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Sample records for activation analysis ivnaa

  1. Facility optimization to improve activation rate distributions during IVNAA

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi Khankook, Atiyeh; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Currently, determination of body composition is the most useful method for distinguishing between certain diseases. The prompt-gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) facility for non-destructive elemental analysis of the human body is the gold standard method for this type of analysis. In order to obtain accurate measurements using the IVNAA system, the activation probability in the body must be uniform. This can be difficult to achieve, as body shape and body composition affect the rate of activation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum pre-moderator, in terms of material for attaining uniform activation probability with a CV value of about 10% and changing the collimator role to increase activation rate within the body. Such uniformity was obtained with a high thickness of paraffin pre-moderator, however, because of increasing secondary photon flux received by the detectors it was not an appropriate choice. Our final calculations indicated that using two paraffin slabs with a thickness of 3 cm as a pre-moderator, in the presence of 2 cm Bi on the collimator, achieves a satisfactory distribution of activation rate in the body. PMID:23386375

  2. Facility optimization to improve activation rate distributions during IVNAA.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi Khankook, Atiyeh; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem

    2013-05-01

    Currently, determination of body composition is the most useful method for distinguishing between certain diseases. The prompt-gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) facility for non-destructive elemental analysis of the human body is the gold standard method for this type of analysis. In order to obtain accurate measurements using the IVNAA system, the activation probability in the body must be uniform. This can be difficult to achieve, as body shape and body composition affect the rate of activation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum pre-moderator, in terms of material for attaining uniform activation probability with a CV value of about 10% and changing the collimator role to increase activation rate within the body. Such uniformity was obtained with a high thickness of paraffin pre-moderator, however, because of increasing secondary photon flux received by the detectors it was not an appropriate choice. Our final calculations indicated that using two paraffin slabs with a thickness of 3 cm as a pre-moderator, in the presence of 2 cm Bi on the collimator, achieves a satisfactory distribution of activation rate in the body.

  3. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Identification of oxygen-19 during in vivo neutron activation analysis of water phantoms.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Syed N A; Chettle, David R

    2015-12-01

    Hand bone equivalent phantoms (250 ml) carrying selenium in various amounts were irradiated and counted for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) by employing a 4π NaI(TI) based detection system. During the analysis of counting data, a feature at a higher energy than the gamma ray peak from (77m)Se (0.162 MeV) was observed at 0.197 MeV. Further investigations were made by preparing water phantoms containing only de-ionized water in 250 ml and 1034 ml quantities. Neutrons were produced by the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction using the high beam current Tandetron accelerator. Phantoms were irradiated at a fixed proton energy of 2.3 MeV and proton currents of 400 μA and 550 μA for 30 s and 22 s respectively. The counting data saved using the 4π NaI(TI) detection system for 10 s intervals in anticoincidence, coincidence and singles modes of detection were analyzed. Areas under gamma peaks at energies 0.197 MeV and 1.357 MeV were computed and half-lives from the number of counts for the two peaks were established. It was concluded that during neutron activation of water phantoms, oxygen-18 is activated, producing short-lived radioactive 19O having T(1/2)  =  26.9 s. Induced activity from 19O may contribute spectral interference in the gamma ray spectrum. This effect may need to be taken into account by researchers while carrying out IVNAA of biological subjects.

  5. A dosimetry study of deuterium-deuterium neutron generator-based in vivo neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, Daniel A.

    A neutron irradiation cavity for in vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) to detect manganese, aluminum, and other potentially toxic elements in human hand bone has been designed and its dosimetric specifications measured. The neutron source is a customized deuterium-deuterium neutron generator which produces neutrons at 2.45 MeV by the fusion reaction 2H(d, n)3He at a calculated flux of 7 x 108 +/-30% s-1. A moderator/reflector/shielding (5 cm high density polyethylene (HDPE), 5.3 cm graphite & 5.7 cm borated HDPE) assembly has been designed and built to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the hand irradiation cavity and to reduce the extremity dose and effective dose to the human subject. Lead sheets are used to attenuate bremsstrahlung x rays and activation gammas. A Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6) was used to model the system and calculate extremity dose. The extremity dose was measured with neutron and photon sensitive film badges and Fuji electronic pocket dosimeter (EPD). The neutron ambient dose outside the shielding was measured by Fuji NSN3, and photon dose by a Bicron MicroREM scintillator. Neutron extremity dose was calculated to be 32.3 mSv using MCNP6 simulations given a 10 min IVNAA measurement of manganese. Measurements by EPD and film badge indicate hand dose to be 31.7 +/- 0.8 mSv for neutron and 4.2 +/- 0.2 mSv for photon for 10 mins; whole body effective dose was calculated conservatively to be 0.052 mSv. Experimental values closely match values obtained from MCNP6 simulations. These are acceptable doses to apply the technology for a manganese toxicity study in a human population.

  6. A Dosimetry Study of Deuterium-Deuterium Neutron Generator-based In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sowers, Daniel; Liu, Yingzi; Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott; Nie, Linda H

    2015-12-01

    A neutron irradiation cavity for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) to detect manganese, aluminum, and other potentially toxic elements in human hand bone has been designed and its dosimetric specifications measured. The neutron source is a customized deuterium-deuterium neutron generator that produces neutrons at 2.45 MeV by the fusion reaction 2H(d, n)3He at a calculated flux of 7 × 10(8) ± 30% s(-1). A moderator/reflector/shielding [5 cm high density polyethylene (HDPE), 5.3 cm graphite and 5.7 cm borated (HDPE)] assembly has been designed and built to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the hand irradiation cavity and to reduce the extremity dose and effective dose to the human subject. Lead sheets are used to attenuate bremsstrahlung x rays and activation gammas. A Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6) was used to model the system and calculate extremity dose. The extremity dose was measured with neutron and photon sensitive film badges and Fuji electronic pocket dosimeters (EPD). The neutron ambient dose outside the shielding was measured by Fuji NSN3, and the photon dose was measured by a Bicron MicroREM scintillator. Neutron extremity dose was calculated to be 32.3 mSv using MCNP6 simulations given a 10-min IVNAA measurement of manganese. Measurements by EPD and film badge indicate hand dose to be 31.7 ± 0.8 mSv for neutrons and 4.2 ± 0.2 mSv for photons for 10 min; whole body effective dose was calculated conservatively to be 0.052 mSv. Experimental values closely match values obtained from MCNP6 simulations. These are acceptable doses to apply the technology for a manganese toxicity study in a human population.

  7. Development of an accelerator based system for in vivo neutron activation analysis measurements of manganese in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle Lynn

    2001-11-01

    Manganese is required by the human body, but as with many heavy elements, in large amounts it can be toxic, producing a neurological disorder similar to that of Parkinson's Disease. The primary industrial uses of the element are for the manufacturing of steel and alkali batteries. Environmental exposure may occur via drinking water or exhaust emissions from vehicles using gasoline with the manganese containing compound MMT as an antiknock agent (MMT has been approved for use in both Canada and the United States). Preclinical symptoms of toxicity have recently been detected in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne manganese at levels below the present threshold limit value set by the EPA. Evidence also suggests that early detection of manganese toxicity is crucial since once the symptoms have developed past a certain point, the syndrome will continue to progress even if manganese exposure ceases. The development of a system for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) measurement of manganese levels was investigated, with the goal being to have a means of monitoring both over exposed and manganese deficient populations. The McMaster KN-accelerator was used to provide low-energy neutrons, activation within an irradiation site occurred via the 55Mn(n,gamma) 56Mn capture reaction, and the 847 keV gamma-rays emitted when 56Mn decayed were measured using one or more Nal(TI) detectors. The present data regarding manganese metabolism and storage within the body are limited, and it is unclear what the optimal measurement site would be to provide a suitable biomarker of past exposure. Therefore the feasibility of IVNAA measurements in three sites was examined---the liver, brain and hand bones. Calibration curves were derived, minimum detectable limits determined and resulting doses calculated for each site (experimentally in the case of the liver and hand bones, and through computer simulations for the brain). Detailed analytical calculations of the 7Li(p,n) 7Be

  8. Compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to determine fluorine in human bone in vivo: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott P; Liu, Yingzi; Sowers, Daniel A; Nie, Linda H

    2015-10-01

    The subject of whether fluorine (F) is detrimental to human health has been controversial for many years. Much of the discussion focuses on the known benefits and detriments to dental care and problems that F causes in bone structure at high doses. It is therefore advantageous to have the means to monitor F concentrations in the human body as a method to directly assess exposure. F accumulates in the skeleton making bone a useful biomarker to assess long term cumulative exposure to F. This study presents work in the development of a non-invasive method for the monitoring of F in human bone. The work was based on the technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). A compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) generator was used to produce neutrons. A moderator/reflector/shielding assembly was designed and built for human hand irradiation. The gamma rays emitted through the (19)F(n,γ)(20)F reaction were measured using a HPGe detector. This study was undertaken to (i) find the feasibility of using DD system to determine F in human bone, (ii) estimate the F minimum detection limit (MDL), and (iii) optimize the system using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code in order to improve the MDL of the system. The F MDL was found to be 0.54 g experimentally with a neutron flux of 7   ×   10(8) n s(-1) and an optimized irradiation, decay, and measurement time scheme. The numbers of F counts from the experiment were found to be close to the (MCNPX) simulation results with the same irradiation and detection parameters. The equivalent dose to the irradiated hand and the effective dose to the whole body were found to be 0.9 mSv and 0.33 μSv, respectively. Based on these results, it is feasible to develop a compact DD generator based IVNAA system to measure bone F in a population with moderate to high F exposure.

  9. The feasibility of in vivo quantification of bone-gadolinium in humans by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) following gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafaei, F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chettle, D. R.; Noseworthy, M. D.; Prestwich, W. V.

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of using a 238Pu/Be-based in vivo prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system, previously successfully used for measurements of muscle, for the detection of gadolinium (Gd) in bone was presented. Gd is extensively used in contrast agents in MR imaging. We present phantom measurement data for the measurement of Gd in the tibia. Gd has seven naturally occurring isotopes, of which two have extremely large neutron capture cross sections; 155Gd (14.8% natural abundance (NA), σ= 60,900 barns) and 157Gd (15.65% NA, σ= 254,000 barns). Our previous work focused on muscle but this only informs about the short term kinetics of Gd. We studied the possibility of measuring bone, as it may be a long term storage site for Gd. A human simulating bone phantom set was developed. The phantoms were doped with seven concentrations of Gd of concentrations 0.0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 120 and 150 ppm. Additional elements important for neutron activation analysis, Na, Cl and Ca, were also included to create an overall elemental composition consistent with Reference Man. The overall conclusion is that the potential application of this Pu-Be-based prompt in vivo NAA for the monitoring of the storage and retention of Gd in bone is not feasible.

  10. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    SciTech Connect

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1984-03-01

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients.

  11. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4{pi} geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when {sup 27}Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1{sigma}). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96{+-}1.25 ({+-}1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several

  12. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V; Chettle, D R

    2008-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26Mg (n, gamma) 27Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4 pi geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1 sigma). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96 +/- 1.25 (+/- 1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in

  13. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  14. Prompt-Gamma Activation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Richard M

    1993-01-01

    A permanent, full-time instrument for prompt-gamma activation analysis is nearing completion as part of the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The design of the analytical system has been optimized for high gamma detection efficiency and low background, particularly for hydrogen. Because of the purity of the neutron beam, shielding requirements are modest and the scatter-capture background is low. As a result of a compact sample-detector geometry, the sensitivity (counting rate per gram of analyte) is a factor of four better than the existing Maryland-NIST thermal-neutron instrument at this reactor. Hydrogen backgrounds of a few micrograms have already been achieved, which promises to be of value in numerous applications where quantitative nondestructive analysis of small quantities of hydrogen in materials is necessary.

  15. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  16. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  17. Neutron Activation Analysis of Water - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, John D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent developments in this field are emphasized. After a brief review of basic principles, topics discussed include sources of neutrons, pre-irradiation physical and chemical treatment of samples, neutron capture and gamma-ray analysis, and selected applications. Applications of neutron activation analysis of water have increased rapidly within the last few years and may be expected to increase in the future.

  18. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    shape requirements definitions for system upgrade or modification contracts and new baseline contracts. Finally, content analysis training and skill...back to the system designers, this information can then be used to shape requirements definition for system upgrade or modification contracts and new...Activity System Requirements Definition Ensuring the system requirements adequately reflect the stakeholder requirements Negotiating modifications to

  19. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Chief, Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity Li Yuanzhang, PhD Senior Statistician Department of Epidemiology David N...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AMSARA, Department of Epidemiology , Division of Preventive Medicine Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 503... Epidemiology of Injury form the Assessment of Recruit Strength and Motivation study ARMS) and Program

  20. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  1. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  2. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  3. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  4. A multistate analysis of active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A; Rogers, R G; Branch, L G

    1989-01-01

    With today's lower mortality rates, longer expectations of life, and new medical technologies, the nation's health policy focus has shifted from emphasis on individual survival to emphasis on personal health and independent living. Using longitudinal data sets and new methodological techniques, researchers have begun to assess active life expectancies, estimating not only how long a subpopulation can expect to live beyond each age, but what fractions of the expected remaining lifetime will be lived as independent, dependent, or institutionalized. New ideas are addressed, applying recently developed multistate life table methods to Waves One and Two of the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study. Expectations of active life are presented for those 65 and older who initially are in one of two functional states of well-being. Included are expectations of life, for those, for example, who were independent and remained so, or those who were dependent and became independent. Although public health officials are concerned about the number of elderly who cease being independent, preliminary analysis shows that a significant number of the dependent elderly regain their independence, a situation which needs to be addressed in health care planning.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of some building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salagean, M. N.; Pantelica, A. I.; Georgescu, I. I.; Muntean, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U. Yb, W and Zn in seven Romanian building materials were determined by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method using the VVR-S Reactor of NIPNE- Bucharest. Raw matarials used in cement obtaining ≈ 75% of limestone and ≈ 25% of clay, cement samples from three different factories, furnace slag, phosphogypsum, and a type of brick have been analyzed. The brick was compacted from furnace slay, fly coal ash, phosphogypsum, lime and cement. The U, Th and K concentrations determined in the brick are in agreement with the natural radioactivity measurements of226Ra,232Th and40K. These specific activities were found about twice and 1.5 higher than the accepted levels in the case of226Ra and232Th, as well as40K, respectively. By consequence, the investigated brick is considered a radioactive waste. The rather high content of Co, Cr, K, Th, and Zh in the brick is especially due to the slag and fly ash, the main componets. The presence of U, Th and K in slag is mainly correlated with the limestone and dolomite as fluxes in matallurgy.

  6. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  7. Eulogy for a neutron activation analysis facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.

    2000-07-01

    A relatively inexpensive facility for neutron activation analysis (NAA) was developed in the early 1970s at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). With the availability of large {sup 252}Cf sources, a subcritical facility was designed that could contain up to 100 mg of {sup 252}Cf (T{sub 1/2} = 2.645 yr and a spontaneous fission yield of 2.34 x 10{sup 9} n/s{center_dot}mg{sup {minus}1}). The {sup 252}Cf source was surrounded by a hexagonal array of {sup 235}U enriched fuel rods, which provided a 10- to 20-fold multiplication of the neutrons emitted from the {sup 252}Cf source. This assembly was located near the bottom of a 1.52-m-diam x 6.10-m-deep water-filled pool. The Neutron Multiplier Facility (NMF) was operational from November 1977 to April 1998--a period of 20.4 yr. The NMF began operation with {approximately}100 mg of {sup 252}Cf, and because of decay of the {sup 252}Cf, it had decreased to 0.34 mg at the time of shutdown. Decommissioning of the NMF began April 1998 and was completed in October 1999.

  8. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  9. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  10. Activity Analysis for Cognitive-Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorens, Lela A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a review of several approaches to activity and task analysis for their selection for use in occupational therapy and proposes a neuro-behavioral approach to activity analysis and selection for use in treatment of cognitive-perceptual-motor dysfunction. (Editors/JA)

  11. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    TD64, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, is one of several groups with high-fidelity fluids design and analysis expertise in the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). TD64 assists personnel working on other programs. The group participates in projects in the following areas: turbomachinery activities, nozzle activities, combustion devices, and the Columbia accident investigation.

  12. Activity Landscape Plotter: A Web-Based Application for the Analysis of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    González-Medina, Mariana; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Medina-Franco, José L

    2017-03-27

    Activity landscape modeling is a powerful method for the quantitative analysis of structure-activity relationships. This cheminformatics area is in continuous growth, and several quantitative and visual approaches are constantly being developed. However, these approaches often fall into disuse due to their limited access. Herein, we present Activity Landscape Plotter as the first freely available web-based tool to automatically analyze structure-activity relationships of compound data sets. Based on the concept of activity landscape modeling, the online service performs pairwise structure and activity relationships from an input data set supplied by the user. For visual analysis, Activity Landscape Plotter generates Structure-Activity Similarity and Dual-Activity Difference maps. The user can interactively navigate through the maps and export all the pairwise structure-activity information as comma delimited files. Activity Landscape Plotter is freely accessible at https://unam-shiny-difacquim.shinyapps.io/ActLSmaps /.

  13. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  14. Neutron Activation Analysis, A Titanium Material Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresser, Charles

    2011-04-01

    In order to obtain faster and more accurate measurements of radioactive contaminates within a sample of titanium we expose it to a neutron flux. This flux will activate the stable and quasi stable (those with extremely long half lives) isotopes into resultant daughter cells that are unstable which will result in shorter half lives on the order of minutes to days. We measured the resulting decays in the Germanium Crystal Detector and obtained a complex gamma spectrum. A mathematical model was used to recreate the production of the measured isotopes in the neutron flux and the resultant decays. Using this model we calculated the mass percent of the contaminate isotopes inside our titanium sample. Our mathematical model accounted for two types of neutron activation, fast or thermal activation, since this would determine which contaminate was the source of our signals. By looking at the percent abundances, neutron absorption cross-sections and the resulting mass percents of each contaminate we are able to determine the exact source of our measured signals. Additionally we implemented a unique ratio method to cross check the mathematical model. Our results have verified that for fast neutron activation and thermal neutron activation the method is accurate.

  15. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  16. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  17. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  18. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  19. ACTIVE: A Tool for Integrating Analysis Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-14

    for modeling systems in the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). In the paper we analyze the problems that occur when independently...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dionisio de Niz Ivan Ruchkin; Sagar Chaki; David Garlan 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...tectural description language because AADL offers a con- venient way to represent the structural, design-time aspect of the system. In particular

  20. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naillon, Martine

    1994-01-01

    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  1. Passive versus active mitigation cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.; Galbraith, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The scope of this task is to assess the impact of mitigation alternatives for Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103 on the Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. This assessment and other related tasks are part of an Action Plan Path Forward prepared by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Life Extension and Transition Program. Task 3.7 of the Action Plan for Project W-236A MWTF analyzed the comparative cost/risk of two hydrogen gas mitigation alternatives (active versus passive) to recommend the most appropriate course of action to resolve the hydrogen gas safety issue. The qualitative success of active mitigation has been demonstrated through Tank 241-SY-101 testing. Passive mitigation has not been demonstrated but will be validated by laboratory test work performed under Task 3.1 of the Action Plan. It is assumed for this assessment that the uncertainties associated with the performance of either alternative is comparable. Determining alternative specific performance measures beyond those noted are not in the scope of this effort.

  2. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H.; Vaughn, K. J.

    2004-06-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  3. Neutron-activation analysis applied to copper ores and artifacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, N. F.

    1970-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is used for quantitative identification of trace metals in copper. Establishing a unique fingerprint of impurities in Michigan copper would enable identification of artifacts made from this copper.

  4. Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

  5. Elemental analysis of combustion products by neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the neutron activation analysis method, which is being used to determine the elemental profile of combustion products from coal-fired power plants, oil shale retorting, and underground coal gasification. (DLC)

  6. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak.

  7. Swimming active droplet: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, M.; Stark, H.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, an active microswimmer was constructed where a micron-sized droplet of bromine water was placed into a surfactant-laden oil phase. Due to a bromination reaction of the surfactant at the interface, the surface tension locally increases and becomes non-uniform. This drives a Marangoni flow which propels the squirming droplet forward. We develop a diffusion-advection-reaction equation for the order parameter of the surfactant mixture at the droplet interface using a mixing free energy. Numerical solutions reveal a stable swimming regime above a critical Marangoni number M but also stopping and oscillating states when M is increased further. The swimming droplet is identified as a pusher whereas in the oscillating state it oscillates between being a puller and a pusher.

  8. Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

  9. Analysis of Smad Phosphatase Activity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Qin, Lan; Lin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 at the C-terminal SXS motif by BMP type I receptors is one of the most critical events in BMP signaling. Conversely, protein phosphatases that dephosphorylate phospho-Smad1/5/8 can consequently prevent or terminate BMP signaling. PPM1H is an undercharacterized phosphatase in the PPM family. We recently demonstrated that PPM1H can dephosphorylate Smad1 in the cytoplasm and block BMP signaling responses in cellular assays. Here we describe in vitro method showing that PPM1H is a bona fide phosphatase for Smad1/5/8. PPM1H is produced as GST fusion protein in E. coli, and purified against glutathione sepharose beads. Bacterially purified recombinant PPM1H possesses phosphatase activity toward artificial substrate para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Recombinant PPM1H also dephosphorylates immuno-purified phosphorylated Smad1 in test tubes. These direct in vitro phosphatase assays provide convincing evidence demonstrating the role of PPM1H as a specific phosphatase for P-Smad1.

  10. Recent Data Analysis of Carbon ACtivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hui Ming; Smith, Elizabeth; Padalino, Stephen; Baumgart, Leigh; Suny Geneseooltz, Katie; Colburn, Robyn; Fuschino, Julia

    2002-10-01

    A method for measuring tertiary neutrons produced in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactions has been developed using carbon activation. Ultra pure samples of carbon, free from positron-emitting contaminants must be used in the detection. Our primary goal has been to reduce the contamination level by refining purification and packaging procedures. This process involves baking the disks in a vacuum oven to 1000¢XC @ 200 microns for a prescribed bake time without exposing the disks to nitrogen in the air which is a major contaminant. Recent experiments were conducted to determine the optimal bake time for purification. Disks were baked for varying times, from one hour to five hours, and then exposed to high-neutron-yield ( 5 x 1013) shots on OMEGA. Data collected was normalized to the same time interval and the same primary neutron yield, and no significant difference in the number of background counts was seen. Experimental results also indicated that disks that were exposed to air for short time intervals showed a significant increase in the number of contamination counts. This further supports our findings that the gaseous diffusion through graphite disks is very high. Experimental results of these findings will be presented. Research funded in part by the United States Department of Energy.

  11. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v).

  12. Stellar Activity from Analysis of Planetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valio, A.

    2013-04-01

    About a third of the extra solar planets discovered so far transit their host star. During the eclipse of the star by its orbiting planet, spots on the surface of the star may be occulted, causing small variation in the transit lightcurve. These variations can be modelled using a method developed by Silva (2003) that yields the starspots physical properties such as size, position, temperature (or intensity), and lifetime. Just like Galileo did four centuries ago for the Sun, from the spot analysis it is also possible to calculate the stellar rotation period and whether it presents or not differential rotation. The mean rotation period of the star is obtained from the out-of-transit light curve modulation, whereas the value of the rotation period at the latitude of the transit is determined from the successive transits of the same spot. Adopting a solar-like rotation profile as a function of latitude, the differential rotation for several CoRoT planet hosting stars is estimated.

  13. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  14. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  15. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  16. Understanding Tensions: Activity Systems Analysis of Cross-Continental Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, LanHui Zhang; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Using the lens of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, activity theory, and Engeström's activity systems analysis, this qualitative study explores students' experiences in the context of a sixteen-week transpacific collaboration between seven students at Northern Illinois University (NIU) and seven students from Shandong Normal University (SDNU),…

  17. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  18. PIXE and neutron activation methods in human hair material analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bǎdicǎ, T.; Ciortea, C.; Cojocaru, V.; Ivaşcu, M.; Petrovici, A.; Popa, A.; Popescu, I.; Sǎlǎgean, M.; Spiridon, S.

    1984-04-01

    In order to compare some of the nuclear methods in human hair material analysis, proton induced X-ray excitation and variant techniques of neutron activation analysis have been used. The elemental concentrations are compared with the IAEA-Vienna certified values. The efficiency and reliability of the methods used are briefly discussed.

  19. Neutron activation analysis for antimetabolites. [in food samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Determination of metal ion contaminants in food samples is studied. A weighed quantity of each sample was digested in a concentrated mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and perchloric acids to affect complete solution of the food products. The samples were diluted with water and the pH adjusted according to the specific analysis performed. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis, polarography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The solid food samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analysis for increased sensitivity and lower levels of detectability. The results are presented in tabular form.

  20. A statistical analysis of eruptive activity on Mount Etna, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, Lucy; James, Mike R.; Pinkerton, Harry; Tawn, Jonathan A.

    2009-10-01

    A rigorous analysis of the timing and location of flank eruptions of Mount Etna on Sicily is important for the creation of hazard maps of the densely populated area surrounding the volcano. In this paper, we analyse the temporal, volumetric and spatial data on eruptive activity on Etna. Our analyses are based on the two most recent and robust historical data catalogues of flank eruption activity on Etna, with one from 1669 to 2008 and the other from 1610 to 2008. We use standard statistical methodology and modelling techniques, though a number of features are new to the analysis of eruption data. Our temporal analysis reveals that flank eruptions on Mount Etna between 1610 and 2008 follow an inhomogeneous Poisson process, with intensity of eruptions increasing nearly linearly since the mid-1900s. Our temporal analysis reveals no evidence of cyclicity over this period. An analysis of volumetric lava flow rates shows a marked increase in activity since 1971. This increase, which coincides with the formation of the Southeast Crater (SEC), appears to be related to increased activity on and around the SEC. This has significant implications for hazard analysis on Etna.

  1. A grid for a precise analysis of daily activities.

    PubMed

    Wojtasik, V; Olivier, C; Lekeu, F; Quittre, A; Adam, S; Salmon, E

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of daily living activities is essential in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Most current tools quantitatively assess overall ability but provide little qualitative information on individual difficulties. Only a few tools allow therapists to evaluate stereotyped activities and record different types of errors. We capitalised on the Kitchen Activity Assessment to design a widely applicable analysis grid that provides both qualitative and quantitative data on activity performance. A cooking activity was videotaped in 15 patients with dementia and assessed according to the different steps in the execution of the task. The evaluations obtained with our grid showed good correlations between raters, between versions of the grid and between sessions. Moreover, the degree of independence obtained with our analysis of the task correlated with the Kitchen Activity Assessment score and with a global score of cognitive functioning. We conclude that assessment of a daily living activity with this analysis grid is reproducible and relatively independent of the therapist, and thus provides quantitative and qualitative information useful for both evaluating and caring for demented patients.

  2. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  3. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  4. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  5. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  6. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  7. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; ...

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimizationmore » problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.« less

  8. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-02-13

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.

  9. High throughput, quantitative analysis of human osteoclast differentiation and activity.

    PubMed

    Diepenhorst, Natalie A; Nowell, Cameron J; Rueda, Patricia; Henriksen, Kim; Pierce, Tracie; Cook, Anna E; Pastoureau, Philippe; Sabatini, Massimo; Charman, William N; Christopoulos, Arthur; Summers, Roger J; Sexton, Patrick M; Langmead, Christopher J

    2017-02-15

    Osteoclasts are multinuclear cells that degrade bone under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Osteoclasts are therefore a major target of osteoporosis therapeutics aimed at preserving bone. Consequently, analytical methods for osteoclast activity are useful for the development of novel biomarkers and/or pharmacological agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. The nucleation state of an osteoclast is indicative of its maturation and activity. To date, activity is routinely measured at the population level with only approximate consideration of the nucleation state (an 'osteoclast population' is typically defined as cells with ≥3 nuclei). Using a fluorescent substrate for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a routinely used marker of osteoclast activity, we developed a multi-labelled imaging method for quantitative measurement of osteoclast TRAP activity at the single cell level. Automated image analysis enables interrogation of large osteoclast populations in a high throughput manner using open source software. Using this methodology, we investigated the effects of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANK-L) on osteoclast maturation and activity and demonstrated that TRAP activity directly correlates with osteoclast maturity (i.e. nuclei number). This method can be applied to high throughput screening of osteoclast-targeting compounds to determine changes in maturation and activity.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  11. Making Sense of Total VET Activity: An Initial Market Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    Following the successful first national publication of total vocational education and training (VET) activity and presentation of various informative data products, NCVER has continued to undertake further analysis of the submitted data. This paper is the first in a suite of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) authored…

  12. The Analysis and Reconciliation of Students' Rebuttals in Argumentation Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ren; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the guidance provided by science teachers to resolve conflicts during socioscientific issue-based argumentation activities. A graphical representation (GR) was developed as a tool to code and analyze the dialogue interaction process. Through the GR and qualitative analysis, we identified three types of dialogue…

  13. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  14. Extended risk-analysis model for activities of the project.

    PubMed

    Kušar, Janez; Rihar, Lidija; Zargi, Urban; Starbek, Marko

    2013-12-01

    Project management of product/service orders has become a mode of operation in many companies. Although these are mostly cyclically recurring projects, risk management is very important for them. An extended risk-analysis model for new product/service projects is presented in this paper. Emphasis is on a solution developed in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The usual project activities risk analysis is based on evaluation of the probability that risk events occur and on evaluation of their consequences. A third parameter has been added in our model: an estimate of the incidence of risk events. On the basis of the calculated activity risk level, a project team prepares preventive and corrective measures that should be taken according to the status indicators. An important advantage of the proposed solution is that the project manager and his team members are timely warned of risk events and they can thus activate the envisaged preventive and corrective measures as necessary.

  15. Measurements and analysis of active/passive multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönwall, Christina; Hamoir, Dominique; Steinvall, Ove; Larsson, Hâkan; Amselem, Elias; Lutzmann, Peter; Repasi, Endre; Göhler, Benjamin; Barbé, Stéphane; Vaudelin, Olivier; Fracès, Michel; Tanguy, Bernard; Thouin, Emmanuelle

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a data collection on passive and active imaging and the preliminary analysis. It is part of an ongoing work on active and passive imaging for target identification using different wavelength bands. We focus on data collection at NIR-SWIR wavelengths but we also include the visible and the thermal region. Active imaging in NIRSWIR will support the passive imaging by eliminating shadows during day-time and allow night operation. Among the applications that are most likely for active multispectral imaging, we focus on long range human target identification. We also study the combination of active and passive sensing. The target scenarios of interest include persons carrying different objects and their associated activities. We investigated laser imaging for target detection and classification up to 1 km assuming that another cueing sensor - passive EO and/or radar - is available for target acquisition and detection. Broadband or multispectral operation will reduce the effects of target speckle and atmospheric turbulence. Longer wavelengths will improve performance in low visibility conditions due to haze, clouds and fog. We are currently performing indoor and outdoor tests to further investigate the target/background phenomena that are emphasized in these wavelengths. We also investigate how these effects can be used for target identification and image fusion. Performed field tests and the results of preliminary data analysis are reported.

  16. Analysis and control of unified active power filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, Subramanian

    1999-11-01

    The combined series and shunt active filters have been proposed to alleviate the power quality problems at the demand-side power systems. However, the conventional approach for the control of the combined active filter systems have resulted in large operating capacity of the shunt active filter because reactive power compensation involves only the shunt active filter. Furthermore, the harmonic mitigation problems are handled mainly by indirect harmonic compensation schemes rather than direct harmonic isolation schemes. This thesis presents the analysis and control of Unified Active Power Filter (UAPF) and proposes a novel concept of load reactive power compensation involving both the series active filter and the shunt active filter. The thesis also applies discrete-time sliding-mode control technique to enhance the performance of the combined active filter system in terms of fast dynamic response and effective solution to harmonic mitigation problems. The thesis also presents simulation and experimental results to provide verification of the proposed UAPF concept. The involvement of series active filter for reactive power compensation is achieved by controlling the phase difference between the load voltage and the utility voltage. The complete steady-state operating characteristics of UAPF are analyzed with the identification of the different operating modes of UAPF and the analysis of active and reactive power handled by the active filter components. The performance of UAPF to meet the stringent power quality standards are realized by applying discrete-time sliding-mode control schemes for the load voltage regulation and the active power factor correction. The control algorithms are developed to track a given load voltage and line current reference signals respectively. The effect of computational delay in DSP implementation is studied extensively and the control law is designed with the consideration for the computational delay. The systematic approach for the

  17. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, W D; Epling, W F; Dews, P B; Estes, W K; Morse, W H; Van Orman, W; Herrnstein, R J

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance.

  18. Analysis of volcanic activity patterns using MODIS thermal alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, Dave A.; Coppola, Diego; Saunders, Charlotte

    2005-07-01

    We investigate eruptive activity by analysis of thermal-alert data from the MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) thermal infrared satellite instrument, detected by the MODVOLC (MODIS Volcano alert) algorithm. These data are openly available on the Internet, and easy to use. We show how such data can plug major gaps in the conventional monitoring record of volcanoes in an otherwise generally poorly documented region (Melanesia), including: characterising the mechanism of lava effusion at Pago; demonstrating an earlier-than-realised onset of lava effusion at Lopevi; extending the known period of lava lake activity at Ambrym; and confirming ongoing activity at Bagana, Langila and Tinakula. We also add to the record of activity even at some generally better-monitored volcanoes in Indonesia, but point out that care must be taken to recognise and exclude fires.

  19. Investigating Coincidence Techniques in Biomedical Applications of Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, P.; Gramer, R.; Tandel, S. K.; Reinhardt, C. J.

    2004-05-01

    While neutron activation analysis has been widely used in biomedical applications for some time, the use of non-radioactive tracer techniques, to monitor, for example, organ blood flow, is more recent. In these studies, pre-clinical animal models are injected with micro-spheres labeled with stable isotopes of elements that have a high neutron absorption cross-section. Subsequently, samples of blood and/or tissue from different locations in the body are subjected to neutron activation analysis to measure the propagation of the labeled micro-spheres through the body. Following irradiation, the counting (with high-resolution Ge detectors) is typically delayed by a few days to dissipate short-lived activity in the samples and improve signal-to-noise for the peaks of interest in the activation spectrum. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether coincidence techniques (for isotopes which decay via two-photon cascades) could improve signal-to-noise and turn-around times. The samples were irradiated at the 1 MW research reactor at the UMass Lowell Radiation Laboratory. The analysis of the multi-parameter coincidence data recorded in event-mode will be presented and compared with the standard method of recording singles spectra.

  20. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  1. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of optogenetic modulation of neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Gu, L.; Ghosh, N.; Mohanty, S. K.

    2013-02-01

    Here, we introduce a computational procedure to examine whether optogenetically activated neuronal firing recordings could be characterized as multifractal series. Optogenetics is emerging as a valuable experimental tool and a promising approach for studying a variety of neurological disorders in animal models. The spiking patterns from cortical region of the brain of optogenetically-stimulated transgenic mice were analyzed using a sophisticated fluctuation analysis method known as multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). We observed that the optogenetically-stimulated neural firings are consistent with a multifractal process. Further, we used MFDFA to monitor the effect of chemically induced pain (formalin injection) and optogenetic treatment used to relieve the pain. In this case, dramatic changes in parameters characterizing a multifractal series were observed. Both the generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum effectively differentiates the neural activities during control and pain induction phases. The quantitative nature of the analysis equips us with better measures to quantify pain. Further, it provided a measure for effectiveness of the optogenetic stimulation in inhibiting pain. MFDFA-analysis of spiking data from other deep regions of the brain also turned out to be multifractal in nature, with subtle differences in the parameters during pain-induction by formalin injection and inhibition by optogenetic stimulation. Characterization of neuronal firing patterns using MFDFA will lead to better understanding of neuronal response to optogenetic activation and overall circuitry involved in the process.

  2. Development and coupling analysis of active skin antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jinzhu; Huang, Jin; He, Qingqang; Tang, Baofu; Song, Liwei

    2017-02-01

    An active skin antenna is a multifunctional composite structure that can provide load-bearing structure and steerable beam pointing functions, and is usually installed in the structural surface of aircraft, warships, and armored vehicles. This paper presents an innovative design of the active skin antenna, which consists of a package layer, control and signal processing layer, and RF (radio frequency) layer. The RF layer is fabricated by low temperature co-fired ceramics, with 64 microstrip antenna elements, tile transmitting and receiving modules, microchannel heat sinks, and feeding networks integrated into a functional block 2.8 mm thick. In this paper, a full-sized prototype of an active skin antenna was designed, fabricated, and tested. Moreover, a coupling analysis method was presented to evaluate the mechanical and electromagnetic performance of the active skin antenna subjected to aerodynamic loads. A deformed experimental system was built to validate the effectiveness of the coupling analysis method, which was also implemented to evaluate the performance of the active skin antenna when subjected to aerodynamic pressure. The fabricated specimen demonstrated structural configuration feasibility, and superior environmental load resistance.

  3. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  4. Analysis of Usnea fasciata crude extracts with antineoplastic activity.

    PubMed

    Periera, E C; Nascimento, S C; Lima, R C; Silva, N H; Oliveira, A F; Bandeira, E; Boitard, M; Beriel, H; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    1994-09-01

    Different fractions, isolated from the lichen Usnea fasciata, were analyzed by PC, TLC, and RP-HPLC. Analysis of the organic phases, mainly containing phenolics, revealed that usnic acid is the main product from secondary metabolites, whereas the polysaccharides isolichenin and raffinose are the most abundant water-soluble carbohydrates. Fractions containing usnic acid, as well as those containing isolichenin, showed moderate activity against sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich tumor cells. High antitumoral activity, near 90% inhibition, was found associated with the fraction containing raffinose.

  5. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for the Analysis of Activated Carbon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    impregnation procedures . It is believed that Sutcliffe-Speakman is currently using coconut - shell as the carbon precursor (instead of the New Zealand coal...microstructure facilitate the adsorption process whereby all the undesirable materials are retained. For military deployment, the activated carbon is...AD-A245 899 H.P ’ l N dI dUenm / DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY (DSC) FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ACTIVATED CARBON (U) by S.H.C. a and L.E. Cameron DTIC x

  6. Multi-scale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    DOE PAGES

    Gamborino, Diana; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Martinell, Julio J.

    2016-07-08

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps that are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions, we show that the multi-scale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also to be extracted from the analysis.

  7. Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.; Vanderark, Stephen T.

    1993-01-01

    The Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing (E/L) Activities documents all tasks required to land the Orbiter following an STS mission. In addition to analysis of tasks performed, task conditions are described, including estimated time for completion, altitude, relative velocity, normal and lateral acceleration, location of controls operated or monitored, and level of g's experienced. This analysis precedes further investigations into potential effects of zero g on piloting capabilities for landing the Orbiter following long-duration missions. This includes, but is not limited to, researching the effects of extended duration missions on piloting capabilities. Four primary constraints of the analysis must be clarified: (1) the analysis depicts E/L in a static manner--the actual process is dynamic; (2) the task analysis was limited to a paper analysis, since it was not feasible to conduct research in the actual setting (i.e., observing or filming duration an actual E/L); (3) the tasks included are those required for E/L during nominal, daylight conditions; and (4) certain E/L tasks will vary according to the flying style of each commander.

  8. Digital methods of photopeak integration in activation analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baedecker, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    A study of the precision attainable by several methods of gamma-ray photopeak integration has been carried out. The 'total peak area' method, the methods proposed by Covell, Sterlinski, and Quittner, and some modifications of these methods have been considered. A modification by Wasson of the total peak area method is considered to be the most advantageous due to its simplicity and the relatively high precision obtainable with this technique. A computer routine for the analysis of spectral data from nondestructive activation analysis experiments employing a Ge(Li) detector-spectrometer system is described.

  9. Antimalarial activity of molecules interfering with Plasmodium falciparum phospholipid metabolism. Structure-activity relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Calas, M; Cordina, G; Bompart, J; Ben Bari, M; Jei, T; Ancelin, M L; Vial, H

    1997-10-24

    A series of 80 compounds, primary, secondary, and tertiary amines and quaternary ammonium and bisammonium salts, most of them synthesized as potential choline or ethanolamine analogs, were tested against the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum, the human malaria parasite. They were active over the 10(-3)-10(-8) M concentration range. A structure-activity relationship study was carried out using autocorrelation vectors as structural descriptors, and multidimensional analysis. Principal component analysis, ascending hierarchical classification, and stepwise discriminant analysis showed that both the size and shape of the molecule were essential for antimalarial potency, making the lipophilicity and electronegativity distribution in the molecular space essential. Using the autocorrelogram describing the molecular shape and the electronegativity distribution on the molecular graph, 98% of the molecules were correctly classified either as poorly active or active with only three explanatory variables. The most active compounds were quaternary ammoniums salts whose nitrogen atom had only one long lipophilic chain of 11 or 12 methylene groups (E5, E6, E10, E13, E20, E21, E22, E23, F4, F8), or the bisammoniums whose polar heads were linked by linear alkyl chains of 10 to 12 carbon atoms (G4, G23). The hydroxyethyl group of choline was not very beneficial, whereas the charge and substitutions of nitrogen (aimed at increasing lipophilicity) were essential for optimal interactions. A crude topographic model of the ligand (choline) binding site was thus drawn up.

  10. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  11. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of volcanic samples: Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Zoller, W.H.; Finnegan, D.L.; Crowe, B.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of volcanic emissions have been collected between and during eruptions of both Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes during the last three years. Airborne particles have been collected on Teflon filters and acidic gases on base-impregnated cellulose filters. Chemically neutral gas-phase species are collected on charcoal-coated cellulose filters. The primary analytical technique used is nondestructive neutron activation analysis, which has been used to determine the quantities of up to 35 elements on the different filters. The use of neutron activation analysis makes it possible to analyze for a wide range of elements in the different matrices used for the collection and to learn about the distribution between particles and gas phases for each of the elements.

  12. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  13. Obsidian sources characterized by neutron-activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Gordus, A A; Wright, G A; Griffin, J B

    1968-07-26

    Concentrations of elements such as manganese, scandium, lanthanum, rubidium, samarium, barium, and zirconium in obsidian samples from different flows show ranges of 1000 percent or more, whereas the variation in element content in obsidian samples from a single flow appears to be less than 40 percent. Neutron-activation analysis of these elements, as well as of sodium and iron, provides a means of identifying the geologic source of an archeological artifact of obsidian.

  14. Antitumor activity of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jukić, Marijana; Rastija, Vesna; Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Bajić, Miroslav; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nine newly synthesized amidine derivatives of 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene (3,4-EDOT) for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and to perform a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for the antitumor activity of a total of 27 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives. Induction of apoptosis was investigated on the selected compounds, along with delivery options for the optimization of activity. The best obtained QSAR models include the following group of descriptors: BCUT, WHIM, 2D autocorrelations, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY descriptors, 2D frequency fingerprint and information indices. Obtained QSAR models should be relieved in elucidation of important physicochemical and structural requirements for this biological activity. Highly potent molecules have a symmetrical arrangement of substituents along the x axis, high frequency of distance between N and O atoms at topological distance 9, as well as between C and N atoms at topological distance 10, and more C atoms located at topological distances 6 and 3. Based on the conclusion given in the QSAR analysis, a new compound with possible great activity was proposed.

  15. Genetic analysis of lipolytic activities in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Li, Haijuan; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 displays lipolytic activity for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study we performed a mutational in vivo analysis of esterases and lipases that confer growth on tributyrin. We interrupted 10 ORFs suspected to encode lipolytic enzymes. Two chromosomal loci were identified that resulted in reduced hydrolysis capabilities against tributyrin and various para-nitrophenyl acyl esters. By implementation of a convenient new one-step method which abstains from the use of selectable markers, a mutant strain with multiple scar-less deletions was constructed by sequentially deleting ORFs TT_C1787, TT_C0340, TT_C0341 and TT_C0904. The quadruple deletion mutant of T. thermophilus exhibited significantly lower lipolytic activity (approximately 25% residual activity compared to wild type strain) over a broad range of fatty acyl esters and had lost the ability to grow on agar plates containing tributyrin as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we were able to determine the impact of each gene disruption on the lipolytic activity profile in this model organism and show that the esterase activity in T. thermophilus HB27 is due to a concerted action of several hydrolases having different substrate preferences and activities. The esterase-less T. thermophilus multi-deletion mutant from this study can be used as a screening and expression host for esterase genes from thermophiles or metagenomes.

