standard, horizontally scaled NoSQL database. This approach enables the development of scalable data analysis services that can infuse and leverage the elastic computing infrastructure of the Cloud. It is equipped with a high-performance geospatial and indexed data search solution, coupled with a high-performance data Webification solution free from file I/O bottlenecks, as well as a high-performance, in-memory data analysis engine. In this talk, we will focus on the recently funded AIST 2014 project by using NEXUS as the core for oceanographic anomaly detection service and web portal. We call it, OceanXtremes

  15. Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles. PMID:24957037

  16. Combined activation strain model and energy decomposition analysis methods: a new way to understand pericyclic reactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The recently introduced activation strain model (ASM) has allowed us to gain more insight into the intimacies of different fundamental processes in chemistry. In combination with the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) method, we have nowadays a very useful tool to quantitatively understand the physical factors that govern the activation barriers of reactions within organic and organometallic chemistry. In this Perspective article, we present selected illustrative examples of the application of this method to pericyclic reactions (Diels-Alder and double group transfer reactions) to show that this methodology nicely complements other more traditional, widely used theoretical methods.

  17. Activation of materials proposed for use in superconducting linac applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.L.; Snead, C.L.; Greene, G.A.; Chan, K.C.D.; Safa, H.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of construction materials proposed for use in both superconducting and conventional high-power linear accelerators have been activated with 800 and 2,000 MeV protons to study the decay characteristics of these activated materials. Irradiation times ranged from 10 minutes to 18.67 hours. The decay characteristics of these activated materials were measured and compared to calculated decay curves based on simplified assumptions.

  18. Pore size distribution analysis of activated carbons prepared from coconut shell using methane adsorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadpour, A.; Okhovat, A.; Darabi Mahboub, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    The application of Stoeckli theory to determine pore size distribution (PSD) of activated carbons using high pressure methane adsorption data is explored. Coconut shell was used as a raw material for the preparation of 16 different activated carbon samples. Four samples with higher methane adsorption were selected and nitrogen adsorption on these adsorbents was also investigated. Some differences are found between the PSD obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms and their PSD resulting from the same analysis using methane adsorption data. It is suggested that these differences may arise from the specific interactions between nitrogen molecules and activated carbon surfaces; therefore caution is required in the interpretation of PSD obtained from the nitrogen isotherm data.

  19. Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S.; Cowley, Paula J.

    2004-09-28

    Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.

  20. Open-box spectral clustering: applications to medical image analysis.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Thomas; Kindlmann, Gordon L

    2013-12-01

    Spectral clustering is a powerful and versatile technique, whose broad range of applications includes 3D image analysis. However, its practical use often involves a tedious and time-consuming process of tuning parameters and making application-specific choices. In the absence of training data with labeled clusters, help from a human analyst is required to decide the number of clusters, to determine whether hierarchical clustering is needed, and to define the appropriate distance measures, parameters of the underlying graph, and type of graph Laplacian. We propose to simplify this process via an open-box approach, in which an interactive system visualizes the involved mathematical quantities, suggests parameter values, and provides immediate feedback to support the required decisions. Our framework focuses on applications in 3D image analysis, and links the abstract high-dimensional feature space used in spectral clustering to the three-dimensional data space. This provides a better understanding of the technique, and helps the analyst predict how well specific parameter settings will generalize to similar tasks. In addition, our system supports filtering outliers and labeling the final clusters in such a way that user actions can be recorded and transferred to different data in which the same structures are to be found. Our system supports a wide range of inputs, including triangular meshes, regular grids, and point clouds. We use our system to develop segmentation protocols in chest CT and brain MRI that are then successfully applied to other datasets in an automated manner.

  1. Active Flow Control on Bidirectional Rotors for Tidal MHK Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, Henry; van Dam, Cornelis P.

    2013-08-22

    A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) tidal turbine extracts energy from tidal currents, providing clean, sustainable electricity generation. In general, all MHK conversion technologies are confronted with significant operational hurdles, resulting in both increased capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. To counter these high costs while maintaining reliability, MHK turbine designs can be simplified. Prior study found that a tidal turbine could be cost-effectively simplified by removing blade pitch and rotor/nacelle yaw. Its rotor would run in one direction during ebb and then reverse direction when the current switched to flood. We dubbed such a turbine a bidirectional rotor tidal turbine (BRTT). The bidirectional hydrofoils of a BRTT are less efficient than conventional hydrofoils and capture less energy, but the elimination of the pitch and yaw systems were estimated to reduce levelized cost of energy by 7.8%-9.6%. In this study, we investigated two mechanisms for recapturing some of the performance shortfall of the BRTT. First, we developed a novel set of hydrofoils, designated the yy series, for BRTT application. Second, we investigated the use of active flow control via microtabs. Microtabs are small deployable/retractable tabs, typically located near the leading or trailing edge of an air/hydrofoil with height on the order of the boundary layer thickness (1% - 2% of chord). They deploy approximately perpendicularly to the foil surface and, like gurney flaps and plain flaps, globally affect the aerodynamics of the airfoil. By strategically placing microtabs and selectively deploying them based on the direction of the inflow, performance of a BRTT rotor can be improved while retaining bidirectional operation. The yy foils were computationally designed and analyzed. They exhibited better performance than the baseline bidirectional foil, the ellipse. For example, the yyb07cn-180 had 14.7% higher (l/d)max than an ellipse of equal thickness. The yyb07cn

  2. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  3. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Application Driven Activities in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…

  4. Low-volume multiplexed proteolytic activity assay and inhibitor analysis through a pico-injector array.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ee Xien; Miller, Miles A; Jing, Tengyang; Lauffenburger, Doug A; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2015-02-21

