Science.gov

Sample records for activation analysis results

  1. Video and film analysis with correlation tracking and active result presentation (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowa, Per

    1990-08-01

    Experience with a turnkey analysis system featuring high resolution video input and display, a modular video disc system and a 16 mm cine film scanner with 2600-point resolution, is presented. Tracking is performed with a high-speed correlation process, requiring no special markers. Software packages for evaluating two and three-dimensional results are interactively accessible. Combining the original image sequence with real-time graphic overlays and active drawing of graphic diagrams, provides for an excellent understanding and documentation of the motion sequences.

  2. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    SciTech Connect

    Dahing, Lahasen Normanshah; Yahya, Redzuan; Yahya, Roslan; Hassan, Hearie

    2014-09-03

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} and 15×15×15 cm{sup 3} were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed.

  3. Active shield technology for space craft protection revisited in new laboratory results and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, R.; Gibson, K. J.; Thornton, A. T.; Bradford, J.; Bingham, R.; Gargate, L.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.; Hapgood, M.; Norberg, C.; Todd, T.; Stamper, R.

    2009-04-01

    Energetic ions in the solar wind plasma are a known hazard to both spacecraft electronics and to astronaut's health. Of primary concern is the exposure to keV--MeV protons on manned space flights to the Moon and Mars that extend over long periods of time. Attempts to protect the spacecraft include active shields that are reminiscent of Star Trek "deflector" shields. Here we describe a new experiment to test the shielding concept of a dipole-like magnetic field and plasma, surrounding the spacecraft forming a "mini magnetosphere". Initial laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of a magnetized plasma barrier to be able to expel an impacting, low beta, supersonic flowing energetic plasma representing the Solar Wind. Optical and Langmuir probe data of the plasma density, the plasma flow velocity, and the intensity of the dipole field clearly show the creation of a narrow transport barrier region and diamagnetic cavity virtually devoid of energetic plasma particles. This demonstrates the potential viability of being able to create a small "hole" in a Solar Wind plasma, of the order of the ion Larmor orbit width, in which an inhabited spacecraft could reside in relative safety. The experimental results have been quantitatively compared to a 3D particle-in-cell ‘hybrid' code simulation that uses kinetic ions and fluid electrons, showing good qualitative agreement and excellent quantitative agreement. Together the results demonstrate the pivotal role of particle kinetics in determining generic plasma transport barriers. [1] [1] R Bamford et al., "The interaction of a flowing plasma with a dipole magnetic field: measurements and modelling of a diamagnetic cavity relevant to spacecraft protection." 2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124025 (11pp) doi: 10.1088/0741-3335/50/12/124025

  4. NZ Ser: the results of the analysis of the 25 years photometric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsunova, O.; Mel'nikov, S.; Grinin, V.; Katysheva, N.; Shugarov, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present the analysis of the long-term photometric variability of NZ Ser. The object shows both large-scale cyclic variability and low-amplitude Algol-like, fading typical for UX Ori stars. The variations of the stellar brightness are accompanied by variations of the B-V and V-R colors: when the brightness decreases, B-V decreases, while V-R increases.

  5. Unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men: results from a multi-level dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Brown, Ryan; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    HIV is a serious public health problem for homeless populations. Homeless men who have sex with women have received less attention in the HIV risk literature than other homeless populations. This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Based on interviews with 305 randomly selected men who discussed 665 of their recent female sexual relationships, this project investigates the correlates of unprotected sex during the past 6 months at the partnership, individual, and social network levels. Several different measures of relationship closeness and lack of communication about HIV/condoms were associated with unprotected sex. Controlling for relationship factors, men's negative attitudes towards condoms, mental health, and higher number of male sex partners also were associated with having unprotected sex with female partners. We discuss the implications of these findings for health interventions. PMID:23212852

  6. An international activity and spectrum analysis of linezolid: ZAAPS Program results for 2011.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Ross, James E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2013-06-01

    Through a continuing resistance surveillance monitoring program, linezolid was shown to maintain its spectrum and potency against a collection of 8059 clinically relevant Gram-positive strains collected from patients at 79 medical centers in 33 countries and Hong Kong. Linezolid MIC90 values were 2 μg/mL for methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci, and the MIC90 value was 1 μg/mL for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), β-hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and viridans group streptococci. Reference broth microdilution susceptibility testing for linezolid demonstrated a 99.83% susceptibility rate for all organisms. All S. aureus were inhibited by ≤2 μg/mL. Three (0.3%) of 928 strains of CoNS had a linezolid MIC of 4 μg/mL and contained the cfr resistance gene; 1 also had a mutation in L3. There were 14 linezolid-resistant strains detected from 7 countries (Brazil [5], France [1], Germany [2] Greece [2], Italy [2], Ireland [1], and Spain [1]) representing 5 species (E. faecium, S. capitis, S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. lugdenensis). A mobile cfr gene was noted in 2 species having elevated linezolid MIC values; one was a S. haemolyticus isolate with a MIC at 4 μg/mL. Resistance rates were as follows for the 6 groups of organisms sampled in the 2011 ZAAPS Program: CoNS, 1.2%; enterococci, 0.39%; among S aureus, S. pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and β-hemolytic streptococci, no resistance was detected. As the activities of commonly used antimicrobials continue to be compromised by evolving resistance mechanisms in Gram-positive pathogens, linezolid-resistant strains remain uncommon and without increasing occurrence.

  7. Activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 16 chapters on the application of activation analysis in the fields of life sciences, biological materials, coal and its effluents, environmental samples, archaeology, material science, and forensics. Each chapter is processed separately for the data base.

  8. Aggregation and spatial analysis of walking activity in an urban area: results from the Halifax space-time activity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neatt, K.; Millward, H.; Spinney, J.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines neighborhood characteristics affecting the incidence of walking trips in urban and suburban areas of Halifax, Canada. We employ data from the Space-Time Activity Research (STAR) survey, conducted in 2007-8. Primary respondents completed a two- day time-diary survey, and their movements were tracked using a GPS data logger. Primary respondents logged a total of 5,005 walking trips, specified by 781,205 individual GPS points. Redundant and erroneous points, such as those with zero or excessive speed, were removed. Data points were then imported into ArcGIS, converted from points to linear features, visually inspected for data quality, and cleaned appropriately. From mapped walking tracks we developed hypotheses regarding variations in walking density. To test these, walking distances were aggregated by census tracts (CTs), and expressed as walking densities (per resident, per metre of road, and per developed area). We employed multivariate regression to examine which neighborhood (CT) variables are most useful as estimators of walking densities. Contrary to much of the planning literature, built-environment measures of road connectivity and dwelling density were found to have little estimating power. Office and institutional land uses are more useful estimators, as are the income and age characteristics of the resident population.

  9. The analysis of the influence of the intellectual capital on the results of the commercial activity of financial institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolik, Oleg; Chirkova, Larisa; Chirkova, Polina

    2016-08-01

    Developing (underdeveloped) countries are territories of slow economic growth (catch-up growth). Perspectives of their economic growth largely depend on developing and introducing financial and technological innovations in the sphere of the financial markets. The level and quality of those innovations should enable provision of faster growth of the financial sector of the national economy by rising stability and effectiveness of the financial institutions. Powerful and stable financial sector is the basic element for attracting investments and upsurge of liquidity in the economic system of a developing country that aims to have developed economy. Intellectual capital is the most important of the fundamental factors of production in the financial sphere. It is a catalytic element of the process of the economic development. From this position, the researchers' collective develops and presents a mathematical model which characterizes the connection between the intellectual capital and financial results of the commercial activity of financial institutions. The model is applied in the analysis of the activity of financial institutions that are part of the EEU.

  10. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Streier, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    During FY-96, a performance test was carried out with funding from the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the noninvasive elemental assay capabilities of commercial companies for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals present in 8-gal drums containing surrogate waste. Commercial companies were required to be experienced in the use of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) techniques and to have a prototype assay system with which to conduct the test assays. Potential participants were identified through responses to a call for proposals advertised in the Commerce Business Daily and through personal contacts. Six companies were originally identified. Two of these six were willing and able to participate in the performance test, as described in the test plan, with some subsidizing from the DOE MWFA. The tests were conducted with surrogate sludge waste because (1) a large volume of this type of waste awaits final disposition and (2) sludge tends to be somewhat homogeneous. The surrogate concentrations of the above RCRA metals ranged from {approximately} 300 ppm to {approximately} 20,000 ppm. The lower limit was chosen as an estimate of the expected sensitivity of detection required by noninvasive, pretreatment elemental assay systems to be of value for operational and compliance purposes and to still be achievable with state-of-the-art methods of analysis. The upper limit of {approximately} 20,000 ppm was chosen because it is the opinion of the author that assay above this concentration level is within current state-of-the-art methods for most RCRA constituents. This report is organized into three parts: Part 1, Test Plan to Evaluate the Technical Status of Noninvasive Elemental Assay Techniques for Hazardous Waste; Part 2, Participants` Results; and Part 3, Evaluation of and Comments on Participants` Results.

  11. Analysis of the results of the international comparison of activity measurements of a solution of (55)Fe.

    PubMed

    Ratel, G

    2008-01-01

    The results of an international comparison of activity measurements of a solution of (55)Fe organized by the BIPM in 2005 are reported and analysed. This exercise, which follows the procedures of the CIPM mutual recognition arrangement to update older comparisons, is a renewal of the comparison organized by the BIPM that took place in 1978. A EUROMET comparison was organized in 1996 specifically to compare activity measurements of a (55)Fe solution by means of liquid-scintillation techniques. Results of these three comparisons are presented and discussed in this paper. The radionuclide solution was provided by the NPL, which also distributed the samples to the participants. The activity of the ampoules was measured by 16 laboratories using 12 methods producing 25 results. Some general considerations on uncertainty assessments pertaining to the different techniques used are drawn. The outcome of four different estimators is compared from which the presence of at least one outlier can be confirmed. Further measurements should be made to try to reduce the discrepancy between the results. To date the outcome of the present comparison does not show an improvement to that of the 1996 comparison. PMID:18343132

  12. Urinary TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 in an active surveillance cohort: results from a baseline analysis in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Daniel W.; Newcomb, Lisa F.; Brown, Elissa C.; Brooks, James D.; Carroll, Peter R.; Feng, Ziding; Gleave, Martin E.; Lance, Raymond S.; Sanda, Martin G.; Thompson, Ian M.; Wei, John T.; Nelson, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance is used to manage low risk prostate cancer. Both PCA3 and TMRPSS2-ERG are promising biomarkers that may be associated with aggressive disease. This study examines the correlation of these biomarkers with higher cancer volume and grade determined at the time of biopsy in an active surveillance cohort. Experimental Design Post-DRE urine was collected prospectively as part of the multi-institutional Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study (PASS). PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG levels were analyzed in urine collected at study entry. Biomarker scores were correlated to clinical and pathologic variables. Results In 387 men, both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were significantly associated with higher volume disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, and 1–10%, 11–33%, ≥34% positive cores, median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores increased incrementally (P < 0.005). Both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were also significantly associated with presence of high grade disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, Gleason 6 and Gleason ≥7 cancers, the median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores also increased incrementally (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). Using the marker scores as a continuous variables, the odds ratio for a biopsy in which cancer was detected versus a negative repeat biopsy (ref) on modeling was 1.41 (95% CI 1.07–1.85), P = 0.01 for PCA3 and 1.28 (95% CI 1.10–1.49), P = 0.001 for TMPRSS2-ERG. Conclusions For men on active surveillance both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG appear to stratify risk of having aggressive cancer as defined by tumor volume or Gleason score. PMID:23515404

  13. APREF Project: Results and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.; Dawson, J.; Hu, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Asia-Pacific Reference Frame (APREF) Project is a regional initiative that seeks to improve the geodetic infrastructure of the Asia-Pacific region. As a joint effort of the Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific (PCGIAP) and the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), APREF is developing a start-of-the-art regional geodetic reference frame. In the Asia-Pacific region there are a substantial number of state-of-the-art GNSS networks, which are commonly operated by national mapping agencies or private sector organisations. These networks represent an important and significant investment by the respective governments and industry in their own spatial infrastructure. In the APREF initiative these networks are combined to realize a high-standard regional reference frame. The GNSS data of the network is processed by different Analysis Centres (ACs). The contributions of the different ACs are combined into a weekly solution by the APREF Central Bureau. This weekly solution is the core product of the APREF; it contains weekly estimates of the coordinates of the participating Asia-Pacific GNSS tracking stations and their covariance information. The APREF product, which is available since the first quarter of 2010, gives a reliable time-series of a regional reference frame in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame and a quality assessment of the performance of the GNSS CORS stations included in the network. This contribution gives an overview of the current status of the APREF network and an analysis of the first APREF products

  14. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  15. Geothermal industry employment: Survey results & analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) is ofteh asked about the socioeconomic and employment impact of the industry. Since available literature dealing with employment involved in the geothermal sector appeared relatively outdated, unduly focused on certain activities of the industry (e.g. operation and maintenance of geothermal power plants) or poorly reliable, GEA, in consultation with the DOE, decided to conduct a new employment survey to provide better answers to these questions. The main objective of this survey is to assess and characterize the current workforce involved in geothermal activities in the US. Several initiatives have therefore been undertaken to reach as many organizations involved in geothermal activities as possible and assess their current workforce. The first section of this document describes the methodology used to contact the companies involved in the geothermal sector. The second section presents the survey results and analyzes them. This analysis includes two major parts. The first part analyzes the survey responses, presents employment numbers that were captured and describes the major characteristics of the industry that have been identified. The second part of the analysis estimates the number of workers involved in companies that are active in the geothermal business but did not respond to the survey or could not be reached. Preliminary conclusions and the study limits and restrictions are then presented. The third section addresses the potential employment impact related to manufacturing and construction of new geothermal power facilities. Indirect and induced economic impacts related with such investment are also investigated.

  16. Recent Results in Ring-Diagram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and matured quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2° to 30°) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI, GONG, and more recently HMI, many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity, and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progress is expected with data now provided by HMI's high spatial resolution observations and high duty cycle. There are two data processing pipelines (GONG and HMI) providing free access to the data and the results of the ring-diagram analysis. Here we will discuss the most recent results and improvements in the technique, as well as, the many challenges that still remain.

  17. Proof-of-principle results for identifying the composition of dust particles and volcanic ash samples through the technique of photon activation analysis at the IAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamtimin, Mayir; Cole, Philip L.; Segebade, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Instrumental analytical methods are preferable in studying sub-milligram quantities of airborne particulates collected in dust filters. The multi-step analytical procedure used in treating samples through chemical separation can be quite complicated. Further, due to the minute masses of the airborne particulates collected on filters, such chemical treatment can easily lead to significant levels of contamination. Radio-analytical techniques, and in particular, activation analysis methods offer a far cleaner alternative. Activation methods require minimal sample preparation and provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting the vast majority of the elements throughout the periodic table. In this paper, we will give a general overview of the technique of photon activation analysis. We will show that by activating dust particles with 10- to 30-MeV bremsstrahlung photons, we can ascertain their elemental composition. The samples are embedded in dust-collection filters and are irradiated "as is" by these photons. The radioactivity of the photonuclear reaction products is measured with appropriate spectrometers and the respective analytes are quantified using multi-component calibration materials. We shall provide specific examples of identifying the elemental components of airborne dust particles and volcanic ash by making use of bremsstrahlung photons from an electron linear accelerator at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho.

  18. SPECT Analysis of Cardiac Perfusion Changes After Whole-Breast/Chest Wall Radiation Therapy With or Without Active Breathing Coordinator: Results of a Randomized Phase 3 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Zellars, Richard; Bravo, Paco E.; Tryggestad, Erik; Hopfer, Kari; Myers, Lee; Tahari, Abdel; Asrari, Fariba; Ziessman, Harvey; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Cardiac muscle perfusion, as determined by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), decreases after breast and/or chest wall (BCW) irradiation. The active breathing coordinator (ABC) enables radiation delivery when the BCW is farther from the heart, thereby decreasing cardiac exposure. We hypothesized that ABC would prevent radiation-induced cardiac toxicity and conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating myocardial perfusion changes after radiation for left-sided breast cancer with or without ABC. Methods and Materials: Stages I to III left breast cancer patients requiring adjuvant radiation therapy (XRT) were randomized to ABC or No-ABC. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by SPECT scans (before and 6 months after BCW radiation) using 2 methods: (1) fully automated quantitative polar mapping; and (2) semiquantitative visual assessment. The left ventricle was divided into 20 segments for the polar map and 17 segments for the visual method. Segments were grouped by anatomical rings (apical, mid, basal) or by coronary artery distribution. For the visual method, 2 nuclear medicine physicians, blinded to treatment groups, scored each segment's perfusion. Scores were analyzed with nonparametric tests and linear regression. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 57 patients were enrolled and 43 were available for analysis. The cohorts were well matched. The apical and left anterior descending coronary artery segments had significant decreases in perfusion on SPECT scans in both ABC and No-ABC cohorts. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, controlling for pretreatment perfusion score, age, and chemotherapy, ABC was not significantly associated with prevention of perfusion deficits. Conclusions: In this randomized controlled trial, ABC does not appear to prevent radiation-induced cardiac perfusion deficits.

  19. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  20. [Results of 2 years of activity].

    PubMed

    Panigazzi, M

    2010-01-01

    Work-related injuries and occupational diseases are a scourge of modern, western societies, which, although technologically advanced, have difficulty in preventing, treating and rehabilitating victims with speed and efficiency. The current hospital neuromotor rehabilitation centres, whether public or accredited private structures, have notable difficulty in meeting the demand, which despite annual fluctuations and variable needs, does not, overall, seem to be decreasing. We present the results of an organization model developed at the "Fondazione Maugeri" Scientific Institute (Pavia, Italy), the criteria used for the activity, the technological innovations employed to determine ability, and the prospects for further development. This model is effective from a health care-rehabilitative point of view, also in the light of the new legislative scenarios, and is sustainable from an economic points of view; overall it is, therefore, efficient. PMID:21438253

  1. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Tim Z.

    1994-07-01

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  2. Characteristics, Procedures, and Results of Two Job Analysis Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Michael F.; McCracken, J. David

    1982-01-01

    This article describes and compares two job analysis procedures, task inventory analysis and Position Analysis Questionnaire. It provides comparisons in terms of the characteristics of, the activities involved in, and the results derived from a study utilizing each of the techniques. (Author/CT)

  3. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Green, J.; Segebade, C.

    2011-06-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  4. Lunar maria - result of mantle plume activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.

    It is generally accepted that lunar maria are the result of catastrophic impact events. However, comparative studying of the Earth's and the Moon's tectonomagmatic evolution could evidence about another way of these specific structures origin. Such studies showed that the both planetary bodies evolved on the close scenario: their geological development began after solidification of global magmatic oceans which led to appearance of their primordial crusts: granitic on the Earth and anorthositic - on the Moon. The further evolution of the both bodies occurred in two stages. For their first stages, lasted ˜2.5 mlrd. years on the Earth and ˜1.5 mlrd. years on the Moon, were typical melts, generated in depleted mantle (Bogatikov et al., 2000). However, at the boundary 2.2-2.0 Ga ago on the Earth and 3.9-3.8 Ga on the Moon another type of magmas appeared: geochemical enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts, characteristic for the terrestrial Phanerozoic plume-related situations, and basaltic mare magmatism with high-Ti varieties on the Moon. It suggests that evolution of the Earth's magmatism was linked with ascending of mantle plumes (superplumes) of two generation: (1) generated in the mantle, depleted during solidification of magmatic ocean and Archean magmatic activity, and (2) generated at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The latter were enriched in the mantle fluid components (Fe, Ti, alkalies, etc); this lighter material could ascend to shallower depths, leading to change of tectonic processes, in particular, to appearance of plate tectonics as the major type of tectonomagmatic activity till now (Bogatikov et al., 2000). By analogy to the Earth, magmatism of the Moon was also linked with ascending of mantle plumes: (1) generated in the depleted mantle (magnesian suite) and (2) generated at the lunar CMB with liquid at that time metallic core (mare basalt and picrites with high-Ti varieties). Like on the Earth, these plumes were lighter than the older plumes, and

  5. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  6. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.

  7. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable. PMID:22944486

  8. Exploratory visual analysis of pharmacogenomic results.

    PubMed

    Reif, David M; Dudek, Scott M; Shaffer, Christian M; Wang, Janey; Moore, Jason H

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of expansive pharmacogenomic datasets is a daunting challenge. A thorough exploration of experimental results requires both statistical and annotative information. Therefore, appropriate analysis tools must bring a readily-accessible, flexible combination of statistics and biological annotation to the user's desktop. We present the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA) software and database as such a tool and demonstrate its utility in replicating the findings of an earlier pharmacogenomic study as well as elucidating novel biologically plausible hypotheses. EVA brings all of the often disparate pieces of analysis together in an infinitely flexible visual display that is amenable to any type of statistical result and biological question. Here, we describe the motivations for developing EVA, detail the database and custom graphical user interface (GUI), provide an example of its application to a publicly available pharmacogenomic dataset, and discuss the broad utility of the EVA tool for the pharmacogenomics community. PMID:15759635

  9. Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

  10. CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED LUCIFASE GENE EXPRESSION (CALUX) CELL BIOASSAY ANALYSIS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DIOXIN-LIKE ACTIVITIY: CRITICAL PARAMETERS OF THE CALUX PROCEDURE THAT IMPACT ASSAY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemically Activated Luciferase gene expression (CALUX) in vitro cell bioassay is an emerging bioanalytical tool that is increasingly being used for the screening and relative quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Since CALUX analyses provide a biological respo...

  11. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  12. Birth Weight in Relation to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adolescence and Adulthood: Meta-Analysis of Results from 13 Nordic Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Bengtsson, Calle; Canoy, Dexter; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eriksson, Marit; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lissner, Lauren; Nilsen, Tom I.; Osler, Merete; Overvad, Kim; Rasmussen, Finn; Salonen, Minna K.; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk. Methods/Principal Findings We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific analyses. Birth weight showed a reverse U-shaped association with later LTPA; within the range of normal weight the association was negligible but weights below and above this range were associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA. Compared with the reference category (3.26–3.75 kg), the birth weight categories of 1.26–1.75, 1.76–2.25, 2.26–2.75, and 4.76–5.25 kg, had odds ratios of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.94), 0.72 (0.59, 0.88), 0.89 (0.79, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.50, 0.86), respectively. The shape and strength of the birth weight-LTPA association was virtually independent of sex, age, gestational age, educational level, concurrent body mass index, and smoking. Conclusions/Significance The association between birth weight and undertaking LTPA is very weak within the normal birth weight range, but both low and high birth weights are associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA, which hence may be a mediator between prenatal influences and later disease risk. PMID:20016780

  13. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? II. Construction and analysis of a consolidated database.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    A Workshop sponsored by EURL ECVAM was held in Ispra, Italy in 2013 to consider whether the in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results could complement and mitigate the implications of a positive Ames test response for the prediction of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and if patterns of results could be identified. Databases of Ames-positive chemicals that were tested for in vivo genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity were collected from different sources and analysed individually (Kirkland et al., in this issue). Because there were overlaps and inconsistent test results among chemicals in the different databases, a combined database which eliminated the overlaps and evaluated the inconsistencies was considered preferable for addressing the above question. A database of >700 Ames-positive chemicals also tested in vivo was compiled, and the results in in vitro mammalian cell tests were analysed. Because the database was limited to Ames-positive chemicals, the majority (>85%) of carcinogens (103/119) and in vivo genotoxins (83/88) were positive when tested in both in vitro gene mutation and aneugenicity/clastogenicity tests. However, about half (>45%) of chemicals that were not carcinogenic (19/28) or genotoxic in vivo (33/73) also gave the same patterns of positive mammalian cell results. Although the different frequencies were statistically significant, positive results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests did not, per se, add to the predictivity of the positive Ames test. By contrast, negative results for both in vitro mammalian cell endpoints were rare for Ames-positive carcinogens (3/119) and in vivo genotoxins (2/88) but, were significantly more frequent for Ames-positive chemicals that are not carcinogenic (4/28) or genotoxic in vivo (14/73). Thus, in the case of an Ames-positive chemical, negative results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests covering both mutation and clastogenicity/aneugenicity endpoints should be considered as indicative of

  14. FIFE: Analysis and results - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, F. G.; Sellers, P. J.; Markham, B.; Wang, J.; Strebel, D. E.; Macpherson, I.; Kelly, R. D.; Verma, S.; Blad, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the first results of the data analysis carried out for the First International Satellite Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) conducted over a 15 x 15 km grasslands study area in the central United States. Preliminary results show that the energy and mass flux data collected at several diurnal cycles during different parts of the growing season are of high quality. It was found that the canopy radiometric brightness temperature measured in the 10.4-12.3 microns is linearly related to seasonal variations in canopy aerodynamic temperature, and, thus, may provide a useful measure of sensible heat flux from the surface. Airborne monitoring of the mass and heat flux in the atmospheric boundary layer were found to be adequate for studies of the energy and mass budgets above the test site.

  15. CHAMP Tracking and Accelerometer Data Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.; Colombo, O. L.; Ray, Richard D.; Thompson, B.; Nerem, R. S.; Williams, Teresa A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) mission's unique combination of sensors and orbit configuration will enable unprecedented improvements in modeling and understanding the Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. CHAMP is the first of two missions (GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) to be launched in the later part of '01) that combine a new generation of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, a high precision three axis accelerometer, and star cameras for the precision attitude determination. In order to isolate the gravity signal for science investigations, it is necessary to perform a detailed reduction and analysis of the GPS and SLR tracking data in conjunction with the accelerometer and attitude data. Precision orbit determination based on the GPS and SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking data will isolate the orbit perturbations, while the accelerometer data will be used to distinguish the surface forces from those due to the geopotential (static, and time varying). In preparation for the CHAMP and GRACE missions, extensive modifications have been made to NASA/GSFC's GEODYN orbit determination software to enable the simultaneous reduction of spacecraft tracking (e.g. GPS and SLR), three axis accelerometer and precise attitude data. Several weeks of CHAMP tracking and accelerometer data have been analyzed and the results will be presented. Precision orbit determination analysis based on tracking data alone in addition to results based on the simultaneous reduction of tracking and accelerometer data will be discussed. Results from a calibration of the accelerometer will be presented along with the results from various orbit determination strategies. Gravity field modeling status and plans will be discussed.

  16. Latest Results Found with Ring-Diagram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldner, C. S.; Basu, S.; Bogart, R. S.; Burtseva, O.; González Hernández, I.; Haber, D.; Hill, F.; Howe, R.; Jain, K.; Komm, R. W.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Tripathy, S.

    2013-10-01

    Ring-diagram analysis is a helioseismic tool useful for studying the near-surface layers of the Sun. It has been employed to study near-surface shear, meridional circulation, flows around sunspots, and thermal structure beneath active regions. We review recent results obtained using ring-diagram analysis, state some of the more important outstanding difficulties in the technique, and point out several extensions to the technique that are just now beginning to bear fruit.

  17. Gap analysis: Concepts, methods, and recent results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid progress is being made in the conceptual, technical, and organizational requirements for generating synoptic multi-scale views of the earth's surface and its biological content. Using the spatially comprehensive data that are now available, researchers, land managers, and land-use planners can, for the first time, quantitatively place landscape units - from general categories such as 'Forests' or 'Cold-Deciduous Shrubland Formation' to more categories such as 'Picea glauca-Abies balsamea-Populus spp. Forest Alliance' - in their large-area contexts. The National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) has developed the technical and organizational capabilities necessary for the regular production and analysis of such information. This paper provides a brief overview of concepts and methods as well as some recent results from the GAP projects. Clearly, new frameworks for biogeographic information and organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The GAP experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

  18. Recent ADI iteration analysis and results

    SciTech Connect

    Wachspress, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    Some recent ADI iteration analysis and results are discussed. Discovery that the Lyapunov and Sylvester matrix equations are model ADI problems stimulated much research on ADI iteration with complex spectra. The ADI rational Chebyshev analysis parallels the classical linear Chebyshev theory. Two distinct approaches have been applied to these problems. First, parameters which were optimal for real spectra were shown to be nearly optimal for certain families of complex spectra. In the linear case these were spectra bounded by ellipses in the complex plane. In the ADI rational case these were spectra bounded by {open_quotes}elliptic-function regions{close_quotes}. The logarithms of the latter appear like ellipses, and the logarithms of the optimal ADI parameters for these regions are similar to the optimal parameters for linear Chebyshev approximation over superimposed ellipses. W.B. Jordan`s bilinear transformation of real variables to reduce the two-variable problem to one variable was generalized into the complex plane. This was needed for ADI iterative solution of the Sylvester equation.

  19. US--ITER activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Attaya, H.; Gohar, Y.; Smith, D.

    1990-09-01

    Activation analysis has been made for the US ITER design. The radioactivity and the decay heat have been calculated, during operation and after shutdown for the two ITER phases, the Physics Phase and the Technology Phase. The Physics Phase operates about 24 full power days (FPDs) at fusion power level of 1100 MW and the Technology Phase has 860 MW fusion power and operates for about 1360 FPDs. The point-wise gamma sources have been calculated everywhere in the reactor at several times after shutdown of the two phases and are then used to calculate the biological dose everywhere in the reactor. Activation calculations have been made also for ITER divertor. The results are presented for different continuous operation times and for only one pulse. The effect of the pulsed operation on the radioactivity is analyzed. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Prompt-gamma activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    A permenent, full-time instrument for prompt-gamma activation analysis is nearing completion as part of the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The design of the analytical system has been optimized for high gamma detection efficiency and low background, particularly for hydrogen. Because of the purity of the neutron beam, shielding requirements are modest and the scatter-capture background is low. As a result of a compact sample-detector geometry, the sensitivity (counting rate per gram of analyte) is a factor of four better than the existing Maryland-NIST thermal-neutron instrument at the reactor. Hydrogen backgrounds of a few micrograms have already been achieved, which promises to be of value in numerous applications where quantitative nondestructive analysis of small quantities of hydrogen in materials is necessary.

  1. Effects of Adjuvant Mental Practice on Affected Upper Limb Function Following a Stroke: Results of Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity and Motor Activity Logs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of adjuvant mental practice (MP) on affected upper limb function following a stroke using three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. Methods In this AB/BA crossover study, we studied 10 hemiplegic patients who had a stroke within the past 6 months. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group received MP combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy for the first 3 weeks followed by conventional rehabilitation therapy alone for the final 3 weeks; the other group received the same therapy but in reverse order. The MP tasks included drinking from a cup and opening a door. MP was individually administered for 20 minutes, 3 days a week for 3 weeks. To assess the tasks, we used 3D motion analysis and three additional tests: the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE) and the motor activity logs for amount of use (MAL-AOU) and quality of movement (MAL-QOM). Assessments were performed immediately before treatment (T0), 3 weeks into treatment (T1), and 6 weeks into treatment (T2). Results Based on the results of the 3D motion analysis and the FMA-UE index (p=0.106), the MAL-AOU scale (p=0.092), and MAL-QOM scale (p=0.273), adjuvant MP did not result in significant improvements. Conclusion Adjuvant MP had no significant effect on upper limb function following a stroke, according to 3D motion analysis and three clinical assessment tools (the FMA-UE index and the two MAL scales). The importance of this study is its use of objective 3D motion analysis to evaluate the effects of MP. Further studies will be needed to validate these findings. PMID:27446776

  2. Neutron activation analysis of a penny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Richard E.

    2000-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used for many years as an analysis tool and as an educational tool to teach students about nuclear properties. This article presents an exercise in the neutron activation analysis of a penny which, due to the simplicity of the resulting gamma-ray spectra, is appropriate for general physics classes. Students express a great deal of interest both in seeing the reactor in use as well as determining the composition of something that is familiar to them.

  3. USEPA EXAMPLE EXIT LEVEL ANALYSIS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by NERL/ERD for the Office of Solid Waste, the enclosed product provides an example uncertainty analysis (UA) and initial process-based sensitivity analysis (SA) of hazardous waste "exit" concentrations for 7 chemicals and metals using the 3MRA Version 1.0 Modeling Syst...

  4. Analysis of a heme-dependent signal transduction system in Corynebacterium diphtheriae: deletion of the chrAS genes results in heme sensitivity and diminished heme-dependent activation of the hmuO promoter.

    PubMed

    Bibb, Lori A; King, Natalie D; Kunkle, Carey A; Schmitt, Michael P

    2005-11-01

    The Corynebacterium diphtheriae hmuO gene encodes a heme oxygenase that is involved in the utilization of heme as an iron source. Transcription of hmuO is activated by heme or hemoglobin and repressed by iron and DtxR. Previous studies with Escherichia coli showed that heme-dependent transcriptional activation of an hmuO promoter-lacZ fusion was dependent on the cloned C. diphtheriae chrA and chrS genes (chrAS), which encode the response regulator and sensor kinase, respectively, of a two-component signal transduction system. In this study, nonpolar deletions in the chrAS genes were constructed on the chromosome of C. diphtheriae. Mutations in chrAS resulted in marked reduction in heme-dependent transcription of hmuO, which indicates that the ChrA/S system is a key regulator at the hmuO promoter. However, low but significant levels of heme-specific transcriptional activity were observed at the hmuO promoter in the chrAS mutants, suggesting that an additional heme-dependent activator is involved in hmuO expression. The chrAS mutants were also sensitive to heme, which was observed only in stationary-phase cultures and correlated with reduced cell viability. The heme sensitivity of the mutants was not due to reduced expression of hmuO, and these results suggest that additional factors controlled by the ChrA/S system may be involved in protection against heme toxicity. Transcriptional analysis of the chrAS operon revealed that it was not autoregulated or affected by iron or heme levels.

  5. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  6. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly Multithermal Loop Analysis: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Kimble, J. A.; Jenkins, B. S.; Worley, B. T.; Anderson, D. J.; Pathak, S.; Saar, S. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory has state-of-the-art spatial resolution and shows the most detailed images of coronal loops ever observed. The series of coronal filters peak at different temperatures, which span the range of active regions. These features represent a significant improvement over earlier coronal imagers and make AIA ideal for multithermal analysis. Here, we targeted a 171 Å coronal loop in AR 11092 observed by AIA on 2010 August 3. Isothermal analysis using the 171-to-193 ratio gave a temperature of log T ≈ 6.1, similar to the results of Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIT) and TRACE. Differential emission measure analysis, however, showed that the plasma was multithermal, not isothermal, with the bulk of the emission measure at log T > 6.1. The result from the isothermal analysis, which is the average of the true plasma distribution weighted by the instrument response functions, appears to be deceptively low. These results have potentially serious implications: EIT and TRACE results, which use the same isothermal method, show substantially smaller temperature gradients than predicted by standard models for loops in hydrodynamic equilibrium and have been used as strong evidence in support of footpoint heating models. These implications may have to be re-examined in the wake of new results from AIA.

  7. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization.

  8. RTPP Analysis Results: Achievements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrotis, Loukis; Alfaro Sanz, Pedro; Svehla, Drazen; Dow, John; Zandbergen, Rene

    2010-05-01

    One of the key objectives of the IGS Real Time Pilot Project is the establishment of an experimental IGS Real Time Clock Service comprising individual Analysis Centre (AC) solutions and the investigation of strategies for generating a Real Time combination product. The latter is intended to provide a stable, reliable and high quality GNSS product. Currently there are 4 ACs (BKG, DLR, ESA and NRCan) generating individual real time products, and a fifth (GMV) that is producing a product based on one-hour predictions. This paper will cover the evolution in the accuracies of the individual solutions and will show the impact that the participation in the RTPP has had on the ACs, serving not only as an external benchmark, but also as a discussion forum that has prompted their continued evolution and improvement. In its role as RTPP AC coordinator, ESOC has been computing and disseminating a daily combination clock product since July 2008, based on daily submissions of clock RINEX and SP3 orbit files by the individual ACs. This exercise has helped to develop and validate the combination techniques and the RTPP products are stored at the CDDIS, IGN and KASI data centres with the designation "igt". The current satellite clock quality, of better than 0.2 ns RMS compared to the IGS rapids, comfortably exceeds the initial RTPP goal of 0.5 ns and gives a high confidence on the implemented method. ESOC is currently working on the implementation of a Real Time combination product, from RTCM orbit and clock streams received in real time via BKG's NTRIP system. This service is expected to be ready in the March-April timeframe and be operational by mid 2010. As well as discussing the status and evolution of the Real Time products, this paper will also focus on specific problems and challenges in the Real Time processing. For example, it has been found that GPS Block IIA satellites exhibit occasional glitches, where most receivers loose lock simultaneously. These events cause clock

  9. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Cheryl A; Smith, Bryan K; DuBose, Katrina D; Greene, J Leon; Bailey, Bruce W; Williams, Shannon L; Ryan, Joseph J; Schmelzle, Kristin H; Washburn, Richard A; Sullivan, Debra K; Mayo, Matthew S; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI). It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control). Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control), which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Enjoyment ratings for classroom-based lessons were also higher for intervention students. Competing factors, which might influence program results, were not carried out at intervention or control schools or were judged to be minimal. Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity. PMID:18606013

  10. Methods for the assessment of long-lived radionuclides in humans resulting from nuclear activities or accidents: Fission track analysis of trace amounts plutonium-239 and a copper hexacyanoferrate kit for monitoring radiocaesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Lena Camilla

    Fission track analysis (FTA) was developed to be applied to ultra-low levels of 239Pu in bioassay samples. An analytical protocol was established for the FTA processing. The detection limit was determined to 1.5 μBq and the calibration constant was 24 fission fragments per μBq 239Pu. Naturally occurring nuclides of thorium and uranium, present in biological and environmental samples, did not interfere in the determination of 239Pu. Self-absorption of fission fragments was shown to be insignificant. The study included the determination of 239Pu in urine samples from twenty Chernobyl clean-up workers. All urine samples contained activities below the detection limit for radioanalytical analysis using alpha spectrometry (0.5 mBq). Seven of the samples were further investigated using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer with a sensitivity of 106 atoms 239Pu. The content of 239Pu in the samples showed to be below 1μBq (106 atoms), with only one exception. It was not possible to draw any major conclusions from the 239Pu results, regarding the clean-up workers' exposure from radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident. A kit was designed for selective adsorption of radiocaesium in urine samples to be used in situ by contaminated subjects. The kit consisted of copper hexacyanoferrate impregnated cotton filters held by filter holders for sample flow-through. After use, the adsorbed fraction of caesium was >=90% in urine samples. The kit facilitates the screening of a population exposed to radiocaesium. Parameters influencing the adsorption efficiency, such as potassium, sodium and calcium concentration of the sample and the sample pH, were investigated and shown to be insignificant for urine samples.

  11. Test 6, Test 7, and Gas Standard Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Horacio, III

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;

  12. Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLellan, Ryan

    2011-04-01

    The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

  13. Neutron Activation Analysis: Techniques and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, Ryan

    2011-04-27

    The role of neutron activation analysis in low-energy low-background experimentsis discussed in terms of comparible methods. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis is introduce. The procedure of instrumental neutron activation analysis is detailed especially with respect to the measurement of trace amounts of natural radioactivity. The determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters required for neutron activation analysis is also presented.

  14. Results from Action Analysis in an Interactive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuer, Oliver; Muhlenbrock, Martin; Melis, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the automatic analysis of learner activity in web-based learning environments. The approach and system SIAM (System for Interaction Analysis by Machine learning) presented in this article aims at helping to establish a basis for the automatic analysis of interaction data by developing a data logging and…

  15. Scalable analysis tools for sensitivity analysis and UQ (3160) results.

    SciTech Connect

    Karelitz, David B.; Ice, Lisa G.; Thompson, David C.; Bennett, Janine C.; Fabian, Nathan; Scott, W. Alan; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2009-09-01

    The 9/30/2009 ASC Level 2 Scalable Analysis Tools for Sensitivity Analysis and UQ (Milestone 3160) contains feature recognition capability required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks focused around sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ). These feature recognition capabilities include crater detection, characterization, and analysis from CTH simulation data; the ability to call fragment and crater identification code from within a CTH simulation; and the ability to output fragments in a geometric format that includes data values over the fragments. The feature recognition capabilities were tested extensively on sample and actual simulations. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including the ability to visualize CTH tracer particles and the ability to visualize output from within an S3D simulation.

  16. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  17. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  18. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  19. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  20. 46 CFR 164.007-7 - Analysis of results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Analysis of results. 164.007-7 Section 164.007-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-7 Analysis of results. (a) When only one sample is tested, the results of the test shall be binding and no analysis by the Coast Guard will...

  1. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  2. Current Results and Proposed Activities in Microgravity Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polezhaev, V. I.

    1996-01-01

    The Institute for Problems in Mechanics' Laboratory work in mathematical and physical modelling of fluid mechanics develops models, methods, and software for analysis of fluid flow, instability analysis, direct numerical modelling and semi-empirical models of turbulence, as well as experimental research and verification of these models and their applications in technological fluid dynamics, microgravity fluid mechanics, geophysics, and a number of engineering problems. This paper presents an overview of the results in microgravity fluid dynamics research during the last two years. Nonlinear problems of weakly compressible and compressible fluid flows are discussed.

  3. Analysis of active renin heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Katz, S A; Malvin, R L; Lee, J; Kim, S H; Murray, R D; Opsahl, J A; Abraham, P A

    1991-09-01

    Active renin is a heterogeneous enzyme that can be separated into multiple forms with high-resolution isoelectric focusing. The isoelectric heterogeneity may result from differences in glycosylation between the different forms. In order to determine the relationship between active renin heterogeneity and differences in composition or attachment of oligosaccharides, two separate experiments were performed: (i) Tunicamycin, which interferes with normal glycosylation processing, increased the proportion of relatively basic renin forms secreted into the incubation media by rat renal cortical slices. (ii) Endoglycosidase F, which enzymatically removes carbohydrate from some classes of glycoprotein, similarly increased the proportion of relatively basic forms when incubated with active human recombinant renin. In addition, further studies with inhibitors of human renin activity revealed that the heterogeneous renin forms were similarly inhibited by two separate renin inhibitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that renin isoelectric heterogeneity is due in part to differences in carbohydrate moiety attachment and that the heterogeneity of renin does not influence access of direct renin inhibitors to the active site of renin.