  16. The solar activity by wavelet-based multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Fumio

    2016-12-01

    The interest in the relation between the solar activity and climate change is increasing. As for the solar activity, a fractal property of the sunspot series was studied by many works. In general, a fractal property was observed in the time series of dynamics of complex systems. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the sunspot number, solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7 cm) and total ozone from a view of multifractality. To detect the changes of multifractality, we examined the multifractal analysis on the time series of the solar activity and total ozone indices. The changes of fractality of the sunspot number and F10.7 cm are very similar. When the sunspot number becomes maximum, the fractality of the F10.7 cm changes from multifractality to monofractality. The changes of fractality of the F10.7 cm and the total ozone are very similar. When the sunspot number becomes maximum, the fractality of the total ozone changes from multifractality to monofractality. A change of fractality of the F10.7 cm and total ozone was observed when the solar activity became maximum. The influence of the solar activity on the total ozone was shown by the wavelet coherence, phase and the similarity of the change of fractality. These findings will contribute to the research of the relationship between the solar activity and climate.

  17. Transition path theory analysis of c-Src kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yilin; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.; Roux, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family are large multidomain allosteric proteins that are crucial to cellular signaling pathways. In a previous study, we generated a Markov state model (MSM) to simulate the activation of c-Src catalytic domain, used as a prototypical tyrosine kinase. The long-time kinetics of transition predicted by the MSM was in agreement with experimental observations. In the present study, we apply the framework of transition path theory (TPT) to the previously constructed MSM to characterize the main features of the activation pathway. The analysis indicates that the activating transition, in which the activation loop first opens up followed by an inward rotation of the αC-helix, takes place via a dense set of intermediate microstates distributed within a fairly broad “transition tube” in a multidimensional conformational subspace connecting the two end-point conformations. Multiple microstates with negligible equilibrium probabilities carry a large transition flux associated with the activating transition, which explains why extensive conformational sampling is necessary to accurately determine the kinetics of activation. Our results suggest that the combination of MSM with TPT provides an effective framework to represent conformational transitions in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:27482115

  18. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout. PMID:25237348

  19. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.

  20. Joint amplitude and frequency analysis of tremor activity.

    PubMed

    Foerster, F; Smeja, M

    1999-01-01

    Clinical tremor analysis mostly is used for the measurement of tremor frequency. The analysis is based on short segments of EMG recordings and on clinical ratings of tremor intensity. Accelerometry appears to have some practical advantages. The present study was concerned with the development of a methodology for assessing tremor activity using the three parameters, frequency (Hz), amplitude (g), and occurrence of tremor (in per cent of time). These parameters were derived from joint amplitude frequency analysis of the calibrated accelerometer raw signal and from appropriate decision rules. This methodology was used in connection with 27 patients with Parkinson's disease, to investigate the aforesaid parameters of tremor activity. Postural tremor had a higher occurrence time (right-hand only) and higher frequency (left-hand only) than resting tremor, however, the average amplitudes did not differ. The correlations between right-hand and left-hand measures were higher during postural tremor test. Frequency was not correlated to amplitude or occurrence time, however, moderate correlations did exist between amplitude and occurrence time. In addition to the assessment of tremor activity, multi-channel accelerometry may be used for the detection of posture and motion. Further applications of this methodology, for example, in 24 hr ambulatory monitoring of tremor, are discussed.

  1. Corticomuscular coherence analysis on hand movement distinction for active rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xinxin; Xiao, Siyuan; Qi, Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yiwen; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Active rehabilitation involves patient's voluntary thoughts as the control signals of restore device to assist stroke rehabilitation. Although restoration of hand opening stands importantly in patient's daily life, it is difficult to distinguish the voluntary finger extension from thumb adduction and finger flexion using stroke patients' electroencephalography (EMG) on single muscle activity. We propose to implement corticomuscular coherence analysis on electroencephalography (EEG) and EMG signals on Extensor Digitorum to extract their intention involved in hand opening. EEG and EMG signals of 8 subjects are simultaneously collected when executing 4 hand movement tasks (finger extension, thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest). We explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the coherence and observe statistically significant corticomuscular coherence appearing at left motor cortical area and different patterns within beta frequency range for 4 movement tasks. Linear discriminate analysis is applied on the coherence pattern to distinguish finger extension from thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. The classification results are greater than those by EEG only. The results indicate the possibility to detect voluntary hand opening based on coherence analysis between single muscle EMG signal and single EEG channel located in motor cortical area, which potentially helps active hand rehabilitation for stroke patients.

  2. Brain electrical activity analysis using wavelet-based informational tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, O. A.; Martin, M. T.; Plastino, A.

    2002-10-01

    The traditional way of analyzing brain electrical activity, on the basis of Electroencephalography (EEG) records, relies mainly on visual inspection and years of training. Although it is quite useful, of course, one has to acknowledge its subjective nature that hardly allows for a systematic protocol. In order to overcome this undesirable feature, a quantitative EEG analysis has been developed over the years that introduces objective measures, reflecting not only the characteristics of the brain activity itself but also giving clues concerning the underlying associated neural dynamics. The processing of information by the brain is reflected in dynamical changes of the electrical activity in (i) time, (ii) frequency, and (iii) space. Therefore, the concomitant studies require methods capable of describing the qualitative variation of the signal in both time and frequency. In the present work we introduce new information tools based on the wavelet transform for the assessment of EEG data as adapted to a non-extensive scenario.

  3. Multidisciplinary analysis of actively controlled large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    The control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program has supported the development of an analysis capability at the Langley Research Center called the Integrated Multidisciplinary Analysis Tool (IMAT) which provides an efficient data storage and transfer capability among commercial computer codes to aid in the dynamic analysis of actively controlled structures. IMAT is a system of computer programs which transfers Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) configurations, structural finite element models, material property and stress information, structural and rigid-body dynamic model information, and linear system matrices for control law formulation among various commercial applications programs through a common database. Although general in its formulation, IMAT was developed specifically to aid in the evaluation of the structures. A description of the IMAT system and results of an application of the system are given.

  4. Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, V; Gregson, W; Atkinson, G; Tordoff, P; Drust, B

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to provide a detailed analysis of the high intensity running activity completed by elite soccer players during match-play. A further aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of high intensity running activity to overall team success. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on 563 outfield players (median of 8 games per player; range=1-57) competing in the English Premier League from 2003/2004 to 2005/2006 using a computerised tracking system (Prozone, Leeds, England). High intensity activities selected for analysis included total high intensity running distance (THIR), total sprint distance (TSD) and the number and type of sprints undertaken. Total high intensity running distance in possession and without possession of the ball was also analysed. The THIR was dependant upon playing position with wide midfield (1,049+/-106 m) and central defenders (681+/-128 m) completing the highest and lowest distance respectively (p<0.001). High intensity activity was also related to team success with teams finishing in the bottom five (919+/-128 m) and middle ten (917+/-143 m) league positions completing significantly more THIR compared with teams in the top five (885+/-113 m) (p=0.003). The THIR and TSD also significantly declined during the 2nd half with the greatest decrements observed in wide midfield and attacking players (p<0.05). Both positional differences in high intensity activity and the observed change in activity throughout the game were also influenced by team success (p<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that high intensity activity in elite soccer match-play is influenced by both playing position and previous activity in the game. These activity patterns are also dependant upon success of the team. This may indicate that overall technical and tactical effectiveness of the team rather than high levels of physical performance per se are more important in determining success

  5. Neutron activation analysis for the demonstration of amphibolite rock-weathering activity of a yeast.

    PubMed

    Rades-Rohkohl, E; Hirsch, P; Fränzle, O

    1979-12-01

    Neutron activation analysis was employed in a survey of weathering abilities of rock surface microorganisms. A yeast isolated from an amphibolite of a megalithic grave was found actively to concentrate, in media and in or on cells, iron and other elements when grown in the presence of ground rock. This was demonstrated by comparing a spectrum of neutron-activated amphibolite powder (particle size, 50 to 100 mum) with the spectra of neutron-activated, lyophilized yeast cells which had grown with or without amphibolite powder added to different media. The most active yeast (IFAM 1171) did not only solubilize Fe from the rock powder, but significant amounts of Co, Eu, Yb, Ca, Ba, Sc, Lu, Cr, Th, and U were also mobilized. The latter two elements occurred as natural radioactive isotopes in this amphibolite. When the yeast cells were grown with neutron-activated amphibolite, the cells contained the same elements. Furthermore, the growth medium contained Fe, Co, and Eu which had been solubilized from the amphibolite. This indicates the presence, in this yeast strain, of active rockweathering abilities as well as of uptake mechanisms for solubilized rock components.

  6. Neutron Activation Analysis for the Demonstration of Amphibolite Rock-Weathering Activity of a Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rades-Rohkohl, E.; Hirsch, P.; Fränzle, O.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was employed in a survey of weathering abilities of rock surface microorganisms. A yeast isolated from an amphibolite of a megalithic grave was found actively to concentrate, in media and in or on cells, iron and other elements when grown in the presence of ground rock. This was demonstrated by comparing a spectrum of neutron-activated amphibolite powder (particle size, 50 to 100 μm) with the spectra of neutron-activated, lyophilized yeast cells which had grown with or without amphibolite powder added to different media. The most active yeast (IFAM 1171) did not only solubilize Fe from the rock powder, but significant amounts of Co, Eu, Yb, Ca, Ba, Sc, Lu, Cr, Th, and U were also mobilized. The latter two elements occurred as natural radioactive isotopes in this amphibolite. When the yeast cells were grown with neutron-activated amphibolite, the cells contained the same elements. Furthermore, the growth medium contained Fe, Co, and Eu which had been solubilized from the amphibolite. This indicates the presence, in this yeast strain, of active rockweathering abilities as well as of uptake mechanisms for solubilized rock components. PMID:16345472

  7. Eye movement analysis for activity recognition using electrooculography.

    PubMed

    Bulling, Andreas; Ward, Jamie A; Gellersen, Hans; Tröster, Gerhard

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. Eye movement data were recorded using an electrooculography (EOG) system. We first describe and evaluate algorithms for detecting three eye movement characteristics from EOG signals-saccades, fixations, and blinks-and propose a method for assessing repetitive patterns of eye movements. We then devise 90 different features based on these characteristics and select a subset of them using minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) feature selection. We validate the method using an eight participant study in an office environment using an example set of five activity classes: copying a text, reading a printed paper, taking handwritten notes, watching a video, and browsing the Web. We also include periods with no specific activity (the NULL class). Using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and person-independent (leave-one-person-out) training, we obtain an average precision of 76.1 percent and recall of 70.5 percent over all classes and participants. The work demonstrates the promise of eye-based activity recognition (EAR) and opens up discussion on the wider applicability of EAR to other activities that are difficult, or even impossible, to detect using common sensing modalities.

  8. Biological spectra analysis: Linking biological activity profiles to molecular structure

    PubMed Central

    Fliri, Anton F.; Loging, William T.; Thadeio, Peter F.; Volkmann, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Establishing quantitative relationships between molecular structure and broad biological effects has been a longstanding challenge in science. Currently, no method exists for forecasting broad biological activity profiles of medicinal agents even within narrow boundaries of structurally similar molecules. Starting from the premise that biological activity results from the capacity of small organic molecules to modulate the activity of the proteome, we set out to investigate whether descriptor sets could be developed for measuring and quantifying this molecular property. Using a 1,567-compound database, we show that percent inhibition values, determined at single high drug concentration in a battery of in vitro assays representing a cross section of the proteome, provide precise molecular property descriptors that identify the structure of molecules. When broad biological activity of molecules is represented in spectra form, organic molecules can be sorted by quantifying differences between biological spectra. Unlike traditional structure–activity relationship methods, sorting of molecules by using biospectra comparisons does not require knowledge of a molecule's putative drug targets. To illustrate this finding, we selected as starting point the biological activity spectra of clotrimazole and tioconazole because their putative target, lanosterol demethylase (CYP51), was not included in the bioassay array. Spectra similarity obtained through profile similarity measurements and hierarchical clustering provided an unbiased means for establishing quantitative relationships between chemical structures and biological activity spectra. This methodology, which we have termed biological spectra analysis, provides the capability not only of sorting molecules on the basis of biospectra similarity but also of predicting simultaneous interactions of new molecules with multiple proteins. PMID:15625110

  9. Mineral exploration and soil analysis using in situ neutron activation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Hoyte, A.F.

    1966-01-01

    A feasibility study has been made to operate by remote control an unshielded portable positive-ion accelerator type neutron source to induce activities in the ground or rock by "in situ" neutron irradiation. Selective activation techniques make it possible to detect some thirty or more elements by irradiating the ground for periods of a few minutes with either 3-MeV or 14-MeV neutrons. The depth of penetration of neutrons, the effect of water content of the soil on neutron moderation, gamma ray attenuation in the soil and other problems are considered. The analysis shows that, when exploring for most elements of economic interest, the reaction 2H(d,n)3He yielding ??? 3-MeV neutrons is most practical to produce a relatively uniform flux of neutrons of less than 1 keV to a depth of 19???-20???. Irradiation with high energy neutrons (??? 14 MeV) can also be used and may be better suited for certain problems. However, due to higher background and lower sensitivity for the heavy minerals, it is not a recommended neutron source for general exploration use. Preliminary experiments have been made which indicate that neutron activation in situ is feasible for a mineral exploration or qualititative soil analysis. ?? 1976.

  10. Is adaptation or transformation needed? Active nanomaterials and risk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Roberts, John Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology has been a key area of funding and policy for the United States and globally for the past two decades. Since nanotechnology research and development became a focus and nanoproducts began to permeate the market, scholars and scientists have been concerned about how to assess the risks that they may pose to human health and the environment. The newest generation of nanomaterials includes biomolecules that can respond to and influence their environments, and there is a need to explore whether and how existing risk-analysis frameworks are challenged by such novelty. To fill this niche, we used a modified approach of upstream oversight assessment (UOA), a subset of anticipatory governance. We first selected case studies of "active nanomaterials," that are early in research and development and designed for use in multiple sectors, and then considered them under several, key risk-analysis frameworks. We found two ways in which the cases challenge the frameworks. The first category relates to how to assess risk under a narrow framing of the term (direct health and environmental harm), and the second involves the definition of what constitutes a "risk" worthy of assessment and consideration in decision making. In light of these challenges, we propose some changes for risk analysis in the face of active nanostructures in order to improve risk governance.

  11. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of sectioned hair strands for arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a valuable and proven method for the quantitative analysis of sectioned human head hair specimens for arsenic - and, if arsenic is found to be present at high concentrations, the approximate times when it was ingested. Reactor-flux thermal-neutron activation of the hair samples produces 26.3-h {sup 76}As, which is then detected by germanium gamma-ray spectrometry, measuring the 559.1-keV gamma-ray peak of {sup 76}As. Even normal levels of arsenic in hair, in the range of <1 ppm up to a few parts per million of arsenic can be measured - and the far higher levels associated with large internal doses of arsenic, levels approaching or exceeding 100 ppm arsenic, are readily and accurately measurable. However, all phases of forensic investigations of possible chronic (or in some cases, acute) arsenic poisoning are important, i.e., not just the analysis phase. All of these phases are discussed in this paper, based on the author`s experience and the experience of others, in criminal cases. Cases of chronic arsenic poisoning often reveal a series of two to four doses, perhaps a few months apart, with increasing doses.

  12. Design and analysis of thrust active magnetic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seok-Myeong; Lee, Un-Ho; Choi, Jang-Young; Hong, Jung-Pyo

    2008-04-01

    This paper deals with the design and analysis of thrust active magnetic bearing (AMB). Using the analytical solutions for thrust, resistance, and inductance obtained from equivalent magnetic circuits method, we determine initial design parameters such as the size of magnetic circuit, coil diameter, and the number of turns by investigating the variation of thrust according to design parameters. Then, using nonlinear finite element analysis, a detailed design considering saturation is performed in order to meet required thrust under restricted conditions. Finally, by confirming that the design result is shown in good agreement with experimental results, the validity of design procedures for thrust AMB used in this paper is proved. In particular, the dynamic test results of the thrust AMB are also given to confirm the validity of the design.

  13. Physiogenomic analysis of localized FMRI brain activity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Windemuth, Andreas; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Kocherla, Mohan; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2008-06-01

    The search for genetic factors associated with disease is complicated by the complexity of the biological pathways linking genotype and phenotype. This analytical complexity is particularly concerning in diseases historically lacking reliable diagnostic biological markers, such as schizophrenia and other mental disorders. We investigate the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as an intermediate phenotype (endophenotype) to identify physiogenomic associations to schizophrenia. We screened 99 subjects, 30 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, 13 unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 56 unrelated controls, for gene polymorphisms associated with fMRI activation patterns at two locations in temporal and frontal lobes previously implied in schizophrenia. A total of 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 genes from the dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission pathways were genotyped in all subjects. We identified three SNPs in genes that are significantly associated with fMRI activity. SNPs of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene and of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were associated with activity in the temporal and frontal lobes, respectively. One SNP of serotonin-3A receptor (HTR3A) was associated with temporal lobe activity. The results of this study support the physiogenomic analysis of neuroimaging data to discover associations between genotype and disease-related phenotypes.

  14. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  15. Analysis of antifreeze protein activity using colorimetric gold nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Choi, Ho-seok; Park, Ji-In; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-07-01

    High activity and long stability of antifreeze proteins (AFPs), also known as ice-binding proteins (IBPs), are necessary for exerting their physiological functions in biotechnology and cryomedicine. Here we report a simple analysis of antifreeze protein activity and stability based on self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via freezing and thawing cycles. While the mercaptosuccinic acid-capped AuNP (MSA-AuNP) was easily self-assembled after a freezing/thawing cycle, due to the mechanical attack of ice crystal on the MSA-AuNP surface, the presence of AFP impeded the self-assembly of MSA-AuNP via the interaction of AFP with ice crystals via freezing and thawing cycles, which led to a strong color in the MSA-AuNP solution. As a result, the aggregation parameter (E520/E650) of MSA-AuNP showed the rapid detection of both activity and stability of AFPs. We suggest that our newly developed method is very suitable for measuring antifreeze activity and stability in a simple and rapid manner with reliable quantification.

  16. Activation analysis of admixtures in certain semiconductive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artyukhin, P. I.; Gilbert, E. P.; Pronin, V. A.

    1978-01-01

    The use of extractions and chromatographic operations to separate macrobases, and to divide elements into groups convenient for gamma-spectrometric analysis is discussed. Methods are described for the activation detection of some impurities in silicon, arsenic, thallium, and trichloromethylsilane, on the basis of the extraction properties of bis(2-chlorethyl ether) and dimethylbenzylalkylammonium chloride. A schematic diagram of the extraction separation of elements-admixture is presented showing the aqueous and organic phases. The content percentage of the various elements are given in tables.

  17. Fractal analysis of granular activated carbons using isotherm data

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, N.R.; Pan, M.; Sandi, G.

    1997-08-01

    Utilization of adsorption on solid surfaces was exercised for the first time in 1785. Practical application of unactivated carbon filters, and powdered carbon were first demonstrated in the American water treatment plant, and a municipal treatment plant in New Jersey, in 1883 and 1930, respectively. The use of activated carbon became widespread in the next few decades. At present, adsorption on carbons has a wide spread application in water treatment and removal of taste, odor, removal of synthetic organic chemicals, color-forming organics, and desinfection by-products and their naturally occurring precursors. This paper presents an analysis of the surface fractal dimension and adsorption capacity of a group of carbons.

  18. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W S

    1982-01-01

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of ..gamma.. rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed.

  19. Application of neutron-activation analysis to geological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Wogman, N.A.

    1980-12-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an extremely sensitive, selective, and precise method, which yields a wealth of elemental information from even a small-sized sample. By varying neutron fluxes, irradiation times, decay and counting intervals in instrumental NAA, it is possible to accurately determine about 35 elements in a geological aliquot. When INAA is coupled with coincidence-noncoincidence Ge(Li)-Na(Tl) counting, it enhances the sensitivities of various elements by order of magnitude. The attractive features of INAA are that it is fast, nondestructive and economical.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of total diet food composites for iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, M.; Boyer, K.W.; Tanner, J.T.

    1981-09-01

    The iodine content of Total Diet food composites was measured using neutron activation analysis. The interfering element chlorine was separated using a modified combustion and gas phase procedure. The average recovery was 94.8% (standard deviation 2.9) for the 10 matrices that were tested. In addition, iodine was measured in National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials, which have no certified values for this element. Preliminary findings of iodine content of adult Total Diet market baskets collected during Fiscal Year 1980 in different regions of the United States ranged from 292 to 901 ..mu..g/day for a 2900 kcal intake.

  1. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of archaeological ceramics: scale and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Ronald L; Blackman, M James

    2002-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has become a standard technique for the study of the production and distributional patterns of archaeological pottery. Questions once framed within the context of long distance exchange are now focused on issues of subregional and even intrasite levels. The increasing specificity at which these questions are poised requires a high level of analytical precision as we seek to observe statistically and archaeologically significant differences among groups of pottery produced from geographically closely spaced resources or the compositional differences that arise from production behaviors of the producers of the pottery.

  2. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Trigona Apicalis propolis extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Nur Liyana; Roslan, Husniyati; Omar, Eshaifol Azam; Mokhtar, Norehan; Hapit, Nor Hussaini Abdul; Asem, Nornaimah

    2016-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance found in beehives. It provides beneficial effects on human health and has been used to treat many diseases since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to analyze the phytochemical profile of propolis derived from local T. apicalis species and its antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract of propolis was subjected to HPLC analysis to analyze its phytochemical profile. The propolis extract was later tested for antioxidant capacities by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. TPC and TFC were performed to determine the correlation with its antioxidant activities. TEAC for each serial dilution sample was 2621.15 (4.76 mg/mL), 2050.85 (2.38 mg/mL), 1883.27 (1.19 mg/mL), 1562.67 (0.59 mg/mL), 1327.82 (0.29 mg/mL), 1164.49 (0.15 mg/mL), 983.27 (0.07 mg/mL), and 944.79 (0.04 mg/mL). The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract were dose dependent. The IC50 of propolis for DPPH assay was 4.27 mg/ml. Correlation values of TPC and TFC against DPPH indicate that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract used in this study could be mainly influenced by the phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings highlighted the importance of quality analysis in order to ensure the consistency of biological effects or therapy of a natural product, such as propolis.

  3. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Verjan, J.C.; Estrella-Parra, E.A.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I.; Rivero-Segura, N.A.; Vazquez-Martinez, R.; Magos-Guerrero, G.; Mendoza-Villanueva, D.; Cerbón-Cervantes, M.A.; Reyes-Chilpa, R.

    2015-01-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) was administered orally to male mice (CD-1) at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA) and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755. PMID:26697389

  4. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Verjan, J C; Estrella-Parra, E A; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I; Rivero-Segura, N A; Vazquez-Martinez, R; Magos-Guerrero, G; Mendoza-Villanueva, D; Cerbón-Cervantes, M A; Reyes-Chilpa, R

    2015-12-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) was administered orally to male mice (CD-1) at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA) and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755.

  5. Modeling place field activity with hierarchical slow feature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, Fabian; Wiskott, Laurenz

    2015-01-01

    What are the computational laws of hippocampal activity? In this paper we argue for the slowness principle as a fundamental processing paradigm behind hippocampal place cell firing. We present six different studies from the experimental literature, performed with real-life rats, that we replicated in computer simulations. Each of the chosen studies allows rodents to develop stable place fields and then examines a distinct property of the established spatial encoding: adaptation to cue relocation and removal; directional dependent firing in the linear track and open field; and morphing and scaling the environment itself. Simulations are based on a hierarchical Slow Feature Analysis (SFA) network topped by a principal component analysis (ICA) output layer. The slowness principle is shown to account for the main findings of the presented experimental studies. The SFA network generates its responses using raw visual input only, which adds to its biological plausibility but requires experiments performed in light conditions. Future iterations of the model will thus have to incorporate additional information, such as path integration and grid cell activity, in order to be able to also replicate studies that take place during darkness. PMID:26052279

  6. Physical Workload Analysis Among Small Industry Activities Using Postural Data.

    PubMed

    Rabiul Ahasan, M; Väyrynen, Seppo; Kirvesoja, Heli

    1996-01-01

    Small industry workers are often involved in manual handling operations that require awkward body postures, therefore, musculoskeletal disorders and occupational injuries are a major problem. In this study, various types of tasks were recorded with a video camera to chart and analyze different postures by computerized OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System). Collected data showed that poor postures were adopted not only for lifting or hammering operation but also for other tasks; mostly with bent and twisted back. The main aim was to determine the physical workload by identifying harmful postures and to develop recommendations for improving the existing situation. Forty-eight male workers from eight different units (M age = 37 years) participated. The performed activities were then divided into 26 subtasks. Altogether, 1,534 postures were selected for analysis and then classified into different OAC (OWAS Action Categories). From all observations, unhealthy postures, for which corrective measures had to be considered immediately (i.e., 10.6% classified as OAC III, and 3.3% as OAC IV), were found. The applied method was useful in determining the physical workload by locating potential activities due to harmful postures, providing a detailed description with analysis, and suggesting successful means to reduce postural load.

  7. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  8. Physical activity and sedentary activity patterns among children and adolescents: a latent class analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie; Lytle, Leslie; Erickson, Darin; Sirard, John; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Story, Marry

    2010-01-01

    Background While much is known about the overall levels of physical activity and sedentary activity among youth, few studies have attempted to define clusters of such behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of youth based on their participation in a variety of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Latent class analysis was used to characterize segments of youth based on patterns of self-reported and accelerometer-measured participation in 12 behaviors. Children and adolescents (N=720) from 6th–11th grade were included in the analysis. Differences in class membership were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Three distinct classes emerged for boys and girls. Among boys, the three classes were characterized as: (1) “Active” (42.1%), (2) “Sedentary” (24.9%), and (3) “Low Media/Moderate Activity” (33.0%). For girls, classes were: (1) “Active” (18.7%), (2) “Sedentary” (47.6%), and (3) “Low Media/Functional Activity” (33.7%). Significant differences were found between the classes for a number of demographic indicators including the proportion in each class who were classified as overweight or obese. Conclusions The behavioral profiles of the classes identified in this study can be used to suggest possible audience segments for intervention and to tailor strategies appropriately. PMID:21597117

  9. Modeling and experimental vibration analysis of nanomechanical cantilever active probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Bashash, Saeid; Jalili, Nader

    2008-08-01

    Nanomechanical cantilever (NMC) active probes have recently received increased attention in a variety of nanoscale sensing and measurement applications. Current modeling practices call for a uniform cantilever beam without considering the intentional jump discontinuities associated with the piezoelectric layer attachment and the NMC cross-sectional step. This paper presents a comprehensive modeling framework for modal characterization and dynamic response analysis of NMC active probes with geometrical discontinuities. The entire length of the NMC is divided into three segments of uniform beams followed by applying appropriate continuity conditions. The characteristics matrix equation is then used to solve for system natural frequencies and mode shapes. Using an equivalent electromechanical moment of a piezoelectric layer, forced motion analysis of the system is carried out. An experimental setup consisting of a commercial NMC active probe from Veeco and a state-of-the-art microsystem analyzer, the MSA-400 from Polytec, is developed to verify the theoretical developments proposed here. Using a parameter estimation technique based on minimizing the modeling error, optimal values of system parameters are identified. Mode shapes and the modal frequency response of the system for the first three modes determined from the proposed model are compared with those obtained from the experiment and commonly used theory for uniform beams. Results indicate that the uniform beam model fails to accurately predict the actual system response, especially in multiple-mode operation, while the proposed discontinuous beam model demonstrates good agreement with the experimental data. Such detailed and accurate modeling framework can lead to significant enhancement in the sensitivity of piezoelectric-based NMC sensors for use in variety of sensing and imaging applications.

  10. Neutron activation analysis detection limits using {sup 252}Cf sources

    SciTech Connect

    DiPrete, D.P.; Sigg, R.A.

    2000-07-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) developed a neutron activation analysis (NAA) facility several decades ago using low-flux {sup 252}Cf neutron sources. Through this time, the facility has addressed areas of applied interest in managing the Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications are unique because of the site's operating history and its chemical-processing facilities. Because sensitivity needs for many applications are not severe, they can be accomplished using an {approximately}6-mg {sup 252}Cf NAA facility. The SRTC {sup 252}Cf facility continues to support applied research programs at SRTC as well as other SRS programs for environmental and waste management customers. Samples analyzed by NAA include organic compounds, metal alloys, sediments, site process solutions, and many other materials. Numerous radiochemical analyses also rely on the facility for production of short-lived tracers, yielding by activation of carriers and small-scale isotope production for separation methods testing. These applications are more fully reviewed in Ref. 1. Although the flux [{approximately}2 x 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s] is low relative to reactor facilities, more than 40 elements can be detected at low and sub-part-per-million levels. Detection limits provided by the facility are adequate for many analytical projects. Other multielement analysis methods, particularly inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, can now provide sensitivities on dissolved samples that are often better than those available by NAA using low-flux isotopic sources. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, (a) it is a more cost-effective choice when its sensitivity is adequate than methods that require digestion and (b) it eliminates uncertainties that can be introduced by digestion processes.

  11. Characterization of indoor cooking aerosol using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Landsberger, S.; Larson, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Suspended particles in air are potentially harmful to human health, depending on their sizes and chemical composition. Residential indoor particles mainly come from (a) outdoor sources that are transported indoors, (b) indoor dust that is resuspended, and (c) indoor combustion sources, which include cigarette smoking, cooking, and heating. Jedrychowski stated that chronic phlegm in elderly women was strongly related to the cooking exposure. Kamens et al. indicated that cooking could generate small particles (<0.1 [mu]m), and cooking one meal could contribute [approximately]5 to 18% of total daytime particle volume exposure. Although cooking is a basic human activity, there are not many data available on the properties of particles generated by this activity. Some cooking methods, such as stir-frying and frying, which are the most favored for Chinese and other Far East people, generate a large quantity of aerosols. This research included the following efforts: 1. investigating particle number concentrations, distributions, and their variations with four different cooking methods and ventilation conditions; 2. measuring the chemical composition of cooking aerosol samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  12. Probabilistic Analysis of Activation Volumes Generated During Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Butson, Christopher R.; Cooper, Scott E.; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Wolgamuth, Barbara; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2010-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and shows great promise for the treatment of several other disorders. However, while the clinical analysis of DBS has received great attention, a relative paucity of quantitative techniques exists to define the optimal surgical target and most effective stimulation protocol for a given disorder. In this study we describe a methodology that represents an evolutionary addition to the concept of a probabilistic brain atlas, which we call a probabilistic stimulation atlas (PSA). We outline steps to combine quantitative clinical outcome measures with advanced computational models of DBS to identify regions where stimulation-induced activation could provide the best therapeutic improvement on a per-symptom basis. While this methodology is relevant to any form of DBS, we present example results from subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS for PD. We constructed patient-specific computer models of the volume of tissue activated (VTA) for 163 different stimulation parameter settings which were tested in six patients. We then assigned clinical outcome scores to each VTA and compiled all of the VTAs into a PSA to identify stimulation-induced activation targets that maximized therapeutic response with minimal side effects. The results suggest that selection of both electrode placement and clinical stimulation parameter settings could be tailored to the patient’s primary symptoms using patient-specific models and PSAs. PMID:20974269

  13. Probabilistic analysis of activation volumes generated during deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Butson, Christopher R; Cooper, Scott E; Henderson, Jaimie M; Wolgamuth, Barbara; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2011-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and shows great promise for the treatment of several other disorders. However, while the clinical analysis of DBS has received great attention, a relative paucity of quantitative techniques exists to define the optimal surgical target and most effective stimulation protocol for a given disorder. In this study we describe a methodology that represents an evolutionary addition to the concept of a probabilistic brain atlas, which we call a probabilistic stimulation atlas (PSA). We outline steps to combine quantitative clinical outcome measures with advanced computational models of DBS to identify regions where stimulation-induced activation could provide the best therapeutic improvement on a per-symptom basis. While this methodology is relevant to any form of DBS, we present example results from subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS for PD. We constructed patient-specific computer models of the volume of tissue activated (VTA) for 163 different stimulation parameter settings which were tested in six patients. We then assigned clinical outcome scores to each VTA and compiled all of the VTAs into a PSA to identify stimulation-induced activation targets that maximized therapeutic response with minimal side effects. The results suggest that selection of both electrode placement and clinical stimulation parameter settings could be tailored to the patient's primary symptoms using patient-specific models and PSAs.

  14. Dictionary learning and sparse recovery for electrodermal activity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Malia; Dallal, Ahmed; Eldeeb, Safaa; Akcakaya, Murat; Kleckner, Ian; Gerard, Christophe; Quigley, Karen S.; Goodwin, Matthew S.

    2016-05-01

    Measures of electrodermal activity (EDA) have advanced research in a wide variety of areas including psychophysiology; however, the majority of this research is typically undertaken in laboratory settings. To extend the ecological validity of laboratory assessments, researchers are taking advantage of advances in wireless biosensors to gather EDA data in ambulatory settings, such as in school classrooms. While measuring EDA in naturalistic contexts may enhance ecological validity, it also introduces analytical challenges that current techniques cannot address. One limitation is the limited efficiency and automation of analysis techniques. Many groups either analyze their data by hand, reviewing each individual record, or use computationally inefficient software that limits timely analysis of large data sets. To address this limitation, we developed a method to accurately and automatically identify SCRs using curve fitting methods. Curve fitting has been shown to improve the accuracy of SCR amplitude and location estimations, but have not yet been used to reduce computational complexity. In this paper, sparse recovery and dictionary learning methods are combined to improve computational efficiency of analysis and decrease run time, while maintaining a high degree of accuracy in detecting SCRs. Here, a dictionary is first created using curve fitting methods for a standard SCR shape. Then, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is used to detect SCRs within a dataset using the dictionary to complete sparse recovery. Evaluation of our method, including a comparison to for speed and accuracy with existing software, showed an accuracy of 80% and a reduced run time.

  15. Helioseismology of pre-emerging active regions. III. Statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.

    2014-05-01

    The subsurface properties of active regions (ARs) prior to their appearance at the solar surface may shed light on the process of AR formation. Helioseismic holography has been applied to samples taken from two populations of regions on the Sun (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, that were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Paper I. Paper II showed that there are statistically significant signatures in the average helioseismic properties that precede the formation of an AR. This paper describes a more detailed analysis of the samples of pre-emergence regions and regions without emergence based on discriminant analysis. The property that is best able to distinguish the populations is found to be the surface magnetic field, even a day before the emergence time. However, after accounting for the correlations between the surface field and the quantities derived from helioseismology, there is still evidence of a helioseismic precursor to AR emergence that is present for at least a day prior to emergence, although the analysis presented cannot definitively determine the subsurface properties prior to emergence due to the small sample sizes.

  16. Analysis of Ah receptor pathway activation by brominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Brown, David J; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Goeyens, Leo; Denison, Michael S; De Vito, Michael J; Clark, George C

    2004-06-01

    Brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) are used as additives in plastics to decrease the rate of combustion of these materials, leading to greater consumer safety. As the use of plastics has increased, the production and use of flame-retardants has also grown. Many BFRs are persistent and have been detected in environmental samples, raising concerns about the biological/toxicological risk associated with their use. Most BFRs appear to be non-toxic, however there is still some concern that these compounds, or possible contaminants in BFRs mixtures could interact with cellular receptors. In this study we have examined the interaction of decabromodiphenyl ether, Firemaster BP4A (tetrabromobisphenol A), Firemaster PHT4 (tetrabromophthalic anhydride), hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, decabromobiphenyl, Firemaster BP-6 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl) and possible contaminants of BFR mixtures with the Ah receptor. Receptor binding and activation was examined using the Gel Retardation Assay and increased expression of dioxin responsive genes was detected using the reporter gene based CALUX assay. The results demonstrate the ability of BFRs to activate the AhR signal transduction pathway at moderate to high concentrations as assessed using both assays. AhR-dependent activation by BFRs may be due in part to contaminants present in commercial/technical mixtures. This was suggested by our comparative analysis of Firemaster BP-6 versus its primary component 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl. Some technical mixtures of brominated flame-retardants contain brominated biphenyls, dioxins or dibenzofurans as contaminants. When tested in the CALUX assay these compounds were found to be equivalent to, or more active than their chlorinated analogues. Relative effective potency values were determined from dose response curves for these brominated HAHs.

  17. Flow cytometric analysis of crayfish haemocytes activated by lipopolysaccharides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardenas, W.; Dankert, J.R.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria are strong stimulators of white river crayfish, Procambarus zonangulus, haemocytes in vitro. Following haemocyte treatment with LPS and with LPS from rough mutant R5 (LPS Rc) from Salmonella minnesota, flow cytometric analysis revealed a conspicuous and reproducible decrease in cell size as compared to control haemocytes. These LPS molecules also caused a reduction in haemocyte viability as assessed by flow cytometry with the fluorescent dyes calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer. The onset of cell size reduction was gradual and occurred prior to cell death. Haemocytes treated with LPS from S. minnesota without the Lipid A moiety (detoxified LPS) decreased in size without a reduction of viability. The action of LPS on crayfish haemocytes appeared to be related to the activation of the prophenoloxidase system because phenoloxidase (PO)-specific activity in the supernatants from control and detoxified LPS-treated cells was significantly lower than that from LPS and LPS-Rc treated cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, addition of trypsin inhibitor to the LPS treatments caused noticeable delays in cell size and viability changes. These patterns of cellular activation by LPS formulations indicated that crayfish haemocytes react differently to the polysaccharide and lipid A moieties of LPS, where lipid A is cytotoxic and the polysaccharide portion is stimulatory. These effects concur with the general pattern of mammalian cell activation by LPS, thereby indicting commone innate immune recognition mechanisms to bacterial antigens between cells from mammals and invertebrates. These definitive molecular approaches used to verify and identify mechanisms of invertbrate haemocyte responses to LPS could be applied with other glycoconjugates, soluble mediators, or xenobiotic compounds.

  18. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k(o) neutron activation analysis

    PubMed

    Acharya; Mondal; Burte; Nair; Reddy; Reddy; Reddy; Manohar

    2000-12-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k0 method (k0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of biological materials by the monostandard method.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Shinogi, M

    1979-12-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis by the monostandard method has been applied to the analyses of biological NBS standard reference materials; 1571 Orchard Leaves and 1577 Bovine Liver. Aluminum foils containing 0.100% gold or 2.00% cobalt were used as the monostandards. The gamma-ray spectral data were recorded on punched paper tape and were analyzed by a computer assisted data processing. The following 25 elements were determined: Al, Ca, Cl Cu, Mg, Mn, V (by short period irradiation), As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm and Zn (by long period irradiation). The results were compared with the certified values by NBS and the reported values in literatures to prove the reliability and accuracy of the monostandard method.

  20. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. The analysis and reconciliation of students' rebuttals in argumentation activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ren; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the guidance provided by science teachers to resolve conflicts during socioscientific issue-based argumentation activities. A graphical representation (GR) was developed as a tool to code and analyze the dialogue interaction process. Through the GR and qualitative analysis, we identified three types of dialogue reconciling strategies. The first one consists of teacher management, in which the teacher temporarily maintains the right to speak when students get mired in an emotional rebuttal situation. The second strategy involves the use of qualifiers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of an opposing argument. The third strategy consists of providing students with guidance to keep both parties (i.e. the students taking, respectively, the affirmative and negative positions) on the same discussion topic and can be used to assist teachers with forming broad questions that prompt students to conduct deeper discussions. These reconciling strategies were beneficial in that they helped students to argue in a more reflective way.

  2. Neutron activation analysis; A sensitive test for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z. . Ward Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses neutron activation analysis (NAA), an extremely sensitive technique for determining the elemental constituents of an unknown specimen. Currently, there are some twenty-five moderate-power TRIGA reactors scattered across the United States (fourteen of them at universities), and one of their principal uses is for NAA. NAA is procedurally simple. A small amount of the material to be tested (typically between one and one hundred milligrams) is irradiated for a period that varies from a few minutes to several hours in a neutron flux of around 10{sup 12} neutrons per square centimeter per second. A tiny fraction of the nuclei present (about 10{sup {minus}8}) is transmuted by nuclear reactions into radioactive forms. Subsequently, the nuclei decay, and the energy and intensity of the gamma rays that they emit can be measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer.

  3. Analysis of regression methods for solar activity forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the potential use of the most recent solar data to project trends in the next few years. Assuming that a mode of solar influence on weather can be identified, advantageous use of that knowledge presumably depends on estimating future solar activity. A frequently used technique for solar cycle predictions is a linear regression procedure along the lines formulated by McNish and Lincoln (1949). The paper presents a sensitivity analysis of the behavior of such regression methods relative to the following aspects: cycle minimum, time into cycle, composition of historical data base, and unnormalized vs. normalized solar cycle data. Comparative solar cycle forecasts for several past cycles are presented as to these aspects of the input data. Implications for the current cycle, No. 21, are also given.

  4. Analysis of communicative behaviour: profiling roles and activities.

    PubMed

    Sørby, Inger Dybdahl; Nytrø, Oystein

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how profiles of communicative behaviour can be used to present and analyse information about role activity recorded through structured observation of specific situations. The role activities are encoded as distinctive speech acts. Example profiles resulting from the analysis of three clinicians' communicative behaviour during pre-rounds meetings and ward rounds are given. The examples are based on an observational study performed at a Norwegian university hospital. One fifth-year medical student spent 20 days in two different hospital wards, following 7 physicians from one to seven days each. The observer recorded data from several ward situations such as pre-rounds meetings, ward rounds, and discharge situations. The data was recorded by means of an observation form consisting of a mixture of codes and free-text fields. The data has been post-processed by associating each event with one communicative act. The approach is an efficient and useful means for studying clinicians' information and communication patterns in hospital wards, which can serve as an important tool in the design of new clinical information systems.

  5. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  6. Revisiting Greek Propolis: Chromatographic Analysis and Antioxidant Activity Study

    PubMed Central

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M.; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Machera, Kyriaki

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product that has been extensively used in alternative medicine and recently has gained interest on a global scale as an essential ingredient of healthy foods and cosmetics. Propolis is also considered to improve human health and to prevent diseases such as inflammation, heart disease, diabetes and even cancer. However, the claimed effects are anticipated to be correlated to its chemical composition. Since propolis is a natural product, its composition is consequently expected to be variable depending on the local flora alignment. In this work, we present the development of a novel HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS targeted method, used to identify and quantify 59 phenolic compounds in Greek propolis hydroalcoholic extracts. Amongst them, nine phenolic compounds are herein reported for the first time in Greek propolis. Alongside GC-MS complementary analysis was employed, unveiling eight additional newly reported compounds. The antioxidant activity study of the propolis samples verified the potential of these extracts to effectively scavenge radicals, with the extract of Imathia region exhibiting comparable antioxidant activity to that of quercetin. PMID:28103258

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of mononuclear phagocyte differentiation and activation.

    PubMed

    Hume, David A; Freeman, Tom C

    2014-11-01

    Monocytes and macrophages differentiate from progenitor cells under the influence of colony-stimulating factors. Genome-scale data have enabled the identification of the sets of genes that are associated with specific functions and the mechanisms by which thousands of genes are regulated in response to pathogen challenge. In large datasets, it is possible to identify large sets of genes that are coregulated with the transcription factors that regulate them. They include macrophage-specific genes, interferon-responsive genes, early inflammatory genes, and those associated with endocytosis. Such analyses can also extract macrophage-associated signatures from large cancer tissue datasets. However, cluster analysis provides no support for a signature that distinguishes macrophages from antigen-presenting dendritic cells, nor the classification of macrophage activation states as classical versus alternative, or M1 versus M2. Although there has been a focus on a small subset of lineage-enriched transcription factors, such as PU.1, more than half of the transcription factors in the genome can be expressed in macrophage lineage cells under some state of activation, and they interact in a complex network. The network architecture is conserved across species, but many of the target genes evolve rapidly and differ between mouse and human. The data and publication deluge related to macrophage biology require the development of new analytical tools and ways of presenting information in an accessible form.