    Secreted active proteases, from families of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), participate in diverse pathological processes. To simultaneously measure multiple specific protease activities, a series of parallel enzyme reactions combined with a series of inhibitor analyses for proteolytic activity matrix analysis (PrAMA) are essential but limited due to the sample quantity requirements and the complexity of performing multiple reactions. To address these issues, we developed a pico-injector array to generate 72 different reactions in picoliter-volume droplets by controlling the sequence of combinational injections, which allowed simultaneous recording of a wide range of multiple enzyme reactions and measurement of inhibitor effects using small sample volumes (~10 μL). Multiple MMP activities were simultaneously determined by 9 different substrates and 2 inhibitors using injections from a pico-injector array. Due to the advantages of inhibitor analysis, the MMP/ADAM activities of MDA-MB-231, a breast cancer cell line, were characterized with high MMP-2, MMP-3 and ADAM-10 activity. This platform could be customized for a wide range of applications that also require multiple reactions with inhibitor analysis to enhance the sensitivity by encapsulating different chemical sensors.

  5. neutron activation analysis using thermochromatography. II. thermochromatographic separation of elements in the analysis of geological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sattarov, G.; Davydov, A.V.; Khamatov, S.; Kist, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    The use of gas thermochromatography (GTC) in the radioactivation analysis of difficulty soluble samples with a strongly activating substrate is discussed. The effect of sample coarseness and ore type on the rate of extraction of gold and accompanying elements was studied. The limits of detection of 22 elements were compared using neutron activation analysis with GTC and INAA. The analytical parameters of the procedure were estimated.

  6. Recent applications of microchip electrophoresis to biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nuchtavorn, Nantana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Lunte, Susan M; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2015-09-10

    Many separation methods have been developed for biomedical analysis, including chromatographic (e.g. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC)) and electrophoretic methods (e.g. gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis (CE)). Among these techniques, CE provides advantages in terms of high separation efficiency, simplicity, low sample and solvent volume consumption, short analysis time and applicability to a wide range of biomedically important substances. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) is a miniaturized platform of CE and is now considered as a simpler and more convenient alternative, which has demonstrated potential in analytical chemistry. High-throughput, cost-effective and portable analysis systems can be developed using ME. The current review describes different separation modes and detectors that have been employed in ME to analyze various classes of biomedical analytes (e.g. pharmaceuticals and related substances, nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, antibodies and antigens, carbohydrates, cells, cell components and lysates). Recent applications (during 2010-2014) in these areas are presented in tables and some significant findings are highlighted. PMID:25840947

  7. Application of decision tree on land suitability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yajuan; Liu, Yaolin; Ren, Zhouqiao

    2008-12-01

    With increasing volume of data in modern science, there has been a rapid expansion of interests and researches on data mining, which is an increasingly popular tool in data analysis to obtain implicit knowledge. Decision Tree (DT), as one of widespread used classification approaches in data mining, is used successfully in many diverse areas. This paper attempts to show how to apply Decision Tree on land suitability analysis and make some conclusions for its application. Firstly, the approach of application of DT on Land Suitability and the popular learning algorithm is discussed. Then 3 towns' land units in Hainan province are selected as study case to demonstrate our approach by C4.5 implemented using C++ language, and the obtained results are compared to the results in the literature and are checked by random sample investigation. The major conclusion is that DT is suitable for land suitability analysis, by which a high veracity result can be obtained, and the obtained classifying knowledge is readable and can be interpreted well. In some sense, it can adjust knowledge by updated training dataset naturally and avoid the highly dependence with experience.

  8. Recent applications of microchip electrophoresis to biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nuchtavorn, Nantana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Lunte, Susan M; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2015-09-10

    Many separation methods have been developed for biomedical analysis, including chromatographic (e.g. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC)) and electrophoretic methods (e.g. gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis (CE)). Among these techniques, CE provides advantages in terms of high separation efficiency, simplicity, low sample and solvent volume consumption, short analysis time and applicability to a wide range of biomedically important substances. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) is a miniaturized platform of CE and is now considered as a simpler and more convenient alternative, which has demonstrated potential in analytical chemistry. High-throughput, cost-effective and portable analysis systems can be developed using ME. The current review describes different separation modes and detectors that have been employed in ME to analyze various classes of biomedical analytes (e.g. pharmaceuticals and related substances, nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, antibodies and antigens, carbohydrates, cells, cell components and lysates). Recent applications (during 2010-2014) in these areas are presented in tables and some significant findings are highlighted.

  9. Application of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-03-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) the authors have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. They have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. They are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. The primary vehicle the authors have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. They are currently adapting their methods and tools of human error analysis to the domain of air traffic management (ATM) systems. Under the NASA-sponsored Advanced Air Traffic Technologies (AATT) program they are working to address issues of human reliability in the design of ATM systems to support the development of a free flight environment for commercial air traffic in the US. They are also currently testing the application of their human error analysis approach for space flight operations. They have developed a simplified model of the critical habitability functions for the space station Mir, and have used this model to assess the affects of system failures and human errors that have occurred in the wake of the collision incident last year. They are developing an approach so that lessons learned from Mir operations can be systematically applied to design and operation of long-term space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the manned Mars mission.

  10. Recent applications of the transonic wing analysis computer code, TWING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, N. R.; Holst, T. L.; Thomas, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of the transonic-wing-analysis computer code TWING is given. TWING utilizes a fully implicit approximate factorization iteration scheme to solve the full potential equation in conservative form. A numerical elliptic-solver grid-generation scheme is used to generate the required finite-difference mesh. Several wing configurations were analyzed, and the limits of applicability of this code was evaluated. Comparisons of computed results were made with available experimental data. Results indicate that the code is robust, accurate (when significant viscous effects are not present), and efficient. TWING generally produces solutions an order of magnitude faster than other conservative full potential codes using successive-line overrelaxation. The present method is applicable to a wide range of isolated wing configurations including high-aspect-ratio transport wings and low-aspect-ratio, high-sweep, fighter configurations.