  4. Analysis of active renin heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Katz, S A; Malvin, R L; Lee, J; Kim, S H; Murray, R D; Opsahl, J A; Abraham, P A

    1991-09-01

    Active renin is a heterogeneous enzyme that can be separated into multiple forms with high-resolution isoelectric focusing. The isoelectric heterogeneity may result from differences in glycosylation between the different forms. In order to determine the relationship between active renin heterogeneity and differences in composition or attachment of oligosaccharides, two separate experiments were performed: (i) Tunicamycin, which interferes with normal glycosylation processing, increased the proportion of relatively basic renin forms secreted into the incubation media by rat renal cortical slices. (ii) Endoglycosidase F, which enzymatically removes carbohydrate from some classes of glycoprotein, similarly increased the proportion of relatively basic forms when incubated with active human recombinant renin. In addition, further studies with inhibitors of human renin activity revealed that the heterogeneous renin forms were similarly inhibited by two separate renin inhibitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that renin isoelectric heterogeneity is due in part to differences in carbohydrate moiety attachment and that the heterogeneity of renin does not influence access of direct renin inhibitors to the active site of renin. PMID:1908097

  5. First Results of the TIGRE Chromospheric Activity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Hempelmann, A.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of the stellar activity survey with TIGRE (Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato, Robótico-Espectroscópico). This long term program was started in August 2013 with the monitoring of a larger number of stars. We aim at measuring the short- and long-term variability of stellar activity for stars of different spectral types and luminosity classes, using indicators of different spectral lines (mainly Ca II S-Index, Ca II IR triplet, H_α and sodium D). A transformation equation of the TIGRE S-Index into the Mount Wilson S-index was derived in order to compare our results to the vast body of existing S-index measurements. Furthermore, the correlation between the S-index and the lines of the Ca II IR triplet has been studied, based on strictly simultaneous observations.

  6. Human Ebola virus infection results in substantial immune activation.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Anita K; Akondy, Rama S; Davis, Carl W; Ellebedy, Ali H; Mehta, Aneesh K; Kraft, Colleen S; Lyon, G Marshall; Ribner, Bruce S; Varkey, Jay; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Campbell, Shelley; Ströher, Ute; Damon, Inger; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-04-14

    Four Ebola patients received care at Emory University Hospital, presenting a unique opportunity to examine the cellular immune responses during acute Ebola virus infection. We found striking activation of both B and T cells in all four patients. Plasmablast frequencies were 10-50% of B cells, compared with less than 1% in healthy individuals. Many of these proliferating plasmablasts were IgG-positive, and this finding coincided with the presence of Ebola virus-specific IgG in the serum. Activated CD4 T cells ranged from 5 to 30%, compared with 1-2% in healthy controls. The most pronounced responses were seen in CD8 T cells, with over 50% of the CD8 T cells expressing markers of activation and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that all four patients developed robust immune responses during the acute phase of Ebola virus infection, a finding that would not have been predicted based on our current assumptions about the highly immunosuppressive nature of Ebola virus. Also, quite surprisingly, we found sustained immune activation after the virus was cleared from the plasma, observed most strikingly in the persistence of activated CD8 T cells, even 1 mo after the patients' discharge from the hospital. These results suggest continued antigen stimulation after resolution of the disease. From these convalescent time points, we identified CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to several Ebola virus proteins, most notably the viral nucleoprotein. Knowledge of the viral proteins targeted by T cells during natural infection should be useful in designing vaccines against Ebola virus. PMID:25775592

  7. Human Ebola virus infection results in substantial immune activation.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Anita K; Akondy, Rama S; Davis, Carl W; Ellebedy, Ali H; Mehta, Aneesh K; Kraft, Colleen S; Lyon, G Marshall; Ribner, Bruce S; Varkey, Jay; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Campbell, Shelley; Ströher, Ute; Damon, Inger; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-04-14

    Four Ebola patients received care at Emory University Hospital, presenting a unique opportunity to examine the cellular immune responses during acute Ebola virus infection. We found striking activation of both B and T cells in all four patients. Plasmablast frequencies were 10-50% of B cells, compared with less than 1% in healthy individuals. Many of these proliferating plasmablasts were IgG-positive, and this finding coincided with the presence of Ebola virus-specific IgG in the serum. Activated CD4 T cells ranged from 5 to 30%, compared with 1-2% in healthy controls. The most pronounced responses were seen in CD8 T cells, with over 50% of the CD8 T cells expressing markers of activation and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that all four patients developed robust immune responses during the acute phase of Ebola virus infection, a finding that would not have been predicted based on our current assumptions about the highly immunosuppressive nature of Ebola virus. Also, quite surprisingly, we found sustained immune activation after the virus was cleared from the plasma, observed most strikingly in the persistence of activated CD8 T cells, even 1 mo after the patients' discharge from the hospital. These results suggest continued antigen stimulation after resolution of the disease. From these convalescent time points, we identified CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to several Ebola virus proteins, most notably the viral nucleoprotein. Knowledge of the viral proteins targeted by T cells during natural infection should be useful in designing vaccines against Ebola virus.

  8. Summary of FY15 results of benchmark modeling activities

    SciTech Connect

    Arguello, J. Guadalupe

    2015-08-01

    Sandia is participating in the third phase of an is a contributing partner to a U.S.-German "Joint Project" entitled "Comparison of current constitutive models and simulation procedures on the basis of model calculations of the thermo-mechanical behavior and healing of rock salt." The first goal of the project is to check the ability of numerical modeling tools to correctly describe the relevant deformation phenomena in rock salt under various influences. Achieving this goal will lead to increased confidence in the results of numerical simulations related to the secure storage of radioactive wastes in rock salt, thereby enhancing the acceptance of the results. These results may ultimately be used to make various assertions regarding both the stability analysis of an underground repository in salt, during the operating phase, and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier against the release of harmful substances into the biosphere, in the post-operating phase.

  9. Active X-ray mirror development at UCL: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Yao, Jun; Brooks, David; Thompson, Samantha; Willingale, Richard; Feldman, Charlotte; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-12-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics project is a UK based consortium consisting of several institutions to investigate the application of active/adaptive optics upon both small and large scale grazing incidence x-ray optics. The work done at University College London (UCL) focuses on the application of piezoelectric materials to large scale optics in order to actively deform the mirror's surface. These optics are geared towards the next generation of x-ray telescopes and it is hoped that the project will be able to achieve a resolution greater than that currently available by Chandra (0.5"). One of the aims of the consortium is to produce a working prototype. The initial design is based on a thin nickel ellipsoid segment with an x-ray reflective coating, on the back of which will be bonded a series of piezoelectric actuators. Investigation into the specification of the design of an active x-ray optic prototype and suitable support test structure has been undertaken. The dimensions and constraints upon the prototype, and the manufacturing process to produce a nickel shell are discussed. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the physical characteristics of piezoelectric materials has shown the ability to deform the nickel surface to correct for errors of several microns. FEA has also been utilised in the specification of the prototype's support structure to ensure that gravitational sag upon the optic is kept to a minimum. Laboratory experiments have tested a series of materials, different actuators and bonding methods, which could then be applied to the prototype.

  10. Summary of the Results of STIS SMOV4 Calibration Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bohlin, Ralph; Cox, Colin, Goudfrooij, Paul; Gull, Thodore, R.; Kaiser, Mary Beth; Lallo, Matt; Lennon, Daniel J.; Lindler, Don J.; Makidon, Russ; Niemi, Sami-Matias; Serrano, Beverly; Wheeler, Thomas; Wolfe, Michael E.; Serrano, Beverly; Woodgate, Bruce; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    After HST Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), there was a period of Science Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV4), to check out the new and repaired instruments. Here we summarize the execution and results of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) SMOV 4 activities undertaken to ensure that the repaired STIS instrument was ready to carry out its scheduled science program after a nearly five year hiatus in operation. The results of the initial aliveness and functional tests are reviewed, anomalies that aff ected the execution of the STIS SMOV plan are discussed, and the results of each STIS SMOV activity executed are summarized. In most respects the performance of STIS after the SM4 repair is very similar to that seen prior to the 2004 failure. Notable chang es include a significant and unexpected enhancement of the NUV MAMA dark rate that has been declining only very slowly, and continued degradation of the CCD performance due to radiation damage. Post - repair throughputs of most modes are close to expectation s based on extrapolation of previous trends.

  11. Digital Architecture – Results From a Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Thomas, Kenneth David; Fitzgerald, Kirk

    2015-09-01

    The digital architecture is defined as a collection of IT capabilities needed to support and integrate a wide-spectrum of real-time digital capabilities for nuclear power plant performance improvements. The digital architecture can be thought of as an integration of the separate I&C and information systems already in place in NPPs, brought together for the purpose of creating new levels of automation in NPP work activities. In some cases, it might be an extension of the current communication systems, to provide digital communications where they are currently analog only. This collection of IT capabilities must in turn be based on a set of user requirements that must be supported for the interconnected technologies to operate in an integrated manner. These requirements, simply put, are a statement of what sorts of digital work functions will be exercised in a fully-implemented seamless digital environment and how much they will be used. The goal of the digital architecture research is to develop a methodology for mapping nuclear power plant operational and support activities into the digital architecture, which includes the development of a consensus model for advanced information and control architecture. The consensus model should be developed at a level of detail that is useful to the industry. In other words, not so detailed that it specifies specific protocols and not so vague that it is only provides a high level description of technology. The next step towards the model development is to determine the current state of digital architecture at typical NPPs. To investigate the current state, the researchers conducted a gap analysis to determine to what extent the NPPs can support the future digital technology environment with their existing I&C and IT structure, and where gaps exist with respect to the full deployment of technology over time. The methodology, result, and conclusions from the gap analysis are described in this report.

  12. Disruption of the internal thioester bond in the third component of complement (C3) results in the exposure of neodeterminants also present on activation products of C3. An analysis with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Paardekooper, J; Smeenk, R J; Abbink, J; Eerenberg, A J; Nuijens, J H

    1988-09-01

    Hydrolysis of the internal thioester bond in native C3 is thought to be a key event in initiating the alternative pathway of C activation, because the resulting C3(H2O) acquires "C3b-like" properties. Therefore, disruption of the internal thioester bond is probably accompanied by conformational changes in the C3 molecule. In this study, we demonstrate that such conformational changes indeed occur; 7 of the 19 mAb raised against C3 or C3 activation products recognized epitopes exposed on C3(H2O) but not on native C3. One of these epitopes is located on the C3a part, three on the C3c part, and another three on the C3d,g part. Because the 7 mAb bound equally well to C3 incubated either with MgCl2 or with methylamine (which primarily disrupts the thioester), the conformational changes detected by the mAb apparently occur after disruption of the thioester. Furthermore, the epitopes were also present on the corresponding C3 activation products. Immunoblotting experiments revealed that the epitopes for the three anti-C3d,g mAb were located on the C3d part, C-terminal to the thioester. The epitopes for 2 of the 3 anti-C3c mAb were located on the C-terminal alpha-chain fragment of C3c. Thus, this study provides immunochemical evidence for the biologic resemblance between C3(H2O) and C3 activation products. Implications of these findings for the activation process of C3 are discussed.

  13. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  14. Test results of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degregoria, A. J.; Feuling, L. J.; Laatsch, J. F.; Rowe, J. R.; Trueblood, J. R.; Wang, A. A.

    The principle of the Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) is tested with an experimental refrigerator designed to operate within the temperature range of about 4 to 80 K. Applications, including helium and hydrogen liquefaction and hydrogen slush generation, are envisioned. The device uses a single moveable superconducting solenoidal magnet in persistent mode to alternately charge and discharge two in-line beds of magnetic material. Between magnet motions, a double-acting piston displacer moves heat transfer fluid in the form of helium gas through the beds, absorbing heat at the cold heat exchanger and rejecting heat at the hot heat exchanger. A description of the refrigerator and performance results are presented. Comparisons to a detailed AMR model are shown.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.; Silverman, A.; Ouellet, C.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z

    1992-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  16. ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR BUILDING 241 702-AZ A TRAIN

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; FRYE JM; COOKE CA; LI SW; BROCKMAN FJ

    2006-12-13

    This report presents the analyses results for three samples obtained under RPP-PLAN-28509, Sampling and Analysis Plan for Building 241 702-AZ A Train. The sampling and analysis was done in response to problem evaluation request number PER-2004-6139, 702-AZ Filter Rooms Need Radiological Cleanup Efforts.

  17. Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  18. DOE 2009 Geothermal Risk Analysis: Methodology and Results (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K. R.; Augustine, C.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01

    This presentation summarizes the methodology and results for a probabilistic risk analysis of research, development, and demonstration work-primarily for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program.

  19. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  20. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-21

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  1. Solar activity variations of ionosonde measurements and modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, D.; Arrazola, D.; Blanch, E.; Buresova, D.

    2008-08-01

    The time series of hourly electron density profiles N(h) obtained at several mid-latitude stations in Europe have been used to obtain N(h) profiles on a monthly basis and to extract both the expected bottomside parameters and a proxy of the ionospheric variability as functions of time and height. With these data we present advances on a “Local Model” technique for the parameters B0 and B1, its applicability to other ionospheric stations, to other bottomside ionospheric parameters, and to modeling the time/height variability of the profile. The Local Model (LM) is an empirical model based on the experimental results of the solar activity dependence of the daily and seasonal behavior of the above parameters. The LM improves the IRI-2001 prediction of the B0 and B1 by factor of two at mid-latitudes. Moreover, the LM can be used to simulate other ionospheric parameters and to build mean N(h) profiles and the deviations from them. The modeling of both the average N(h) profiles and their deviations is an useful tool for ionospheric model users who want to know both the expected patterns and their deviations.

  2. New approaches to enhance active steering system functionalities: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serarslan, Benan

    2014-09-01

    An important development of the steering systems in general is active steering systems like active front steering and steer-by-wire systems. In this paper the current functional possibilities in application of active steering systems are explored. A new approach and additional functionalities are presented that can be implemented to the active steering systems without additional hardware such as new sensors and electronic control units. Commercial active steering systems are controlling the steering angle depending on the driving situation only. This paper introduce methods for enhancing active steering system functionalities depending not only on the driving situation but also vehicle parameters like vehicle mass, tyre and road condition. In this regard, adaptation of the steering ratio as a function of above mentioned vehicle parameters is presented with examples. With some selected vehicle parameter changes, the reduction of the undesired influences on vehicle dynamics of these parameter changes has been demonstrated theoretically with simulations and with real-time driving measurements.

  3. Aerosol analysis techniques and results from micro pulse lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Dennis L.; Spinhirne, James D.; Campbell, James R.; Reagan, John A.; Powell, Donna

    1998-01-01

    The effect of clouds and aerosol on the atmospheric energy balance is a key global change problem. Full knowledge of aerosol distributions is difficult to obtain by passive sensing alone. Aerosol and cloud retrievals in several important areas can be significantly improved with active remote sensing by lidar. Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) is an aerosol and cloud profilometer that provides a detailed picture of the vertical structure of boundary layer and elevated dust or smoke plume aerosols. MPL is a compact, fully eyesafe, ground-based, zenith pointing instrument capable of full-time, long-term unattended operation at 523 nm. In October of 1993, MPL began taking full-time measurements for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and has since expanded to ARM sites in the Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and the North Slope of Alaska (NSA). Other MPL's are moving out to some of the 60 world-wide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites which are already equipped with automatic sun-sky scanning spectral radiometers providing total column optical depth measurements. Twelve additional MPL's have been purchased by NASA to add to the aerosol and cloud database of the EOS ground validation network. The original MPL vertical resolution was 300 meters but the newer versions have a vertical resolution of 30 meters. These expanding data sets offer a significant new resource for atmospheric radiation analysis. Under the direction of Jim Spinhirne, the MPL analysis team at NASA/GSFC has developed instrument correction and backscatter analysis techniques for ARM to detect cloud boundaries and analyze vertical aerosol structures. A summary of MPL applications is found in Hlavka (1997). With the aid of independent total column optical depth instruments such as the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at the ARM sites or sun photometers at the AERONET sites, the MPL data can be calibrated, and time-resolved vertical profiles of

  4. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... result of research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs... research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs. This section provides disposal requirements for wastes generated during and as a result of research...

  5. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    A space suit s mobility is critical to an astronaut s ability to perform work efficiently. As mobility increases, the astronaut can perform tasks for longer durations with less fatigue. The term mobility, with respect to space suits, is defined in terms of two key components: joint range of motion and joint torque. Individually these measures describe the path which in which a joint travels and the force required to move it through that path. Previous space suits mobility requirements were defined as the collective result of these two measures and verified by the completion of discrete functional tasks. While a valid way to impose mobility requirements, such a method does necessitate a solid understanding of the operational scenarios in which the final suit will be performing. Because the Constellation space suit system requirements are being finalized with a relatively immature concept of operations, the Space Suit Element team elected to define mobility in terms of its constituent parts to increase the likelihood that the future pressure garment will be mobile enough to enable a broad scope of undefined exploration activities. The range of motion requirements were defined by measuring the ranges of motion test subjects achieved while performing a series of joint maximizing tasks in a variety of flight and prototype space suits. The definition of joint torque requirements has proved more elusive. NASA evaluated several different approaches to the problem before deciding to generate requirements based on unmanned joint torque evaluations of six different space suit configurations being articulated through 16 separate joint movements. This paper discusses the experiment design, data analysis and results, and the process used to determine the final values for the Constellation pressure garment joint torque requirements.

  6. The latest results/analysis from Double Chooz Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Precise measurement of the neutrino mixing angle theta13 is the primary goal of the Double Chooz Experiment. Inverse beta decay process provides a unique signature of anti-neutrino interaction from the reactors, giving prompt signals from positron annihilation and delayed signals from neutron capture by either Gadolinium (Gd) or Hydrogen (H). In this talk, the latest Gd- and H-based analysis results from Double Chooz will be presented, including the detection efficiency evaluation, background estimates, energy calibration and oscillation results. The latest analysis/results from Double Chooz experiment.

  7. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results.

    PubMed

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H; Drake, Jeremy J

    2015-05-28

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars. PMID:25897087

  8. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H.; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars. PMID:25897087

  9. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results.

    PubMed

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H; Drake, Jeremy J

    2015-05-28

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars.

  10. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  11. Effect of Preprocessing for Result of Independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, scientists, doctors in the field of biomedical engineering and researchers of the correlated fields have been concentrating on study of activities of bioelectricity of different cortex fields of human brain on the condition of different evocable and cognitive stimulations, and try to test human psychology and physiology, and control exterior environment. Independent component analysis is a tool that can help people to distinguish and understand various EEG signals. To the signal that we know very little, we can get very good explanation by using independent component analysis. In this paper a new algorithm is introduced that is adapted to the preprocessing of data that is dealt with by independent component analysis. This algorithm can not only accelerates the decomposing speed of independent component, but also can get the higher amplitude of extraction of steady-state visual evoked potentials.

  12. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Linda; Block, Gladys; Mandel, Shelly

    2004-01-01

    Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity. PMID:15169563

  13. PhyloBLAST: facilitating phylogenetic analysis of BLAST results.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, F S; Wan, I; Hancock, R E; Rose, A M; Jones, S J

    2001-04-01

    PhyloBLAST is an internet-accessed application based on CGI/Perl programming that compares a users protein sequence to a SwissProt/TREMBL database using BLAST2 and then allows phylogenetic analyses to be performed on selected sequences from the BLAST output. Flexible features such as ability to input your own multiple sequence alignment and use PHYLIP program options provide additional web-based phylogenetic analysis functionality beyond the analysis of a BLAST result.

  14. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  15. Acid rain: Some preliminary results from global data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequeira, R.

    1981-02-01

    Preliminary results of an analysis of global precipitation data from WMO (World Meteorological Organization) stations suggest that even remote maritime baseline stations, far removed from major continents, could become predisposed to acid rain if there is a deficiency of non-marine calcium relative to non-marine sulfate. The regional stations show greater complexity than the baseline stations in their precipitation chemistry. The overall results of this analysis suggest that not all non-marine sulfate and nitrate in precipitation could be present as acid.

  16. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  17. Soil Moisture Active Passive Satellite Status and Recent Validation Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched in January, 2015 and began its calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. Cal/Val will begin with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and evolve to the geophysical products that include...

  18. Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Chillón, Palma; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Gottrand, Frédéric; González-Gross, Marcela; Ward, Dianne S; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-05-01

    We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.

  19. Plutonium Mobility Studies: 216-Z-9 Trench Sample Analysis Results

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2008-09-05

    A variety of analyses were conducted on selected sediment samples collected from two wells (299 W15-46 and 299-W15-48) drilled near the 216-Z-9 Trench to elucidate the form and potential for Pu and Am to be mobilized under present conditions and those that could be expected in future remediation scenarios. Analyses included moisture content, determination of the less than sand size fraction (silt plus clay), carbon analysis, SEM/EDS analysis, microwave-assisted acid digestions for total element analysis, and extraction tests using Hanford groundwater as the leachate. Results of the extraction tests were used as input to conduct equilibrium geochemical modeling of the solutions with Geochemist’s Workbench®. Geochemical modeling results for Pu were evaluated in terms of recent conclusions regarding the solubility and redox reactions of Pu by Neck et al. (2007a, 2007b). It was found that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am were associated with sediments of low silt/clay content and occur above silt/clay rich layers within the sediment profile. It was also found that the Pu and Am were relatively enriched in the silt/clay portion of these samples. The fact that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am occurred in sediments with low silt/clay contents suggests that waste solutions had perched on top of the low permeability silt/clay rich layers and interactions with the high silt/clay layers was minimal. SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the Pu and Am in these sediments does not occur as discrete micron size particles, and therefore must occur as mononuclear or polynuclear/ nanoclusters size particles adsorbed throughout the sediment samples. Leaching of these samples with Hanford groundwater indicates that release of Pu and Am from the sediments is correlated most significantly with the acidity of the water and not the initial concentrations of Pu and Am in the sediments. Only extracts that were acidic after contact with the sediments (pH 4.3 to 5.4) contained

  20. Annoyance resulting from intrusion of aircraft sounds upon various activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.; Shepherd, W. T.; Fletcher, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in which subjects were engaged in TV viewing, telephone listening, or reverie (no activity) for a 1/2-hour session. During the session, they were exposed to a series of recorded aircraft sounds at the rate of one flight every 2 minutes. Within each session, four levels of flyover noise, separated by dB increments, were presented several times in a Latin Square balanced sequence. The peak level of the noisiest flyover in any session was fixed at 95, 90, 85, 75, or 70 dBA. At the end of the test session, subjects recorded their responses to the aircraft sounds, using a bipolar scale which covered the range from very pleasant to extremely annoying. Responses to aircraft noises were found to be significantly affected by the particular activity in which the subjects were engaged. Not all subjects found the aircraft sounds to be annoying.

  1. Do Media Use and Physical Activity Compete in Adolescents? Results of the MoMo Study

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The displacement hypothesis predicts that physical activity and media use compete in adolescents; however, findings are inconsistent. A more differentiated approach at determining the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use behaviors within subjects may be warranted. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use by identifying clusters of adolescents with specific behavior patterns including physical activity in various settings (school, sports club, leisure time) and different types of media use (watching TV, playing console games, using PC / Internet). Methods Cross-sectional data of 2,083 adolescents (11–17 years) from all over Germany were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the Motorik-Modul Study. Physical activity and media use were self-reported. Cluster analyses (Ward’s method and K-means analysis) were used to identify behavior patterns of boys and girls separately. Results Eight clusters were identified for boys and seven for girls. The clusters demonstrated that a high proportion of boys (33%) as well as girls (42%) show low engagement in both physical activity and media use, irrespective of setting or type of media. Other adolescents are engaged in both behaviors, but either physical activity (35% of boys, 27% of girls) or media use (31% of boys and girls) predominates. These adolescents belong to different clusters, whereat in most clusters either one specific setting of physical activity or a specific combination of different types of media predominates. Conclusion The results of this study support to some extent the hypothesis that media use and physical activity compete: Very high media use occurred with low physical activity behavior, but very high activity levels co-occurred with considerable amounts of time using any media. There was no evidence that type of used media was related to physical activity levels, neither setting of physical activity was related to amount of media use

  2. SIMS prototype system 3 test results: Engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The results obtained during testing of a closed hydronic drain down solar system designed for space and hot water heating is presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 3 for field installation.

  3. LACBWR primary shield activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L.L.; Lahti, G.P.; Johnson, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    Nuclear power plants in the US are required to estimate the costs of decommissioning to ensure that adequate funds are accumulated during the useful life of the plant. A major component of the decommissioning cost is the disposal of radioactive material, including material near the reactor created by neutron activation. An accurate assessment of the residual radioactivity in the reactor`s primary shield is necessary to determine this portion of the decommissioning demolition and disposal cost. This paper describes the efforts used to determine the activation levels remaining in the primary shield of the LaCrosse boiling water reactor (LACBWR), owned and operated by Dairyland Power Cooperative.

  4. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  5. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... result of research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs... research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs. This... development authorized under § 761.30(j). This section also provides disposal requirements for...

  6. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... result of research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs... research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs. This... development authorized under § 761.30(j). This section also provides disposal requirements for...

  7. Towards active capsular endoscopy: preliminary results on a legged platform.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).

  8. Experimental results using active control of traveling wave power flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Active structural control experiments conducted on a 24-ft pinned-free beam derived feedback compensators on the basis of a traveling-wave approach. A compensator is thus obtained which eliminates resonant behavior by absorbing all impinging power. A causal solution is derived for this noncausal compensator which mimics its behavior in a given frequency range, using the Wiener-Hopf. This optimal Wiener-Hopf compensator's structure-damping performance is found to exceed any obtainable by means of rate feedback. Performance limitations encompassed the discovery of frequencies above which the sensor and actuator were no longer dual and an inadvertent coupling of the control hardware to unmodeled structure torsion modes.

  9. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  10. Representation of analysis results involving aleatory and epistemic uncertainty.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Helton, Jon Craig; Oberkampf, William Louis; Sallaberry, Cedric J.

    2008-08-01

    Procedures are described for the representation of results in analyses that involve both aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty, with aleatory uncertainty deriving from an inherent randomness in the behavior of the system under study and epistemic uncertainty deriving from a lack of knowledge about the appropriate values to use for quantities that are assumed to have fixed but poorly known values in the context of a specific study. Aleatory uncertainty is usually represented with probability and leads to cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) or complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for analysis results of interest. Several mathematical structures are available for the representation of epistemic uncertainty, including interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory and probability theory. In the presence of epistemic uncertainty, there is not a single CDF or CCDF for a given analysis result. Rather, there is a family of CDFs and a corresponding family of CCDFs that derive from epistemic uncertainty and have an uncertainty structure that derives from the particular uncertainty structure (i.e., interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory, probability theory) used to represent epistemic uncertainty. Graphical formats for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in families of CDFs and CCDFs are investigated and presented for the indicated characterizations of epistemic uncertainty.

  11. Correlation of composite material test results with finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guƫu, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper are presented some aspects regarding the method of simulation of composite materials testing with finite element analysis software. There were simulated tensile and shear tests of specimens manufactured from glass fiber reinforced polyester. For specimens manufacturing two types of fabrics were used: unidirectional and bidirectional. Experimentally determined elastic properties of composite material were used as input data. Modeling of composite architecture of the specimens was performed with ANSYS Composite PrepPost software. Finite element analysis stresses and strains on strain gauges bonding area were considered and compared with the real values in a diagram. After results comparison, potential causes of deviations were identified.

  12. Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing CFD Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wing test (see chapter 8E) provides data for the validation of aerodynamic, aeroelastic, and active aeroelastic control simulation codes. These data provide a rich database for development and validation of computational aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic methods. In this vein, high-level viscous CFD analyses of the BACT wing have been performed for a subset of the test conditions available in the dataset. The computations presented in this section investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the rigid clean wing configuration as well as simulations of the wing with a static and oscillating aileron and spoiler deflection. Two computational aeroelasticity codes extensively used at NASA Langley Research Center are implemented in this simulation. They are the ENS3DAE and CFL3DAE computational aeroelasticity programs. Both of these methods solve the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for both rigid and flexible vehicles, but they use significantly different approaches to the solution 6f the aerodynamic equations of motion. Detailed descriptions of both methods are presented in the following section.

  13. Hellenic Amateur Astronomy Association's activities: Preliminary results on Perseids 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary results on the Perseids 2010 are presented. Visual and video observations were obtained by the author and a first reduction of the visual data shows that a maximum of ZHR ~120 was reached during the night 12-13 of August 2010. Moreover, a video setup was tested (DMK camera and UFO Capture v2) and the results show that, under some limitations, valuable data can be obtained.

  14. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  15. Results of Skylab medical experiment M171: Metabolic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Buderer, M. C.; Lem, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to establish whether man's ability to perform mechanical work would be progressively altered as a result of exposure to the weightless environment of space flight. The Skylab crewmen exercised on a bicycle ergometer at workloads approximating 25, 50, and 75 percent of their maximum aerobic capacity. The physiological parameters monitored were respiratory gas exchange, blood pressure, and vectorcardiogram/heart rate. The results of these tests indicate that the crewmen had no significant decrement in their responses to exercise during their exposure to zero gravity. The results of the third manned Skylab mission (Skylab 4) are presented and a comparison is made of the overall results obtained from the three successively longer Skylab manned missions. The Skylab 4 crewmembers' 84-day in-flight responses to exercise were no worse and were probably better than the responses of the crewmen on the first two Skylab missions. Indications that exercise was an important contributing factor in maintaining this response are discussed.

  16. Comparison Campaign of VLBI Data Analysis Software - First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, Lucia; Bohm, Johannes; Schuh, Harald

    2010-01-01

    During the development of the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics at Vienna University of Technology, a special comparison setup was developed with the goal of easily finding links between deviations of results achieved with different software packages and certain parameters of the observation. The object of comparison is the computed time delay, a value calculated for each observation including all relevant models and corrections that need to be applied in geodetic VLBI analysis. Besides investigating the effects of the various models on the total delay, results of comparisons between VieVS and Occam 6.1 are shown. Using the same methods, a Comparison Campaign of VLBI data analysis software called DeDeCC is about to be launched within the IVS soon.

  17. Sheet Hydroforming Process Numerical Model Improvement Through Experimental Results Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, Papadia; Antonio, Del Prete; Alfredo, Anglani

    2010-06-01

    The increasing application of numerical simulation in metal forming field has helped engineers to solve problems one after another to manufacture a qualified formed product reducing the required time [1]. Accurate simulation results are fundamental for the tooling and the product designs. The wide application of numerical simulation is encouraging the development of highly accurate simulation procedures to meet industrial requirements. Many factors can influence the final simulation results and many studies have been carried out about materials [2], yield criteria [3] and plastic deformation [4,5], process parameters [6] and their optimization. In order to develop a reliable hydromechanical deep drawing (HDD) numerical model the authors have been worked out specific activities based on the evaluation of the effective stiffness of the blankholder structure [7]. In this paper after an appropriate tuning phase of the blankholder force distribution, the experimental activity has been taken into account to improve the accuracy of the numerical model. In the first phase, the effective capability of the blankholder structure to transfer the applied load given by hydraulic actuators to the blank has been explored. This phase ended with the definition of an appropriate subdivision of the blankholder active surface in order to take into account the effective pressure map obtained for the given loads configuration. In the second phase the numerical results obtained with the developed subdivision have been compared with the experimental data of the studied model. The numerical model has been then improved, finding the best solution for the blankholder force distribution.

  18. European activities in exobiology in earth orbit: results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1999-01-01

    A large portion of European activities in Earth orbit have concentrated on studies of the responses of resistant microbes to the harsh environment of space with the aim of providing experimental evidence testing the hypothesis that interplanetary transfer of life is possible. Various types of microorganisms, such as bacterial or fungal spores, as well as viruses and biomolecules, such as DNA, amino acids and liposomes, have been exposed to selected and combined space conditions outside the Earth's magnetic field (Apollo 16) or in low Earth orbit (Spacelab 1, Spacelab D2, ERA on EURECA, LDEF, BIOPAN on FOTON). Space parameters, such as high vacuum, intense solar ultraviolet radiation, different components of the cosmic radiation field and temperature extremes affected the genetic stability of the organisms in space, leading to increased mutation rates, DNA damage and inactivation. Extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most lethal factor. If shielded against the influx of solar UV, spores of Bacillus subtilis survived for more than 5 years in space. Future research will be directed towards long-term studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and endoevaporitic ecosystems. For these studies, the European Space Agency will provide the facility EXPOSE to be accommodated on the External Platform of the International Space Station during the Early Utilization Phase.

  19. The uses and results of active tetanus immunization

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Inga

    1955-01-01

    Both in animal experiments and in the course of two world wars active immunization has proved a safe method of protection against tetanus, and a method superior to passive serum prophylaxis. The three types of vaccine—plain, combined, and precipitated or adsorbed—all have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them must be left to individual national health authorities. They should, however, be administered in two or three doses to confer basic immunity. What amount of circulating antitoxin is necessary to give full protection has not been accurately determined, but it is clear that one recall dose should be given about a year after the first injections as part of the routine course of injections. This seems enough to provide a long-lasting immunity, but a dose of vaccine should also be given at the time of injury. General immunization of the population is not practicable, but children, who are among the groups most at risk, can be immunized relatively simply by combined diphtheria and tetanus vaccine; in many countries, indeed, this is being done on an ever-increasing scale. PMID:13270078

  20. The GLOBE Contrail Protocol: Initial Analysis of Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin; Duda, David

    2004-01-01

    The GLOBE contrail protocol was launched in March 2003 to obtain surface observer reports of contrail occurrence to complement satellite and model studies underway at NASA Langley, among others. During the first year, more than 30,000 ground observations of contrails were submitted to GLOBE. An initial analysis comparing the GLOBE observations to weather prediction model results for relative humidity at flight altitudes is in progress. This paper reports on the findings to date from this effort.

  1. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  2. ETRAN--R Extension Package for Eye Tracking Results Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhegallo, Alexander V; Marmalyuk, Pavel A

    2015-01-01

    Novel open source R extension package for general-purpose eye tracking results analysis proposed. Now supported features are data loading from SMI eye trackers, different methods of fixations detection, various imaging techniques for raw data, and detected fixations (time sequence, scanpath, heatmap, and dynamic visualization). The modular structure of the package and a detailed description of each function provide a convenient way to further extend the functionality. Effective use of package requires knowledge of R programming language and environment. PMID:26562926

  3. Thermionic cogeneration burner assessment study performance analysis results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of this contract was to (1) test and evaluate two of the more important engineering aspects of designing and building thermionic cogeneration burners (TCB's); (2) make a cost and performance estimate of the TCB; and identify and evaluate industries where TCB's could be installed and where that the electrical power (dc) produced by the TCB's would be used directly in the process. The results of the performance analysis are detailed.

  4. Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

  5. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 18F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.

    2010-09-02

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Shine [1]. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL [2]. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results [3] to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL{sub 95%}) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL{sub 95%}) on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL{sub 95%} was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  6. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 19F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.

    2010-09-02

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  7. SCD1 thermal design and test result analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoso, Humberto Pontes; Muraoka, Issamu; Mantelli, Marcia Barbosa Henriques; Leite, Rosangela M. G.

    1990-01-01

    The SCD 01 (Satelite de Coleta de Dados 01) is a spin stabilized low Earth orbit satellite dedicated to the collection and distribution of environmental data. It was completely developed at the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) and is scheduled to be launched in 1992. The SCD 01 passive thermal control design configuration is presented and the thermal analysis results are compared with the temperatures obtained from a Thermal Balance Test. The correlation between the analytical and experimental results is considered very good. Numerical flight simulations show that the thermal control design can keep all the subsystem temperatures within their specified temperature range.

  8. Electrodermal activity analysis during affective haptic elicitation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Alberto; Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Bianchi, Matteo; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates how the autonomic nervous system dynamics, quantified through the analysis of the electrodermal activity (EDA), is modulated according to affective haptic stimuli. Specifically, a haptic display able to convey caress-like stimuli is presented to 32 healthy subjects (16 female). Each stimulus is changed according to six combinations of three velocities and two forces levels of two motors stretching a strip of fabric. Subjects were also asked to score each stimulus in terms of arousal (high/low activation) and valence (pleasant/unpleasant), in agreement with the circumplex model of affect. EDA was processed using a deconvolutive method, separating tonic and phasic components. A statistical analysis was performed in order to identify significant differences in EDA features among force and velocity levels, as well as in their valence and arousal scores. Results show that the simulated caress induced by the haptic display significantly affects the EDA. In detail, the phasic component seems to be inversely related to the valence score. This finding is new and promising, since it can be used, e.g., as an additional cue for haptics design. PMID:26737605

  9. United States radiological health activities: inspection results of mammography facilities

    PubMed Central

    Spelic, DC; Kaczmarek, RV; Hilohi, M; Belella, S

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) was enacted in 1992 to set national standards for high-quality mammography, including standards for mammographic X-ray equipment, patient dose, clinical image quality, and related technical parameters. The MQSA also requires minimum qualifications for radiologic technologists, interpreting physicians and medical physicists, mandates acceptable practices for quality-control, quality-assurance, and requires processes to audit medical outcomes. This paper presents the findings of MQSA inspections of facilities, which characterize significant factors affecting mammography quality in the United States. Materials and Methods: Trained inspectors collected data regarding X-ray technical factors, made exposure measurements for the determination of mean glandular dose (MGD), evaluated image quality, and inspected the quality of the film-processing environment. The average annual facility and total U.S. screening exam workloads were computed using workload data reported by facilities. Results: Mammography facilities have made technical improvements as evidenced by a narrower distribution of doses, higher phantom-film background optical densities associated with higher phantom image-quality scores, and better film processing. It is estimated that approximately 36 million screening mammography exams were conducted in 2006, a rate that is almost triple the exam volume estimated for 1997. Digital mammography (DM) is now in use at approximately 14% (1,191 of 8,834) of MQSA-certified mammography facilities. The results indicate that DM can offer lower dose to the patient while providing comparable or better image quality. PMID:21614276

  10. Preliminary results and future activities at the GARFIELD apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P. F.; Vannucci, L.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, L.; Lanchais, A.; Vannini, G.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; Nannini, A.; Bonasera, A.; Cavallaro, S.; Cosmano, A.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Milazzo, P. M.; Margagliotti, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    A new apparatus has been designed and built to study reaction mechanisms in the energy regime of the ALPI linear accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (E/A = 5 - 20 MeV). In this paper the importance of studying these mechanisms will be underlined, no more as a problem limited to a narrow energy range or a single process, but as a continuous trend from low to high energies and from the physics of stable nuclei to that one regarding instabilities. With this remarks in mind, a first experiment has been performed studying the reaction 32S+58Ni at 11AMeV. Preliminary results show that important information can be derived on multi-body emission, which can contribute to renew the interest in this energy regime.

  11. Recent Results from CHAMP Tracking and Accelerometer Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Nerem, R. S.; Thompson, B.; Pavlis, E.; Williams, T. A.; Colombo, O. L.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CHAMP mission's unique combination of sensors and orbit configuration will enable unprecedented improvements in modeling and understanding the Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. CHAMP is the first of two missions (GRACE to be launched in the early part of 02') that combine a new generation of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a high precision three-axis accelerometer, and star cameras for the precision attitude determination. In order to isolate the gravity signal for science investigations, it is necessary to perform a detailed reduction and analysis of the GPS and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) tracking data in conjunction with the accelerometer and attitude data. Precision orbit determination based on the GPS and SLR tracking data will isolate the orbit perturbations, while the accelerometer data will be used to distinguish the non-gravitational forces from those due to the geopotential (static, and time varying). In preparation for the CHAMP and GRACE missions, extensive modifications have been made to NASA/GSFC's GEODYN orbit determination software to enable the simultaneous reduction of spacecraft tracking (e.g. GPS and SLR), three-axis accelerometer and precise attitude data. Several weeks of CHAMP tracking and accelerometer data have been analyzed and the results will be presented. Precision orbit determination analysis based on tracking data alone in addition to results based on the simultaneous reduction of tracking and accelerometer data will be discussed. Results from a calibration of the accelerometer will be presented along with the results from various orbit determination strategies.

  12. Computer analysis of shells of revolution using asymptotic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, C. R.; Ranjan, G. V.; Goto, C.; Pulliam, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that asymptotic results for the behavior of thin shells can be incorporated in a general computer code for the analysis of a complex shell structure. The advantage when compared to existing finite difference or finite element codes is a substantial reduction in computational labor with the capability of working to a specified level of accuracy. A reduction in user preparation time and dependance on user judgment is also gained, since mesh spacing can be internally generated. The general theory is described in this paper, as well as the implementation in the computer code FAST 1 (Functional Algorithm for Shell Theory) for the analysis of the general axisymmetric shell structure with axisymmetric loading.

  13. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    PubMed

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  14. The FOXSI sounding rocket: Latest analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Krucker, Sam; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Ramsey, Brian; Han, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations are a linchpin for studying particle acceleration and hot thermal plasma emission in the solar corona. Current and past indirectly imaging instruments lack the sensitivity and dynamic range needed to observe faint HXR signatures, especially in the presences of brighter sources. These limitations are overcome by using HXR direct focusing optics coupled with semiconductor detectors. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment is a state of the art solar telescope that develops and applies these capabilities.The FOXSI sounding rocket has successfully flown twice, observing active regions, microflares, and areas of the quiet-Sun. Thanks to its far superior imaging dynamic range, FOXSI performs cleaner hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy than previous instruments that use indirect imaging methods like RHESSI.We present a description of the FOXSI rocket payload, paying attention to the optics and semiconductor detectors calibrations, as well as the upgrades made for the second flight. We also introduce some of the latest FOXSI data analysis, including imaging spectroscopy of microflares and active regions observed during the two flights, and the differential emission measure distribution of the nonflaring corona.

  15. Results of mobile gamma scanning activities in St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R E; Witt, D A; Cottrell, W D; Carrier, R F

    1991-06-01

    From 1942 through approximately 1966, the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works operated four plants in St. Louis, Missouri, for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. A variety of production processes using uranium- and radium-bearing ore materials were performed at the plants. It is the policy of the DOE to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Guidelines for release and use of such sites have become more stringent as research has provided more information since previous cleanups. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established as part of that effort to confirm the closeout status of facilities under contract to agencies preceding DOE during early nuclear energy development. Under the FUSRAP program, the Mallinckrodt properties have been previously investigated to determine the extent of on-site radiological contamination. At the request of DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a survey in May 1990, of public roadways and suspected haul routes between the Mallinckrodt plant and storage sites in St. Louis to ensure that no residual radioactive materials were conveyed off-site. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify possible anomalies. Suspect areas are those displaying measurements deviating from gamma exposure rates identified as typical for radiologically unenhanced areas in the vicinity of the areas of interest. The instrumentation highlighted three anomaly locations each of which measured less than 1m{sup 2} in size. None of the slightly elevated radiation levels originated from material associated with former AEC-related processing operations in the area. The anomalies resulted from elevated concentrations of radionuclides present in phosphate fertilizers, increased thorium in road-base gravel, and emanations from the radioactive storage site near the Latty Avenue airport. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Analysis of vehicle fuel release resulting in waste tank fire

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.P.