  8. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals, 6-Year Exposure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2006-03-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. The test uses nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated materials buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), Type 316L stainless steel (S31603), nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6 (A96061), and a zirconium alloy (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) are also included in the test. This paper briefly describes the ongoing test and presents the results of corrosion analysis from coupons exposed underground for 1, 3, and 6 years.

  9. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of fibrinogen receptors on activated thrombocytes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The present studies have been concerned with the role of fibrinogen and its receptor, GP IIb/IIIa, during the activation and early aggregation of pigeon thrombocytes. Thrombocytes were surface labeled with {sup 125}I then separated on SDS-PAGE. Analysis by gel autoradiography revealed major bands at MW 145 kd and 98 kd, which corresponded to human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Immunologic similarity of the pigeon and human receptor components was established by dot blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies directed against human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Pigeon fibrinogen, isolated by plasma precipitation with PEG-1000 and purified over Sepharose 4B, was used to study receptor-ligand interaction. Separation of pigeon fibrinogen on SDS-PAGE resulted in three peptides having apparent MW of 62kd, 55kd, and 47kd which are comparable to human fibrinogen. Further similarity of human and pigeon fibrinogen was verified by immonodiffusion against an antibody specific for the human protein. The role of fibrinogen and its receptor in thrombocyte function was established by turbidimetric aggregation using thrombin as an agonist under conditions requiring Ca++ and fibrinogen.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  13. Coincidence Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. gandner; C.W. Mayo; W.A. Metwally; W. Zhang; W. Guo; A. Shehata

    2002-11-10

    The normal prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for either bulk or small beam samples inherently has a small signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio due primarily to the neutron source being present while the sample signal is being obtained. Coincidence counting offers the possibility of greatly reducing or eliminating the noise generated by the neutron source. The present report presents our results to date on implementing the coincidence counting PGNAA approach. We conclude that coincidence PGNAA yields: (1) a larger signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, (2) more information (and therefore better accuracy) from essentially the same experiment when sophisticated coincidence electronics are used that can yield singles and coincidences simultaneously, and (3) a reduced (one or two orders of magnitude) signal from essentially the same experiment. In future work we will concentrate on: (1) modifying the existing CEARPGS Monte Carlo code to incorporate coincidence counting, (2) obtaining coincidence schemes for 18 or 20 of the common elements in coal and cement, and (3) optimizing the design of a PGNAA coincidence system for the bulk analysis of coal.

  14. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions. I. Intrinsic dimension and correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kevin R.; Li, Jimmy J.; Delouille, Véronique; De Visscher, Ruben; Watson, Fraser; Hero, Alfred O.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The flare productivity of an active region is observed to be related to its spatial complexity. Mount Wilson or McIntosh sunspot classifications measure such complexity but in a categorical way, and may therefore not use all the information present in the observations. Moreover, such categorical schemes hinder a systematic study of an active region's evolution for example. Aims: We propose fine-scale quantitative descriptors for an active region's complexity and relate them to the Mount Wilson classification. We analyze the local correlation structure within continuum and magnetogram data, as well as the cross-correlation between continuum and magnetogram data. Methods: We compute the intrinsic dimension, partial correlation, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of image patches of continuum and magnetogram active region images taken from the SOHO-MDI instrument. We use masks of sunspots derived from continuum as well as larger masks of magnetic active regions derived from magnetogram to analyze separately the core part of an active region from its surrounding part. Results: We find relationships between the complexity of an active region as measured by its Mount Wilson classification and the intrinsic dimension of its image patches. Partial correlation patterns exhibit approximately a third-order Markov structure. CCA reveals different patterns of correlation between continuum and magnetogram within the sunspots and in the region surrounding the sunspots. Conclusions: Intrinsic dimension has the potential to distinguish simple from complex active regions. These results also pave the way for patch-based dictionary learning with a view toward automatic clustering of active regions.

  15. Structural Analysis of Active North Bozgush Fault Zone (NW Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, R.; Isik, V.; Caglayan, A.

    2013-12-01

    NW Iran is one of the seismically active regions between Zagros Thrust Belt at the south and Caucasus at the north. Not only large magnitude historical earthquakes (Ms>7), but also 1987 Bozgush, 1997 Ardebil (Mw 6.1) and 2012 Ahar-Varzagan (Mw 6.4) earthquakes reveal that the region is seismically active. The North Bozgush Fault Zone (NBFZ) in this region has tens of kilometers in length and hundreds of meters in width. The zone has produced some large and destructive earthquakes (1593 M:6.1 and 1883 M:6.2). The NBFZ affects the Cenozoic units and along this zone Eocene units thrusted over Miocene and/or Plio-Quaternary sedimentary units. Together with morphologic features (stream offsets and alluvial fan movements) affecting the young unites reveal that the zone is active. The zone is mainly characterized by strike-slip faults with reverse component and reverse faults. Reverse faults striking N55°-85°E and dip of 40°-50° to the SW while strike-slip faults show right lateral slip with N60°-85°W and N60°-80°E directions. Our structural data analysis in NBFZ indicates that the axis direction of σ2 principal stress is vertical and the stress ratio (R) is 0.12. These results suggest that the tectonic regime along the North Bozgush Fault Zone is transpressive. Obtained other principal stresses (σ1, σ3) results are compatible with stress directions and GPS velocity suggested for NW Iran.

  16. Detailed Analysis of the Interoccurrence Time Statistics in Seismic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Aizawa, Yoji

    2017-02-01

    The interoccurrence time statistics of seismiciry is studied theoretically as well as numerically by taking into account the conditional probability and the correlations among many earthquakes in different magnitude levels. It is known so far that the interoccurrence time statistics is well approximated by the Weibull distribution, but the more detailed information about the interoccurrence times can be obtained from the analysis of the conditional probability. Firstly, we propose the Embedding Equation Theory (EET), where the conditional probability is described by two kinds of correlation coefficients; one is the magnitude correlation and the other is the inter-event time correlation. Furthermore, the scaling law of each correlation coefficient is clearly determined from the numerical data-analysis carrying out with the Preliminary Determination of Epicenter (PDE) Catalog and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Catalog. Secondly, the EET is examined to derive the magnitude dependence of the interoccurrence time statistics and the multi-fractal relation is successfully formulated. Theoretically we cannot prove the universality of the multi-fractal relation in seismic activity; nevertheless, the theoretical results well reproduce all numerical data in our analysis, where several common features or the invariant aspects are clearly observed. Especially in the case of stationary ensembles the multi-fractal relation seems to obey an invariant curve, furthermore in the case of non-stationary (moving time) ensembles for the aftershock regime the multi-fractal relation seems to satisfy a certain invariant curve at any moving times. It is emphasized that the multi-fractal relation plays an important role to unify the statistical laws of seismicity: actually the Gutenberg-Richter law and the Weibull distribution are unified in the multi-fractal relation, and some universality conjectures regarding the seismicity are briefly discussed.

  17. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA): Technique of choice for nondestructive bulk analysis of returned comet samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, David J.; Lindstrom, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a well-developed analytical technique. The technique involves irradiation of samples in an external neutron beam from a nuclear reactor, with simultaneous counting of gamma rays produced in the sample by neutron capture. Capture of neutrons leads to excited nuclei which decay immediately with the emission of energetic gamma rays to the ground state. PGAA has several advantages over other techniques for the analysis of cometary materials: (1) It is nondestructive; (2) It can be used to determine abundances of a wide variety of elements, including most major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), volatiles (H, C, N, F, Cl, S), and some trace elements (those with high neutron capture cross sections, including B, Cd, Nd, Sm, and Gd); and (3) It is a true bulk analysis technique. Recent developments should improve the technique's sensitivity and accuracy considerably.

  18. AGFATL- ACTIVE GEAR FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT TAKEOFF AND LANDING ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Takeoff and Landing Analysis program, AGFATL, was developed to provide a complete simulation of the aircraft takeoff and landing dynamics problem. AGFATL can represent an airplane either as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom or as a flexible body with multiple degrees of freedom. The airframe flexibility is represented by the superposition of up to twenty free vibration modes on the rigid-body motions. The analysis includes maneuver logic and autopilots programmed to control the aircraft during glide slope, flare, landing, and takeoff. The program is modular so that performance of the aircraft in flight and during landing and ground maneuvers can be studied separately or in combination. A program restart capability is included in AGFATL. Effects simulated in the AGFATL program include: (1) flexible aircraft control and performance during glide slope, flare, landing roll, and takeoff roll under conditions of changing winds, engine failures, brake failures, control system failures, strut failures, restrictions due to runway length, and control variable limits and time lags; (2) landing gear loads and dynamics for up to five gears; (3) single and multiple engines (maximum of four) including selective engine reversing and failure; (4) drag chute and spoiler effects; (5) wheel braking (including skid-control) and selective brake failure; (6) aerodynamic ground effects; (7) aircraft carrier operations; (8) inclined runways and runway perturbations; (9) flexible or rigid airframes; 10) rudder and nose gear steering; and 11) actively controlled landing gear shock struts. Input to the AGFATL program includes data which describe runway roughness; vehicle geometry, flexibility and aerodynamic characteristics; landing gear(s); propulsion; and initial conditions such as attitude, attitude change rates, and velocities. AGFATL performs a time integration of the equations of motion and outputs comprehensive information on the airframe

  19. Predictive Analysis of Landslide Activity Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuzon, N.; Regan, J.; Slesnick, C.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides are historically one of the most damaging geohazard phenomena in terms of death tolls and socio-economic losses. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of landslides and how environmental phenomena affect their frequency and severity is of critical importance. Of specific importance for mitigating future damage is increasing our understanding of how climate change will affect landslide severity, occurrence rates, and damage. We are developing data driven models aimed at predicting landslide activity. The models learn multi-dimensional weather and geophysical patterns associated with historical landslides and estimate location-dependent probabilities for landslides under current or future weather and geophysical conditions. Our approach uses machine learning algorithms capable of determining non-linear associations between dependent variables and landslide occurrence without requiring detailed knowledge of geomorphology. Our primary goal in year one of the project is to evaluate the predictive capabilities of data mining models in application to landslide activity, and to analyze if the approach will discover previously unknown variables and/or relationships important to landslide occurrence, frequency or severity. The models include remote sensing and ground-based data, including weather, landcover, slope, elevation and drainage information as well as urbanization data. The historical landslide dataset we used to build our preliminary models was compiled from City of Seattle landslide files, United States Geological Survey reports, newspaper articles, and a verified subset of the Seattle Landslide Database that consists of all reported landslides within Seattle, WA, between 1948 and 1999. Most of the landslides analyzed to-date are shallow. Using statistical analysis and unsupervised clustering methods we have thus far identified subsets of weather conditions that lead to a significantly higher landslide probability, and have developed

  20. Assessment of nose protector for sport activities: finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Coto, Neide Pena; Meira, Josete Barbosa Cruz; Brito e Dias, Reinaldo; Driemeier, Larissa; de Oliveira Roveri, Guilherme; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-04-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of facial fractures stemming from sport activities in recent years, with the nasal bone one of the most affected structures. Researchers recommend the use of a nose protector, but there is no standardization regarding the material employed. Clinical experience has demonstrated that a combination of a flexible and rigid layer of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) offers both comfort and safety to practitioners of sports. The aim of the present study was the investigation into the stresses generated by the impact of a rigid body on the nasal bone on models with and without an EVA protector. For such, finite element analysis was employed. A craniofacial model was constructed from images obtained through computed tomography. The nose protector was modeled with two layers of EVA (1 mm of rigid EVA over 2 mm of flexible EVA), following the geometry of the soft tissue. Finite element analysis was performed using the LS Dyna program. The bone and rigid EVA were represented as elastic linear material, whereas the soft tissues and flexible EVA were represented as hyperelastic material. The impact from a rigid sphere on the frontal region of the face was simulated with a constant velocity of 20 m s(-1) for 9.1 μs. The model without the protector served as the control. The distribution of maximal stress of the facial bones was recorded. The maximal stress on the nasal bone surpassed the breaking limit of 0.13-0.34 MPa on the model without a protector, while remaining below this limit on the model with the protector. Thus, the nose protector made from both flexible and rigid EVA proved effective at protecting the nasal bones under high-impact conditions.

  1. Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Groundwater Reveals an Active Anammox Bacterial Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Thomas, B. C.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.; Beller, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is a major natural resource, yet little is known about the contribution of microbial anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity to subsurface nitrogen cycling. During anammox, energy is generated as ammonium is oxidized under anaerobic conditions to dinitrogen gas, using nitrite as the final electron acceptor. This process is a global sink for fixed nitrogen. Only a narrow range of monophyletic bacteria within the Planctomycetes carries out anammox, and the full extent of their metabolism, and subsequent impact on nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, is still unknown. Here, we employ a metatranscriptomic analysis on enriched mRNA to identify the abundance and activity of a population of anammox bacteria within an aquifer at Rifle, CO. Planktonic biomass was collected over a two-month period after injection of up to 1.5 mM nitrate. Illumina-generated sequences were mapped to a phylogenetically binned Rifle metagenome database. We identified transcripts for genes with high protein sequence identities (81-98%) to those of anammox strain KSU-1 and to two of the five anammox bacteria genera, Brocadia and Kuenenia, suggesting an active, if not diverse, anammox population. Many of the most abundant anammox transcripts mapped to a single scaffold, indicative of a single dominant anammox species. Transcripts of the genes necessary for the anammox pathway were present, including an ammonium transporter (amtB), nitrite/formate transporter, nitrite reductase (nirK), and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzoB). The form of nitrite reductase encoded by anammox is species-dependent, and we only identified nirK, with no evidence of anammox nirS. In addition to the anammox pathway we saw evidence of the anammox bacterial dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium pathway (narH, putative nrfA, and nrfB), which provides an alternate means of generating substrates for anammox from nitrate, rather than relying on an external pool. Transcripts for hydroxylamine

  2. Analysis of Solar Magnetic Activity with the Wavelet Coherence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, V. M.; Perez-Peraza, J. A.; Mendoza, B. E.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Sosa, O.; Alvarez-Madrigal, M.

    2007-05-01

    The origin, behavior and evolution of the solar magnetic field is one of the main challenges of observational and theoretical solar physics. Up to now the Dynamo theory gives us the best approach to the problem. However, it is not yet able to predict many features of the solar activity, which seems not to be strictly a periodical phenomenon. Among the indicators of solar magnetic variability there is the 11-years cycle of sunspots, as well as the solar magnetic cycle of 22 years (the Hale cycle). In order to provide more elements to the Dynamo theory that could help it in the predicting task, we analyze here the plausible existence of other periodicities associated with the solar magnetic field. In this preliminary work we use historical data (sunspots and aurora borealis), proxies (Be10 and C14) and modern instrumental data (Coronal Holes, Cosmic Rays, sunspots, flare indexes and solar radio flux at 10.7 cm). To find relationships between different time-frequency series we have employed the t Wavelet Coherence technique: this technique indicates if two time-series of solar activity have the same periodicities in a given time interval. If so, it determines whether such relation is a linear one or not. Such a powerful tool indicates that, if some periodicity at a given frequency has a confidence level below 95%, it appears very lessened or does not appear in the Wavelet Spectral Analysis, such periodicity does not exist . Our results show that the so called Glaisberg cycle of 80-90 years and the periodicity of 205 years (the Suess cycle) do not exist . It can be speculated that such fictitious periodicities hav been the result of using the Fourier transform with series with are not of stationary nature, as it is the case of the Be10 and C14 series. In contrast we confirm the presence of periodicities of 1.3, 1.7, 3.5, 5.5, 7, 60, 120 and 240 years. The concept of a Glaisberg cycle falls between those of 60 and 120 years. We conclude that the periodicity of 120 years

  3. Multidimensional analysis and probabilistic model of volcanic and seismic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V.

    2009-04-01

    .I. Gushchenko, 1979) and seismological (database of USGS/NEIC Significant Worldwide Earthquakes, 2150 B.C.- 1994 A.D.) information which displays dynamics of endogenic relief-forming processes over a period of 1900 to 1994. In the course of the analysis, a substitution of calendar variable by a corresponding astronomical one has been performed and the epoch superposition method was applied. In essence, the method consists in that the massifs of information on volcanic eruptions (over a period of 1900 to 1977) and seismic events (1900-1994) are differentiated with respect to value of astronomical parameters which correspond to the calendar dates of the known eruptions and earthquakes, regardless of the calendar year. The obtained spectra of volcanic eruptions and violent earthquake distribution in the fields of the Earth orbital movement parameters were used as a basis for calculation of frequency spectra and diurnal probability of volcanic and seismic activity. The objective of the proposed investigations is a probabilistic model development of the volcanic and seismic events, as well as GIS designing for monitoring and forecast of volcanic and seismic activities. In accordance with the stated objective, three probability parameters have been found in the course of preliminary studies; they form the basis for GIS-monitoring and forecast development. 1. A multidimensional analysis of volcanic eruption and earthquakes (of magnitude 7) have been performed in terms of the Earth orbital movement. Probability characteristics of volcanism and seismicity have been defined for the Earth as a whole. Time intervals have been identified with a diurnal probability twice as great as the mean value. Diurnal probability of volcanic and seismic events has been calculated up to 2020. 2. A regularity is found in duration of dormant (repose) periods has been established. A relationship has been found between the distribution of the repose period probability density and duration of the period. 3

  4. Design and Analysis of an Active Helical Drive Downhole Tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Yujia; LIU, Qingyou; CHEN, Yonghua; REN, Tao

    2017-03-01

    During oil-gas well drilling and completion, downhole tools and apparatus should be conveyed to the destination to complete a series of downhole works. Downhole tractors have been used to convey tools in complex wellbores, however a very large tractive force is needed to carry more downhole tools to accomplish works with high efficiency. A novel serial active helical drive downhole tractor which has significantly improved performance compared with previous work is proposed. All previously reported helical drive downhole tractors need stators to balance the torque generated by the rotator. By contrast, the proposed serial downhole tractor does not need a stator; several rotator-driven units should only be connected to one another to achieve a tractive force multifold higher than that was previously reported. As a result, the length of a single unit is shortened, and the motion flexibility of the downhole tractor is increased. The major performance indicators, namely, gear ratio, velocity, and tractive force, are analyzed. Experimental results show that the maximum tractive force of a single-unit prototype with a length of 900 mm is 165.3 kg or 1620 N. The analysis and experimental results show that the proposed design has considerable potential for downhole works.

  5. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  6. Calculation of Raman optical activity spectra for vibrational analysis.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Shaun T; Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A; Blanch, Ewan W

    2015-05-07

    By looking back on the history of Raman Optical Activity (ROA), the present article shows that the success of this analytical technique was for a long time hindered, paradoxically, by the deep level of detail and wealth of structural information it can provide. Basic principles of the underlying theory are discussed, to illustrate the technique's sensitivity due to its physical origins in the delicate response of molecular vibrations to electromagnetic properties. Following a short review of significant advances in the application of ROA by UK researchers, we dedicate two extensive sections to the technical and theoretical difficulties that were overcome to eventually provide predictive power to computational simulations in terms of ROA spectral calculation. In the last sections, we focus on a new modelling strategy that has been successful in coping with the dramatic impact of solvent effects on ROA analyses. This work emphasises the role of complementarity between experiment and theory for analysing the conformations and dynamics of biomolecules, so providing new perspectives for methodological improvements and molecular modelling development. For the latter, an example of a next-generation force-field for more accurate simulations and analysis of molecular behaviour is presented. By improving the accuracy of computational modelling, the analytical capabilities of ROA spectroscopy will be further developed so generating new insights into the complex behaviour of molecules.

  7. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Robert R.; Bode, Peter; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.

    2011-03-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière — Métrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance — Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  8. One active debris removal control system design and error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilin; Chen, Lei; Li, Kebo; Lei, Yongjun

    2016-11-01

    The increasing expansion of debris presents a significant challenge to space safety and sustainability. To address it, active debris removal, usually involving a chaser performing autonomous rendezvous with targeted debris to be removed is a feasible solution. In this paper, we explore a mid-range autonomous rendezvous control system based on augmented proportional navigation (APN), establishing a three-dimensional kinematic equation set constructed in a rotating coordinate system. In APN, feedback control is applied in the direction of line of sight (LOS), thus analytical solutions of LOS rate and relative motion are expectedly obtained. To evaluate the effectiveness of the control system, we adopt Zero-Effort-Miss (ZEM) in this research as the index, the uncertainty of which is directly determined by that of LOS rate. Accordingly, we apply covariance analysis (CA) method to analyze the propagation of LOS rate uncertainty. Consequently, we find that the accuracy of the control system can be verified even with uncertainty and the CA method is drastically more computationally efficient compared with nonlinear Monte-Carlo method. Additionally, to justify the superiority of the system, we further discuss more simulation cases to show the robustness and feasibility of APN proposed in the paper.

  9. Analysis of low levels of rare earths by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandless, G.A.; Morgan, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure for the radiochemical neutron-activation analysis for the rare earth elements (REE) involves the separation of the REE as a group by rapid ion-exchange methods and determination of yields by reactivation or by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard rocks, BCR-1 and AGV-1, were analyzed to determine the precision and accuracy of the method. We found that the precision was ??5-10% on the basis of replicate analysis and that, in general the accuracy was within ??5% of accepted values for most REE. Data for USGS standard rocks BIR-1 (Icelandic basalt) and DNC-1 (North Carolina diabase) are also presented. ?? 1985 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  10. Film analysis of activated sludge microbial discs by the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, M Y; Syu, M J

    2003-12-01

    A biofilm model with substrate inhibition is proposed for the activated sludge growing discs of rotating biological contactor (RBC); this model is different from the steady-state biofilm model based on the Monod assumption. Both deep and shallow types of biofilms are examined and discussed. The biofilm models based on both Monod and substrate inhibition (Haldane) assumptions are compared. In addition, the relationships between substrate utilization rate, biofilm thickness, and liquid phase substrate concentration are discussed. The influence order of the factors that affect the biofilm thickness is studied and discussed by combining the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis. In this work, a Taguchi orthogonal table is used to construct the series that is needed for grey relational analysis to determine the influence priority of the four parameters S(B), kX(f), K(s), and K(i).

  11. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baljinnyam, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.

    2011-06-28

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves)(0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the ''Reference plant? data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  12. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  13. Platelet factor 4 stimulates thrombomodulin protein C-activating cofactor activity. A structure-function analysis.

    PubMed

    Slungaard, A; Key, N S

    1994-10-14

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an anionic (pI approximately 4) protein cofactor that promotes thrombin (THR) cleavage of protein C to generate activated protein C (APC), a potent anticoagulant. We find that the cationic platelet alpha-granule protein platelet factor 4 (PF4) stimulates 4-25-fold the cofactor activity of rabbit TM and two differentially glycanated versions of an extracellular domain human TM polypeptide in which the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is either present (GAG+ TM) or absent (GAG- TM) with an ED50 of 3.3-10 micrograms/ml. No such stimulation occurs in response to beta-thromboglobulin or thrombospondin, or when protein C lacking its gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain is the substrate. Heparin and chondroitin sulfates A and E reverse PF4 stimulation. PF4 minimally affects the Kd for THR but decreases 30-fold (from 8.3 to 0.3 microM) the Km for protein C of APC generation by GAG+ TM. PF4 also strikingly transforms the [Ca2+] dependence profile of rabbit and GAG+ TM to resemble that of GAG- TM. A potential explanation for this is that PF4, like Ca2+, induces heparin-reversible alterations in native (but not Gla-domainless) protein C conformation as assessed by autofluorescence emission analysis. We conclude that PF4 stimulates TM APC generation by interacting electrostatically with both the TM GAG and the protein C Gla domain to enhance markedly the affinity of the THR.TM complex for protein C. By this mechanism, PF4 may play a previously unsuspected role in the physiologic regulation of clotting.

  14. Analysis of multilayer electro-active spherical balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortot, Eliana

    An electro-active spherical balloon is susceptible to electromechanical instability which, for certain material models, can trigger substantial size change. Hence, the electro-active balloon can conveniently be employed for application as actuator or generator. Practical applications, however, require proper electrode protection from aggressive agents and electric safety. For this purpose, the active membrane can be sandwiched between two soft protective passive layers. In this paper, the theory of nonlinear electro-elasticity for heterogeneous soft dielectrics is applied to the investigation of the electromechanical response of multilayer electro-active spherical balloons, formed either by the active membrane only (single-layer balloon) or by the coated active membrane (multilayer balloon). Numerical results showing the influence of the soft passive layers on the electromechanical response of the active membrane are presented.

  15. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity, Fatty Acids Composition, and Functional Group Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sohail; Ahmad, Shabir; Bibi, Ahtaram; Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Kanwal, Farina; Zakir, Muhammad; Fatima, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL) and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL) of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00), stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10), and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02) divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%), eicosadienoic acid (15.12%), oleic acid (8.72%), and palmitic acid (8.14%) were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model. PMID:25489605

  16. Response-restriction analysis: II. Alteration of activity preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Gregory P; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Thompson, Rachel H; Lindberg, Jana S

    2003-01-01

    We used response-restriction (RR) assessments to identify the preferences of 7 individuals with mental retardation for a variety of vocational and leisure activities. We subsequently increased their engagement in nonpreferred activities using several procedures: response restriction per se versus a Premack-type contingency (Study 1), supplemental reinforcement for engagement in target activities (Study 2), and noncontingent pairing of reinforcers with nonpreferred activities (Study 3). Results indicated that preferences are not immutable and can be altered through a variety of relatively benign interventions and that the results of RR assessments may be helpful in determining which types of procedures may be most effective on an individual basis. PMID:12723867

  17. Injury causation in the great outdoors: A systems analysis of led outdoor activity injury incidents.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G; Finch, Caroline F; Cassell, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Despite calls for a systems approach to assessing and preventing injurious incidents within the led outdoor activity domain, applications of systems analysis frameworks to the analysis of incident data have been sparse. This article presents an analysis of 1014 led outdoor activity injury and near miss incidents whereby a systems-based risk management framework was used to classify the contributing factors involved across six levels of the led outdoor activity 'system'. The analysis identified causal factors across all levels of the led outdoor activity system, demonstrating the framework's utility for accident analysis efforts in the led outdoor activity injury domain. In addition, issues associated with the current data collection framework that potentially limited the identification of contributing factors outside of the individuals, equipment, and environment involved were identified. In closing, the requirement for new and improved data systems to be underpinned by the systems philosophy and new models of led outdoor activity accident causation is discussed.

  18. PDAs as Lifelong Learning Tools: An Activity Theory Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waycott, Jenny; Jones, Ann; Scanlon, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an activity theory (AT) framework to analyze the ways that distance part time learners and mobile workers adapted and appropriated mobile devices for their activities and in turn how their use of these new tools changed the ways that they carried out their learning or their work. It is argued that there are two key…

  19. Evolution & Phylogenetic Analysis: Classroom Activities for Investigating Molecular & Morphological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Wilfred A.

    2010-01-01

    In a flexible multisession laboratory, students investigate concepts of phylogenetic analysis at both the molecular and the morphological level. Students finish by conducting their own analysis on a collection of skeletons representing the major phyla of vertebrates, a collection of primate skulls, or a collection of hominid skulls.

  20. Teaching an Engaged Analysis Class through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Erin Terwilleger

    2012-01-01

    Real Analysis is a required class for most undergraduate mathematics majors, but it is also one of the most difficult classes they will take. In this article, the author compares two approaches to teaching in the two analysis classes she has taught. The first one was taught in a traditional lecture-homework-exam format, while the second was taught…

  1. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  2. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  3. Analysis of solid-rocket effluents for aluminum, silicon, and other trace elements by neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furr, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity and reliability of neutron activation analysis in detecting trace elements in solid rocket effluents are discussed. Special attention was given to Al and Si contaminants. The construction and performance of a thermal column irradiation unit was reported.

  4. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Guide Instructional Design of Experiential Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sheri; Hsu, Yu-Chang; Kinney, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Designing experiential learning activities requires an instructor to think about what they want the students to learn. Using importance-performance analysis can assist with the instructional design of the activities. This exploratory study used importance-performance analysis in an online introduction to criminology course. There is limited…

  5. Teaching Tip: Using Activity Diagrams to Model Systems Analysis Techniques: Teaching What We Preach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lending, Diane; May, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Activity diagrams are used in Systems Analysis and Design classes as a visual tool to model the business processes of "as-is" and "to-be" systems. This paper presents the idea of using these same activity diagrams in the classroom to model the actual processes (practices and techniques) of Systems Analysis and Design. This tip…

  6. ANALYSIS OF DISCRIMINATING FACTORS IN HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurately modeling exposure to particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants ultimately involves the utilization of human location-activity databases to assist in understanding the potential variability of microenvironmental exposures. This paper critically considers and stati...

  7. Stability analysis for drugs with multiple active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Chow, Shein-Chung; Shao, Jun

    2007-03-30

    For every drug product on the market, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that an expiration dating period (shelf-life) must be indicated on the immediate container label. For determination of the expiration dating period of a drug product, regulatory requirements and statistical methodology are provided in the FDA and ICH Guidelines. However, this guideline is developed for drug products with a single active ingredient. There are many drug products consisting of multiple active ingredients, especially for most traditional Chinese medicine. In this article, we propose a statistical method for determining the shelf-life of a drug product with multiple active ingredients following similar idea as suggested by the FDA and assuming that these active ingredients are linear combinations of some factors. Stability data observed from a traditional Chinese medicine were analysed to illustrate the proposed method.

  8. Proposed neutron activation analysis facilities in the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, L.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A number of analytical chemistry experimental facilities are being proposed for the Advanced Neutron Source. Experimental capabilities will include gamma-ray analysis and neutron depth profiling. This paper describes the various systems proposed and some of their important characteristics.

  9. Active disturbance rejection control: methodology and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Xue, Wenchao

    2014-07-01

    The methodology of ADRC and the progress of its theoretical analysis are reviewed in the paper. Several breakthroughs for control of nonlinear uncertain systems, made possible by ADRC, are discussed. The key in employing ADRC, which is to accurately determine the "total disturbance" that affects the output of the system, is illuminated. The latest results in theoretical analysis of the ADRC-based control systems are introduced.

  10. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.

  11. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields.

  12. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving a reversible inhibitor. I. Kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, A; Sotos-Lomas, A; Arribas, E; Masia-Perez, J; Garcia-Molina, F; García-Moreno, M; Varon, R

    2007-04-01

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinases zymogens involving a uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous activation route and a reversible inhibition step, the time course equation of the zymogen, inhibitor and activated enzyme concentrations have been derived. Likewise, expressions for the time required for any reaction progress and the corresponding mean activation rates as well as the half-life of the global zymogen activation have been derived. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed.

  13. Spatial Analysis of Crime Incidence and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Alyssa I.; Carnes, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman’s correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. Overall, 1,694 reported crimes and 16,702 minutes of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, p<0.0001). Crime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, p<0.0001) and highest quartile (ρ=0.32, p<0.0001) of crime density. This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime. PMID:26820115

  14. Comparative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Regulating Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gyun Jee; Kim, Jaehong; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Seungeun; Park, Hana; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To examine the role of PTPs in microglial activation and neuroinflammation, we used specific pharmacological inhibitors of PTPs. Inhibition of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, LYP, and RPTPβ suppressed nitric oxide production in LPS-treated microglial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, and RPTPβ inhibitors downregulated microglial activation in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model. Our results indicate that multiple PTPs are involved in regulating microglial activation and neuroinflammation, with different expression patterns and specific functions. Thus, PTP inhibitors can be exploited for therapeutic modulation of microglial activation in neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:27790059

  15. Comparison of Impurities in Charcoal Sorbents Found by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Finn, Erin C.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Neutron activation of gas samples in a reactor often requires a medium to retain sufficient amounts of the gas for analysis. Charcoal is commonly used to adsorb gas and hold it for activation; however, the amount of activated sodium in the charcoal after irradiation swamps most signals of interest. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on several commonly available charcoal samples in an effort to determine the activation background. The results for several elements, including the dominant sodium element, are reported. It was found that ECN charcoal had the lowest elemental background, containing sodium at 2.65 ± 0.05 ppm, as well as trace levels of copper and tungsten.

  16. Flipping the Audience Script: An Activity That Integrates Research and Audience Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chris; Hannah, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a flipped classroom activity that requires students to integrate research and audience analysis. The activity uses Twitter as a data source. In the activity, students identify a sample, collect customer tweets, and analyze the language of the tweets in an effort to construct knowledge about an audience's values, needs, and…

  17. Rinnsal: Exercises in Location Analysis. Instructional Activities Series IA/S-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Jerry

    This activity is one of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. The activity investigates economic change in a developing region in the United States. "Rinnsal" is a geographical simulation game lasting three weeks that involves location analysis concepts.…

  18. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY DATA FOR USE IN MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity data are a critical part of exposure models being developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). An analysis of human activity data within NERL's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) was performed in two areas relevant to exposure ...

  19. Biological Activity Predictions and Hydrogen Bonding Analysis in Quinolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Palvi; Kamni

    The paper has been designed to make a comprehensive review of a particular series of organic molecular assembly in the form of compendium. An overview of general description of fifteen quinoline derivatives has been given. The biological activity spectra of quinoline derivatives have been correlated on structure activity relationships base which provides the different Pa (possibility of activity) and Pi (possibility of inactivity) values. Expositions of the role of intermolecular interactions in the identified derivatives have been discussed with the standard distance and angle cut-off criteria criteria as proposed by Desiraju and Steiner (1999) in an International monogram on crystallography. Distance-angle scatter plots for intermolecular interactions are presented for a better understanding of the packing interactions which exist in quinoline derivatives.

  20. Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) was calculated from temperature sweeps of cheeses with contrasting characteristics to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Cheddar, Colby, whole milk Mozzarella, low moisture part skim Mozzarella, Parmesan, soft goat, and Queso Fre...

  1. Long Term Activity Analysis in Surveillance Video Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-yu

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance video recording is becoming ubiquitous in daily life for public areas such as supermarkets, banks, and airports. The rate at which surveillance video is being generated has accelerated demand for machine understanding to enable better content-based search capabilities. Analyzing human activity is one of the key tasks to understand and…

  2. Analysis of chromatin boundary activity in Drosophila cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mo; Belozerov, Vladimir E; Cai, Haini N

    2008-01-01

    Background Chromatin boundaries, also known as insulators, regulate gene activity by organizing active and repressive chromatin domains and modulate enhancer-promoter interactions. However, the mechanisms of boundary action are poorly understood, in part due to our limited knowledge about insulator proteins, and a shortage of standard assays by which diverse boundaries could be compared. Results We report here the development of an enhancer-blocking assay for studying insulator activity in Drosophila cultured cells. We show that the activities of diverse Drosophila insulators including suHw, SF1, SF1b, Fab7 and Fab8 are supported in these cells. We further show that double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown of SuHw and dCTCF factors disrupts the enhancer-blocking function of suHw and Fab8, respectively, thereby establishing the effectiveness of using RNA interference in our cell-based assay for probing insulator function. Conclusion The novel boundary assay provides a quantitative and efficient method for analyzing insulator mechanism and can be further exploited in genome-wide RNAi screens for insulator components. It provides a useful tool that complements the transgenic and genetic approaches for studying this important class of regulatory elements. PMID:19077248

  3. Proteomic analysis of macrophage activated with salmonella lipopolysaccharide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macrophages play pivotal role in immunity. They are activated by many pathogen derived molecules such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) which trigger the production of various proteins and peptides that drive and resolve inflammation. There are numerous studies on the effect of LPS at the genome level bu...

  4. Microscopic Analysis of Plankton, Periphyton, and Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This manual is intended for professional personnel in the fields of water pollution control, limnology, water supply and waste treatment. Primary emphasis is given to practice in the identification and enumeration of microscopic organisms which may be encountered in water and activated sludge. Methods for the chemical and instrumental evaluation…

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    PubMed Central

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Dicko, Mamoudou H.; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine. PMID:25767723

  6. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark.

    PubMed

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  7. 1997 Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity (AMSARA) Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    Attention - Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder Armed Forces Qualifying Test Academic Skills Defect Accession Medical Standards Analysis and...Academic Skills Defect: 1995 and 1996: Preliminary Results Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder is not directly addressed in the DOD Directive for...Genetic Influences in Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders: Autism and Attention - Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder . Am J Hum Genet

  8. Mapping of Brain Activity by Automated Volume Analysis of Immediate Early Genes.

    PubMed

    Renier, Nicolas; Adams, Eliza L; Kirst, Christoph; Wu, Zhuhao; Azevedo, Ricardo; Kohl, Johannes; Autry, Anita E; Kadiri, Lolahon; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Victoria X; Tang, Cheuk Y; Olsen, Olav; Dulac, Catherine; Osten, Pavel; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-06-16

    Understanding how neural information is processed in physiological and pathological states would benefit from precise detection, localization, and quantification of the activity of all neurons across the entire brain, which has not, to date, been achieved in the mammalian brain. We introduce a pipeline for high-speed acquisition of brain activity at cellular resolution through profiling immediate early gene expression using immunostaining and light-sheet fluorescence imaging, followed by automated mapping and analysis of activity by an open-source software program we term ClearMap. We validate the pipeline first by analysis of brain regions activated in response to haloperidol. Next, we report new cortical regions downstream of whisker-evoked sensory processing during active exploration. Last, we combine activity mapping with axon tracing to uncover new brain regions differentially activated during parenting behavior. This pipeline is widely applicable to different experimental paradigms, including animal species for which transgenic activity reporters are not readily available.

  9. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  10. Adults' Physical Activity Patterns across Life Domains: Cluster Analysis with Replication

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Marshall, Simon J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Identifying adults' physical activity patterns across multiple life domains could inform the design of interventions and policies. Design Cluster analysis was conducted with adults in two US regions (Baltimore-Washington DC, n = 702; Seattle-King County, n = 987) to identify different physical activity patterns based on adults' reported physical activity across four life domains: leisure, occupation, transport, and home. Objectively measured physical activity, and psychosocial and built (physical) environment characteristics of activity patterns were examined. Main Outcome Measures Accelerometer-measured activity, reported domain-specific activity, psychosocial characteristics, built environment, body mass index (BMI). Results Three clusters replicated (kappa = .90-.93) across both regions: Low Activity, Active Leisure, and Active Job. The Low Activity and Active Leisure adults were demographically similar, but Active Leisure adults had the highest psychosocial and built environment support for activity, highest accelerometer-measured activity, and lowest BMI. Compared to the other clusters, the Active Job cluster had lower socioeconomic status and intermediate accelerometer-measured activity. Conclusion Adults can be clustered into groups based on their patterns of accumulating physical activity across life domains. Differences in psychosocial and built environment support between the identified clusters suggest that tailored interventions for different subgroups may be beneficial. PMID:20836604

  11. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis for geochemical analyses of terrestrial impact structures: current analytical procedures at the university of vienna geochemistry activation analysis laboratory.

    PubMed

    Mader, Dieter; Koeberl, Christian

    2009-12-01

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory at the Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, has been upgraded in the year 2006. This paper describes the sample preparation, new instrumentation and data evaluation for hundreds of rock samples of two terrestrial impact structures. The measurement and data evaluation are done by using Genie 2000 and a custom-made batch software for the used analysis sequences.

  12. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited.

  13. Active Control Analysis for Aeroelastic Instabilities in Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Turbomachines onboard aircraft operate in a highly complex and harsh environment. The unsteady flowfield inherent to turbomachines leads to several problems associated with safety, stability, performance and noise. In-flight surge or flutter incidents could be catastrophic and impact the safety and reliability of the aircraft. High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF), on the other hand, can significantly impact safety, readiness and maintenance costs. To avoid or minimize these problems generally a more conservative design method must be initiated which results in thicker blades and a loss of performance. Actively controlled turbomachines have the potential to reduce or even eliminate the instabilities by impacting the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. By modifying the unsteady aerodynamics, active control may significantly improve the safety and performance especially at off-design conditions, reduce noise, and increase the range of operation of the turbomachine. Active control can also help improve reliability for mission critical applications such as the Mars Flyer. In recent years, HCF has become one of the major issues concerning the cost of operation for current turbomachines. HCF alone accounts for roughly 30% of maintenance cost for the United States Air-Force. Other instabilities (flutter, surge, rotating-stall, etc.) are generally identified during the design and testing phase. Usually a redesign overcomes these problems, often reducing performance and range of operation, and resulting in an increase in the development cost and time. Despite a redesign, the engines do not have the capabilities or means to cope with in-flight unforeseen vibration, stall, flutter or surge related instabilities. This could require the entire fleet worldwide to be stood down for expensive modifications. These problems can be largely overcome by incorporating active control within the turbomachine and its design. Active control can help in maintaining the integrity of the system in

  14. Determination of indium in standard rocks by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, O; Steinnes, E

    1966-08-01

    A rapid neutron activation method for the determination of indium in rocks, based on 54 min (116m)In, is described. The method has been applied to a series of geochemical standards including granite G-1 and diabase W-1. The precision is better than +/- 5% for samples containing more than 5 x 10(-10)g indium. Good agreement with previously published values for G-1 and W-1 has been obtained.

  15. Structure-activity analysis of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal molecule.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, James; Bowden, Steven D; Galloway, Warren R J D; Spring, David R; Welch, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We synthesized a range of PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone) analogues and tested them for their ability to stimulate MvfR-dependent pqsA transcription, MvfR-independent pyoverdine production, and membrane vesicle production. The structure-activity profile of the PQS analogues was different for each of these phenotypes. Certain inactive PQS analogues were also found to strongly synergize PQS-dependent pyoverdine production.

  16. Genetic Analysis of Daily Activity in Humans and Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of the technical developments that have made such genetic dissections a productive force in the mouse , have, when combined with innovations in...and Mice AFOSR grant F49620-97-1-0321 Joseph S. Takahashi Dept. of Neurobiology & Physiology Northwestern University 2153 North Campus Dr. Evanston...Activity in Humans and Mice Unclassified 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Takahashi, Joseph S. ; 5f. WORK

  17. Metaproteomic analysis reveals microbial metabolic activities in the deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Wang, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Kong, Ling-Fen; Lin, Lin

    2016-04-01

    The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth and holds many and varied microbial life forms. However, little is known about their metabolic activities in the deep ocean. Here, we characterized protein profiles of particulate (>0.22 μm) and dissolved (between 10 kDa and 0.22 μm) fractions collected from the deep South China Sea using a shotgun proteomic approach. SAR324, Alteromonadales and SAR11 were the most abundant groups, while Prasinophyte contributed most to eukaryotes and cyanophage to viruses. The dominant heterotrophic activity was evidenced by the abundant transporters (33%). Proteins participating in nitrification, methanogenesis, methyltrophy and CO2 fixation were detected. Notably, the predominance of unique cellular proteins in dissolved fraction suggested the presence of membrane structures. Moreover, the detection of translation proteins related to phytoplankton indicated that other process rather than sinking particles might be the downward export of living cells. Our study implied that novel extracellular activities and the interaction of deep water with its overlying water could be crucial to the microbial world of deep sea.