  11. Hypermedia support for engineering design systems: Application to fatigue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeaeski, Juha; Sipilae, Sisko; Marquis, Gary

    1992-12-01

    The possibilities of using hypermedia for supporting engineering design systems are discussed. The application selected to test the hypermedia ideas was fatigue analysis. In addition, the possibility of combining hypermedia and expert system ideas into a fatigue expert system is reported. Hypermedia's underlying notion of linking nodes of information and its capability to handle these information entities stored appear to be well suited for engineering system support systems, especially in those engineering design systems where there exists a great demand for representing graphical information in a convenient way. This can be realized using hypermedia tools that are based on hypermedia techniques. The resulting fatigue handbook covers only part of the hypermedia's possibilities. The development of a prototype application indicates the efficiency of a hypermedia tool to create an electronic manual.

  12. Quantitative analysis of cardiovascular modulation in respiratory neural activity.

    PubMed

    Dick, Thomas E; Morris, Kendall F

    2004-05-01

    We propose the 'delta(2)-statistic' for assessing the magnitude and statistical significance of arterial pulse-modulated activity of single neurones and present the results of applying this tool to medullary respiratory-modulated units. This analytical tool is a modification of the eta(2)-statistic and, consequently, based on the analysis of variance. The eta(2)-statistic reflects the consistency of respiratory-modulated activity on a cycle-by-cycle basis. However, directly applying this test to activity during the cardiac cycle proved ineffective because subjects-by-treatments matrices did not contain enough 'information'. We increased information by dividing the cardiac cycle into fewer bins, excluding cycles without activity and summing activity over multiple cycles. The analysed neuronal activity was an existing data set examining the neural control of respiration and cough. Neurones were recorded in the nuclei of the solitary tracts, and in the rostral and caudal ventral respiratory groups of decerebrate, neuromuscularly blocked, ventilated cats (n= 19). Two hundred of 246 spike trains were respiratory modulated; of these 53% were inspiratory (I), 36.5% expiratory (E), 6% IE phase spanning and 4.5% EI phase spanning and responsive to airway stimulation. Nearly half (n= 96/200) of the respiratory-modulated units were significantly pulse modulated and 13 were highly modulated with delta(2) values exceeding 0.3. In 10 of these highly modulated units, eta(2) values were greater than 0.3 and all 13 had, at least, a portion of their activity during expiration. We conclude that cardiorespiratory interaction is reciprocal; in addition to respiratory-modulated activity in a subset of neuronal activity patterns controlling the cardiovascular system, pulse-modulated activity exists in a subset of neuronal activity patterns controlling the respiratory system. Thus, cardio-ventilatory coupling apparent in respiratory motor output is evident and, perhaps, derived from the

  13. On the Application of Hilbert Spectral Analysis for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Hilbert spectral analysis (Huang et al, 1998, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A 454, pp 903-995) consisted of two steps: First, the data has to be reduced into a finite number of Intrinsic Mode Function by the Empirical Mode Decomposition method, then the resulting Intrinsic Mode Functions are converted to time-frequency-energy distribution through Hilbert transform. In this approach, the Empirical Mode Functions served as the basis functions with which the data is expanded. This basis function is adaptive, and the decomposition is nonlinear. Furthermore, as the Hilbert transform is a singular transform, it retains a high degree of local information. The instantaneous frequency is determined by differentiation of the phase function; therefore, there is no restriction of the 'uncertainty principle' for all the time-frequency analysis resulting from a priori basis approach. With the adaptive basis and the instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert Spectral analysis can represent data from nonlinear and nonstationary processes without resorting to the harmonics. Another advantage of using instantaneous frequency is the ability to find out frequency from limited length of data, which is a critical problem in climate studies. As the processes driving the climate changes could be both nonlinear and nonstationary, the Hilbert Spectral Analysis could be of great use in examining the underlying mechanisms. A preliminary study based on the length of day data will be presented as example for the application of the Hilbert Spectral Analysis for climate study.

  14. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank; Dews, Peter B.; Estes, William K.; Morse, William H.; Van Orman, Willard; Herrnstein, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance. PMID:22478169

  15. Calmodulin-binding transcription activators and perspectives for applications in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun; Du, Liqun; Wang, Huizhong

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, a novel family of calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) has been reported in various species. The CAMTAs share a conserved domain organization, with a CG-1 DNA-binding domain, a transcription factor immunoglobulin domain, several ankyrin repeats, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a varying number of IQ motifs. CAMTAs participate in transcriptional regulation by recognizing and binding to a specific cis-element: (G/A/C)CGCG(C/G/T). Plants suffer from the environmental challenges, including abiotic and biotic stresses. Investigations in various plant species indicate a broad range of CAMTA functions involved in developmental regulation, environmental stress response, and hormone cross talk. In this review, we focus on the expression patterns and biological functions of CAMTAs to explore their probable applications in biotechnology. Furthermore, the identification and phylogenetic analysis of CAMTAs in crops could open new perspectives for enhancing stress tolerance, which could lead to improved crop production.