    2003-10-14

    The purpose of the calculation documented here is to support in-tank vehicle fuel fire accident frequencies in the Documented Safety Analysis. This analysis demonstrates that the frequency of the pool fire and deflagration scenarios of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident are ''extremely unlikely'' to ''unlikely.'' The chains of events that result in each scenario are presented in this document and are the same as used in previous analyses of this accident. Probabilities and frequencies are developed for each event, using wherever possible, information from RPP-13121, Tables B-1 and B-2, and from the River Protection Project ORPS. The estimated probabilities are considered reasonably conservative, but do not necessarily assume the worst possible outcomes or the most conservative possible cases. A sensitivity analysis performed in Section 4.2 shows that if the probability of either the ignition of fuel event or the fuel flows into riser event were underestimated by an order of magnitude, the accident frequency for a pool fire could increase and shift into the ''unlikely'' category. If the probability of an increase in riser strikes, or an increase in broken risers, unignited fuel entering a riser, or a fuel ignition source being present in a tank were underestimated by an order of magnitude, the accident frequency for a deflagration would remain in the ''unlikely'' category. When the likelihood of a broken riser is increased by an order of magnitude, a pool fire remains in the ''extremely unlikely'' category. The DSA accident analysis indicates that an unmitigated flammable gas deflagration resulting from an induced gas release event or an organic solvent fire occurring in either an SST or a DST is an anticipated event (> 10{sup -2}). Deflagration in a DST annulus is considered unlikely (> 10{sup -4} to {le}10{sup -2}). These frequencies clearly bound those of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire family of accidents.

  17. Differential and Active Charging Results from the ATS Spacecraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Richard Christopher

    1980-12-01

    This study of spacecraft charging concentrates on the differential charging and artificial particle emission experiments on ATS-5 and ATS-6. It was found that differential charging of spacecraft surfaces generated large electrostatic barriers to spacecraft generated electrons, from photoemission, secondary emission, and thermal emitters. The electrostatic barrier is a potential minimum outside the charged spacecraft which causes low energy electrons to be trapped near the spacecraft. The large dish antenna on ATS-6 was identified as the source of the electrostatic barrier around the Environmental Measurements Experiment package. Daylight charging on ATS-6 was shown to have behavior suggesting the dominance of differential charging on the absolute potential of the mainframe. Electron emission experiments on ATS-5 in eclipse charging environments showed that the electron emitter could partially or totally discharge the satellite, but the mainframe recharged negatively in a few 10's of seconds. The equilibrium emitter current was found to be .3 microamps, substantially below the milliamp capability of the emitter. The limiting of the current and the time dependence seen in the ATS-5 potential during these operations were explained as the result of differential charging of the insulating surfaces on the spacecraft, and the creation of an electrostatic barrier by the differential potential. This barrier limited the artificially generated electron current to the point that the net flux to the spacecraft was again negative. Both the daylight charging events of ATS-6 and the eclipse electron emission experiments of ATS-5 were further analyzed with a simple time dependent model which showed that the barrier height quickly reached an equilibrium value which limited but did not completely stop electron emission. Average and differential potentials developed in time subject to the constraint that the barrier height remain constant. Ion engine operations and plasma emission

  18. Neutron Activation Analysis of Water - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, John D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent developments in this field are emphasized. After a brief review of basic principles, topics discussed include sources of neutrons, pre-irradiation physical and chemical treatment of samples, neutron capture and gamma-ray analysis, and selected applications. Applications of neutron activation analysis of water have increased rapidly within the last few years and may be expected to increase in the future.

  19. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA. PMID:26927162

  20. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2016-02-24

    Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011-2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  1. Wind tunnel test IA300 analysis and results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, P. B.; Beaufait, W. B.; Kitchens, L. L.; Pace, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of wind tunnel pressure data from the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test IA300 are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the effects of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) plumes on the integrated vehicle forebody pressure distributions, the elevon hinge moments, and wing loads. The results of this test will be combined with flight test results to form a new data base to be employed in the IVBC-3 airloads analysis. A secondary objective was to obtain solid plume data for correlation with the results of gaseous plume tests. Data from the power level portion was used in conjunction with flight base pressures to evaluate nominal power levels to be used during the investigation of changes in model attitude, eleveon deflection, and nozzle gimbal angle. The plume induced aerodynamic loads were developed for the Space Shuttle bases and forebody areas. A computer code was developed to integrate the pressure data. Using simplified geometrical models of the Space Shuttle elements and components, the pressure data were integrated to develop plume induced force and moments coefficients that can be combined with a power-off data base to develop a power-on data base.

  2. A novel method for the automatic segmentation of activity data from a wrist worn device: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Amor, James D; Ahanathapillai, Vijayalakshmi; James, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Activity monitoring is used in a number of fields in order to assess the physical activity of the user. Applications include health and well-being, rehabilitation and enhancing independent living. Data are often gathered from multiple accelerometers and analysis focuses on multi-parametric classification. For longer term monitoring this is unsuitable and it is desirable to develop a method for the precise analysis of activity data with respect to time. This paper presents the initial results of a novel approach to this problem which is capable of segmenting activity data collected from a single accelerometer recording naturalized activity.

  3. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  4. Early onset of hypertension and serum electrolyte changes as potential predictive factors of activity in advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib: results from a retrospective analysis of the HCC-AVR group

    PubMed Central

    Gardini, Andrea Casadei; Scarpi, Emanuela; Marisi, Giorgia; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Donati, Gabriele; Giampalma, Emanuela; Faloppi, Luca; Scartozzi, Mario; Silvestris, Nicola; Bisulli, Marcello; Corbelli, Jody; Gardini, Andrea; Barba, Giuliano La; Veneroni, Luigi; Tamberi, Stefano; Cascinu, Stefano; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is frequently associated with the use of angiogenesis inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and appears to be a generalized effect of this class of agent. We investigated the phenomenon in 61 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving sorafenib. Blood pressure and plasma electrolytes were measured on days 1 and 15 of the treatment. Patients with sorafenib-induced HTN had a better outcome than those without HTN (disease control rate: 63.4% vs. 17.2% (p=0.001); progression-free survival 6.0 months (95% CI 3.2-10.1) vs. 2.5 months (95% CI 1.9-2.6) (p<0.001) and overall survival 14.6 months (95% CI9.7-19.0) vs. 3.9 months (95% CI 3.1-8.7) (p=0.003). Sodium levels were generally higher on day 15 than at baseline (+2.38, p<0.0001) in the group of responders (+4.95, p <0.0001) compared to patients who progressed (PD) (+0.28, p=0.607). In contrast, potassium was lower on day 14 (−0.30, p=0.0008) in the responder group (−0.58, p=0.003) than in those with progressive disease (−0.06, p=0.500). The early onset of hypertension is associated with improved clinical outcome in HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Our data are suggestive of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with advanced disease who developed HTN during sorafenib treatment. PMID:26893366

  5. Genetic aspect of Alzheimer disease: Results of complex segregation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sadonvick, A.D.; Lee, I.M.L.; Bailey-Wilson, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the possibility that a single major locus will explain the segregation of Alzheimer disease (AD). The data were from the population-based AD Genetic Database and consisted of 402 consecutive, unrelated probands, diagnosed to have either `probable` or `autopsy confirmed` AD and their 2,245 first-degree relatives. In this analysis, a relative was considered affected with AD only when there were sufficient medical/autopsy data to support diagnosis of AD being the most likely cause of the dementia. Transmission probability models allowing for a genotype-dependent and logistically distributed age-of-onset were used. The program REGTL in the S.A.G.E. computer program package was used for a complex segregation analysis. The models included correction for single ascertainment. Regressive familial effects were not estimated. The data were analyzed to test for single major locus (SML), random transmission and no transmission (environmental) hypotheses. The results of the complex segregation analysis showed that (1) the SML was the best fit, and (2) the non-genetic models could be rejected.

  6. Safety analysis results for cryostat ingress accidents in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Accidents involving the ingress of air or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits.

  7. Critical composite joint subcomponents: Analysis and test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    This program has been conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints of a composite wing structure meeting design requirements for a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. A prime objective of the program was to demonstrate the ability to reliably predict the strength of large bolted composite joints. Load sharing between bolts in multirow joints was computed by a nonlinear analysis program (A4FJ) which was used both to assess the efficiency of different joint design concepts and to predict the strengths of large test articles representing a section from a wing root chord-wise splice. In most cases, the predictions were accurate to within a few percent of the test results. A highlight of these tests was the consistent ability to achieve gross-section failure strains on the order of 0.005 which represents a considerable improvement over the state of the art. The improvement was attained largely as the result of the better understanding of the load sharing in multirow joints provided by the analysis. The typical load intensity on the structural joints was about 40 to 45 thousand pound per inch in laminates having interspersed 37 1/2-percent 0-degree plies, 50-percent + or - 45-degrees plies and 12 1/2-percent 90-degrees plies. The composite material was Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.010-inch thick unidirectional tape.

  8. Report of a successful ongoing pregnancy as a result of IMSI with assisted oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Doroftei, Bogdan; Zlei, Mihaela; Simionescu, Gabriela; Maftei, Radu; Cumpata, Simona; Emerson, Geraldine

    2015-05-03

    We report a successful ongoing pregnancy obtained in a case of total globozoospermia after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) with oocyte activation. The first semen analysis on investigation showed partial globozoospermia. However, under high magnification assessment at oocyte retrieval only round headed sperm were observed. Considering the high risk of a complete failure to fertilize from IMSI the couple gave written informed consent to the use of oocyte activation media post IMSI. One embryo fertilized, developed to a hatching blastocyst and was transferred resulting in an ongoing pregnancy. This successful outcome shows the use of IMSI is useful in the evaluation of total globozooozpermia and therefore aids in the justification of the use of oocyte activation media.

  9. Statistical Analysis of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide1, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements

  10. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.

    2012-08-01

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements

  11. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 5 FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E.

    2012-03-14

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, radionuclide, inorganic, and anion concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their

  12. Analysis of Numerical Simulation Results of LIPS-200 Lifetime Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Tianping; Geng, Hai; Jia, Yanhui; Meng, Wei; Wu, Xianming; Sun, Anbang

    2016-06-01

    Accelerator grid structural and electron backstreaming failures are the most important factors affecting the ion thruster's lifetime. During the thruster's operation, Charge Exchange Xenon (CEX) ions are generated from collisions between plasma and neutral atoms. Those CEX ions grid's barrel and wall frequently, which cause the failures of the grid system. In order to validate whether the 20 cm Lanzhou Ion Propulsion System (LIPS-200) satisfies China's communication satellite platform's application requirement for North-South Station Keeping (NSSK), this study analyzed the measured depth of the pit/groove on the accelerator grid's wall and aperture diameter's variation and estimated the operating lifetime of the ion thruster. Different from the previous method, in this paper, the experimental results after the 5500 h of accumulated operation of the LIPS-200 ion thruster are presented firstly. Then, based on these results, theoretical analysis and numerical calculations were firstly performed to predict the on-orbit lifetime of LIPS-200. The results obtained were more accurate to calculate the reliability and analyze the failure modes of the ion thruster. The results indicated that the predicted lifetime of LIPS-200's was about 13218.1 h which could satisfy the required lifetime requirement of 11000 h very well.

  13. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  14. Human hair neutron activation analysis: Analysis on population level, mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, L. I.; Kist, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia.

  15. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. PMID:15957758

  16. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  17. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  18. Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Eickhoff, Simon B.; Bzdok, Danilo; Laird, Angela R.; Kurth, Florian; Fox, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    A widely used technique for coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging data is activation likelihood estimation (ALE), which determines the convergence of foci reported from different experiments. ALE analysis involves modelling these foci as probability distributions whose width is based on empirical estimates of the spatial uncertainty due to the between-subject and between-template variability of neuroimaging data. ALE results are assessed against a null-distribution of random spatial association between experiments, resulting in random-effects inference. In the present revision of this algorithm, we address two remaining drawbacks of the previous algorithm. First, the assessment of spatial association between experiments was based on a highly time-consuming permutation test, which nevertheless entailed the danger of underestimating the right tail of the null-distribution. In this report, we outline how this previous approach may be replaced by a faster and more precise analytical method. Second, the previously applied correction procedure, i.e. controlling the false discovery rate (FDR), is supplemented by new approaches for correcting the family-wise error rate and the cluster-level significance. The different alternatives for drawing inference on meta-analytic results are evaluated on an exemplary dataset on face perception as well as discussed with respect to their methodological limitations and advantages. In summary, we thus replaced the previous permutation algorithm with a faster and more rigorous analytical solution for the null-distribution and comprehensively address the issue of multiple-comparison corrections. The proposed revision of the ALE-algorithm should provide an improved tool for conducting coordinate-based meta-analyses on functional imaging data. PMID:21963913

  19. Statistical Analysis of NAS Parallel Benchmarks and LINPACK Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuer, Hans-Werner; Simon, Horst D.; Strohmeier, Erich; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In the last three years extensive performance data have been reported for parallel machines both based on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks, and on LINPACK. In this study we have used the reported benchmark results and performed a number of statistical experiments using factor, cluster, and regression analyses. In addition to the performance results of LINPACK and the eight NAS parallel benchmarks, we have also included peak performance of the machine, and the LINPACK n and n(sub 1/2) values. Some of the results and observations can be summarized as follows: 1) All benchmarks are strongly correlated with peak performance. 2) LINPACK and EP have each a unique signature. 3) The remaining NPB can grouped into three groups as follows: (CG and IS), (LU and SP), and (MG, FT, and BT). Hence three (or four with EP) benchmarks are sufficient to characterize the overall NPB performance. Our poster presentation will follow a standard poster format, and will present the data of our statistical analysis in detail.

  20. ISS Expeditions 16 & 17: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2009-01-01

    During the twelve month span of Expeditions 16 and 17 beginning October of 2007, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principle sources of potable water and for the first time, European groundsupplied water was also available. Although water was transferred from Shuttle to ISS during Expeditions 16 and 17, no Shuttle potable water was consumed during this timeframe. A total of 12 potable water samples were collected using U.S. hardware during Expeditions 16 and 17 and returned on Shuttle flights 1E (STS122), 1JA (STS123), and 1J (STS124). The average sample volume was sufficient for complete chemical characterization to be performed. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these potable water samples are presented in this paper. The WAFAL also received potable water samples for analysis from the Russian side collected inflight with Russian hardware, as well as preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 30. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed herein. Although the potable water supplies available during Expeditions 16 and 17 were judged safe for crew consumption, a recent trending of elevated silver levels in the SVOZV water is a concern for longterm consumption and efforts are being made to lower these levels.

  1. Radioactivity analysis in niobium activation foils

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.E.

    1995-06-01

    The motivation for this study was to measure and analyze the activity of six (6) niobium (Nb) foils (the x-rays from an internal transition in Nb-93m) and apply this information with previously obtained activation foil data. The niobium data was used to determine the epithermal to MeV range for the neutron spectrum and fluence. The foil activation data was re-evaluated in a spectrum analysis code (STAY`SL) to provide new estimates of the exposure at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effect Facility (LASREF). The activity of the niobium foils was measured and analyzed at the University of Missouri-Columbia (UMC) under the direction of Professor William Miller. The spectrum analysis was performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) by Professor Gary Mueller.

  2. Assessing physical activity intensity by video analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, P; Santiago, C; Reis, L P; Sousa, A; Mota, J; Welk, G

    2015-05-01

    Assessing physical activity (PA) is a challenging task and many different approaches have been proposed. Direct observation (DO) techniques can objectively code both the behavior and the context in which it occurred, however, they have significant limitations such as the cost and burden associated with collecting and processing data. Therefore, this study evaluated the utility of an automated video analysis system (CAM) designed to record and discriminate the intensity of PA using a subject tracking methodology. The relative utility of the CAM system and DO were compared with criterion data from an objective accelerometry-based device (Actigraph GT3X+). Eight 10 year old children (three girls and five boys) wore the GT3X+ during a standard basketball session. PA was analyzed by two observers using the SOPLAY instrument and by the CAM system. The GT3X+ and the CAM were both set up to collect data at 30 Hz while the DO was performed every two minutes, with 10 s of observation for each gender. The GT3X+ was processed using cut points by Evanson and the outcome measure was the percentage of time spent in different intensities of PA. The CAM data were processed similarly using the same speed thresholds as were used in establishing the Evenson cut-off points (light: <2 mph; walking: 2-4 mph; very active: >4 mph). Similar outcomes were computed from the SOPLAY default analyses. A chi-square test was used to test differences in the percentage of time at the three intensity zones (light, walking and very active). The Yates' correction was used to prevent overestimation of statistical significance for small data. When compared with GT3X+, the CAM had better results than the SOPLAY. The chi-square test yielded the following pairwise comparisons: CAM versus GT3x+ was χ(2) (5) = 24.18, p < .001; SOPLAY2 versus GT3x+ was χ(2) (5) = 144.44, p < .001; SOPLAY1 versus GT3x+ was χ(2) (5) = 119.55, p < .001. The differences were smaller between CAM and GT3x

  3. Results and Analysis of the ESA SSA Radar Tracking Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontdecaba Baig, Jordi; Martinerie, Francis; Sutter, Moise; Martinot, Vincent; Ameline, Patrick; Blazejczak, Eric; Fletcher, Emmet

    2013-08-01

    Following the decision at the Ministerial Council 2008 to initiate a Preparatory Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA), the European Space Agency started a series of activities together with industry, implementing both classical design approaches: bottom-up and top-down. For the Space Surveillance and Tracking segment of the programme, the bottom-up approach was initially addressed through various activities to evaluate the potential performance of contemporary European resources. One element of this investigation was the assessment of the existing European assets that can be used to generate tracking data on Earth orbiting objects at all altitudes between LEO and the GEO graveyard orbits. The study addressed both the technical performances of the assets and the identification of the operational constraints characteristic for each sensor. In this context, a paper was presented at the 2011 European Space Surveillance Conference in Madrid, Spain that discussed the results obtained using two existing European radars: EISCAT and Chilbolton. The emphasis of this new paper is to analyse the results obtained from a third asset: the BEM Monge, a measurement and test vessel of the French Navy operated for the French Direction Générale de l'Armement (DGA). The Monge's three primary radars were designed with the specific mission to detect and characterise the trajectory of missiles as part of France's national missile defence programme, however the radar on-board the Monge are also able to detect and track Earth-orbiting objects. Even though this role is not the primary one for the system, the achieved accuracy of the orbital tracks and resulting orbit determination is several orders of magnitude better than radars that have been developed for other uses. The evaluation carried out in the frame of the SSA programme helped demonstrate that the systems provided by the Monge are able to perform orbital tracking within the performance requirements of a federated SSA

  4. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-04-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations.

  5. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  6. Computer-automated neutron activation analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. 5 references.

  7. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A space suit's mobility is critical to an astronaut's ability to perform work efficiently. As mobility increases, the astronaut can perform tasks for longer durations with less fatigue. Mobility can be broken down into two parts: range of motion (ROM) and torque. These two measurements describe how the suit moves and how much force it takes to move. Two methods were chosen to define mobility requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). One method focuses on range of motion and the second method centers on joint torque. A joint torque test was conducted to determine a baseline for current advanced space suit joint torques. This test utilized the following space suits: Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), I-Suit, D-Suit, Enhanced Mobility (EM)- ACES, and Mark III (MK-III). Data was collected data from 16 different joint movements of each suit. The results were then reviewed and CSSE joint torque requirement values were selected. The focus of this paper is to discuss trends observed during data analysis.

  8. Neutron activation analysis for antimetabolites. [in food samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Determination of metal ion contaminants in food samples is studied. A weighed quantity of each sample was digested in a concentrated mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and perchloric acids to affect complete solution of the food products. The samples were diluted with water and the pH adjusted according to the specific analysis performed. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis, polarography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The solid food samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analysis for increased sensitivity and lower levels of detectability. The results are presented in tabular form.

  9. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  10. Activation of Benznidazole by Trypanosomal Type I Nitroreductases Results in Glyoxal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Belinda S.

    2012-01-01

    Benznidazole, a 2-nitroimidazole, is the front-line treatment used against American trypanosomiasis, a parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite nearly 40 years of use, the trypanocidal activity of this prodrug is not fully understood. It has been proposed that benznidazole activation leads to the formation of reductive metabolites that can cause a series of deleterious effects, including DNA damage and thiol depletion. Here, we show that the key step in benznidazole activation involves an NADH-dependent trypanosomal type I nitroreductase. This catalyzes an oxygen-insensitive reaction with the interaction of enzyme, reductant, and prodrug occurring through a ping-pong mechanism. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the resultant metabolites identified 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyimidazole as the major product of a reductive pathway proceeding through hydroxylamine and hydroxy intermediates. The breakdown of this product released the reactive dialdehyde glyoxal, which, in the presence of guanosine, generated guanosine-glyoxal adducts. These experiments indicate that the reduction of benznidazole by type I nitroreductase activity leads to the formation of highly reactive metabolites and that the expression of this enzyme is key to the trypanocidal properties displayed by the prodrug. PMID:22037852

  11. African Primary Care Research: Qualitative data analysis and writing results

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.; Mash, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given. PMID:26245437

  12. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  13. Process evaluation methods, implementation fidelity results and relationship to physical activity and healthy eating in the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) study.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ruth P; Wilcox, Sara; Baruth, Meghan; Dowda, Marsha

    2014-04-01

    Faith, Activity and Nutrition (FAN), a community-based participatory research project in African American churches, aimed to increase congregant physical activity and healthy eating. The Health-Promoting Church framework, developed collaboratively with faith-based partners, guided the intervention and a comprehensive process evaluation. The Health-Promoting Church components related to healthy eating and physical activity were getting the message out, opportunities, pastor support, and organizational policy. There was no evidence for sequential mediation for any of the healthy eating components. These results illustrate the complexity of systems change within organizational settings and the importance of conducting process evaluation. The FAN intervention resulted in increased implementation for all physical activity and most healthy eating components. Mediation analyses revealed no direct association between implementation and increased physical activity; rather, sequential mediation analysis showed that implementation of physical activity messages was associated with improved self-efficacy at the church level, which was associated with increased physical activity.

  14. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  15. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  16. New Results in Software Model Checking and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article surveys new techniques, supported by automated tools, for the analysis of software to ensure reliability and safety. Special focus is on model checking techniques. The article also introduces the five papers that are enclosed in this special journal volume.

  17. Results of a Citation Analysis of Knowledge Management in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin; Eris, Hasan; Ozcinar, Zehra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine research and trends in knowledge management in education (KME) published in selected professional sources during the period 1990-2008. Citation analysis was used in this study to investigate documents related to KME, which were indexed in the Web of Science, Education Researches Information Center and…

  18. Results of Total Mercury Analysis in Salt Marsh Invertebrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of blood samples obtained from saltmarsh sparrows revealed high levels (> 1.0 µg/g(wet)) of mercury (Hg) in sparrows inhabiting a salt marsh site in the Narrow River, RI (also known as Pettaquamscutt River). These analyses were conducted by Oksana Lane at the Biodiversit...

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Empirical Results on Civil War Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegre, Havard; Sambanis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    In the literature on civil war onset, several empirical results are not robust or replicable across studies. Studies use different definitions of civil war and analyze different time periods, so readers cannot easily determine if differences in empirical results are due to those factors or if most empirical results are just not robust. The authors…

  20. Value of Undergraduate Internship Experiences at NOAA: Analysis of Survey Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will examine survey data from over 500 undergraduates who participated in summer internships at NOAA facilities as Ernest F. Hollings Scholars and Educational Partnership Program (EPP) Undergraduate Scholars. NOAA selects over 100 students per year to receive academic support in their junior and senior years and a paid summer internship at any NOAA facility in the country. Scholars are hosted by NOAA mentors who actively oversee summer research activities. Analysis of survey results identified six thematic impacts from the internship experience (McIntosh and Baek, 2013).

  1. Fracture mechanics analysis of composite microcracking - Experimental results in fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nairn, J. A.; Liu, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Nairn (1989) variational mechanics analysis, which yields the energy release rate of a microcrack's formation between two existing microcracks, has proven useful in the fracture mechanics interpretation of cross-ply laminates' microcracking. Attention is presently given to the application of this energy release rate analysis to a fracture mechanics-based interpretation of microcrack formation during fatigue loading, for the case of fatigue experiments on three layups of Avimid K/IM6 laminates and four layups of Fiberite 934/T300 laminates. The single master Paris-law plot onto which the data from all layups of a given material system fall is claimed to offer a complete characterization of that system's microcrack-formation resistance during fatigue loading.

  2. SIMS prototype system 1 test results: Engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The space and domestic water solar heating system designated SIMS Prototype Systems 1 was evaluated. The test system used 720 ft (gross) of Solar Energy Products Air Collectors, a Solar Control Corporation SAM 20 Air Handler with Model 75-175 control unit, a Jackson Solar Storage tank with Rho Sigma Mod 106 controller, and 20 tons of rack storage. The test data analysis performed evaluates the system performance and documents the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 1 hardware for field installation.

  3. Results of a 24-inch Hybrid Motor Performance Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Joseph D.; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    The subscale (11 and 24-inch) hybrid motors at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been used as versatile and cost effective testbeds for developing new technology. Comparisons between motor configuration, ignition systems, feed systems, fuel formulations, and nozzle materials have been carried out without detailed consideration as to haw "good" the motor performance data were. For the 250,000 lb/thrust motor developed by the Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program consortium, this shortcoming is particularly risky because motor performance will likely be used as put of a set of downselect criteria to choose between competing ignition and feed systems under development. This analysis directly addresses that shortcoming by applying uncertainty analysis techniques to the experimental determination of the characteristic velocity, theoretical characteristic velocity, and characteristic velocity efficiency for a 24-inch motor firing. With the adoption of fuel-lined headends, flow restriction, and aft mixing chambers, state of the an 24-inch hybrid motors have become very efficient However, impossibly high combustion efficiencies (some computed as high as 108%) have been measured in some tests with 11-inch motors. This analysis has given new insight into explaining how these efficiencies were measured to be so high, and into which experimental measurements contribute the most to the overall uncertainty.

  4. Verification of fault tree analysis. Volume 1: experiments and results

    SciTech Connect

    Rothbart, G.; Fullwood, R.; Basin, S.; Newt, J.; Escalera, J.

    1981-05-01

    Volume 1 describes the development of the EPRI Reliability and Maintainability Analyzer (ERMA), an electronic instrument for simulating the reliability of complex systems. The operation concept of ERMA and verification of its statistical behavior applications to system models of varying complexity are summarized. The ERMA simulation results are compared to the results from the fault tree codes, which use equivalent system models.

  5. Explanation of Two Anomalous Results in Statistical Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Matthew S.; Taylor, Aaron B.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of different methods of testing mediation models have consistently found two anomalous results. The first result is elevated Type I error rates for the bias-corrected and accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap tests not found in nonresampling tests or in resampling tests that did not include a bias correction. This is of special…

  6. On Practical Results of the Differential Power Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, Jakub; Kleja, Marcel

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes practical differential power analysis attacks. There are presented successful and unsuccessful attack attempts with the description of the attack methodology. It provides relevant information about oscilloscope settings, optimization possibilities and fundamental attack principles, which are important when realizing this type of attack. The attack was conducted on the PIC18F2420 microcontroller, using the AES cryptographic algorithm in the ECB mode with the 128-bit key length. We used two implementations of this algorithm - in the C programming language and in the assembler.

  7. Analysis of space tug operating techniques. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design requirements for space tug systems and cost analysis of the refurbishment phases are discussed. The vehicle is an integral propulsion stage using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as propellants and is capable of operating either as a fully or a partially autonomous vehicle. Structural features are an integral liquid hydrogen tank, a liquid oxygen tank, a meteoroid shield, an aft conical docking and structural support ring, and a staged combustion main engine. The vehicle is constructed of major modules for ease of maintenance. Line drawings and block diagrams are included to explain the maintenance requirements for the subsystems.

  8. UCLA/FNPL Underdense Plasma Lens Experiment: Results and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M C; Badakov, H; Rosenzweig, J B; Travish, G; Fliller, R; Kazakevich, G M; Piot, P; Santucci, J; Li, J; Tikhoplav, R

    2006-08-04

    Focusing of a 15 MeV, 16 nC electron bunch by a gaussian underdense plasma lens operated just beyond the threshold of the underdense condition has been demonstrated. The strong 1.9 cm focal length plasma lens focused both transverse directions simultaneously and reduced the minimum area of the beam spot by a factor of 23. Analysis of the beam envelope evolution observed near the beam waist shows that the spherical aberrations of this underdense lens are lower than those of an overdense plasma lens, as predicted by theory. Time resolved measurements of the focused electron bunch are also reported and compared to simulations.

  9. New Activity of Chiron: Results from 5 Years of Photometric Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, René; Lazzaro, Daniela; Pinto, Sandro; Carvano, Jorge; Angeli, Claudia; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Fernández, Silvia

    2002-11-01

    The results of photometric observations of Centaur object Chiron carried out at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias (OPD, Brazil), the Estación Astrofı´sica de Bosque Alegre (EABA, Argentina), and Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) from 1997 to 2001 are presented here. The analysis of the photometric data shows that the brightness of Chiron reached a minimum value in 1999 and began increasing again in 2000. The absolute magnitude, HV, varied from 7.26 in June 1999 to 5.78 in April 2001. The data tend to indicate that Chiron is starting a new outburst of activity which is compatible with a sporadic cometary behavior not related to heliocentric distance.

  10. Disruption of PPARγ signaling results in mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia involving active autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Fernandez, Suzanne; Jerome, W. Gray; He, Yue; Yu, Xiuping; Cai, Hui; Boone, Braden; Yi, Yajun; Magnuson, Mark A.; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Matusik, Robert J.; Shappell, Scott B.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) regulates the interface between cellular lipid metabolism, redox status and organelle differentiation. Conditional prostatic epithelial knockout of PPARγ in mice resulted in focal hyperplasia which developed into mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN). The grade of PIN became more severe with time. Electron microscopy (EM) showed accumulated secondary lysosomes containing cellular organelles and debris suggestive of autophagy. Consistent with this analysis the autophagy marker LC3 was found to be upregulated in areas of PIN in PPARγ KO tissues. We selectively knocked down PPARγ2 isoform in wild-type mouse prostatic epithelial cells and examined the consequences of this in a tissue recombination model. Histopathologically grafted tissues resembled the conditional PPARγ KO mouse prostates. EM studies of PPARγ- and PPARγ2-deficient epithelial cells in vitro were suggestive of autophagy, consistent with the prostatic tissue analysis. This was confirmed by examining expression of beclin-1 and LC3. Gene expression profiling in PPARγ-/γ2-deficient cells indicated a major dysregulation of cell cycle control and metabolic signaling networks related to peroxisomal and lysosomal maturation, lipid oxidation and degradation. The putative autophagic phenotypes of PPARγ-deficient cells could be rescued by re-expression of either γ1 or γ2 isoform. We conclude that disruption of PPARγ signaling results in autophagy and oxidative stress during mPIN pathogenesis. PMID:19834493

  11. Results of a workshop concerning impacts of various activities on the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Horak, Gerald C.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    characterization of the structure and functions of bottomland hardwoods. The approach to the second workshop, the results of which are described in this report, was therefore modified in response to the conclusions from the first workshop. The focus of the second workshop remained an analysis of the impacts of various activities or the functions of BLH ecosystems. However, as a prerequisite to this analysis, participants were also asked to develop a list of characteristics that determine the extent to which BLH sites perform the important functions. The workshop was organized such that alternating plenary and workgroup sessions allowed ample time for communication while still maintaining a focus on the overall goal. In the initial session, various individuals gave presentations concerning methodologies for evaluating the functions performed by wetlands, factors influencing the conversion of BLH forests to other uses, and the impacts of conversion activities. These were followed by a series of case study presentations designed to familiarize participants with the kinds of issues that are dealt with in the Section 404 program. These presentations are cited in this report as (author, workshop presentation). At the conclusion of these presentations, participants were divided into six workgroups to examine the functions of BLH ecosystems in the areas of hydrology, water quality, fisheries, wildlife, ecosystem processes, and culture/recreation/economics. Each workgroup was asked to undertake the following tasks. 1. Developed a list of functions performed by BLH ecosystems from the perspective of the workgroup's expertise and area of responsibility. 2. Identify those activities (e.g., impoundment construction, conversion to soybean farming) that impact the major functions (e.g., sediment retention, detrital export) performed by BLH ecosystems. 3. Develop a list of characteristics that determine the extent to which a BLH site performs each function and describe the relationship of each

  12. Analysis of initial in-plant active neutron multiplicity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Harker, W.C.

    1993-08-01

    This paper analyzes initial in-plant measurements made by active neutron multiplicity counting, a new technique currently under development for the assay of bulk uranium containing kilograms of {sup 235}U. The measurements were made at Savannah River and Y-12 using active well coincidence counters and prototype multiplicity electronics and software from Los Alamos. For one of the sets of highly enriched uranium samples measured to data, we improved the assay accuracy by an order-of-magnitude by adding the multiplicity analysis to the conventional coincidence analysis. This paper summarizes our results and describes areas where further work is needed.

  13. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  14. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  15. Correlating Flammability of Materials with FTIR Analysis Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Robin; Whitfield, Steve

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to correlate flammability data with FTIR test results. Kydex 100 is a blend of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and polymethylmethacrylate, with some filler materials. Samples supplied were 0.125 in. thick. 10 samples were taken from a sheet of Kydex and analyzed for flammability and by FTIR spectroscopy. This material was utilized as a round robin sample for flammability testing. The flammability test results were found to vary across the same sheet.

  16. Regional distribution pattern of groundwater heavy metals resulting from agricultural activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Jahed, G. R.; Babaei, A. A.

    2008-09-01

    Contaminations of groundwater by heavy metals due to agricultural activities are growing recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate and map regional patterns of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in groundwater on a plain with high agricultural activities. The study was conducted to investigate the concentration of heavy metals and distribution in groundwater in regions of Shush Danial and Andimeshk aquifers in the southern part of Iran. Presently, groundwater is the only appropriate and widely used source of drinking water for rural and urban communities in this region. The region covers an area of 1,100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers, which lead to the Persian Gulf. For this study, the region was divided into four sub-regions A, B, C and D. Additionally, 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the earlier months of 2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS-Flame) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals in water samples and the Surfer software was used for determination of the contour map of metal distribution. The results demonstrated that in all of the samples, Cd and Zn concentrations were below the EPA MCLG and EPA secondary standard, respectively. However, the Cu contents of 4.8 % of all samples were higher than EPA MCL. It is also indicated that the concentrations of metals were more pronounced at the southern part of the studied region than at the others. The analysis of fertilizers applied for agricultural activities at this region also indicated that a great majority of the above-mentioned heavy metals were discharged into the environment. Absence of confining layers, proximity to land surface, excess agricultural activities in the southern part and groundwater flow direction that is generally from the north to the southern parts in this area make the southern region of the Shush plain especially vulnerable to pollution by heavy metals than by other contaminants.

  17. The ORTEGA experiment: Radiographic methods, analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Todd; King, Nick; Lutz, Steve; Smith, John

    2011-06-01

    The ORTEGA experiment, executed on July 28th , 2010 by a team from Los Alamos, Sandia, National Security Technologies, and others, at the Nevada National Security Site, consisted of two identical samples of lead driven by small charges of HE. Flash x-radiography formed the key measurement. A short pulse of x-rays ``froze'' the motion much like a flash camera system and thereby permitted examination of the instantaneous internal spatial density distribution of the rapidly moving material. Two radiographs were taken encompassing both samples in each image and separated in time by ~4 microseconds to allow observation of the evolution of the samples. This presentation will review the radiographic methodology, the data set, calibration and details of the analysis of the data.

  18. Analysis methodology and recent results of the IGS network combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, R.; Kouba, J.; Hutchison, D.

    2000-11-01

    A working group of the International GPS Service (IGS) was created to look after Reference Frame (RF) issues and contribute to the densification and improvement of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). One important objective of the Reference Frame Working Group is to generate consistent IGS station coordinates and velocities, Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) and geocenter estimates along with the appropriate covariance information. These parameters have a direct impact on other IGS products such as the estimation of GPS satellite ephemerides, as well as satellite and station clocks. The information required is available weekly from the Analysis Centers (AC) (cod, emr, esa, gfz, jpl, ngs, sio) and from the Global Network Associate Analysis Centers (GNAAC) (JPL, mit, ncl) using a "Software Independent Exchange Format" (SINEX). The AC are also contributing daily ERPs as part of their weekly submission. The procedure in place simultaneously combines the weekly station coordinates, geocenter and daily ERP estimates. A cumulative solution containing station coordinates and velocity is also updated with each weekly combination. This provides a convenient way to closely monitor the quality of the estimated station coordinates and to have an up to date cumulative solution available at all times. To provide some necessary redundancy, the weekly station coordinates solution is compared against the GNAAC solutions. Each of the 3 GNAAC uses its own software, allowing independent verification of the combination process. The RMS of the coordinate differences in the north, east and up components between the AC/GNAAC and the ITRF97 Reference Frame Stations are 4-10 mm, 5-20 mm and 6-25 mm. The station velocities within continental plates are compared to the NNR-NUVEL1A plate motion model (DeMets et al., 1994). The north, east and up velocity RMS are 2 mm/y, 3 mm/y and 8 mm/y. Note that NNR-NUVEL1A assumes a zero vertical velocity.

  19. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  20. New results from FRECOPA analysis. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durin, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Given Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) new situation (5.8 years mission), CNES decided to set up a team to analyze FRECOPA systems (AO 138). We studied the kinematic system first. We observed damage on the DELRIN gears and lubricant ageing. The results are based on comparative appraisals between components after flight and those stored on ground in laboratory conditions. We observed also the aluminum surface treatment in the exposed areas and we measured the thermo-optical properties changes. Now, with all the results stored, we try to give a ruling on the use of FRECOPA materials in space environment.

  1. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  2. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    PubMed

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  3. SSL Adoption by Museums: Survey Results, Analysis, and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, T. E.; Druzik, J. R.; Miller, N. J.

    2014-11-01

    DOE Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY report that summarizes the results of a survey of the museum community regarding conversions to SSL in museums. Responses provided real-world insight into how LEDs are being incorporated into museums, and what successes and hurdles have been encountered in the process.

  4. Sims Prototype System 2 test results: Engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The testing, problems encountered, and the results and conclusions obtained from tests performed on the IBM Prototype System, 2, solar hot water system, at the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Test Facility was described. System 2 is a liquid, non draining solar energy system for supplying domestic hot water to single residences. The system consists of collectors, storage tank, heat exchanger, pumps and associated plumbing and controls.

  5. Irrigation customer survey procedures and results: Detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Weijo, R.O.

    1987-08-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of data obtained from telephone and in-person survey of irrigators in the Pacific Northwest region. The telephone survey involved approximately 1250 completed responses from irrigators selected from throughout the Northwest. The in-person survey, which is documented in this report, involved approximately 250 completed responses from irrigators within public utility districts that obtain electricity for serving irrigation loads from Bonneville.

  6. Thermal analysis of low layer density multilayer insulation test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Wesley

    2012-06-01

    Investigation of the thermal performance of low layer density multilayer insulations is important for designing long-duration space exploration missions involving the storage of cryogenic propellants. Theoretical calculations show an analytical optimal layer density. However, the appropriate test data by which to evaluate these calculations have been only recently obtained. As part of a recent research project, NASA procured several multilayer insulation test articles for calorimeter testing. These blanket-type test articles were configured to allow a layer density variation from 0.5 to 2.5 layers per millimeter. The coupon testing was completed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center using the cylindrical Cryostat-100 apparatus. The results show insulation properties as a function of layer density for multiple points. Overlaying these new results with data from the literature reveals an optimum layer density; however, the value is approximately twice as high as predicted. The data also show that the transition region between high vacuum and no vacuum is dependent on the spacing of the reflective layers. These results aid in the understanding of the performance parameters of MLI and help to complete the body of literature on the topic.

  7. Influence of barometric pressure on the results of chromatographic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sivchenko, V.Ya.; Mal'tsev, E.K.; Voloshina, I.V.; Simonov, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    Changes in barometric pressure introduce an additional error to the results obtained with different types of gas analyzers. These errors can be reduced or eliminated by technical steps or by the application of corrections to the results obtained. In this paper, the authors present the results of their determinations of correction coefficients for gases measured by the Poisk chromatograph in the range of barometric pressures from 80 to 120 kPa (from 600 to 900 mm Hg). The authors designed their investigations to simulate increased and reduced barometric pressures with respect to the calibration pressure simultaneously at the outlet from the chromatographic columns (carrier gas discarding tube) and in the dosed volume. A head in the dosing volume and in the carrier gas outlets from the columns, simulating an increase in atmospheric pressure, was created by using compressed gas from a cylinder and a regulating valve; dilution, corresponding to a decrease in atmospheric pressure, was created by a flow rate stimulator and a regulating valve. A storage capacity eliminated fluctuations of the reduced or excess pressure.

  8. [Experimental Conditions and Reliability Analysis of Results of COD components].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-hua; Zhang, Yin; Han, Xing; Yu, Ke; Li, Ru-jia

    2015-10-01

    The present study attempts to use SF( OUR(max)/OUR(en)) instead of S(0)/X(0) as an index of optimal initial conditions for determination of COD components by means of respirometry, thereby simplifying the measuring process and the operation can be automated. Further, the ratio of COD consumed by the growth of biomass can be used for the reliability assessment of results. Experimental results show that, experimental conditions for obtaining good results as follows: (1) for samples that composed of a large amount of easily biodegradable components (e. g., synthetic wastewater made by sodium acetate), SF should be in the range of 2.8 to 5.3, and the ratio of COD consumed by growth of biomass should be less than 30%; (2) for samples that composed of both readily biodegradable and slowly biodegradable components (i. e., typical domestic wastewater), SF should be in the range of 5.8 to 6.4, and the ratio of COD consumed by growth of biomass should be less than 30%; (3) and for samples that composed of a large amount of slowly biodegradable industrial wastewater (i. e., landfill leachate), SF should be 15 or less, and the ratio of COD consumed by growth of biomass should be approximately 40%. Therefore, when respirometry is used for the determination of COD components, the optimal conditions in terms of SF increase with the complexity of carbon source.

  9. Thermal Analysis of Low Layer Density Multilayer Insulation Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the thermal performance of low layer density multilayer insulations is important for designing long-duration space exploration missions involving the storage of cryogenic propellants. Theoretical calculations show an analytical optimal layer density, as widely reported in the literature. However, the appropriate test data by which to evaluate these calculations have been only recently obtained. As part of a recent research project, NASA procured several multilayer insulation test coupons for calorimeter testing. These coupons were configured to allow for the layer density to be varied from 0.5 to 2.6 layer/mm. The coupon testing was completed using the cylindrical Cryostat-l00 apparatus by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. The results show the properties of the insulation as a function of layer density for multiple points. Overlaying these new results with data from the literature reveals a minimum layer density; however, the value is higher than predicted. Additionally, the data show that the transition region between high vacuum and no vacuum is dependent on the spacing of the reflective layers. Historically this spacing has not been taken into account as thermal performance was calculated as a function of pressure and temperature only; however the recent testing shows that the data is dependent on the Knudsen number which takes into account pressure, temperature, and layer spacing. These results aid in the understanding of the performance parameters of MLI and help to complete the body of literature on the topic.