  18. Bacteria-Based Analysis of HIV-1 Vpu Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Robert; Alhadeff, Raphael; Assa, Dror; Krugliak, Miriam; Arkin, Isaiah T.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 Vpu is a small, single-span membrane protein with two attributed functions that increase the virus' pathogenicity: degradation of CD4 and inactivation of BST-2. Vpu has also been shown to posses ion channel activity, yet no correlation has been found between this attribute and Vpu's role in viral release. In order to gain further insight into the channel activity of Vpu we devised two bacteria-based assays that can examine this function in detail. In the first assay Vpu was over-expressed, such that it was deleterious to bacterial growth due to membrane permeabilization. In the second and more sensitive assay, the channel was expressed at low levels in K+ transport deficient bacteria. Consequently, Vpu expression enabled the bacteria to grow at otherwise non permissive low K+ concentrations. Hence, Vpu had the opposite impact on bacterial growth in the two assays: detrimental in the former and beneficial in the latter. Furthermore, we show that channel blockers also behave reciprocally in the two assays, promoting growth in the first assay and hindering it in the second assay. Taken together, we investigated Vpu's channel activity in a rapid and quantitative approach that is amenable to high-throughput screening, in search of novel blockers. PMID:25272035

  19. Active Percolation Analysis of Pyramidal Neurons of Somatosensory Cortex:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Barbosa, Marconi Soares; Schierwagen, Andreas; Alpár, Alán; Gärtner, Ulrich; Arendt, Thomas

    This article describes the investigation of morphological variations among two sets of neuronal cells, namely a control group of wild type mouse cells and a group of cells of a transgenic line. Special attention is given to singular points in the neuronal structure, namely the branching points and extremities of the dendritic processes. The characterization of the spatial distribution of such points is obtained by using a recently reported morphological technique based on forced percolation and window-size compensation, which is particularly suited to the analysis of scattered points, presenting several coexisting densities. Different dispersions were identified in our statistical analysis, suggesting that the transgenic line of neurons is characterized by a more pronounced morphological variation. A classification scheme based on a canonical discriminant function was also considered in order to identify the morphological differences.

  20. Vulnerability-attention analysis for space-related activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Donnie; Hays, Dan; Lee, Sung Yong; Wolfsberger, John

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for representing and analyzing trouble spots in structures and processes are discussed. Identification of vulnerable areas usually depends more on particular and often detailed knowledge than on algorithmic or mathematical procedures. In some cases, machine inference can facilitate the identification. The analysis scheme proposed first establishes the geometry of the process, then marks areas that are conditionally vulnerable. This provides a basis for advice on the kinds of human attention or machine sensing and control that can make the risks tolerable.

  1. Thermal Analysis of ISS Service Module Active TCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altov, Vladimir V.; Zaletaev, Sergey V.; Belyavskiy, Evgeniy P.

    2000-01-01

    ISS Service Module mission must begin in July 2000. The verification of design thermal requirements is mostly due to thermal analysis. The thermal analysis is enough difficult problem because of large number of ISS configurations that had to be investigated and various orbital environments. Besides the ISS structure has articulating parts such as solar arrays and radiators. The presence of articulating parts greatly increases computation times and requires accurate approach to organization of calculations. The varying geometry needs us to calculate the view factors several times during the orbit, while in static geometry case we need do it only once. In this paper we consider the thermal mathematical model of SM that includes the TCS and construction thermal models and discuss the results of calculations for ISS configurations 1R and 9Al. The analysis is based on solving the nodal heat balance equations for ISS structure by Kutta-Merson method and analytical solutions of heat transfer equations for TCS units. The computations were performed using thermal software TERM [1,2] that will be briefly described.

  2. Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Petrie, L.M.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypic analysis capabilities that can be used by the nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, the project will investigate the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses, as well as within a new deterministic code that allows specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model the geometry details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored.

  3. Evaluation of radioisotope tracer and activation analysis techniques for contamination monitoring in space environment simulation chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smathers, J. B.; Kuykendall, W. E., Jr.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Marshall, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Radioisotope measurement techniques and neutron activation analysis are evaluated for use in identifying and locating contamination sources in space environment simulation chambers. The alpha range method allows the determination of total contaminant concentration in vapor state and condensate state. A Cf-252 neutron activation analysis system for detecting oils and greases tagged with stable elements is described. While neutron activation analysis of tagged contaminants offers specificity, an on-site system is extremely costly to implement and provides only marginal detection sensitivity under even the most favorable conditions.

  4. Analysis of muscle activity during active pelvic tilting in sagittal plane

    PubMed Central

    TAKAKI, Sho; KANEOKA, Koji; OKUBO, Yu; OTSUKA, Satoru; TATSUMURA, Masaki; SHIINA, Itsuo; MIYAKAWA, Shumpei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pelvic tilting is performed to improve lumbopelvic flexibility or retrain the motor control of local muscles. However, few studies investigated the activity of local muscles during pelvic tilting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity during anterior and posterior pelvic tilting. Method: Twelve healthy males (age, 22.6 ± 1.4 years) participated. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted into the bilateral lumbar multifidus (MF) and transversus abdominis (TrA). Surface electrodes were used to record activity of the bilateral rectus abdominis, external oblique, and erector spinae (ES), and the unilateral right latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus, semitendinosus, and rectus femoris muscles. The electromyographic activities during anterior and posterior pelvic tilting in a standing position were recorded and expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) for each muscle. Results: The activities of the bilateral MF (right: 23.9 ± 15.9 %MVC, left: 23.9 ± 15.1 %MVC) and right ES (19.0 ± 13.3 %MVC) were significantly greater than those of the other muscles during anterior pelvic tilting. The activity of the left TrA (14.8 ± 16.4 %MVC) was significantly greater than that of the other muscles during posterior pelvic tilting. Conclusions: The results suggested that the MF and ES are related to anterior pelvic tilting. The activity of the TrA, which was classified as a local muscle, was greater during posterior pelvic tilting. This study indicated that local muscles such as the MF and TrA may be related to pelvic tilting. PMID:28289581

  5. Statistical analysis on activation and photo-bleaching of step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence of melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zetong; Lai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xi; Yin, Jihao; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Melanin is regarded as the most enigmatic pigments/biopolymers found in most organisms. We have shown previously that melanin goes through a step-wise multi-photon absorption process after the fluorescence has been activated with high laser intensity. No melanin step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) can be obtained without the activation process. The step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence has been observed to require less laser power than what would be expected from a non-linear optical process. In this paper, we examined the power dependence of the activation process of melanin SMPAF at 830nm and 920nm wavelengths. We have conducted research using varying the laser power to activate the melanin in a point-scanning mode for multi-photon microscopy. We recorded the fluorescence signals and position. A sequence of experiments indicates the relationship of activation to power, energy and time so that we can optimize the power level. Also we explored regional analysis of melanin to study the spatial relationship in SMPAF and define three types of regions which exhibit differences in the activation process.

  6. Global Analysis of Protein Activities Using Proteome Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Heng; Bilgin, Metin; Bangham, Rhonda; Hall, David; Casamayor, Antonio; Bertone, Paul; Lan, Ning; Jansen, Ronald; Bidlingmaier, Scott; Houfek, Thomas; Mitchell, Tom; Miller, Perry; Dean, Ralph A.; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael

    2001-09-01

    To facilitate studies of the yeast proteome, we cloned 5800 open reading frames and overexpressed and purified their corresponding proteins. The proteins were printed onto slides at high spatial density to form a yeast proteome microarray and screened for their ability to interact with proteins and phospholipids. We identified many new calmodulin- and phospholipid-interacting proteins; a common potential binding motif was identified for many of the calmodulin-binding proteins. Thus, microarrays of an entire eukaryotic proteome can be prepared and screened for diverse biochemical activities. The microarrays can also be used to screen protein-drug interactions and to detect posttranslational modifications.

  7. Circadian Patterns of Wikipedia Editorial Activity: A Demographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yasseri, Taha; Sumi, Robert; Kertész, János

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia (WP) as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e., editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors. PMID:22272279

  8. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae).

    PubMed

    Hess, S C; Brum, R L; Honda, N K; Cruz, A B; Moretto, E; Cruz, R B; Messana, I; Ferrari, F; Cechinel Filho, V; Yunes, R A

    1995-07-07

    Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) is a tree commonly found in wet soils of 'Pantanal' of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and used in folk medicine against infections and asthma. We have studied different extracts and some isolated compounds from this plant for antibacterial activity. From the extracts of the stem bark beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid and sericic acid were isolated. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus were: ethanolic extract (MIC = 1.5 mg/ml); ethyl acetate extract (MIC = 2.0 mg/ml); and sericic acid (MIC = 1.0 mg/ml). Escherichia coli was resistant until 5 mg/ml.

  9. Active neutron multiplicity analysis and Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krick, M. S.; Ensslin, N.; Langner, D. G.; Miller, M. C.; Siebelist, R.; Stewart, J. E.; Ceo, R. N.; May, P. K.; Collins, L. L., Jr.

    Active neutron multiplicity measurements of high-enrichment uranium metal and oxide samples have been made at Los Alamos and Y-12. The data from the measurements of standards at Los Alamos were analyzed to obtain values for neutron multiplication and source-sample coupling. These results are compared to equivalent results obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. An approximate relationship between coupling and multiplication is derived and used to correct doubles rates for multiplication and coupling. The utility of singles counting for uranium samples is also examined.

  10. Tensor analysis methods for activity characterization in spatiotemporal data

    SciTech Connect

    Haass, Michael Joseph; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Ochoa, Edward M.

    2014-03-01

    Tensor (multiway array) factorization and decomposition offers unique advantages for activity characterization in spatio-temporal datasets because these methods are compatible with sparse matrices and maintain multiway structure that is otherwise lost in collapsing for regular matrix factorization. This report describes our research as part of the PANTHER LDRD Grand Challenge to develop a foundational basis of mathematical techniques and visualizations that enable unsophisticated users (e.g. users who are not steeped in the mathematical details of matrix algebra and mulitway computations) to discover hidden patterns in large spatiotemporal data sets.

  11. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  12. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  13. Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) - Active and passive methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Ivanov, J.

    2007-01-01

    The conventional seismic approaches for near-surface investigation have usually been either high-resolution reflection or refraction surveys that deal with a depth range of a few tens to hundreds meters. Seismic signals from these surveys consist of wavelets with frequencies higher than 50 Hz. The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method deals with surface waves in the lower frequencies (e.g., 1-30 Hz) and uses a much shallower depth range of investigation (e.g., a few to a few tens of meters). ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Recovery of rhythmic activity in a central pattern generator: analysis of the role of neuromodulator and activity-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yili; Golowasch, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The pyloric network of decapods crustaceans can undergo dramatic rhythmic activity changes. Under normal conditions the network generates low frequency rhythmic activity that depends obligatorily on the presence of neuromodulatory input from the central nervous system. When this input is removed (decentralization) the rhythmic activity ceases. In the continued absence of this input, periodic activity resumes after a few hours in the form of episodic bursting across the entire network that later turns into stable rhythmic activity that is nearly indistinguishable from control (recovery). It has been proposed that an activity-dependent modification of ionic conductance levels in the pyloric pacemaker neuron drives the process of recovery of activity. Previous modeling attempts have captured some aspects of the temporal changes observed experimentally, but key features could not be reproduced. Here we examined a model in which slow activity-dependent regulation of ionic conductances and slower neuromodulator-dependent regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration reproduce all the temporal features of this recovery. Key aspects of these two regulatory mechanisms are their independence and their different kinetics. We also examined the role of variability (noise) in the activity-dependent regulation pathway and observe that it can help to reduce unrealistic constraints that were otherwise required on the neuromodulator-dependent pathway. We conclude that small variations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, a Ca2+ uptake regulation mechanism that is directly targeted by neuromodulator-activated signaling pathways, and variability in the Ca2+ concentration sensing signaling pathway can account for the observed changes in neuronal activity. Our conclusions are all amenable to experimental analysis. PMID:21573963

  15. Source analysis of MEG activities during sleep (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Iramina, K.

    1991-04-01

    The present study focuses on magnetic fields of the brain activities during sleep, in particular on K-complexes, vertex waves, and sleep spindles in human subjects. We analyzed these waveforms based on both topographic EEG (electroencephalographic) maps and magnetic fields measurements, called MEGs (magnetoencephalograms). The components of magnetic fields perpendicular to the surface of the head were measured using a dc SQUID magnetometer with a second derivative gradiometer. In our computer simulation, the head is assumed to be a homogeneous spherical volume conductor, with electric sources of brain activity modeled as current dipoles. Comparison of computer simulations with the measured data, particularly the MEG, suggests that the source of K-complexes can be modeled by two current dipoles. A source for the vertex wave is modeled by a single current dipole which orients along the body axis out of the head. By again measuring the simultaneous MEG and EEG signals, it is possible to uniquely determine the orientation of this dipole, particularly when it is tilted slightly off-axis. In sleep stage 2, fast waves of magnetic fields consistently appeared, but EEG spindles appeared intermittently. The results suggest that there exist sources which are undetectable by electrical measurement but are detectable by magnetic-field measurement. Such source can be described by a pair of opposing dipoles of which directions are oppositely oriented.

  16. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  17. Enzyme activity electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Geotrichum candidum lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, T; Poulsen, O M; Hau, J

    1989-01-01

    The development and application of a rocket immunoelectrophoretic and an enzyme activity electrophoretic assay for the qualitative analysis of Geotrichum candidum lipase activity is presented. The sensitivities of the four assays were (in arbitrary units): enzyme activity electrophoresis, 1-0.5; rocket immunoelectrophoresis, 0.5-0.2; radial diffusion, 1; titrimetry, 1. The electrophoretic methods made it possible to distinguish between high and low molecular weight forms of the G. candidum lipases. The enzyme activity electrophoretic methods can be combined with other electrophoretic techniques, as demonstrated here with isoelectric focusing, and produce useful information on physico-chemical differences between different molecular forms of the lipase, e.g. forms with different pI.

  18. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Salvia chloroleuca Aerial Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study

  19. Neutron activation analysis traces copper artifacts to geographical point of origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, M.; Fields, P.; Friedman, A.; Kastner, M.; Metta, D.; Milsted, J.; Olsen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Impurities remaining in the metallic copper are identified and quantified by spectrographic and neutron activation analysis. Determination of the type of ore used for the copper artifact places the geographic point of origin of the artifact.

  20. TRI Analysis of Community-Scale Pollution Prevention Activities: North Birmingham, Alabama (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This analysis compared TRI data about pollution prevention and waste management activities from facilities located in North Birmingham with facilities in the same industry sectors that are located elsewhere in the country.

  1. Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.

  2. An analysis of the history of dust activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L. J.; Zurek, R. W.

    1993-02-01

    A comprehensive list of dust storm activity on Mars has been compiled from various published lists and additional data. For uniformity and clarity, each event is classified using a new system that includes a well-defined nomenclature. Maps showing the reported locations of events have been compiled. Detailed commentaries describe the events and/or circumstances of their observation. The seasonal distribution of Martian dust events is diagrammed and discussed together with a seasonal and annual (Mars years) timeline that includes the frequency of photographic coverage. Regional dust storms tend to occur most frequently, and all planet-encircling dust storms have been observed during the southern spring and summer seasons, although there is significant interannual variability.

  3. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  4. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection.

  5. Variability Analysis and the Structure of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    1998-01-01

    This five-year Long-Term Space Astrophysics grant provided the support for several major steps in advancing our knowledge of the internal structure of active galactic nuclei. The single largest portion of this program had to do with the development and application of techniques for "reverberation mapping", the use of spectral monitoring of several different bands related by radiation reprocessing to infer the internal geometry of sources. Major steps were taken in this regard, particularly in establishing the distribution in radius of emission line material, and in relating the apparent reprocessing of continuum bands to the underlying structure of the accretion disk. Another major effort built directly upon these results. Once the case for continuum reprocessing was made by the monitoring, it next behooved us to understand the spectral output of AGN as a result of this reprocessing. As a result, our view of continuum production in AGN is now much better focussed on the key problems. A third focus of effort had to do with the nature of X-ray variability in AGN, and what it can tell us about the dynamics of extremely hot material in the immediate outskirts of the supermassive black holes that form the central engines of active galactic nuclei. In addition to these primary efforts, this grant also supported many other, smaller projects. Several of these were demonstrations of how the material spewed out of AGN in relativistic.ets generate the radiation by which we observe them. J Finally, the portion of this study that had to do with continuum production by accretion disks in AGN led naturally to several papers in which new developments were presented having to do with "advection-dominated accretion disks", those disks in which accretion appears to proceed at a substantial rate, but in which radiation processes are weak.

  6. Analysis of supercooling activity of tannin-related polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Wang, Donghui; Endoh, Keita; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2013-08-01

    Based on the discovery of novel supercooling-promoting hydrolyzable gallotannins from deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in Katsura tree (see Wang et al. (2012) [38]), supercooling capability of a wide variety of tannin-related polyphenols (TRPs) was examined in order to find more effective supercooling-promoting substances for their applications. The TRPs examined were single compounds including six kinds of hydrolyzable tannins, 11 kinds of catechin derivatives, two kinds of structural analogs of catechin and six kinds of phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives, 11 kinds of polyphenol mixtures and five kinds of crude plant tannin extracts. The effects of these TRPs on freezing were examined by droplet freezing assays using various solutions containing different kinds of identified ice nucleators such as the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, the INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide and phloroglucinol as well as a solution containing only unintentionally included unidentified airborne ice nucleators. Among the 41 kinds of TRPs examined, all of the hydrolyzable tannins, catechin derivatives, polyphenol mixtures and crude plant tannin extracts as well as a few structural analogs of catechin and phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives exhibited supercooling-promoting activity (SCA) with significant differences (p>0.05) from at least one of the solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators. It should be noted that there were no TRPs exhibiting ice nucleation-enhancing activity (INA) in all solutions containing identified ice nucleators, whereas there were many TRPs exhibiting INA with significant differences in solutions containing unidentified ice nucleators alone. An emulsion freezing assay confirmed that these TRPs did not essentially affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. It is thought that not only SCA but also INA in the TRPs are produced by interactions with heterogeneous ice nucleators, not by direct interaction with water

  7. Active-site titration analysis of surface influence on immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix morphology and surface polarity effects were investigated for Candida antarctica lipase B immobilization. Measurements of the amount of lipase immobilized (bicinchoninic acid method) and the catalyst’s tributyrin hydrolysis activity, coupled with a determination of the lipase’s functional fr...

  8. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  9. Explorative data analysis for changes in neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Meinecke, Frank C.; von Bünau, Paul; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2013-04-01

    Neural recordings are non-stationary time series, i.e. their properties typically change over time. Identifying specific changes, e.g., those induced by a learning task, can shed light on the underlying neural processes. However, such changes of interest are often masked by strong unrelated changes, which can be of physiological origin or due to measurement artifacts. We propose a novel algorithm for disentangling such different causes of non-stationarity and in this manner enable better neurophysiological interpretation for a wider set of experimental paradigms. A key ingredient is the repeated application of Stationary Subspace Analysis (SSA) using different temporal scales. The usefulness of our explorative approach is demonstrated in simulations, theory and EEG experiments with 80 brain-computer interfacing subjects.

  10. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  11. Muscle networks: Connectivity analysis of EMG activity during postural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonstra, Tjeerd W.; Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Xie, Hong-Bo; Roerdink, Melvyn; Stins, John F.; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that reduce the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal system remains an outstanding challenge. Muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality and hence simplify the control problem. How this is achieved is not yet known. Here we use network theory to assess the coordination between multiple muscles and to elucidate the neural implementation of muscle synergies. We performed connectivity analysis of surface EMG from ten leg muscles to extract the muscle networks while human participants were standing upright in four different conditions. We observed widespread connectivity between muscles at multiple distinct frequency bands. The network topology differed significantly between frequencies and between conditions. These findings demonstrate how muscle networks can be used to investigate the neural circuitry of motor coordination. The presence of disparate muscle networks across frequencies suggests that the neuromuscular system is organized into a multiplex network allowing for parallel and hierarchical control structures.

  12. Analysis and Management of Large-Scale Activities Based on Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaofan; Ji, Jingwei; Lu, Ligang; Wang, Zhiyi

    Based on the concepts of system safety engineering, life-cycle and interface that comes from American system safety standard MIL-STD-882E, and apply them to the process of risk analysis and management of large-scale activities. Identify the involved personnel, departments, funds and other contents throughout the life cycle of large-scale activities. Recognize and classify the ultimate risk sources of people, objects and environment of large-scale activities from the perspective of interface. Put forward the accident cause analysis model according to the previous large-scale activities' accidents and combine with the analysis of the risk source interface. Analyze the risks of each interface and summary various types of risks the large-scale activities faced. Come up with the risk management consciousness, policies and regulations, risk control and supervision departments improvement ideas.

  13. Paris Observatory Analysis Center (OPAR): Report on Activities, January - December 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Sebastien; Barache, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We report on activities of the Paris Observatory VLBI Analysis Center (OPAR) for calendar year 2012 concerning the development of operational tasks, the development of our Web site, and various other activities: monitoring of the Earth's free core nutation, measuring of the post-seismic displacements of some stations, and the analysis of the recent IVS R&D sessions, including observations of quasars close to the Sun.

  14. Activated region fitting: a robust high-power method for fMRI analysis using parameterized regions of activation.

    PubMed

    Weeda, Wouter D; Waldorp, Lourens J; Christoffels, Ingrid; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2009-08-01

    An important issue in the analysis of fMRI is how to account for the spatial smoothness of activated regions. In this article a method is proposed to accomplish this by modeling activated regions with Gaussian shapes. Hypothesis tests on the location, spatial extent, and amplitude of these regions are performed instead of hypothesis tests of individual voxels. This increases power and eases interpretation. Simulation studies show robust hypothesis tests under misspecification of the shape model, and increased power over standard techniques especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. An application to real single-subject data also indicates that the method has increased power over standard methods.

  15. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  16. In situ beamline analysis and correction of active optics.

    PubMed

    Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon; Sawhney, Kawal

    2012-11-01

    At the Diamond Light Source, pencil-beam measurements have enabled long-wavelength slope errors on X-ray mirror surfaces to be examined under ultra-high vacuum and beamline mounting without the need to remove the mirror from the beamline. For an active mirror an automated procedure has been implemented to calculate the actuator settings that optimize its figure. More recently, this in situ pencil-beam method has been applied to additional uses for which ex situ measurements would be inconvenient or simply impossible. First, it has been used to check the stability of the slope errors of several bimorph mirrors at intervals of several weeks or months. Then, it also proved useful for the adjustment of bender and sag compensation actuators on mechanically bent mirrors. Fits to the bending of ideal beams have been performed on the slope errors of a mechanically bent mirror in order to distinguish curvatures introduced by the bending actuators from gravitational distortion. Application of the optimization procedure to another mechanically bent mirror led to an improvement of its sag compensation mechanism.

  17. Nanoporous noninvasive cellular electrical activity-based analysis devices.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shalini; Quijano, Jorge

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, rapid advancements have been made in the biomedical applications of microtechnology and nanotechnology. While the focus of such technologies have been primarily on in vitro analytical and diagnostic tools, more recently in vivo therapeutic and sensing applications have gained attention. The long-term integration of cells with inorganic materials provides the basis for novel sensing platforms. The work presented here focuses on the ability to maintain cells long-term in nanoporous silicon-based microenvironments. This article describes the creation of nanoporous, biocompatible, alumina membranes as a platform for incorporation into a cell-based device targeted for in situ recording of cellular electrical activity variations due to the changes associated with the surrounding microenvironments. Studies described herein focus on the interaction of nanoporous alumina substrates embedded in silicon patterned with cells of interest. The fidelity of such a system is demonstrated in terms of viability, proliferation, and functionality. The capability of such microfabricated nanoporous membranes, as in vitro for cell-based assays for sensing and drug delivery applications, is also demonstrated. It has potential in vivo application for therapeutic immunoisolation.

  18. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  19. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  20. At tank Low Activity Feed Homogeneity Analysis Verification

    SciTech Connect

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2000-09-28

    This report evaluates the merit of selecting sodium, aluminum, and cesium-137 as analytes to indicate homogeneity of soluble species in low-activity waste (LAW) feed and recommends possible analytes and physical properties that could serve as rapid screening indicators for LAW feed homogeneity. The three analytes are adequate as screening indicators of soluble species homogeneity for tank waste when a mixing pump is used to thoroughly mix the waste in the waste feed staging tank and when all dissolved species are present at concentrations well below their solubility limits. If either of these conditions is violated, then the three indicators may not be sufficiently chemically representative of other waste constituents to reliably indicate homogeneity in the feed supernatant. Additional homogeneity indicators that should be considered are anions such as fluoride, sulfate, and phosphate, total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon, and total alpha to estimate the transuranic species. Physical property measurements such as gamma profiling, conductivity, specific gravity, and total suspended solids are recommended as possible at-tank methods for indicating homogeneity. Indicators of LAW feed homogeneity are needed to reduce the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) Program's contractual risk by assuring that the waste feed is within the contractual composition and can be supplied to the waste treatment plant within the schedule requirements.

  1. Quantitative analysis of axonal fiber activation evoked by deep brain stimulation via activation density heat maps

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Christian J.; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Lujan, J. Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cortical modulation is likely to be involved in the various therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, it is currently difficult to predict the changes of cortical modulation during clinical adjustment of DBS. Therefore, we present a novel quantitative approach to estimate anatomical regions of DBS-evoked cortical modulation. Methods: Four different models of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS were created to represent variable electrode placements (model I: dorsal border of the posterolateral STN; model II: central posterolateral STN; model III: central anteromedial STN; model IV: dorsal border of the anteromedial STN). Axonal fibers of passage near each electrode location were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography and modeled using multi-compartment cable models. Stimulation-evoked activation of local axon fibers and corresponding cortical projections were modeled and quantified. Results: Stimulation at the border of the STN (models I and IV) led to a higher degree of fiber activation and associated cortical modulation than stimulation deeply inside the STN (models II and III). A posterolateral target (models I and II) was highly connected to cortical areas representing motor function. Additionally, model I was also associated with strong activation of fibers projecting to the cerebellum. Finally, models III and IV showed a dorsoventral difference of preferentially targeted prefrontal areas (models III: middle frontal gyrus; model IV: inferior frontal gyrus). Discussion: The method described herein allows characterization of cortical modulation across different electrode placements and stimulation parameters. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomical distribution of stimulation-evoked activation targeting cortical regions may help predict efficacy and potential side effects, and therefore can be used to improve the therapeutic effectiveness of individual adjustments in DBS patients. PMID:25713510

  2. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The following is an interim annual report. Dr. Smith is currently on an extended TDY to the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) at the Consilio Nazionale delle Richerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, where he has been working on a related NASA grant in support of analysis of Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data on star formation in Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies and our galaxy. Work emphasizes development of metal mesh grids for use in spacecraft, and the design and fabrication of test elements by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. Work has progressed well, but slowly, on that program due to the departure of a key engineer. NASA has been advised of the delay, and granted a no-cost extension, whereby SAO has authorized a delay in the final report from NRL. Nevertheless NRL has continued to make progress. Two papers have been submitted to refereed journals related to this program, and a new design for mesh operating in the 20-40 micron region has been developed. Meetings continue through the summer on these items. A new technical scientist has been made a job offer and hopefully will be on board NRL shortly, although most of the present grant work is already completed. A more complete report, with copies of the submitted papers, designs, and other measures of progress, will be submitted to NASA in September when Dr. Smith returns from his current TDY.

  3. High-throughput Analysis of Mammalian Olfactory Receptors: Measurement of Receptor Activation via Luciferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Trimmer, Casey; Snyder, Lindsey L.; Mainland, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Odorants create unique and overlapping patterns of olfactory receptor activation, allowing a family of approximately 1,000 murine and 400 human receptors to recognize thousands of odorants. Odorant ligands have been published for fewer than 6% of human receptors1-11. This lack of data is due in part to difficulties functionally expressing these receptors in heterologous systems. Here, we describe a method for expressing the majority of the olfactory receptor family in Hana3A cells, followed by high-throughput assessment of olfactory receptor activation using a luciferase reporter assay. This assay can be used to (1) screen panels of odorants against panels of olfactory receptors; (2) confirm odorant/receptor interaction via dose response curves; and (3) compare receptor activation levels among receptor variants. In our sample data, 328 olfactory receptors were screened against 26 odorants. Odorant/receptor pairs with varying response scores were selected and tested in dose response. These data indicate that a screen is an effective method to enrich for odorant/receptor pairs that will pass a dose response experiment, i.e. receptors that have a bona fide response to an odorant. Therefore, this high-throughput luciferase assay is an effective method to characterize olfactory receptors—an essential step toward a model of odor coding in the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:24961834

  4. Reconstruction of human brain spontaneous activity based on frequency-pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography data

    PubMed Central

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Ustinin, Mikhail N.; Rykunov, Stanislav D.; Boyko, Anna I.; Sychev, Vyacheslav V.; Walton, Kerry D.; Rabello, Guilherme M.; Garcia, John

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis and localization of brain activity has been developed, based on multichannel magnetic field recordings, over minutes, superimposed on the MRI of the individual. Here, a high resolution Fourier Transform is obtained over the entire recording period, leading to a detailed multi-frequency spectrum. Further analysis implements a total decomposition of the frequency components into functionally invariant entities, each having an invariant field pattern localizable in recording space. The method, addressed as functional tomography, makes it possible to find the distribution of magnetic field sources in space. Here, the method is applied to the analysis of simulated data, to oscillating signals activating a physical current dipoles phantom, and to recordings of spontaneous brain activity in 10 healthy adults. In the analysis of simulated data, 61 dipoles are localized with 0.7 mm precision. Concerning the physical phantom the method is able to localize three simultaneously activated current dipoles with 1 mm precision. Spatial resolution 3 mm was attained when localizing spontaneous alpha rhythm activity in 10 healthy adults, where the alpha peak was specified for each subject individually. Co-registration of the functional tomograms with each subject's head MRI localized alpha range activity to the occipital and/or posterior parietal brain region. This is the first application of this new functional tomography to human brain activity. The method successfully provides an overall view of brain electrical activity, a detailed spectral description and, combined with MRI, the localization of sources in anatomical brain space. PMID:26528119

  5. Newspaper Content Analysis in Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Project to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…

  6. Seeing, Believing, and Learning to Be Skeptical: Supporting Language Learning through Advertising Analysis Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; He, Haixia; Robbgrieco, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study documents how a high school ESL teacher working with new immigrants ages 14-20 supported the development of their critical thinking and English language skills by using advertising analysis activities. The article examines the use of key critical questions for analyzing media messages and documents instructional activities designed to…

  7. Effectiveness of Physical Activity Interventions for Preschoolers: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Elliott S.; Tucker, Patricia; Burke, Shauna M.; Carron, Albert V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on physical activity participation among preschoolers. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of several possible moderator variables (e.g., intervention length, location, leadership, type) on moderate-to-vigorous physical…

  8. Comparing Effects of Different Writing Activities on Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Michael; Simpson, Amy; Graham, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to determine: (1) if different writing activities were more effective than others in improving students' reading comprehension, and (2) if obtained differences among writing activities was related to how reading comprehension was measured? Meta-analysis was used to examine these questions across studies involving…

  9. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  10. Instrumental nuclear activation analysis (INAA) characterization of environmental air filter samples.

    PubMed

    Alemón, Ernesto; Herrera, Luis; Ortiz, Elba; Longoria, L C Luis C

    2004-06-01

    Nuclear techniques have been used in quantitations of environmental pollutants, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has turned out to be particularly useful in the analysis of airborne suspended particles. This work describes the INAA characterization of the particulate material in the environmental samples obtained in a monitoring campaign in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area. As the types of the irradiation facilities and gamma-ray detection system impose some limitations on the possibilities of INAA analysis, the actual experimental conditions at Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory, where the analysis was performed, had been assessed. The facilities had been found suitable for the analysis of samples from this campaign, in which 22 elements were determined.

  11. 77 FR 45717 - Proposed Information Collection (Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis) Activity; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Information Collection (Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Service and Nutritional Care Analysis, VA Form 10-5387. OMB Control Number: 2900-0227. Type of Review... improvements are needed to enhance patient's nutritional therapy. Affected Public: Individuals and...

  12. 77 FR 64390 - Agency Information Collection (Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis) Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Food Service and Nutritional Care Analysis, VA Form 10-5387. OMB Control... determine whether improvements are needed to enhance patient's nutritional therapy. An agency may...

  13. OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SPERM MOTILITY IN THE LAKE STURGEON, ACIPENSER FULVESCENS: ACTIVATION AND INHIBITION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An objective analysis of the duration of motility of sperm from the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, has been performed using computer-assisted sperm motion analysis at 200 frames/s. Motility was measured in both 1993 and 1994. The percentage of activated motile sperm and the...

  14. Biomagnetic activity and non linear analysis in obstetrics and gynecology in a Greek population.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P; Anastasiadis, P; Adamopoulos, A; Kotini, A

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the application of non-linear analysis to biomagnetic signals recorded from fetal growth restriction, fetal brain activity, ovarian lesions, breast lesions, umbilical arteries, uterine myomas, and uterine arteries in a Greek population. The results were correlated with clinical findings. The biomagnetic measurements and the application of non-linear analysis are promising procedures in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. 30 CFR 280.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental analysis? 280.30 Section 280.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...) Shipboard hard mineral assaying and analysis; and (j) Placement of positioning systems, including...

  16. Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    1997-11-26

    Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR.

  17. Determination of certain trace impurities in uranium concentrates by activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rassoul, A A; Wahba, S S; Abdel-Aziz, A

    1966-03-01

    A method is presented for the simultaneous determination of chromium, iron, cobalt and zinc in samples of uranium concentrates, oxides and metallic uranium by neutron-activation analysis. The method involves adequate decontamination of gross fission product activities by adsorption on silica gel, removal of uranium by solvent extraction, separation of most carrier-free rare-earth activities by coprecipitation with aluminium chloride, and, finally, fractional separation of the elements concerned by ion-exchange chromatography. The method can assay ppm of such elements in limited quantities of samples by scintillation gamma-ray spectrometric analysis with a reproducibility of 10-15%.

  18. Independent component feature-based human activity recognition via Linear Discriminant Analysis and Hidden Markov Model.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md; Lee, J J; Kim, T S

    2008-01-01

    In proactive computing, human activity recognition from image sequences is an active research area. This paper presents a novel approach of human activity recognition based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of Independent Component (IC) features from shape information. With extracted features, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is applied for training and recognition. The recognition performance using LDA of IC features has been compared to other approaches including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), LDA of PC, and ICA. The preliminary results show much improved performance in the recognition rate with our proposed method.

  19. Large sample neutron activation analysis: a challenge in cultural heritage studies.

    PubMed

    Stamatelatos, Ion E; Tzika, Faidra

    2007-07-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis compliments and significantly extends the analytical tools available for cultural heritage and authentication studies providing unique applications of non-destructive, multi-element analysis of materials that are too precious to damage for sampling purposes, representative sampling of heterogeneous materials or even analysis of whole objects. In this work, correction factors for neutron self-shielding, gamma-ray attenuation and volume distribution of the activity in large volume samples composed of iron and ceramic material were derived. Moreover, the effect of inhomogeneity on the accuracy of the technique was examined.

  20. The technical analysis of the stock exchange and physics: Japanese candlesticks for solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, C.; Atanasov, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we use the Japanese candlesticks, a method popular in the technical analysis of the Stock/Forex markets and apply it to a variable in physics-the solar activity. This method is invented and used exclusively for economic analysis and its application to a physical problem produced unexpected results. We found that the Japanese candlesticks are convenient tool in the analysis of the variables in the physics of the Sun. Based on our observations, we differentiated a new cycle in the solar activity.

  1. Analysis of surface EMG baseline for detection of hidden muscle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Ping

    2014-02-01

    Objective. This study explored the feasibility of detecting hidden muscle activity in surface electromyogram (EMG) baseline. Approach. Power spectral density (PSD) analysis and multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis were used. Both analyses were applied to computer simulations of surface EMG baseline with the presence (representing activity data) or absence (representing reference data) of hidden muscle activity, as well as surface electrode array EMG baseline recordings of healthy control and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) subjects. Main results. Although the simulated reference data and the activity data yielded no distinguishable difference in the time domain, they demonstrated a significant difference in the frequency and signal complexity domains with the PSD and MSE analyses. For a comparison using pooled data, such a difference was also observed when the PSD and MSE analyses were applied to surface electrode array EMG baseline recordings of healthy control and ALS subjects, which demonstrated no distinguishable difference in the time domain. Compared with the PSD analysis, the MSE analysis appeared to be more sensitive for detecting the difference in surface EMG baselines between the two groups. Significance. The findings implied the presence of a hidden muscle activity in surface EMG baseline recordings from the ALS subjects. To promote the presented analysis as a useful diagnostic or investigatory tool, future studies are necessary to assess the pathophysiological nature or origins of the hidden muscle activity, as well as the baseline difference at the individual subject level.

  2. Health-care district management information system plan: Review of operations analysis activities during calendar year 1975 and plan for continued research and analysis activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, G. J.; Stevenson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Operations research activities developed to identify the information required to manage both the efficiency and effectiveness of the Veterans Administration (VA) health services as these services relate to individual patient care are reported. The clinical concerns and management functions that determine this information requirement are discussed conceptually. Investigations of existing VA data for useful management information are recorded, and a diagnostic index is provided. The age-specific characteristics of diseases and lengths of stay are explored, and recommendations for future analysis activities are articulated. The effect of the introduction of new technology to health care is also discussed.

  3. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens.

    PubMed

    Varón, R; García-Moreno, M; Valera-Ruipérez, D; García-Molina, F; García-Cánovas, F; Ladrón-de Guevara, R G; Masiá-Pérez, J; Havsteen, B H

    2006-10-07

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving an uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous route, the time course equation of the concentration of the zymogen and of the activated enzyme have been derived. From these equations, an analysis quantifying the relative contribution to the global process of the two routes has been carried out for the first time. This analysis suggests a way to predict the time course of the relative contribution as well as the effect of the initial zymogen and activating enzyme concentrations, on the relative weight. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed. Finally, we apply some of our results to experimental data obtained by other authors in experimental studies of the activation of some aspartic proteinase zymogens.

  4. Activation Analysis of the Final Optics Assemblies at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dauffy, L S; Khater, H Y; Sitaraman, S; Brereton, S J

    2008-10-14

    Commissioning shots have commenced at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Within a year, the 192 laser beam facility will be operational and the experimental phase will begin. At each shot, the emitted neutrons will interact in the facility's surroundings, activating them, especially inside the target bay where the neutron flux is the highest. We are calculating the dose from those activated structures and objects in order to plan and minimize worker exposures during maintenance and normal NIF operation. This study presents the results of the activation analysis of the optics of the Final Optics Assemblies (FOA), which are a key contributor to worker exposure. Indeed, there are 48 FOAs weighting three tons each, and routine change-out and maintenance of optics and optics modules is expected. The neutron field has been characterized using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP with subsequent activation analysis performed using the activation code, ALARA.

  5. Structure-Activity Analysis of Gram-positive Bacterium-producing Lasso Peptides with Anti-mycobacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokoshi, Junji; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Miyake, Midori; Shimizu, Yuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Lariatin A, an 18-residue lasso peptide encoded by the five-gene cluster larABCDE, displays potent and selective anti-mycobacterial activity. The structural feature is an N-terminal macrolactam ring, through which the C-terminal passed to form the rigid lariat-protoknot structure. In the present study, we established a convergent expression system by the strategy in which larA mutant gene-carrying plasmids were transformed into larA-deficient Rhodococcus jostii, and generated 36 lariatin variants of the precursor protein LarA to investigate the biosynthesis and the structure-activity relationships. The mutational analysis revealed that four amino acid residues (Gly1, Arg7, Glu8, and Trp9) in lariatin A are essential for the maturation and production in the biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, the study on structure-activity relationships demonstrated that Tyr6, Gly11, and Asn14 are responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity, and the residues at positions 15, 16 and 18 in lariatin A are critical for enhancing the activity. This study will not only provide a useful platform for genetically engineering Gram-positive bacterium-producing lasso peptides, but also an important foundation to rationally design more promising drug candidates for combatting tuberculosis.

  6. Structure-Activity Analysis of Gram-positive Bacterium-producing Lasso Peptides with Anti-mycobacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Inokoshi, Junji; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Miyake, Midori; Shimizu, Yuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Lariatin A, an 18-residue lasso peptide encoded by the five-gene cluster larABCDE, displays potent and selective anti-mycobacterial activity. The structural feature is an N-terminal macrolactam ring, through which the C-terminal passed to form the rigid lariat-protoknot structure. In the present study, we established a convergent expression system by the strategy in which larA mutant gene-carrying plasmids were transformed into larA-deficient Rhodococcus jostii, and generated 36 lariatin variants of the precursor protein LarA to investigate the biosynthesis and the structure-activity relationships. The mutational analysis revealed that four amino acid residues (Gly1, Arg7, Glu8, and Trp9) in lariatin A are essential for the maturation and production in the biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, the study on structure-activity relationships demonstrated that Tyr6, Gly11, and Asn14 are responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity, and the residues at positions 15, 16 and 18 in lariatin A are critical for enhancing the activity. This study will not only provide a useful platform for genetically engineering Gram-positive bacterium-producing lasso peptides, but also an important foundation to rationally design more promising drug candidates for combatting tuberculosis. PMID:27457620

  7. Determination of aluminium, silicon and magnesium in geological matrices by delayed neutron activation analysis based on k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Baidoo, I K; Dampare, S B; Opata, N S; Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Quagraine, R E

    2013-12-01

    In this work, concentrations of silicon, aluminium and magnesium in geological matrices were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis based on k0-IAEA software. The optimum activation and delay times were found to be 5 min and 15-20 min respectively for the determination of Si via (29)Si (n,p) (29)Al reaction. The adopted irradiation scheme did not work for the determination of magnesium. Each sample was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux density of 5.0 × 10(11) ncm(-2)s(-1). Cadmium covered activation indicated that a permanent epithermal irradiation site for research reactors would be very useful for routine determination of silicon in environmental samples.

  8. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  9. Electrochemiluminescence imaging for parallel single-cell analysis of active membrane cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junyu; Ma, Guangzhong; Chen, Yun; Fang, Danjun; Jiang, Dechen; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2015-08-18

    Luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging was developed for the parallel measurement of active membrane cholesterol at single living cells, thus establishing a novel electrochemical detection technique for single cells with high analysis throughput and low detection limit. In our strategy, the luminescence generated from luminol and hydrogen peroxide upon the potential was recorded in one image so that hydrogen peroxide at the surface of multiple cells could be simultaneously analyzed. Compared with the classic microelectrode array for the parallel single-cell analysis, the plat electrode only was needed in our ECL imaging, avoiding the complexity of electrode fabrication. The optimized ECL imaging system showed that hydrogen peroxide as low as 10 μM was visible and the efflux of hydrogen peroxide from cells could be determined. Coupled with the reaction between active membrane cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase to generate hydrogen peroxide, active membrane cholesterol at cells on the electrode was analyzed at single-cell level. The luminescence intensity was correlated with the amount of active membrane cholesterol, validating our system for single-cell cholesterol analysis. The relative high standard deviation on the luminescence suggested high cellular heterogeneities on hydrogen peroxide efflux and active membrane cholesterol, which exhibited the significance of single-cell analysis. This success in ECL imaging for single-cell analysis opens a new field in the parallel measurement of surface molecules at single cells.

  10. A Markovian Entropy Measure for the Analysis of Calcium Activity Time Series.

    PubMed

    Marken, John P; Halleran, Andrew D; Rahman, Atiqur; Odorizzi, Laura; LeFew, Michael C; Golino, Caroline A; Kemper, Peter; Saha, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    Methods to analyze the dynamics of calcium activity often rely on visually distinguishable features in time series data such as spikes, waves, or oscillations. However, systems such as the developing nervous system display a complex, irregular type of calcium activity which makes the use of such methods less appropriate. Instead, for such systems there exists a class of methods (including information theoretic, power spectral, and fractal analysis approaches) which use more fundamental properties of the time series to analyze the observed calcium dynamics. We present a new analysis method in this class, the Markovian Entropy measure, which is an easily implementable calcium time series analysis method which represents the observed calcium activity as a realization of a Markov Process and describes its dynamics in terms of the level of predictability underlying the transitions between the states of the process. We applied our and other commonly used calcium analysis methods on a dataset from Xenopus laevis neural progenitors which displays irregular calcium activity and a dataset from murine synaptic neurons which displays activity time series that are well-described by visually-distinguishable features. We find that the Markovian Entropy measure is able to distinguish between biologically distinct populations in both datasets, and that it can separate biologically distinct populations to a greater extent than other methods in the dataset exhibiting irregular calcium activity. These results support the benefit of using the Markovian Entropy measure to analyze calcium dynamics, particularly for studies using time series data which do not exhibit easily distinguishable features.