  16. Application of an active controller for reducing small-amplitude vertical vibration in a vehicle seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Da; Chen, Rong-Jun

    2004-07-01

    This report describes the principle and application of active vibration control (AVC) for reducing undesired small-amplitude vertical vibration in the driver's seat of a vehicle. Three different control algorithms are implemented and compared in the experimental investigation. Apart from adaptive control and robust control, a hybrid control algorithm consisting of a combination of an adaptive controller with a filtered-x least mean squares (FXLMS) algorithm and a feedback structure with a robust synthesis theory for obtaining fast convergence and robust performance are proposed. A frequency domain technique is used for achieving the control plant identification and controller design. All of the proposed AVC controllers are implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP) platform, using a finite impulse response (FIR) filter for real-time control. A characteristic analysis and experimental comparison of three control algorithms for reducing the small amplitude vertical vibration in a vehicle seat are also presented in this paper.

  17. Estimating the amount of Ship Recycling Activity Using Remote Sensing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watagawa, M.; Shinoda, T.; Hasegawa, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched for earth observation and there are more than 6 million scenes of archives including coastal areas during period of five years. The wealth of satellite imagery is noticeable for investigating monitoring methods such as ship detection in wide ocean area. Especially, it is useful way to estimate past behaviour from satellite imagery compared to reference data. We collected satellite imagery and analysis breaking process in major ship breaking yards between year 2009 and 2011. Comparing the number of recycling ships by satellite imagery to the world statistics is in good agreement. In this study, Remote Sensing Application has been discussed in order to assess the potential to be used for economic activities such as ship recycling in wide coastal area. It was used to evaluate the performance of ship recycling monitoring by Satellite imagery. Additionally, an approach for recognizing ships by SAR imagery regardless of weather conditions is presented.

  18. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of optogenetic modulation of neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Gu, L.; Ghosh, N.; Mohanty, S. K.

    2013-02-01

    Here, we introduce a computational procedure to examine whether optogenetically activated neuronal firing recordings could be characterized as multifractal series. Optogenetics is emerging as a valuable experimental tool and a promising approach for studying a variety of neurological disorders in animal models. The spiking patterns from cortical region of the brain of optogenetically-stimulated transgenic mice were analyzed using a sophisticated fluctuation analysis method known as multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). We observed that the optogenetically-stimulated neural firings are consistent with a multifractal process. Further, we used MFDFA to monitor the effect of chemically induced pain (formalin injection) and optogenetic treatment used to relieve the pain. In this case, dramatic changes in parameters characterizing a multifractal series were observed. Both the generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum effectively differentiates the neural activities during control and pain induction phases. The quantitative nature of the analysis equips us with better measures to quantify pain. Further, it provided a measure for effectiveness of the optogenetic stimulation in inhibiting pain. MFDFA-analysis of spiking data from other deep regions of the brain also turned out to be multifractal in nature, with subtle differences in the parameters during pain-induction by formalin injection and inhibition by optogenetic stimulation. Characterization of neuronal firing patterns using MFDFA will lead to better understanding of neuronal response to optogenetic activation and overall circuitry involved in the process.

  19. neutron activation analysis using thermochromatography. III. analysis of samples of biological origin

    SciTech Connect

    Sattarov, G.; Davydov, A.V.; Khamatov, S.; Kist, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    The use of gas thermochromatography (GTC) in the radioactivation analysis of biological materials is discussed. A group separation of a number of highly volatile elements from sodium and bromine radionuclides has been achieved. The limit of detection of the elements by INAA and neutron activation analysis was estimated using GTC. The advantages of the procedure and the analytical parameters are discussed.

  20. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  1. Applicability of effective pair potentials for active Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Rein, Markus; Speck, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We have performed a case study investigating a recently proposed scheme to obtain an effective pair potential for active Brownian particles (Farage et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 042310 (2015)). Applying this scheme to the Lennard-Jones potential, numerical simulations of active Brownian particles are compared to simulations of passive Brownian particles interacting by the effective pair potential. Analyzing the static pair correlations, our results indicate a limited range of activity parameters (speed and orientational correlation time) for which we obtain quantitative, or even qualitative, agreement. Moreover, we find a qualitatively different behavior for the virial pressure even for small propulsion speeds. Combining these findings we conclude that beyond linear response active particles exhibit genuine non-equilibrium properties that cannot be captured by effective pair interaction alone. PMID:27628695

  2. APPLICATION OF SPATIAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO PETROLEUM RESOURCE ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Betty M.; Domaratz, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    Petroleum resource assessment procedures require the analysis of a large volume of spatial data. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and applied spatial information handling procedures and digital cartographic techniques to a recent study involving the assessment of oil and gas resource potential for 74 million acres of designated and proposed wilderness lands in the western United States. The part of the study which dealt with the application of spatial information technology to petroleum resource assessment procedures is reviewed. A method was designed to expedite the gathering, integrating, managing, manipulating and plotting of spatial data from multiple data sources that are essential in modern resource assessment procedures.

  3. Remotely piloted vehicle: Application of the GRASP analysis method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, W. L.; Morris, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    The application of General Reliability Analysis Simulation Program (GRASP) to the remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) system is discussed. The model simulates the field operation of the RPV system. By using individual component reliabilities, the overall reliability of the RPV system is determined. The results of the simulations are given in operational days. The model represented is only a basis from which more detailed work could progress. The RPV system in this model is based on preliminary specifications and estimated values. The use of GRASP from basic system definition, to model input, and to model verification is demonstrated.

  4. Applications of digital image analysis capability in Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital image analysis of LANDSAT imagery in water resource assessment is discussed. The data processing systems employed are described. The determination of urban land use conversion of agricultural land in two southwestern Idaho counties involving estimation and mapping of crop types and of irrigated land is described. The system was also applied to an inventory of irrigated cropland in the Snake River basin and establishment of a digital irrigation water source/service area data base for the basin. Application of the system to a determination of irrigation development in the Big Lost River basin as part of a hydrologic survey of the basin is also described.