  10. MilleMiglia in Automatico tour: results and critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, Massimo; Broggi, Alberto; Fascioli, Alessandra

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the extensive test that has been performed to validate the vision-based automatic vehicle guidance system developed within the ARGO project at the University of Parma. After a brief introduction dealing with the main characteristics of the system installed onto the ARGO vehicle, the paper describes the 'MilleMiglia in Automatico' tour, its schedule and features. Finally the paper discusses the results collected during the tour and analyzes possible solutions that may be implemented in the future to make the system more robust with respect to the problems encountered during the test.

  11. Comparison of NASCAP modelling results with lumped circuit analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, D. B.; Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    Engineering design tools that can be used to predict the development of absolute and differential potentials by realistic spacecraft under geomagnetic substorm conditions are described. Two types of analyses are in use: (1) the NASCAP code, which computes quasistatic charging of geometrically complex objects with multiple surface materials in three dimensions; (2) lumped element equivalent circuit models that are used for analyses of particular spacecraft. The equivalent circuit models require very little computation time, however, they cannot account for effects, such as the formation of potential barriers, that are inherently multidimensional. Steady state potentials of structure and insulation are compared with those resulting from the equivalent circuit model.

  12. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  13. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  14. WorldView-2 data simulation and analysis results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puetz, Angela M.; Lee, Krista; Olsen, R. Chris

    2009-05-01

    The WorldView-2 sensor, to be launched mid-2009, will have 8 MSI bands - 4 standard MSI spectral channels and an additional 4 non-traditional bands. Hyperspectral data from the AURORA sensor (from the former Advanced Power Technologies, Inc. (APTI)) was used to simulate the spectral response of the WorldView-2 Sensor and DigitalGlobe's 4- band QuickBird system. A bandpass filter method was used to simulate the spectral response of the sensors. The resulting simulated images were analyzed to determine possible uses of the additional bands available with the WorldView-2 sensor. Particular attention is given to littoral (shallow water) applications. The overall classification accuracy for the simulated QuickBird scene was 89%, and 94% for the simulated WorldView-2 scene.

  15. Crustal dynamics project data analysis fixed station VLBI geodetic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Goddard VLBI group reports the results of analyzing the fixed observatory VLBI data available to the Crustal Dynamics Project through the end of 1984. All POLARIS/IRIS full-day data are included. The mobile site at Platteville, Colorado is also included since its occupation bears on the study of plate stability. Data from 1980 through 1984 were used to obtain the catalog of site and radio source positions labeled S284C. Using this catalog two types of one-day solutions were made: (1) to estimate site and baseline motions; and (2) to estimate Earth rotation parameters. A priori Earth rotation parameters were interpolated to the epoch of each observation from BIH Circular D.

  16. Exponentially small splitting of separatrices beyond Melnikov analysis: Rigorous results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldomá, Inmaculada; Fontich, Ernest; Guardia, Marcel; Seara, Tere M.

    We study the problem of exponentially small splitting of separatrices of one degree of freedom classical Hamiltonian systems with a non-autonomous perturbation fast and periodic in time. We provide a result valid for general systems which are algebraic or trigonometric polynomials in the state variables. It consists on obtaining a rigorous proof of the asymptotic formula for the measure of the splitting. We obtain that the splitting has the asymptotic behavior Kɛβe, identifying the constants K, β, a in terms of the system features. We consider several cases. In some cases, assuming the perturbation is small enough, the values of K, β coincide with the classical Melnikov approach. We identify the limit size of the perturbation for which this theory holds true. However for the limit cases, which appear naturally both in averaging and bifurcation theories, we encounter that, generically, K and β are not well predicted by Melnikov theory.

  17. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory Analysis and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Starr, Brett R.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air-data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  18. Nonlinear Fourier analysis for discontinuous conductivities: Computational results

    SciTech Connect

    Astala, Kari; Päivärinta, Lassi; Reyes, Juan Manuel; Siltanen, Samuli

    2014-11-01

    Two reconstruction methods of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) are numerically compared for nonsmooth conductivities in the plane based on the use of complex geometrical optics (CGO) solutions to D-bar equations involving the global uniqueness proofs for Calderón problem exposed in Nachman (1996) [43] and Astala and Päivärinta (2006) [6]: the Astala–Päivärinta theory-based low-pass transport matrix method implemented in Astala et al. (2011) [3] and the shortcut method which considers ingredients of both theories. The latter method is formally similar to the Nachman theory-based regularized EIT reconstruction algorithm studied in Knudsen et al. (2009) [34] and several references from there. New numerical results are presented using parallel computation with size parameters larger than ever, leading mainly to two conclusions as follows. First, both methods can approximate piecewise constant conductivities better and better as the cutoff frequency increases, and there seems to be a Gibbs-like phenomenon producing ringing artifacts. Second, the transport matrix method loses accuracy away from a (freely chosen) pivot point located outside of the object to be studied, whereas the shortcut method produces reconstructions with more uniform quality.

  19. Pediatric Glaucoma: A Literature's Review and Analysis of Surgical Results

    PubMed Central

    Scuderi, Gianluca; Iacovello, Daniela; Pranno, Federica; Plateroti, Pasquale; Scuderi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the surgical options available for the management of pediatric glaucoma, to evaluate their advantages and disadvantages together with their long-term efficacy, all with the intent to give guidelines to physicians on which elements are to be considered when taking a surgical decision. Currently there is a range of surgical procedures that are being used for the management of pediatric glaucoma. Within these, some are completely new approaches, while others are improvements of the more traditional procedures. Throughout this vast range of surgical options, angle surgery remains the first choice in mild cases and both goniotomy and trabeculotomy have good success rates. Trabeculectomy with or without mitomycin C (MMC) is preferred in refractory cases, in aphakic eyes, and in older children. GDIs have a good success rate in aphakic eyes. Nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy is still rarely used; nevertheless the results of ongoing studies are encouraging. The different clinical situations should always be weighed against the risks associated with the procedures for the individual patients. Glaucomatous progression can occur many years after its stabilization and at any time during the follow-up period; for this reason life-long assessment is necessary. PMID:26451368

  20. Analysis of results of ASTP experiment in electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.; Krumrine, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) included an electrophoretic separation experiment of biological cells. The nature separation results of aldehyde-fixed rabbit, human and horse red blood cells, which were taken in the form of photographs taken at three-minute intervals, are the subject of this report. The electrophoretic separation was successful in that fractionation according to mobility did occur and was found in the sliced samples. Photographic evidence indicates that the low electroosmotic methylcellulose coating was successful in reducing the electroosmosis to a near zero value. Also, the flight film shows that the bands migrated down the column as theory would predict, producing two bands of high cell concentration separated and surrounded by regions of lower cell concentration. However, most likely some clumping of cells occurred to cause the trailing band to be larger than expected from theory. Overall, the experiment was a success in demonstrating a static electrophoresis separation under microgravity conditions with a resolution not possible on earth.

  1. Current results from a Rover Science Data Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Judd, Michele; Estlin, Tara; Anderson, Robert C.; Gaines, Daniel; Castano, Andres; Bornstein, Ben; Stough, Tim; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the OASIS system, and then describe our recent successes in integrating with and using rover hardware. OASIS currently works in a closed loop fashion with onboard control software (e.g., navigation and vision) and has the ability to autonomously perform the following sequence of steps: analyze gray scale images to find rocks, extract the properties of the rocks, identify rocks of interest, retask the rover to take additional imagery of the identified target and then allow the rover to continue on its original mission. We also describe the early 2004 ground test validation of specific OASIS components on selected Mars Exploration Rover (MER) images. These components include the rockfinding algorithm, RockIT, and the rock size feature extraction code. Our team also developed the RockIT GUI, an interface that allows users to easily visualize and modify the rock-finder results. This interface has allowed us to conduct preliminary testing and validation of the rockfinder's performance.

  2. Development of Test-Analysis Models (TAM) for correlation of dynamic test and analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelucci, Filippo; Javeed, Mehzad; Mcgowan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of structural analysis of aerospace applications is to obtain a verified finite element model (FEM). The verified FEM can be used for loads analysis, evaluate structural modifications, or design control systems. Verification of the FEM is generally obtained as the result of correlating test and FEM models. A test analysis model (TAM) is very useful in the correlation process. A TAM is essentially a FEM reduced to the size of the test model, which attempts to preserve the dynamic characteristics of the original FEM in the analysis range of interest. Numerous methods for generating TAMs have been developed in the literature. The major emphasis of this paper is a description of the procedures necessary for creation of the TAM and the correlation of the reduced models with the FEM or the test results. Herein, three methods are discussed, namely Guyan, Improved Reduced System (IRS), and Hybrid. Also included are the procedures for performing these analyses using MSC/NASTRAN. Finally, application of the TAM process is demonstrated with an experimental test configuration of a ten bay cantilevered truss structure.

  3. TEWI Analysis: Its Utility, Its Shortcomings, and Its Results

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, V.D.; Fischer, S.K.; Sand, J.R.

    1999-09-13

    The past decade has been a challenging time for the refrigeration and air conditioning industry worldwide. Provisions of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments require the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) compounds that have been used extensively as insulating foam blowing agents and refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps, and air conditioners. In response, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) compounds were proposed, developed, and are starting to be used as the primary alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs. However, in 1997 under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized nations have agreed to roll back emissions of HCFCs, carbon dioxide (CO*), and four other greenhouse gases which threaten to cause excessive global warming. The US. Department of Energy and the Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) jointly sponsored research projects to identify the major applications of CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs and to examine the impacts of these compounds and the energy use of applications employing these compounds on global warming. The five major uses of fluorocarbons based on sales were automobile air conditioning, supermarket refrigeration, unitary heat pumps and air conditioning, chillers for cooling large office buildings, and household refrigeration. Almost all of the refrigerants used in these applications are global warming gases, and if the refrigerant leaks out of the system during operation, is lost during maintenance or is not recovered when the system is scraped, it contributes to global warming. But, it is also true that the energy consumed by refrigeration and air conditioning systems, in the form of electricity or the direct combustion of fossil fuel, results in the release of CO*, the primary cause of atmospheric global warming.

  4. Gravity Probe B Data Analysis Challenges, Insights, and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, G. M.

    2007-04-01

    Telemetry data were collected from the Gravity Probe B satellite from its launch on April 20, 2004, through the depletion of the superfluid liquid helium on September 29, 2005. This interval included three distinct phases of the mission: the 123 day initialization phase, an eleven month science data collection phase, and a 45 day calibration phase. During the science data collection phase, the satellite rolled about the direction to the guide star, IM Pegasi, at a 77.5 second period. Data from the SQUID readout systems at the satellite roll rate were used to determine the orientation of each of the four gyroscope spin axes relative to the quartz block metrology reference frame. When the guide star, IM Pegasi, was not occulted by the earth, data from redundant readouts of the two axes of the cryogenic telescope were used to determine the orientation of the guide star relative to the quartz block. The SQUID and telescope data were combined to provide the orientation of the gyroscope spin axes relative to the apparent position of the guide star. The 5 arc sec optical aberration of the guide star due to the orbital velocity of the spacecraft was used to determine the gyroscope readout scale factor and to determine the orientation of the pickup loop relative to the measured roll phase of the satellite as provided by two star tracking telescopes. The eleven month data set was used to determine the rate of change of the gyroscope spin axes relative to the guide star. This talk will discuss the first results and sources of statistical and systematic error.

  5. Liver biopsy: Analysis of results of two specialist teams

    PubMed Central

    Anania, Giulia; Gigante, Elia; Piciucchi, Matteo; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Pucci, Eugenio; Pellicelli, Adriano Maria; Capotondi, Carlo; Rossi, Michele; Baccini, Flavia; Antonelli, Giulio; Begini, Paola; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Marignani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the safety and the adequacy of a sample of liver biopsies (LB) obtained by gastroenterologist (G) and interventional radiologist (IR) teams. METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients evaluated at our GI unit from 01/01/2004 to 31/12/2010 for whom LB was considered necessary to diagnose and/or stage liver disease, both in the setting of day hospital and regular admission (RA) care, were retrieved and the data entered in a database. Patients were divided into two groups: one undergoing an ultrasonography (US)-assisted procedure by the G team and one undergoing US-guided biopsy by the IR team. For the first group, an intercostal approach (US-assisted) and a Menghini modified type needle 16 G (length 90 mm) were used. The IR team used a subcostal approach (US-guided) and a semiautomatic modified Menghini type needle 18 G (length 150 mm). All the biopsies were evaluated for appropriateness according to the current guidelines. The number of portal tracts present in each biopsy was assessed by a revision performed by a single pathologist unaware of the previous pathology report. Clinical, laboratory and demographic patient characteristics, the adverse events rate and the diagnostic adequacy of LB were analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, 226 patients, 126 males (56%) and 100 females (44%), underwent LB: 167 (74%) were carried out by the G team, whereas 59 (26%) by the IR team. LB was mostly performed in a day hospital setting by the G team, while IR completed more procedures on inpatients (P < 0.0001). The groups did not differ in median age, body mass index (BMI), presence of comorbidities and coagulation parameters. Complications occurred in 26 patients (16 G team vs 10 IR team, P = 0.15). Most gross samples obtained were considered suitable for basal histological evaluation, with no difference among the two teams (96.4% G team vs 91.5% IR, P = 0.16). However, the samples obtained by the G team had a higher mean number of portal tracts (G

  6. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    modeling initially presented in the Phase 1 report. This section also provides a revised payback analysis comparing the active desiccant systems selected with the other, more conventional approaches to specialized outdoor air handling units listed in the Phase 1 report. This report concludes with a look at the importance of analyzing active desiccant systems on the basis of ''latent air conditioning'' and not the more traditional ''total cooling capacity''. Since handling latent load will always be the primary reason for using an active desiccant system, it is concluded that the technology must be positioned as a ''latent air conditioner'' in the marketplace. In past analyses, active desiccant systems have been too often compared with conventional cooling systems based on total cooling output. The resulting $/ton ratios that have resulted almost always made the active approach appear as if a very significant first-cost premium were required.

  7. CCN Activity, Hygroscopicity, and Droplet Activation Kinetics of Secondary Organic Aerosol Resulting from the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Lathem, T. L.; Cerully, K.; Bahreini, R.; Brock, C. A.; Langridge, J. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Nenes, A.; Calnex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    We present an analysis of the hygroscopicity and droplet activation kinetics of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sampled onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D aircraft downwind of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site on June 8th and 10th, 2010. This set of measurements provides a unique case study for assessing in-situ the impact of fresh, hydrocarbonlike aerosols, which are expected to be formed via gas-to-particle conversion of the semi-volatile vapors released from oil evaporation. Similar hydrocarbon-rich aerosols constitute an important local emissions source in urban areas, but often coexist as an external/partially-internal mixture with more-oxidized, aged organic and sulfate aerosol. The DWH site provides the means to study the hygroscopic properties of these less-oxidized organic aerosols above a cleaner environmental background typical of marine environments in order to better discern their contribution to CCN activity and droplet growth. Measurements were performed with a Droplet Measurement Technologies Streamwise, Thermal-Gradient CCN counter, operating both as a counter (s=0.3%) and as a spectrometer (s=0.2-0.6%) using the newly-developed Scanning Flow CCN Analysis (SFCA) technique [1]. The instrument measures both the number concentration of particles able to nucleate droplets and also their resulting droplet sizes. The measured size information combined with a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics instrument model enables us to determine the rate of water uptake onto the particles and parameterize it in terms of an effective mass transfer coefficient [2], a key parameter needed to predict the number of activated droplets in ambient clouds. Non-refractory aerosol chemical composition was measured with an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. It was observed that the aerosols sampled downwind of the site on both days were composed predominantly of organics with a low degree of oxidation and low

  8. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations. PMID:25580080

  9. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  10. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimizationmore » problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.« less

  11. Low dose cadmium poisoning results in sustained ERK phosphorylation and caspase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Patrick . E-mail: pmartin@unice.fr; Poggi, Marie Christine . E-mail: poggi@unice.fr; Chambard, Jean Claude . E-mail: chambard@unice.fr; Boulukos, Kim E. . E-mail: boulukos@unice.fr; Pognonec, Philippe . E-mail: pognonec@unice.fr

    2006-11-24

    Cadmium poisoning has been known to result in a wide variety of cellular responses, including oxidative stress and kinase activation. It has been reported that ERK is activated following acute cadmium exposure, and this response is commonly seen as a classical ERK survival mechanism. Here, we analyzed different cell types for their responses to low concentrations of cadmium poisoning. We found that there is an association between cell susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and ERK activation. This activation is atypical, since it consists of a sustained ERK phosphorylation, that lasts up to 6 days post stimulation. This activation is associated with the appearance of cleaved caspases 8 and 3, processed PARP, and irreversible damage. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK phosphorylation results in the ability of cells to resist cadmium poisoning. Our data indicate that low cadmium concentrations result in an unconventional ERK sustained phosphorylation, which in turn leads to death signaling.

  12. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  13. Analysis of retrotransposon activity in plants.

    PubMed

    Defraia, Christopher; Slotkin, R Keith

    2014-01-01

    Retrotransposons are transposable elements that duplicate themselves by converting their transcribed RNA genome into cDNA, which is then integrated back into the genome. Retrotransposons can be divided into two major classes based on their mechanism of transposition and the presence or absence of long terminal repeats (LTRs). In contrast to mammalian genomes, in which non-LTR retrotransposons have proliferated, plant genomes show evolutionary evidence of an explosion in LTR retrotransposon copy number. These retrotransposons can comprise a large fraction of the genome (75 % in maize). Although often viewed as molecular parasites, retrotransposons have been shown to influence neighboring gene expression and play a structural and potential regulatory role in the centromere. To prevent retrotransposon activity, eukaryotic cells have evolved overlapping mechanisms to repress transposition. Plants are an excellent system for studying the mechanisms of LTR retrotransposon inhibition such as DNA methylation and small RNA-mediated degradation of retrotransposon transcripts. However, analysis of these multi-copy, mobile elements is considerably more difficult than analysis of single-copy genes located in stable regions of the genome. In this chapter we outline methods for analyzing the progress of LTR retrotransposons through their replication cycle in plants. We describe a mixture of traditional molecular biology experiments, such as Southern, Northern, and Western blotting, in addition to nontraditional techniques designed to take advantage of the specific mechanism of LTR retrotransposition.

  14. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

  15. Oscillatory phase modulates the timing of neuronal activations and resulting behavior.

    PubMed

    Coon, W G; Gunduz, A; Brunner, P; Ritaccio, A L; Pesaran, B; Schalk, G

    2016-06-01

    Human behavioral response timing is highly variable from trial to trial. While it is generally understood that behavioral variability must be due to trial-by-trial variations in brain function, it is still largely unknown which physiological mechanisms govern the timing of neural activity as it travels through networks of neuronal populations, and how variations in the timing of neural activity relate to variations in the timing of behavior. In our study, we submitted recordings from the cortical surface to novel analytic techniques to chart the trajectory of neuronal population activity across the human cortex in single trials, and found joint modulation of the timing of this activity and of consequent behavior by neuronal oscillations in the alpha band (8-12Hz). Specifically, we established that the onset of population activity tends to occur during the trough of oscillatory activity, and that deviations from this preferred relationship are related to changes in the timing of population activity and the speed of the resulting behavioral response. These results indicate that neuronal activity incurs variable delays as it propagates across neuronal populations, and that the duration of each delay is a function of the instantaneous phase of oscillatory activity. We conclude that the results presented in this paper are supportive of a general model for variability in the effective speed of information transmission in the human brain and for variability in the timing of human behavior. PMID:26975551

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Edelmann, Paul Guy; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  17. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  18. Does Pedometer Goal Setting Improve Physical Activity among Native Elders? Results from a Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Craig N.; Russo, Joan E.; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    We examined if step-count goal setting resulted in increases in physical activity and walking compared to only monitoring step counts with pedometers among American Indian/Alaska Native elders. Outcomes included step counts, self-reported physical activity and well-being, and performance on the 6-minute walk test. Although no significant…

  19. Preliminary Results from the iMUSH Active Source Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Kiser, Eric; Palomeras, Imma; Zelt, Colin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steve; Harder, Steven; Creagar, Kenneth; Vidale, John; Abers, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    iMUSH (imaging Magma Under Saint Helens) is a US NSF sponsored multi-disciplinary investigation of Mount Saint Helens (MSH), currently the most active volcano in the Cascades arc in the northwestern United States. The project consists of active and passive seismic experiments, extensive magnetotelluric sounding, and geological/geochemical studies involving scientists at 7 institutions in the U.S. and Europe. The long-term goal of the seismic project is to combine analysis of the active source data with that of data from the 70 element broadband seismograph operating from summer 2014 until 2016. Combining seismic and MT analyses with other data, we hope to image the MSH volcanic plumbing system from the surface to the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Here we describe preliminary results of the iMUSH active source seismic experiment, conducted in July and August 2014. The active source experiment consisted of twenty-three 454 or 908 kg weight shots recorded by ~3500 seismographs deployed at ~6,000 locations. Of these instruments, ~900 Nodal Seismic instruments were deployed continuously for two weeks in an areal array within 10 km of the MSH summit. 2,500 PASSCAL Texan instruments were deployed twice for five days in 3 areal arrays and 2 dense orthogonal linear arrays that extended from MSH to distances > 80 km. Overall the data quality from the shots is excellent. The seismograph arrays also recorded dozens of micro-earthquakes beneath the MSH summit and along the MSH seismic zone, and numerous other local and regional earthquakes. In addition, at least one low frequency event beneath MSH was recorded during the experiment. At this point we have begun various types of analysis of the data set: We have determined an average 1D Vp structure from stacking short-term/long-term average ratios, we have determined the 2-D Vp structure from ray-trace inversions along the two orthogonal profiles (in the NW-SE and NE-SW directions), and we have made low-fold CMP stacks of the

  20. Neural network-assisted ("NNA") analysis of cervical smears: pooled effectiveness results and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mango; Radensky

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of cervical cancer smear screening with neural network-assisted ("NNA") rescreening.Methods: The Papnet system of NNA analysis of cervical smears has been in clinical use worldwide for over 3 years and has been the subject of over 22 published manuscripts reporting on data from over 202,000 smears. This investigation reviewed the results of these studies and classified each study according to study design using a systematic protocol based on reference validation, diagnostic threshold for abnormal, and outcome metric. This classification taxonomy allowed for weighted (based on number of cases in each study) pooling of studies for each study design class. The pooled effectiveness metrics were used to derive the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening, using a baseline unassisted screening sensitivity of 85%. Other effectiveness metrics determined by this analysis include NNA's sensitivity as a primary screener, comparisons with primary unassisted screening, and comparisons of NNA rescreening and unassisted rescreening.Results: Analyses of the weighted, pooled mean estimates for each of the principal outcome metrics indicate the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA ranges from 90% to 99%; most pooled estimates fall in the range of 97-99%. An economic analysis using the APL-based "Cervical Cancer Screen" computer model developed by Eddy (Eddy DM. Screening for cervical cancer. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:214-26) and these effectiveness estimates as inputs showed that NNA analysis involves an accepted level of resource expenditure (approximately $40,000 per life year saved) when added to unassisted screening on a triennial basis.Conclusion: The sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening using the Papnet system yields sensitivities in excess of 90% and approaching 99%.

  1. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  2. AR-CITE: Analysis of Search Results for the Clarification and Identification of Technology Emergence

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-15

    The Analysis of Search Results for the Clarification and Identification of Technology Emergence (AR-CITE) computer code examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e. scholarly publications and citation, world patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the subject domain to be clarified and identified.

  3. AR-CITE: Analysis of Search Results for the Clarification and Identification of Technology Emergence

    2012-06-15

    The Analysis of Search Results for the Clarification and Identification of Technology Emergence (AR-CITE) computer code examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct andmore » separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e. scholarly publications and citation, world patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the subject domain to be clarified and identified.« less

  4. Preliminary results from a study of the impact of digital activity trackers on health risk status.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Roberts, Dinah; Cercos, Robert; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Digital activity trackers are becoming increasingly more widespread and affordable, providing new opportunities to support participatory e-health programs in which participants take an active role. However, there is limited knowledge of how to deploy these activity trackers within these programs. In response, we conducted a 7-month study with 212 employees using a wireless activity tracker to log step count. Our results suggest that these devices can support improving physical activity levels and consequently reduce diabetes risk factors. Furthermore, the intervention seems more effective for people with higher risk factors. With our work we aim to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in the design of participatory e-health programs that include activity trackers. PMID:25087541

  5. Subliminal psychodynamic activation: updated comprehensive list of experimental results and comments on previous lists.

    PubMed

    Fudin, R; Benjamin, C

    1992-06-01

    A comprehensive list of results from visual subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments is presented. This list includes results reported since the publication of the last comprehensive list by Weinberger and Hardaway in 1990 and several results not found on that list. On the present list, SPA results are categorized according to criteria that we contend are more objective than those used previously. In contrast to conclusions drawn from previous lists prepared by Silverman in 1980 and 1983, by Weinberger and Hardaway in 1990, and by Weinberger and Silverman in 1987, the present list indicates that the results of a majority of experiments do not clearly support hypotheses tested by the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Aspects of Hardaway's meta-analyses from 1987 and 1990 for major areas of research on subliminal psychodynamic activation are discussed in terms of suggestions for further research. PMID:1608734

  6. β-Eliminative depolymerization of the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and anticoagulant activities of resulting fragments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Na; Lu, Feng; Xiao, Chuang; Yang, Lian; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Kai; Wen, Dandan; Li, Zi; Wu, Mingyi; Jiang, Jianmin; Liu, Guangming; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS) from sea cucumber with complex structure has potent anticoagulant activity by inhibition of intrinsic tenase; however, it could activate factor XII and platelet. To obtain FCS' fragments with selective inhibition on intrinsic tenase, a method for β-eliminative depolymerization of FCS was developed by treating FCS benzyl esters with alkaline in anhydrous solution. Our results demonstrated that the glycosidic linkages of GalNAc-β1, 4-GlcA were selectively cleaved and distinctive Δ(4,5) unsaturated hexuronic acid was formed at non-reducing end of resulting fragments, while the main structures were essentially stable during depolymerization. By this method, five depolymerized fragments (dFCSs) with various molecular sizes were prepared and their anticoagulant activities and activation activities of factor XII and platelet were compared. Overall, dFCSs with Mw 3.2-8.8 kDa reserved potent anticoagulant activities by inhibition of intrinsic tenase, and activation activities of factor XII or platelet could be diminished or eliminated.

  7. High Fc Density Particles Result in Binary Complement Activation but Tunable Macrophage Phagocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulchek, Todd; Pacheco, Patricia; White, David

    2014-03-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis and complement system activation represent two key components of the immune system and both can be activated through the presentation of multiple Fc domains of IgG antibodies. We have created functionalized micro- and nanoparticles with various densities of Fc domains to understand the modulation of the immune system for eventual use as a novel immunomodulation platform. Phagocytosis assays were carried out by adding functionalized particles to macrophage cells and quantitatively determined using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Complement system activation by the functionalized particles in human serum was quantified with an enzyme immunoassay. Our phagocytosis assay revealed a strong dependence on particle size and Fc density. For small particles, as the Fc density increased, the number of particles phagocytosed also increased. Large particles were phagocytosed at significantly lower levels and showed no dependency on Fc density. Complement was successfully activated at levels comparable to positive controls for small particles at high Fc densities. However at low Fc densities, there is a significant decrease in complement activation. This result suggests a binary response for complement system activation with a threshold density for successful activation. Therefore, varying the Fc density on micro/nanoparticles resulted in a tunable response in macrophage phagocytosis while a more binary response for complement activation.

  8. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Frelinger, Andrew L.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Garner, Allen L.; Torres, Andrew S.; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neculaes, V. Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. Aims To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. Methods PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. Results PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the

  9. Quantitative analysis of cardiovascular modulation in respiratory neural activity.

    PubMed

    Dick, Thomas E; Morris, Kendall F

    2004-05-01

    We propose the 'delta(2)-statistic' for assessing the magnitude and statistical significance of arterial pulse-modulated activity of single neurones and present the results of applying this tool to medullary respiratory-modulated units. This analytical tool is a modification of the eta(2)-statistic and, consequently, based on the analysis of variance. The eta(2)-statistic reflects the consistency of respiratory-modulated activity on a cycle-by-cycle basis. However, directly applying this test to activity during the cardiac cycle proved ineffective because subjects-by-treatments matrices did not contain enough 'information'. We increased information by dividing the cardiac cycle into fewer bins, excluding cycles without activity and summing activity over multiple cycles. The analysed neuronal activity was an existing data set examining the neural control of respiration and cough. Neurones were recorded in the nuclei of the solitary tracts, and in the rostral and caudal ventral respiratory groups of decerebrate, neuromuscularly blocked, ventilated cats (n= 19). Two hundred of 246 spike trains were respiratory modulated; of these 53% were inspiratory (I), 36.5% expiratory (E), 6% IE phase spanning and 4.5% EI phase spanning and responsive to airway stimulation. Nearly half (n= 96/200) of the respiratory-modulated units were significantly pulse modulated and 13 were highly modulated with delta(2) values exceeding 0.3. In 10 of these highly modulated units, eta(2) values were greater than 0.3 and all 13 had, at least, a portion of their activity during expiration. We conclude that cardiorespiratory interaction is reciprocal; in addition to respiratory-modulated activity in a subset of neuronal activity patterns controlling the cardiovascular system, pulse-modulated activity exists in a subset of neuronal activity patterns controlling the respiratory system. Thus, cardio-ventilatory coupling apparent in respiratory motor output is evident and, perhaps, derived from the

  10. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  11. Post-Knowledge of Results Delay: Effects of Interpolated Activity on Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Carol; McCullagh, Penny

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence strongly supports the assumption that knowledge of results (KR) is necessary for learning to occur. This study compares the effects of KR or no-KR with the effects of an interpolated verbal activity on learning and performance of a timed motor task. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  12. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the EMU 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) No. 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 water entered the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet resulting in the termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) approximately 1-hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5-L of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronauts hearing, vision and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based TT and E (Test, Tear-down and Evaluation) of the affected EMU hardware components led to the determination that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator function which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Filter Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  13. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations.

  14. Analysis of health effects resulting from population exposures to acid precipitation precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaynak, H; Spengler, J D

    1985-01-01

    Types of available studies relevant to the quantification of air pollution health effects and their principal limitations are discussed. Assessments are provided based on review and re-analysis of previously reported data bases, synthesis of published findings, and original analysis of health data sets using new methods or recent size-specific particle mass measurements. Interim results from ongoing research activities on airborne particle health effects are presented. It is shown that preliminary results obtained from cross-sectional and time-series mortality studies appear to be consistent, indicating that particulate air pollution, even at current levels, could be of concern for public health. Throughout the paper, methodological deficiencies and remaining gaps in knowledge are identified. In particular, uncertainties associated with the reported exposure-response coefficients are assessed. Finally, by characterizing the limitations of analysis we propose various recommendations for future studies and research that will serve to further define the nature, magnitude, and uncertainties of air pollution health risks. PMID:4076093

  15. Finite element analysis of lightweight active primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei Xin; Guan, Chun Lin; Rao, Chang Hui

    2012-09-01

    With the increasing requirement on spatial resolution to achieve ideal performance in space-based optical imaging system, there is a need to enlarge primary apertures. However, primary mirrors of such systems cannot maintain its optical tolerances across the mirror surface after sending to space, because of gravity change and varying ambient temperature. It necessitates active optics technology of primary mirror surface correction. Since mass-to-orbit is expensive and limited, lightweight primary mirror is needed. The paper investigates a lightweight, active primary mirror. This primary mirror structure includes lightweight face sheet and substrate with surface-parallel actuators embedded in the recess of web support ribs. Finite element models of lightweight, active primary mirror structures with different structural parameters are established and simulated. Using the response function matrixes acquired from finite element analysis, the fitting errors for Zernike polynomials are computed by MATLAB. Correctability comparisons of lightweight, active primary mirror structures with different parameters are carried out. To get best correctability, the mirrors should have small recess depth, high and thin ribs, thick face sheets and long actuators. The structural analysis result will be valuable for the design of lightweight, active primary mirror.

  16. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP) - Recent Results from an Airborne Simulator for SMAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP) is a recently-developed NASA airborne instrument specially tailored to simulate the new Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite instrument suite. SLAP conducted its first test flights in December, 2013 and participated in its first science campaign-the IPHEX ground validation campaign of the GPM mission-in May, 2014. This paper will present results from additional test flights and science observations scheduled for 2015.

  17. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in yeast.

    PubMed

    Elion, Elaine A; Sahoo, Rupam

    2010-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play central roles in transmitting extracellular and intracellular information in a wide variety of situations in eukaryotic cells. Their activities are perturbed in a large number of diseases, and their activating kinases are currently therapeutic targets in cancer. MAPKs are highly conserved among all eukaryotes. MAPKs were first cloned from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast has five MAPKs and one MAPK-like kinase. The mating MAPK Fus3 is the best characterized yeast MAPK. Members of all subfamilies of human MAPKs can functionally substitute S. cerevisiae MAPKs, providing systems to use genetic approaches to study the functions of either yeast or human MAPKs and to identify functionally relevant amino acid residues that enhance or reduce the effects of therapeutically relevant inhibitors and regulatory proteins. Here, we describe an assay to measure Fus3 activity in immune complexes prepared from S. cerevisiae extracts. The assay conditions are applicable to other MAPKs, as well. PMID:20811996

  18. Does pedometer goal setting improve physical activity among Native elders? Results from a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Russo, Joan E; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    We examined if step-count goal setting resulted in increases in physical activity and walking compared to only monitoring step counts with pedometers among American Indian/Alaska Native elders. Outcomes included step counts, self-reported physical activity and well-being, and performance on the 6-minute walk test. Although no significant between-group differences were found, within-group analyses indicated that elders significantly improved on the majority of step count, physical activity, health-related quality of life, and 6-minute walk outcomes.

  19. Early activation of caspases during T lymphocyte stimulation results in selective substrate cleavage in nonapoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Alam, A; Cohen, L Y; Aouad, S; Sékaly, R P

    1999-12-20

    Apoptosis induced by T cell receptor (TCR) triggering in T lymphocytes involves activation of cysteine proteases of the caspase family through their proteolytic processing. Caspase-3 cleavage was also reported during T cell stimulation in the absence of apoptosis, although the physiological relevance of this response remains unclear. We show here that the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) blocks proliferation, major histocompatibility complex class II expression, and blastic transformation during stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, T cell activation triggers the selective processing and activation of downstream caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7), but not caspase-1, -2, or -4, as demonstrated even in intact cells using a cell-permeable fluorescent substrate. Caspase-3 processing occurs in different T cell subsets (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD45RA(+), and CD45RO(+)), and in activated B lymphocytes. The pathway leading to caspase activation involves death receptors and caspase-8, which is also processed after TCR triggering, but not caspase-9, which remains as a proenzyme. Most importantly, caspase activity results in a selective substrate specificity, since poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), lamin B, and Wee1 kinase, but not DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45) or replication factor C (RFC140), are processed. Caspase and substrate processing occur in nonapoptotic lymphocytes. Thus, caspase activation is an early and physiological response in viable, stimulated lymphocytes, and appears to be involved in early steps of lymphocyte activation. PMID:10601362

  20. Depolymerization of Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate with a Modified Fenton-System and Anticoagulant Activity of the Resulting Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-hui; Li, Shan; Zhi, Zi-jian; Yan, Lu-feng; Ye, Xing-qian; Ding, Tian; Yan, Lei; Linhardt, Robert John; Chen, Shi-guo

    2016-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) from sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) with a chondroitin sulfate type E (CSE) backbone and 2,4-O-sulfo fucose branches has shown excellent anticoagulant activity although has also show severe adverse effects. Depolymerization represents an effective method to diminish this polysaccharide’s side effects. The present study reports a modified controlled Fenton system for degradation of fCS-Ib and the anticoagulant activity of the resulting fragments. Monosaccharides and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the resulting fragments indicate that no significant chemical changes in the backbone of fCS-Ib and no loss of sulfate groups take place during depolymerization. A reduction in the molecular weight of fCS-Ib should result in a dramatic decrease in prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. A decrease in the inhibition of thrombin (FIIa) by antithromin III (AT III) and heparin cofactor II (HCII), and the slight decrease of the inhibition of factor X activity, results in a significant increase of anti-factor Xa (FXa)/anti-FIIa activity ratio. The modified free-radical depolymerization method enables preparation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides suitable for investigation of clinical anticoagulant application. PMID:27657094

  1. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Phase I Status and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. One way to address the uncertainties in the HTGR analysis tools is to assess the sensitivity of critical parameters (such as the calculated maximum fuel temperature during loss of coolant accidents) to a few important input uncertainties. The input parameters were identified by engineering judgement in the past but are today typically based on a Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) process. The input parameters can also be derived from sensitivity studies and are then varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, there is often no easy way to compensate for these uncertainties. In engineering system design, a common approach for addressing performance uncertainties is to add compensating margins to the system, but with passive properties credited it is not so clear how to apply it in the case of modular HTGR heat removal path. Other more sophisticated uncertainty modelling approaches, including Monte Carlo analysis, have also been proposed and applied. Ideally one wishes to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies, and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Therefore some safety analysis calculations may use a mixture of these approaches for different parameters depending upon the particular requirements of the analysis problem involved. Sensitivity analysis can for example be used to provide information as part of an uncertainty analysis to determine best estimate plus uncertainty results to the

  2. Multidisciplinary analysis of actively controlled large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    The control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program has supported the development of an analysis capability at the Langley Research Center called the Integrated Multidisciplinary Analysis Tool (IMAT) which provides an efficient data storage and transfer capability among commercial computer codes to aid in the dynamic analysis of actively controlled structures. IMAT is a system of computer programs which transfers Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) configurations, structural finite element models, material property and stress information, structural and rigid-body dynamic model information, and linear system matrices for control law formulation among various commercial applications programs through a common database. Although general in its formulation, IMAT was developed specifically to aid in the evaluation of the structures. A description of the IMAT system and results of an application of the system are given.

  3. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

  4. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children.

    PubMed

    Kersey, Alyssa J; James, Karin H

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters-in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback.

  5. Return to sporting activity after Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty: Mid term results

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, Nemandra; Muirhead-Allwood, SK; Skinner, JA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is primarily indicated for young, active patients with disabling coxarthrosis who wish to remain active and return to sports after surgery. Relatively few prospective studies have assessed return to sporting activity and impact of gender and age on this. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine consecutive patients treated with HRA were included. Patients were reviewed clinically and radiologically. Function was assessed using the modified University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score. The Oxford, Harris and WOMAC hip scores were calculated. Results: Average age at the time of surgery was 54.9 years (range 34.5–73.6 years). Average preoperative and postoperative UCLA scores were 4 and 7.6 respectively. Patients were involved in 2 (0–4) sporting activities preoperatively and 2 (0–5) postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative Oxford Hip Scores, Harris Hip Score and WOMAC scores were 40, 46 and 51 and 16, 94 and 3 respectively (P < 0.0001). Patients returned to sports at an average of 3 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Patients were able to return to sports by 3 months and perform the same number of activities at preoperative intensity. Activity levels are maintained up to the medium term with few complications. PMID:26806965

  6. Deriving rules from activity diary data: A learning algorithm and results of computer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arentze, Theo A.; Hofman, Frank; Timmermans, Harry J. P.

    Activity-based models consider travel as a derived demand from the activities households need to conduct in space and time. Over the last 15 years, computational or rule-based models of activity scheduling have gained increasing interest in time-geography and transportation research. This paper argues that a lack of techniques for deriving rules from empirical data hinders the further development of rule-based systems in this area. To overcome this problem, this paper develops and tests an algorithm for inductively deriving rules from activity-diary data. The decision table formalism is used to exhaustively represent the theoretically possible decision rules that individuals may use in sequencing a given set of activities. Actual activity patterns of individuals are supplied to the system as examples. In an incremental learning process, the system progressively improves on the selection of rules used for reproducing the examples. Computer experiments based on simulated data are performed to fine-tune rule selection and rule value update functions. The results suggest that the system is effective and fairly robust for parameter settings. It is concluded, therefore, that the proposed approach opens up possibilities to derive empirically tested rule-based models of activity scheduling. Follow-up research will be concerned with testing the system on empirical data.

  7. What clinical activities do advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists perform? Results of a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; Rothpletz Puglia, Pamela; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Activities performed by advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have yet to be clearly elucidated. The study aimed to gain consensus on the practice activities of advanced-practice RDNs who provide direct clinical nutrition care. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDN experts working as clinicians and/or managers in direct care settings that met inclusion criteria for advanced-level practice. In Round 1, 85 experts provided open-ended advanced-level practice activities linked to the Nutrition Care Process sections. Using content analysis, the responses were coded into activity statements. In Round 2, experts rated the essentiality of these activities. In Round 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus while viewing their previous rating, the group median, and comments. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 were neither essential nor nonessential, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to each question was <2.0. Seventy-six (89.4%) experts completed all rounds. From 770 comments, 129 activity statements were generated. All statements reached consensus: 97.7% as essential; 0.8% as nonessential; and 1.5% as neither. Of essential activities, 67.5% were highly essential with limited variability (median=1.0; interquartile range≤2.0). Advanced-practice RDNs' tasks are patient-centered and reflect complex care; involve a comprehensive and discriminating approach; are grounded in advanced knowledge and expertise in clinical nutrition; include use of advanced interviewing, education, and counseling strategies; and require communication with patient, families, and the health care team. The high-level of consensus from experts suggest advanced-level clinical nutrition practice exists and can be defined.