  11. A Markovian Entropy Measure for the Analysis of Calcium Activity Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Odorizzi, Laura; LeFew, Michael C.; Golino, Caroline A.; Kemper, Peter; Saha, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    Methods to analyze the dynamics of calcium activity often rely on visually distinguishable features in time series data such as spikes, waves, or oscillations. However, systems such as the developing nervous system display a complex, irregular type of calcium activity which makes the use of such methods less appropriate. Instead, for such systems there exists a class of methods (including information theoretic, power spectral, and fractal analysis approaches) which use more fundamental properties of the time series to analyze the observed calcium dynamics. We present a new analysis method in this class, the Markovian Entropy measure, which is an easily implementable calcium time series analysis method which represents the observed calcium activity as a realization of a Markov Process and describes its dynamics in terms of the level of predictability underlying the transitions between the states of the process. We applied our and other commonly used calcium analysis methods on a dataset from Xenopus laevis neural progenitors which displays irregular calcium activity and a dataset from murine synaptic neurons which displays activity time series that are well-described by visually-distinguishable features. We find that the Markovian Entropy measure is able to distinguish between biologically distinct populations in both datasets, and that it can separate biologically distinct populations to a greater extent than other methods in the dataset exhibiting irregular calcium activity. These results support the benefit of using the Markovian Entropy measure to analyze calcium dynamics, particularly for studies using time series data which do not exhibit easily distinguishable features. PMID:27977764

  12. Nonlinear analysis of human physical activity patterns in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, A.; Buchser, E.; Rutschmann, B.; Aminian, K.

    2008-02-01

    The reliable and objective assessment of chronic disease state has been and still is a very significant challenge in clinical medicine. An essential feature of human behavior related to the health status, the functional capacity, and the quality of life is the physical activity during daily life. A common way to assess physical activity is to measure the quantity of body movement. Since human activity is controlled by various factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body, quantitative parameters only provide a partial assessment and do not allow for a clear distinction between normal and abnormal activity. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the analysis of human activity pattern based on the definition of different physical activity time series with the appropriate analysis methods. The temporal pattern of postures, movements, and transitions between postures was quantified using fractal analysis and symbolic dynamics statistics. The derived nonlinear metrics were able to discriminate patterns of daily activity generated from healthy and chronic pain states.

  13. Brain activations during pain: a neuroimaging meta-analysis of patients with pain and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karin B; Regenbogen, Christina; Ohse, Margarete C; Frasnelli, Johannes; Freiherr, Jessica; Lundström, Johan N

    2016-06-01

    In response to recent publications from pain neuroimaging experiments, there has been a debate about the existence of a primary pain region in the brain. Yet, there are few meta-analyses providing assessments of the minimum cerebral denominators of pain. Here, we used a statistical meta-analysis method, called activation likelihood estimation, to define (1) core brain regions activated by pain per se, irrelevant of pain modality, paradigm, or participants and (2) activation likelihood estimation commonalities and differences between patients with chronic pain and healthy individuals. A subtraction analysis of 138 independent data sets revealed that the minimum denominator for activation across pain modalities and paradigms included the right insula, secondary sensory cortex, and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Common activations for healthy subjects and patients with pain alike included the thalamus, ACC, insula, and cerebellum. A comparative analysis revealed that healthy individuals were more likely to activate the cingulum, thalamus, and insula. Our results point toward the central role of the insular cortex and ACC in pain processing, irrelevant of modality, body part, or clinical experience; thus, furthering the importance of ACC and insular activation as key regions for the human experience of pain.

  14. Real-time fMRI-based activation analysis and stimulus control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Bernarding, Johannes

    2007-03-01

    The real-time analysis of brain activation using functional MRI data offers a wide range of new experiments such as investigating self-regulation or learning strategies. However, besides special data acquisition and real-time data analysing techniques such examination requires dynamic and adaptive stimulus paradigms and self-optimising MRI-sequences. This paper presents an approach that enables the unified handling of parameters influencing the different software systems involved in the acquisition and analysing process. By developing a custom-made Experiment Description Language (EDL) this concept is used for a fast and flexible software environment which treats aspects like extraction and analysis of activation as well as the modification of the stimulus presentation. We describe how extracted real-time activation is subsequently evaluated by comparing activation patterns to previous acquired templates representing activated regions of interest for different predefined conditions. According to those results the stimulus presentation is adapted. The results showed that the developed system in combination with EDL is able to reliably detect and evaluate activation patterns in real-time. With a processing time for data analysis of about one second the approach is only limited by the natural time course of the hemodynamic response function of the brain activation.

  15. Alanine-Scanning Mutational Analysis of Durancin GL Reveals Residues Important for Its Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xingrong; Chen, Xinquan; Du, Lihui; Wu, Xueyou; Liu, Fang; Yuan, Jian

    2015-07-22

    Durancin GL is a novel class IIa bacteriocin with 43 residues produced by Enterococcus durans 41D. This bacteriocin demonstrates narrow inhibition spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against several Listeria monocytogenes strains, including nisin-resistant L. monocytogenes NR30. A systematic alanine-scanning mutational analysis with site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze durancin GL residues important for antimicrobial activity and specificity. Results showed that three mutations lost their antimicrobial activity, ten mutations demonstrated a decreased effect on the activity, and seven mutations exhibited relatively high activity. With regard to inhibitory spectrum, four mutants demonstrated a narrower antimicrobial spectrum than wild-type durancin GL. Another four mutants displayed a broader target cell spectrum and increased potency relative to wild-type durancin GL. These findings broaden our understanding of durancin GL residues important for its antimicrobial activity and contribute to future rational design of variants with increased potency.

  16. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierlik, M.; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project "Accelerators & Detectors" (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  17. Proteome-wide analysis of nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations in active sites of human proteins.

    PubMed

    Dingerdissen, Hayley; Motwani, Mona; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2013-03-01

    An enzyme's active site is essential to normal protein activity such that any disruptions at this site may lead to dysfunction and disease. Nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs), which alter the amino acid sequence, are one type of disruption that can alter the active site. When this occurs, it is assumed that enzyme activity will vary because of the criticality of the site to normal protein function. We integrate nsSNV data and active site annotations from curated resources to identify all active-site-impacting nsSNVs in the human genome and search for all pathways observed to be associated with this data set to assess the likely consequences. We find that there are 934 unique nsSNVs that occur at the active sites of 559 proteins. Analysis of the nsSNV data shows an over-representation of arginine and an under-representation of cysteine, phenylalanine and tyrosine when comparing the list of nsSNV-impacted active site residues with the list of all possible proteomic active site residues, implying a potential bias for or against variation of these residues at the active site. Clustering analysis shows an abundance of hydrolases and transferases. Pathway and functional analysis shows several pathways over- or under-represented in the data set, with the most significantly affected pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism. We provide a table of 32 variation-substrate/product pairs that can be used in targeted metabolomics experiments to assay the effects of specific variations. In addition, we report the significant prevalence of aspartic acid to histidine variation in eight proteins associated with nine diseases including glycogen storage diseases, lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome, Parkinson's disease and several cancers.

  18. Frequency domain stability analysis of nonlinear active disturbance rejection control system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Qi, Xiaohui; Xia, Yuanqing; Pu, Fan; Chang, Kai

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies three methods (i.e., root locus analysis, describing function method and extended circle criterion) to approach the frequency domain stability analysis of the fast tool servo system using nonlinear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) algorithm. Root locus qualitative analysis shows that limit cycle is generated because the gain of the nonlinear function used in ADRC varies with its input. The parameters in the nonlinear function are adjustable to suppress limit cycle. In the process of root locus analysis, the nonlinear function is transformed based on the concept of equivalent gain. Then, frequency domain description of the nonlinear function via describing function is presented and limit cycle quantitative analysis including estimating prediction error is presented, which virtually and theoretically demonstrates that the describing function method cannot guarantee enough precision in this case. Furthermore, absolute stability analysis based on extended circle criterion is investigated as a complement.

  19. Neutron Activation Analysis of Soil Samples from Different Parts of Edirne in Turkey*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaim, N.; Dogan, C.; Camtakan, Z.

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of constituent elements were determined in soil samples collected from different parts of the Maritza Basin, Edirne, Turkey. Neutron activation analysis, an extremely accurate technique, and the comparator method (using a standard) were applied for the first time in this region. After preparing the soil samples for neutron activation analysis, they were activated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor, TRIGA-MARK II, at Istanbul Technical University. The activated samples were analyzed using a high-efficiency high-purity germanium detector, and gamma spectrometry was employed to determine the elemental concentration in the samples. Eight elements (chromium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, and barium) were qualitatively and quantitatively identified in 36 samples. The concentrations of some elements in the soil samples were high compared with values reported in the literature.

  20. Design and Analysis of Hammerhead Ribozyme Activity Against an Artificial Gene Target

    PubMed Central

    Carter, James; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro cleavage assays are routinely conducted to properly assess the catalytic activity of hammerhead ribozymes (HHR) against target RNA molecules like the dengue virus RNA genomes. These experiments are performed for initial assessment of HHR catalysis in a cell-free system and have been simplified by the substitution of agarose gel electrophoresis for SDS-PAGE. Substituting mobility assays enables the analysis of ribozymes in a more rapid fashion without radioisotopes. Here we describe the in vitro transcription of an HHR and corresponding target from T7-promoted plasmids into RNA molecules leading to the analysis of HHR activity against the RNA target by in vitro cleavage assays. PMID:24318886

  1. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  2. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum: Product and Activity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryer, Holly; Eisenhamer, B.; Knisely, L.; McCallister, D.; Smith, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOFs) have been working together to conduct a detailed analysis of SMD E/PO products and activities. The goal of this effort is to characterize individual SMD E/PO products and the collection as a whole, while identifying gaps in the SMD E/PO portfolio. The Astrophysics Forum has undertaken the task of analyzing the astrophysics portfolio of formal, informal, and outreach products and programs. The astrophysics analysis team has been characterizing products based upon AAAS Project 2061 benchmarks addressed, target audience, instructional strategies used, and types of assessments included. All formal education activities that have been analyzed to date have been compiled into a populated database that includes analyzed activities from all four SEPOFs. The database will be used to inform the development of a product and resources catalog. It also will be used to begin a gap analysis for SMD products and activities. Ultimately, we hope to help end users easily find resources, we hope to identify progressions and connections between SMD E/PO resources and programming, and we hope to provide guidance to the E/PO community in developing materials that will help bridge gaps for both NASA SMD and target audiences. This poster highlights the astrophysics product analysis process, and the preliminary findings and results of product analysis to date.

  3. Neutron activation analysis for reference determination of the implantation dose of cobalt ions

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, R.P.H.; Bubert, H.; Palmetshofer, L.

    1992-05-15

    The authors prepared depth profilling reference materials by cobalt ion implantation at an ion energy of 300 keV into n-type silicon. The implanted Co dose was then determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) giving an analytical dynamic range of almost 5 decades and uncertainty of 1.5%. This form of analysis allows sources of error (beam spreading, misalignment) to be corrected. 70 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil and sediment samples from Siwa Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Wael M.; Ali, Khaled; El-Samman, Hussein M.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.; Gundorina, Svetlana F.; Duliu, Octavian G.

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study geochemical peculiarities of the Siwa Oasis in the Western Egyptian Desert. A total of 34 elements were determined in soil and sediment samples (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U). For data interpretation Cluster analysis was applied. Comparison with the available literature data was carried out.

  5. Low-volume multiplexed proteolytic activity assay and inhibitor analysis through a pico-injector array.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ee Xien; Miller, Miles A; Jing, Tengyang; Lauffenburger, Doug A; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2015-02-21

    Secreted active proteases, from families of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), participate in diverse pathological processes. To simultaneously measure multiple specific protease activities, a series of parallel enzyme reactions combined with a series of inhibitor analyses for proteolytic activity matrix analysis (PrAMA) are essential but limited due to the sample quantity requirements and the complexity of performing multiple reactions. To address these issues, we developed a pico-injector array to generate 72 different reactions in picoliter-volume droplets by controlling the sequence of combinational injections, which allowed simultaneous recording of a wide range of multiple enzyme reactions and measurement of inhibitor effects using small sample volumes (~10 μL). Multiple MMP activities were simultaneously determined by 9 different substrates and 2 inhibitors using injections from a pico-injector array. Due to the advantages of inhibitor analysis, the MMP/ADAM activities of MDA-MB-231, a breast cancer cell line, were characterized with high MMP-2, MMP-3 and ADAM-10 activity. This platform could be customized for a wide range of applications that also require multiple reactions with inhibitor analysis to enhance the sensitivity by encapsulating different chemical sensors.

  6. Luminol electrochemiluminescence for the analysis of active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guangzhong; Zhou, Junyu; Tian, Chunxiu; Jiang, Dechen; Fang, Danjun; Chen, Hongyuan

    2013-04-16

    A luminol electrochemiluminescence assay was reported to analyze active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells. The cellular membrane cholesterol was activated by the exposure of the cells to low ionic strength buffer or the inhibition of intracellular acyl-coA/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). The active membrane cholesterol was reacted with cholesterol oxidase in the solution to generate a peak concentration of hydrogen peroxide on the electrode surface, which induced a measurable luminol electrochemiluminescence. Further treatment of the active cells with mevastatin decreased the active membrane cholesterol resulting in a drop in luminance. No change in the intracellular calcium was observed in the presence of luminol and voltage, which indicated that our analysis process might not interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Single cell analysis was performed by placing a pinhole below the electrode so that only one cell was exposed to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). Twelve single cells were analyzed individually, and a large deviation on luminance ratio observed exhibited the cell heterogeneity on the active membrane cholesterol. The smaller deviation on ACAT/HMGCoA inhibited cells than ACAT inhibited cells suggested different inhibition efficiency for sandoz 58035 and mevastatin. The new information obtained from single cell analysis might provide a new insight on the study of intracellular cholesterol trafficking.

  7. Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fatima, I; Waheed, S; Zaidi, J H

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe.

  8. Trace-element analysis of 1000 environmental samples per year using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The technology and methods developed at the Plum Brook Reactor to analyze 1000 samples per year and report data on as many as 56 elements are described. The manpower for the complete analysis of 20 to 24 samples per week required only 3 to 3.5 hours per sample. The solutions to problems encountered in sample preparation, irradiation, and counting are discussed. The automation of data reduction is described. Typical data on various sample matrices are presented.

  9. Analysis and synthesis of distributed-lumped-active networks by digital computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The use of digital computational techniques in the analysis and synthesis of DLA (distributed lumped active) networks is considered. This class of networks consists of three distinct types of elements, namely, distributed elements (modeled by partial differential equations), lumped elements (modeled by algebraic relations and ordinary differential equations), and active elements (modeled by algebraic relations). Such a characterization is applicable to a broad class of circuits, especially including those usually referred to as linear integrated circuits, since the fabrication techniques for such circuits readily produce elements which may be modeled as distributed, as well as the more conventional lumped and active ones.

  10. Active and passive imaging of clothes in the NIR and SWIR regions for reflectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Grönwall, Christina; Steinvall, Ove; Göhler, Benjamin; Hamoir, Dominique

    2016-07-10

    We perform statistical analysis of data from active and passive imaging sensors in the near infrared (NIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) wavelength bands. The data were obtained from measurements performed on clothing in a field campaign and in the laboratory. We show that reflectivity data from active imaging can be fitted to Gaussian functions, although earlier theory proposes gamma-gamma functions. We analyze the reflectivity data collected during the field campaign and compare that data with data obtained in the laboratory. We focus on the added value of active imaging when combined with passive imaging to distinguish different clothes for friend/foe identification.

  11. Off-road motorbike performance analysis using a rear semi-active suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozoya-Santos, Jorge de J.; Cervantes-Muñoz, Damián.; Ramírez Mendoza, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The topic of this paper is the analysis of a control system for a semi active rear suspension in an off-road 2-wheel vehicle. Several control methods are studied, as well as the recently proposed Frequency Estimation Based (FEB) algorithm. The test motorcycle dynamics, as well as the passive, semi active, and the algorithm controlled shock absorber models are loaded into BikeSim, a professional two-wheeled vehicle simulation software, and tested in several road conditions. The results show a detailed comparison of the theoretical performance of the different control approaches in a novel environment for semi active dampers.

  12. Analysis of surface error correction capability of 1.2m active support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu; Fan, Bin; Li, Chaoqiang; Liu, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    The surface error correction ability is one of the important indicators to measure the performance of the active support system. In this paper, the correction force algorithm for the active support system of 1.2m thin meniscus mirror is introduced. Based on this algorithm, a simulation analysis is made. The simulation results show that the 1.2m active support system has excellent correction ability for Zernike polynomials term 4, 5, 6, 10 and 11, and has a good effect on the Zernike polynomials term 7 and 8.

  13. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards.

  14. Global Analysis of O-GlcNAc Glycoproteins in Activated Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Peder J.; Elias, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    T cell activation in response to Ag is largely regulated by protein posttranslational modifications. Although phosphorylation has been extensively characterized in T cells, much less is known about the glycosylation of serine/threonine residues by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Given that O-GlcNAc appears to regulate cell signaling pathways and protein activity similarly to phosphorylation, we performed a comprehensive analysis of O-GlcNAc during T cell activation to address the functional importance of this modification and to identify the modified proteins. Activation of T cells through the TCR resulted in a global elevation of O-GlcNAc levels and in the absence of O-GlcNAc, IL-2 production and proliferation were compromised. T cell activation also led to changes in the relative expression of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) isoforms and accumulation of OGT at the immunological synapse of murine T cells. Using a glycoproteomics approach, we identified >200 O-GlcNAc proteins in human T cells. Many of the identified proteins had a functional relationship to RNA metabolism, and consistent with a connection between O-GlcNAc and RNA, inhibition of OGT impaired nascent RNA synthesis upon T cell activation. Overall, our studies provide a global analysis of O-GlcNAc dynamics during T cell activation and the first characterization, to our knowledge, of the O-GlcNAc glycoproteome in human T cells. PMID:27655845

  15. Microfluidic mixing for sperm activation and motility analysis of pearl Danio zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Park, Daniel S.; Egnatchik, Robert A.; Bordelon, Hali; Tiersch, Terrence R.; Monroe, W. Todd

    2013-01-01

    Sperm viability in aquatic species is increasingly being evaluated by motility analysis via computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) following activation of sperm with manual dilution and mixing by hand. User variation can limit the speed and control over the activation process, preventing consistent motility analysis. This is further complicated by the short interval (i.e., less than 15 s) of burst motility in these species. The objectives of this study were to develop a staggered herringbone microfluidic mixer to: 1) activate small volumes of Danio pearl zebrafish (Danio albolineatus) sperm by rapid mixing with diluent, and 2) position sperm in a viewing chamber for motility evaluation using a standard CASA system. A herringbone micromixer was fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to yield high quality smooth surfaces. Based on fluorescence microscopy, mixing efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved within 5 s for a range of flow rates (from 50 to 250 μL/h), with a correlation of mixing distances and mixing efficiency. For example, at the nominal flow rate of 100 μL/h, there was a significant difference in mixing efficiency between 3.5 mm (75 ± 4%; mean ± SD) and 7 mm (92 ± 2%; P = 0.002). The PDMS micromixer, integrated with standard volumetric slides, demonstrated activation of fresh zebrafish sperm with reduced user variation, greater control, and without morphologic damage to sperm. Analysis of zebrafish sperm viability by CASA revealed a statistically higher motility rate for activation by micromixing (56 ± 4%) than manual activation (45 ± 7%; n = 5, P = 0.011). This micromixer represented a first step in streamlining methods for consistent, rapid assessment of sperm quality for zebrafish and other aquatic species. The capability to rapidly activate sperm and consistently measure motility with CASA using the PDMS micromixer described herein will improve studies of germplasm physiology and cryopreservation. PMID:22494680

  16. Structural analysis and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide isolated from Jinqian mushroom.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Du, Yi-Qun; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2014-03-01

    Jinqian mushroom is a precious edible mushroom with delicious taste and high nutritional value. In this paper, a polysaccharide fraction JQPs was isolated and purified from the fruiting body of Jinqian mushroom. The chemical structure, chain conformation and antioxidant activities of JQPs were investigated. The results indicated that JQPs was mainly composed of glucose with trace amounts of xylose. The backbone of JQPs consisted of β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan with β-(1 → 6)-glucosyl side chain. The chain conformation analysis showed that JQPs was a triple helical polysaccharide. The antioxidant activity tests in vitro revealed that JQPs exhibited high DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activities, moderate superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, low reducing power and Fe(2+) chelating activities. The results suggested that JQPs could be used as a potential natural antioxidant.

  17. Interfacing interactive data analysis tools with the grid: The PPDG CS-11 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Douglas L.; Perl, Joseph

    2002-10-09

    For today's physicists, who work in large geographically distributed collaborations, the data grid promises significantly greater capabilities for analysis of experimental data and production of physics results than is possible with today's ''remote access'' technologies. The goal of letting scientists at their home institutions interact with and analyze data as if they were physically present at the major laboratory that houses their detector and computer center has yet to be accomplished. The Particle Physics DataGrid project (www.ppdg.net) has recently embarked on an effort to ''Interface and Integrate Interactive Data Analysis Tools with the grid and identify Common Components and Services.'' The initial activities are to collect known and identify new requirements for grid services and analysis tools from a range of current and future experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, BaBar, D0, CMS, JLab, STAR, others welcome), to determine if existing plans for tools and services meet these requirements. Follow-on activities will foster the interaction between grid service developers, analysis tool developers, experiment analysis frame work developers and end user physicists, and will identify and carry out specific development/integration work so that interactive analysis tools utilizing grid services actually provide the capabilities that users need. This talk will summarize what we know of requirements for analysis tools and grid services, as well as describe the identified areas where more development work is needed.

  18. A Two-State Analysis of ERP Activity Measures and fMRI Activations Relevant to the Detection of Deception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael; Vendemia, Jennifer; Green, Eric; Buzan, Robert; Meek, Scott; Phillips, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    A novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential data (ERP) gathered druing various scenarios is presented. We construct energy-density functional clusters using the empirical voltage and power values and extract extrema of these cognitive activity mesaures to assess the temporal dynamics in areas of physiological significance for the detection of deception. These studies indicate that for questions relating to autobiographical knowledge neocortical interaction times are greater for deceptive responses. This finding is reproduced when workload requirements are increased and suggests that a ``neocortical circuit'' involving activity in short-term memory, visual processing, and executive control regions of the cortex is present. Individual and group analyses are given and continuing experiments involving questions where misinformation is used illustrate that early, up-front control may also be present during deceptive repsonses. A comparison of dipole source models with fMRI data collected in our lab confirms that BOLD activation in the ROIs is consistent with our model of deception.

  19. Magnetoencephalographic Analysis of Cortical Activity in Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virji-Babul, N.; Cheung, T.; Weeks, D.; Herdman, A. T.; Cheyne, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This preliminary study served as a pilot for an ongoing analysis of spectral power in adults with Down syndrome (DS) using a 151 channel whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG). The present study is the first step for examining and comparing cortical responses during spontaneous and task related activity in DS. Method: Cortical…

  20. Variability in Measurement of Swimming Forces: A Meta-Analysis of Passive and Active Drag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havriluk, Rod

    2007-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to identify sources of true and error variance in measuring swimming drag force to draw valid conclusions about performance factor effects. Passive drag studies were grouped according to methodological differences: tow line in pool, tow line in flume, and carriage in tow tank. Active drag studies were grouped according to…

  1. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  2. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  3. In vitro cell based assay for activity analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a leading cause of food poisoning. They function both as toxins that cause gastroenteritis after ingestion and as superantigens that non-specifically activate large numbers of T cells. Monkey or kitten bioassays were historically developed for analysis of SE act...

  4. Web-Based Tools for Modelling and Analysis of Multivariate Data: California Ozone Pollution Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Christou, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a hands-on web-based activity motivated by the relation between human health and ozone pollution in California. This case study is based on multivariate data collected monthly at 20 locations in California between 1980 and 2006. Several strategies and tools for data interrogation and exploratory data analysis, model fitting…

  5. Critical Access Hospitals and Retail Activity: An Empirical Analysis in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lara; Whitacre, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper takes an empirical approach to determining the effect that a critical access hospital (CAH) has on local retail activity. Previous research on the relationship between hospitals and economic development has primarily focused on single-case, multiplier-oriented analysis. However, as the efficacy of federal and state-level rural…

  6. A Functional Analysis of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Tracy A.; Normand, Matthew P.; Morley, Allison J.; Miller, Bryon G.

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate physical activity increases the risks related to a number of health problems in children, most notably obesity and the corresponding range of associated health problems. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a functional analysis to investigate the effects of several consequent variables on moderate-to-vigorous physical…

  7. Fast neutron activation analysis by means of low voltage neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhat, M. E.

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This machine can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. Procedure of neutron flux determination and efficiency calculation is described. Examples of testing some Egyptian natural cosmetics are given.

  8. Using a Meta-Analysis Activity to Make Critical Reflection Explicit in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, M.; Lawson, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how the development of critical reflection in student teachers has been made an explicit part of a teacher education programme. Using a rubric presented by Ward and McCotter, (2004) and supported by an online discussion forum, the rubric was used in a meta-analysis activity where students identified the quality of critical…

  9. 30 CFR 280.30 - What activities will not require environmental analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What activities will not require environmental analysis? 280.30 Section 280.30 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR...

  10. Integrated Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): Structural-Thermal-Optical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John D.; Parrish, Keith; Howard, Joseph M.; Mosier, Gary E.; McGinnis, Mark; Bluth, Marcel; Kim, Kevin; Ha, Hong Q.

    2004-01-01

    This is a continuation of a series of papers on modeling activities for JWST. The structural-thermal- optical, often referred to as "STOP", analysis process is used to predict the effect of thermal distortion on optical performance. The benchmark STOP analysis for JWST assesses the effect of an observatory slew on wavefront error. The paper begins an overview of multi-disciplinary engineering analysis, or integrated modeling, which is a critical element of the JWST mission. The STOP analysis process is then described. This process consists of the following steps: thermal analysis, structural analysis, and optical analysis. Temperatures predicted using geometric and thermal math models are mapped to the structural finite element model in order to predict thermally-induced deformations. Motions and deformations at optical surfaces are input to optical models and optical performance is predicted using either an optical ray trace or WFE estimation techniques based on prior ray traces or first order optics. Following the discussion of the analysis process, results based on models representing the design at the time of the System Requirements Review. In addition to baseline performance predictions, sensitivity studies are performed to assess modeling uncertainties. Of particular interest is the sensitivity of optical performance to uncertainties in temperature predictions and variations in metal properties. The paper concludes with a discussion of modeling uncertainty as it pertains to STOP analysis.

  11. Neuroimaging of Reading Intervention: A Systematic Review and Activation Likelihood Estimate Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barquero, Laura A.; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  12. Altered resting-state functional activity in posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Junran; Zhan, Wang; Li, Lei; Wu, Min; Huang, Hua; Zhu, Hongyan; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Many functional neuroimaging studies have reported differential patterns of spontaneous brain activity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not so far been quantitatively reviewed. The present study set out to determine consistent, specific regional brain activity alterations in PTSD, using the Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping technique to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of resting-state functional neuroimaging studies of PTSD that used either a non-trauma (NTC) or a trauma-exposed (TEC) comparison control group. Fifteen functional neuroimaging studies were included, comparing 286 PTSDs, 203 TECs and 155 NTCs. Compared with NTC, PTSD patients showed hyperactivity in the right anterior insula and bilateral cerebellum, and hypoactivity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); compared with TEC, PTSD showed hyperactivity in the ventral mPFC. The pooled meta-analysis showed hypoactivity in the posterior insula, superior temporal, and Heschl’s gyrus in PTSD. Additionally, subgroup meta-analysis (non-medicated subjects vs. NTC) identified abnormal activation in the prefrontal-limbic system. In meta-regression analyses, mean illness duration was positively associated with activity in the right cerebellum (PTSD vs. NTC), and illness severity was negatively associated with activity in the right lingual gyrus (PTSD vs. TEC). PMID:27251865

  13. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention.

  14. Structure-hepatoprotective activity relationship study of sesquiterpene lactones: A QSAR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukku, Yuliya; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Syrov, Vladimir; Khushbaktova, Zainab; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    This study has been carried out using quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis (QSAR) for 22 sesquiterpene lactones to correlate and predict their hepatoprotective activity. Sesquiterpenoids, the largest class of terpenoids, are a widespread group of substances occurring in various plant organisms. QSAR analysis was carried out using methods such as genetic algorithm for variables selection among generated and calculated descriptors and multiple linear regression analysis. Quantum-chemical calculations have been performed by density functional theory at B3LYP/6-311G(d, p) level for evaluation of electronic properties using reference geometries optimized by semi-empirical AM1 approach. Three models describing hepatoprotective activity values for series of sesquiterpene lactones are proposed. The obtained models are useful for description of sesquiterpene lactones hepatoprotective activity and can be used to estimate the hepatoprotective activity of new substituted sesquiterpene lactones. The models obtained in our study show not only statistical significance, but also good predictive ability. The estimated predictive ability (rtest2) of these models lies within 0.942-0.969.

  15. Bayesian inference for neural electromagnetic source localization: analysis of MEG visual evoked activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, David M.; George, John S.; Wood, C. C.

    1999-05-01

    We have developed a Bayesian approach to the analysis of neural electromagnetic (MEG/EEG) data that can incorporate or fuse information from other imaging modalities and addresses the ill-posed inverse problem by sampling the many different solutions which could have produced the given data. From these samples one can draw probabilistic inferences about regions of activation. Our source model assumes a variable number of variable size cortical regions of stimulus-correlated activity. An active region consists of locations on the cortical surface, within a sphere centered on some location in cortex. The number and radii of active regions can vary to defined maximum values. The goal of the analysis is to determine the posterior probability distribution for the set of parameters that govern the number, location, and extent of active regions. Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to generate a large sample of sets of parameters distributed according to the posterior distribution. This sample is representative of the many different source distributions that could account for given data, and allows identification of probable (i.e. consistent) features across solutions. Examples of the use of this analysis technique with both simulated and empirical MEG data are presented.

  16. Bayesian Inference for Neural Electromagnetic Source Localization: Analysis of MEG Visual Evoked Activity

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Wood, C.C.

    1999-02-01

    We have developed a Bayesian approach to the analysis of neural electromagnetic (MEG/EEG) data that can incorporate or fuse information from other imaging modalities and addresses the ill-posed inverse problem by sarnpliig the many different solutions which could have produced the given data. From these samples one can draw probabilistic inferences about regions of activation. Our source model assumes a variable number of variable size cortical regions of stimulus-correlated activity. An active region consists of locations on the cortical surf ace, within a sphere centered on some location in cortex. The number and radi of active regions can vary to defined maximum values. The goal of the analysis is to determine the posterior probability distribution for the set of parameters that govern the number, location, and extent of active regions. Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to generate a large sample of sets of parameters distributed according to the posterior distribution. This sample is representative of the many different source distributions that could account for given data, and allows identification of probable (i.e. consistent) features across solutions. Examples of the use of this analysis technique with both simulated and empirical MEG data are presented.

  17. In depth analysis of rumen microbial and carbohydrate-active enzymes profile in Indian crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Jose, V Lyju; More, Ravi P; Appoothy, Thulasi; Arun, A Sha

    2017-02-28

    Rumen houses a plethora of symbiotic microorganisms empowering the host to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. In this study, NGS based metagenomic approach coupled with bioinformatic analysis was employed to gain an insight into the deconstruction of lignocellulose by carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in Indian crossbred Holstein-Friesian cattle. Cattle rumen metagenomic DNA was sequenced using Illumina-MiSeq and 1.9 gigabases of data generated with an average read length of 871 bp. Analysis of the assembled sequences by Pfam-based Carbohydrate-active enzyme Analysis Toolkit identified 17,164 putative protein-encoding CAZymes belonging to different families of glycoside hydrolases (7574), glycosyltransferases (5185), carbohydrate-binding modules (2418), carbohydrate esterases (1516), auxiliary activities (434) and polysaccharide lyases (37). Phylogenetic analysis of putative CAZymes revealed that a significant proportion of CAZymes were contributed by bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes (40%), Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (10%). The comparative analysis of HF cross rumen metagenome with other herbivore metagenomes indicated that Indian crossbred cattle rumen is endowed with a battery of CAZymes that may play a central role in lignocellulose deconstruction. The extensive catalog of enzymes reported in our study that hydrolyzes plant lignocellulose biomass, can be further explored for the better feed utilization in ruminants and also for different industrial applications.

  18. Pore size distribution analysis of activated carbons prepared from coconut shell using methane adsorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadpour, A.; Okhovat, A.; Darabi Mahboub, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    The application of Stoeckli theory to determine pore size distribution (PSD) of activated carbons using high pressure methane adsorption data is explored. Coconut shell was used as a raw material for the preparation of 16 different activated carbon samples. Four samples with higher methane adsorption were selected and nitrogen adsorption on these adsorbents was also investigated. Some differences are found between the PSD obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms and their PSD resulting from the same analysis using methane adsorption data. It is suggested that these differences may arise from the specific interactions between nitrogen molecules and activated carbon surfaces; therefore caution is required in the interpretation of PSD obtained from the nitrogen isotherm data.

  19. Bioelectrical impedance analysis as a laboratory activity: At the interface of physics and the body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel laboratory activity on RC circuits aimed at introductory physics students in life-science majors. The activity teaches principles of RC circuits by connecting ac-circuit concepts to bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using a custom-designed educational BIA device. The activity shows how a BIA device works and how current, voltage, and impedance measurements relate to bioelectrical characteristics of the human body. From this, useful observations can be made including body water, fat-free mass, and body fat percentage. The laboratory is engaging to pre-health and life-science students, as well as engineering students who are given the opportunity to observe electrical components and construction of a commonly used biomedical device. Electrical concepts investigated include alternating current, electrical potential, resistance, capacitance, impedance, frequency, phase shift, device design, and the use of such topics in biomedical analysis.

  20. Device and software used to carry out Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-García, M. P.; Rey-Ronco, M. A.; Alonso-Sánchez, T.

    2014-11-01

    This paper discusses the device and software used to carry out Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis (CNAA). The aim of this investigation is defining through this device the fluorite content present on different samples from fluorspar concentration plant through the DGNAA (Delayed Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) method. This device is made of americium-beryllium neutron source, NaI (2"×2") and BGO (2"×2") gamma rays detectors, multichannel and an automatic mechanism which moves the samples from activation and reading position. This mechanism is controlled by a software which allows moving the samples precisely and in a safe way (~ms), which it is very useful when the radioactive isotopes have to be detected with a half time less than 8s.

  1. Principal component analysis of Birkeland currents determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Principal component analysis is performed on Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The regions 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns.

  2. Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S.; Cowley, Paula J.

    2004-09-28

    Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.

  3. Determination of phosphate in natural waters by activation analysis of tungstophosphoric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Herbert E.; Hahn, Richard B.

    1969-01-01

    Activation analysis may be used to determine quantitatively traces of phosphate in natural waters. Methods based on the reaction 31P(n,γ)32P are subject to interference by sulfur and chlorine which give rise to 32P through n,p and n,α reactions. If the ratio of phosphorus to sulfur or chlorine is small, as it is in most natural waters, accurate analyses by these methods are difficult to achieve. In the activation analysis method, molybdate and tungstate ions are added to samples containing phosphate ion to form tungstomolybdophosphoric acid. The complex is extracted with 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone. After activation of an aliquot of the organic phase for 1 hour at a flux of 1013 neutrons per cm2, per second, the gamma spectrum is essentially that of tungsten-187. The induced activity is proportional to the concentration of phosphate in the sample. A test of the method showed it to give accurate results at concentrations of 4 to at least 200 p.p.b. of phosphorus when an aliquot of 100 μl. was activated. By suitable reagent purification, counting for longer times, and activation of larger aliquots, the detection limit could be lowered several hundredfold.

  4. Electrophoretic analysis of liver glycogen phosphorylase activation in the freeze-tolerant wood frog.

    PubMed

    Crerar, M M; David, E S; Storey, K B

    1988-08-19

    As an adaptation for overwinter survival, the wood frog, Rana sylvatica is able to tolerate the freezing of extracellular body fluids. Tolerance is made possible by the production of very high amounts of glucose in liver which is then sent to other organs where it acts as a cryoprotectant. Cryoprotectant synthesis is under the control of glycogen phosphorylase which in turn is activated in response to ice formation. To determine the mechanism of phosphorylase activation, a quantitative analysis of phosphorylase protein concentration and enzymatic activity in liver was carried out following separation of the phosphorylated a and nonphosphorylated b forms of the enzyme on native polyacrylamide gels. The results suggest that in gels, the b form is completely inactive, even in the presence of AMP and sodium sulfate, whereas the a form is active and stimulated 3-fold by these substances. Further, phosphorylase activation appears to arise solely from conversion of the b to a form of the enzyme without an increase in phosphorylase concentration or activation of a second isozyme. The quantitative analysis presented here should prove generally useful as a simple and rapid method for examining the physiological and genetic regulation of phosphorylase in animal cells.

  5. Frequency analysis of a semi-active suspension with magneto-rheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronic, Florin; Mihai, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel; Beniuga, Marius

    2015-02-01

    Suspension systems for motor vehicles are constantly evolving in order to ensure vehicle stability and traffic safety under all driving conditions. The present work aims to highlight the influence factors in the case of a quarter car model for semi-active suspensions. The functions that must be met by such suspension systems are first presented. Mathematical models for passive systems are first illustrated and then customized for the semi-active case. A simulation diagram was conceived for Matlab Simulink. The obtained simulation results allow conducting a frequency analysis of the passive and semi-active cases of the quarter car model. Various charts for Passive Suspension Transmissibility and for the Effect of Damping on Vertical Acceleration Response were obtained for both passive and semi-active situations. Analysis of obtained results allowed evaluating of the suspension systems behavior and their frequency dependence. Significant differences were found between the behaviors of passive and semi-active suspensions. It was found that semi-active suspensions ensure damping in accordance to the chosen control method, and are much more efficient than passive ones.

  6. Online Social Networks That Connect Users to Physical Activity Partners: A Review and Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Passarella, Ralph Joseph; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-01-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified a lack of encouragement, support, or companionship from family and friends as a major barrier to physical activity. To overcome this barrier, online social networks are now actively leveraging principles of companion social support in novel ways. Objective The aim was to evaluate the functionality, features, and usability of existing online social networks which seek to increase physical activity and fitness among users by connecting them to physical activity partners, not just online, but also face-to-face. Methods In September 2012, we used 3 major databases to identify the website addresses for relevant online social networks. We conducted a Google search using 8 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 4 prefix terms “health,” “fitness,” “workout,” or “physical” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” or “activity buddies.” We also searched 2 prominent technology start-up news sites, TechCrunch and Y Combinator, using 2 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” and “activity buddies.” Sites were defined as online social health activity networks if they had the ability to (1) actively find physical activity partners or activities for the user, (2) offer dynamic, real-time tracking or sharing of social activities, and (3) provide virtual profiles to users. We excluded from our analysis sites that were not Web-based, publicly available, in English, or free. Results Of the 360 initial search results, we identified 13 websites that met our complete criteria of an online social health activity network. Features such as physical activity creation (13/13, 100%) and private messaging (12/13, 92%) appeared almost universally among these websites. However, integration with Web 2.0 technologies such as Facebook and Twitter (9/13, 69%) and the option of

  7. Antioxidant activity and analysis of proanthocyanidins from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Soo; Jeon, Min Hee; Hwang, Hyun Jung; Park, Mi Ra; Lee, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung Gu; Kim, Mihyang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts prepared with hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE), using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical method. The hot water extract possessed superior antioxidant activity than the other extracts. We also compared the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts through ROS inhibition activity in a cellular system using MC3T3 E-1 cells. The hot water extract exhibited the lowest ROS production. The pattern of HPLC analysis of each extract indicated that the hot water extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin level. The pine needle hot-water extract was then isolated and fractionated with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to determine the major contributor to its antioxidant activity. The No.7 and 12 fractions had high antioxidant activities, that is, the highest contents of proanthocyanidins and catechins, respectively. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of procyanidins from the hot water extract of pine needles is positively related to not only polymeric proanthocyanidins but also to monomeric catechins. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the pine needle hot water extract was similar to well-known antioxidants, such as vitamin C. This suggests that pine needle proanthocyanidins and catechins might be of interest for use as alternative antioxidants.

  8. Antioxidant activity and analysis of proanthocyanidins from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Soo; Jeon, Min Hee; Hwang, Hyun Jung; Park, Mi Ra; Lee, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung Gu

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts prepared with hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE), using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical method. The hot water extract possessed superior antioxidant activity than the other extracts. We also compared the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts through ROS inhibition activity in a cellular system using MC3T3 E-1 cells. The hot water extract exhibited the lowest ROS production. The pattern of HPLC analysis of each extract indicated that the hot water extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin level. The pine needle hot-water extract was then isolated and fractionated with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to determine the major contributor to its antioxidant activity. The No.7 and 12 fractions had high antioxidant activities, that is, the highest contents of proanthocyanidins and catechins, respectively. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of procyanidins from the hot water extract of pine needles is positively related to not only polymeric proanthocyanidins but also to monomeric catechins. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the pine needle hot water extract was similar to well-known antioxidants, such as vitamin C. This suggests that pine needle proanthocyanidins and catechins might be of interest for use as alternative antioxidants. PMID:21994521

  9. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011). Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00). Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00). Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear. PMID:22546283

  10. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence. PMID:26644661

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a statewide media campaign to promote adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael; Chandlee, Margaret; Abraham, Avron

    2008-10-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of a statewide social marketing campaign was performed using a statewide surveillance survey distributed to 6th through 12th graders, media production and placement costs, and 2000 census data. Exposure to all three advertisements had the highest impact on both intent and behavior with 65.6% of the respondents considering becoming more active and 58.3% reporting becoming more active. Average cost of the entire campaign was $4.01 per person to see an ad, $7.35 per person to consider being more active, and $8.87 per person to actually become more active, with billboards yielding the most positive cost-effectiveness. Findings highlight market research as an essential part of social marketing campaigns and the importance of using multiple marketing modalities to enhance cost-effectiveness and impact.

  12. Utilization of /sup 252/Cf-/sup 235/U fueled subcritical multiplier for neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, N.A.; Lepel, E.A.

    1983-10-05

    Neutron activation analysis is normally performed at thermal fluxes of 10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2//s irradiating samples of a few milligrams. When a ten thousand-fold larger sample is available, neutron activation can be performed at proportionately lower fluxes. Thus, a 10 g sample irradiated at 10/sup 9/ n/cm/sup 2//s contains as much activity as a 1 mg sample irradiated at 10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2//s. This paper describes the utilization of a subcritical multiplier operating at about 10/sup 9/ n/cm/sup 2//s for the activation of a broad range of sample types and elemental concentrations.

  13. Validation of an Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Take-off and Landing analysis (AGFATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation using a computer program for active gear, flexible aircraft take off and landing analysis (AGFATL) are compared with experimental data from shaker tests, drop tests, and simulated landing tests to validate the AGFATL computer program. Comparison of experimental and analytical responses for both passive and active gears indicates good agreement for shaker tests and drop tests. For the simulated landing tests, the passive and active gears were influenced by large strut binding friction forces. The inclusion of these undefined forces in the analytical simulations was difficult, and consequently only fair to good agreement was obtained. An assessment of the results from the investigation indicates that the AGFATL computer program is a valid tool for the study and initial design of series hydraulic active control landing gear systems.

  14. Analysis of jaw movements and muscle activity during mastication with JawReports Software.

    PubMed

    John, D; Ruge, S; Kordass, B

    2011-01-01

    We are currently developing new software for simultaneous visualisation and analysis of computerized recorded masticatory function and masticatory muscle activity. With the software, motion data recorded using the Jaw Motion Analyser and EMG data on masseter muscle activity can be uploaded in order to evaluate chewing activity immediately proximal to the occlusal surfaces. The software successfully differentiated between jaw opening and closing movements and filtered out muscle activity peaks, which were graphically depicted in the respective movement trajectories. This tracking strategy made it possible to visualize the movement sectors where chewing forces were effective and to estimate the strength of these forces. In the future, this software should improve our ability to analyze and assess the development of chewing forces. Therefore, it could provide a tool for optimal planning of implant-supported or CAD/CAM restorations.