  5. ParaView: Data Analysis and Visualization Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numerous

    2011-03-01

    ParaView is an open-source, multi-platform data analysis and visualization application. ParaView users can quickly build visualizations to analyze their data using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The data exploration can be done interactively in 3D or programmatically using ParaView's batch processing capabilities. ParaView was developed to analyze extremely large datasets using distributed memory computing resources. It can be run on supercomputers to analyze datasets of terascale as well as on laptops for smaller data.

  6. Significance probability mapping: an aid in the topographic analysis of brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Duffy, F H; Bartels, P H; Burchfiel, J L

    1981-05-01

    We illustrate the application of significance probability mapping (SPM) to the analysis of topographic maps of spectral analyzed EEG and visual evoked potential (VEP) activity from patients with brain tumors, boys with dyslexia, and control subjects. When the VEP topographic plots of tumor patients were displayed as number of standard deviations from a reference mean, more subjects were correctly identified than by inspection of the underlying raw data. When topographic plots of EEG alpha activity obtained while listening to speech or music were compared by t statistic to plots of resting alpha activity, regions of cortex presumably activated by speech or music were delineated. DIfferent regions were defined in dyslexic boys and controls. We propose that SPM will prove valuable in the regional localization of normal and abnormal functions in other clinical situations. PMID:6165544

  7. Finite element analysis of lightweight active primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei Xin; Guan, Chun Lin; Rao, Chang Hui

    2012-09-01

    With the increasing requirement on spatial resolution to achieve ideal performance in space-based optical imaging system, there is a need to enlarge primary apertures. However, primary mirrors of such systems cannot maintain its optical tolerances across the mirror surface after sending to space, because of gravity change and varying ambient temperature. It necessitates active optics technology of primary mirror surface correction. Since mass-to-orbit is expensive and limited, lightweight primary mirror is needed. The paper investigates a lightweight, active primary mirror. This primary mirror structure includes lightweight face sheet and substrate with surface-parallel actuators embedded in the recess of web support ribs. Finite element models of lightweight, active primary mirror structures with different structural parameters are established and simulated. Using the response function matrixes acquired from finite element analysis, the fitting errors for Zernike polynomials are computed by MATLAB. Correctability comparisons of lightweight, active primary mirror structures with different parameters are carried out. To get best correctability, the mirrors should have small recess depth, high and thin ribs, thick face sheets and long actuators. The structural analysis result will be valuable for the design of lightweight, active primary mirror.

  8. Application of portfolio theory in decision tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Galligan, D T; Ramberg, C; Curtis, C; Ferguson, J; Fetrow, J

    1991-07-01

    A general application of portfolio analysis for herd decision tree analysis is described. In the herd environment, this methodology offers a means of employing population-based decision strategies that can help the producer control economic variation in expected return from a given set of decision options. An economic decision tree model regarding the use of prostaglandin in dairy cows with undetected estrus was used to determine the expected return of the decisions to use prostaglandin and breed on a timed basis, use prostaglandin and then breed on sign of estrus, or breed on signs of estrus. The risk attributes of these decision alternatives were calculated from the decision tree, and portfolio theory was used to find the efficient decision combinations (portfolios with the highest return for a given variance). The resulting combinations of decisions could be used to control return variation.

  9. Theory and application of experimental model analysis in earthquake engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncarz, P. D.

    The feasibility and limitations of small-scale model studies in earthquake engineering research and practice is considered with emphasis on dynamic modeling theory, a study of the mechanical properties of model materials, the development of suitable model construction techniques and an evaluation of the accuracy of prototype response prediction through model case studies on components and simple steel and reinforced concrete structures. It is demonstrated that model analysis can be used in many cases to obtain quantitative information on the seismic behavior of complex structures which cannot be analyzed confidently by conventional techniques. Methodologies for model testing and response evaluation are developed in the project and applications of model analysis in seismic response studies on various types of civil engineering structures (buildings, bridges, dams, etc.) are evaluated.

  10. Clinical application of forensic DNA analysis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Manasatienkij, Chairat; Ra-ngabpai, Chatchawin

    2012-10-01

    Polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis after polymerase chain reaction amplification is presently the most important analytical method of forensic DNA laboratory. Beside the forensic-purpose application, STR analysis is also necessary for chimerism testing after bone marrow or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. To increase success rate of the treatment and avoid adverse effect of the transplantation procedure, serial chimerism study has to be closely monitored. Many analytical techniques have been therefore developed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity. STR-PCR is currently the most commonly used analytical method for chimerism testing. Sensitivity of the method is about 3% of the minor DNA in a specimen. The method consumes a short period of time and is convenient due to availability of the commercial kits. High discriminative ability and well-validated interpretation procedure are the attractive characteristics of the method.

  11. Analysis and applications of nanoparticles in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ban, Eunmi; Yoo, Young Sook; Song, Eun Joo

    2015-08-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit unique chemical and physical properties that depend on their size, shape, and environment. NPs are emerging as new tools and techniques in the analytical study of various materials and in the biological and biomedical fields, because of their unique properties. Therefore, the quantitative and qualitative characterization of NPs has gathered increasing interest. Additionally, the NPs are being used in rapidly developing techniques to provide highly sensitive and specific analysis of various materials. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been demonstrated as a useful analytical tool for the characterization of NPs and for the evaluation of biological and biomedical studies using NPs because of its simple sample preparation and efficient resolution of a diverse size range of compounds. This paper gives a short overview of the analysis and applications of NPs in CE systems, with an emphasis on biological and biomedical studies. PMID:25966374

  12. Applications of surface analysis and surface theory in tribology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John

    1988-01-01

    Tribology, the study of adhesion, friction and wear of materials is a complex field which requires a knowledge of solid state physics, surface physics, chemistry, material science and mechanical engineering. It has been dominated, however, by the more practical need to make equipment work. With the advent of surface analysis and advances in surface and solid state theory, a new dimension has been added to the analysis of interactions at tribological interfaces. In this paper the applications of tribological studies and their limitations are presented. Examples from research at the NASA Lewis Research Center are given. Emphasis is on fundamental studies involving the effects of monolayer coverage and thick films on friction and wear. A summary of the current status of theoretical calculations of defect energetics is presented. In addition, some new theoretical techniques which enable simplified quantitative calculations of adhesion, fracture and friction are discussed.