  8. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, H.W.; Hardin, E.L.; Nelson, P.H.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Nonlinear analysis of brain activity in magnetic influenced Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Adamopoulos, A V; Kotini, A; Tsagas, N

    2000-01-01

    Magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings were obtained from the brain of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) using the Superconductive Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). For each patient the magnetic activity was recorded from a total of 64 points of the skull (32 points from each temporal lobe) as defined by a recording reference system, which is based on the 10-20 Electrode Placement System. Some of the recorded points were observed to exhibit abnormal rhythmic activity, characterized by high amplitudes and low frequencies. External magnetic stimulation (EMS) with intensity 1-7.5pT, and frequency the alpha-rhythm of the patient (8-13 Hz) was applied in the left-right temporal, frontal-occipital and vertex (2 minutes over each of the above regions) and the brain magnetic activity was recorded again. The application of the EMS resulted in rapid attenuation of the MEG activity of PD patients. Furthermore, chaotic dynamic methods were used, in order to estimate the correlation dimension D of the reconstructed phase spaces. The estimated values of D, in conjunction with the results derived from the other data analysis methods, strongly support the existence of low dimension chaotic structures in the dynamics of cortical activity of PD patients. In addition, the increased values of D of the MEG after the application of EMS when compared with the corresponding ones obtained from the MEGs prior to the EMS, suggest that the neural dynamics are strongly influenced by the application of EMS. PMID:11154103

  10. Genetic analysis of lipolytic activities in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Li, Haijuan; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 displays lipolytic activity for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study we performed a mutational in vivo analysis of esterases and lipases that confer growth on tributyrin. We interrupted 10 ORFs suspected to encode lipolytic enzymes. Two chromosomal loci were identified that resulted in reduced hydrolysis capabilities against tributyrin and various para-nitrophenyl acyl esters. By implementation of a convenient new one-step method which abstains from the use of selectable markers, a mutant strain with multiple scar-less deletions was constructed by sequentially deleting ORFs TT_C1787, TT_C0340, TT_C0341 and TT_C0904. The quadruple deletion mutant of T. thermophilus exhibited significantly lower lipolytic activity (approximately 25% residual activity compared to wild type strain) over a broad range of fatty acyl esters and had lost the ability to grow on agar plates containing tributyrin as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we were able to determine the impact of each gene disruption on the lipolytic activity profile in this model organism and show that the esterase activity in T. thermophilus HB27 is due to a concerted action of several hydrolases having different substrate preferences and activities. The esterase-less T. thermophilus multi-deletion mutant from this study can be used as a screening and expression host for esterase genes from thermophiles or metagenomes. PMID:25102235

  11. Genetic analysis of lipolytic activities in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    PubMed

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Li, Haijuan; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 displays lipolytic activity for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study we performed a mutational in vivo analysis of esterases and lipases that confer growth on tributyrin. We interrupted 10 ORFs suspected to encode lipolytic enzymes. Two chromosomal loci were identified that resulted in reduced hydrolysis capabilities against tributyrin and various para-nitrophenyl acyl esters. By implementation of a convenient new one-step method which abstains from the use of selectable markers, a mutant strain with multiple scar-less deletions was constructed by sequentially deleting ORFs TT_C1787, TT_C0340, TT_C0341 and TT_C0904. The quadruple deletion mutant of T. thermophilus exhibited significantly lower lipolytic activity (approximately 25% residual activity compared to wild type strain) over a broad range of fatty acyl esters and had lost the ability to grow on agar plates containing tributyrin as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we were able to determine the impact of each gene disruption on the lipolytic activity profile in this model organism and show that the esterase activity in T. thermophilus HB27 is due to a concerted action of several hydrolases having different substrate preferences and activities. The esterase-less T. thermophilus multi-deletion mutant from this study can be used as a screening and expression host for esterase genes from thermophiles or metagenomes.

  12. Transition path theory analysis of c-Src kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yilin; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S; Roux, Benoît

    2016-08-16

    Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family are large multidomain allosteric proteins that are crucial to cellular signaling pathways. In a previous study, we generated a Markov state model (MSM) to simulate the activation of c-Src catalytic domain, used as a prototypical tyrosine kinase. The long-time kinetics of transition predicted by the MSM was in agreement with experimental observations. In the present study, we apply the framework of transition path theory (TPT) to the previously constructed MSM to characterize the main features of the activation pathway. The analysis indicates that the activating transition, in which the activation loop first opens up followed by an inward rotation of the αC-helix, takes place via a dense set of intermediate microstates distributed within a fairly broad "transition tube" in a multidimensional conformational subspace connecting the two end-point conformations. Multiple microstates with negligible equilibrium probabilities carry a large transition flux associated with the activating transition, which explains why extensive conformational sampling is necessary to accurately determine the kinetics of activation. Our results suggest that the combination of MSM with TPT provides an effective framework to represent conformational transitions in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:27482115

  13. An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 1: The CSEPP Exercise Results Database

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, P.L. Jr.; Mitrani, J.E.; Absil-Mills, M.J.G.; Tallarovic, P.; Molsen, J.; Vercellone, J.; Madore, M.A.

    1998-06-01

    The primary focus of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is to enhance the response capabilities of the eight US Army installations that store chemical weapons agent and of the communities immediately surrounding each Army storage installation. Exercises are a major component of the program and are conducted annually at each of the eight installations. Following each exercise, a report summarizing the results of the exercise is produced. To gain a better perspective on the site-specific and program-wide results of these exercises, the Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness requested that Argonne National Laboratory develop a database containing the results of exercises held through June 1996. This document provides a summary of the process used to develop the CSEPP Exercise Results Database. The database provides CSEPP managers in the Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency a method for tracking and analyzing exercise results. The report discusses the collection and coding of exercise data and provides tables to guide coding of future exercise results. An electronic copy of the database (CD-ROM) accompanies the report. This report focuses only on methods used to collect exercise data and develop the database; Volume 2 discusses the analysis of the data collected.

  14. Single Cell Analysis of Transcriptional Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U.; Powers, Sara Lawrence; Joo, Lucy M.; LeRoy, Gary; Janicki, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene activation is thought to occur through a series of temporally defined regulatory steps. However, this process has not been completely evaluated in single living mammalian cells. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the timing and coordination of gene activation events, we tracked the recruitment of GCN5 (histone acetyltransferase), RNA polymerase II, Brd2 and Brd4 (acetyl-lysine binding proteins), in relation to a VP16-transcriptional activator, to a transcription site that can be visualized in single living cells. All accumulated rapidly with the VP16 activator as did the transcribed RNA. RNA was also detected at significantly more transcription sites in cells expressing the VP16-activator compared to a p53-activator. After α-amanitin pre-treatment, the VP16-activator, GCN5, and Brd2 are still recruited to the transcription site but the chromatin does not decondense. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that a strong activator can rapidly overcome the condensed chromatin structure of an inactive transcription site and supercede the expected requirement for regulatory events to proceed in a temporally defined order. Additionally, activator strength determines the number of cells in which transcription is induced as well as the extent of chromatin decondensation. As chromatin decondensation is significantly reduced after α-amanitin pre-treatment, despite the recruitment of transcriptional activation factors, this provides further evidence that transcription drives large-scale chromatin decondensation. PMID:20422051

  15. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  16. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  17. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  18. Mid-latitude Geomagnetic Field Analysis Using BOH Magnetometer: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jun-Ga; Choi, Kyu-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Jin; Park, Young-Deuk; Ha, Dong-Hun

    2011-09-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Mt. Bohyun Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. We, in 2007, installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C) to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we provide the preliminary and the first statistical analysis using the BOH magnetometer installed at Mt. Bohyun Observatory. By superposed analysis, we find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency, that is, about 30 minutes before the meridian (11:28) a minimum appears and the time after about 3 hours and 30 minutes (15:28) a maximum appears. Also, a quiet interval start time (19:06) is near the sunset time, and a quiet interval end time (06:40) is near the sunrise time. From the sunset to the sunrise, the value of H has a nearly constant interval, that is, the sun affects the changes in H values. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the sun. Local time variations show that noon region has the biggest variations and midnight region has the smallest variations. We compare the correlations between geomagnetic variations and activity indices as we expect the geomagnetic variation would contain the effects of geomagnetic activity variations. As a result, the correlation coefficient between H and Dst is the highest (r = 0.947), and other AL, AE, AU index and showed a high correlation. Therefore, the effects of geomagnetic storms and geomagnetic substorms might contribute to the geomagnetic changes significantly.

  19. Disease Mutations in Rab7 Result in Unregulated Nucleotide Exchange and Inappropriate Activation

    SciTech Connect

    B McCray; E Skordalakes; J Taylor

    2011-12-31

    Rab GTPases are molecular switches that orchestrate vesicular trafficking, maturation and fusion by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form, and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins. Missense mutations of the GTPase Rab7 cause a dominantly inherited axonal degeneration known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B through an unknown mechanism. We present the 2.8 A crystal structure of GTP-bound L129F mutant Rab7 which reveals normal conformations of the effector binding regions and catalytic site, but an alteration to the nucleotide binding pocket that is predicted to alter GTP binding. Through extensive biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that disease-associated mutations in Rab7 do not lead to an intrinsic GTPase defect, but permit unregulated nucleotide exchange leading to both excessive activation and hydrolysis-independent inactivation. Consistent with augmented activity, mutant Rab7 shows significantly enhanced interaction with a subset of effector proteins. In addition, dynamic imaging demonstrates that mutant Rab7 is abnormally retained on target membranes. However, we show that the increased activation of mutant Rab7 is counterbalanced by unregulated, GTP hydrolysis-independent membrane cycling. Notably, disease mutations are able to rescue the membrane cycling of a GTPase-deficient mutant. Thus, we demonstrate that disease mutations uncouple Rab7 from the spatial and temporal control normally imposed by regulatory proteins and cause disease not by a gain of novel toxic function, but by misregulation of native Rab7 activity.

  20. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  1. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  2. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase. PMID:15890680

  3. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase.

  4. Activation of Hypoxia‐Inducible Factor‐2 in Adipocytes Results in Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qun; Huang, Yan; Booth, Carmen J.; Haase, Volker H.; Johnson, Randall S.; Celeste Simon, M.; Giordano, Frank J.; Yun, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity can cause structural and functional abnormalities of the heart via complex but largely undefined mechanisms. Emerging evidence has shown that obesity results in reduced oxygen concentrations, or hypoxia, in adipose tissue. We hypothesized that the adipocyte hypoxia‐signaling pathway plays an essential role in the development of obesity‐associated cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results Using a mouse model in which the hypoxia‐inducible factor (HIF) pathway is activated by deletion of the von Hippel–Lindau gene specifically in adipocytes, we found that mice with adipocyte–von Hippel–Lindau deletion developed lethal cardiac hypertrophy. HIF activation in adipocytes results in overexpression of key cardiomyopathy‐associated genes in adipose tissue, increased serum levels of several proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin‐1β and monocyte chemotactic protein‐1, and activation of nuclear factor–κB and nuclear factor of activated T cells in the heart. Interestingly, genetic deletion of Hif2a, but not Hif1a, was able to rescue cardiac hypertrophy and abrogate adipose inflammation. Conclusion We have discovered a previously uncharacterized mechanism underlying a critical and direct role of the adipocyte HIF‐2 transcription factor in the development of adipose inflammation and pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:24326162

  5. Activity based financing in England: the need for continual refinement of payment by results.

    PubMed

    Street, Andrew; Maynard, Alan

    2007-10-01

    The English National Health Service is introducing activity based tariff systems or Payment by Results (PbR) as the basis for hospital funding. The funding arrangements provide incentives for increasing activity, particularly day surgery, and, uniquely, are based on costing data from all hospitals. But prices should not be based on average costs and the potential of PbR to improve the quality of care is yet to be exploited. Without refinement, PbR threatens to undermine expenditure control, to divert resources away from primary care, and to distort needs based funding. PMID:18634642

  6. Epidermal Platelet-activating Factor Receptor Activation and Ultraviolet B Radiation Result in Synergistic Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Production

    PubMed Central

    Wolverton, Jay E.; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Yao, Yongxue; Zhang, Qiwei; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) is a potent stimulator of epidermal cytokine production which has been implicated in photoaggravated dermatoses. In addition to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), UVB generates bioactive lipids including platelet-activating factor (PAF). Our previous studies have demonstrated that UVB-mediated production of keratinocyte TNF-α is in part due to PAF. The current studies use a human PAF-receptor (PAF-R) negative epithelial cell line transduced with PAF-Rs and PAF–R-deficient mice to demonstrate that activation of the epidermal PAF-R along with UVB irradiation results in a synergistic production of TNF-α. It should be noted that PAF-R effects are mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) agonist phorbol myristic acetate, and are inhibited by pharmacological antagonists of the PKC gamma isoenzyme. These studies suggest that concomitant PAF-R activation and UVB irradiation results in a synergistic production of the cytokine TNF-α which is mediated in part via PKC. These studies provide a novel potential mechanism for photosensitivity responses. PMID:19769579

  7. Behavioural Activation for Depression; An Update of Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Sub Group Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ekers, David; Webster, Lisa; Van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim; Richards, David; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. Method Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. Results Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD −0.74 CI −0.91 to −0.56, k = 25, N = 1088) and medication (SMD −0.42 CI −0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283). Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. Conclusions The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:24936656

  8. Linking experimental results, biological networks and sequence analysis methods using Ontologies and Generalised Data Structures.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Jacob; Rawlings, Chris; Verrier, Paul; Mitchell, Rowan; Skusa, Andre; Ruegg, Alexander; Philippi, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The structure of a closely integrated data warehouse is described that is designed to link different types and varying numbers of biological networks, sequence analysis methods and experimental results such as those coming from microarrays. The data schema is inspired by a combination of graph based methods and generalised data structures and makes use of ontologies and meta-data. The core idea is to consider and store biological networks as graphs, and to use generalised data structures (GDS) for the storage of further relevant information. This is possible because many biological networks can be stored as graphs: protein interactions, signal transduction networks, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory networks etc. Nodes in biological graphs represent entities such as promoters, proteins, genes and transcripts whereas the edges of such graphs specify how the nodes are related. The semantics of the nodes and edges are defined using ontologies of node and relation types. Besides generic attributes that most biological entities possess (name, attribute description), further information is stored using generalised data structures. By directly linking to underlying sequences (exons, introns, promoters, amino acid sequences) in a systematic way, close interoperability to sequence analysis methods can be achieved. This approach allows us to store, query and update a wide variety of biological information in a way that is semantically compact without requiring changes at the database schema level when new kinds of biological information is added. We describe how this datawarehouse is being implemented by extending the text-mining framework ONDEX to link, support and complement different bioinformatics applications and research activities such as microarray analysis, sequence analysis and modelling/simulation of biological systems. The system is developed under the GPL license and can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ondex/

  9. PP2A inhibition results in hepatic insulin resistance despite Akt2 activation.

    PubMed

    Galbo, Thomas; Perry, Rachel J; Nishimura, Erica; Samuel, Varman T; Quistorff, Bjørn; Shulman, Gerald I

    2013-10-01

    In the liver, insulin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating Akt, which inactivates the key gluconeogenic transcription factor FoxO1 (Forkhead Box O1). Recent studies have implicated hyperactivity of the Akt phosphatase Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and impaired Akt signaling as a molecular defect underlying insulin resistance. We therefore hypothesized that PP2A inhibition would enhance insulin-stimulated Akt activity and decrease glucose production. PP2A inhibitors increased hepatic Akt phosphorylation and inhibited FoxO1in vitro and in vivo, and suppressed gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes. Paradoxically, PP2A inhibition exacerbated insulin resistance in vivo. This was explained by phosphorylation of both hepatic glycogen synthase (GS) (inactivation) and phosphorylase (activation) resulting in impairment of glycogen storage. Our findings underline the significance of GS and Phosphorylase as hepatic PP2A substrates and importance of glycogen metabolism in acute plasma glucose regulation. PMID:24150286

  10. A multiyear, global gridded fossil fuel CO2 emission data product: Evaluation and analysis of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Gurney, K. R.; McRobert, A.; Song, Y.; Coltin, K.; Huang, J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution, global quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure in large active economies such as the United States, China, and India. These three countries, in particular, show different long-term trends and exploration of the trends in nighttime lights, and population reveal a decoupling of population and emissions at the subnational level. Analysis of shorter-term variations reveals the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis with widespread negative emission anomalies across the U.S. and Europe. We have used a center of mass (CM) calculation as a compact metric to express the time evolution of spatial patterns in fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The global emission CM has moved toward the east and somewhat south between 1997 and 2010, driven by the increase in emissions in China and South Asia over this time period. Analysis at the level of individual countries reveals per capita CO2 emission migration in both Russia and India. The per capita emission CM holds potential as a way to succinctly analyze subnational shifts in carbon intensity over time. Uncertainties are generally lower than the previous version of FFDAS due mainly to an improved nightlight data set.

  11. Results of the Second SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round Robin, March 2000 (DARR-00)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; D'Alimonte, Davide; Maritorena, Stephane; McLean, Scott; Sildam, Juri; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accurate determination of upper ocean apparent optical properties (AOPs) is essential for the vicarious calibration of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument and the validation of the derived data products. To evaluate the importance of data analysis methods upon derived AOP values, the Second Data Analysis Round Robin (DARR-00) activity was planned during the latter half of 1999 and executed during March 2000. The focus of the study was the intercomparison of several standard AOP parameters: (1) the upwelled radiance immediately below the sea surface, L(sub u)(0(-),lambda); (2) the downward irradiance immediately below the sea surface, E(sub d)(0(-),lambda); (3) the diffuse attenuation coefficients from the upwelling radiance and the downward irradiance profiles, L(sub L)(lambda) and K(sub d)(lambda), respectively; (4) the incident solar irradiance immediately above the sea surface, E(sub d)(0(+),lambda); (5) the remote sensing reflectance, R(sub rs)(lambda); (6) the normalized water-leaving radiance, [L(sub W)(lambda)](sub N); (7) the upward irradiance immediately below the sea surface, E(sub u)(0(-)), which is used with the upwelled radiance to derive the nadir Q-factor immediately below the sea surface, Q(sub n)(0(-),lambda); and (8) ancillary parameters like the solar zenith angle, theta, and the total chlorophyll concentration, C(sub Ta), derived from the optical data through statistical algorithms. In the results reported here, different methodologies from three research groups were applied to an identical set of 40 multispectral casts in order to evaluate the degree to which differences in data analysis methods influence AOP estimation, and whether any general improvements can be made. The overall results of DARR-00 are presented in Chapter 1 and the individual methods used by the three groups and their data processors are presented in Chapters 2-4.

  12. HIV-1 Tat Protein Increases Microglial Outward K+ Current and Resultant Neurotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianuo; Xu, Peng; Collins, Cory; Liu, Han; Zhang, Jingdong; Keblesh, James P.; Xiong, Huangui

    2013-01-01

    Microglia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Increasing evidence indicates the voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are involved in the regulation of microglia function, prompting us to hypothesize Kv channels may also be involved in microglia-mediated neurotoxic activity in HIV-1-infected brain. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the involvement of Kv channels in the response of microglia to HIV-1 Tat protein. Treatment of rat microglia with HIV-1 Tat protein (200 ng/ml) resulted in pro-inflammatory microglial activation, as indicated by increases in TNF-α, IL-1β, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, which were accompanied by enhanced outward K+ current and Kv1.3 channel expression. Suppression of microglial Kv1.3 channel activity, either with Kv1.3 channel blockers Margatoxin, 5-(4-Phenoxybutoxy)psoralen, or broad-spectrum K+ channel blocker 4-Aminopyridine, or by knockdown of Kv1.3 expression via transfection of microglia with Kv1.3 siRNA, was found to abrogate the neurotoxic activity of microglia resulting from HIV-1 Tat exposure. Furthermore, HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal apoptosis was attenuated with the application of supernatant collected from K+ channel blocker-treated microglia. Lastly, the intracellular signaling pathways associated with Kv1.3 were investigated and enhancement of microglial Kv1.3 was found to correspond with an increase in Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. These data suggest targeting microglial Kv1.3 channels may be a potential new avenue of therapy for inflammation-mediated neurological disorders. PMID:23738010

  13. Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2002-01-01

    The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

  14. Preliminary results of systematic sampling of gas manifestations in geodynamically active areas of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Greece is located on a convergent plate boundary comprising the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian, while the Arabian plate approaches the Eurasian in a northwestward motion. It is considered to be one of the most tectonically active regions of Earth with a complex geodynamic setting, deriving from a long and complicated geological history. Due to this specific geological background, conditions for the formation of many thermal springs are favoured. In the past years, almost all the already known sites of degassing (fumaroles, soil gases, mofettes, gas bubbling in cold and thermal waters) located in the Hellenic area were sampled at least one time. Collected samples were analysed for their chemical (He, Ne, Ar, O2, N2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4 and CO2) and isotopic composition (He, C and N). Some of these sites have been selected for systematic sampling. Four of them have records longer than 10 years with tens of samplings also considering some literature data. Two of the sites are located in active volcanic areas (Santorini and Nisyros) while the other two are close to actively spreading graben structures with intense seismic activity (Gulf of Korinth and Sperchios basin). Results allowed to define long term background values and also some interesting variation related to seismic or volcanic activity.

  15. Silencing of Doublecortin-Like (DCL) Results in Decreased Mitochondrial Activity and Delayed Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Verissimo, Carla S.; Elands, Rachel; Cheng, Sou; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan; ter Horst, Judith P.; Alme, Maria N.; Pont, Chantal; van de Water, Bob; Håvik, Bjarte; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.; Vreugdenhil, Erno

    2013-01-01

    Doublecortin-like (DCL) is a microtubule-binding protein crucial for neuroblastoma (NB) cell proliferation. We have investigated whether the anti-proliferative effect of DCL knockdown is linked to reduced mitochondrial activity. We found a delay in tumor development after DCL knockdown in vivo in doxycycline-inducible NB tumor xenografts. To understand the mechanisms underlying this tumor growth retardation we performed a series of in vitro experiments in NB cell lines. DCL colocalizes with mitochondria, interacts with the mitochondrial outer membrane protein OMP25/ SYNJ2BP and DCL knockdown results in decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, DCL knockdown decreases cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis. We identified the C-terminal Serine/Proline-rich domain and the second microtubule-binding area as crucial DCL domains for the regulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis. Furthermore, DCL knockdown causes a significant reduction in the proliferation rate of NB cells under an energetic challenge induced by low glucose availability. Together with our previous studies, our results corroborate DCL as a key player in NB tumor growth in which DCL controls not only mitotic spindle formation and the stabilization of the microtubule cytoskeleton, but also regulates mitochondrial activity and energy availability, which makes DCL a promising molecular target for NB therapy. PMID:24086625

  16. F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test results viewed from an active controls perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalai, K. J.; Deets, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test program are presented, along with the implications for active controls applications. The closed loop performance of the digital control system agreed well with the sampled-data system design predictions. The digital fly-by-wire mechanization also met pilot flying qualities requirements. The advantages of mechanizing the control laws in software became apparent during the flight program and were realized without sacrificing overall system reliability. This required strict software management. The F-8 flight test results are shown to be encouraging in light of the requirements that must be met by control systems for flight-critical active controls applications.

  17. [Results of active surveillance in low and intermediate risk prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Llorente, Carlos; Diaz Goizueta, Francisco Javier; Hernandez, Virginia; de la Morena, Jose Manuel; de la Peña, Enrique

    2014-06-01

    In this article we review the most significant published papers on active surveillance in prostate cancer and present the results of our case series. We used as main response variables the percentage of patients remaining in surveillance and the oncological results presented as global, cancer specific and metastasis free survivals. Globally, in published series 71.2% of patients included in active surveillance programs, 10-year overall survival is 68% in the series with longer follow up, and cancer-specific survival varies from 97% to 100%. In our series of 144 patients with median follow up of 3.2 years, 76.3% of the patients continue on surveillance. 24 patients (15.9%) stopped surveillance due to histological progression. 5 patients (21.3%) out of the 23 undergoing surgery presented unfavorable pathological criteria on prostatectomy specimen. No patient has died or developed metastases.

  18. Geometric Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Active Fibre Composite Bimorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernaghan, Robert

    Active fibre composite-actuated bimorphic actuators were studied in order to measure deflection performance. The deflection of the actuators was a function of the actuating electric potential applied to the active material as well as the magnitude of the axial preload applied to the bimorphic structure. This problem required the use of geometric nonlinear modeling techniques. Geometric nonlinear finite element analysis was undertaken to determine the deflection performance of Macro Fibre Composite (MFC)- and Hollow Active Fibre (HAFC)-actuated bimorphic structures. A physical prototype MFC-actuated bimorphic structure was manufactured in order to verify the results obtained by the finite element analysis. Theses analyses determined that the bimorphic actuators were capable of significant deflection. The analyses determined that the axial preload of the bimorphic actuators significantly amplified the deflection performance of the bimorphic actuators. The deflection performance of the bimorphic actuators suggest that they could be candidates to act as actuators for the morphing wing of a micro unmanned air vehicle.

  19. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  20. BIRD detection and analysis of high-temperature events: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Boris; Briess, Klaus; Lorenz, Eckehard; Oertel, Dieter; Skrbek, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    The primary mission objective of a new small Bi-spectral InfraRed Detection (BIRD) satellite, which was put in a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001, is detection and quantitative analysis of high-temperature events (HTE) like fires and volcanoes. A unique feature of the BIRD mid- and thermal infrared channels is a real-time adjustment of their integration time that allows a HTE observation without sensor saturation, preserving a good radiometric resolution of 0.1-0.2 K for pixels at normal temperatures. This makes it possible: (a) to improve false alarm rejection capability and (b) to estimate HTE temperature, area and radiative energy release. Due to a higher spatial resolution, BIRD can detect an order of magnitude smaller HTE than AVHRR and MODIS. The smallest verified fire that was detected in the BIRD data had an area of ~12 m2. The first BIRD HTE detection and analysis results are presented including bush fires in Australia, forest fires in Russia, coal seam fires in China, and a time-varying thermal activity at Etna.

  1. Results From NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Nicaragua, Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, J.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K.; Wulf, S.; Dull, R.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    In May of 2006 we used a chartered ferry boat to collect 520 km of seismic data, 886 km of 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler data, and 35 cores from Lake Nicaragua. The lake covers an area of 7700 km2 within the active Central American volcanic arc, forms the largest lake in Central America, ranks as the twentieth largest freshwater lake in the world, and has never been previously surveyed or cored in a systematic manner. Two large stratovolcanoes occupy the central part of the lake: Concepcion is presently active, Maderas was last active less than 2000 years ago. Four zones of active faulting and doming of the lake floor were mapped with seismic and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiling. Two of the zones consist of 3-5-km-wide, 20-30-km-long asymmetric rift structures that trend towards the inactive cone of Maderas Volcano in a radial manner. The northeastern rift forms a 20-27-m deep depression on the lake bottom that is controlled by a north-dipping normal fault. The southwestern rift forms a 25-35-m deep depression controlled by a northeast-dipping normal fault. Both depressions contain mound-like features inferred to be hydrothermal deposits. Two zones of active faulting are associated with the active Concepcion stratovolcano. A 600-m-wide and 6-km-long fault bounded horst block extends westward beneath the lake from a promontory on the west side of the volcano. Like the two radial rift features of Maderas, the horst points roughly towards the active caldera of Concepcion. A second north-south zone of active faulting, which also forms a high, extends off the north coast of Concepcion and corresponds to a localized zone of folding and faulting mapped by previous workers and inferred by them to have formed by gravitational spreading of the flank of the volcano. The close spatial relation of these faults to the two volcanic cones in the lake suggests that the mechanism for faulting is a result of either crustal movements related to magma intrusion or gravitational sliding and is

  2. Automation of statistical analysis in the WIPP hazardous waste facility permit for analytical results from characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shokes, T.; Einerson, J.

    2007-07-01

    One goal of characterizing, processing, and shipping waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to make all activities as efficient as possible. Data management and repetitive calculations are a critical part of the process that can be automated, thereby increasing the accuracy and rate at which work is completed and reducing costs. This paper presents the tools developed to automate statistical analysis and other calculations required by the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP). Statistical analyses are performed on the analytical results on gas samples from the headspace of waste containers and solid samples from the core of the waste container. The calculations include determining the number of samples, test for the shape of the distribution of the analytical results, mean, standard deviation, upper 90-percent confidence limit of the mean, and the minimum required Waste Acceptance Plan (WAP) sample size. The input data for these calculations are from the batch data reports for headspace gas analytical results and solids analysis, which must also be obtained and collated for proper use. The most challenging component of the statistical analysis, if performed manually, is the determination of the distribution shape; therefore, the distribution testing is typically performed using a certified software tool. All other calculations can be completed manually, with a spreadsheet, custom developed software, and/or certified software tool. Out of the options available, manually performing the calculations or using a spreadsheet are the least desirable. These methods rely heavily on the availability of an expert, such as a statistician, to perform the calculation. These methods are also more open to human error such as transcription or 'cut and paste' errors. A SAS program is in the process of being developed to perform the calculations. Due to the potential size of the data input files and the need to archive the data in an accessible format, the SAS

  3. Acceleration of reverse analysis method using hyperbolic activation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pwasong, Augustine; Sathasivam, Saratha

    2015-10-01

    Hyperbolic activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing data mining by using a technique named as Reverse Analysis method. In this paper, we describe how Hopfield network perform better with hyperbolic activation function and able to induce logical rules from large database by using reverse analysis method: given the values of the connections of a network, we can hope to know what logical rules are entrenched in the database. We limit our analysis to Horn clauses.

  4. OMP gene deletion results in an alteration in odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Youngentob, S L; Kent, P F; Margolis, F L

    2003-12-01

    Previous behavioral work, using a complex five-odorant identification task, demonstrated that olfactory marker protein (OMP) is critically involved in odor processing to the extent that its loss results in an alteration in odorant quality perception. Exactly how the lack of OMP exerts its influence on the perception of odorant quality is unknown. However, there is considerable neurophysiological evidence that different odorants produce different spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity at the level of the mucosa and that these patterns predict the psychophysically determined perceptual relationship among odorants. In this respect, OMP gene deletion is known to result in a constellation of physiologic defects (i.e., marked reduction in the electroolfactogram (EOG) and altered response and recovery kinetics) that would be expected to alter the odorant-induced spatiotemporal activity patterns that are characteristic of different odorants. This, in turn, would be expected to alter the spatiotemporal patterning of information that results from the mucosal projection onto the bulb, thereby changing odorant quality perception. To test the hypothesis that odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns are altered in mice lacking the gene for OMP, we optically recorded the fluorescent changes in response to odorant stimulation from both the septum and turbinates of both OMP-null and control mice using a voltage-sensitive dye (di-4-ANEPPS Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) and a Dalsa 120 x 120, 12-bit CCD camera. To maintain continuity with the previous behavioral work, the odorants 2-propanol, citral, carvone, ethylacetoacetate, and propyl acetate were again used. Each odorant was randomly presented to each mucosal surface in a Latin-Square design. The results of this study demonstrated that, for both mouse strains, there do indeed exist different spatiotemporal activity patterns for different odorants. More importantly, however, these patterns significantly differed between OMP

  5. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  6. An Analysis of Solar Global Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Zadig

    2013-02-01

    This article proposes a unified observational model of solar activity based on sunspot number and the solar global activity in the rotation of the structures, both per 11-year cycle. The rotation rates show a variation of a half-century period and the same period is also associated to the sunspot amplitude variation. The global solar rotation interweaves with the observed global organisation of solar activity. An important role for this assembly is played by the Grand Cycle formed by the merging of five sunspot cycles: a forgotten discovery by R. Wolf. On the basis of these elements, the nature of the Dalton Minimum, the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Grand Minima are presented.

  7. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  8. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  9. Primary patellar tendon repair and early mobilization: results in an active-duty population.

    PubMed

    Enad, J G; Loomis, L L

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 13 patellar tendon repairs done over 32 months at a tertiary care, military medical center. Early mobilization was initiated within 2 weeks postoperatively. Clinical and functional results were statistically examined with relation to age, timing of surgery, length of follow-up, quadriceps atrophy, extensor lag, patella position, and time to full duty. At an average of 24 months' follow-up, six patients (46%) had thigh girth atrophy, and one patient (8%) had an extensor lag >5 degrees. Mean Lysholm score was 84 (range, 57 to 100). Maximum postoperative Tegner activity scores averaged 7.1 (range, 5 to 10). Clinical results classified five cases as excellent, three good, three fair, and two poor. Functional results classified three cases as excellent, four good, two fair, and four poor. Time to return to duty averaged 13 months. Our results suggest that adequate extensor function can be restored after primary repair and immediate motion therapy.

  10. FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program FY 2006. Benefits analysis : methodology and results - final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2006-01-31

    This report describes the approach to estimating benefits and the analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identification of technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in the activities planned for FY 06. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. These benefits estimates, along with market penetrations and other results, are then modeled as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY06 Budget Request.

  11. Notch1 Pathway Activation Results from the Epigenetic Abrogation of Notch-Related MicroRNAs in Mycosis Fungoides.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Fernando; Sandoval, Juan; Díaz-Lagares, Angel; Garcia, Ricard; D'Altri, Teresa; González, Jessica; Alegre, Victor; Servitje, Octavio; Crujeiras, Ana-Belén; Stefánsson, Ólafur-Andri; Espinet, Blanca; Hernández, Maria-Inmaculada; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Esteller, Manel; Pujol, Ramon-Maria; Bigas, Anna; Espinosa, Lluis

    2015-12-01

    Notch is a family of transmembrane receptors that participate in the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and stemness. Notch pathway activation has also been found associated with different human cancers including primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). The elucidation of the mechanisms driving Notch activation in these particular diseases has remained elusive. Here we studied the possibility that DNA methylation at Notch pathway gene promoters and/or deregulation of Notch-associated microRNAs contribute to activate Notch in mycosis fungoides (MF). By genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, we failed to detect any consistent methylation at the Notch1, the Notch-ligand Jagged1, or the Notch-target Hes1 gene promoters, but found a significant methylation of the Notch-related microRNAs, in particular miR-200c and miR-124. Downregulation of miR-200c is associated with overexpression of Jagged1, concomitant to Notch1 activation. CTCL cell lines were infected with lentiviral vector encoding for miR-200c and ectopic expression of miR-200c in CTCL lines resulted in Jagged1 protein downregulation associated with a reduction in the levels of active Notch1. Our study deciphers an epigenetic mechanism regulating the Notch pathway in (MF) that might contribute to the future design of more specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:26302069

  12. The Fifth International Ice Nucleation Workshop Activities FIN-1 and FIN-2: Overview and Selected Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, O.; Cziczo, D. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Hiranuma, N.; Petters, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The role of aerosol particles for ice formation in clouds is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the Earth's weather and climate systems, which is related to the poor knowledge of ice nucleation microphysics or of the nature and atmospheric abundance of ice nucleating particles (INPs). During the recent years, new mobile instruments were developed for measuring the concentration, size and chemical composition of INPs, which were tested during the three-part Fifth International Ice Nucleation (FIN) workshop. The FIN activities addressed not only instrument issues, but also important science topics like the nature of atmospheric INP and cloud ice residuals, the ice nucleation activity of relevant atmospheric aerosols, or the parameterization of ice formation in atmospheric weather and climate models. The first activity FIN-1 was conducted during November 2014 at the AIDA cloud chamber. It involved co-locating nine single particle mass spectrometers to evaluate how well they resolve the INP and ice residual composition and how spectra from different instruments compare for relevant atmospheric aerosols. We conducted about 90 experiments with mineral, carbonaceous and biological aerosol types, some also coated with organic and inorganic compounds. The second activity FIN-2 was conducted during March 2015 at the AIDA facility. A total of nine mobile INP instruments directly sampled from the AIDA aerosol chambers. Wet suspension and filter samples were also taken for offline INP processing. A refereed blind intercomparison was conducted during two days of the FIN-2 activity. The third activity FIN-3 will take place at the Desert Research Institute's Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) in order to test the instruments' performance in the field. This contribution will introduce the FIN activities, summarize first results from the formal part of FIN-2, and discuss selected results, mainly from FIN-1 for the effect of coating on the ice nucleation (IN) by mineral

  13. SU-E-T-594: Preliminary Active Scanning Results of KHIMA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C; Yang, T; Chang, S; Kim, H; Lee, H; Kim, J; Jang, H; Han, G; Park, D; Hwang, W; Kim, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify the design criteria on heavy ion beam irradiation, developing a proto type active scanning system was purposed. The active scanning system consists of scanning magnet, power supplies, beam monitors, energy modulation system, and irradiation control system. Methods: Each components of the active scanning system was designed for carbon beam first. For the fast ramping a laminated yoke was purposed. To measure incoming dose and profile, a plate and strip type of ion chambers were designed. Also, ridge filter and range shifter was manufactured. And, the scanning system was modified to adopt 45 MeV of proton beam because of the absence of carbon ion beam in Korea. The system was installed in a beam line at MC-50, KIRAMS. Also, the irradiation control system and planning software was provided. Results: The scanning experiment was performed by drawing KHIMA logo on GaF film. The logo was scanned by 237 scanning points through time normalized intensity modulation. Also, a grid points scanning was performed to measure the scanning resolution and intensity resolution. Conclusion: A prototype active scanning system was successfully designed and manufactured. Also, an initial experiment to print out a drawing on GaF film through the scanning system was completed. More experiments would be required to specify the system performance.

  14. Activation of thalamus in motor imagery results from gating by hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Katharina; Bacht, Katrin; Prochnow, Denise; Schramm, Stefanie; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2013-02-01

    The ability to mentally imagine the performance of automatic movements has been well-established being employed in sports and physiotherapy as a tool for motor learning and rehabilitation. This is probably mediated by engagement of the same brain areas as during real motor performance. Here we investigated the effect of hypnotic trance on the cerebral activation pattern engaged in motor imagery in 16 healthy, right-handed subjects using fMRI. Motor imagery as compared with rest was related to activations in the left medial frontal areas (preSMA/SMA), prefrontal- and frontal areas, putamen and inferior parietal areas. When compared with performance of the same movements motor imagery resulted in activation of the left middle frontal cortex, precuneus, and posterior cingulate. Under hypnotic trance there was one extra-activation in the left thalamus which occurred specifically in the motor imagery condition. The regional beta indices were highly correlated among the areas of the cortical-subcortical motor network. Our data accord with the notion that hypnotic trance enhances the motor control circuit engaged in motor imagery by modulating the gating function of the thalamus.

  15. Massive transfusion protocol activation does not result in preferential use of older red blood cells.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Lauren M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Cramer, James; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Sperry, Jason L; Peitzman, Andrew B; Raval, Jay S; Neal, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Widespread, anecdotal belief exists that patients receiving massive transfusion, particularly those for whom a massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is activated, are more likely to receive older red blood cells (RBCs). Retrospective review of blood bank records from calendar year 2011 identified 131 patients emergently issued ≥10 RBC units (emergency release (ER)) prior to obtaining a type and screen. This cohort was subclassified based on whether there was MTP activation. For comparison, 176 identified patients transfused with ≥10 RBC units in a routine fashion over 24 hours represented the nonemergency release (nER) cohort. Though the median age of ER RBCs was 5 days older than nER RBCs (ER 20, nER 15 days, P < 0.001), both fell within the third week of storage. Regardless of MTP activation, transfused ER RBCs had the same median age (MTP 20, no-MTP 20 days, P = 0.069). In the ER cohort, transition to type-specific blood components increased the median age of transfused RBC units from 17 to 36 days (P < 0.001). These data refute the anecdotal belief that MTP activation results in transfusion of older RBCs. However, upon transition to type-specific blood components, the age of RBCs enters a range in which it is hypothesized that there may be a significant effect of storage age on clinical outcomes.

  16. Design of a Website on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Adolescents: Results From Formative Research

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Boushey, Carol; Konzelmann, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Background Teens do not meet guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity. The Internet may be an effective method for delivering programs that help them adopt healthy behaviors. Objective To collect information to design content and structure for a teen-friendly website promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Qualitative research, encompassing both focus group and interview techniques, were used to design the website. Participants were 12-17 year olds in Houston, Texas, and West Lafayette, Indiana. Results A total of 133 participants took part in 26 focus groups while 15 participated in one-on-one interviews to provide guidance for the development of teen-friendly content and structure for an online behavior change program promoting healthy eating and physical activity to 12-17 year olds. The youth made suggestions to overcome common barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. Their feedback was used to develop “Teen Choice: Food & Fitness,” a 12-week online behavior change program, populated by 4 cartoon character role models. Conclusions It is critical that members of the target audience be included in formative research to develop behavior change programs that are relevant, appealing, and address their needs and interests. PMID:22538427

  17. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  18. Changes in electrical activity in muscles resulting from chiropractic adjustment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shambaugh, P

    1987-12-01

    This study examines the effects of chiropractic adjustment on the muscles of the back. Vertebrae that are hypomobile may be held in that state by the erector spinae muscle group; adjusting such vertebrae should result in less muscle tension. By measuring the change in electrical activity, such relaxation can be observed. Hypomobile vertebrae were found by motion palpation. The patient was then placed prone and surface electrodes were placed over the upper trapezius, upper erector spinae (T3-T5), and lumbar erector spinae (L1-L3) muscle groups on both sides of the body. The patient was adjusted using full spine toggle recoil thrusts, and postadjustment readings were taken. Results from this study show that significant changes in muscle electrical activity occur as a consequence of adjusting. On average, a 25% reduction in muscle activity was observed across the 20 subjects tested, while no significant reductions were observed with the control group of 14 subjects. Significant reductions in side-to-side imbalances were also observed.

  19. Incorporation of Cobalt‐Cyclen Complexes into Templated Nanogels Results in Enhanced Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Ana Rita; Chernobryva, Mariya; Rigby, Stephen E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in nanomaterials have identified nanogels as an excellent matrix for novel biomimetic catalysts using the molecular imprinting approach. Polymerisable Co‐cyclen complexes with phosphonate and carbonate templates have been prepared, fully characterised and used to obtain nanogels that show high activity and turnover with low catalytic load, compared to the free complex, in the hydrolysis of 4‐nitrophenyl phosphate, a nerve agent simulant. This work demonstrates that the chemical structure of the template has an impact on the coordination geometry and oxidation state of the metal centre in the polymerisable complex resulting in very significant changes in the catalytic properties of the polymeric matrix. Both pseudo‐octahedral cobalt(III) and trigonal‐bipyramidal cobalt(II) structures have been used for the synthesis of imprinted nanogels, and the catalytic data demonstrate that: i) the imprinted nanogels can be used in 15 % load and show turnover; ii) the structural differences in the polymeric matrices resulting from the imprinting approach with different templates are responsible for the molecular recognition capabilities and the catalytic activity. Nanogel P1, imprinted with the carbonate template, shows >50 % higher catalytic activity than P2 imprinted with the phosphonate. PMID:26661923

  20. Changes in the cardiac muscle electric activity as a result of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grajek, Magdalena; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Kalawski, Ryszard; Kulczak, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Many bioelectric signals have a complex internal structure that can be a rich source of information on the tissue or cell processes. The structure of such signals can be analysed in detail by applying digital methods of signal processing. Therefore, of substantial use in diagnosis of the coronary arterial disease is the method of digital enhancement of increasing signal resolution ECG (NURSE-ECG), permitting detection of temporary changes in the electric potentials in the cardiac muscle in the process of depolarisation. Thanks to the application of NURSE-ECG it has become possible to detect relatively small changes in the electric activity of particular fragments of the cardiac muscle undetectable by the standard ECG method, caused by ischemia, the effect of a drug or infarct. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) operation. In this study the method of NURSE-ECG has been applied in order to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the CABG operation. In the study performed in cooperation of the Institute of Physics Adam Mickiewicz University and the Strus Hospital, Cardiac Surgery Ward, 37 patients with advanced coronary arterial disease were asked to participate. The patients were examined prior to the operation, on the day after the operation and two months after the operation and a year after the operation. The ECG recordings were subjected to a numerical procedure of resolution enhancement by a NURSE-ECG program to reveal the tentative changes in the electric potential of the cardiac muscle on its depolarisation. Results of the study have shown that the NURSE ECG method can be applied to monitor changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle occurring as a result of CABG operation. One the second day after the operation in the majority of patients (70%) a rapid decrease of the total

  1. Analysis of antifreeze protein activity using colorimetric gold nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Choi, Ho-seok; Park, Ji-In; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-07-01

    High activity and long stability of antifreeze proteins (AFPs), also known as ice-binding proteins (IBPs), are necessary for exerting their physiological functions in biotechnology and cryomedicine. Here we report a simple analysis of antifreeze protein activity and stability based on self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via freezing and thawing cycles. While the mercaptosuccinic acid-capped AuNP (MSA-AuNP) was easily self-assembled after a freezing/thawing cycle, due to the mechanical attack of ice crystal on the MSA-AuNP surface, the presence of AFP impeded the self-assembly of MSA-AuNP via the interaction of AFP with ice crystals via freezing and thawing cycles, which led to a strong color in the MSA-AuNP solution. As a result, the aggregation parameter (E520/E650) of MSA-AuNP showed the rapid detection of both activity and stability of AFPs. We suggest that our newly developed method is very suitable for measuring antifreeze activity and stability in a simple and rapid manner with reliable quantification.