  15. Gas chromatographic analysis of polyhydroxybutyrate in activated sludge: a round-robin test.

    PubMed

    Baetens, D; Aurola, A M; Foglia, A; Dionisi, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2002-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in particular have become compounds which is routinely investigated in wastewater research. The PHB analysis method has only recently been applied to activated sludge samples where PHA contents might be relatively low. This urges the need to investigate the reproducibility of the gas chromatographic method for PHB analysis. This was evaluated in a round-robin test in 5 European laboratories with samples from lab-scale and full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. It was shown that the standard deviation of measurements in each lab and the reproducibility between the labs was very good. Experimental results obtained by different laboratories using this analysis method can be compared. Sludge samples with PHB contents varying between 0.3 and 22.5 mg PHB/mg sludge were analysed. The gas chromatographic method allows for PHV, PH2MB and PH2MV analysis as well.

  16. Determination of nitrogen in boron carbide by instrumental photon activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Merchel, Silke; Berger, Achim

    2007-05-01

    Boron carbide is widely used as industrial material, because of its extreme hardness, and as a neutron absorber. As part of a round-robin exercise leading to certification of a new reference material (ERM-ED102) which was demanded by the industry we analysed nitrogen in boron carbide by inert gas fusion analysis (GFA) and instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the 14N(gamma,n)13N nuclear reaction. The latter approach is the only non-destructive method among all the methods applied. By using photons with energy below the threshold of the 12C(gamma,n)11C reaction, we hindered activation of matrix and other impurities. A recently installed beam with a very low lateral activating flux gradient enabled us to homogeneously activate sample masses of approximately 1 g. Taking extra precautions, i.e. self-absorption correction and deconvolution of the complex decay curves, we calculated a nitrogen concentration of 2260+/-100 microg g-1, which is in good agreement with our GFA value of 2303+/-64 microg g-1. The values are the second and third highest of a rather atypical (non-S-shape) distribution of data of 14 round-robin participants. It is of utmost importance for the certification process that our IPAA value is the only one not produced by inert gas fusion analysis and, therefore, the only one which is not affected by a possible incomplete release of nitrogen from high-melting boron carbide.

  17. Neutron activation analysis via nuclear decay kinetics using gamma-ray spectroscopy at SFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Thomas; Chester, Aaron; Starosta, Krzysztof; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool used in a variety of fields including nuclear and analytical chemistry, environmental science, and health risk management. At SFU, the Germanium detector for Elemental Analysis and Radiation Studies (GEARS), a low-background shielded high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector, has been used recently in all of the above fields. The current project aims to expand upon the number of applications for which GEARS can be used while enhancing its current functionality. A recent addition to the SFU Nuclear Science laboratory is the Thermo Scientific P 385 neutron generator. This device provides a nominal yield of 3 ×108 neutrons/s providing the capacity for neutron activation analysis, opening a major avenue of research at SFU which was previously unavailable. The isotopes created via neutron activation have a wide range of half-lives. To measure and study isotopes with half-lives above a second, a new analogue data acquisition system has been installed on GEARS allowing accurate measurements of decay kinetics. This new functionality enables identification and quantification of the products of neutron activation. Results from the neutron activation analysis of pure metals will be presented.

  18. Activation of attention networks using frequency analysis of a simple auditory-motor paradigm.

    PubMed

    Astrakas, Loukas G; Teicher, Martin; Tzika, A Aria

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a paradigm that stimulates attention using a frequency-based analysis of the data acquired during a motor task. Six adults (30-40 years of age) and one child (10 years) were studied. Each subject was requested to attend to "start" and "stop" commands every 20 s alternatively and had to respond with the motor task every second time. Attention was stimulated during a block-designed, motor paradigm in which a start-stop commands cycle produced activation at the fourth harmonic of the motor frequency. We disentangled the motor and attention functions using statistical analysis with subspaces spanned by vectors generated by a truncated trigonometric series of motor and attention frequency. During our auditory-motor paradigm, all subjects showed activation in areas that belong to an extensive attention network. Attention and motor functions were coactivated but with different frequencies. While the motor-task-related areas were activated with slower frequency than attention, the activation in the attention-related areas was enhanced every time the subject had to start or end the motor task. We suggest that although a simple block-designed, auditory-motor paradigm stimulates the attention network, motor preparation, and motor inhibition concurrently, a frequency-based analysis can distinguish attention from motor functions. Due to its simplicity the paradigm can be valuable in studying children with attention deficit disorders.

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy and cell proliferation activity in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, T; Tonelli, F; Mini, E; Mazzoni, P; Pesciullesi, A; Valanzano, R; Ficari, F; Biondi, C; Periti, P

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between DNA ploidy, proliferative activity and other prognostic factors and the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. 45 patients were prospectively investigated for 6 years. Fresh multiple samples for flow cytometric analysis of DNA content were collected during surgical resection of primary tumor. A 42% frequency of aneuploidy was observed with a median DNA index value of 1.54. The proliferative activity (%S+G2M cells) was higher in the aneuploid cell sub-population (28.6%) compared to the diploid counterpart (22.7%)(p = 0.05). No significant relationship between DNA ploidy and tumor site, Dukes' stage, histological type, grading age or sex was observed. No correlation between DNA ploidy and survival was demonstrated, including in the analysis of patient subsets according to stage. No additive prognostic information was obtained from a breakdown analysis as a function of DI values, percentages of aneuploid cells and proliferative activity. This study suggests that flow cytometric content analysis lacks prognostic value in colorectal carcinoma.

  20. Drug target identification using network analysis: Taking active components in Sini decoction as an example.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Jiang, Hailong; Cao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Hu, Ziheng; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2016-04-20

    Identifying the molecular targets for the beneficial effects of active small-molecule compounds simultaneously is an important and currently unmet challenge. In this study, we firstly proposed network analysis by integrating data from network pharmacology and metabolomics to identify targets of active components in sini decoction (SND) simultaneously against heart failure. To begin with, 48 potential active components in SND against heart failure were predicted by serum pharmacochemistry, text mining and similarity match. Then, we employed network pharmacology including text mining and molecular docking to identify the potential targets of these components. The key enriched processes, pathways and related diseases of these target proteins were analyzed by STRING database. At last, network analysis was conducted to identify most possible targets of components in SND. Among the 25 targets predicted by network analysis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was firstly experimentally validated in molecular and cellular level. Results indicated that hypaconitine, mesaconitine, higenamine and quercetin in SND can directly bind to TNF-α, reduce the TNF-α-mediated cytotoxicity on L929 cells and exert anti-myocardial cell apoptosis effects. We envisage that network analysis will also be useful in target identification of a bioactive compound.

  1. Drug target identification using network analysis: Taking active components in Sini decoction as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Si; Jiang, Hailong; Cao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Hu, Ziheng; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the molecular targets for the beneficial effects of active small-molecule compounds simultaneously is an important and currently unmet challenge. In this study, we firstly proposed network analysis by integrating data from network pharmacology and metabolomics to identify targets of active components in sini decoction (SND) simultaneously against heart failure. To begin with, 48 potential active components in SND against heart failure were predicted by serum pharmacochemistry, text mining and similarity match. Then, we employed network pharmacology including text mining and molecular docking to identify the potential targets of these components. The key enriched processes, pathways and related diseases of these target proteins were analyzed by STRING database. At last, network analysis was conducted to identify most possible targets of components in SND. Among the 25 targets predicted by network analysis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was firstly experimentally validated in molecular and cellular level. Results indicated that hypaconitine, mesaconitine, higenamine and quercetin in SND can directly bind to TNF-α, reduce the TNF-α-mediated cytotoxicity on L929 cells and exert anti-myocardial cell apoptosis effects. We envisage that network analysis will also be useful in target identification of a bioactive compound.

  2. Droplet activation, separation, and compositional analysis: laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Kohn, M.; Pekour, M. S.; Nelson, D. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2011-10-01

    Droplets produced in a cloud condensation nuclei chamber (CCNC) as a function of supersaturation have been separated from unactivated aerosol particles using counterflow virtual impaction. Residual material after droplets were evaporated was chemically analyzed with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument. Experiments were initially conducted to verify activation conditions for monodisperse ammonium sulfate particles and to determine the resulting droplet size distribution as a function of supersaturation. Based on the observed droplet size, the counterflow virtual impactor cut-size was set to differentiate droplets from unactivated interstitial particles. Validation experiments were then performed to verify that only droplets with sufficient size passed through the counterflow virtual impactor for subsequent analysis. A two-component external mixture of monodisperse particles was also exposed to a supersaturation which would activate one of the types (hygroscopic salts) but not the other (polystyrene latex spheres or adipic acid). The mass spectrum observed after separation indicated only the former, validating separation of droplets from unactivated particles. Results from ambient measurements using this technique and AMS analysis were inconclusive, showing little chemical differentiation between ambient aerosol and activated droplet residuals, largely due to low signal levels. When employing as single particle mass spectrometer for compositional analysis, however, we observed enhancement of sulfate in droplet residuals.

  3. Drug target identification using network analysis: Taking active components in Sini decoction as an example

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si; Jiang, Hailong; Cao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Hu, Ziheng; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the molecular targets for the beneficial effects of active small-molecule compounds simultaneously is an important and currently unmet challenge. In this study, we firstly proposed network analysis by integrating data from network pharmacology and metabolomics to identify targets of active components in sini decoction (SND) simultaneously against heart failure. To begin with, 48 potential active components in SND against heart failure were predicted by serum pharmacochemistry, text mining and similarity match. Then, we employed network pharmacology including text mining and molecular docking to identify the potential targets of these components. The key enriched processes, pathways and related diseases of these target proteins were analyzed by STRING database. At last, network analysis was conducted to identify most possible targets of components in SND. Among the 25 targets predicted by network analysis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was firstly experimentally validated in molecular and cellular level. Results indicated that hypaconitine, mesaconitine, higenamine and quercetin in SND can directly bind to TNF-α, reduce the TNF-α-mediated cytotoxicity on L929 cells and exert anti-myocardial cell apoptosis effects. We envisage that network analysis will also be useful in target identification of a bioactive compound. PMID:27095146

  4. A trend analysis of global fire activity. Is it land use or climate the main driver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Silva, Joao M. N.; Lopez-Saldaña, Gerardo; Pereira, Jose M. C.

    2016-04-01

    We perform a global trend analysis of active fire counts at 0.5o spatial resolution, using 156 months (January 2001 - December 2013) of MODIS Climate Modelling Grid data (TERRA). We use the Contextual Mann-Kendall (CMK) test to assess the statistical significance at cell level and found that 13% of the global land area displays statistically significant active fire count trends, with a slight predominance of negative trends (50.63% of the total significant cells). We perform the same trend analysis with the unexplained variability (residuals) between active fires and the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that is used as a proxy for climate. There is agreement between the main patterns from the trend analysis coming from the residuals and the active fire trends, implying that the main contemporary fire trends are not climate driven. Spatially coherent patches with significant trends were found in all continents (with the obvious exception of Antarctica). The majority of significant trends occur in areas of high fire incidence, and both increasing and decreasing trends appear to be associated with land use change processes. The analysis reveals large negative trends at the Sahel and between Russia and Kazakhstan, whereas a massive and coherent positive trend appears in southeastern Asia. Smaller patches of positive trends appear in southeastern United States and in Mexico, as well as in Brazil and between Argentina and Paraguay, and in Asia in India. There are also negative trends in Brazil, Argentina and in Australia. The study highlights the land use activities as the main driver of these trends, but also the need for data driven analyses and longer time series for future studies in order to gain better knowledge on fire occurrence.

  5. Fugacity and activity analysis of the bioaccumulation and environmental risks of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

    PubMed

    Gobas, Frank A P C; Xu, Shihe; Kozerski, Gary; Powell, David E; Woodburn, Kent B; Mackay, Don; Fairbrother, Anne

    2015-12-01

    As part of an initiative to evaluate commercial chemicals for their effects on human and environmental health, Canada recently evaluated decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS no. 541-02-06), a high-volume production chemical used in many personal care products. The evaluation illustrated the challenges encountered in environmental risk assessments and the need for the development of better tools to increase the weight of evidence in environmental risk assessments. The present study presents a new risk analysis method that applies thermodynamic principles of fugacity and activity to express the results of field monitoring and laboratory bioaccumulation and toxicity studies in a comprehensive risk analysis that can support risk assessments. Fugacity and activity ratios of D5 derived from bioaccumulation measures indicate that D5 does not biomagnify in food webs, likely because of biotransformation. The fugacity and activity analysis further demonstrates that reported no-observed-effect concentrations of D5 normally cannot occur in the environment. Observed fugacities and activities in the environment are, without exception, far below those corresponding with no observed effects, in many cases by several orders of magnitude. This analysis supports the conclusion of the Canadian Board of Review and the Minister of the Environment that D5 does not pose a danger to the environment. The present study further illustrates some of the limitations of a persistence-bioaccumulation-toxicity-type criteria-based risk assessment approach and discusses the merits of the fugacity and activity approach to increase the weight of evidence and consistency in environmental risk assessments of commercial chemicals.

  6. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities < 1 pCi/L.The gross-beta technique does not measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their

  7. Response analysis of the lumbar spine during regular daily activities--a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Galbusera, Fabio; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2010-07-20

    A non-linear poroelastic finite element model of the lumbar spine was developed to investigate spinal response during daily dynamic physiological activities. Swelling was simulated by imposing a boundary pore pressure of 0.25 MPa at all external surfaces. Partial saturation of the disc was introduced to circumvent the negative pressures otherwise computed upon unloading. The loading conditions represented a pre-conditioning full day followed by another day of loading: 8h rest under a constant compressive load of 350 N, followed by 16 h loading phase under constant or cyclic compressive load varying in between 1000 and 1600 N. In addition, the effect of one or two short resting periods in the latter loading phase was studied. The model yielded fairly good agreement with in-vivo and in-vitro measurements. Taking the partial saturation of the disc into account, no negative pore pressures were generated during unloading and recovery phase. Recovery phase was faster than the loading period with equilibrium reached in only approximately 3h. With time and during the day, the axial displacement, fluid loss, axial stress and disc radial strain increased whereas the pore pressure and disc collagen fiber strains decreased. The fluid pressurization and collagen fiber stiffening were noticeable early in the morning, which gave way to greater compression stresses and radial strains in the annulus bulk as time went by. The rest periods dampened foregoing differences between the early morning and late in the afternoon periods. The forgoing diurnal variations have profound effects on lumbar spine biomechanics and risk of injury.

  8. Analysis of bioactive ingredients in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus by capillary electrophoresis and neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Truus, Kalle; Vaher, Merike; Koel, Mihkel; Mähar, Andres; Taure, Imants

    2004-07-01

    Two different types of bioactive components of the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were analysed: (1) polyphenols (phlorotannins) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (2) mineral part (including bioactive microelements) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). CE experiments were carried out using a UV detector (at 210 nm) and an uncoated silica capillary. The best separation was achieved at a voltage of 20 kV using borate or acetate buffer in a methanol/acetonitrile mixture as background electrolyte. The CE analysis data were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Determination of mineral composition of algal biomass by NAA was performed on the basis of various nuclides; the best results (from 38 elements determined) were obtained for Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Sr, I, Ba, Au and Hg.

  9. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile. PMID:21699688

  10. MFO activity and contaminant analysis of overwintering juvenile chinook salmon in the Fraser River

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.; Glickman, B.; Addison, R.; Gordon, R.; Martens, D.

    1995-12-31

    Various organic contaminants, including some PAHs, PCBs and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, induce liver cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and its associated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD). In this study, analysis of carcasses for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were compared to liver MFO activity. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in March, 1994 at a reference site on the Nechako River free from the influence of industrial activity and at sites near Prince George, Stoner, Longbar and Soda Creek on the Fraser River, and on the Thompson River. Fish from the Nechako site had the lowest MFO activities, accompanied by the lowest whole body dioxin and furan concentrations. Fish from Longbar, Soda Creek and the Thompson River had the highest MFO activities. Fish from Prince George contained the highest dioxin concentrations, but furans and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were highest at the Soda Creek and Thompson sites. MFO activity correlated most strongly with PCB concentrations. The results of this study suggest that liver MFO activity in O. tshawytscha could be employed as one biological index of environmental quality in the Fraser River.

  11. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p < .05, on EXSE; g = 0.128, 95% CI [0.05, 0.20], p < .05 on BSE; and g = 0.335 95% CI [0.196, 0.475], p < .001, on physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904

  12. Three decades of continuous wrist-activity recording: analysis of sleep duration.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Alexander A; Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Motor activity recording by a wrist-worn device is a common method to monitor the rest-activity cycle. The first author wore an actimeter continuously for more than three decades, starting in 1982 at the age of 43.5 years. Until November 2006 analysis was performed on a 15-min time base, and subsequently on a 2-min time base. The timing of night-time sleep was determined from the cessation and re-occurrence of daytime-level activity. Sleep duration declined from an initial 6.8 to 6 h in 2004. The declining trend was reversed upon retirement, whereas the variance of sleep duration declined throughout the recording period. Before retirement, a dominant 7-day rhythm of sleep duration as well as an annual periodicity was revealed by spectral analysis. These variations were attenuated or vanished during the years after retirement. We demonstrate the feasibility of continuous long-term motor activity recordings to study age-related variations of the rest-activity cycle. Here we show that the embeddedness in a professional environment imparts a temporal structure to sleep duration.

  13. Uterine EMG spectral analysis and relationship to mechanical activity in pregnant monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mansour, S; Devedeux, D; Germain, G; Marque, C; Duchêne, J

    1996-03-01

    The objective is to analyse internal and external recordings of uterine EMG in order to reveal common features and to assess the relationship between electrical activity and intra-uterine pressure modification. Three monkeys participated in the study, one as a reference and the others for data. EMGs are recorded simultaneously, internally by unipolar wire electrodes and externally by bipolar Ag/AgCl electrodes. Intra-uterine pressure is recorded as a mechanical index. Except for delay measurements, parameters are derived from spectral analysis and relationships between recordings are assessed by studying the coherence. Spectral analysis exhibits two basic activities in the analysed frequency band, and frequency limits are defined as relevant parameters for electrical activity description. Parameter values do not depend on the internal electrode location. Internal and external EMGs present a similar spectral shape, despite differences in electrode configuration and tissue filtering. It is deduced that external uterine EMG is a good image of the genuine uterine electrical activity. To some extent, it can be related to an average cellular electrical activity.

  14. An Analysis of Data Activities and Instructional Supports in Middle School Science Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.; Baker, Katie; Junglen, Angela

    2015-11-01

    A critical component of science and math education is reasoning with data. Science textbooks are instructional tools that provide opportunities for learning science content (e.g. facts about force and motion) and process skills (e.g. data recording) that support and augment reasoning with data. In addition, the construction and design of textbooks influence the instructional strategies used in the classroom to teach science. An analysis of science textbooks provides a window to examine what students are being taught about data and how they are being taught. We had two objectives for the present study: (1) to examine opportunities for reasoning with data and (2) to examine to what extent these activities are aligned with instructional supports derived from evidence-based learning strategies. We conducted a descriptive study in which we examined how 20 Middle School science textbooks, across 731 activities, presented opportunities for reasoning with data. Our results demonstrate that although half of activities in textbooks included data, very few of these activities provide opportunities to learn how to record, analyze, and interpret data and the activities rarely provided instructional supports based on evidence-based learning strategies. Our analysis suggests that science textbooks provide limited support for reasoning with data.

  15. A meta-analysis of active video games on health outcomes among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z; Chen, S; Pasco, D; Pope, Z

    2015-09-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes current literature concerning the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children/adolescents' health-related outcomes. A total of 512 published studies on AVGs were located, and 35 articles were included based on the following criteria: (i) data-based research articles published in English between 1985 and 2015; (ii) studied some types of AVGs and related outcomes among children/adolescents and (iii) had at least one comparison within each study. Data were extracted to conduct comparisons for outcome measures in three separate categories: AVGs and sedentary behaviours, AVGs and laboratory-based exercise, and AVGs and field-based physical activity. Effect size for each entry was calculated with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software in 2015. Mean effect size (Hedge's g) and standard deviation were calculated for each comparison. Compared with sedentary behaviours, AVGs had a large effect on health outcomes. The effect sizes for physiological outcomes were marginal when comparing AVGs with laboratory-based exercises. The comparison between AVGs and field-based physical activity had null to moderate effect sizes. AVGs could yield equivalent health benefits to children/adolescents as laboratory-based exercise or field-based physical activity. Therefore, AVGs can be a good alternative for sedentary behaviour and addition to traditional physical activity and sports in children/adolescents.

  16. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    SciTech Connect

    Dahing, Lahasen Normanshah; Yahya, Redzuan; Yahya, Roslan; Hassan, Hearie

    2014-09-03

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} and 15×15×15 cm{sup 3} were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed.

  17. Validation of a new image analysis procedure for quantifying filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Bizukojc, Marcin; Andrzejczak, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems can be made by manual counting under a microscope or by the application of various automated image analysis procedures. The latter has been significantly developed in the last two decades. In this work a new method based upon automated image analysis techniques was elaborated and presented. It consisted of three stages: (a) Neisser staining, (b) grabbing of microscopic images, and (c) digital image processing and analysis. This automated image analysis procedure possessed the features of novelty. It simultaneously delivered data about aggregates and filaments in an individual calculation routine, which is seldom met in the procedures described in the literature so far. What is more important, the macroprogram performing image processing and calculation of morphological parameters was written in the same software which was used for grabbing of images. Previously published procedures required using two different types of software, one for image grabbing and another one for image processing and analysis. Application of this new procedure for the quantification of filamentous bacteria in the full-scale as well as laboratory activated sludge systems proved that it was simple, fast and delivered reliable results.

  18. Phytochemical analysis of Gymnema sylvestre and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Rao, Kiranmayee; Giri, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (CS 149), known to be a rich source of saponins and other valuable phytochemicals, has been analysed for antimicrobial activity. The chloroform extracts of aerial and root parts of G. sylvestre exhibited higher antimicrobial activity as compared to diethyl ether and acetone. The root extracts of chloroform have shown competitive minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.04-1.28 mg mL(-1) and 0.08-2.56 mg/mL, respectively, towards the pathogens. The GC-MS analysis of chloroform extracts has shown the presence of compounds like eicosane, oleic acid, stigmasterol and vitamin E.

  19. Periodogram analysis of sunspot numbers and the relation with solar activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hady, Ahmed A.

    1995-01-01

    The time series of average monthly sunspot numbers during 1900-1992 is studied by using power spectral analysis. This prediction method is used to study the sunspot periodicities relations between its, and with the other periodicities by solar activities. There are periodicities (between few days and 5 years) overwhelm on the mean solar cycle. ( 11 year cycle). These periodicities have the same relation with variations of solar constant and solar radiation reaching the Earth's atmosphere in the last solar cycle. These periods are related to the solar magnetic activity and to the modulation of solar features due to solar rotation.

  20. Transmutation analysis of realistic low-activation steels for magnetic fusion reactors and IFMIF

    SciTech Connect

    Cabellos, O; Sanz, J; Garc?a-Herranz, N; D?az, S; Reyes, S; Piedloup, S

    2005-11-22

    A comprehensive transmutation study for steels considered in the selection of structural materials for magnetic and inertial fusion reactors has been performed in the IFMIF neutron irradiation scenario, as well as in the ITER and DEMO ones for comparison purposes. An element-by-element transmutation approach is used in the study, addressing the generation of: (1) H and He and (2) solid transmutants. The IEAF-2001 activation library and the activation code ACAB were applied to the IFMIF transmutation analysis, after proving the applicability of ACAB for transmutation calculations of this kind of intermediate energy systems.

  1. Psychoacoustic active noise control with ITU-R 468 noise weighting and its sound quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hua; Panahi, Issa M S

    2010-01-01

    Non-uniform frequency response of human hearing system requires conventional active noise control (ANC) system to be modified. Psychoacoustic active noise control (PANC) system based on filtered-E least-mean-square (FELMS) structure aims to improve the noise attenuation performance in terms of hearing perception. ITU-R 468 noise weighting reflects human hearing response to random noise. In this paper we incorporate ITU-R 468 noise weighting into PANC system. Sound quality analysis is conducted for attenuated noise with a predictive pleasantness model which combines four psychoacoustic parameters (loudness, sharpness, roughness and tonality). Simulation on realistic MRI acoustic noise shows improvement of sound quality in the new system.

  2. Assessment of rheumatoid activity based on clinical features and blood and synovial fluid analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, M; Kendall, M J; Young, D W; Meynell, M J; Hawkins, C F

    1976-01-01

    Joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis has been assessed, and the most useful guides to disease activity were determined by analysis of synovial fluid and blood together with the history of joint disability. The patient's own evaluation of the amount of pain suffered was the most useful clinical assessment. Differential cell count and glucose estimations were the most helpful guides in the synovial fluid, while C-reactive protein in the serum most accurately reflected disease activity. The effects of systemic steroids on these indices were studied, and the differences between seronegative and seropositive patients noted. PMID:942273

  3. Dynamic deformation measurement and analysis of active stressed lap using optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; Liu, Yuankun; Xiang, Liqun

    2007-12-01

    The active stressed lap is the heart of polishing process. A novel non-contact optical method of dynamic deformation measurement and analysis of an active stressed lap is put forward. This method, based on structured illumination, is able to record full-field information of the bending and rotating stressed lap dynamically and continuously, while its profile is changed under computer control, and restore the whole process of lap deformation varied with time at different position and rotating angle. It has been verified by experiments that this proposed method will be helpful to the opticians to ensure the stressed lap as expected.

  4. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    PubMed

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  5. [The activity of Codex Alimentarius Commission FAO/WHO Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling].

    PubMed

    Jedrzejczak, Renata; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Traczyk, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    In the light of issues discussed during 24th Session of Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling that was held in Budapest, 18-22 November 2002, the current activity of this Committee is presented. More detailed information about some of the most advanced or interesting documents is included, i. e. Proposed Draft General Guidelines On Sampling, Harmonized IUPAC Guidelines for Single-Laboratory Validation of Methods of Analysis, Consideration of methods for the detection and identification of food derived from biotechnology.

  6. Instrumental photon activation analysis using the linear accelerator at the Naval Postgraduate School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, W. A.

    1982-10-01

    Charcoal, charcoal residue, potting soil, aluminum foil, bismuth germanate, and petroleum samples have been investigated using instrumental photon activation analysis (i.e., no radiochemistry). The major and minor elements routinely observed by this nondestructive method were: C, C1, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si, and K. A comprehensive review of the principles of IPAA was also included in the study. The principles were applied to a theoretical analysis of an oil sample in which the trace element concentrations were known. It was concluded that IPAA is a highly sensitive technique which could be used to fingerprint oils.

  7. Evaluation of homogeneity of a certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, B.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneity of the marine reference material TORT-1, a spray-dried and acetone-extracted hepatopancreatic material from the lobster, was tested for 26 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on six analyses on each of six bottles of TORT-1, it was concluded that the between-bottle heterogeneity is no greater than the within-bottle heterogeneity. The analytical results for those elements for which values were provided by NRC agree with the NRC values within 95% confidence limits. 8 references, 6 tables.

  8. Use of virtual, interactive, musculoskeletal system (VIMS) in modeling and analysis of shoulder throwing activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hwai-Ting; Nakamura, Yasuo; Su, Fong-Chin; Hashimoto, Jun; Nobuhara, Katsuya; Chao, Edmund Y S

    2005-06-01

    Our purpose in this study was to apply the virtual, interactive, musculoskeletal system (VIMS) software for modeling and biomechanical analysis of the glenohumeral joint during a baseball pitching activity. The skeletal model was from VIMS library and muscle fiber attachment sites were derived from the visible human dataset. The muscular moment arms and function changes are mainly due to the large humeral motion involved during baseball pitching. The graphic animation of the anatomic system using VIMS software is an effective tool to model and visualize the complex anatomical structure of the shoulder for biomechanical analysis.

  9. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  10. Web-based tools for modelling and analysis of multivariate data: California ozone pollution activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Christou, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    This article presents a hands-on web-based activity motivated by the relation between human health and ozone pollution in California. This case study is based on multivariate data collected monthly at 20 locations in California between 1980 and 2006. Several strategies and tools for data interrogation and exploratory data analysis, model fitting and statistical inference on these data are presented. All components of this case study (data, tools, activity) are freely available online at: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/SOCR_MotionCharts_CAOzoneData. Several types of exploratory (motion charts, box-and-whisker plots, spider charts) and quantitative (inference, regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA)) data analyses tools are demonstrated. Two specific human health related questions (temporal and geographic effects of ozone pollution) are discussed as motivational challenges.

  11. Short Term Forecasts of Volcanic Activity Using An Event Tree Analysis System and Logistic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junek, W. N.; Jones, W. L.; Woods, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    An automated event tree analysis system for estimating the probability of short term volcanic activity is presented. The algorithm is driven by a suite of empirical statistical models that are derived through logistic regression. Each model is constructed from a multidisciplinary dataset that was assembled from a collection of historic volcanic unrest episodes. The dataset consists of monitoring measurements (e.g. InSAR, seismic), source modeling results, and historic eruption activity. This provides a simple mechanism for simultaneously accounting for the geophysical changes occurring within the volcano and the historic behavior of analog volcanoes. The algorithm is extensible and can be easily recalibrated to include new or additional monitoring, modeling, or historic information. Standard cross validation techniques are employed to optimize its forecasting capabilities. Analysis results from several recent volcanic unrest episodes are presented.

  12. Principle Component Analysis of Birkeland Currents Determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Principle Component Analysis is performed on northern and southern hemisphere Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). PCA identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The region 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly-reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns. Other interhemispheric differences are discussed.

  13. ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVATION INCREASES LUMBAR SPINAL STABILITY: ANALYSIS OF CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFERENT MUSCLE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Ian A.F.; Gardner-Morse, Mack G.; Henry, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Antagonistic activation of abdominal muscles and raised intra-abdominal pressure are associated with both spinal unloading and spinal stabilization. Rehabilitation regimens have been proposed to improve spinal stability via selective recruitment of certain trunk muscle groups. This biomechanical study used an analytical model to address whether lumbar spinal stability is increased by selective activation of abdominal muscles. Methods The biomechanical model included anatomically realistic three-layers of curved abdominal musculature connected by fascia, rectus abdominis and 77 symmetrical pairs of dorsal muscles. The muscle activations were calculated with the model loaded with either flexion, extension, lateral bending or axial rotation moments up to 60 Nm, along with intra-abdominal pressure up to 5 or 10 kPa (37.5 or 75 mm Hg) and partial bodyweight. After solving for muscle forces, a buckling analysis quantified spinal stability. Subsequently, different patterns of muscle activation were studied by forcing activation of selected abdominal muscles to at least 10% or 20% of maximum. Findings The spinal stability increased by an average factor of 1.8 with doubling of intra-abdominal pressure. Forced activation of obliques or transversus abdominis muscles to at least 10% of maximum increased stability slightly for efforts other than flexion, but forcing at least 20% activation generally did not produce further increase in stability. Forced activation of rectus abdominis did not increase stability. Interpretation Based on predictions from an analytical spinal buckling model, the degree of stability was not substantially influenced by selective forcing of muscle activation. This casts doubt on the supposed mechanism of action of specific abdominal muscle exercise regimens that have been proposed for low back pain rehabilitation. PMID:21571410

  14. Gram-staining characterisation of activated sludge filamentous bacteria by automated colour analysis.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Denis; Pons, Marie-Noëlle

    2004-12-01

    An automated image analysis method has been developed for the monitoring of the Gram-staining characteristics of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge. The binary method of pixel classification agreed with manual estimation (level of correlation of 0.9 for Gram-positive bacteria). Its robustness has been assessed by repeatability tests. Population shifts in terms of Gram-staining characteristics have been monitored in laboratory-scale experiments with two feeding schedules using this technique.

  15. Second Research Coordination Meeting on Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis -- Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B.; Kellett, Mark A.

    2008-03-19

    The second meeting of the Co-ordinated Research Project on"Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis" was held at the IAEA, Vienna from 7-9 May, 2007. A summary of the presentations made by participants is given, along with reports on specifically assigned tasks and subsequent discussions. In order to meet the overall objectives of this CRP, the outputs have been reiterated and new task assignments made.

  16. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Some Geological Samples of Different Origin

    SciTech Connect

    Duliu, O. G.; Cristache, C. I.; Oaie, G.; Ricman, C.; Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2010-01-21

    Instrumental Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used to investigate the distribution of six major elements and 34 trace elements in a set of eight igneous and metamorphic rocks collected from Carpathian and Macin Mountainsas well as unconsolidated sediments collected from anoxic zone of the Black Sea. All experimental data were interpreted within the Upper Continental Core and Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt model system that allowed getting more information concerning samples origin as well as the environmental peculiarities.

  17. Isolation and Analysis of Novel Electrochemically Active Bacteria for Enhanced Power Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-07

    ISOLATION AND ANALYSIS OF NOVEL ELECTROCHEMICALLY ACTIVE BACTERIA FOR ENHANCED POWER GENERATION IN MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS B.E. Logan, J.M. Regan...new exoelectrogenic bacteria during this project. We isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris DX-1, and demonstrated for the first time that a pure culture... isolated Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1, which had the remarkable characteristic that it was unable to respire using hydrous Fe(lll) oxide but produced

  18. Determination of Np-237 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis combined with extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kalmykov, St N; Aliev, R A; Sapozhnikov, D Yu; Sapozhnikov, Yu A; Afinogenov, A M

    2004-01-01

    A procedure for determination of 237Np, 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 241Pu in environmental samples is described. Neptunium-237 is determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis with pre- and post-irradiation chemistry based on solvent extraction and extraction chromatography. 238Pu, 239,240Pu is determined using alpha spectrometry and 241Pu by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The vertical profiles of 237Np, 238Pu, 239,240Pu in bottom sediments from the Black Sea are presented.

  19. Determination of Cd and Cr in an ABS candidate reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangwon; Kang, Namgoo; Cho, Kyunghaeng; Lee, Jounghae

    2008-12-01

    In order to practically better cope with technical barriers to trade (TBT) of a great number of resin goods, our research presents first-ever results for the determination of Cd and Cr in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) candidate reference material using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) recently recognized as a candidate primary ratio method with a particular attention to the estimation of involved measurement uncertainties.

  20. Salvinia auriculata: aquatic bioindicator studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA).

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; de Oliveira, Ester Figueiredo; Silva, Grácia Divina de Fátima; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Pott, Vali Joana; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto

    2008-05-01

    Through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the elemental chemical composition of Salvinia auriculata and Ouro Preto city public water was determined. Elements Ce, Th, Cr, Hf, Sb, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn, Co, Au, La and Br were quantified. High chromium concentration was determined in this plant. But, chromium was determined only in low concentrations in the water. The results indicate the great capacity of this plant to absorb and accumulate inorganic elements.

  1. A comparative neutron activation analysis study of common generic manipulated and reference medicines commercialized in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, A S; Menezes, M A B C; Rodrigues, R R; Andonie, O; Vermaercke, P; Sneyers, L

    2008-10-01

    In this work, a comparative study of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed by the nuclear institutes: CDTN/CNEN-Brazil, CCHEN-Chile and the SCK.CEN-Belgium aiming to investigate some generic, manipulated and reference medicines largely commercialized in Brazil. Some impurities such as: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ti and Zn were found, and the heterogeneity of the samples pointed out the lack of an efficient public system of quality control.

  2. Activity Restriction and Depression in Medical Patients and their Caregivers: A Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T; Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Moore, Raeanne C; Roepke, Susan K; Depp, Colin A; Roesch, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Depression commonly occurs in conjunction with a variety of medical conditions. In addition, family members who care for patients with medical diagnoses often suffer from depression. Therefore, in addition to treating illnesses, physicians and other healthcare professionals are often faced with managing secondary mental health consequences. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between activity restriction and depression in medical patients and their caregivers. A total of 34 studies (N = 8,053) documenting the relationship between activity restriction and depression were identified for the period between January 1980 and June 2010. Effect sizes were calculated as Pearson r correlations using random-effects models. The correlation between activity restriction and depression was positive and of large magnitude (r = 0.39; 95% CI, .34–.44). Activity restriction was most strongly correlated with depression in medical patients (r = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.42–0.48), followed by caregivers (r = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.28–0.41) and community-dwelling adults (r = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.25–0.31). Activity restriction associated with medical conditions is a significant threat to well-being and quality of life, as well as to the lives of their caregivers. Assessment and treatment of activity restriction may be particularly helpful in preventing depression. PMID:21600868

  3. Analysis of the activated partial thromboplastin time test using mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Kogan, A E; Kardakov, D V; Khanin, M A

    2001-02-15

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a laboratory test for the diagnosis of blood coagulation disorders. The test consists of two stages: The first one is the preincubation of a plasma sample with negatively charged materials (kaolin, ellagic acid etc.) to activate factors XII and XI; the second stage begins after the addition of calcium ions that triggers a chain of calcium-dependent enzymatic reactions resulting in fibrinogen clotting. Mathematical modeling was used for the analysis of the APTT test. The process of coagulation was described by a set of coupled differential equations that were solved by the numerical method. It was found that as little as 2.3 x 10(-9) microM of factor XIIa (1/10000 of its plasma concentration) is enough to cause the complete activation of factor XII and prekallikrein (PK) during the first 20 s of the preincubation phase. By the end of this phase, kallikrein (K) is completely inhibited, residual activity of factor XIIa is 54%, and factor XI is activated by 26%. Once a clot is formed, factor II is activated by 4%, factor X by 5%, factor IX by 90%, and factor XI by 39%. Calculated clotting time using protein concentrations found in the blood of healthy people was 40.5 s. The most pronounced prolongation of APTT is caused by a decrease in factor X concentration.

  4. Understanding the accuracy of parental perceptions of child physical activity: a mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kesten, Joanna M.; Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J.; Edwards, Mark J.; Pool, Laura; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions to increase children’s physical activity (PA) have achieved limited success. This may be attributed to inaccurate parental perceptions of their children’s PA and a lack of recognition of a need to change activity levels. Methods Fifty-three parents participated in semi-structured interviews to determine perceptions of child PA. Perceptions were compared to children’s measured MVPA (classified as meeting or not meeting UK guidelines) to produce three categories: “accurate”, “over-estimate”, “under-estimate”. Deductive content analysis was performed to understand the accuracy of parental perceptions. Results All parents of children meeting the PA guidelines accurately perceived their child’s PA; whilst the majority of parents whose child did not meet the guidelines overestimated their PA. Most parents were unconcerned about their child’s PA level, viewing them as naturally active and willing to be active. Qualitative explanations for perceptions of insufficient activity included children having health problems and preferences for inactive pursuits, and parents having difficulty facilitating PA in poor weather and not always observing their child’s PA level. Social comparisons also influenced parental perceptions. Conclusions Strategies to improve parental awareness of child PA are needed. Perceptions of child PA may be informed by child “busyness”, being unaware of activity levels, and social comparisons. PMID:25872227

  5. Exploring timing activation of functional pathway based on differential co-expression analysis in preimplantation embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Yang, Lei; Liao, Mingzhi; Wei, Zhuying; Bai, Chunling; Li, Guangpeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide omics studies have confirmed the early embryogenesis strictly dependent on the rigorous spatiotemporal activation and multilevel regulation. However, the full effect of functional pathway was not considered. To obtain complete understanding of the gene activation during early development, we performed systematic comparisons based on differential co-expression analysis for bovine preimplantation embryo development (PED). The results confirmed that the functional pathways actively transcribes as early as the 2-cell and 4-cell waves, which Basal transcription factor, Endocytosis and Spliceosome pathway can represent first signs of embryonic activity. Endocytosis act as one of master activators for uncovering a series of successive waves of maternal pioneer signal regulator with the help of Spliceosome complex. Furthermore, the results showed that pattern recognition receptors began to perform its essential function at 4-cell stage, which might be needed to coordinate the later major activation. And finally, our work presented a probable dynamic landscape of key functional pathways for embryogenesis. A clearer understanding of early embryo development will be helpful for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and Regenerative Medicine (RM). PMID:27705919

  6. Measurement, time-stamping, and analysis of electrodermal activity in fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyser, Christopher; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Rainville, Pierre; Bechara, Antione; Razavi, Mehrdad; Mehta, Sonya; Eaton, Brent L.; Bolinger, Lizann

    2002-04-01

    A low cost fMRI-compatible system was developed for detecting electrodermal activity without inducing image artifact. Subject electrodermal activity was measured on the plantar surface of the foot using a standard recording circuit. Filtered analog skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded with a general purpose, time-stamping data acquisition system. A conditioning paradigm involving painful thermal stimulation was used to demonstrate SCR detection and investigate neural correlates of conditioned autonomic activity. 128x128 pixel EPI-BOLD images were acquired with a GE 1.5T Signa scanner. Image analysis was performed using voxel-wise multiple linear regression. The covariate of interest was generated by convolving stimulus event onset with a standard hemodynamic response function. The function was time-shifted to determine optimal activation. Significance was tested using the t-statistic. Image quality was unaffected by the device, and conditioned and unconditioned SCRs were successfully detected. Conditioned SCRs correlated significantly with activity in the right anterior insular cortex. The effect was more robust when responses were scaled by SCR amplitude. The ability to measure and time register SCRs during fMRI acquisition enables studies of cognitive processes marked by autonomic activity, including those involving decision-making, pain, emotion, and addiction.

  7. An Analysis of Muscle Activities of Healthy Women during Pilates Exercises in a Prone Position.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Jemyung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Haroo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.

  8. Context-aware visual analysis of elderly activity in a cluttered home environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Dragon, Ralf; Ostermann, Joern

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a semi-supervised methodology for automatic recognition and classification of elderly activity in a cluttered real home environment. The proposed mechanism recognizes elderly activities by using a semantic model of the scene under visual surveillance. We also illustrate the use of trajectory data for unsupervised learning of this scene context model. The model learning process does not involve any supervised feature selection and does not require any prior knowledge about the scene. The learned model in turn de-fines the activity and inactivity zones in the scene. An activity zone further contains block-level reference information, which is used to generate features for semi-supervised classification using transductive support vector machines. We used very few labeled examples for initial training. Knowledge of activity and inactivity zones improves the activity analysis process in realistic scenarios significantly. Experiments on real-life videos have validated our approach: we are able to achieve more than 90% accuracy for two diverse types of datasets.

  9. Cluster Analysis of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Canine Leukocytes Identifies Activation State

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Julie-Anne; Mortlock, Sally-Anne; Taylor, Rosanne M.; Williamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system undergo activation and subsequent proliferation in the normal course of an immune response. Infrequently, the molecular and cellular events that underlie the mechanisms of proliferation are dysregulated and may lead to oncogenesis, leading to tumor formation. The most common forms of immunological cancers are lymphomas, which in dogs account for 8%–20% of all cancers, affecting up to 1.2% of the dog population. Key genes involved in negatively regulating proliferation of lymphocytes include a group classified as tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). These genes are also known to be associated with progression of lymphoma in humans, mice, and dogs and are potential candidates for pathological grading and diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to analyze TSG profiles in stimulated leukocytes from dogs to identify genes that discriminate an activated phenotype. A total of 554 TSGs and three gene set collections were analyzed from microarray data. Cluster analysis of three subsets of genes discriminated between stimulated and unstimulated cells. These included 20 most upregulated and downregulated TSGs, TSG in hallmark gene sets significantly enriched in active cells, and a selection of candidate TSGs, p15 (CDKN2B), p18 (CDKN2C), p19 (CDKN1A), p21 (CDKN2A), p27 (CDKN1B), and p53 (TP53) in the third set. Analysis of two subsets suggested that these genes or a subset of these genes may be used as a specialized PCR set for additional analysis. PMID:27478369

  10. Droplet activation, separation, and compositional analysis: Laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Kohn, Monika; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Nelson, Danny A.; Shilling, John E.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2011-01-24

    Droplets produced in a cloud condensation nucleus chamber as a function of supersaturation have been separated from unactivated aerosol particles using counterflow virtual impaction. Residual material after droplets were evaporated was chemically analyzed with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry instrument. Experiments were initially conducted to verify activation conditions for monodisperse ammonium sulfate particles and to determine the resulting droplet size distribution as a function of supersaturation. Based on the observed droplet size, the counterflow virtual impactor cut-size was set to differentiate droplets from unactivated interstitial particles. Validation experiments were then performed to verify that only droplets with sufficient size passed through the counterflow virtual impactor for subsequent analysis. A two-component external mixture of monodisperse particles was also exposed to a supersaturation which would activate one of the types (ammonium sulfate) but not the other (polystyrene latex spheres). The mass spectrum observed after separation indicated only the former, validating separation of droplets from unactivated particles. Results from atmospheric measurements using this technique indicate that aerosol particles often activate predominantly as a function of particle size. Chemical composition is not irrelevant, however, and we observed enhancement of sulfate in droplet residuals using single particle analysis.