  13. Applications of surface analysis and surface theory in tribology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    Tribology, the study of adhesion, friction and wear of materials, is a complex field which requires a knowledge of solid state physics, surface physics, chemistry, material science, and mechanical engineering. It has been dominated, however, by the more practical need to make equipment work. With the advent of surface analysis and advances in surface and solid-state theory, a new dimension has been added to the analysis of interactions at tribological interfaces. In this paper the applications of tribological studies and their limitations are presented. Examples from research at the NASA Lewis Research Center are given. Emphasis is on fundamental studies involving the effects of monolayer coverage and thick films on friction and wear. A summary of the current status of theoretical calculations of defect energetics is presented. In addition, some new theoretical techniques which enable simplified quantitative calculations of adhesion, fracture, and friction are discussed.

  14. Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.; Vanderark, Stephen T.

    1993-01-01

    The Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing (E/L) Activities documents all tasks required to land the Orbiter following an STS mission. In addition to analysis of tasks performed, task conditions are described, including estimated time for completion, altitude, relative velocity, normal and lateral acceleration, location of controls operated or monitored, and level of g's experienced. This analysis precedes further investigations into potential effects of zero g on piloting capabilities for landing the Orbiter following long-duration missions. This includes, but is not limited to, researching the effects of extended duration missions on piloting capabilities. Four primary constraints of the analysis must be clarified: (1) the analysis depicts E/L in a static manner--the actual process is dynamic; (2) the task analysis was limited to a paper analysis, since it was not feasible to conduct research in the actual setting (i.e., observing or filming duration an actual E/L); (3) the tasks included are those required for E/L during nominal, daylight conditions; and (4) certain E/L tasks will vary according to the flying style of each commander.

  15. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  16. Multi-scale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    DOE PAGES

    Gamborino, Diana; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Martinell, Julio J.

    2016-07-08

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps that are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions, we show that the multi-scale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also to be extracted from the analysis.

  17. Analysis of exposure due to work on activated components

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this brief note the author summarized analysis of the exposure incurred in various maintenance jobs involving activated accelerator and beam line components at Fermilab. A tabulation was made of parameters associated with each job. Included are rather terse descriptions of the various tasks. The author presented various plots of the quantities in the table. All exposure rates are mR/hr while all exposures accumulated are mR. The exposure rates were generally measured at the Fermilab standard one foot distance from the activated component. Accumulated exposures are taken from the self-reading pocket dosimeter records maintained by the radiation control technicians.

  18. Application of chromatography technology in the separation of active components from nature derived drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H-Y; Jiang, J-G

    2010-11-01

    Chromatography technology has been widely applied in various aspects of the pharmacy research on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This paper reviews literatures, published in the past decades, on the separation of active component from TCM using chromatography technology. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), affinity chromatography (AC), and bio-chromatography (BC) are introduced in detail. Compared to high performance of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), analysis time and solvent loss are significantly reduced by UPLC with increase in resolution and sensitivity. Some ingredients from nature derived drugs can be separated more completely by HSCCC, which has remarkable characteristics such as low cost, simple operation and no pollution. Trace components from complex systems can be selectively and efficiently separated and purified by AC, This feature makes it effective in isolation and identification of active components of Chinese herbs. Interference of some impurities could be excluded by BC. Active ingredients that are difficult to be separated by normal method can be acquired by SFC. Currently, application of novel chromatography techniques in TCM is still in the exploratory stage and many problems, such as preparation of stationary phase and detection, need to be solved.

  19. Advanced Embedded Active Assemblies for Extreme Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of advanced technologies for the integration of electronic die within membrane polymers. Specifically, investigators thinned silicon die, electrically connecting them with circuits on flexible liquid crystal polymer (LCP), using gold thermo-compression flip chip bonding, and embedding them within the material. Daisy chain LCP assemblies were thermal cycled from -135 to +85degC (Mars surface conditions for motor control electronics). The LCP assembly method was further utilized to embed an operational amplifier designed for operation within the Mars surface ambient. The embedded op-amp assembly was evaluated with respect to the influence of temperature on the operational characteristics of the device. Applications for this technology range from multifunctional, large area, flexible membrane structures to small-scale, flexible circuits that can be fit into tight spaces for flex to fit applications.