  2. Sensitivity of Spaceborne and Ground Radar Comparison Results to Data Analysis Methods and Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    With the availability of active weather radar observations from space from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TR.MM) satellite, numerous studies have been performed comparing PR reflectivity and derived rain rates to similar observations from ground-based weather radars (GR). These studies have used a variety of algorithms to compute matching PR and GR volumes for comparison. Most studies have used a fixed 3-dimensional Cartesian grid centered on the ground radar, onto which the PR and GR data are interpolated using a proprietary approach and/or commonly available GR analysis software (e.g., SPRINT, REORDER). Other studies have focused on the intersection of the PR and GR viewing geometries either explicitly or using a hybrid of the fixed grid and PR/GR common fields of view. For the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, a prototype DPR/GR comparison algorithm based on similar TRMM PR data has been developed that defines the common volumes in terms of the geometric intersection of PR and GR rays, where smoothing of the PR and GR data are minimized and no interpolation is performed. The PR and GR volume-averaged reflectivity values of each sample volume are accompanied by descriptive metadata, for attributes including the variability and maximum of the reflectivity within the sample volume, and the fraction of range gates in the sample average having reflectivity values above an adjustable detection threshold (typically taken to be 18 dBZ for the PR). Sample volumes are further characterized by rain type (Stratiform or Convective), proximity to the melting layer, underlying surface (land/water/mixed), and the time difference between the PR and GR observations. The mean reflectivity differences between the PR and GR can differ between data sets produced by the different analysis methods; and for the GPM prototype, by the type of constraints and

  3. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Verjan, J.C.; Estrella-Parra, E.A.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I.; Rivero-Segura, N.A.; Vazquez-Martinez, R.; Magos-Guerrero, G.; Mendoza-Villanueva, D.; Cerbón-Cervantes, M.A.; Reyes-Chilpa, R.

    2015-01-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) was administered orally to male mice (CD-1) at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA) and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755. PMID:26697389

  4. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Verjan, J C; Estrella-Parra, E A; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I; Rivero-Segura, N A; Vazquez-Martinez, R; Magos-Guerrero, G; Mendoza-Villanueva, D; Cerbón-Cervantes, M A; Reyes-Chilpa, R

    2015-12-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) was administered orally to male mice (CD-1) at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA) and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755.

  5. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, L.-H.; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, C.-Y.; Liu Tao; Yue, H.-Y.; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-02-20

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na{sup +}-channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  6. Social support and physical activity change in Latinas: Results from the Seamos Saludables trial

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Becky; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Pekmezi, Dori; Larsen, Britta A.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Family responsibilities and poor social support are barriers to physical activity among Latinas. This study evaluated the effects of a home- and print-based intervention on social support, moderating effects of familial ties on support and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and mediating effects of support on MVPA. Methods Participants were randomized to receive through the mail either individually tailored physical activity intervention or general wellness print materials. Familial ties and social support were assessed by marital and child status and the social support for physical activity measure, respectively. MVPA was measured using the 7-day Physical Activity Recall Interview and accelerometer. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months post-treatment, and 12 months follow-up. Results Participants (n=266; 40.6 ± 9.9 years old) were mostly immigrant and Spanish-speaking Latinas. The intervention group achieved greater increases in family and friend support compared to the wellness control group from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up (p<0.05). Intervention changes in support did not depend on marital or child status. The intervention also increased minutes per week of MVPA more than the wellness control (p<0.05) and the effect did not depend on marital or child status. There were significant indirect effects of treatment, indicating the intervention achieved greater increases in MVPA by increasing family (ab=5.21, SE=2.94, 95% CI=0.91–14.11) and friend (ab=6.83, SE=5.15, 95% CI=0.16–20.56) support. Conclusions The intervention improved and sustained support from family and friends and MVPA irrespective of familial ties. Social support mediated increases in MVPA. PMID:26863464

  7. Results From an Intervention to Improve Rural Home Food and Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Alcantara, Iris; Veluswamy, J. K.; Haardörfer, Regine; Hotz, James A.; Glanz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecological models of healthy eating and physical activity emphasize the influence of behavioral settings such as homes and worksites in shaping behavior. Research on home environments suggests that both social and physical aspects of the home may impact physical activity and healthy eating. Objective Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, the Emory Prevention Research Center (EPRC), Cancer Coalition of South Georgia, and the EPRC’s Community Advisory Board (CAB) designed and tested a coach-based intervention to make the home environment more supportive of healthy eating and physical activity for rural adults. Methods The 6-week intervention consisted of a tailored home environment profile, goal-setting, and behavioral contracting delivered through two home visits and two telephone calls. The study used a quasi-experimental design with data collected via telephone interviews at baseline, 2 and 4 months post-baseline. Ninety households (n = 90) completed all three telephone interviews. Results Multilevel models indicated that intervention households reported significant improvements in household food inventories, purchasing of fruit and vegetables, healthier meal preparation, meals with the TV off, and family support for healthy eating, relative to comparison households. Intervention households also reported increased exercise equipment and family support for physical activity relative to comparison households. Percent of fat intake decreased significantly, but no changes were observed for fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, or weight among intervention relative to comparison households, although trends were generally in a positive direction. Conclusion Coaching combined with a focus on the home environment may be a promising strategy for weight gain prevention in adults. PMID:22982840

  8. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  9. Long term results of mechanical prostheses for treatment of active infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, J; Tornos, M; Permanyer-Miralda, G; Almirante, B; Murtra, M; Soler-Soler, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse the long term results of mechanical prostheses for treating active infective endocarditis.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis and operated on in the active phase of the infection for insertion of a mechanical prosthesis.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre in a metropolitan area.
RESULTS—Between 1975 and 1997, 637 cases of infective endocarditis were diagnosed in the centre. Of these, 436 were left sided (with overall mortality of 20.3%). Surgical treatment in the active phase of the infection was needed in 141 patients (72% native, 28% prosthetic infective endocarditis). Mechanical prostheses were used in 131 patients. Operative mortality was 30.5% (40 patients). Ninety one survivors were followed up prospectively for (mean (SD)) 5.4 (4.5) years. Thirteen patients developed prosthetic valve dysfunction. Nine patients suffered reinfection: four of these (4%) were early and five were late. The median time from surgery for late reinfection was 1.4 years. During follow up, 12 patients died. Excluding operative mortality, actuarial survival was 86.6% at five years and 83.7% at 10 years; actuarial survival free from death, reoperation, and reinfection was 73.1% at five years and 59.8% at 10 years.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients surviving acute infective endocarditis and receiving mechanical prostheses, the rate of early reinfection compares well with reported results of homografts. In addition, prosthesis dysfunction rate is low and long term survival is good. These data should prove useful for comparison with long term studies, when available, using other types of valve surgery in active infective endocarditis.


Keywords: infective endocarditis; surgery; mechanical prosthesis PMID:11410564

  10. Animal-Assisted Activities: Results From a Survey of Top-Ranked Pediatric Oncology Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chubak, Jessica; Hawkes, Rene

    2016-07-01

    Animal-assisted activities (AAA) are increasingly common, yet little is known about practices in pediatric oncology. To address this gap, we surveyed the top 20 pediatric oncology hospitals in the United States in May and June of 2014. Questionnaires were sent via e-mail and generally returned by e-mail or postal mail. Among the 19 responding hospitals, the 18 that offered AAA to pediatric patients formed the basis of our analysis. All sites had written AAA policies. Most programs were restricted to dogs. At 11 hospitals, children with cancer could participate in AAA activities. Outpatient waiting rooms and individual inpatient rooms were the most common locations for AAA with pediatric oncology patients. Safety precautions varied by hospital, but all required hand sanitation after visits and that animals receive an annual health examination, be on a leash or in a carrier, be ≥1 year old, and not be directly from a shelter. Our findings reveal consistencies and variations in practice that may help other hospitals develop their own programs and researchers identify areas of future study.

  11. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  12. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  13. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  14. Results of the survey activities and mobile gamma scanning in Monticello, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.

    1985-11-01

    The town of Monticello, Utah, was once the site of an active mill which processed vanadium ore (1942 to 1948), and uranium ore (1948 to 1960). Properties in the vicinity of that mill have become contaminated with radioactive material from ore processing. The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested by the Division of Remedial Action Projects (DRAP) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to: (1) identify potentially contaminated properties; (2) assess natural background radiation levels; and (3) rapidly assess the magnitude, extent, and type (i.e. ore, tailings, etc.) of contamination present on these properties (if any). This survey was conducted by RASA during April 1983. In addition to the 114 properties previously identified from historical information, the ORNL mobile gamma scanning van located 36 new properties exhibiting anomalous gamma radiation levels. Onsite surveys were conducted on 145 of the 150 total properties identified either historically or with the gamma scanning van. Of these 145 properties, 122 of them appeared to have some type of contaminated material present on them; however, only 48 appeared to be contaminated to the extent where they were in excess of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria (40 CFR 192). Twenty-one other properties were recommended for additional investigation (indoor gamma scanning and radon daughter measurements); of these, only ten required further analysis. This report provides the detailed data and analyses related to the radiological survey efforts performed by ORNL in Monticello, Utah.

  15. Analysis of the Accuracy of Weight Loss Information Search Engine Results on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Shokar, Navkiran K.; Peñaranda, Eribeth; Nguyen, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically identified and evaluated the quality and comprehensiveness of online information related to weight loss that users were likely to access. Methods. We evaluated the content quality, accessibility of the information, and author credentials for Web sites in 2012 that were identified from weight loss specific queries that we generated. We scored the content with respect to available evidence-based guidelines for weight loss. Results. One hundred three Web sites met our eligibility criteria (21 commercial, 52 news/media, 7 blogs, 14 medical, government, or university, and 9 unclassified sites). The mean content quality score was 3.75 (range = 0–16; SD = 2.48). Approximately 5% (4.85%) of the sites scored greater than 8 (of 12) on nutrition, physical activity, and behavior. Content quality score varied significantly by type of Web site; the medical, government, or university sites (mean = 4.82, SD = 2.27) and blogs (mean = 6.33, SD = 1.99) had the highest scores. Commercial (mean = 2.37, SD = 2.60) or news/media sites (mean = 3.52, SD = 2.31) had the lowest scores (analysis of variance P < .005). Conclusions. The weight loss information that people were likely to access online was often of substandard quality because most comprehensive and quality Web sites ranked too low in search results. PMID:25122030

  16. Mutation in E1, the ubiquitin activating enzyme, reduces Drosophila lifespan and results in motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiu-Yu; Pfleger, Cathie M

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases cause tremendous suffering for those afflicted and their families. Many of these diseases involve accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins thought to play a causal role in disease pathology. Ubiquitinated proteins are often found in these protein aggregates, and the aggregates themselves have been shown to inhibit the activity of the proteasome. These and other alterations in the Ubiquitin Pathway observed in neurodegenerative diseases have led to the question of whether impairment of the Ubiquitin Pathway on its own can increase mortality or if ongoing neurodegeneration alters Ubiquitin Pathway function as a side-effect. To address the role of the Ubiquitin Pathway in vivo, we studied loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme, Uba1 or E1, the most upstream enzyme in the Ubiquitin Pathway. Loss of only one functional copy of E1 caused a significant reduction in adult lifespan. Rare homozygous hypomorphic E1 mutants reached adulthood. These mutants exhibited further reduced lifespan and showed inappropriate Ras activation in the brain. Removing just one functional copy of Ras restored the lifespan of heterozygous E1 mutants to that of wild-type flies and increased the survival of homozygous E1 mutants. E1 homozygous mutants also showed severe motor impairment. Our findings suggest that processes that impair the Ubiquitin Pathway are sufficient to cause early mortality. Reduced lifespan and motor impairment are seen in the human disease X-linked Infantile Spinal Muscular Atrophy, which is associated with mutation in human E1 warranting further analysis of these mutants as a potential animal model for study of this disease.

  17. Freedom car and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2007 benefits analysis, methodology and results -- final report.

    SciTech Connect

    SIngh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in subsequent activities. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY07 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the FCVT program for internal project management purposes.

  18. Improvement of IVF results and optimisation of quality control by using intermittent activity.

    PubMed

    Frydman, Nelly; Fanchin, Rénato; Le Dû, Anne; Bourrier, Marie Catherine; Tachdjian, Gérard; Frydman, René

    2004-11-01

    For several years the present authors' team had not been satisfied with the pregnancy rate achieved by their unit, especially in comparison with the results achieved by other teams with a similar population. A quality programme was established, and it was decided to switch from non-stop to intermittent activity. It was envisaged that this programme would provide a more realistic view of the team's activity and could also, as a secondary effect, improve its results. The team's experience of an in-series organization was presented for the management of 408 consecutive infertile couples, during 2002. The results obtained during 2002 were compared with those for two previous years. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the clinical pregnancy rate per oocyte retrieval from 28.9% (2000) and 25.2% (2001) to 41% (2002) in IVF and from 23% (2000) and 26% (2001) to 38.5% (2002) in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A significant increase (P < 0.01) was also observed in the implantation rate, from 14.8% and 13.4% to 20% in IVF and from 12.1% and 12.9% to 23.5% in ICSI. The higher pregnancy rate was achieved without an increase in the multiple pregnancy rate. In conclusion, recent data support the hypothesis that the use of a quality management system, can, as in this case, have positive repercussions on pregnancy rates.

  19. Activation of TLR3/interferon signaling pathway by bluetongue virus results in HIV inhibition in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ming; Wang, Xu; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Sang, Ming; Liu, Jin-Biao; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus, is a potent inducer of type Ι interferons in multiple cell systems. In this study, we report that BTV16 treatment of primary human macrophages induced both type I and III IFN expression, resulting in the production of multiple antiviral factors, including myxovirus resistance protein A, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, and the IFN-stimulated gene 56. Additionally, BTV-treated macrophages expressed increased HIV restriction factors (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 G/F/H) and CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-β, regulated on activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted), the ligands for HIV entry coreceptor CC chemokine receptor type 5. BTV16 also induced the expression of tetherin, which restricts HIV release from infected cells. Furthermore, TLR3 signaling of macrophages by BTV16 resulted in the induction of several anti-HIV microRNAs (miRNA-28, -29a, -125b, -150, -223, and -382). More importantly, the induction of antiviral responses by BTV resulted in significant suppression of HIV in macrophages. These findings demonstrate the potential of BTV-mediated TLR3 activation in macrophage innate immunity against HIV.

  20. Proteolysis of decellularized extracellular matrices results in loss of fibronectin and cell binding activity.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Anand; Karuri, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Excessive inflammation in the chronic wound bed is believed to result in increased fibronectin (FN) proteolysis and poor tissue repair. However, FN fragments can prime the immune response and result in higher protease levels. The reciprocity between FN proteolysis and inflammation makes it challenging to determine the specific contribution of FN proteolysis in the extracellular matrix (ECM) on tissue responses. We studied the impact of proteolysis of decellularized extracellular matrices (dECMs) obtained from NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts on FN level and activity. The dECMs were treated with α chymotrypsin and proteolysis was stopped at different time points. The protease solution was obtained, the remaining dECM was scrapped and examined by immunoblotting and Bicinchoninic Acid assays. Fibronectin was 9.4 ± 1.8% of the total protein content in the dECM but was more susceptible to proteolysis. After 15 min of protease treatment there was a 67.6% and 11.1% decrease in FN and total protein, respectively, in the dECMs. Fibronectin fragments were present both in the proteolysis solution and in the dECM. Cell adhesion, spreading and actin extensions on dECMs decreased with increasing proteolysis time. Interestingly, the solutions obtained after proteolysis of the dECMs supported cell adhesion and spreading in a time dependent manner, thus demonstrating the presence of FN cell binding activity in the protease solution of dECMs. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of FN in the ECM to proteolysis and the resulting loss of cell adhesion due to the decrease of FN activity and places weight on bioengineering strategies to stabilize FN against proteolysis.

  1. Chronic ethanol consumption by mice results in activated splenic T cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Kejing; Coleman, Ruth A; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Alber, Carol; Ballas, Zuhair K; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Cook, Robert T

    2002-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that T cells from human alcoholics overexpress activation or memory markers such as human leukocyte antigen-DR, CD45RO, CD57, and CD11b and may have reduced levels of CD62L. In those studies, we demonstrated that the increased CD57(+) T cell population rapidly produces interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, independent of a second signal requirement, consistent with an increased effector T cell population. In contrast to the length of alcohol abuse by human alcoholics, most work with mice has involved 2-week ethanol exposures or less, which result in decreased IFN-gamma responses. In the present work, we have evaluated C57Bl/6 or BALB/c mice, which were administered 20% w/v ethanol in water for 3-13 weeks. In these mice, rapid cytoplasmic IFN-gamma expression by T cells after stimulation through the T cell receptor was significantly increased versus normals. Studies of surface-activation markers showed that T cells from chronically ethanol-fed mice had reduced CD62L expression and an increased percentage of CD44(hi) T cells. The CD44(hi) subset was largely second signal-independent for secreted IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 production at early times after stimulation. The enriched T cells of chronic ethanol mice secreted more IFN-gamma and IL-4 than controls and equivalent IL-2 at early times after stimulation (6-24 h). The overall results support the concept that in humans and mice, chronic alcohol exposure of sufficient duration results in T cell activation or sensitization in vivo and an increased percentage of the effector/memory subset.

  2. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions. I. Intrinsic dimension and correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kevin R.; Li, Jimmy J.; Delouille, Véronique; De Visscher, Ruben; Watson, Fraser; Hero, Alfred O.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The flare productivity of an active region is observed to be related to its spatial complexity. Mount Wilson or McIntosh sunspot classifications measure such complexity but in a categorical way, and may therefore not use all the information present in the observations. Moreover, such categorical schemes hinder a systematic study of an active region's evolution for example. Aims: We propose fine-scale quantitative descriptors for an active region's complexity and relate them to the Mount Wilson classification. We analyze the local correlation structure within continuum and magnetogram data, as well as the cross-correlation between continuum and magnetogram data. Methods: We compute the intrinsic dimension, partial correlation, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of image patches of continuum and magnetogram active region images taken from the SOHO-MDI instrument. We use masks of sunspots derived from continuum as well as larger masks of magnetic active regions derived from magnetogram to analyze separately the core part of an active region from its surrounding part. Results: We find relationships between the complexity of an active region as measured by its Mount Wilson classification and the intrinsic dimension of its image patches. Partial correlation patterns exhibit approximately a third-order Markov structure. CCA reveals different patterns of correlation between continuum and magnetogram within the sunspots and in the region surrounding the sunspots. Conclusions: Intrinsic dimension has the potential to distinguish simple from complex active regions. These results also pave the way for patch-based dictionary learning with a view toward automatic clustering of active regions.

  3. Fluctuations and resulting competing pathways in RNA folding: The activation of splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    1991-01-01

    We implement a parallel processing Monte Carlo simulation to explore RNA configuration space that takes into account fluctuations in base-pairing patterns. The choice of folding pathways is biased by the refolding events that occur as the chain is being assembled. We prove that fluctuations in the initial stages of folding might lead to either active or inactive emerging structures. As an illustration, competing pathways that are the result of fluctuation propagation are computed for the splicing YC4 intron (a segment of the mitochondrial RNA from fungi), and the emerging structures are proved to be biologically relevant.

  4. Active vibration absorber for the CSI evolutionary model - Design and experimental results. [Controls Structures Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.

  5. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  6. The Formation of CIRs at Stream-Stream Interfaces and Resultant Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.

    2005-01-01

    Corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are regions of compressed plasma formed at the leading edges of corotating high-speed solar wind streams originating in coronal holes as they interact with the preceding slow solar wind. Although particularly prominent features of the solar wind during the declining and minimum phases of the 11-year solar cycle, they may also be present at times of higher solar activity. We describe how CIRs are formed, and their geomagnetic effects, which principally result from brief southward interplanetary magnetic field excursions associated with Alfven waves. Seasonal and long-term variations in these effects are briefly discussed.

  7. Results from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program: Their use in inspection activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The US NCR's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has determined the susceptibility to aging of components and systems, and the potential for aging to impact plant safety and availability. The NPAR Program also identified methods for detecting and mitigating aging in components. This report describes the NPAR results which can enhance NRC inspection activities. Recommendations are provided for communicating pertinent information to NRC inspectors. These recommendations are based on a detailed assessment of the NRC's Inspection Program, and feedback from resident and regional inspectors as described within. Examples of NPAR report summaries and aging inspection guides for components and systems are included. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naillon, Martine

    1994-01-01

    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  9. Physical activity and sedentary activity patterns among children and adolescents: a latent class analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie; Lytle, Leslie; Erickson, Darin; Sirard, John; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Story, Marry

    2010-01-01

    Background While much is known about the overall levels of physical activity and sedentary activity among youth, few studies have attempted to define clusters of such behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of youth based on their participation in a variety of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Latent class analysis was used to characterize segments of youth based on patterns of self-reported and accelerometer-measured participation in 12 behaviors. Children and adolescents (N=720) from 6th–11th grade were included in the analysis. Differences in class membership were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Three distinct classes emerged for boys and girls. Among boys, the three classes were characterized as: (1) “Active” (42.1%), (2) “Sedentary” (24.9%), and (3) “Low Media/Moderate Activity” (33.0%). For girls, classes were: (1) “Active” (18.7%), (2) “Sedentary” (47.6%), and (3) “Low Media/Functional Activity” (33.7%). Significant differences were found between the classes for a number of demographic indicators including the proportion in each class who were classified as overweight or obese. Conclusions The behavioral profiles of the classes identified in this study can be used to suggest possible audience segments for intervention and to tailor strategies appropriately. PMID:21597117

  10. Concurrent Validity for an Activity Vector Analysis Index of Social Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.; Goldfarb, Lori A.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) (N=144 adults) to examine the concurrent validity of the AVA. Results supported the validity of the AVA's social adjustment measure. (LLL)

  11. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction. PMID:27111629

  12. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction.

  13. Subconjunctival Sirolimus for the Treatment of Chronic Active Anterior Uveitis: Results of a Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sen, H. Nida; Larson, Theresa A.; Meleth, Annal D.; Smith, Wendy M.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and possible efficacy of subconjunctival sirolimus for the treatment of chronic active anterior uveitis Design Prospective, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial. Methods This single-center pilot trial enrolled 5 patients with chronic active anterior uveitis. The study drug was administered as single subconjunctival injection of 30μL (1,320μg) sirolimus in the study eye at the baseline visit. Study visits were performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and monthly until 4 months, and included a complete ophthalmic exam, review of systems, adverse event assessment at each visit, physical exam and ancillary ophthalmic testing at some visits. The primary outcome measure was a 2-step reduction in the anterior chamber inflammation within 4 weeks of injection of the study drug. Results There were 3 females and 2 males; 4 patients had idiopathic anterior uveitis and one had psoriatic arthritis-associated anterior uveitis. Three of the five patients met the primary outcome criteria by showing at least a 2-step decrease in inflammation within 4 weeks, 2 patients showed a 1-step decrease in inflammation within the same time frame. No recurrence was encountered during a 4 month follow-up. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Subconjunctival sirolimus appears to be well tolerated in this pilot trial and shows promise as a treatment for active inflammation in patients with chronic anterior uveitis. Larger studies are needed to assess its usefulness in uveitis. PMID:22465364

  14. Field Test Results from a 10 kW Wind Turbine with Active Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Thomas; Bychkova, Veronika; Taylor, Keith; Clingman, Dan; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Active flow control devices including synthetic jets and dynamic vortex generators were tested on a 10 kW wind turbine at RPI. Previous work has shown that load oscillations caused by dynamic stall could be modified through the use of active flow control by injecting momentum into the flow field near the leading edge of a dynamically pitching model. In this study, this work has been extended to its logical conclusion, field-testing active flow control on a real wind turbine. The blades in the current study have a 0.28m chord and 3.05m span, no twist or taper, and were retrofitted with six synthetic jets on one blade and ten dynamic vortex generators on a second blade. The third blade of this turbine was not modified, in order to serve as a control. Strain gauges were installed on each blade to measure blades' deflection. A simple closed loop control was demonstrated and preliminary results indicate reduced vibrational amplitude. Future testing will be conducted on a larger scale, 600kW machine at NREL, incorporating information collected during this study.

  15. Passive versus active mitigation cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.; Galbraith, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The scope of this task is to assess the impact of mitigation alternatives for Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103 on the Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. This assessment and other related tasks are part of an Action Plan Path Forward prepared by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Life Extension and Transition Program. Task 3.7 of the Action Plan for Project W-236A MWTF analyzed the comparative cost/risk of two hydrogen gas mitigation alternatives (active versus passive) to recommend the most appropriate course of action to resolve the hydrogen gas safety issue. The qualitative success of active mitigation has been demonstrated through Tank 241-SY-101 testing. Passive mitigation has not been demonstrated but will be validated by laboratory test work performed under Task 3.1 of the Action Plan. It is assumed for this assessment that the uncertainties associated with the performance of either alternative is comparable. Determining alternative specific performance measures beyond those noted are not in the scope of this effort.

  16. ACMRDD Acccreditation: Analysis of Nationwide Survey Results, 1980-1984. Public Policy Monograph Series Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Richard; Braddock, David

    This analysis of survey activities of the Accreditation Council for Services for Mentally Retarded and Other Developmentally Disabled Persons (ACMRDD) is designed to provide program administrators and state agency officials with comprehensive descriptive information on 296 surveys conducted by the council from 1980 through 1984. Part I of this…

  17. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE) and physical activity (PA), less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Methods Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414), from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m). An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Results Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults. PMID:21854598

  18. Comparison of Impurities in Charcoal Sorbents Found by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Finn, Erin C.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Neutron activation of gas samples in a reactor often requires a medium to retain sufficient amounts of the gas for analysis. Charcoal is commonly used to adsorb gas and hold it for activation; however, the amount of activated sodium in the charcoal after irradiation swamps most signals of interest. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on several commonly available charcoal samples in an effort to determine the activation background. The results for several elements, including the dominant sodium element, are reported. It was found that ECN charcoal had the lowest elemental background, containing sodium at 2.65 ± 0.05 ppm, as well as trace levels of copper and tungsten.

  19. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  20. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak.

  1. Results and Activities in RDA and their Potential for Efficient Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenburg, Peter; Stehouwer, Herman; Pennington, Rob

    2015-04-01

    A large cross-disciplinary survey on data practices in Europe with about 120 interviews and intensive meetings revealed that working with data is extremely inefficient and costly. In addition our methods in the departments are such that only a small percentage of papers resulting from data intensive research is reproducible. A workshop organized by Research Data Alliance and MPS with leading scientists from various disciplines came to similar conclusions. This is the reason why the global and cross-disciplinary Research Data Alliance started working on aspects of data management, description/ annotation,access, re-use, interoperability etc. Already after 18 months the first working groups came up with their results that have the potential to help overcoming the current situation. Agreeing on a common basic data model would help in many data operations, re-using best practices for practical policies would improve reproducibility, making use of a common API for registering and resolving persistent identifiers would make usage of persistent identifier services much simpler and thus increase trust in data and making use of data type registries would help us to deal with unknown data types which is a usual phenomenon in data science. In addition, after 2 years of intensive discussions new groups have been formed such as Data Fabric which is analyzing data life cycle phases and the scientific data processing machinery to identify essential common components and services and place the activities of current working and interest groups into this language. Many data scientists are involved in these discussions which gives us hope in quick convergence. Based on a few projects that started to uptake these results and the broad interest in the new activities we can see the huge potential of them. In a presentation we will describe these first results and their potential impact for data intensive science and we will describe the objectives behind discussions of Data Fabric and

  2. A highly sensitive telomerase activity assay that eliminates false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Hidenobu; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) on magnetic beads (MBs) and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT) is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity.

  3. OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2007-05-01

    Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

  4. A highly sensitive telomerase activity assay that eliminates false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Hidenobu; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) on magnetic beads (MBs) and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT) is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity. PMID:24071983

  5. Modulation of the Hormone Setting by Rhodococcus fascians Results in Ectopic KNOX Activation in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Depuydt, Stephen; Doležal, Karel; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Moritz, Thomas; Holsters, Marcelle; Vereecke, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The biotrophic actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians has a profound impact on plant development and a common aspect of the symptomatology is the deformation of infected leaves. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the serrated leaf margins formed upon infection resemble the leaf phenotype of transgenic plants with ectopic expression of KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) genes. Through transcript profiling, we demonstrate that class-I KNOX genes are transcribed in symptomatic leaves. Functional analysis revealed that BREVIPEDICELLUS/KNOTTED-LIKE1 and mainly SHOOT MERISTEMLESS were essential for the observed leaf dissection. However, these results also positioned the KNOX genes downstream in the signaling cascade triggered by R. fascians infection. The much faster activation of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR5 and the establishment of homeostatic and feedback mechanisms to control cytokinin (CK) levels support the overrepresentation of this hormone in infected plants due to the secretion by the pathogen, thereby placing the CK response high up in the cascade. Hormone measurements show a net decrease of tested CKs, indicating either that secretion by the bacterium and degradation by the plant are in balance, or, as suggested by the strong reaction of 35S:CKX plants, that other CKs are at play. At early time points of the interaction, activation of gibberellin 2-oxidase presumably installs a local hormonal setting favorable for meristematic activity that provokes leaf serrations. The results are discussed in the context of symptom development, evasion of plant defense, and the establishment of a specific niche by R. fascians. PMID:18184732

  6. Analysis Results for ARRA Projects: Enabling Fuel Cell Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation discusses analysis results for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act early market fuel cell deployments and describes the objective of the project and its relevance to the Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program; NREL's analysis approach; technical accomplishments including publication of a fourth set of composite data products; and collaborations and future work.

  7. False Positive Functional Analysis Results as a Contributor of Treatment Failure during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Amanda J.; Mueller, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that functional analysis results are beneficial for treatment selection because they identify reinforcers for severe behavior that can then be used to reinforce replacement behaviors either differentially or noncontingently. Theoretically then, if a reinforcer is identified in a functional analysis erroneously, a well researched…

  8. Kras activation in p53-deficient myoblasts results in high-grade sarcoma formation with impaired myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Timothy; Venier, Rosemarie; Dickson, Brendan C.; Kabaroff, Leah; Alkema, Manon; Chen, Li; Shern, Jack F.; Yohe, Marielle E.; Khan, Javed; Gladdy, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    While genomic studies have improved our ability to classify sarcomas, the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation and progression of many sarcoma subtypes are unknown. To better understand developmental origins and genetic drivers involved in rhabdomyosarcomagenesis, we describe a novel sarcoma model system employing primary murine p53-deficient myoblasts that were isolated and lentivirally transduced with KrasG12D. Myoblast cell lines were characterized and subjected to proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and differentiation assays to assess the effects of transgenic KrasG12D expression. KrasG12D overexpression transformed p53−/− myoblasts as demonstrated by an increased anchorage-independent growth. Induction of differentiation in parental myoblasts resulted in activation of key myogenic regulators. In contrast, Kras-transduced myoblasts had impaired terminal differentiation. p53−/− myoblasts transformed by KrasG12D overexpression resulted in rapid, reproducible tumor formation following orthotopic injection into syngeneic host hindlimbs. Pathological analysis revealed high-grade sarcomas with myogenic differentiation based on the expression of muscle-specific markers, such as Myod1 and Myog. Gene expression patterns of murine sarcomas shared biological pathways with RMS gene sets as determined by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and were 61% similar to human RMS as determined by metagene analysis. Thus, our novel model system is an effective means to model high-grade sarcomas along the RMS spectrum. PMID:25992772

  9. Changes in diet and physical activity resulting from the Shape Up Somerville community intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the behavioral changes in children resulting from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), a community-based, participatory obesity prevention intervention that used a multi-level, systems-based approach. It was set in Somerville, an urban, culturally diverse community in Massachusetts, USA. Methods This was a non-randomized, controlled 2-year community-based intervention trial with children enrolled in grades 1 to 3 (ages 6-8 years). Overall, the SUS intervention was designed to create environmental and policy change to impact all aspects of a child’s day. Pre-post outcomes were compared between Somerville and two control communities that were chosen based on socio-demographic similarities. Behavioral outcomes were fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; number of organized sports and physical activities per year; walking to and from school; screen and television time; television in bedroom; and dinner in room with television on. These measures were assessed by parent/caregiver report using a 68-item Family Survey Form. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, accounting for covariates and clustering by community. Results Intervention group children, compared to the control group, significantly reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (-2.0 ounces per day; 95% CI -3.8 to -0.2), increased participation in organized sports and physical activities (0.20 sports or activities per year; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.33), and reduced their screen time (-0.24 hours per day; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06). Conclusions Results of this study, particularly intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time, are similar to others that used a multi-level approach to realize change in behavior. These results support the efficacy of a multi-level and systems-based approach for promoting the behavioral changes necessary for childhood obesity prevention. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00153322. PMID

  10. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Scott W; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G; Miller, Daniel M; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  11. Macrophage Activation Associated with Chronic Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Results in More Severe Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.; Miller, Daniel M.; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P.; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  12. Inflammasome activation of IL-18 results in endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kahlenberg, J Michelle; Thacker, Seth G; Berthier, Celine C; Cohen, Clemens D; Kretzler, Matthias; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2011-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with heterogeneous manifestations including severe organ damage and vascular dysfunction leading to premature atherosclerosis. IFN-α has been proposed to have an important role in the development of lupus and lupus-related cardiovascular disease, partly by repression of IL-1 pathways leading to impairments in vascular repair induced by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). Counterintuitively, SLE patients also display transcriptional upregulation of the IL-1β/IL-18 processing machinery, the inflammasome. To understand this dichotomy and its impact on SLE-related cardiovascular disease, we examined cultures of human and murine control or lupus EPC/CACs to determine the role of the inflammasome in endothelial differentiation. We show that caspase-1 inhibition improves dysfunctional SLE EPC/CAC differentiation into mature endothelial cells and blocks IFN-α-mediated repression of this differentiation, implicating inflammasome activation as a crucial downstream pathway leading to aberrant vasculogenesis. Furthermore, serum IL-18 levels are elevated in SLE and correlate with EPC/CAC dysfunction. Exogenous IL-18 inhibits endothelial differentiation in control EPC/CACs and neutralization of IL-18 in SLE EPC/CAC cultures restores their capacity to differentiate into mature endothelial cells, supporting a deleterious effect of IL-18 on vascular repair in vivo. Upregulation of the inflammasome machinery was operational in vivo, as evidenced by gene array analysis of lupus nephritis biopsies. Thus, the effects of IFN-α are complex and contribute to an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease by suppression of IL-1β pathways and by upregulation of the inflammasome machinery and potentiation of IL-18 activation.

  13. Modification of the activity of some C cycle hydrolases in soils afforested with Populus alba L. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorita, Félix; García-Campos, Elena; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    analysis for ß-glucosidase, invertase and CM-cellulase activity. The main physical and chemical properties of the soils were also determined (total C and N contents, pH in water and in KCl, texture, etc) and the apparent density measured to enable the results to be expressed per unit of weight as well as per unit of volume. The mean values of total C and N in the afforested soils were slightly higher than in the cropped soils, independently of whether the results were expressed relative to weight or volume. The differences were not significant in any of the cases. Afforestation appeared to cause small increases in ß-glucosidase and invertase activities, but a decrease in CM-cellulase activity. Again the same results were obtained independently of whether the values were expressed per unit of weight or volume. The same was also found when the values were expressed relative to the N content of the soils, but when the values were expressed relative to the total C content, the ß-glucosidase activity was found to be the same in afforested and cropped soils. The greater availability of plant remains as the result of the change in land use may have favoured increased activity of enzymes that act on the most readily decomposable substrates (ß-glucosidase and invertase), which in turn would generate an increase in the substrates available for microorganisms, and possibly contribute to the higher respiratory activity observed in these soils (García-Campos et al., 2010, EGU General Assembly, Session 13). Acknowledgements. This research was financially supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (CGL2008-01992/BTE).

  14. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  15. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Robin P. Gardner

    2006-04-11

    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  16. Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

  17. Calculation notes for surface leak resulting in pool, TWRS FSAR accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.W.

    1996-09-25

    This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Surface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

  18. Calculation Notes for Subsurface Leak Resulting in Pool, TWRS FSAR Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.W.

    1996-09-25

    This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Subsurface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

  19. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v). PMID:24792543

  20. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v).

  1. Three years of the OCRA methodology in Brazil: critical analysis and results.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Facci; Eduardo, Marcatto; Edoardo, Santino

    2012-01-01

    The Authors make a detailed analysis of the introduction of the OCRA Methodology in Brazil that started in August 2008 with the launching of the "OCRA Book" translated to Portuguese. They evaluate the importance of the assessment of the exposure of the upper limbs to the risk due to repetitive movements and efforts, according to the national and international legislation, demonstrating the interconnection of the OCRA Methodology with the Regulating Norms of the Ministry of Labor and Work (NRs - MTE), especially with the NR-17 and its Application Manual. They discuss the new paradigms of the OCRA Method in relation to the classic paradigms of the ergonomic knowledge. They indicate the OCRA Method as the tool to be used for the confirmation or not of the New Previdentiary Epidemiologic Nexus NTEP/FAP. The Authors present their conclusions based on the practical results the "participants certified by the OCRA Methodology" achieved in the application on different laboral activities in diverse economic segments, showing the risk reduction and the productivity of the companies. PMID:22316774

  2. Preliminary results of IFSAR/LIDAR analysis in the Lakewood, California area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simental, Edmundo; Guthrie, Verner

    2000-12-01

    Remotely sensed imagery can be used to assess the results of natural disasters such as floods. The imagery can be used to predict the extent of a flood, to develop methods to control a flood, and to assess the damage caused by a flood. This paper addresses the information derived from two different sources: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). The study will show how the information differs and how this information can be fused to better analyze flood problems. LIDAR and IFSAR data were collected over the same Lakewood area of Los Angeles, California as part of a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-sponsored data collection. Lakewood is located in a floodplain and is of interest for updating the maps of floodplains. IFSAR is an active sensor and can penetrate through clouds and provides three separate digital files for analysis: magnitude, elevation, and correlation files. LIDAR provides elevation and magnitude files. However, for this study only the elevation values were provided. The LIDAR elevation data is more accurate and more densely sampled than the IFSAR data. In this study, the above information is used to produce charts with information relevant to floodplain mapping. To produce relevant information, the data had to be adjusted due to different coordinate systems, different sampling rates, vertical and horizontal post spacing differences, and orientation differences between the IFSAR and LIDAR data sets. This paper will describe the methods and procedures to transform the data sets to a common reference.

  3. Results of the GCMS Effluent Gas Analysis for the Brine Processing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Lee, Jeffrey; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Harris, Linden

    2015-01-01

    The effluent gas for the Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) were analyzed using Headspace GCMS Analysis in the recent AES FY14 Brine Processing Test. The results from the analysis describe the number and general chemical species of the chemicals produced. Comparisons were also made between the different chromatograms for each system, and an explanation of the differences in the results is reported.

  4. Analysis of the Learjet 35/36 Wing and Correlation with Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abla, M. H.; Boroughs, R. R.; Cook, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Two NASTRAN models of the Gates Learjet Corporation Model 35/36 Wing were developed. The models and the problems encountered in their development are discussed. A skin buckling analysis used for the ultimate loading conditions is presented. A discussion of the static tests and the correlation of the static test with the NASTRAN results and the results of a supplementary semimonocoque beam analysis are also included.

  5. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  6. Dust loading in Gusev crater, Mars: Results from two active dust devil seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, D. A.; Greeley, R.; Neakrase, L. D.; Landis, G. A.; Whelley, P.; Thompson, S. D.