  11. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    PubMed

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  12. In silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) as a method for biomarker development

    PubMed Central

    Ozerov, Ivan V.; Lezhnina, Ksenia V.; Izumchenko, Evgeny; Artemov, Artem V.; Medintsev, Sergey; Vanhaelen, Quentin; Aliper, Alexander; Vijg, Jan; Osipov, Andreyan N.; Labat, Ivan; West, Michael D.; Buzdin, Anton; Cantor, Charles R.; Nikolsky, Yuri; Borisov, Nikolay; Irincheeva, Irina; Khokhlovich, Edward; Sidransky, David; Camargo, Miguel Luiz; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Signalling pathway activation analysis is a powerful approach for extracting biologically relevant features from large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic data. However, modern pathway-based methods often fail to provide stable pathway signatures of a specific phenotype or reliable disease biomarkers. In the present study, we introduce the in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) as a scalable robust method for biomarker identification using gene expression data. The iPANDA method combines precalculated gene coexpression data with gene importance factors based on the degree of differential gene expression and pathway topology decomposition for obtaining pathway activation scores. Using Microarray Analysis Quality Control (MAQC) data sets and pretreatment data on Taxol-based neoadjuvant breast cancer therapy from multiple sources, we demonstrate that iPANDA provides significant noise reduction in transcriptomic data and identifies highly robust sets of biologically relevant pathway signatures. We successfully apply iPANDA for stratifying breast cancer patients according to their sensitivity to neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:27848968

  13. Droplet activation, separation, and compositional analysis: laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Kohn, M.; Pekour, M. S.; Nelson, D. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Droplets produced in a cloud condensation nucleus chamber as a function of supersaturation have been separated from unactivated aerosol particles using counterflow virtual impaction. Residual material after droplets were evaporated was chemically analyzed with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry instrument. Experiments were initially conducted to verify activation conditions for monodisperse ammonium sulfate particles and to determine the resulting droplet size distribution as a function of supersaturation. Based on the observed droplet size, the counterflow virtual impactor cut-size was set to differentiate droplets from unactivated interstitial particles. Validation experiments were then performed to verify that only droplets with sufficient size passed through the counterflow virtual impactor for subsequent analysis. A two-component external mixture of monodisperse particles was also exposed to a supersaturation which would activate one of the types (ammonium sulfate) but not the other (polystyrene latex spheres). The mass spectrum observed after separation indicated only the former, validating separation of droplets from unactivated particles. Results from atmospheric measurements using this technique indicate that aerosol particles often activate predominantly as a function of particle size. Chemical composition is not irrelevant, however, and we observed enhancement of sulfate in droplet residuals using single particle analysis.

  14. Analysis of active components in Salvia miltiorrhiza injection based on vascular endothelial cell protection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Yang, Kai; Sun, Caihua; Zheng, Minxia

    2014-09-01

    Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI). HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  15. A laser-induced repetitive fast neutron source applied for gold activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sungman; Park, Sangsoon; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Hyungki

    2012-12-15

    A laser-induced repetitively operated fast neutron source was developed for applications in laser-driven nuclear physics research. The developed neutron source, which has a neutron yield of approximately 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} n/pulse and can be operated up to a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, was applied for a gold activation analysis. Relatively strong delayed gamma spectra of the activated gold were measured at 333 keV and 355 keV, and proved the possibility of the neutron source for activation analyses. In addition, the nuclear reactions responsible for the measured gamma spectra of gold were elucidated by the 14 MeV fast neutrons resulting from the D(t,n)He{sup 4} nuclear reaction, for which the required tritium originated from the primary fusion reaction, D(d,p)T{sup 3}.

  16. Physical Activity Interventions with Healthy Minority Adults: Meta-Analysis of Behavior and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eligible samples. Supervised exercise significantly improved fitness (ES=.571–.584). Interventions designed to motivate minority adults to increase physical activity changed subsequent physical activity behavior (ES=.172–.312) and anthropometric outcomes (ES=.070–.124). Some ES should be interpreted in the context of limited statistical power and heterogeneity. Attempts to match intervention content and delivery with minority populations were inconsistently reported. Healthy minority adults experienced health improvements following supervised exercise. Interventions designed to motivate subjects to increase physical activity have limited magnitude heterogeneous effects. PMID:22643462

  17. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  18. Research Activity in Computational Physics utilizing High Performance Computing: Co-authorship Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sul-Ah; Jung, Youngim

    2016-10-01

    The research activities of the computational physicists utilizing high performance computing are analyzed by bibliometirc approaches. This study aims at providing the computational physicists utilizing high-performance computing and policy planners with useful bibliometric results for an assessment of research activities. In order to achieve this purpose, we carried out a co-authorship network analysis of journal articles to assess the research activities of researchers for high-performance computational physics as a case study. For this study, we used journal articles of the Scopus database from Elsevier covering the time period of 2004-2013. We extracted the author rank in the physics field utilizing high-performance computing by the number of papers published during ten years from 2004. Finally, we drew the co-authorship network for 45 top-authors and their coauthors, and described some features of the co-authorship network in relation to the author rank. Suggestions for further studies are discussed.

  19. A functional analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in young children.

    PubMed

    Larson, Tracy A; Normand, Matthew P; Morley, Allison J; Miller, Bryon G

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate physical activity increases the risks related to a number of health problems in children, most notably obesity and the corresponding range of associated health problems. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a functional analysis to investigate the effects of several consequent variables on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). We observed the level of MVPA exhibited by 2 preschool children in 4 conditions: alone, attention contingent on MVPA, adult interaction contingent on MVPA, and escape from task demands contingent on MVPA. These four conditions were compared to a naturalistic baseline and to a control condition. Overall, results indicated that the children were most active when attention and interactive play were contingent on MVPA. Social environments that encourage MVPA could be arranged based on this information, with these arrangements tailored to the individual child.

  20. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Markosyan, T. G.; Dudareva, A. A.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Romich, V. V.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.

    2013-04-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic - in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  1. Serum 5'nucleotidase activity in rats: a method for automated analysis and criteria for interpretation.

    PubMed

    Carakostas, Michael C.; Power, Richard J.; Banerjee, Asit K.

    1990-01-01

    A manual kit for determining serum 5'nucleotidase (5'NT, EC 3.1.3.5) activity was adapted for use with rat samples on a large discrete clinical chemistry analyzer. The precision of the method was good (within-run C.V. = 2.14%; between-run C.V. = 5.5%). A comparison of the new automated method with a manual and semi-automated method gave regression statistics of y = 1.18X -3.66 (Sy. x = 4.54), and y = 0.733X + 1.97 (Sy. x = 1.69), respectively. Temperature conversion factors provided by the kit manufacturer for human samples were determined to be inaccurate for converting results from rat samples. Analysis of components contributing to normal variation in rat serum 5'NT activity showed age and sex to be major factors. Increased serum 5'NT activity was observed in female rats when compared to male rats beginning at about 5 to 6 weeks of age. An analysis of variance of serum 5'NT, alkaline phosphatase, and GGT activities observed over a 9-week period in normal rats suggests several advantages for 5'NT as a predictor of biliary lesions in rats.

  2. School-based extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem: a growth-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Hagewen, Kellie J

    2011-05-01

    Research on adolescent self-esteem indicates that adolescence is a time in which individuals experience important changes in their physical, cognitive, and social identities. Prior research suggests that there is a positive relationship between an adolescent's participation in structured extracurricular activities and well-being in a variety of domains, and some research indicates that these relationships may be dependent on the type of activities in which adolescents participate. Building on previous research, a growth-curve analysis was utilized to examine self-esteem trajectories from adolescence (age 14) to young adulthood (age 26). Using 3 waves of data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 5,399; 47.8% male), the analysis estimated a hierarchical growth-curve model emphasizing the effects of age and type of school-based extracurricular activity portfolio, including sports and school clubs, on self-esteem. The results indicated that age had a linear relationship with self-esteem over time. Changes in both the initial level of self-esteem and the growth of self-esteem over time were significantly influenced by the type of extracurricular activity portfolio. The findings were consistent across race and sex. The results support the utility of examining the longitudinal impact of portfolio type on well-being outcomes.

  3. Impact of human activities on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions: a statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdus Salam; Toshikuni Noguchi

    2005-03-15

    This study aims at identifying significant or influential human activities (i.e. factors) on CO{sub 2} emissions using statistical analyses. The study was conducted for two cases: (i) developed countries and (ii) developing countries. In developed countries, this study identified three influential human activities for CO{sub 2} emissions: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) population pressure on natural and terrestrial ecosystems, and (iii) land use change. In developing countries, the significant human activities causing an upsurge of CO{sub 2} emissions are: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) terrestrial ecosystem strength and (iii) land use change. Among these factors, combustion of fossil fuels is the most influential human activity for CO{sub 2} emissions both in developed and developing countries. Regression analysis based on the factor scores indicated that combustion of fossil fuels has significant positive influence on CO{sub 2} emissions in both developed and developing countries. Terrestrial ecosystem strength has a significant negative influence on CO{sub 2} emissions. Land use change and CO{sub 2} emissions are positively related, although regression analysis showed that the influence of land use change on CO{sub 2} emissions was still insignificant. It is anticipated, from the findings of this study, that CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by reducing fossil-fuel consumption and switching to alternative energy sources, preserving exiting forests, planting trees on abandoned and degraded forest lands, or by planting trees by social/agroforestry on agricultural lands.

  4. Functional analysis of TPM domain containing Rv2345 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies its phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Avni; Eniyan, Kandasamy; Sinha, Swati; Lynn, Andrew Michael; Bajpai, Urmi

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causal agent of tuberculosis, the second largest infectious disease. With the rise of multi-drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, serious challenge lies ahead of us in treating the disease. The availability of complete genome sequence of Mtb has improved the scope for identifying new proteins that would not only further our understanding of biology of the organism but could also serve to discover new drug targets. In this study, Rv2345, a hypothetical membrane protein of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, which is reported to be a putative ortholog of ZipA cell division protein has been assigned function through functional annotation using bioinformatics tools followed by experimental validation. Sequence analysis showed Rv2345 to have a TPM domain at its N-terminal region and predicted it to have phosphatase activity. The TPM domain containing region of Rv2345 was cloned and expressed using pET28a vector in Escherichia coli and purified by Nickel affinity chromatography. The purified TPM domain was tested in vitro and our results confirmed it to have phosphatase activity. The enzyme activity was first checked and optimized with pNPP as substrate, followed by using ATP, which was also found to be used as substrate by the purified protein. Hence sequence analysis followed by in vitro studies characterizes TPM domain of Rv2345 to contain phosphatase activity.

  5. Radiomic Texture Analysis Mapping Predicts Areas of True Functional MRI Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Kumar, Ashok J.; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Colen, Rivka R.

    2016-01-01

    Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to predict areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional maps were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a predictive model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623

  6. In Vitro Antimicrobial Bioassays, DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity, and FTIR Spectroscopy Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and functional group analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum extracts. Disc diffusion susceptibility method was followed for antimicrobial assessment. Noteworthy antimicrobial activities were recorded by various plant extracts against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Plant flower extracts antioxidant activity was investigated against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical by ultraviolet spectrophotometer (517 nm). Plant extracts displayed noteworthy radical scavenging activities at all concentrations (25–225 μg/mL). Notable activities were recorded by crude, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts up to 88.27% at 225 μg/mL concentration. Compounds functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies. Alkanes, alkenes, alkyl halides, amines, carboxylic acids, amides, esters, alcohols, phenols, nitrocompounds, and aromatic compounds were identified by FTIR analysis. Thin layer chromatography bioautography was carried out for all plant extracts. Different bands were separated by various solvent systems. The results of the current study justify the use of Heliotropium bacciferum in traditional remedial herbal medicines. PMID:27597961

  7. Time location analysis for exposure assessment studies of indoor workers based on active RFID technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Chuan; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Chao, Huan-Ping; Wang, Peng-Yau

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a radio frequency identification exposure monitoring system (RFEMS) suitable for tracking and identifying workers' locations in indoor workplaces. Five workers in southern Taiwan wore the RFEMS integrated into their equipment vests. Location and exposure data were transferred to data analysis software for visualization and tabular analysis in real-time. Data were grouped into seven task activity location categories to determine the time spent and percentage reception in each location. The RFEMS could also synchronously indicate the surrounding conditions using various sensors. Additional experiments were focused on locating of boundaries and determining the instrument stability, power sustainability, and reception efficiency in typical environments. The RFEMS instruments provided adequate range for locating (typically ca. 6-45 m in each zone), allowing us to locate subjects within distinct microenvironments and to distinguish between the activities of a variety of workers, the average time activity pattern (TAP) recording deviation for both human observations and RFEMS was ca. 0.21-1.57%. Power consumption experiments revealed that the system could be sustained for more than 124 h. A pilot field test indicated that the RFEMS offers a new level of accuracy for direct quantification of time activity patterns in exposure assessments of indoor workers over long periods of time.

  8. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of major, minor, and trace elements in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.; Koster, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques are well established in the multielement assay of geological materials. Similarly, applications of NAA to the analysis of marine sediments have been described. The different emphasis on elemental composition in studying and monitoring the health of the environment, however, presents a new challenge to the analyst. To investigate as many elements as possible, previous multielement procedures need to be reevaluated and modified. In this work, the authors have utilized the NAA steps of a recently developed sequential analysis procedure that obtained concentrations for 45 biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves. This procedure, with modification, was applied to samples of marine sediments collected for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Status and Trends (NS T) specimen banking program.

  10. Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are presented for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. In addition to presenting the mathematical models and a brief description of existing analytical techniques, an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results is presented.

  11. Influence analysis of time delay to active mass damper control system using pole assignment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Xing, H. B.; Lu, W.; Li, Z. H.; Chen, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    To reduce the influence of time delay on the Active Mass Damper (AMD) control systems, influence analysis of time delay on system poles and stability is applied in the paper. A formula of the maximum time delay for ensuring system stability is established, by which the influence analysis of control gains on system stability is further arisen. In addition, the compensation controller is designed based on the given analysis results and pole assignment. A numerical example and an experiment are illustrated to verify that the performance of time-delay system. The result is consistent to that of the long-time delay control system, as well as to proof the better effectiveness of the new method proposed in this article.

  12. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  13. Neutron Activation Analysis of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) - With Emphasis on Geological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stosch, Heinz-Günter

    2016-08-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been the analytical method of choice for rare earth element (REE) analysis from the early 1960s through the 1980s. At that time, irradiation facilitieswere widely available and fairly easily accessible. The development of high-resolution gamma-ray detectors in the mid-1960s eliminated, formany applications, the need for chemical separation of the REE from the matrix material, making NAA a reliable and effective analytical tool. While not as precise as isotopedilution mass spectrometry, NAA was competitive by being sensitive for the analysis of about half of the rare earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu). The development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry since the 1980s, together with decommissioning of research reactors and the lack of installation of new ones in Europe and North America has led to the rapid decline of NAA.

  14. Integrated Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope: Structural-Thermal-Optical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John D.; Howard, Joseph M.; Mosier, Gary E.; Parrish, Keith A.; McGinnis, Mark A.; Bluth, Marcel; Kim, Kevin; Ha, Kong Q.

    2004-01-01

    The James Web Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2011. This is a continuation of a series of papers on modeling activities for JWST. The structural-thermal-optical, often referred to as STOP, analysis process is used to predict the effect of thermal distortion on optical performance. The benchmark STOP analysis for JWST assesses the effect of an observatory slew on wavefront error. Temperatures predicted using geometric and thermal math models are mapped to a structural finite element model in order to predict thermally induced deformations. Motions and deformations at optical surfaces are then input to optical models, and optical performance is predicted using either an optical ray trace or a linear optical analysis tool. In addition to baseline performance predictions, a process for performing sensitivity studies to assess modeling uncertainties is described.

  15. Associations between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, N; Braithwaite, R E; Biddle, S J H; van Sluijs, E M F; Atkin, A J

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with metabolic and mental health during childhood and adolescence. Understanding the inter-relationships between these behaviours will help to inform intervention design. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized evidence from observational studies describing the association between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in young people (<18 years). English-language publications up to August 2013 were located through electronic and manual searches. Included studies presented statistical associations between at least one measure of sedentary behaviour and one measure of physical activity. One hundred sixty-three papers were included in the meta-analysis, from which data on 254 independent samples was extracted. In the summary meta-analytic model (k = 230), a small, but significant, negative association between sedentary behaviour and physical activity was observed (r = -0.108, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.128, -0.087). In moderator analyses, studies that recruited smaller samples (n < 100, r = -0.193, 95% CI = -0.276, -0.109) employed objective methods of measurement (objectively measured physical activity; r = -0.233, 95% CI = -0.330, -0.137) or were assessed to be of higher methodological quality (r = -0.176, 95% CI = -0.215, -0.138) reported stronger associations, although effect sizes remained small. The association between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in young people is negative, but small, suggesting that these behaviours do not directly displace one another.

  16. Activation analysis of concrete and graphite in the experimental reactor RUS.

    PubMed

    Cometto, M; Ridikas, D; Aubert, M C; Damoy, F; Ancius, D

    2005-01-01

    The decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations after their service life involves the necessary disassembling, handling and disposing of a large amount of radioactive equipment and structures. In particular, the concrete that has been used as a biological reactor shield and graphite that has been used as a moderator-reflector represent the majority of waste, requiring geological disposal. To reduce this undesirable volume to the minimum and to successfully plan the dismantling and disposal of radioactive materials to storage facilities, the activations of the structures should be accurately evaluated. In the framework of the decommissioning and the dismantling of the experimental reactor of the University of Strasbourg, detailed activation estimates have been conducted to characterise the graphite and the structural materials present in the reactor environment. For this purpose, the chemical compositions of fresh graphite samples and different types of concrete have been determined by activation analysis in the research reactors OSIRIS and ORPHEE of CEA Saclay (France). Then, the activations of graphite, concrete and other materials have been calculated in the whole reactor, as a function of the three main nuclear data libraries, i.e. ENDF, JEF and JENDL. In parallel, the activations of representative graphite and concrete samples have been measured experimentally. The comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental values validates the approach and the methodology used in the present study and tests the consistency and the reliability of the nuclear data used for activation analysis. We believe that a similar approach could also be used for the decommissioning of industrial nuclear reactors.

  17. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method.

    PubMed

    Abugassa, I; Sarmani, S B; Samat, S B

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+ alpha epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the gamma-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for.

  18. In-situ soil composition and moisture measurement by surface neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring, C.; Smith, C.; Marks, A.

    2009-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis is widely known as a laboratory technique dependent upon a nuclear reactor to provide the neutron flux and capable of precise elemental analysis. Less well known in-situ geochemical analysis is possible with isotopic (252Cf & 241Am) or compact accelerator (D-T, D-D fusion reaction) neutron sources. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) geophysical borehole logging has been applied to mining issues for >15 years (CSIRO) using isotopic neutron sources and more recently to environmental and hydro-geological applications by ANSTO. Similarly, sophisticated geophysical borehole logging equipment based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS) has been applied in the oil and gas industry by large oilfield services companies to measure oil saturation indices (carbon/oxygen) using accelerator neutron sources. Recent advances in scintillation detector spectral performance has enabled improved precision and detection limits for elements likely to be present in soil profiles (H, Si, Al, Fe, Cl) and possible detection of many minor to trace elements if sufficiently abundant (Na, K, Mg, Ca, S, N, + ). To measure carbon an accelerator neutron source is required to provide fast neutrons above 4.8 MeV. CSIRO and ANSTO propose building a soil geochemical analysis system based on experience gained from building and applying PGNA borehole logging equipment. A soil geochemical analysis system could effectively map the 2D geochemical composition of the top 50cm of soil by dragging the 1D logging equipment across the ground surface. Substituting an isotopic neutron source for a D-T accelerator neutron source would enable the additional measurement of elemental carbon. Many potential ambiguities with other geophysical proxies for soil moisture may be resolved by direct geochemical measurement of H. Many other applications may be possible including time series in-situ measurements of soil moisture for differential drainage, hydrology, land surface

  19. Use of fish farms to assess river contamination: combining biomarker responses, active biomonitoring, and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Quesada-García, Alba; Valdehita, Ana; Torrent, Fernando; Villarroel, Morris; Hernando, M Dolores; Navas, José M

    2013-09-15

    Here we addressed the possible effects of trace levels of contaminants on fish by means of a combination of biomarker responses, active biomonitoring (ABM), and chemical analysis. In environmental studies, cytochromes P4501A (Cyp1A) and Cyp3A and related enzyme activities (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD, and benzyloxy-4-[trifluoromethyl]-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase, BFCOD, respectively) are commonly used as biomarkers for evidencing exposure to a variety of contaminants. In a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fish farm that is routinely sampled to obtain references regarding normal levels of such enzyme activities in freshwater fish, we observed a strong and punctual increase in these activities at the end of 2011. In order to shed light on the causes of this induction, we transferred some fish to a fish farm with controlled conditions and examined them using an active biomonitoring (ABM) approach. EROD activity showed a decrease of 80% from the original values after 7 days in the control farm, while BFCOD activity was also reduced after 15 days. Although not significant, a decrease in cyp1A and cyp3A mRNA levels was also observed. To determine the presence of pollutants, water and sediment samples from the river feeding the fish farm were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS). The screening study reflected a weak inflow of pollutants in the monitored area, which is located far from any industrial activity or densely populated cities. Trace levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and personal care products (the polycyclic musk fragrance HHCB, and triclosan) were detected in sediments, at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 38 ng/g dry weight, and in water from 4 to 441 ng/L. The approach followed in this study proved useful as a biomonitoring technique for the early detection of trace contaminants.

  20. FTIR Analysis of Alkali Activated Slag and Fly Ash Using Deconvolution Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madavarapu, Sateesh Babu

    The studies on aluminosilicate materials to replace traditional construction materials such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to reduce the effects caused has been an important research area for the past decades. Many properties like strength have already been studied and the primary focus is to learn about the reaction mechanism and the effect of the parameters on the formed products. The aim of this research was to explore the structural changes and reaction product analysis of geopolymers (Slag & Fly Ash) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and deconvolution techniques. Spectroscopic techniques give valuable information at a molecular level but not all methods are economic and simple. To understand the mechanisms of alkali activated aluminosilicate materials, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR has been used where the effect of the parameters on the reaction products have been analyzed. To analyze complex systems like geopolymers using FTIR, deconvolution techniques help to obtain the properties of a particular peak attributed to a certain molecular vibration. Time and temperature dependent analysis were done on slag pastes to understand the polymerization of reactive silica in the system with time and temperature variance. For time dependent analysis slag has been activated with sodium and potassium silicates using two different `n'values and three different silica modulus [Ms- (SiO2 /M2 O)] values. The temperature dependent analysis was done by curing the samples at 60°C and 80°C. Similarly fly ash has been studied by activating with alkali hydroxides and alkali silicates. Under the same curing conditions the fly ash samples were evaluated to analyze the effects of added silicates for alkali activation. The peak shifts in the FTIR explains the changes in the structural nature of the matrix and can be identified using the deconvolution technique. A strong correlation is found between the concentrations of silicate monomer in the

  1. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  2. Geomorphological analysis of the drainage system on the active convergent system in Azerbaijan, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveh Firouz, Amaneh; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are important landforms to reconstruct recent tectonic history because they are sensitive to surface movements, especially uplift and tilting. The most important drainage basins of NW Iran are, from north to south, the Arax River, the Urmia Lake and the Ghezel Ozan River catchment. The morphology of the two adjacent catchments draining into the Caspian Sea, the Arax and Ghezel Ozan were studied to better understand the active tectonics and the effect of fault activity on morphology and erosion rate of NW Iran. We performed a quantitative analysis of channel steepness and concavity, from slope-area plots calculated from digital elevation model. This information has been combined with GPS velocity vectors and seismicity. Both catchments developed under uniform climate conditions. Results show that the two rivers are in morphological disequilibrium; they exhibit profiles with prominent convexities and knickpoints. The Arax River shows higher channel steepness and concavity index in downstream part of the profile. Distribution of knickpoints show scattered elevation between 700m and 3000m. GPS rates display shortening 10 ± 2 mma-1 and 14 ± 2 mma-1 in upstream and downstream, respectively. The river profiles of Ghezel Ozan River and its tributaries reveal more disequilibrium downstream where channel steepness and concavity index are higher than upstream. Most knickpoints occur between 1000m and 2000m. The amount of shortening by GPS measurement changes from upstream 13 ± 2 mma-1to downstream 14 ± 2 mma-1. Recorded earthquakes, such as Rudbar earthquake (Mw=7.3, 1990), are more frequent downstream. The Urmia Lake is surrounded by many small and large catchments. Only major catchments were considered for the analysis. One of the most active faults, the north Tabriz fault, corresponds to a major knickpoints on the Talkhe rud River. Concordance between river profile analysis, GPS and seismotectonic records suggests that the characteristics of the river profiles

  3. Spectral analysis of auroral geomagnetic activity during various solar cycles between 1960 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, Pieter Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we use wavelets and Lomb-Scargle spectral analysis techniques to investigate the changing pattern of the different harmonics of the 27-day solar rotation period of the AE (auroral electrojet) index during various phases of different solar cycles between 1960 and 2014. Previous investigations have revealed that the solar minimum of cycles 23-24 exhibited strong 13.5- and 9.0-day recurrence in geomagnetic data in comparison to the usual dominant 27.0-day synodic solar rotation period. Daily mean AE indices are utilized to show how several harmonics of the 27-day recurrent period change during every solar cycle subject to a 95 % confidence rule by performing a wavelet analysis of each individual year's AE indices. Results show that particularly during the solar minimum of 23-24 during 2008 the 27-day period is no longer detectable above the 95 % confidence level. During this interval geomagnetic activity is now dominated by the second (13.5-day) and third (9.0-day) harmonics. A Pearson correlation analysis between AE and various spherical harmonic coefficients describing the solar magnetic field during each Carrington rotation period confirms that the solar dynamo has been dominated by an unusual combination of sectorial harmonic structure during 23-24, which can be responsible for the observed anomalously low solar activity. These findings clearly show that, during the unusual low-activity interval of 2008, auroral geomagnetic activity was predominantly driven by high-speed solar wind streams originating from multiple low-latitude coronal holes distributed at regular solar longitude intervals.

  4. Topographyc metrics in the southern sector of the Marche foothills: implication for active tectonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materazzi, Marco; Aringoli, Domenico; Carducci, Tamara; Cavitolo, Paolo; Farabollini, Piero; Giacopetti, Marco; Pambianchi, Gilberto; Tondi, Emanuele; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative geomorphic analysis can be provided a useful contribution to the study of recent tectonics. Some parameters, that quantify the channels morphology, as the Stream Length-Gradient (SL) Index (Hack, 1973) and the Steepness (Ks) Index (Flint, 1974), are generally used to detect anomalies on the expected concave-up equilibrium stream-profile, which can result in local abrupt changes in stream gradient (i.e., knickpoints) and/or broad convexities on stream long-profiles extending for tens of kilometres (i.e., knickzones). The main goal of this work is the study of the morphological and morphometrical features in the southern sector of the Marche Region, with the aim to gain new knowledge on the influences of rock resistance and rock uplift on the fluvial and topographic system. The investigated area is situated in central Italy and it extends from the axial zone of the Umbria-Marche Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, including the southern sector of the Marche Region and belongs to the foredeep domain of the Apennines orogenic system, which has affected by tectonic activity up to very recent times. The rheology of outcropping deposits doesn't allow the strain to be easily recorded at the outcrop scale. The analyses have been aimed at to test the sensitivity of both SL and Ks for evaluating active crustal deformations, acting at different wavelengths on land surface, within a low tectonically active thrust-and-fold belt. Additional purpose was the understanding of the pattern of regional differential crustal activity in the topographic arrangement of the study area In this research project two sets of analysis were conducted. References Hack J.T. 1973. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. Journal of Research of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1, 421-429. Flint J.J. 1974. Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude and discharge. Water Resources Research, 10, 969-973.

  5. Addendum to the performance assessment analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 west area active burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    An addendum was completed to the performance assessment (PA) analysis for the active 200 West Area low-level solid waste burial grounds. The addendum includes supplemental information developed during the review of the PA analysis, an ALARA analysis, a comparison of PA results with the Hanford Groundwater Protection Strategy, and a justification for the assumption of 500 year deterrence to the inadvertent intruder.

  6. Evaluating knickpoint recession along an active fault for paleoseismological analysis: The Huoshan Piedmont, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhanyu; Bi, Lisi; Xu, Yueren; He, Honglin

    2015-04-01

    Ground-rupturing earthquakes can generate tectonic knickpoints within upstream reaches of streams across active fault zones. These knickpoints are characteristic of upstream propagation of time-related process once generated by an earthquake, so analysis of knickpoint series in streams which cross fault zones can be used to infer paleoearthquake events. We studied the knickpoints along the Huoshan Piedmont Fault (HPF), which is an active normal fault in the Shanxi Faulted Basin zone, China, and demonstrate that analysis of knickpoints shows evidence for two paleoearthquakes in the HPF. First, we identified knickpoints in bedrock reaches upstream of the HPF using high-resolution DEMs derived from IRS-P5 stereo images and the stream-gradient method. After excluding non-faulting knickpoints, 47 knickpoints were identified in 23 bedrock reaches upstream from the HPF. Analysis of the most recent knickpoints caused by the 1303 CE Hongdong Earthquake allowed for local calibration of the retreat rates. Applying these retreat rates across the study area allows for the estimation of the age of other knickpoints, and constrains the age ranges of two knickpoint groups to be 2269-3336 a BP and 4504-5618 a BP. These ages constrain the ages of two paleoearthquake events at 2710 ± 102 and 4980 ± 646 a BP. The knickpoints along the HPF obey the parallel retreating model in which knickpoint morphology was roughly maintained during retreat, so the heights of knickpoints represent the coseismic vertical displacements generated by the earthquakes along the HPF. The vertical offsets for these three earthquake events are similar and are approximately 4 m, which indicates that the ruptures on the HPF obey a characteristic slip model with a similar slip distribution for several successive earthquakes. These results provide additional evidence of paleoearthquakes on the HPF and show that analysis of knickpoint recession along an active fault is a valuable tool for paleoseismology.

  7. Recording and analysis of circadian rhythms in running-wheel activity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Verwey, Michael; Robinson, Barry; Amir, Shimon

    2013-01-24

    When rodents have free access to a running wheel in their home cage, voluntary use of this wheel will depend on the time of day. Nocturnal rodents, including rats, hamsters, and mice, are active during the night and relatively inactive during the day. Many other behavioral and physiological measures also exhibit daily rhythms, but in rodents, running-wheel activity serves as a particularly reliable and convenient measure of the output of the master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. In general, through a process called entrainment, the daily pattern of running-wheel activity will naturally align with the environmental light-dark cycle (LD cycle; e.g. 12 hr-light:12 hr-dark). However circadian rhythms are endogenously generated patterns in behavior that exhibit a ~24 hr period, and persist in constant darkness. Thus, in the absence of an LD cycle, the recording and analysis of running-wheel activity can be used to determine the subjective time-of-day. Because these rhythms are directed by the circadian clock the subjective time-of-day is referred to as the circadian time (CT). In contrast, when an LD cycle is present, the time-of-day that is determined by the environmental LD cycle is called the zeitgeber time (ZT). Although circadian rhythms in running-wheel activity are typically linked to the SCN clock, circadian oscillators in many other regions of the brain and body could also be involved in the regulation of daily activity rhythms. For instance, daily rhythms in food-anticipatory activity do not require the SCN and instead, are correlated with changes in the activity of extra-SCN oscillators. Thus, running-wheel activity recordings can provide important behavioral information not only about the output of the master SCN clock, but also on the activity of extra-SCN oscillators. Below we describe the equipment and methods used to record, analyze and display circadian locomotor activity rhythms in laboratory rodents.

  8. Recording and Analysis of Circadian Rhythms in Running-wheel Activity in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Verwey, Michael; Robinson, Barry; Amir, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    When rodents have free access to a running wheel in their home cage, voluntary use of this wheel will depend on the time of day1-5. Nocturnal rodents, including rats, hamsters, and mice, are active during the night and relatively inactive during the day. Many other behavioral and physiological measures also exhibit daily rhythms, but in rodents, running-wheel activity serves as a particularly reliable and convenient measure of the output of the master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. In general, through a process called entrainment, the daily pattern of running-wheel activity will naturally align with the environmental light-dark cycle (LD cycle; e.g. 12 hr-light:12 hr-dark). However circadian rhythms are endogenously generated patterns in behavior that exhibit a ~24 hr period, and persist in constant darkness. Thus, in the absence of an LD cycle, the recording and analysis of running-wheel activity can be used to determine the subjective time-of-day. Because these rhythms are directed by the circadian clock the subjective time-of-day is referred to as the circadian time (CT). In contrast, when an LD cycle is present, the time-of-day that is determined by the environmental LD cycle is called the zeitgeber time (ZT). Although circadian rhythms in running-wheel activity are typically linked to the SCN clock6-8, circadian oscillators in many other regions of the brain and body9-14 could also be involved in the regulation of daily activity rhythms. For instance, daily rhythms in food-anticipatory activity do not require the SCN15,16 and instead, are correlated with changes in the activity of extra-SCN oscillators17-20. Thus, running-wheel activity recordings can provide important behavioral information not only about the output of the master SCN clock, but also on the activity of extra-SCN oscillators. Below we describe the equipment and methods used to record, analyze and display circadian locomotor activity rhythms in laboratory

  9. [Expression of Chinese sturgeon cystatin in yeast Pichia pastoris and its proteinase inhibitory activity analysis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong-Mei; Bai, Jun-Jie; Jian, Qing; Lao, Hai-Hua; Ye, Xing; Luo, Jian-Ren

    2003-09-01

    Cystatin, which widely distributed in both tissues and body fluids of animal and plant, was a superfamily of cysteine proteinase inhibitors. It could form activity-inhibitor complexes with cysteine proteinases to inhibit the hydrolytic activity of proteinases. Cystatin played important roles not only in the inhibition of the proteolytic degradation of fish muscle, but also in biological defense systems against invaders. To explore the functions of fish cystatin and the potential values in fish disease prevention and cure, as well as seafood processing, the recombinant yeast strains which could express Chinese sturgeon cystatin were constructed. First, the cystatin cDNA of Chinese sturgeon, which had been PCR modified, was subcloned into yeast integrated vector pPICZaA. After extracted and purified, the recombinant plasmids were linearized by Sac I. The yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 strain was transformed by use of the Lithium Chloride transformation method, and the recombinant cystatin yeast strains got. After 0.5% methanol induction, SDS-PAGE analysis of the culture supernatant indicated that the yield of recombinant cystatin was about 215mg x L(-1) with the percentage about 73.6%. The recombinant cystatin was purified through Q-Sepharose anion-exchange chromatography, and the purity reached about 94.2%. The inhibitory activity of recombinant cystatin was measured by inhibiting the proteinase activity of papain. The results showed that about 1 microg recombinant cystatin could inhibit the activity of 15 microg papain. Heat stability assay results showed that there was a decrease in inhibitory activity of cystatin with the increasing of temperature. When solution of recombinant cystatin was kept at 70 degrees C for 5min, the inhibitory activity reduced fast. While the recombinant cystatin was heated to 90 degrees C for 5min, the inhibitory activity of recombinant cystatin was undetected. The inhibitory activity for recombinant Chinese sturgeon cystatin was higher

  10. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  11. A bibliometric analysis of the development of next generation active nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, Arho; Li, Yin; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Delineating the emergence of nanotechnologies that offer new functionalities is an important element in an anticipatory approach to the governance of nanotechnology and its potential impacts. This paper examines the transition to next generation active nanotechnologies which incorporate functions that respond to the environment or systems concepts that combine devices and structures that are dynamic and which may change their states in use. We develop an approach to identifying these active nanotechnologies and then use bibliometric analysis to examine the extent of research papers and patents involving these concepts. We also examine references to environmental, health, and safety concepts in these papers, given that these next generation nanotechnologies are likely to have risk profiles that are different from those of first-generation passive nanomaterials. Our results show a steady growth overall in focus on active nanotechnologies in the research literature and in patents over the study period of 1990-2010. We also find an increase in consideration given to environmental, health, and safety topics. While gaps are highlighted in our understanding of research and innovation in active nanotechnologies, the results suggest that there is beginning to be a shift to active nanotechnologies, with the implication that governance processes need to be conscious of this shift and to prepare for it.

  12. In silico analysis of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase active site with toxic industrial dyes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Nirmal K; Vindal, Vaibhav; Narayana, Siva Lakshmi; Ramakrishna, V; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Srinivas, M

    2012-05-01

    Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in various industrial oxidative processes like production of fine chemicals to bioremediation of contaminated soil and water. In order to understand the mechanisms of substrate binding and interaction between substrates and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase, a homology model was generated. The resulted model was further validated and used for docking studies with toxic industrial dyes- acid blue 74, reactive black 5 and reactive blue 19. Interactions of chemical mediators with the laccase was also examined. The docking analysis showed that the active site always cannot accommodate the dye molecules, due to constricted nature of the active site pocket and steric hindrance of the residues whereas mediators are relatively small and can easily be accommodated into the active site pocket, which, thereafter leads to the productive binding. The binding properties of these compounds along with identification of critical active site residues can be used for further site-directed mutagenesis experiments in order to identify their role in activity and substrate specificity, ultimately leading to improved mutants for degradation of these toxic compounds.

  13. Structural Insights into and Activity Analysis of the Antimicrobial Peptide Myxinidin

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Marco; Finamore, Emiliana; Mignogna, Eleonora; Falanga, Annarita; Nicoletti, Giovanni Francesco; Pedone, Carlo; Morelli, Giancarlo; Leone, Marilisa

    2014-01-01

    The marine environment has been poorly explored in terms of potential new molecules possessing antibacterial activity. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) offer a new potential class of pharmaceuticals; however, further optimization is needed if AMPs are to find broad use as antibiotics. We focused our studies on a peptide derived from the epidermal mucus of hagfish (Myxine glutinosa L.), which was previously characterized and showed high antimicrobial activity against human and fish pathogens. In the present work, the activities of myxinidin peptide analogues were analyzed with the aim of widening the original spectrum of action of myxinidin by suitable changes in the peptide primary structure. The analysis of key residues by alanine scanning allowed for the design of novel peptides with increased activity. We identified the amino acids that are of the utmost importance for the observed antimicrobial activities against a set of pathogens comprising both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Overall, optimized bactericidal potency was achieved by adding a tryptophan residue at the N terminus and by the simultaneous substitution of residues present in positions 3, 4, and 11 with arginine. These results indicate that the myxinidin analogues emerge as an attractive alternative for treating drug-resistant infectious diseases and provide key insights into a rational design for novel agents against these pathogens. PMID:24957834

  14. Antioxidant, Metal Chelating, Anti-glucosidase Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Tropical Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Fai-Chu; Yong, Ann-Li; Ting, Evon Peir-Shan; Khoo, Sim-Chyi; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the antioxidant potentials and anti-glucosidase activities of six tropical medicinal plants. The levels of phenolic constituents in these medicinal plants were also quantified and compared. Antioxidation potentials were determined colorimetrically for scavenging activities against DPPH and NO radicals. Metal chelating assay was based on the measurement of iron-ferrozine absorbance at 562 nm. Anti-diabetic potentials were measured by using α-glucosidase as target enzyme. Medicinal plants’ total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents were determined using spectrophotometric methods, by comparison to standard plots prepared using gallic acid, quercetin and caffeic acid standards, respectively. Radical scavenging and metal chelating activities were detected in all medicinal plants, in concentration-dependent manners. Among the six plants tested, C. nutans, C. formosana and H. diffusa were found to possess α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that the total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents ranged from 12.13-21.39 mg GAE per g of dry sample, 1.83-9.86 mg QE per g of dry sample, and 0.91-2.74 mg CAE per g of dry sample, respectively. Our results suggested that C. nutans and C. formosana could potentially be used for the isolation of potent antioxidants and anti-diabetic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first time that C. nutans (Acanthaceae family) was reported in literature with glucosidase inhibition activity. PMID:25587331

  15. Spatiotemporal analysis of RhoA/B/C activation in primary human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Nathalie R.; van Helden, Suzanne F.; Anthony, Eloise C.; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I.; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells line the vasculature and are important for the regulation of blood pressure, vascular permeability, clotting and transendothelial migration of leukocytes and tumor cells. A group of proteins that that control the endothelial barrier function are the RhoGTPases. This study focuses on three homologous (>88%) RhoGTPases: RhoA, RhoB, RhoC of which RhoB and RhoC have been poorly characterized. Using a RhoGTPase mRNA expression analysis we identified RhoC as the highest expressed in primary human endothelial cells. Based on an existing RhoA FRET sensor we developed new RhoB/C FRET sensors to characterize their spatiotemporal activation properties. We found all these RhoGTPase sensors to respond to physiologically relevant agonists (e.g. Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB. Finally, we used these sensors to monitor GEF-specific differential activation of RhoA/B/C. In summary, this study adds high-contrast RhoB/C FRET sensors to the currently available FRET sensor toolkit and uncover new insights in endothelial and RhoGTPase cell biology. This allows us to study activation and signaling by these closely related RhoGTPases with high spatiotemporal resolution in primary human cells. PMID:27147504

  16. Theoretical analysis of the relationship between positive/negative cooperativity and enzyme activation/inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Min

    2009-09-01

    Cooperativity is one of the "paradigms" in enzyme kinetics and molecular biology. But the classical textbook treatment of enzyme kinetics always indeed separates the concepts of positive/negative cooperativity from enzyme activation/inhibition, at least partially. Few theoretical analysis of their relationship has been discussed, although its experimental investigations might date back at least to 1970s. In the present paper, we try to apply the change of free energy as a connective parameter for investigating the relationship between positive/negative cooperativity and enzyme activation/inhibition through several classic equilibrium binding models. It is explicitly shown that the terms of positive/negative cooperativity could be equivalently regarded as enzyme activation/inhibition of the saturation function induced by the substrate molecule itself rather than any other additional effectors. Moreover, both the degree of cooperativity phenomenon and the degree of enzyme activation/inhibition monotonically increase with the change of free energy. Note that this result is quite different from the idea of relating cooperativity to the concepts of "substrate activation/inhibition", which is identified when at high substrate concentrations the reaction rate decreases instead of tending towards the maximum velocity, since it always needs a second substrate molecule.

  17. Getting to know the competition: a content analysis of publicly and corporate funded physical activity advertisements.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; McCarville, Ron E; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a content analysis of physical activity advertisements in an effort to determine which advertisements were more likely to include features that may attract and maintain attention levels. Fifty-seven advertisements were collected from top circulation Canadian magazines. The advertisements ranged from publicly funded health promotion pieces to corporate sponsored advertisements using physical activity to sell a product. Advertisements were examined for textual and pictorial factors thought to increase attention allocated to advertising of this nature. Only two public health advertisements were found, and the majority of advertisements (57.9%) were from commercial advertisers using physical activity images to sell products or to encourage brand recognition. The advertisements originating with the private sector tended to possess most of the characteristics thought to attract the attention of readers. Once this attention was gained, however, most of these advertisements failed to highlight the benefits of physical activity. As a result, the positive effect of these advertisements may have been compromised. Public health advertisements were so infrequent that we could not compare their characteristics with those originating with the private sector. The characteristics with those we did find were inconsistent with those thought to attract and maintain attention levels. Results are discussed in terms of potential implications for promoting physical activity.