  20. Antibacterial activities of bacteriocins: application in foods and pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hung; Sung, Calvin T.; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a kind of ribosomal synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which can kill or inhibit bacterial strains closely-related or non-related to produced bacteria, but will not harm the bacteria themselves by specific immunity proteins. Bacteriocins become one of the weapons against microorganisms due to the specific characteristics of large diversity of structure and function, natural resource, and being stable to heat. Many recent studies have purified and identified bacteriocins for application in food technology, which aims to extend food preservation time, treat pathogen disease and cancer therapy, and maintain human health. Therefore, bacteriocins may become a potential drug candidate for replacing antibiotics in order to treat multiple drugs resistance pathogens in the future. This review article summarizes different types of bacteriocins from bacteria. The latter half of this review focuses on the potential applications in food science and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24904554

  1. Optimal configurations of active fiber composites based on asymptotic torsional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harursampath, Dineshkumar; Tamrakar, Ajay Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Active Fiber Composites (AFC) possess desirable characteristics over a wide range of smart structure applications, such as vibration, shape and flow control as well as structural health monitoring. This type of material, capable of collocated actuation and sensing, can be used in smart structures with self-sensing circuits. This paper proposes four novel applications of AFC structures undergoing torsion: sensors and actuators shaped as strips and tubes; and concludes with a preliminary failure analysis. To enable this, a powerful mathematical technique, the Variational Asymptotic Method (VAM) was used to perform cross-sectional analyses of thin generally anisotropic AFC beams. The resulting closed form expressions have been utilized in the applications presented herein.

  2. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) - Applications and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Mark T. D.

    The aim of this introduction is to describe briefly the applications and methodologies involved in (Q)SAR and relate these to the various chapters in this volume. This chapter gives the reader an overview of how, why and where in silico methods, including (Q)SAR, have been utilized to predict endpoints as diverse as those from pharmacology and toxicology. It provides an illustration of how all the various topics in this book interweave to form a single coherent area of science.

  3. Method of "Active Correlations" for DSSSD detector application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, Yu. S.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PC based algorithm is developed for DSSSD ( Double Side Silicon Strip Detector) detector. Brief description of the detection system is also presented. Complete fusion nuclear reaction nat Yt + 48 Ca → 217 Th is used to test this algorithm at 48Ca beam. Example of successful application of a former algorithm for resistive strip PIPS (resistive strip Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon) detector is presented too.

  4. Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Petrie, L.M.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypic analysis capabilities that can be used by the nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, the project will investigate the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses, as well as within a new deterministic code that allows specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model the geometry details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored.

  5. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers’ failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases. PMID:25685513

  6. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-07-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers' failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases. PMID:25685513

  7. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-07-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers' failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases.

  8. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  9. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2005-01-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m(-3))(-1)(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 degrees C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  10. Wireless Technology Use Case Requirement Analysis for Future Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedi, Ali; Wilkerson, DeLisa

    2016-01-01

    This report presents various use case scenarios for wireless technology -including radio frequency (RF), optical, and acoustic- and studies requirements and boundary conditions in each scenario. The results of this study can be used to prioritize technology evaluation and development and in the long run help in development of a roadmap for future use of wireless technology. The presented scenarios cover the following application areas: (i) Space Vehicles (manned/unmanned), (ii) Satellites and Payloads, (iii) Surface Explorations, (iv) Ground Systems, and (v) Habitats. The requirement analysis covers two parallel set of conditions. The first set includes the environmental conditions such as temperature, radiation, noise/interference, wireless channel characteristics and accessibility. The second set of requirements are dictated by the application and may include parameters such as latency, throughput (effective data rate), error tolerance, and reliability. This report provides a comprehensive overview of all requirements from both perspectives and details their effects on wireless system reliability and network design. Application area examples are based on 2015 NASA Technology roadmap with specific focus on technology areas: TA 2.4, 3.3, 5.2, 5.5, 6.4, 7.4, and 10.4 sections that might benefit from wireless technology.

  11. Canonical Correlation Analysis on Riemannian Manifolds and Its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Adluru, Nagesh; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Vemuri, Baba C.; Singh, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a widely used statistical technique to capture correlations between two sets of multi-variate random variables and has found a multitude of applications in computer vision, medical imaging and machine learning. The classical formulation assumes that the data live in a pair of vector spaces which makes its use in certain important scientific domains problematic. For instance, the set of symmetric positive definite matrices (SPD), rotations and probability distributions, all belong to certain curved Riemannian manifolds where vector-space operations are in general not applicable. Analyzing the space of such data via the classical versions of inference models is rather sub-optimal. But perhaps more importantly, since the algorithms do not respect the underlying geometry of the data space, it is hard to provide statistical guarantees (if any) on the results. Using the space of SPD matrices as a concrete example, this paper gives a principled generalization of the well known CCA to the Riemannian setting. Our CCA algorithm operates on the product Riemannian manifold representing SPD matrix-valued fields to identify meaningful statistical relationships on the product Riemannian manifold. As a proof of principle, we present results on an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) study where the analysis task involves identifying correlations across diffusion tensor images (DTI) and Cauchy deformation tensor fields derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. PMID:25317426

  12. Obsidian sources characterized by neutron-activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Gordus, A A; Wright, G A; Griffin, J B

    1968-07-26

    Concentrations of elements such as manganese, scandium, lanthanum, rubidium, samarium, barium, and zirconium in obsidian samples from different flows show ranges of 1000 percent or more, whereas the variation in element content in obsidian samples from a single flow appears to be less than 40 percent. Neutron-activation analysis of these elements, as well as of sodium and iron, provides a means of identifying the geologic source of an archeological artifact of obsidian.