    2009-12-01

    Dust devils dominate the volcanic plains at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing site within the Low Albedo Zone (LAZ) in Gusev Crater. Previous studies indicate that the inferred pressure drop within the dust devil core allows the vortex to lift large amounts of unconsolidated dust high into the atmosphere which contributes to the atmospheric haze. Previous laboratory results indicate that dust devils are efficient in lifting very fine-grained (<10 μm) material, even when boundary layer winds do not exceed previously predicted threshold wind speeds (~30-35 m/s at 1.5 m above the surface for Mars conditions). Since landing in Gusev crater in January 2004, MER Spirit has obtained data for two dust devil seasons (defined as the period of time when the first and last dust devils were imaged), with a third season currently being analyzed. These seasons typically correspond to southern spring and summer, when winds capable of lifting sediment are determined to be most frequent. All observations for Season One were taken as Spirit neared the summit of Husband Hill. During Season Two Spirit imaged dust devils in the plains as it traversed within the Inner Basin, a low-lying area in the Columbia Hills complex. All results were extrapolated so that they are representative of the entire LAZ. Season One lasted 270 sols (March 2005 to December 2005 corresponding to Ls 173.2 to 339.5 degrees), whereas Season Two lasted 153 sols (January 2007 to June 2007 corresponding to Ls 171.2 to 266.7 degrees) and ended suddenly on sol 1240 just after the dust devil frequency peaked for the season. This abrupt drop in dust devil activity corresponded to atmospheric opacity levels that exceeded 1.0 and the onset of a global dust storm that originated in the southern hemisphere that engulfed Gusev within weeks. Results show a large contrast in activity between the two seasons. An 81% decrease in dust devil frequency across the plains was found in Season Two. 533 dust devils were imaged

  7. Alteration of rare earth element distribution as a result of microbial activity and empirical methane injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, D. J.; Davies, N. W.; Thurber, A. R.; Haley, B. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    As a result of warming, methane is being released into the marine environment in areas that have not historically experienced methane input. While methane is a potent greenhouse gas, microbial oxidation of methane within the sediment greatly limits the role of marine methane sources on atmospheric forcing. However, in these areas of new methane release, consumption of methane prior to its release into the atmosphere is a result of the response of the microbial community to this new input of methane. Further, rare earth elements (REEs) are not currently thought to be involved with microbial activity, but this assumption has not been rigorously tested. Here we test that: (1) microbial communities will rapidly respond to the onset of methane emission, and (2) the microbial response to this methane input will impact the distribution of REEs within the sediment. Undisturbed cores sampled from a tidal flat at Yaquina Bay, OR, were brought back to a lab and injected with anoxic seawater (as a control) or anoxic sea water saturated with methane gas for a total of 2 weeks. Aerobic methanotrophs proliferated over this short time period, becoming an abundant member of the microbial community as identified using fatty acid biomarkers. Excitingly, the experimental injection of methane also shifted the distribution of REEs within the sediment, a trend that appeared to follow the microbial response and that was different from the control cores. Further, the lightest REEs appeared to be used more than the heavier ones, supporting that the REEs are being actively used by the microbes. While we focused on identifying the response of those microbes responsible in methane-cycling, we also identified how the entire microbial community shifts as a result of methane input, and correlating with shifts in REE distribution. Here we have empirically demonstrated the rapid response of methanotrophs to the onset of methane emission and that REE distribution within the sediment is likely

  8. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  9. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  10. Understanding Tensions: Activity Systems Analysis of Cross-Continental Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, LanHui Zhang; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Using the lens of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, activity theory, and Engeström's activity systems analysis, this qualitative study explores students' experiences in the context of a sixteen-week transpacific collaboration between seven students at Northern Illinois University (NIU) and seven students from Shandong Normal…

  11. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  12. Sport facility proximity and physical activity: Results from the Study of Community Sports in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiujin; Dai, Jian; Xun, Pengcheng; Jamieson, Lynn M; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Increased sport facility proximity is associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in western studies, but it is uncertain whether the findings can be generalized to the Chinese population. From September 2012 to December 2012, 3926 participants drawn from China using a multi-stage sampling strategy were invited to participate in the Study of Community Sports in China. Participants' demographics, commuting time to the nearest sport facility and PA levels were assessed. Among 3926 participants included (51.2% female) in the final analysis, 878 (22.4%) of them met the PA recommendation. Participants who spent ≥30 minutes in commuting time had 80% odds [odds ratio (OR): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98)] of meeting the PA recommendation compared to those who spent less than 10 minutes. For every 10-minute increment in commuting time, the odds reduced by 6% [OR = 0.94 (0.88-0.99)]. The observed associations were not appreciably modified by age, gender or education level. In this cross-sectional community-based study, we found that residents in China were less likely to meet the PA recommendation if they needed more commuting time to the nearest sport facility. Increasing sport facility proximity may be effective in improving the PA levels in the Chinese population.

  13. Sport promotion policies in the European Union: results of a contents analysis.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, N V; Kahlmeier, S; Racioppi, F

    2014-04-01

    Although sport promotion may play an important role in achieving the recommended levels of physical activity for health, until now, there has been no comprehensive assessment of how sport policies in Europe address health. This article aimed at filling this gap by reviewing and analyzing recent national policy developments in the area of sport promotion, with a focus on synergies and discrepancies with the promotion of health-enhancing physical activity. By applying various search methods, 130 documents focusing on sport and physical activity were identified in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. An analysis grid covering key indicators was developed for a systematic content analysis of 25 documents, selected according to established criteria. Analysis showed that general recommendations for good policy making were followed, such as establishing general goals, specifying time frame and responsible body for implementation and addressing different target groups. Furthermore, all sport strategies addressed health on an overall level and recognized the importance of Sport for All. However, in several strategies, there was a lack of measurable targets, specified budgets, and evaluation plans. The analysis showed that there is a great opportunity for health and sport sectors to work more closely together in the future, and identified areas where this could take place.

  14. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 2; Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Weston, R. P.; Samareh, J. A.; Mason, B. H.; Green, L. L.; Biedron, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a high-speed civil transport configuration. The paper describes both the preliminary results from implementing and validating the multidisciplinary analysis and the results from an aerodynamic optimization. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture compliant software product. A companion paper describes the formulation of the multidisciplinary analysis and optimization system.

  15. Apparatus for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2007-06-12

    Non-destructive testing apparatus according to one embodiment of the invention comprises a photon source. The photon source produces photons having predetermined energies and directs the photons toward a specimen being tested. The photons from the photon source result in the creation of positrons within the specimen being tested. A detector positioned adjacent the specimen being tested detects gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons with electrons. A data processing system operatively associated with the detector produces output data indicative of a lattice characteristic of the specimen being tested.

  16. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, F.; Bindslev, H.; Korsholm, S. B.; Furtula, V.; Leipold, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Leuterer, F.; Woskov, P.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D.

    2008-10-15

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic installed on ASDEX Upgrade uses millimeter waves generated by the newly installed 1 MW dual frequency gyrotron as probing radiation at 105 GHz. It measures backscattered radiation with a heterodyne receiver having 50 channels (between 100 and 110 GHz) to resolve the one-dimensional velocity distribution of the confined fast ions. The steerable antennas will allow different scattering geometries to fully explore the anisotropic fast ion distributions at different spatial locations. This paper covers the capabilities and operational limits of the diagnostic. It then describes the commissioning activities carried out to date. These activities include gyrotron studies, transmission line alignment, and beam pattern measurements in the vacuum vessel. Overlap experiments in near perpendicular and near parallel have confirmed the successful alignment of the system. First results in near perpendicular of scattered spectra in a neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) plasma (minority hydrogen) on ASDEX Upgrade have shown evidence of ICRH heating phase of hydrogen.

  17. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited).

    PubMed

    Meo, F; Bindslev, H; Korsholm, S B; Furtula, V; Leuterer, F; Leipold, F; Michelsen, P K; Nielsen, S K; Salewski, M; Stober, J; Wagner, D; Woskov, P

    2008-10-01

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic installed on ASDEX Upgrade uses millimeter waves generated by the newly installed 1 MW dual frequency gyrotron as probing radiation at 105 GHz. It measures backscattered radiation with a heterodyne receiver having 50 channels (between 100 and 110 GHz) to resolve the one-dimensional velocity distribution of the confined fast ions. The steerable antennas will allow different scattering geometries to fully explore the anisotropic fast ion distributions at different spatial locations. This paper covers the capabilities and operational limits of the diagnostic. It then describes the commissioning activities carried out to date. These activities include gyrotron studies, transmission line alignment, and beam pattern measurements in the vacuum vessel. Overlap experiments in near perpendicular and near parallel have confirmed the successful alignment of the system. First results in near perpendicular of scattered spectra in a neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) plasma (minority hydrogen) on ASDEX Upgrade have shown evidence of ICRH heating phase of hydrogen.

  18. Oscillatory activity in developing prefrontal networks results from theta-gamma-modulated synaptic inputs.

    PubMed

    Bitzenhofer, Sebastian H; Sieben, Kay; Siebert, Kai D; Spehr, Marc; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L

    2015-04-21

    The hippocampus-driven entrainment of neonatal prefrontal circuits in theta-gamma oscillations contributes to the maturation of cognitive abilities, yet the underlying synaptic mechanisms are still unknown. Here we combine patch-clamp recordings from morphologically and neurochemically characterized layer V pyramidal neurons and interneurons in vivo, with extracellular recordings from the prelimbic cortex (PL) of awake and lightly anesthetized neonatal rats, to elucidate the synaptic framework of early network oscillations. We demonstrate that all neurons spontaneously fire bursts of action potentials. They receive barrages of fast and slow glutamatergic as well as GABAergic synaptic inputs. Oscillatory theta activity results from long-range coupling of pyramidal neurons, presumably within prelimbic-hippocampal circuits, and from local interactions between interneurons. In contrast, beta-low gamma activity requires external glutamatergic drive on prelimbic interneurons. High-frequency oscillations in layer V are independent of interactions at chemical synapses. Thus, specific theta-gamma-modulated synaptic interactions represent the substrate of network oscillations in the developing PL. PMID:25865885

  19. Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8∘ declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

  20. Sonic hedgehog shedding results in functional activation of the solubilized protein.

    PubMed

    Ohlig, Stefanie; Farshi, Pershang; Pickhinke, Ute; van den Boom, Johannes; Höing, Susanne; Jakuschev, Stanislav; Hoffmann, Daniel; Dreier, Rita; Schöler, Hans R; Dierker, Tabea; Bordych, Christian; Grobe, Kay

    2011-06-14

    All Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are released from producing cells despite being synthesized as N- and C-terminally lipidated, membrane-tethered molecules. Thus, a cellular mechanism is needed for Hh solubilization. We previously suggested that a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)-mediated shedding of Sonic hedgehog (ShhNp) from its lipidated N and C termini results in protein solubilization. This finding, however, seemed at odds with the established role of N-terminal palmitoylation for ShhNp signaling activity. We now resolve this paradox by showing that N-palmitoylation of ShhNp N-terminal peptides is required for their proteolytic removal during solubilization. These peptides otherwise block ShhNp zinc coordination sites required for ShhNp binding to its receptor Patched (Ptc), explaining the essential yet indirect role of N-palmitoylation for ShhNp function. We suggest a functional model in which membrane-tethered multimeric ShhNp is at least partially autoinhibited in trans but is processed into fully active, soluble multimers upon palmitoylation-dependent cleavage of inhibitory N-terminal peptides. PMID:21664575

  1. Twist Model Development and Results From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew; Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the wing twist of the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft is a fundamental research objective for the program and offers numerous benefits. In order to clearly understand the wing flexibility characteristics, a model was created to predict real-time wing twist. A reliable twist model allows the prediction of twist for flight simulation, provides insight into aircraft performance uncertainties, and assists with computational fluid dynamic and aeroelastic issues. The left wing of the aircraft was heavily instrumented during the first phase of the active aeroelastic wing program allowing deflection data collection. Traditional data processing steps were taken to reduce flight data, and twist predictions were made using linear regression techniques. The model predictions determined a consistent linear relationship between the measured twist and aircraft parameters, such as surface positions and aircraft state variables. Error in the original model was reduced in some cases by using a dynamic pressure-based assumption and by using neural networks. These techniques produced excellent predictions for flight between the standard test points and accounted for nonlinearities in the data. This report discusses data processing techniques and twist prediction validation, and provides illustrative and quantitative results.

  2. Optimal placement of piezoelectric plates for active vibration control of gas turbine blades: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, F.; Marx, N.; Gentili, S.; Schwingshackl, C. W.; Di Mare, L.; Cerri, G.; Dini, D.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the gas turbine blade vibrations can give rise to catastrophic failures and a reduction of the blades life because of fatigue related phenomena[1]-[3] . In last two decades, the adoption of piezoelectric elements, has received considerable attention by many researcher for its potential applicability to different areas of mechanical, aerospace, aeronautical and civil engineering. Recently, a number of studies of blades vibration control via piezoelectric plates and patches have been reported[4]-[6] . It was reported that the use of piezoelectric elements can be very effective in actively controlling vibrations. In one of their previous contributions[7] , the authors of the present manuscript studied a model to control the blade vibrations by piezoelectric elements and validated their results using a multi-physics finite elements package (COMSOL) and results from the literature. An optimal placement method of piezoelectric plate has been developed and applied to different loading scenarios for realistic configurations encountered in gas turbine blades. It has been demonstrated that the optimal placement depends on the spectrum of the load, so that segmented piezoelectric patches have been considered and, for different loads, an optimal combination of sequential and/or parallel actuation and control of the segments has been studied. In this paper, an experimental investigation carried out by the authors using a simplified beam configuration is reported and discussed. The test results obtained by the investigators are then compared with the numerical predictions [7] .

  3. Analysis of lightning field changes during active Florida thunderstorms

    SciTech Connect

    Koshak, W.J.; Krider, E.P. )

    1989-01-20

    A computer algorithm has been developed to derive accurate values of lightning-caused changes in cloud electric fields under active storm conditions. This algorithm has been applied to data obtained from a network of ground-based electric field mills at the NASA Kennedy Space Center and the U.S. Air Force Cape Canaveral Air Force Station during portions of two storms. The resulting field changes have been analyzed using a least squares optimization procedure and point-charge (Q) and point-dipole (P) models. The results indicate that the values and time variations of the Q-model parameters under active storm conditions are similar to those reported previously for small storms when the computations are done with the same analysis criteria and comparable biases. The parameters of P solutions seem to vary with time within the storm interval and from storm to storm. The P vectors at low altitudes all tend to point upward, and those at high altitudes almost always point downward. When a P solution is located in the altitude range corresponding to Q altitudes, the direction of P tends to be horizontal. Since Q solutions typically describe cloud-to-ground lightning and P solutions describe cloud discharges (Maier and Krider, 1986), the altitude dependence of the P vectors is consistent with the classic thunder-cloud charge model that has an excess negative charge at altitudes corresponding to the Q altitudes.

  4. Quantitative analysis of phenol oxidase activity in insect hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Richard Paul; Small, Chiyedza N; Govind, Shubha

    2002-04-01

    We describe a simple, inexpensive, and robust protocol for the quantification of phenol oxidase activity in insect hemolymph. Discrete volumes of hemolymph from Drosophila melanogaster larvae are applied to pieces of filter paper soaked in an L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) solution. Phenol oxidase present in the samples catalyzes melanin synthesis from the L-DOPA precursor, resulting in the appearance of a roughly circular melanized spot on the filter paper. The filter paper is then scanned and analyzed with image-processing software. Each pixel in an image is assigned a grayscale value. The mean of the grayscale values for a circular region of pixels at the center of the image of each spot is used to compute a melanization index (MI) value, the computation is based on a comparison to an external standard (India ink). Numerical MI values for control and experimental larvae can then be pooled and subjected to statistical analysis. This protocol was used to evaluate phenol oxidase activity in larvae of different backgrounds: wild-type, lozenge, hopscotch(Tumorous-lethal) (which induces the formation of large melanotic tumors), and body-color mutations ebony and yellow. Our results demonstrate that this assay is sensitive enough for use in genetic screens with D. melanogaster and could conceivably be used for evaluation of MI from hemolymph of other insects.

  5. The Mediterranean Sea 1985-2007 re-analysis: validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adani, Mario; Dobricic, Srdjan; Pinardi, Nadia

    2010-05-01

    . The Mean Dynamic Topography of (Dobricic, 2005) has been used for both experiments. The model is forced with a combined dataset of ECMWF analysis when available and ERA-15. The precipitations are monthly mean climatology of the NCEP re-analysis (Kistler et.al 2001), the river runoff data are monthly mean climatology from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) and from Raicic (1996) for the minor Adriatic Sea rivers. The assimilation schemes help in reducing the spin up time of the model by acting as a forcing inside the water column. Both re-analyses show significantly better results then the simulation reducing both bias and root mean square error even though the structure of the error remains almost the same of the simulation: the largest error for tracers is confined in the thermocline especially in summer, highlighting a problem in the mixing parameterization; the majors error for SLA is confined in the most dynamically active areas. Satellite altimetry observations result in a fundamental dataset to constrain model solution and since its homogeneity in the sampling they permits a consistent assessment of the model behaviour along the years which it is not possible from in-situ observations whose sampling is extremely inhomogeneous both in time and space. This study describes the development of modelling and data assimilation tools for the production of re-analysis for the entire Mediterranean Sea. In order to carry out a re-analysis two major steps were undertaken in this work. In the first, the general circulation model was upgraded to have the correct air-sea water fluxes. In the second, two assimilation schemes, one new and the other consolidated, were compared to show their impact on the quality of the re-analysis. The general circulation model used in this study is shown to be capable of reproducing quite accurately the ocean dynamics of the Mediterranean Sea. The results have shown that the model solution is in agreement with data and observations, even

  6. Tetraploidization of diploid Dioscorea results in activation of the antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yi; Hu, Chun-Gen; Yao, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-15

    Polyploidy is reported to show increased tolerance to environmental stress. In this work, tetraploid plants of Dioscorea zingiberensis were obtained by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. The highest tetraploid induction rate was achieved by treatment with 0.15% colchicine for 24h. Diploid and tetraploid plants were exposed to normal (28 degrees C) and high temperature (42 degrees C) for 5d during which physiological indices were measured. Compared with diploid plants, relative electrolyte leakage and contents of malondialdehyde, superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide were lower in tetraploids, while activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were stimulated and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione) were maintained at high concentrations. These results indicate that tetraploid plants possess a stronger antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance. PMID:19692145

  7. Characterization of a photon-counting intensified active pixel sensor (PC-IAPS): preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslenghi, Michela C.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Modica, Angelo; Bergamini, Paolo

    2001-12-01

    We report about preliminary results of the characterization of a new kind of MCP-based detector: a Photon Counting Intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS). PC-IAPS appears as the natural evolution of the Intensified CCD, maintaining the basic characteristics, but with improved performance in terms of dynamic range, along with some other appealing properties: higher radiation hardness, more compact design, lower requirements on the external electronics, low power consumption. The prototype we realized is currently in an early stage of development. Nevertheless, it allows us to demonstrate the feasibility of the photon counter and to measure some of the basic parameters. Some of the characteristics of the APS, relevant to the use in intensified systems, are analyzed and compared with the CCD ones, demonstrating the potentiality of the new device and allowing us to set the basis of future development.

  8. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%.

  9. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase activity results in dependency on pyruvate carboxylation for cellular anabolism.

    PubMed

    Lussey-Lepoutre, Charlotte; Hollinshead, Kate E R; Ludwig, Christian; Menara, Mélanie; Morin, Aurélie; Castro-Vega, Luis-Jaime; Parker, Seth J; Janin, Maxime; Martinelli, Cosimo; Ottolenghi, Chris; Metallo, Christian; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Favier, Judith; Tennant, Daniel A

    2015-11-02

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway responsible for supplying reducing potential for oxidative phosphorylation and anabolic substrates for cell growth, repair and proliferation. As such it thought to be essential for cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis. However, since the initial report of an inactivating mutation in the TCA cycle enzyme complex, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in paraganglioma (PGL), it has become clear that some cells and tissues are not only able to survive with a truncated TCA cycle, but that they are also able of supporting proliferative phenotype observed in tumours. Here, we show that loss of SDH activity leads to changes in the metabolism of non-essential amino acids. In particular, we demonstrate that pyruvate carboxylase is essential to re-supply the depleted pool of aspartate in SDH-deficient cells. Our results demonstrate that the loss of SDH reduces the metabolic plasticity of cells, suggesting vulnerabilities that can be targeted therapeutically.

  10. Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.

  11. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%. PMID:26737144

  12. Structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-03-01

    The parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces sinensis, is used to produce Cordyceps materials as a succedaneum of natural Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) in China. In this work, a glycopeptide (CPS-II) was isolated and purified from Paecilomyces sinensis. The result of HPLC indicated that CPS-II was a glycopeptide. The estimated average molecular weight of CPS-II was 2 × 10(6) Da. FTIR, methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CD were used for its structural analysis. The glycopeptide CPS-II was mainly composed of (1 → 3), (1 → 4) connected glucose and galactose as the backbone, there are (1 → 2,3,6) connected glucose, (1 → 3,6) connected mannose, and (1 → 6) connected galactose. Cell proliferation assay and morphological observations indicated that in a certain range of concentrations and time, CPS-II can significantly improve the proliferation activity of RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26912165

  13. On the self-shielding factors in neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trkov, A.; Žerovnik, G.; Snoj, L.; Ravnik, M.

    2009-11-01

    Whenever the sample size in neutron activation analysis cannot be made small enough, self-shielding effects need to be taken into account. When several resonance absorbers are present in the sample, resonance interference must also be considered. Estimation of the self-shielding factors by the Monte Carlo technique is too cumbersome for routine application. Various simplified approaches were compared to rigorous Monte Carlo calculations, pointing out their potential limitations. Good results are obtained using self-shielding factors calculated from evaluated nuclear data libraries and tabulated as a function of the dilution cross-section. The dilution cross-section depends on the material composition and the sample dimensions through the equivalence principle, which is well known in reactor physics. Resonance interference is calculated by solving the neutron spectrum slowing-down equation from cross-sections in 640-group representation. The MATSSF code was written for the purpose and is available on request.

  14. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  15. Image analysis to measure activity index of animals.

    PubMed

    Bloemen, H; Aerts, J M; Berckmans, D; Goedseels, V

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the study was to present a method to quantify the behavioural response of animals to their micro-environment by using a camera system and a digitiser board. An algorithm was developed for analysing images and calculating activity, occupied zone and boundary of the animals. The developed method was tested on 3 different applications and animals. In the first application, the behavioural responses of broiler chickens to their thermal environment was measured. In the second application behavioural responses of pigs to their thermal environment were measured. In the third application, the response of water fleas to a chromium pollution was measured using the developed technique. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the developed image analysis technique can be employed to quantify the behavioural responses of the tested animals to their micro-environment, in an easy and accurate way.

  16. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California`s Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  17. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M.H.; Overvliet, Geke M.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Backes, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

  18. Quantifying cortical activity during general anesthesia using wavelet analysis.

    PubMed

    Zikov, Tatjana; Bibian, Stéphane; Dumont, Guy A; Huzmezan, Mihai; Ries, Craig R

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports on a novel method for quantifying the cortical activity of a patient during general anesthesia as a surrogate measure of the patient's level of consciousness. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of a single-channel (frontal) electroencephalogram (EEG) signal using stationary wavelet transform (SWT). The wavelet coefficients calculated from the EEG are pooled into a statistical representation, which is then compared to two well-defined states: the awake state with normal EEG activity, and the isoelectric state with maximal cortical depression. The resulting index, referred to as the wavelet-based anesthetic value for central nervous system monitoring (WAV(CNS)), quantifies the depth of consciousness between these two extremes. To validate the proposed technique, we present a clinical study which explores the advantages of the WAV(CNS) in comparison with the BIS monitor (Aspect Medical Systems, MA), currently a reference in consciousness monitoring. Results show that the WAV(CNS) and BIS are well correlated (r = 0.969) during periods of steady-state despite fundamental algorithmic differences. However, in terms of dynamic behavior, the WAV(CNS) offers faster tracking of transitory changes at induction and emergence, with an average lead of 15-30 s. Furthermore, and conversely to the BIS, the WAV(CNS) regains its preinduction baseline value when patients are responding to verbal command after emergence from anesthesia. We conclude that the proposed analysis technique is an attractive alternative to BIS monitoring. In addition, we show that the WAV(CNS) dynamics can be modeled as a linear time invariant transfer function. This index is, therefore, well suited for use as a feedback sensor in advisory systems, closed-loop control schemes, and for the identification of the pharmacodynamic models of anesthetic drugs.

  19. Improved mesh based photon sampling techniques for neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Relson, E.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Biondo, E. D.

    2013-07-01

    The design of fusion power systems requires analysis of neutron activation of large, complex volumes, and the resulting particles emitted from these volumes. Structured mesh-based discretization of these problems allows for improved modeling in these activation analysis problems. Finer discretization of these problems results in large computational costs, which drives the investigation of more efficient methods. Within an ad hoc subroutine of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, we implement sampling of voxels and photon energies for volumetric sources using the alias method. The alias method enables efficient sampling of a discrete probability distribution, and operates in 0(1) time, whereas the simpler direct discrete method requires 0(log(n)) time. By using the alias method, voxel sampling becomes a viable alternative to sampling space with the 0(1) approach of uniformly sampling the problem volume. Additionally, with voxel sampling it is straightforward to introduce biasing of volumetric sources, and we implement this biasing of voxels as an additional variance reduction technique that can be applied. We verify our implementation and compare the alias method, with and without biasing, to direct discrete sampling of voxels, and to uniform sampling. We study the behavior of source biasing in a second set of tests and find trends between improvements and source shape, material, and material density. Overall, however, the magnitude of improvements from source biasing appears to be limited. Future work will benefit from the implementation of efficient voxel sampling - particularly with conformal unstructured meshes where the uniform sampling approach cannot be applied. (authors)

  20. Ozone precursor levels and responses to emissions reductions: Analysis of regional oxidant model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milford, Jana B.; Gao, Dongfen; Zafirakou, Antigoni; Pierce, Thomas E.

    An analysis of results from the Regional Oxidant Modeling for Northeast Transport (ROMNET) study ( U.S. EPA, 1991, EPA-450/4-91-002a) has investigated the chemical conditions under which air quality was predicted to improve with reductions in ROG and/or NO ξ emissions, or with changes in the composition of ROG emissions. The ROMNET simulations used emissions projected to the year 2005, with meteorological conditions from July 1988. Predicted concentrations of PAN, HNO 3, H 2O 2 and HCHO are shown along with O 3 for the 2005 base case, allowing limited comparisons to be made with field observations and results from other modeling studies. Predicted secondary pollutant concentrations indicate an unusual degree of photochemical activity over much of the model domain, directionally consistent with the extreme nature of the July 1988 episode. Reducing NO ξ emissions was predicted to reduce O 3 in grid cells in which reactive nitrogen (NO y) concentrations were below about 25 ppb, but to be counterproductive for some cells with higher NO y. The New York City area where NO ξ control was predicted to be counterproductive was characterized by very high NO ξ to NO y ratios. Ozone was relatively insensitive to ROG controls in grid cells with NO y concentrations below 5-10 ppb. Comparison of unweighted ROG concentrations with concentrations weighted by HO rate constants (i.e. reactivity) showed that the latter varied less across locations. Predicted spatial gradients of NO y were generally sharper than those of reactivity-weighted ROG, supporting a dominant role for variations in NO y in controlling the sensitivity of ozone to its precursors. Reductions in reactivity-weighted ROG achieved with composition changes were similar to reductions achieved with ROG emissions cuts, explaining the similar response of ozone to these two control strategies.

  1. Activity analysis of telemedicine in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, D

    2004-01-01

    Background: Telemedicine is a new way of delivering health care to people, particularly in remote areas. The UK has experienced a surge of telematic projects in recent years. However, there is little information available in the literature regarding the past and present of telemedicine in the UK. Objectives: To evaluate the state of telemedicine in the UK. Methods: All the projects that took place in UK since 1991 were considered for the study and evaluated according to the population and area served. Results: A total of 216 projects were identified. The number of projects was highest in England (172). Emergency medicine, medical specialties, and educational projects received most consideration (9.7% each). With the exception of Wales, the number of projects increased steadily with time. The projects, when correlated in accordance with the area (per 10 000 sq km) and population (per million), were found to be highest in England (49.5%) and Northern Ireland (36.2%) respectively. No dedicated educational project took place in Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales. Conclusions: The UK embraced telemedicine in the early 1990s and the overall growth had been steady. Scotland, in spite of being the most likely beneficiary in UK, has lagged behind in telemedicine schemes and merits more projects. The issue of tele-education needs urgent review. Multisite trials and a combined approach involving the government, health professionals, technologists, and patients' representatives would facilitate such developments and help widen the application of telemedicine. PMID:15192165

  2. [Analytical procedure of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis and effective use of analysis results for tuberculosis control].

    PubMed

    Hachisu, Yushi; Hashimoto, Ruiko; Kishida, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis is one of the methods for molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. VNTR analysis is a method based on PCR, provides rapid highly reproducible results and higher strain discrimination power than the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis widely used in molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genetic lineage compositions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates differ among the regions from where they are isolated, and allelic diversity at each locus also differs among the genetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, the combination of VNTR loci that can provide high discrimination capacity for analysis is not common in every region. The Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (JATA) 12 (15) reported a standard combination of VNTR loci for analysis in Japan, and the combination with hypervariable (HV) loci added to JATA12 (15), which has very high discrimination capacity, was also reported. From these reports, it is thought that data sharing between institutions and construction of a nationwide database will progress from now on. Using database construction of VNTR profiles, VNTR analysis has become an effective tool to trace the route of tuberculosis infection, and also helps in decision-making in the treatment course. However, in order to utilize the results of VNTR analysis effectively, it is important that each related organization cooperates closely, and analysis should be appropriately applied in the system in which accurate control and private information protection are ensured.

  3. Application of Factor Analysis on the Financial Ratios of Indian Cement Industry and Validation of the Results by Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Anupam; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Chakraborty, B. N.

    2010-10-01

    Financial ratio analysis is an important and commonly used tool in analyzing financial health of a firm. Quite a large number of financial ratios, which can be categorized in different groups, are used for this analysis. However, to reduce number of ratios to be used for financial analysis and regrouping them into different groups on basis of empirical evidence, Factor Analysis technique is being used successfully by different researches during the last three decades. In this study Factor Analysis has been applied over audited financial data of Indian cement companies for a period of 10 years. The sample companies are listed on the Stock Exchange India (BSE and NSE). Factor Analysis, conducted over 44 variables (financial ratios) grouped in 7 categories, resulted in 11 underlying categories (factors). Each factor is named in an appropriate manner considering the factor loads and constituent variables (ratios). Representative ratios are identified for each such factor. To validate the results of Factor Analysis and to reach final conclusion regarding the representative ratios, Cluster Analysis had been performed.

  4. Prioritization methodology using hazard analysis results at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, M.K.; Hall, M.; Stack, D.; Brooks, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    Risk management activities, such as prioritizing risk-reducing projects, often are commissioned for facilities as special tasks supported by special task forces and conducted independently of other on-going risk assessment and risk management activities. Many DOE facilities have completed hazard analyses (HAs) as part of their efforts to upgrade their SARs to meet the new DOE standard that was issued in 1994. Although a complete SAR would contain more resource allocation information than the HA, the HA usually is completed before the SAR. This paper describes how SAR results, and particularly HA results, can be used directly to support managers` risk-based prioritization of project funding. This can reduce the time to conduct prioritization modeling, increase the quality of the results, and, perhaps most importantly, integrate the results into the on-going risk management activities of the site.

  5. Modulation of cortical activity as a result of voluntary postural sway direction: an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Slobounov, Semyon; Hallett, Mark; Cao, Cheng; Newell, Karl

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating the role of the cerebral cortex in human postural control. Modulation of EEG both in voltage and frequency domains has been observed preceding and following self-paced postural movements and those induced by external perturbations. The current study set out to provide additional evidence regarding the role of cerebral cortex in human postural control by specifically examining modulation of EEG as a function of postural sway direction. Twelve neurologically normal subjects were instructed to produce self-paced voluntary postural sways in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure dynamics and EEG both in voltage and frequency domains were extracted by averaging and Morlet wavelet techniques, respectively. The amplitude of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) was significantly higher preceding ML sways. Also, time-frequency wavelet coefficients (TF) indicated differential modulation of EEG within alpha, beta and gamma bands as a function of voluntary postural sway direction. Thus, ML sway appear to be more difficult and energy demanding tasks than the AP sway as reflected in differential modulation of EEG. These results are discussed within the conceptual framework of differential patterns of brain activation as a result of postural task complexity. PMID:18639613

  6. Metal dispersion resulting from mining activities in coastal environments: a pathways approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.

    2012-01-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) and disposal of tailings that result from mining activities impact coastal areas in many countries. The dispersion of metals from mine sites that are both proximal and distal to the shoreline can be examined using a pathways approach in which physical and chemical processes guide metal transport in the continuum from sources (sulfide minerals) to bioreceptors (marine biota). Large amounts of metals can be physically transported to the coastal environment by intentional or accidental release of sulfide-bearing mine tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals results in elevated dissolved metal concentrations in surface waters on land (producing ARD) and in pore waters of submarine tailings. Changes in pH, adsorption by insoluble secondary minerals (e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides), and precipitation of soluble salts (e.g., sulfates) affect dissolved metal fluxes. Evidence for bioaccumulation includes anomalous metal concentrations in bivalves and reef corals, and overlapping Pb isotope ratios for sulfides, shellfish, and seaweed in contaminated environments. Although bioavailability and potential toxicity are, to a large extent, functions of metal speciation, specific uptake pathways, such as adsorption from solution and ingestion of particles, also play important roles. Recent emphasis on broader ecological impacts has led to complementary methodologies involving laboratory toxicity tests and field studies of species richness and diversity.

  7. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entin, J. K.; Njoku, E. G.; Kellogg, K.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31, 2015. SMAP provides high-resolution, frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on coincident L-band radiometer and L-band radar measurements. The primary science goal of SMAP is to provide new perspectives on how the three fundamental cycles of the Earth system, the water, energy and carbon cycles, are linked together over land. Soil moisture is the key variable that links the three cycles and makes their co-variations synchronous in time. Soil moisture products with varying resolution and coverage are produced from the radiometer alone, radar alone, radiometer-radar combination and data assimilation. In this session the status of the SMAP observatory and early results based on the science data products will be included. The science data acquisition began in May 2015 following several weeks of observatory and instrument commissioning. An intense calibration and validation period followed. Preliminary science products on instrument measurements, soil moisture, landscape frozen or thawed status, and net ecosystem exchange are available at publicly-accessible data archives. The presentation will include early and summary results on the validation of these products. The instrument measurements can also be used to map sea-ice coverage, ocean surface winds and sea surface salinity. Examples of these global retrievals are also presented.

  8. Anaerobic homolactate fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in depletion of ATP and impaired metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Derek A; van den Brink, Joost; Minneboo, Inge M K; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2009-05-01

    Conversion of glucose to lactic acid is stoichiometrically equivalent to ethanol formation with respect to ATP formation from substrate-level phosphorylation, redox equivalents and product yield. However, anaerobic growth cannot be sustained in homolactate fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ATP-dependent export of the lactate anion and/or proton, resulting in net zero ATP formation, is suspected as the underlying cause. In an effort to understand the mechanisms behind the decreased lactic acid production rate in anaerobic homolactate cultures of S. cerevisiae, aerobic carbon-limited chemostats were performed and subjected to anaerobic perturbations in the presence of high glucose concentrations. Intracellular measurements of adenosine phosphates confirmed ATP depletion and decreased energy charge immediately upon anaerobicity. Unexpectedly, readily available sources of carbon and energy, trehalose and glycogen, were not activated in homolactate strains as they were in reference strains that produce ethanol. Finally, the anticipated increase in maximal velocity (V(max)) of glycolytic enzymes was not observed in homolactate fermentation suggesting the absence of protein synthesis that may be attributed to decreased energy availability. Essentially, anaerobic homolactate fermentation results in energy depletion, which, in turn, hinders protein synthesis, central carbon metabolism and subsequent energy generation.

  9. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates: Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, D. N.; Allen, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted with 15 participants. Experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 2219-T8 aluminum plate provided the basis for the inter-laboratory study (ILS). The study proceeded in a blind fashion given that the analysis methodology was not specified to the participants, and key experimental results were withheld. This approach allowed the ILS to serve as a current measure of the state of the art for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The analytical results and the associated methodologies were collected for comparison, and sources of variability were studied and isolated. The results of the study revealed that the J-integral analysis methodology using the domain integral method is robust, providing reliable J-integral values without being overly sensitive to modeling details. General modeling choices such as analysis code, model size (mesh density), crack tip meshing, or boundary conditions, were not found to be sources of significant variability. For analyses controlled only by far-field boundary conditions, the greatest source of variability in the J-integral assessment is introduced through the constitutive model. This variability can be substantially reduced by using crack mouth opening displacements to anchor the assessment. Conclusions provide recommendations for analysis standardization.

  10. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  11. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  12. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  13. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  14. Test results and analysis of a convective loop solar air collector

    SciTech Connect

    Biehl, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    The test results and analysis methods employed in studying the general design parameters of an air convective loop solar collector are presented. The purpose of the test program is to validate a simulation model that can also be extended to other collector arrangements and to a variety of weather patterns. Details of the collector configurations, typical test results, simulation model, and comparison between test and analysis results are discussed. The good agreement between test and analysis suggests that the analytical model can be employed for sensitivity studies. Results (not presented here) show that the collector efficiency, mass flow rate, and air temperature gain are sensitive to the air passage depth behind the absorber plate. A range of desirable collector lengths, based upon efficiency considerations, is determined employing the analytical model.

  15. A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies. I. Methodology and Results of Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    We present high-quality Keck/LRIS long-slit spectroscopy of a pilot sample of 25 local active galaxies selected from the SDSS (0.02 <=z <= 0.1; M BH>107 M sun) to study the relations between black hole mass (M BH) and host-galaxy properties. We determine stellar kinematics of the host galaxy, deriving stellar-velocity dispersion profiles and rotation curves from three spectral regions (including CaH&K, MgIb triplet, and Ca II triplet). In addition, we perform surface photometry on SDSS images, using a newly developed code for joint multi-band analysis. BH masses are estimated from the width of the Hβ emission line and the host-galaxy free 5100 Å active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity. Combining results from spectroscopy and imaging allows us to study four M BH scaling relations: M BH-σ, M BH-L sph, M BH-M sph,sstarf, and M BH-M sph,dyn. We find the following results. First, stellar-velocity dispersions determined from aperture spectra (e.g., SDSS fiber spectra or unresolved data from distant galaxies) can be biased, depending on aperture size, AGN contamination, and host-galaxy morphology. However, such a bias cannot explain the offset seen in the M BH-σ relation at higher redshifts. Second, while the CaT region is the cleanest to determine stellar-velocity dispersions, both the MgIb region, corrected for Fe II emission, and the CaHK region, although often swamped by the AGN power-law continuum and emission lines, can give results accurate to within a few percent. Third, the M BH scaling relations of our pilot sample agree in slope and scatter with those of other local active and inactive galaxies. In the next papers of the series we will quantify the scaling relations, exploiting the full sample of ~100 objects.

  16. Active Source Tomography of Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Results From the 2006 Seismic Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, L.; Patanè, D.; Cocina, O.; Castellano, M.; Sgroi, T.; Favali, P.; de Gori, P.

    2008-12-01

    Stromboli island, located in the Southern Tyrrhenian sea, is the emerged part (about 900 m a.s.l.) of a 3km-high strato-volcano. Its persistent Strombolian activity, documented for over 2000 years, is sometimes interrupted by lava effusions or major explosions. Despite the amount of recent published geophysical studies aimed to clarifying eruption dynamics, the spatial extend and geometrical characteristics of the plumbing system remain poorly understood. In fact, the knowledge of the inner structure and the zones of magma storage is limited to the upper few hundreds meters of the volcanic edifice and P- and S-waves velocity models are available only in restricted areas. In order to obtain a more suitable internal structural and velocity models of the volcano, from 25 November to 2 December 2006, a seismic tomography experiment through active seismics using air-gun sources was carried out and the final Vp model is here presented. The data has been inverted for the Vp structure by using the code Simulps13q, considering a 3D grid of nodes spaced 0.5 km down to 2 km depth, beneath the central part of volcano. The results show a relatively high velocity zones located both in the inner part of the volcanic structure, at about 1km b.s.l. and in the last 200-300 m a.s.l. in correspondence with the volcanic conduit. Slower zones were located around the summit craters in agreement with volcanological and petrological informations for the area. The relatively high velocity zones could suggest the presence of intrusive bodies related to the plumbing system.

  17. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Gram, Inger T; Vilier, Alice; Fervers, Béatrice; Manjer, Jonas; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Bakker, Marieke F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bjerkaas, Eivind; Braaten, Tonje; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Romieu, Isabelle; Cox, David G; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-04-15

    Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative life-time measures of passive smoking suggest an association between passive smoking dose and breast cancer risk. We conducted a study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to examine the association between passive and active smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer and possible effect modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Among the 322,988 women eligible for the study, 9,822 developed breast cancer (183,608 women with passive smoking information including 6,264 cases). When compared to women who never smoked and were not being exposed to passive smoking at home or work at the time of study registration, current, former and currently exposed passive smokers were at increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.16 [1.05-1.28], 1.14 [1.04-1.25] and 1.10 [1.01-1.20], respectively). Analyses exploring associations in different periods of life showed the most important increase in risk with pack-years from menarche to FFTP (1.73 [1.29-2.32] for every increase of 20 pack-years) while pack-years smoked after menopause were associated with a significant decrease in breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82 for every increase of 20 pack-years). Our results provide an important replication, in the largest cohort to date, that smoking (passively or actively) increases breast cancer risk and that smoking between menarche and FFTP is particularly deleterious.

  18. The First Results of Monitoring Galactic Magnetar Activities with MAXI/GSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yujin; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Motoko; Matsuoka, Masaru; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Morii, Mikio; Sugimori, Kohsuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamaoka, Kazu-Taka; Nakahira, Satoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Isobe, Naoki; Maxi Team

    Magnetars are strongly magnetized neutron stars with surface magnetic fields up to 1015 G. In the galactic plane, 5 soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and 8 anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are known as X-ray counterpart of the magnetars based on observational and theoretical studies. They exhibit thermal soft X-ray emission below ˜10 keV with a few mCrab fluxes. Interest-ingly, a hard power law component was found above ˜10 keV with a very hard index of -1 using INTEGRAL and Suzaku data. Some of the SGRs and AXPs presented a flux increasing by a factor of a few. During the high flux phases, some SGRs and AXPs exhibited high burst activities (e.g., Enoto et al. 2009) and/or enhanced quiescent emission with unusual spectral properties (e.g., Kaneko et al. 2010). In order to investigate radiation mechanisms, observa-tions of the high flux phases are important as well as those of the low flux phases. Therefore continuous monitoring of the SGRs and the AXPs are crucial to know their activities. Thanks to a wide field of view and a good sensitivity of the MAXI/GSC, it is suitable for the continuous monitoring of the SGRs and the AXPs. The MAXI/GSC has a better sensi-tivity than RXTE by a factor of a few in an energy range of 2-30 keV, and therefore detects ˜4 mCrab sources using accumulated data for ˜4 weeks. Among the 5 SGRs and 8 AXPs, AXP 4U 0142+614 and AXP 1E 1048.1-5937 are detected at least. In this paper, we will re-port the first results of monitoring the galactic SGRs and AXPs such as long-term light curves with the MAXI/GSC.