  18. Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Platelets Activated by Pro-Thrombotic Oxidized Phospholipids and Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Zimman, Alejandro; Titz, Bjoern; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Biswas, Sudipta; Graeber, Thomas G.; Podrez, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    Specific oxidized phospholipids (oxPCCD36) promote platelet hyper-reactivity and thrombosis in hyperlipidemia via the scavenger receptor CD36, however the signaling pathway(s) induced in platelets by oxPCCD36 are not well defined. We have employed mass spectrometry-based tyrosine, serine, and threonine phosphoproteomics for the unbiased analysis of platelet signaling pathways induced by oxPCCD36 as well as by the strong physiological agonist thrombin. oxPCCD36 and thrombin induced differential phosphorylation of 115 proteins (162 phosphorylation sites) and 181 proteins (334 phosphorylation sites) respectively. Most of the phosphoproteome changes induced by either agonist have never been reported in platelets; thus they provide candidates in the study of platelet signaling. Bioinformatic analyses of protein phosphorylation dependent responses were used to categorize preferential motifs for (de)phosphorylation, predict pathways and kinase activity, and construct a phosphoproteome network regulating integrin activation. A putative signaling pathway involving Src-family kinases, SYK, and PLCγ2 was identified in platelets activated by oxPCCD36. Subsequent ex vivo studies in human platelets demonstrated that this pathway is downstream of the scavenger receptor CD36 and is critical for platelet activation by oxPCCD36. Our results provide multiple insights into the mechanism of platelet activation and specifically in platelet regulation by oxPCCD36. PMID:24400094

  19. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the active thermal control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, S. K.; Parkman, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical (PCIs) items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) are documented. The major purpose of the ATCS is to remove the heat, generated during normal Shuttle operations from the Orbiter systems and subsystems. The four major components of the ATCS contributing to the heat removal are: Freon Coolant Loops; Radiator and Flow Control Assembly; Flash Evaporator System; and Ammonia Boiler System. In order to perform the analysis, the IOA process utilized available ATCS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 310 failure modes analyzed, 101 were determined to be PCIs.

  20. Event based neutron activation spectroscopy and analysis algorithm using MLE and metaheuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Barton

    2014-03-01

    Techniques used in neutron activation analysis are often dependent on the experimental setup. In the context of developing a portable and high efficiency detection array, good energy resolution and half-life discrimination are difficult to obtain with traditional methods [1] given the logistic and financial constraints. An approach different from that of spectrum addition and standard spectroscopy analysis [2] was needed. The use of multiple detectors prompts the need for a flexible storage of acquisition data to enable sophisticated post processing of information. Analogously to what is done in heavy ion physics, gamma detection counts are stored as two-dimensional events. This enables post-selection of energies and time frames without the need to modify the experimental setup. This method of storage also permits the use of more complex analysis tools. Given the nature of the problem at hand, a light and efficient analysis code had to be devised. A thorough understanding of the physical and statistical processes [3] involved was used to create a statistical model. Maximum likelihood estimation was combined with metaheuristics to produce a sophisticated curve-fitting algorithm. Simulated and experimental data were fed into the analysis code prompting positive results in terms of half-life discrimination, peak identification and noise reduction. The code was also adapted to other fields of research such as heavy ion identification of the quasi-target (QT) and quasi-particle (QP). The approach used seems to be able to translate well into other fields of research.

  1. Neutron Activation Analysis of Single Grains Recovered by the Hayabusa Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Hamajima, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Kumagai, K.; Oura, Y.; Shirai, N.; Ireland. T. R.; Kitajima, F.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Naraoka, H.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Uesugi, M.; Yurimoto, H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Abe, M.; Fujimura, A.; Mukai, T.; Yada, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft was launched on May 9, 2003 and reached an asteroid Itokawa (25143 Itokawa) in September 2005. After accomplishing several scientific observations, the spacecraft tried to collect the surface material of Itokawa by touching down to the asteroid in November. The spacecraft was then navigated for the earth. In encountering several difficulties, Hayabusa finally returned to the earth on June 12, 2010 and the entry capsule was successfully recovered. Initially, a g-scale of solid material was aimed to be captured into the entry capsule. Although the sample collection was not perfectly performed, it was hoped that some extraterrestrial material was stored into the capsule. After careful and extensive examination, more than 1500 particles were recognized visibly by microscopes, most of which were eventually judged to be extraterrestrial, highly probably originated from Itokawa [1]. Several years before the launching of the Hayabusa spacecraft, the initial analysis team was officially formed under the selection panel at ISAS. As a member of this team, we have been preparing for the initial inspection of the returned material from many scientific viewpoints [2]. Once the recovered material had been confirmed to be much less than 1 g, a scheme for the initial analysis was updated accordingly [3]. In this study, we aim to analyze tiny single grains by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). As the initial analysis is to be started in mid-January, 2011, some progress for the initial analysis using INAA is described here. Analytical procedure

  2. Development of digestive enzyme activity in larvae of spotted sand bass Paralabrax maculatofasciatus. 1. Biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-González, C A; Moyano-López, F J; Civera-Cerecedo, R; Carrasco-Chávez, V; Ortiz-Galindo, J L; Dumas, S

    2008-12-01

    Spotted sand bass Paralabrax maculatofasciatus is a potential aquaculture species in Northwest Mexico. In the last few years it has been possible to close its life cycle and to develop larviculture technology at on pilot scale using live food, however survival values are low (11%) and improvements in growth and survival requires the study of the morpho-physiological development during the initial ontogeny. In this research digestive activity of several enzymes were evaluated in larvae, from hatching to 30 days after hatching (dah), and in live prey (rotifers and Artemia), by use of biochemical and electrophoretic techniques. This paper, is the first of two parts, and covers only the biochemical analysis. All digestive enzyme activities were detected from mouth opening; however the, maximum activities varied among different digestive enzymes. For alkaline protease and trypsin the maximum activities were detected from 12 to 18 dah. Acid protease activity was observed from day 12 onwards. The other digestive enzymes appear between days 4 and 18 after hatching, with marked fluctuations. These activities indicate the beginning of the juvenile stage and the maturation of the digestive system, in agreement with changes that occur during morpho-physiological development and food changes from rotifers to Artemia. All enzymatic activities were detected in rotifers and Artemia, and their contribution to enhancement the digestion capacity of the larvae appears to be low, but cannot be minimised. We concluded that the enzymatic equipment of P. maculatofasciatus larvae is similar to that of other marine fish species, that it becomes complete between days 12 and 18 after hatching, and that it is totally efficient up to 25 dah.

  3. Descriptive statistics tables from a detailed analysis of the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, A.M.; Klepeis, N.E.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed results tables are presented from an unweighted statistical analysis of selected portions of the 1992--1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data base. This survey collected data on the potential exposure of Americans to important household pollutants. Randomly selected individuals (9,386) supplied minute-by-minute diaries spanning a 24-hour day as well as follow-up questions on specific exposure types. Selected 24-hour diary locations and activities, selected regroupings of the 24-hour diary locations, activities, and smoker-present categories, and most of the follow-up question variables in the NHAPS data base were statistically analyzed across 12 subgroups (gender, age, Hispanic, education, employment, census region, day-of-week, season, asthma, angina and bronchitis/emphysema). Overall statistics were also generated for the 9,386 total respondents. Tables show descriptive statistics (including frequency distributions) of time spent and frequency of occurrence in each of 39 locations and for 22 activities (that were experienced by more than 50 respondents), along with equivalent tables for 10 regrouped locations (Residence-Indoors, Residence-Outdoors, Inside Vehicle, Near Vehicle, Other Outdoor, Office/Factory, Mall/Store, Public Building, Bar/Restaurant, Other Indoor), seven regrouped activities and smoker present. Tables of frequency distributions of time spent in exposure activities, or the frequency of occurrence of exposure activities, as determined from the follow up questions that were analyzed are also presented. Detailed indices provide page numbers for each table. An Appendix contains a condensed listing of the questionnaires (Versions A and B for adults, child-direct and child-proxy interview types), including the question number, the NHAPS data base variable name, and the verbatim question text.

  4. Effects of tour boats on dolphin activity examined with sensitivity analysis of Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Dans, Silvana Laura; Degrati, Mariana; Pedraza, Susana Noemí; Crespo, Enrique Alberto

    2012-08-01

    In Patagonia, Argentina, watching dolphins, especially dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), is a new tourist activity. Feeding time decreases and time to return to feeding after feeding is abandoned and time it takes a group of dolphins to feed increase in the presence of boats. Such effects on feeding behavior may exert energetic costs on dolphins and thus reduce an individual's survival and reproductive capacity or maybe associated with shifts in distribution. We sought to predict which behavioral changes modify the activity pattern of dolphins the most. We modeled behavioral sequences of dusky dolphins with Markov chains. We calculated transition probabilities from one activity to another and arranged them in a stochastic matrix model. The proportion of time dolphins dedicated to a given activity (activity budget) and the time it took a dolphin to resume that activity after it had been abandoned (recurrence time) were calculated. We used a sensitivity analysis of Markov chains to calculate the sensitivity of the time budget and the activity-resumption time to changes in behavioral transition probabilities. Feeding-time budget was most sensitive to changes in the probability of dolphins switching from traveling to feeding behavior and of maintaining feeding behavior. Thus, an increase in these probabilities would be associated with the largest reduction in the time dedicated to feeding. A reduction in the probability of changing from traveling to feeding would also be associated with the largest increases in the time it takes dolphins to resume feeding. To approach dolphins when they are traveling would not affect behavior less because presence of the boat may keep dolphins from returning to feeding. Our results may help operators of dolphin-watching vessels minimize negative effects on dolphins.

  5. Detailed Analysis of Starburst and AGN Activity in Blue E/S0 Galaxies in RESOLVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Ashley; Snyder, Elaine M.; Kannappan, Sheila; Norman, Dara J.; Norris, Mark A.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Stark, David; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We identify a population of ~120 blue E/S0 galaxies among the ~1350 galaxies that are targeted for spectroscopy and have measured morphologies in the highly complete REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local Volume (RESOLVE) survey. Blue E/S0s are identified as being early type objects morphologically classified between E and S0/a that fall on the blue sequence. Most (~85%) of our blue E/S0s have stellar masses <10^10 M_sun. Using pPXF, we have measured the stellar velocity dispersions (sigma values) from high resolution 485 - 550 nm spectroscopy for ~15% of the blue E/S0 sample. Using three variations of the M_BH -- sigma relation, this kinematic subsample is estimated to typically host central black holes within the range log M_BH = 4-6 M_sun. Following up on previous suggestions of nuclear activity in the blue E/S0 population, we investigate nuclear starburst and/or AGN activity occurring within the full sample. Preliminary results from cross-checking known AGN catalogs with the blue E/S0 sample have revealed nuclear activity in ~20 of these galaxies based on heterogeneous criteria (BPT line ratio analysis, spectral line broadening, etc.), some of which may not entirely distinguish starburst from AGN activity. In an attempt to break the degeneracy between AGN and starburst activity, we perform detailed spectral analysis for a few of the galaxies with kinematic data. We also consider the viability of alternate AGN detection methods based on L_Edd estimates calculated from the M_BH estimates. This research has been supported by the National Science Foundation through the CAP REU Program (ACI-1156614) and the RESOLVE Survey (AST-0955368) as well as the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program and the NC Space Grant Consortium.

  6. Volatile compounds analysis and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Mindium laevigatum

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimabadi, Abdolrasoul Haghir; Movahedpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Batooli, Hossain; Ebrahimabadi, Ebrahim Haghir; Mazoochi, Asma; Qamsari, Maryam Mobarak

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Mindium laevigatum is an endemic plant of Iran and Turkey and is widely used as blood purifier, antiasthma and antidyspnea in traditional medicine. Chemical composition of volatile materials of the plant and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were reported in this study. Materials and Methods: Simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and GC-Mass-FID analysis were used for the plant volatile materials chemical composition identification and quantification. Several antioxidant tests including DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power determination, β-carotene-linoleic acid and total phenolic content tests were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities were also estimated using microbial strains, cancer cell lines and brine shrimp larva. Result: s: GC-Mass-FID analysis of volatile samples showed a total of 74 compounds of which palmitic acid (7.4-33.7%), linoleic acid (6.6-18.6%), heneicosane (1.3-9.6%) and myristic acid (1.4-6.0%) were detected as main volatile components. Moderate to good results were recorded for the plant in β-carotene-linoleic acid test. Total phenolic content of the extracts as gallic acid equivalents were estimated in the range of 15.7 to 79.6 μg/mg. Some microbial strains showed moderate sensitivities to plant extracts. Brine shrimp lethality test and cytotoxic cancer cell line assays showed mild cytotoxic activities for the plant. Conclusion: Moderate to good antioxidant activities in β-carotene-linoleic acid test and presence of considerable amounts of unsaturated hydrocarbons may explain the plant traditional use in asthma and dyspnea. These findings also candidate it as a good choice for investigating its possible modern medical applications. PMID:28096967

  7. Screening for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Oroxylum indicum Fruit Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sithisarn, Patchima; Nantateerapong, Petcharat; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Pongtip

    2016-04-07

    Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively) by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on clinically pathologic

  8. Delineation of Urban Active Faults Using Multi-scale Gravity Analysis in Shenzhen, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    In fact, many cities in the world are established on the active faults. As the rapid urban development, thousands of large facilities, such as ultrahigh buildings, supersized bridges, railway, and so on, are built near or on the faults, which may change the balance of faults and induce urban earthquake. Therefore, it is significant to delineate effectively the faults for urban planning construction and social sustainable development. Due to dense buildings in urban area, the ordinary approaches to identify active faults, like geological survey, artificial seismic exploration and electromagnetic exploration, are not convenient to be carried out. Gravity, reflecting the mass distribution of the Earth's interior, provides a more efficient and convenient method to delineate urban faults. The present study is an attempt to propose a novel gravity method, multi-scale gravity analysis, for identifying urban active faults and determining their stability. Firstly, the gravity anomalies are decomposed by wavelet multi-scale analysis. Secondly, based on the decomposed gravity anomalies, the crust is layered and the multilayer horizontal tectonic stress is inverted. Lastly, the decomposed anomalies and the inverted horizontal tectonic stress are used to infer the distribution and stability of main active faults. For validating our method, a case study on active faults in Shenzhen City is processed. The results show that the distribution of decomposed gravity anomalies and multilayer horizontal tectonic stress are controlled significantly by the strike of the main faults and can be used to infer depths of the faults. The main faults in Shenzhen may range from 4km to 20km in the depth. Each layer of the crust is nearly equipressure since the horizontal tectonic stress has small amplitude. It indicates that the main faults in Shenzhen are relatively stable and have no serious impact on planning and construction of the city.

  9. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58–69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  10. Cortical Up State Activity Is Enhanced After Seizures: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gerkin, Richard C.; Clem, Roger L.; Shruti, Sonal; Kass, Robert E.; Barth, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    In the neocortex, neurons participate in epochs of elevated activity, or Up states, during periods of quiescent wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and general anesthesia. The regulation of firing during and between Up states is of great interest because it can reflect the underlying connectivity and excitability of neurons within the network. Automated analysis of the onset and characteristics of Up state firing across different experiments and conditions requires a robust and accurate method for Up state detection. Using measurements of membrane potential mean and variance calculated from whole-cell recordings of neurons from control and postseizure tissue, the authors have developed such a method. This quantitative and automated method is independent of cell- or condition-dependent variability in underlying noise or tonic firing activity. Using this approach, the authors show that Up state frequency and firing rates are significantly increased in layer 2/3 neocortical neurons 24 hours after chemo-convulsant-induced seizure. Down states in postseizure tissue show greater membrane-potential variance characterized by increased synaptic activity. Previously, the authors have found that postseizure increase in excitability is linked to a gain-of-function in BK channels, and blocking BK channels in vitro and in vivo can decrease excitability and eliminate seizures. Thus, the authors also assessed the effect of BK-channel antagonists on Up state properties in control and postseizure neurons. These data establish a robust and broadly applicable algorithm for Up state detection and analysis, provide a quantitative description of how prior seizures increase spontaneous firing activity in cortical networks, and show how BK-channel antagonists reduce this abnormal activity. PMID:21127407

  11. Antidiabetic activity of Embelia ribes, embelin and its derivatives: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, Veeresh P; Neelima, Satrasala; Dhadde, Shivsharan B

    2017-02-01

    Embelia ribes (ER) has been documented in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of ER and its active bio-marker, embelin and its derivatives in the treatment of DM. Literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Scifinder, and Google Scholar. Using Review Manager, meta-analysis of ER/embelin/derivatives of embelin versus diabetic control was performed with inverse-variance model, providing mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was determined by I(2) statistic. A total of 13 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, and were conducted in experimental rats. ER and embelin significantly (P≤0.01) resorted blood glucose (MD, -231.30; CI, -256.79, -205.82; and MD, -154.70; CI, -168.65, -140.74) and glycosylated haemoglobin (MD, -6.36; CI, -8.33, -4.39; and MD,-4.68; CI, -7.76, -1.60), respectively. Meta-analysis findings also reported considerable restoration of insulin, lipid profile, haemodynamic parameters, serum and oxidative stress markers. The derivatives of embelin, 6-bromoembelin and vilangin, also improved diabetic condition. In addition, treatments also ameliorated body weight changes due to diabetes. The present systematic review and meta-analysis supports scientific evidence for the antidiabetic activity of ER/embelin/derivatives of embelin. However, further research is warranted in clinical trials to validate the present findings.

  12. Functional/activity network (FAN) analysis of gene-phenotype connectivity liaised by grape polyphenol resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tze-chen; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Bennett, Dylan John; Doonan, Barbara B.; Wu, Erxi; Wu, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that has witnessed an unprecedented yearly growth in PubMed citations since the late 1990s. Based on the diversity of cellular processes and diseases resveratrol reportedly affects and benefits, it is likely that the interest in resveratrol will continue, although uncertainty regarding its mechanism in different biological systems remains. We hypothesize that insights on disease-modulatory activities of resveratrol might be gleaned by systematically dissecting the publicly available published data on chemicals and drugs. In this study, we tested our hypothesis by querying DTome (Drug-Target Interactome), a web-based tool containing data compiled from open-source databases including DrugBank, PharmGSK, and Protein Interaction Network Analysis (PINA). Four direct protein targets (DPT) and 219 DPT-associated genes were identified for resveratrol. The DPT-associated genes were scrutinized by WebGestalt (WEB-based Gene SeT Analysis Toolkit). This enrichment analysis resulted in 10 identified KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. Refined analysis of KEGG pathways showed that 2 — one linked to p53 and a second to prostate cancer — have functional connectivity to resveratrol and its four direct protein targets. These results suggest that a functional activity network (FAN) approach may be considered as a new paradigm for guiding future studies of resveratrol. FAN analysis resembles a BioGPS, with capability for mapping a Web-based scientific track that can productively and cost effectively connect resveratrol to its primary and secondary target proteins and to its biological functions. PMID:27232943

  13. Stochastic analysis of myoelectric temporal signatures for multifunctional single-site activation of prostheses and orthoses.

    PubMed

    Graupe, D; Salahi, J; Zhang, D S

    1985-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a stochastic time-series analysis of the temporal signatures of myoelectric (ME) signals including the determination of model order and sampling rate. The paper considers the use of time-series parameters for the activation of artificial limbs for high-level amputees, of stimulation electrodes or of powered braces for paralysed persons, in several degrees of freedom, from a single or two surface-electrode pairs at locations where considerable ME cross-talk exists. The multifunctional capability from a single site is based on the differences between the time-series (TS) parameters for different muscle activation patterns at the same ME site, these differences being thus used for limb function discrimination via easily trainable muscle activation patterns at the vicinity of the electrode site. Specifically, the analysis is in terms of identifying the AR parameters of a time-domain autoregressive (AR) signature model both for the complete ME spectrum and for parts thereof, and in terms of the autocorrelation of the signal and of the models residual. Determination of sampling rate and of model orders is discussed in detail. It is shown that, using online real-time analysis, differences in the AR time-series parameters can be observed for different trainable patterns of muscle activation, at the same electrode location, even at the same ME power levels, as long as considerable cross-talk exists at the electrode site. These parameter differences can be accentuated if one considers the AR parameters for lower-frequency spectral windows. A case is made in this paper for employing TS analysis to squeeze out information in a distinct but low-level ripple of the low frequency spectrum of the signal. This information tends to be ignored in frequency domain, but is all that the AR parameters care for in TS analysis, since they are not concerned, with a flat-average low-frequency spectrum, i.e., its white-noise-like part, which is the residual term

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis errors and interferences during the certification analysis of NIST SRM 1573a tomato leaves (renewal)

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology is in the process of certification for a new supply of the botanical standard reference material (SRM) 1573, tomato leaves. This renewal SRM 1573a has already been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for 18 elements with 12 replicates and sample sizes averaging {approximately}140 mg. Elements determined by INAA were selected according to the needs of the SRM program and include some with short half-lives (aluminum, vanadium, calcium, magnesium), some with intermediate half-lives (sodium, potassium, manganese, barium, lanthanum, rubidium), and some with long half-lives (iron, chromium, zinc, cobalt, selenium, thorium, scandium, and antimony). The data obtained will also be used for homogeneity evaluation. During the initial evaluation and certification analyses, a number of potential errors and interferences were identified.

  15. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  16. ANALYSIS OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD TUMOR PROMOTION ACTIVITY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a high estimated cancer potency in animals which has been reasoned to imply that TCDD might be carcinogenic to man. The animal cancer data show that TCDD can act in a solitary manner causing tumors without the participation of other known factors. owever, there exist animal cancer data indicating that TCDD can act as a tumor-promoting compound. This analysis examines which type of carcinogen and which mechanism best characterize TCDD cancer activity. It is suggested that TCDD acts by a hormonal mechanism to cause cancer in solitary manner, at low doses, in two species, and in a number of different organs, including rare sites. These observations in toto characterize TCDD as a complete carcinogen, which by definition encompasses both initiation and promotion carcinogenic activities. This analysis examines which type of carcinogen and which mechanism best characterize TCDD cancer activity. It is suggested that TCDD acts by a hormonal mechanism to cause cancer in solitary manner, at low doses, in two species, and in a number of different organs, including rare sites

  17. Gene Expression and Histological Analysis of Activated Brown Adipocytes in Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee

    2017-01-01

    With the rediscovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans, identification and characterization of brown adipocytes have been topics of great interest in the field of adipose tissue research. In particular, identification of the molecular mechanisms that activate thermogenic adipocytes suggests promising targets for increasing energy expenditure and ultimately combatting obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Thus, the methodology for identifying brown adipocytes in vivo is important for the precise determination of the metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue and de novo brown adipogenesis in white adipose tissue. In addition, in vivo analysis of brown adipocytes in combination with lineage tracing is essential to investigate the cellular origins of brown adipocytes. This chapter first provides a brief overview of lineage tracing studies performed in the search for the cellular origins of brown adipocytes. The chapter then describes the immunohistochemistry methodology for identifying brown adipocytes in adipose tissue, including analyses in histologic tissue sections and whole mount tissue. Lastly, it discusses flow cytometric analysis of dissociated cells from adipose tissue, and isolation of live adipocytes for subsequent gene expression profiling using fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

  18. A Comprehensive Analysis on Wearable Acceleration Sensors in Human Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Janidarmian, Majid; Roshan Fekr, Atena; Radecka, Katarzyna; Zilic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    Sensor-based motion recognition integrates the emerging area of wearable sensors with novel machine learning techniques to make sense of low-level sensor data and provide rich contextual information in a real-life application. Although Human Activity Recognition (HAR) problem has been drawing the attention of researchers, it is still a subject of much debate due to the diverse nature of human activities and their tracking methods. Finding the best predictive model in this problem while considering different sources of heterogeneities can be very difficult to analyze theoretically, which stresses the need of an experimental study. Therefore, in this paper, we first create the most complete dataset, focusing on accelerometer sensors, with various sources of heterogeneities. We then conduct an extensive analysis on feature representations and classification techniques (the most comprehensive comparison yet with 293 classifiers) for activity recognition. Principal component analysis is applied to reduce the feature vector dimension while keeping essential information. The average classification accuracy of eight sensor positions is reported to be 96.44% ± 1.62% with 10-fold evaluation, whereas accuracy of 79.92% ± 9.68% is reached in the subject-independent evaluation. This study presents significant evidence that we can build predictive models for HAR problem under more realistic conditions, and still achieve highly accurate results. PMID:28272362

  19. Recognizing brain activities by functional near-infrared spectroscope signal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khoa, Truong Quang Dang; Nakagawa, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Background Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscope (fNIRs) is one of the latest technologies which utilize light in the near-infrared range to determine brain activities. Near-infrared technology allows design of safe, portable, wearable, non-invasive and wireless qualities monitoring systems. This indicates that fNIRs signal monitoring of brain hemodynamics can be value in helping to understand brain tasks. In this paper, we present results of fNIRs signal analysis to show that there exist distinct patterns of hemodynamic responses which recognize brain tasks toward developing a Brain-Computer interface. Results We applied Higuchi's fractal dimension algorithms to analyse irregular and complex characteristics of fNIRs signals, and then Wavelets transform is used to analysis for preprocessing as signal filters and feature extractions and Neural networks is a module for cognition brain tasks. Conclusion Throughout two experiments, we have demonstrated the feasibility of fNIRs analysis to recognize human brain activities. PMID:18590571

  20. Fetal cardiac activity analysis during twin pregnancy using a multi-channel SQUID system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Schleussner, E.; Kausch, S.; Grimm, B.; Schneider, A.; Hall Barbosa, C.; Haueisen, J.

    2001-05-01

    The use of SQUID magnetometers for non-invasive in utero assessment of cardiac electrical disturbances has already been shown to be a valuable clinical tool. In this way, its applicability also for the complicated case of twin pregnancy, in which the proximity of the cardiac magnetic source of each fetus can hamper the individual analysis of cardiac electrical activity, is of clinical interest. In this paper, we present fetal magnetocardiography performed on a mother pregnant of twins with 26 weeks gestational age, measured inside a magnetically shielded room, by using two identical 31-channel low- Tc SQUID magnetometer systems. Each sensor array has been positioned over one of the fetuses, according to its heart position previously assessed with the aid of ultrasound measurements. The raw data is initially averaged in time and, afterwards, analyzed by means of time plots and isofield maps. The time recordings allow the study of the morphology of each fetus’ cardiac signal and the cardiac time intervals. The resultant equivalent dipole obtained from the isofield maps indicates the position and orientation of each fetus heart. The results agree with the ultrasound analysis performed immediately before the measurements and used to obtain the approximate location of the fetuses’ hearts. Since a distinct analysis of the cardiac electrical activity of each fetus could be achieved, the results indicate the potential of the fetal magnetocardiography in the individual antenatal diagnosis of each one of the fetuses of a twin pregnancy.

  1. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  2. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with.

  3. Correlation Between Brain Activation Changes and Cognitive Improvement Following Cognitive Remediation Therapy in Schizophrenia: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yan-Yan; Wang, Ji-Jun; Yan, Chao; Li, Zi-Qiang; Pan, Xiao; Cui, Yi; Su, Tong; Liu, Tao-Sheng; Tang, Yun-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have indicated that cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) might improve cognitive function by changing brain activations in patients with schizophrenia. However, the results were not consistent in these changed brain areas in different studies. The present activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether cognitive function change was accompanied by the brain activation changes, and where the main areas most related to these changes were in schizophrenia patients after CRT. Analyses of whole-brain studies and whole-brain + region of interest (ROI) studies were compared to explore the effect of the different methodologies on the results. Methods: A computerized systematic search was conducted to collect fMRI and PET studies on brain activation changes in schizophrenia patients from pre- to post-CRT. Nine studies using fMRI techniques were included in the meta-analysis. Ginger ALE 2.3.1 was used to perform meta-analysis across these imaging studies. Results: The main areas with increased brain activation were in frontal and parietal lobe, including left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule in patients after CRT, yet no decreased brain activation was found. Although similar increased activation brain areas were identified in ALE with or without ROI studies, analysis including ROI studies had a higher ALE value. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that CRT might improve the cognition of schizophrenia patients by increasing activations of the frontal and parietal lobe. In addition, it might provide more evidence to confirm results by including ROI studies in ALE meta-analysis. PMID:26904993

  4. Radiation inactivation analysis of influenza virus reveals different target sizes for fusion, leakage, and neuraminidase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, S.; Jung, C.Y.; Takahashi, M.; Lenard, J.

    1986-10-07

    The size of the functional units responsible for several activities carried out by the influenza virus envelope glycoproteins was determined by radiation inactivation analysis. Neuraminidase activity, which resides in the glycoprotein NA, was inactivated exponentially with an increasing radiation dose, yielding a target size of 94 +/- 5 kilodaltons (kDa), in reasonable agreement with that of the disulfide-bonded dimer (120 kDa). All the other activities studied are properties of the HA glycoprotein and were normalized to the known molecular weight of the neuraminidase dimer. Virus-induced fusion activity was measured by two phospholipid dilution assays: relief of energy transfer between N-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)dipalmitoyl-L-alpha- phosphatidylethanolamine (N-NBD-PE) and N-(lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl)-dioleoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylethanolamine (N-Rh-PE) in target liposomes and relief of self-quenching of N-Rh-PE in target liposomes. Radiation inactivation of fusion activity proceeded exponentially with radiation dose, yielding normalized target sizes of 68 +/- 6 kDa by assay i and 70 +/- 4 kDa by assay ii. These values are close to the molecular weight of a single disulfide-bonded (HA1 + HA2) unit (75 kDa), the monomer of the HA trimer. A single monomer is thus inactivated by each radiation event, and each monomer (or some part of it) constitutes a minimal functional unit capable of mediating fusion. Virus-induced leakage of calcein from target liposomes and virus-induced leakage of hemoglobin from erythrocytes (hemolysis) both showed more complex inactivation behavior: a pronounced shoulder was present in both inactivation curves, followed by a steep drop in activity at higher radiation levels.

  5. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muchtaridi; Diantini, Adjeng; Subarnas, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L.) leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L.) herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L.) bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb.) rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s) that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%), 0.1 (55.72%), 0.5 (60.75%), and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%), respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  6. Branched pore kinetic model analysis of geosmin adsorption on super-powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Ando, Naoya; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2009-07-01

    Super-powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) is activated carbon of much finer particle size than powdered activated carbon (PAC). Geosmin is a naturally occurring taste and odor compound that impairs aesthetic quality in drinking water. Experiments on geosmin adsorption on S-PAC and PAC were conducted, and the results using adsorption kinetic models were analyzed. PAC pulverization, which produced the S-PAC, did not change geosmin adsorption capacity, and geosmin adsorption capacities did not differ between S-PAC and PAC. Geosmin adsorption kinetics, however, were much higher on S-PAC than on PAC. A solution to the branched pore kinetic model (BPKM) was developed, and experimental adsorption kinetic data were analyzed by BPKM and by a homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). The HSDM describing the adsorption behavior of geosmin required different surface diffusivity values for S-PAC and PAC, which indicated a decrease in surface diffusivity apparently associated with activated carbon particle size. The BPKM, consisting of macropore diffusion followed by mass transfer from macropore to micropore, successfully described the batch adsorption kinetics on S-PAC and PAC with the same set of model parameter values, including surface diffusivity. The BPKM simulation clearly showed geosmin removal was improved as activated carbon particle size decreased. The simulation also implied that the rate-determining step in overall mass transfer shifted from intraparticle radial diffusion in macropores to local mass transfer from macropore to micropore. Sensitivity analysis showed that adsorptive removal of geosmin improved with decrease in activated carbon particle size down to 1microm, but further particle size reduction produced little improvement.

  7. Serum Vitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin; Liu, Jian; Davies, Michael L.; Chen, Weiqian

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence from epidemiological studies concerning the relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed at determining the magnitude of the correlation between this common autoimmune disease and vitamin D, an important nutrient known to dampen adaptive immune responses. Methods Through multiple search strategies, relevant literature was identified and evaluated for quality before May 16 2015. Data extracted from eligible studies was synthesized to calculate pooled correlation coefficient (r), mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). The Venice criteria were applied to assess the credibility of the evidence for each statistically significant association. Results A total of 24 reports involving 3489 patients were selected for analysis. RA patients had lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls (MD:-16.52 nmol/L, 95% confidence intervals [CI]:-18.85 to -14.19 nmol/L). There existed a negative relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level and disease activity index, e.g. 25OHD vs. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28): r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.09; 25OHD vs. C-reactive protein: r = -0.12, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.00. Additionally, latitude-stratified subgroup analysis yielded a relatively stronger negative correlation between 25OHD and DAS28 in low-latitude areas. This inverse relationship also appeared more significant in developing countries than in developed countries. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion RA patients had lower vitamin D values than healthy controls. There was a negative association between serum vitamin D and RA disease activity. However, more strictly controlled studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:26751969

  8. Periodogram Analysis on Solar Activities Based on El Campo Solar Radar Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ye; Zhi-ning, Qu; Min, Wang; Guan-nan, Gao; Jun, Lin; Zhi-chun, Duan

    2016-10-01

    Solar radar can transmit radar waves toward the Sun actively at a specific waveband and receive the reflected waves. By analyzing the echoes, we can obtain the information of motion, magnetic field, and other properties of the solar atmosphere. The El Campo solar radar has done regular observations on the solar corona for 8 years from 1961 to 1969, to trace the variation of solar activities. We have made a periodicity analysis on the obtained data with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram algorithm, and found that there are the 200 day and 540 day periods existed in the variation of the measured solar radar cross section. In addition, we have selected the larger radar cross sections (≥ 20σ⊙) to compare with the Dst indexes. Finally, we have summarized the El Campo solar radar experiment and give a prospect for the future development of the solar radar observation.

  9. Polymerase/DNA interactions and enzymatic activity: multi-parameter analysis with electro-switchable biosurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Andreas; Schräml, Michael; Strasser, Ralf; Daub, Herwin; Myers, Thomas; Heindl, Dieter; Rant, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The engineering of high-performance enzymes for future sequencing and PCR technologies as well as the development of many anticancer drugs requires a detailed analysis of DNA/RNA synthesis processes. However, due to the complex molecular interplay involved, real-time methodologies have not been available to obtain comprehensive information on both binding parameters and enzymatic activities. Here we introduce a chip-based method to investigate polymerases and their interactions with nucleic acids, which employs an electrical actuation of DNA templates on microelectrodes. Two measurement modes track both the dynamics of the induced switching process and the DNA extension simultaneously to quantitate binding kinetics, dissociation constants and thermodynamic energies. The high sensitivity of the method reveals previously unidentified tight binding states for Taq and Pol I (KF) DNA polymerases. Furthermore, the incorporation of label-free nucleotides can be followed in real-time and changes in the DNA polymerase conformation (finger closing) during enzymatic activity are observable. PMID:26174478

  10. A compact in vivo neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in human hand bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingzi

    As an urgent issue of correlating cumulative manganese (Mn) exposure to neurotoxicity, bone has emerged as an attractive biomarker for long-term Mn deposition and storage. A novel Deuterium-Deuterium (DD) neutron generator irradiation system has been simulated and constructed, incorporating moderator, reflector and shielding. This neutron activation analysis (NAA) irradiation assembly presents several desirable features, including high neutron flux, improved detection limit and acceptable neutron & photon dose, which would allow it be ready for clinical measurement. Key steps include simulation modeling and verifying, irradiation system design, detector characterization, and neutron flux and dose assessment. Activation foils were also analyzed to reveal the accurate neutron spectrum in the irradiation cave. The detection limit with this system is 0.428 ppm with 36 mSv equivalent hand dose and 52 microSv whole body effective dose.

  11. An ecological analysis of environmental correlates of active commuting in urban U.S.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2014-11-01

    We conduct a cross-sectional ecological analysis to examine environmental correlates of active commuting in 39,660 urban tracts using data from the 2010 Census, 2007-2011 American Community Survey, and other sources. The five-year average (2007-2011) prevalence is 3.05% for walking, 0.63% for biking, and 7.28% for public transportation to work, with higher prevalence for all modes in lower-income tracts. Environmental factors account for more variances in public transportation to work but economic and demographic factors account for more variances in walking and biking to work. Population density, median housing age, street connectivity, tree canopy, distance to parks, air quality, and county sprawl index are associated with active commuting, but the association can vary in size and direction for different transportation mode and for higher-income and lower-income tracts.

  12. Application of Avco data analysis and prediction techniques (ADAPT) to prediction of sunspot activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, H. E.; Amato, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the application of Avco Data Analysis and Prediction Techniques (ADAPT) to derivation of new algorithms for the prediction of future sunspot activity. The ADAPT derived algorithms show a factor of 2 to 3 reduction in the expected 2-sigma errors in the estimates of the 81-day running average of the Zurich sunspot numbers. The report presents: (1) the best estimates for sunspot cycles 20 and 21, (2) a comparison of the ADAPT performance with conventional techniques, and (3) specific approaches to further reduction in the errors of estimated sunspot activity and to recovery of earlier sunspot historical data. The ADAPT programs are used both to derive regression algorithm for prediction of the entire 11-year sunspot cycle from the preceding two cycles and to derive extrapolation algorithms for extrapolating a given sunspot cycle based on any available portion of the cycle.

  13. Structure-activity analysis of 2'-modified cinnamaldehyde analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fei Fei; Chua, Yee Shin; Scarmagnani, Silvia; Palaniappan, Puvithira; Franks, Mark; Poobalasingam, Thurka; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Westwell, Andrew D; Hagen, Thilo

    2009-10-02

    The natural product 2'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) and its analogue, 2'-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde (BCA), have been previously shown to have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we use structure-activity analysis to define structural features that are important for the activity of cinnamaldehyde analogues. Our results emphasize an important role for both the propenal group as well as the modification at the 2'-position. Further studies were aimed to characterize the mechanism of action of BCA. Exposure to BCA induced cell death via caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. Cell death was not due to autophagy or necrosis as a result of energy depletion or induction of reactive oxygen species. Our findings have important implications for future drug design and highlight the importance of defining molecular drug targets for this promising class of potential anticancer agents.

  14. Ion Uptake Determination of Dendrochronologically-Dated Trees Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kenan Unlu; P.I. Kuniholm; D.K.H. Schwarz; N.O. Cetiner; J.J. Chiment

    2009-03-30

    Uptake of metal ions by plan roots is a function of the type and concentration of metal in the soil, the nutrient biochemistry of the plant, and the immediate environment of the root. Uptake of gold (Au) is known to be sensitive to soil pH for many species. Soil acidification due to acid precipitation following volcanic eruptions can dramatically increase Au uptake by trees. Identification of high Au content in tree rings in dendrochronologically-dated, overlapping sequences of trees allows the identification of temporally-conscribed, volcanically-influenced periods of environmental change. Ion uptake, specifically determination of trace amounts of gold, was performed for dendrochronologically-dated tree samples utilizing Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The concentration of gold was correlated with known enviironmental changes, e.g. volcanic activities, during historic periods.

  15. Cost Analysis of Internet vs. Print Interventions for Physical Activity Promotion.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Beth A; Williams, David M; Neighbors, Charles J; Jakicic, John M; Marcus, Bess H

    2010-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the costs associated with Internet and print-based physical activity interventions. METHOD: The costs associated with delivering tailored print and Internet-based interventions were estimated from a randomized controlled physical activity trial (n=167). The estimates were based on research assistant time sampling surveys, web development invoices, and other tracking procedures. RESULTS: Web-development costs for the Internet intervention were $109,564. Taken together with the website hosting fees and staff costs, the cost per participant per month was $122.52 The cost of the print intervention was $35.81 per participant per month. However, in a break-even analysis, the Internet intervention became more cost-efficient, relative to the print intervention, when the total number of participants exceeded 352. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to print-based interventions, Internet-based interventions may be a more cost efficient way to reach a large number of sedentary individuals.

  16. Polymerase/DNA interactions and enzymatic activity: multi-parameter analysis with electro-switchable biosurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Andreas; Schräml, Michael; Strasser, Ralf; Daub, Herwin; Myers, Thomas; Heindl, Dieter; Rant, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The engineering of high-performance enzymes for future sequencing and PCR technologies as well as the development of many anticancer drugs requires a detailed analysis of DNA/RNA synthesis processes. However, due to the complex molecular interplay involved, real-time methodologies have not been available to obtain comprehensive information on both binding parameters and enzymatic activities. Here we introduce a chip-based method to investigate polymerases and their interactions with nucleic acids, which employs an electrical actuation of DNA templates on microelectrodes. Two measurement modes track both the dynamics of the induced switching process and the DNA extension simultaneously to quantitate binding kinetics, dissociation constants and thermodynamic energies. The high sensitivity of the method reveals previously unidentified tight binding states for Taq and Pol I (KF) DNA polymerases. Furthermore, the incorporation of label-free nucleotides can be followed in real-time and changes in the DNA polymerase conformation (finger closing) during enzymatic activity are observable.

  17. Energetic analysis of the white light emission associated to seismically active flares in solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Martinez Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam

    2014-06-01

    Solar flares are explosive phenomena, thought to be driven by magnetic free energy accumulated in the solar corona. Some flares release seismic transients, "sunquakes", into the Sun's interior. Different mechanisms are being considered to explain how sunquakes are generated. We are conducting an analysis of white-light emission associated with those seismically active solar flares that have been reported by different authors within the current solar cycle. Seismic diagnostics are based upon standard time-distance techniques, including seismic holography, applied to Dopplergrams obtained by SDO/HMI and GONG. The relation between white-light emissions and seismic activity may provide important information on impulsive chromospheric heating during flares, a prospective contributor to seismic transient emission, at least in some instances. We develop a method to get an estimation of Energy associated whit white-light emission and compare those results whit values of energy needed to generate a sunquake according with holographic helioseismology techniques.

  18. Study of essential elements in cattle tissues from a tropical country using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Artur Canella; Menezes, Maria Angela de B C; Veado, Julio Cesar C

    2002-09-01

    There has been increasing interest in the elemental composition of animal tissues to support health and nutritional studies. Determining the elemental concentration in cattle tissues is especially important because these materials are used for multipurpose objectives such as the assessment of animal health, the quality of human foods consumed, and as a potential environmental biomonitor. Chromium, copper, sodium, potassium, iron, and zinc levels were determined in bovine tissues--kidney, liver and muscle--from cattle bred and raised in a potentially metal contaminated region because of mineral activities. The Brazilian data were obtained using k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis, performed at the Nuclear Development Technology Centre/Nuclear Energy National Commission (CDTN/CNEN) in Minas Gerais State. The values of international organizations and the Brazilian analytical data are compatible. This study indicates that the nuclear technique is an efficient tool to determine elemental concentration in animal biological samples.

  19. A neutron activation analysis procedure for the determination of uranium, thorium and potassium in geologic samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aruscavage, P. J.; Millard, H.T.

    1972-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis procedure was developed for the determination of uranium, thorium and potassium in basic and ultrabasic rocks. The three elements are determined in the same 0.5-g sample following a 30-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 2??1012 n??cm-2??sec-1. Following radiochemical separation, the nuclides239U (T=23.5 m),233Th (T=22.2 m) and42K (T=12.36 h) are measured by ??-counting. A computer program is used to resolve the decay curves which are complex owing to contamination and the growth of daughter activities. The method was used to determine uranium, throium and potassium in the U. S. Geological Survey standard rocks DTS-1, PCC-1 and BCR-1. For 0.5-g samples the limits of detection for uranium, throium and potassium are 0.7, 1.0 and 10 ppb, respectively. ?? 1972 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  20. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Judy

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities designed to give students an opportunity to solve concrete problems involving spatial relationships and logical thinking utilizing hands-on manipulatives. Provides teacher instructions and four reproducible worksheets. (MDH)