  13. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout. PMID:25237348

  14. Genetic analysis of lipolytic activities in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Li, Haijuan; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 displays lipolytic activity for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study we performed a mutational in vivo analysis of esterases and lipases that confer growth on tributyrin. We interrupted 10 ORFs suspected to encode lipolytic enzymes. Two chromosomal loci were identified that resulted in reduced hydrolysis capabilities against tributyrin and various para-nitrophenyl acyl esters. By implementation of a convenient new one-step method which abstains from the use of selectable markers, a mutant strain with multiple scar-less deletions was constructed by sequentially deleting ORFs TT_C1787, TT_C0340, TT_C0341 and TT_C0904. The quadruple deletion mutant of T. thermophilus exhibited significantly lower lipolytic activity (approximately 25% residual activity compared to wild type strain) over a broad range of fatty acyl esters and had lost the ability to grow on agar plates containing tributyrin as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we were able to determine the impact of each gene disruption on the lipolytic activity profile in this model organism and show that the esterase activity in T. thermophilus HB27 is due to a concerted action of several hydrolases having different substrate preferences and activities. The esterase-less T. thermophilus multi-deletion mutant from this study can be used as a screening and expression host for esterase genes from thermophiles or metagenomes. PMID:25102235

  15. Genetic analysis of lipolytic activities in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Li, Haijuan; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 displays lipolytic activity for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study we performed a mutational in vivo analysis of esterases and lipases that confer growth on tributyrin. We interrupted 10 ORFs suspected to encode lipolytic enzymes. Two chromosomal loci were identified that resulted in reduced hydrolysis capabilities against tributyrin and various para-nitrophenyl acyl esters. By implementation of a convenient new one-step method which abstains from the use of selectable markers, a mutant strain with multiple scar-less deletions was constructed by sequentially deleting ORFs TT_C1787, TT_C0340, TT_C0341 and TT_C0904. The quadruple deletion mutant of T. thermophilus exhibited significantly lower lipolytic activity (approximately 25% residual activity compared to wild type strain) over a broad range of fatty acyl esters and had lost the ability to grow on agar plates containing tributyrin as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we were able to determine the impact of each gene disruption on the lipolytic activity profile in this model organism and show that the esterase activity in T. thermophilus HB27 is due to a concerted action of several hydrolases having different substrate preferences and activities. The esterase-less T. thermophilus multi-deletion mutant from this study can be used as a screening and expression host for esterase genes from thermophiles or metagenomes.

  16. Transition path theory analysis of c-Src kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yilin; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S; Roux, Benoît

    2016-08-16

    Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family are large multidomain allosteric proteins that are crucial to cellular signaling pathways. In a previous study, we generated a Markov state model (MSM) to simulate the activation of c-Src catalytic domain, used as a prototypical tyrosine kinase. The long-time kinetics of transition predicted by the MSM was in agreement with experimental observations. In the present study, we apply the framework of transition path theory (TPT) to the previously constructed MSM to characterize the main features of the activation pathway. The analysis indicates that the activating transition, in which the activation loop first opens up followed by an inward rotation of the αC-helix, takes place via a dense set of intermediate microstates distributed within a fairly broad "transition tube" in a multidimensional conformational subspace connecting the two end-point conformations. Multiple microstates with negligible equilibrium probabilities carry a large transition flux associated with the activating transition, which explains why extensive conformational sampling is necessary to accurately determine the kinetics of activation. Our results suggest that the combination of MSM with TPT provides an effective framework to represent conformational transitions in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:27482115

  17. Integrated Modeling Tools for Thermal Analysis and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark H.; Needels, Laura; Papalexandris, Miltiadis

    1999-01-01

    model. Conductances for temperature varying materials are accommodated. This capability both streamlines the process of developing the thermal model from the finite element model, and also makes the structural and thermal models compatible in the sense that each structural node is associated with a thermal node. This is particularly useful when the purpose of the analysis is to predict structural deformations due to thermal loads. The steady state solver uses a restricted step size Newton method, and the transient solver is an adaptive step size implicit method applicable to general differential algebraic systems. Temperature dependent conductances and capacitances are accommodated by the solvers. In addition to discussing the modeling and solution methods. applications where the thermal modeling is "in the loop" with sensitivity analysis, optimization and optical performance drawn from our experiences with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), and the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) are presented.

  18. Analysis of Low Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles for Solar Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfei

    The present work focuses on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems and their application to low temperature waste heat recovery, combined heat and power as well as off-grid solar power generation applications. As CO_2 issues come to the fore front and fossil fuels become more expensive, interest in low grade heat recovery has grown dramatically in the past few years. Solar energy, as a clean, renewable, pollution-free and sustainable energy has great potential for the use of ORC systems. Several ORC solutions have been proposed to generate electricity from low temperature sources. The ORC systems discussed here can be applied to fields such as solar thermal, biological waste heat, engine exhaust gases, small-scale cogeneration, domestic boilers, etc. The current work presents a thermodynamic and economic analysis for the use of ORC systems to convert solar energy or low exergy energy to generate electrical power. The organic working fluids investigated here were selected to investigate the effect of the fluid saturation temperature on the performance of ORCs. The working fluids under investigation are R113, R245fa, R123, with boiling points between 40°C and 200°C at pressures from 10 kPa to 10 MPa. Ambient temperature air at 20oC to 30oC is utilized as cooling resource, and allowing for a temperature difference 10°C for effective heat transfer. Consequently, the working fluids are condensed at 40°C. A combined first- and second-law analysis is performed by varying some system independent parameters at various reference temperatures. The present work shows that ORC systems can be viable and economical for the applications such as waste heat use and off-grid power generation even though they are likely to be more expensive than grid power.

  19. The Didactic Principles and Their Applications in the Didactic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marius-Costel, Esi

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation and reevaluation of the fundamental didactic principles suppose the acceptance at the level of an instructive-educative activity of a new educational paradigm. Thus, its understanding implies an assumption at a conceptual-theoretical level of some approaches where the didactic aspects find their usefulness by relating to value…

  20. Plant defense activators: applications and prospects in cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review addresses the current understanding of the plant immune response and the molecular mechanisms responsible for systemic acquired resistance as well as the phenomenon of "priming" in plant defense. A detailed discussion of the role of salicylic acid in activating the plant transcription c...