  19. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Gram, Inger T; Vilier, Alice; Fervers, Béatrice; Manjer, Jonas; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Bakker, Marieke F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bjerkaas, Eivind; Braaten, Tonje; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Romieu, Isabelle; Cox, David G; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-04-15

    Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative life-time measures of passive smoking suggest an association between passive smoking dose and breast cancer risk. We conducted a study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to examine the association between passive and active smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer and possible effect modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Among the 322,988 women eligible for the study, 9,822 developed breast cancer (183,608 women with passive smoking information including 6,264 cases). When compared to women who never smoked and were not being exposed to passive smoking at home or work at the time of study registration, current, former and currently exposed passive smokers were at increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.16 [1.05-1.28], 1.14 [1.04-1.25] and 1.10 [1.01-1.20], respectively). Analyses exploring associations in different periods of life showed the most important increase in risk with pack-years from menarche to FFTP (1.73 [1.29-2.32] for every increase of 20 pack-years) while pack-years smoked after menopause were associated with a significant decrease in breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82 for every increase of 20 pack-years). Our results provide an important replication, in the largest cohort to date, that smoking (passively or actively) increases breast cancer risk and that smoking between menarche and FFTP is particularly deleterious. PMID:24590452

  20. Upper Pleistocene - Holocene activity of the Carrascoy Fault (Murcia, SE Spain): preliminary results from paleoseismological research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Banda, Raquel; Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Salazar, Angel; Rodriguez-Escudero, Emilio; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose A.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Herrero, Maria J.; Medialdea, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    The Carrascoy Fault is located in the Internal Zones of the Betic Cordillera (Southern Spain). In particular, the Carrascoy Fault is one of the major faults forming the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, the main structure accommodating the convergence between Nubian and Eurasian plates in the westernmost Mediterranean. So far, the Carrascoy Fault has been defined as a left-lateral strike-slip fault. It extends for at least 31 km in a NE-SW trend from the village of Zeneta (Murcia) at its northeastern tip, to the Cañaricos village, controlling the northern edge of the Carrascoy Range and its linkage to the Guadalentin Depression towards the southwest. This is an area of moderate seismic activity, but densely populated, the capital of the region, Murcia, being settled very close to the fault. Hence, the knowledge of the structure and kinematics of the Carrascoy Fault is essential for assessing reliably the seismic hazard of the region. We present a detailed-scale geological and geomorphological map along the fault zone created from a LIDAR DEM combined with fieldwork, and geological and geophysical information. Furthermore, a number of trenches have been dug across the fault at different locations providing insights in the fault most recent activity as well as paleoseismic data. Preliminary results suggest that the Cararscoy Fault has recently changed its kinematic showing a near pure reverse motion. According to this, the fault can be divided into two distinct segments, the eastern one: Zeneta - Fuensanta, and the western one: Fuensanta - Cañaricos, each one having its own characteristic style and geodynamics. Some new active strands of the fault locate at the foot of the very first relief towards the North of the older strand, forming the current southern border of the Guadalentin Depression. These new faults show an increasingly reverse component westwards, so that the Fuensanta - Cañaricos segment is constituted by thrusts, which are blind at its western end

  1. Clarifying Inconclusive Functional Analysis Results: Assessment and Treatment of Automatically Reinforced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Valdeep; Greer, Brian D.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of studies in which multiple strategies were used to clarify the inconclusive results of one boy’s functional analysis of aggression. Specifically, we (a) evaluated individual response topographies to determine the composition of aggregated response rates, (b) conducted a separate functional analysis of aggression after high rates of disruption masked the consequences maintaining aggression during the initial functional analysis, (c) modified the experimental design used during the functional analysis of aggression to improve discrimination and decrease interaction effects between conditions, and (d) evaluated a treatment matched to the reinforcer hypothesized to maintain aggression. An effective yet practical intervention for aggression was developed based on the results of these analyses and from data collected during the matched-treatment evaluation. PMID:25891269

  2. GRIZ: Finite element analysis results visualization for unstructured grids. User manual

    SciTech Connect

    Dovey, D.J.; Spelce, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    GRIZ supports interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application which is designed to work with a variety of an analysis codes. Currently, GRIZ is capable of calculating and displaying derived variables for the DYNA3D, NIKE3D and TOPAZ3D analysis codes. GRIZ reads in data files in the ``MDG plotfile`` format. GRIZ provides support for modern 3D visualization techniques such as isosurface display, cutting planes and display of vector data. GRIZ also incorporates the ability to animate data over time and to store animation frames to a video disk. GRIZ is designed to utilize the capabilities of modern graphics workstations which provide hardware support for 3D graphics, thereby giving the user as much interactive performance as possible. This should make it easier for analysts to explore and interrogate their analysis results.

  3. Clarifying inconclusive functional analysis results: Assessment and treatment of automatically reinforced aggression.

    PubMed

    Saini, Valdeep; Greer, Brian D; Fisher, Wayne W

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a series of studies in which multiple strategies were used to clarify the inconclusive results of one boy's functional analysis of aggression. Specifically, we (a) evaluated individual response topographies to determine the composition of aggregated response rates, (b) conducted a separate functional analysis of aggression after high rates of disruption masked the consequences that maintained aggression during the initial functional analysis, (c) modified the experimental design used during the functional analysis of aggression to improve discrimination and decrease interaction effects between conditions, and (d) evaluated a treatment matched to the reinforcer hypothesized to maintain aggression. An effective yet practical intervention for aggression was developed based on the results of these analyses and from data collected during the matched-treatment evaluation.

  4. Meta-analysis of results from quantitative trait loci mapping studies on pig chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Silva, K M; Bastiaansen, J W M; Knol, E F; Merks, J W M; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; van Arendonk, J A M

    2011-06-01

    Meta-analysis of results from multiple studies could lead to more precise quantitative trait loci (QTL) position estimates compared to the individual experiments. As the raw data from many different studies are not readily available, the use of results from published articles may be helpful. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of QTL on chromosome 4 in pig, using data from 25 separate experiments. First, a meta-analysis was performed for individual traits: average daily gain and backfat thickness. Second, a meta-analysis was performed for the QTL of three traits affecting loin yield: loin eye area, carcass length and loin meat weight. Third, 78 QTL were selected from 20 traits that could be assigned to one of three broad categories: carcass, fatness or growth traits. For each analysis, the number of identified meta-QTL was smaller than the number of initial QTL. The reduction in the number of QTL ranged from 71% to 86% compared to the total number before the meta-analysis. In addition, the meta-analysis reduced the QTL confidence intervals by as much as 85% compared to individual QTL estimates. The reduction in the confidence interval was greater when a large number of independent QTL was included in the meta-analysis. Meta-QTL related to growth and fatness were found in the same region as the FAT1 region. Results indicate that the meta-analysis is an efficient strategy to estimate the number and refine the positions of QTL when QTL estimates are available from multiple populations and experiments. This strategy can be used to better target further studies such as the selection of candidate genes related to trait variation.

  5. QSAR analysis of antitumor activities of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastija, Vesna; Bajić, Miroslav; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Jukić, Marijana; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2015-12-01

    QSAR analysis was performed for the antitumor activity of 27 derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene against six carcinoma cell lines. The best models were obtained with surface area (SAG) in combination with lipohilicity (log P) as descriptors. Results have shown that molecules with smaller solvent accessible surface area and higher lipophilicy should have higher biological activity against carcinoma cell.

  6. Physical activity in solid organ transplant recipients: organizational aspects and preliminary results of the Italian project.

    PubMed

    Roi, G S; Stefoni, S; Mosconi, G; Brugin, E; Burra, P; Ermolao, A; Granito, M; Macini, P; Mastrosimone, S; Nacchia, F; Pegoraro, C; Rigotti, P; Sella, G; Sgarzi, S; Tamè, M R; Totti, V; Trerotola, M; Tripi, F; Nanni Costa, A

    2014-09-01

    Most of the difficulties when trying to realize the proposal to prescribe physical activity for transplantation patients come from patient attitudes and cultural beliefs that ignore the benefits of exercise, but there also are organizational aspects arising from the difficulties that these patients face in accessing supervised exercise facilities. To address these difficulties, the Italian study project "Transplant … and Now Sport" was developed based on a model of cooperation among transplantation specialists, sports physicians, and exercise specialists organized as a team combining their specific skills to effectively actuate the physical exercise programs. This preliminary report is based on 26 patients (16 male, 10 female; 47.8±10.0 years old; 21 kidney and 5 liver transplantations; time from transplantation 2.3±1.4 years) who performed prescribed and supervised exercises consisting of 3 sessions per week of aerobic and strengthening exercises for 1 year. Preliminary results show a significant decrease in body mass index (t=1.966; P<.05) and a significant increase in peak aerobic power (t=4.535; P<.01) and maximum workload (t=4.665; P<.01) on the incremental cycling test. Also maximum strength of knee extensors (t=2.933; P<.05) and elbow flexors (t=2.450; P<.05) and countermovement jump performance (t=2.303; P<.05) significantly increased. Creatinine and proteinuria tended to decrease, but the differences were not significant. In health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire, the Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Social Functioning, and Role Emotional scale scores showed a significant improvement (P<.05). Preliminary results of the study protocol "Transplant…and Now Sport" show the positive effects of the model based on cooperation among transplantation centers, sports medicine centers, and gyms in the administration of a supervised exercise prescription. These data should be considered a contribution to developing and promoting

  7. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  8. Analysis of communicative behaviour: profiling roles and activities.

    PubMed

    Sørby, Inger Dybdahl; Nytrø, Oystein

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how profiles of communicative behaviour can be used to present and analyse information about role activity recorded through structured observation of specific situations. The role activities are encoded as distinctive speech acts. Example profiles resulting from the analysis of three clinicians' communicative behaviour during pre-rounds meetings and ward rounds are given. The examples are based on an observational study performed at a Norwegian university hospital. One fifth-year medical student spent 20 days in two different hospital wards, following 7 physicians from one to seven days each. The observer recorded data from several ward situations such as pre-rounds meetings, ward rounds, and discharge situations. The data was recorded by means of an observation form consisting of a mixture of codes and free-text fields. The data has been post-processed by associating each event with one communicative act. The approach is an efficient and useful means for studying clinicians' information and communication patterns in hospital wards, which can serve as an important tool in the design of new clinical information systems.

  9. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis: Results of a Multicenter Study of Laboratories in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel; Hess, Bernhard; Knoll, Thomas; Osther, Palle J.; Reis-Santos, José; Sarica, Kemal; Traxer, Olivier; Trinchieri, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment of 75% of the maximum total points, i.e. 99 points. The methods of stone analysis used were infrared spectroscopy (n = 7), chemical analysis (n = 1) and X-ray diffraction (n = 1). In the present study only 56% of the laboratories, four using infrared spectroscopy and one using X-ray diffraction, fulfilled the quality requirements. According to the current standard, chemical analysis is considered to be insufficient for stone analysis, whereas infrared spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction is mandatory. However, the poor results of infrared spectroscopy highlight the importance of equipment, reference spectra and qualification of the staff for an accurate analysis of stone composition. Regular quality control is essential in carrying out routine stone analysis. PMID:27248840

  10. Coincidence Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. gandner; C.W. Mayo; W.A. Metwally; W. Zhang; W. Guo; A. Shehata

    2002-11-10

    The normal prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for either bulk or small beam samples inherently has a small signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio due primarily to the neutron source being present while the sample signal is being obtained. Coincidence counting offers the possibility of greatly reducing or eliminating the noise generated by the neutron source. The present report presents our results to date on implementing the coincidence counting PGNAA approach. We conclude that coincidence PGNAA yields: (1) a larger signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, (2) more information (and therefore better accuracy) from essentially the same experiment when sophisticated coincidence electronics are used that can yield singles and coincidences simultaneously, and (3) a reduced (one or two orders of magnitude) signal from essentially the same experiment. In future work we will concentrate on: (1) modifying the existing CEARPGS Monte Carlo code to incorporate coincidence counting, (2) obtaining coincidence schemes for 18 or 20 of the common elements in coal and cement, and (3) optimizing the design of a PGNAA coincidence system for the bulk analysis of coal.

  11. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of fibrinogen receptors on activated thrombocytes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The present studies have been concerned with the role of fibrinogen and its receptor, GP IIb/IIIa, during the activation and early aggregation of pigeon thrombocytes. Thrombocytes were surface labeled with {sup 125}I then separated on SDS-PAGE. Analysis by gel autoradiography revealed major bands at MW 145 kd and 98 kd, which corresponded to human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Immunologic similarity of the pigeon and human receptor components was established by dot blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies directed against human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Pigeon fibrinogen, isolated by plasma precipitation with PEG-1000 and purified over Sepharose 4B, was used to study receptor-ligand interaction. Separation of pigeon fibrinogen on SDS-PAGE resulted in three peptides having apparent MW of 62kd, 55kd, and 47kd which are comparable to human fibrinogen. Further similarity of human and pigeon fibrinogen was verified by immonodiffusion against an antibody specific for the human protein. The role of fibrinogen and its receptor in thrombocyte function was established by turbidimetric aggregation using thrombin as an agonist under conditions requiring Ca++ and fibrinogen.

  12. Neutron Activation Analysis PRognosis and Optimization Code System.

    2004-08-20

    Version 00 NAAPRO predicts the results and main characteristics (detection limits, determination limits, measurement limits and relative precision of the analysis) of neutron activation analysis (instrumental and radiochemical). Gamma-ray dose rates for different points of time after sample irradiation and input count rate of the spectrometry system are also predicted. The code uses standard Windows user interface and extensive graphical tools for the visualization of the spectrometer characteristics (efficiency, response and background) and simulated spectrum.more » Optimization part is not included in the current version of the code. This release is designated NAAPRO, Version 01.beta. The MCNP code was used for generating detector responses. PREPRO-2000 and FCONV programs were used at the preparation of the program nuclear databases. A special program was developed for viewing, editing and updating of the program databases (not included into the present program package). The MCNP, PREPRO-2000 and FCONV software packages are not included in the NAAPRO package.« less

  13. Detailed analysis of the promoter activity of an attenuated lentivirus.

    PubMed

    Blatti-Cardinaux, Laure; Sanjosé, Leticia; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Zanoni, Reto; Reina, Ramses; Bertoni, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    In spite of an eradication campaign that eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-induced arthritis in the Swiss goat population, seroconversions are still observed. In the affected flocks, viruses belonging mainly to the small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype are regularly isolated. These viruses are considered attenuated, except in the mammary gland, where high viral loads and histopathological lesions have been observed. We previously characterized and sequenced such field isolates, detecting several potentially attenuating mutations in their LTR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the promoter activity of these genetic elements, which was comparable to those of virulent isolates. An AP-1 binding site was shown to be crucial for promoter activity in reporter gene assays and also in the context of a replicating molecular clone. Other sites, such as AML(vis) and a conserved E-box, appeared to be less crucial. Analysis of a unique AP-4 site showed a clear discrepancy between results obtained with reporter gene assays and those with mutated viruses. Within the limits of this in vitro study, we did not find evidence pointing to the LTR as the genetic correlate of attenuation for these viruses. Finally, the limited replication of SRLV A4 in mammary cell culture could not explain the suggested mammary tropism. In contrast, and in view of the abundance of macrophages in the mammary gland, it is the striking replication capacity of SRLV A4 in these cells, unaffected by all LTR mutations tested, which may explain the apparent mammary tropism of these viruses.

  14. Detailed analysis of the promoter activity of an attenuated lentivirus.

    PubMed

    Blatti-Cardinaux, Laure; Sanjosé, Leticia; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Zanoni, Reto; Reina, Ramses; Bertoni, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    In spite of an eradication campaign that eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-induced arthritis in the Swiss goat population, seroconversions are still observed. In the affected flocks, viruses belonging mainly to the small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype are regularly isolated. These viruses are considered attenuated, except in the mammary gland, where high viral loads and histopathological lesions have been observed. We previously characterized and sequenced such field isolates, detecting several potentially attenuating mutations in their LTR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the promoter activity of these genetic elements, which was comparable to those of virulent isolates. An AP-1 binding site was shown to be crucial for promoter activity in reporter gene assays and also in the context of a replicating molecular clone. Other sites, such as AML(vis) and a conserved E-box, appeared to be less crucial. Analysis of a unique AP-4 site showed a clear discrepancy between results obtained with reporter gene assays and those with mutated viruses. Within the limits of this in vitro study, we did not find evidence pointing to the LTR as the genetic correlate of attenuation for these viruses. Finally, the limited replication of SRLV A4 in mammary cell culture could not explain the suggested mammary tropism. In contrast, and in view of the abundance of macrophages in the mammary gland, it is the striking replication capacity of SRLV A4 in these cells, unaffected by all LTR mutations tested, which may explain the apparent mammary tropism of these viruses. PMID:27114068

  15. Identifying and Characterizing Discrepancies Between Test and Analysis Results of Compression-Loaded Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Results from a study to identify and characterize discrepancies between validation tests and high-fidelity analyses of compression-loaded panels are presented. First, potential sources of the discrepancies in both the experimental method and corresponding high-fidelity analysis models were identified. Then, a series of laboratory tests and numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the discrepancies and develop test and analysis methods to account for the discrepancies. The results indicate that the discrepancies between the validation tests and high-fidelity analyses can be attributed to imperfections in the test fixture and specimen geometry; test-fixture-induced changes in specimen geometry; and test-fixture-induced friction on the loaded edges of the test specimen. The results also show that accurate predictions of the panel response can be obtained when these specimen imperfections and edge conditions are accounted for in the analysis. The errors in the tests and analyses, and the methods used to characterize these errors are presented.

  16. Statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Angel; Early, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report, prepared as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project, presents a compilation, summarization, and statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana. These are from youngest to oldest: The alluvial, Pleistocene, Evangeline, Jasper, Catahoula, Cockfield, Sparta, Carrizo, and Wilcox aquifers. Approximately 1,500 aquifer tests in U.S. Geological Survey files in Louisiana were examined and 1,001 were input to a computer file. Analysis of the aquifer test results and plots that describe aquifer hydraulic characteristics were made for each regional aquifer. Results indicate that, on the average, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) generally tends to decrease from the youngest aquifers to the oldest. The most permeable aquifers in Louisiana are the alluvial and Pleistocene aquifers; whereas, the least permeable are the Carrizo and Wilcox aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Trace element analysis of K, U and Th in high purity materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pillalamarri, Ila

    2005-09-08

    The concept and usage of 'high purity' are explained. Trace element analysis of K, U and Th by neutron activation analysis is described, the radio-isotopes and their corresponding gamma-rays used to identify the elements are listed. The interfering elements are described. The advantages and disadvantages of using neutron activation analysis are discussed. Some examples of trace impurity determinations in high purity materials are provided.

  18. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Graedel, T.E.

    1992-02-01

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed.

  19. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M. ); Graedel, T.E. )

    1992-02-01

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed.

  20. Granular Activated Carbon Treatment May Result in Higher Predicted Genotoxicity in the Presence of Bromide.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Stuart W; Lee, Tiffany Chih Fen; Westerhoff, Paul; Fischer, Natalia; Hanigan, David; Karanfil, Tanju; Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Taylor-Edmonds, Liz; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-09-01

    Certain unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are more of a health concern than regulated DBPs. Brominated species are typically more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogs. The impact of granular activated carbon (GAC) on controlling the formation of regulated and selected unregulated DBPs following chlorine disinfection was evaluated. The predicted cyto- and genotoxicity of DBPs was calculated using published potencies based on the comet assay for Chinese hamster ovary cells (assesses the level of DNA strand breaks). Additionally, genotoxicity was measured using the SOS-Chromotest (detects DNA-damaging agents). The class sum concentrations of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and unregulated DBPs, and the SOS genotoxicity followed the breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however the formation of brominated species did not. The bromide/DOC ratio was higher than the influent through much of the breakthrough curve (GAC does not remove bromide), which resulted in elevated brominated DBP concentrations in the effluent. Based on the potency of the haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes, these nitrogen-containing DBPs were the driving agents of the predicted genotoxicity. GAC treatment of drinking or reclaimed waters with appreciable levels of bromide and dissolved organic nitrogen may not control the formation of unregulated DBPs with higher genotoxicity potencies. PMID:27467860

  1. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in depression: Results from Animal and Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haitang; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Suzhen; Lu, Na; Yue, Yingying; Liang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Zhijun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a stress-related factor, and serum PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Herein, we analysed PAI-1 protein levels in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of rodents exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress or treated with escitalopram. In addition, we examined PAI-1 concentrations in serum obtained from 17 drug-free depressed patients before and after escitalopram treatment. We found that PAI-1 expression was increased in area 1 of the cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 and dentate gyrus in stressed rats. A downregulation of PAI-1 following chronic escitalopram treatment was also found. PAI-1 levels were higher in the CSF and serum in stressed rats than in controls, although the difference did not reach statistical significance in the serum. Escitalopram treatment significantly decreased PAI-1 levels in the serum, but not in the CSF. MDD patients had significantly greater serum PAI-1 concentrations than controls. Our results suggest that PAI-1 is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:27456456

  2. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2002 activities and results

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Gregory F.; Lee, Rei Chi; Welcome, Michael L.

    2003-04-07

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase, five-year project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center to provide a scalable, high performance, high bandwidth, shared file system for all the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make it easier to conduct advanced scientific research using the NERSC systems. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is directly accessed by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. During its first year, FY 2002, the GUPFS project focused on identifying, testing, and evaluating existing and emerging shared/cluster file system, SAN fabric, and storage technologies; identifying NERSC user input/output (I/O) requirements, methods, and mechanisms; and developing appropriate benchmarking methodologies and benchmark codes for a parallel environment. This report presents the activities and progress of the GUPFS project during its first year, the results of the evaluations conducted, and plans for near-term and longer-term investigations.

  3. Highlights of recent results from the VERITAS Active Galactic Nuclei Observing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, Udara; VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are the dominant class of the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. The VERITAS Observatory dedicates about 430 hr/year of dark time and 200 hr/year of observations under moonlight, on the AGN observing program. VERITAS is located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory near Tucson, Arizona, and is sensitive to gamma rays with energies between of 85 GeV and 30 TeV. VERITAS became fully operational in 2007, and has since then detected 34 very high energy (VHE) AGN. The majority of the detected galaxies are blazars, in addition to a few radio galaxies. The VHE emission mechanism, and the location of the VHE emission zone of AGN are still poorly understood. Detailed observations of VHE AGN are necessary for understanding these uncertainties. AGN are plausible source candidates for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos. VHE gamma-rays from AGN can also be used as probes to place limits on extragalactic background light density. This presentation will report the most recent results from the VERITAS AGN program including newly discovered AGN, and VHE flares of known TeV AGN. Udara Abeysekara for the VERITAS Collaboration.

  4. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in depression: Results from Animal and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haitang; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Suzhen; Lu, Na; Yue, Yingying; Liang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Zhijun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a stress-related factor, and serum PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Herein, we analysed PAI-1 protein levels in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of rodents exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress or treated with escitalopram. In addition, we examined PAI-1 concentrations in serum obtained from 17 drug-free depressed patients before and after escitalopram treatment. We found that PAI-1 expression was increased in area 1 of the cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 and dentate gyrus in stressed rats. A downregulation of PAI-1 following chronic escitalopram treatment was also found. PAI-1 levels were higher in the CSF and serum in stressed rats than in controls, although the difference did not reach statistical significance in the serum. Escitalopram treatment significantly decreased PAI-1 levels in the serum, but not in the CSF. MDD patients had significantly greater serum PAI-1 concentrations than controls. Our results suggest that PAI-1 is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:27456456

  5. Active experiments in modifying spacecraft potential: Results from ATS-5 and ATS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Whipple, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    The processing of data from onboard spacecraft instruments are described. The modification of spacecraft potentials is reviewed. Analysis of this data yielded the following results: (1) electron emission (E approximately 10 electron-volts) did not perturb the status of a satellite at low potential the absolute value of phi approximately 50 volts by more than 50 volts (the ATS 5 low energy limit), (2) emission of a low energy plasma (E approximatey 10 volts) does not change low potentials (the absolute value of phi approximately 5 volts) by more than a few volts (ATS 6 low energy resolution), (3) when ATS 6 entered eclipse in the presence of a high energy plasma (10 keV), the neutralizer suppressed any rise in the absolute value of phi (within a few volts resolution), (4) when the electron emitter on ATS 5 operated, it served to discharge negative potentials from thousands to hundreds of volts, and (5) when the neutralizer on ATS 6 was operated, it served to discharge kilovolt potentials to below 50 volts. Low altitude (100 - 300 km) experiments with KV electron beams are studied. Differential charging was eliminated by the operation of the main thruster on ATS 6 clamped on the spacecraft at -5 volts.

  6. Crustal dynamics project data analysis, 1988: VLBI geodetic results, 1979 - 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Ryan, J. W.; Caprette, D.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained by the Goddard VLBI (very long base interferometry) Data Analysis Team from the analysis of 712 Mark 3 VLBI geodetic data sets acquired from fixed and mobile observing sites through the end of 1987 are reported. A large solution, GLB401, was used to obtain earth rotation parameters and site velocities. A second large solution, GLB405, was used to obtain baseline evolutions. Radio source positions were estimated globally while nutation offsets were estimated from each data set. Site positions are tabulated on a yearly basis from 1979 through 1988. The results include 55 sites and 270 baselines.

  7. Helicopter blade-vortex interaction locations: Scale-model acoustics and free-wake analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, Danny R.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a model rotor acoustic test in the Langley 4by 7-Meter Tunnel are used to evaluate a free-wake analytical technique. An acoustic triangulation technique is used to locate the position in the rotor disk where the blade-vortex interaction noise originates. These locations, along with results of the rotor free-wake analysis, are used to define the geometry of the blade-vortex interaction noise phenomena as well as to determine if the free-wake analysis is a capable diagnostic tool. Data from tests of two teetering rotor systems are used in these analyses.

  8. Thermal Analysis and Test Results for the Overpack of a Typical Radioactive Materials Package

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.

    2003-05-06

    In the course of the development and certification of the 9975 Package, extensive thermal analyses were performed and the package subjected to the regulatory HAC thermal test. The results of the thermal analysis and materials tests of the cane fiberboard overpack material were evaluated in comparison with the package HAC thermal test results. The evaluation confirmed that the thermal analysis correctly predicted the performance of the 9975 in the HAC fire test. The post test examination revealed that the heat affected region of the Celotex(R) overpack correlated well with the calculated temperature distribution

  9. Video Observations Encompassing the 2002 Leonid Storm: First Results and a Revised Photometric Procedure for Video Meteor Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; Suggs, Robert M.; Swift, Wesley; Gural, Peter S.; Brown, Peter; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the 2001 Leonid storm, Marshall Space Flight Center, with the cooperation of the University of Western Ontario and the United States Air Force, deployed 6 teams of observers equipped with intensified video systems to sites located in North America, the Pacific, and Mongolia. The campaign was extremely successful, with the entire period of enhanced Leonid activity (over 16 hours) captured on video tape in a consistent manner. We present the first results from the analysis of this unique, 2 terabyte data set and discuss the problems involved in reducing large amounts of video meteor data. In particular, the question of how to determine meteor masses though photometric analysis will be re-examined, and new techniques will be proposed that eliminate some of the deficiencies suffered by the techniques currently employed in video meteor analysis.

  10. Analyzing Exercise Behaviors during the College Years: Results from Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze changes in the predictors of physical activity behavior among college students. The Theory of Planned Behavior served as its theoretical framework. Methods: Among an initial sample of 417 college students, 195 participants completed a validated questionnaire measuring attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions and self-reported physical activity, at the beginning and end of each of 3 college semesters. Latent growth curve modeling analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between the trajectories of changes in PA, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control. Results: Good fit indices supported the validity of the proposed longitudinal model (CFI > .97, RMSEA < .05). Changes in perceived control (γ = 0.57) were significantly linked with changes in intentions (p < .05). Perceived control (γ = 0.28) and intention growth (γ = 0.36) predicted behavior changes (p < .05). No gender differences were observed on attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control (p > .10). However, girls tend to have higher growth parameters on intentions and physical activity (p < .05). In summary, intentions and physical activity has significantly increased over 3 college semesters (growth parameters significant at p < .05). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that attitudes and perceived control are key determinants regarding the intentions of being active. On a longer term perspective, future physical activity interventions should focus on the enhancement of students’ perceived control. Such educational context should help in promoting the adoption of an active lifestyle during college. PMID:27124179

  11. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    SciTech Connect

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  12. Metals Analysis Results for the Structural Qualification Test Series (SQTS) 01 - 05.

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D

    2006-04-11

    Enclosed is the report summarizing the metals analysis results at the Contained Firing Facility (CFF), during SQTS 01 - 05. This metals analysis includes evaluation of a bulk dust and surface swipe sampling protocol during the testing series that obtained samples at 3 primary locations in the CFF chamber area. The sampling protocol for each of the bulk dust samples involves an assessment of the concentration for 20 different metals, the oxidation state of selected metals, a particle size selective analysis, and morphological information. In addition, surface swipes were taken during SQTS 05 on the equipment and personnel door frames to indicate the characteristics of airborne metals due to leakage past the gasket seals. The bulk dust metals analysis indicates a nearly complete conversion of the aluminum casing to an oxide form with an even split between spherical and non-spherical morphology. Size selective analysis shows 83% of the particulates are in the inhalable size range of less than 100 microns and 46% are in the respirable range of less than 10 microns. Combining metals analysis and leakage results indicate the potential for a problematic personal exposure to metals external to the chamber unless modifications are made. Please feel free to call me at 2-8904 if you have any questions or if I may be of further service.

  13. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  14. Early results of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August of 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15) was conducted to provide a high resolution soil moisture dataset for the calibration/validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP). The Upper San Pedro River Basin and the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch LTAR...

  15. Exergame Apps and Physical Activity: The Results of the ZOMBIE Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Joan; Majeske, Paul; Frank, Rebecca; Brown, Devin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although there are thousands of health and fitness smartphone apps currently available, little research exists regarding the effects of mobile app technology on physical activity behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test whether Exergame smartphone applications increase physical activity levels. Methods: This was a…

  16. Cortical Activations during a Computer-Based Fraction Learning Game: Preliminary Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joseph M.; Martin, Taylor; Aghababyan, Ani; Armaghanyan, Armen; Gillam, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Advances in educational neuroscience have made it possible for researchers to conduct studies that observe concurrent behavioral (i.e., task performance) and neural (i.e., brain activation) responses to naturalistic educational activities. Such studies are important because they help educators, clinicians, and researchers to better understand the…

  17. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  18. Physical basis for prompt-neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The technique called prompt ..gamma..-ray neutron activation analysis has been applied to rapid materials analysis. The radiation following the neutron radiation capture is prompt in the sense that the nuclear decay time is on the order of 10/sup -15/ second, and thus the technique is not strictly activation, but should be called radiation neutron capture spectroscopy or neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. This paper reviews the following: sources and detectors, theory of radiative capture, nonstatistical capture, giant dipole resonance, fast neutron capture, and thermal neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectra. 14 figures.

  19. A Five-Year Analysis of MODIS NDVI and NDWI for Rangeland Drought Assessment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Brown, J. F.; Verdin, J. P.; Wardlow, B.

    2006-12-01

    the two indices. The MODIS data were obtained from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive System. Results show strong relationships among NDVI, NDWI, and drought analyzed over grasslands in the Flint Hills region of Kansas and Oklahoma. During the summer months, the average NDVI and NDWI values were consistently lower (NDVI<0.5 and NDWI<0.3) for the tallgrass prairie under drought conditions than under normal climate conditions (NDVI>0.6 and NDWI>0.4). The distinctions between drought conditions and normal climate conditions are based on the historic U.S. Drought Monitor maps and the historic Palmer index data. To take advantage of information contained in both indices, we calculated the difference between NDVI and NDWI (NDVI-NDWI). The difference between NDVI and NDWI slightly increases during the summer drought condition. Based on these analyses, the NDWI appears to be more sensitive than NDVI to drought conditions. The results of statistical analysis of the relationships among these indices will be presented in the poster.

  20. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  1. Preliminary results from receiver function analysis in a seismological network across the Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Sippl, Christan; Schurr, Bernd; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vlad; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.

    2010-05-01

    The multi-disciplinary TIen Shan-PAmir GEodynamic (TIPAGE) program aims to investigate the dynamics of the orogeny of the Tien Shan and Pamir mountains, which are situated in south Kyrgyzstan and east Tajikistan in Central Asia. Deformation and uplift accompanied by crustal thickening is mainly induced by the collision between the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. As a local feature this collision provides the world's largest active intra-continental subduction zone. Within the framework of the TIPAGE program we operate a temporary seismic array consisting of 32 broadband and 8 short period seismic stations for a period of two years (from 2008 to 2010) covering an area of 300 x 300 km over the main part of the central Pamir plateau and the Alai-range of the southern Tien Shan. In the first year 24 broadband stations were set up in a 350-km long north-south profile geometry from Osh in southern Kyrgyzstan to Zorkul in south-eastern Tajikistan with approximately 15 km station spacing. We perform a receiver function (RF) analysis of converted P and S waves from teleseismic earthquakes at epicentral distances of 35-95 degrees with a minimum magnitude of 5.5. Therefore we decompose their wavefields by rotating the coordinate systems of the recorded seismograms from a N,E,Z into a SH,SV,P system. RFs are isolated by deconvolution of the P-component from the SH- and SV-component. They provide a robust tool to locate discontinuities in wave velocity like the Moho and thus represent the method of choice to determine crustal thickness. First results show a crustal thickness of 70-80km. Xenolith findings from depths of 100km reported by Hacker et al. (2005) give indication for even higher values. The N-S profile geometry will produce a high resolution RF image to map the gross crustal and lithospheric structure. In addition a 2D network with additional 16 stations will enable an investigation of lateral structure variation. We give an introduction to the project and

  2. Analysis of 129I in Groundwater Samples: Direct and Quantitative Results below the Drinking Water Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2007-03-03

    Due to its long half-life (15.7 million years) and relatively unencumbered migration in subsurface environments, 129I has been recognized as a contaminant of concern at numerous federal, private, and international facilities. In order to understand the long-term risk associated with 129I at these locations, quantitative analysis of groundwater samples must be performed. However, the ability to quantitatively assess the 129I content in groundwater samples requires specialized extraction and sophisticated analytical techniques, which are complicated and not always available to the general scientific community. This paper highlights an analytical method capable of directly quantifying 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the MCL without the need for sample pre-concentration. Samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer ELAN DRC II ICP-MS after minimal dilution using O2 as the reaction gas. Analysis of continuing calibration verification standards indicated that the DRC mode could be used for quantitative analysis of 129I in samples below the drinking water standard (0.0057 ng/ml or 1 pCi/L). The low analytical detection limit of 129I analysis in the DRC mode coupled with minimal sample dilution (1.02x) resulted in a final sample limit of quantification of 0.0051 ng/ml. Subsequent analysis of three groundwater samples containing 129I resulted in fully quantitative results in the DRC mode, and spike recovery analyses performed on all three samples confirmed that the groundwater matrix did not adversely impact the analysis of 129I in the DRC mode. This analytical approach has been proven to be a cost-effective, high-throughput technique for the direct, quantitative analysis of 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the current MCL.

  3. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis.

  4. Ablation of PGC-1beta results in defective mitochondrial activity, thermogenesis, hepatic function, and cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Lelliott, Christopher J; Medina-Gomez, Gema; Petrovic, Natasa; Kis, Adrienn; Feldmann, Helena M; Bjursell, Mikael; Parker, Nadeene; Curtis, Keira; Campbell, Mark; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Dongfang; Litwin, Sheldon E; Zaha, Vlad G; Fountain, Kimberly T; Boudina, Sihem; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Blount, Margaret; Lopez, Miguel; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Strömstedt, Maria; Snaith, Michael; Oresic, Matej; Abel, E Dale; Cannon, Barbara; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2006-11-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1beta (PGC1betaKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1betaKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT). Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1beta ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1alpha in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1betaKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. The thermogenic role of PGC-1beta was identified in thermoneutral and cold-adapted conditions by inadequate responses to norepinephrine injection. Furthermore, PGC1betaKO hearts showed a blunted chronotropic response to dobutamine stimulation, and isolated soleus muscle fibres from PGC1betaKO mice have impaired mitochondrial function. Lack of PGC-1beta also impaired hepatic lipid metabolism in response to acute high fat dietary loads, resulting in hepatic steatosis and reduced lipoprotein-associated triglyceride and cholesterol content. Altogether, our data suggest that PGC-1beta plays a general role in controlling basal mitochondrial function and also participates in tissue-specific adaptive responses during metabolic stress. PMID:17090215

  5. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26232452

  6. Ablation of PGC-1β Results in Defective Mitochondrial Activity, Thermogenesis, Hepatic Function, and Cardiac Performance

    PubMed Central

    Petrovic, Natasa; Kis, Adrienn; Feldmann, Helena M; Bjursell, Mikael; Parker, Nadeene; Curtis, Keira; Campbell, Mark; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Dongfang; Litwin, Sheldon E; Zaha, Vlad G; Fountain, Kimberly T; Boudina, Sihem; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Blount, Margaret; Lopez, Miguel; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Strömstedt, Maria; Snaith, Michael; Orešič, Matej; Abel, E. Dale; Cannon, Barbara; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1β (PGC-1β) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1β (PGC1βKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1βKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT). Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1β ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1α in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1βKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. The thermogenic role of PGC-1β was identified in thermoneutral and cold-adapted conditions by inadequate responses to norepinephrine injection. Furthermore, PGC1βKO hearts showed a blunted chronotropic response to dobutamine stimulation, and isolated soleus muscle fibres from PGC1βKO mice have impaired mitochondrial function. Lack of PGC-1β also impaired hepatic lipid metabolism in response to acute high fat dietary loads, resulting in hepatic steatosis and reduced lipoprotein-associated triglyceride and cholesterol content. Altogether, our data suggest that PGC-1β plays a general role in controlling basal mitochondrial function and also participates in tissue-specific adaptive responses during metabolic stress. PMID:17090215

  7. Refining the analysis of a whole genome linkage disequilibrium association map: the United Kingdom results.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tai Wai; Roxburgh, Richard; Maranian, Mel; Singlehurst, Sara; Gray, Julia; Hensiek, Anke; Setakis, Efrosini; Compston, Alastair; Sawcer, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    Individual genotyping of the 10 most promising markers identified in our previously reported screen for linkage disequilibrium (LD) in multiple sclerosis identified a number of effects which confound the analysis and are of general importance in the interpretation of results obtained using microsatellite markers typed in pooled DNA. In order to identify and characterise these effects, we individually genotyped 529 promising markers in 16 trio families. We then devised adapting factors, which were designed to correct for these confounders. This more extensive analysis of the previously published UK data set and the repeat analyses incorporating these adaptations led to the identification of two novel markers that may be associated with multiple sclerosis in this population, providing a close correlation between the results of pooled analysis and individual typing.

  8. Determination of hydrogen in titanium alloys by cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.L.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Greenberg, R.R.; Privett, H.M. III; Richards, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    Cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (CNPGAA) has proven useful for the analysis of hydrogen in titanium alloys. The analysis is nondestructive, measures the entire sample, and the results are independent of the chemical form of hydrogen present. The authors have used the technique to measure H mass fractions as low as 50 mg/kg in titanium-alloy jet-engine compressor blades and to measure hydrogen in standards for neutron tomography.

  9. Activation of Raf as a result of recruitment to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Stokoe, D; Macdonald, S G; Cadwallader, K; Symons, M; Hancock, J F

    1994-06-01

    The small guanine nucleotide binding protein Ras participates in a growth promoting signal transduction pathway. The mechanism by which interaction of Ras with the protein kinase Raf leads to activation of Raf was studied. Raf was targeted to the plasma membrane by addition of the COOH-terminal localization signals of K-ras. This modified form of Raf (RafCAAX) was activated to the same extent as Raf coexpressed with oncogenic mutant Ras. Plasma membrane localization rather than farnesylation or the presence of the additional COOH-terminal sequence accounted for the activation of RafCAAX. The activation of RafCAAX was completely independent of Ras; it was neither potentiated by oncogenic mutant Ras nor abrogated by dominant negative Ras. Raf, once recruited to the plasma membrane, was not anchored there by Ras; most activated Raf in cells was associated with plasma membrane cytoskeletal elements, not the lipid bilayer. Thus, Ras functions in the activation of Raf by recruiting Raf to the plasma membrane where a separate, Ras-independent, activation of Raf occurs.

  10. Returning a Research Participant's Genomic Results to Relatives: Analysis and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susan M; Branum, Rebecca; Koenig, Barbara A; Petersen, Gloria M; Berry, Susan A; Beskow, Laura M; Daly, Mary B; Fernandez, Conrad V; Green, Robert C; LeRoy, Bonnie S; Lindor, Noralane M; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Rothstein, Mark A; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    Genomic research results and incidental findings with health implications for a research participant are of potential interest not only to the participant, but also to the participant's family. Yet investigators lack guidance on return of results to relatives, including after the participant's death. In this paper, a national working group offers consensus analysis and recommendations, including an ethical framework to guide investigators in managing this challenging issue, before and after the participant's death. PMID:26479555

  11. Returning a Research Participant's Genomic Results to Relatives: Analysis and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susan M; Branum, Rebecca; Koenig, Barbara A; Petersen, Gloria M; Berry, Susan A; Beskow, Laura M; Daly, Mary B; Fernandez, Conrad V; Green, Robert C; LeRoy, Bonnie S; Lindor, Noralane M; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Rothstein, Mark A; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    Genomic research results and incidental findings with health implications for a research participant are of potential interest not only to the participant, but also to the participant's family. Yet investigators lack guidance on return of results to relatives, including after the participant's death. In this paper, a national working group offers consensus analysis and recommendations, including an ethical framework to guide investigators in managing this challenging issue, before and after the participant's death.

  12. A numerically efficient finite element hydroelastic analysis. Volume 1: Theory and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppolino, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric finite element matrix formulations for compressible and incompressible hydroelasticity are developed on the basis of Toupin's complementary formulation of classical mechanics. Results of implementation of the new technique in the NASTRAN structural analysis program are presented which demonstrate accuracy and efficiency.

  13. 77 FR 37717 - Electrical Cable Test Results and Analysis During Fire Exposure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Electrical Cable Test Results and Analysis During Fire Exposure AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... during Fire Exposure (ELECTRA-FIRE), A Consolidation of the Three Major Fire-Induced Circuit and Cable... conducted to realistically explore the electrical functionality of electrical cables under severe...

  14. 12 CFR 252.136 - Review of the Board's analysis; publication of summary results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of the Board's analysis; publication of summary results. 252.136 Section 252.136 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION...

  15. 12 CFR 252.136 - Review of the Board's analysis; publication of summary results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of the Board's analysis; publication of summary results. 252.136 Section 252.136 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION...

  16. Computer Literacy Needs in a Traditional Library Literacy Program: Results of a Needs Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Theresa A.; Cobb, Inger C.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the results of a needs analysis of literacy programs for a library system serving three rural and suburban counties. It examines the computing skills and needs of literacy tutors as well as native-speaking and English language learner (ELL) literacy tutees enrolled in the programs. Paper surveys were mailed to tutors, who were…

  17. Airborne Doppler lidar detection of wind shear. Results of performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. Milton

    1988-01-01

    Results of a performance analysis of an airborne Doppler radar wind shear detection system are given in vugraph form. It was concluded that both CO sub 2 and Ho:YAG lasers are feasible for dry microburst applications, but with limited performance in wet microbursts. The Ho:YAG performs better than the CO sub 2 for a set of identical lidar parameters.

  18. Results of Analysis of Macrobatch 3 Decontaminated Salt Solution Coalescer from May 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-18

    SRNL analyzed the Decontamination Salt Solution (DSS) coalescer from MCU by several analytical methods. This unit was removed from service in May 2010. The results of these analyses indicate that there is very little evidence of fouling via excessive solids, either from the leaching studies or X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis.

  19. Applying Procrustean Rotation To Evaluate the Generalizability of Canonical Analysis Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Mary L.; Campbell, Kathleen Taylor

    Statistical invariance procedures provide a way of looking at the generalizability of research results from sample to sample when the research has not been validated by replication. This paper discusses the Procrustean Rotation invariance procedure following a canonical correlation analysis. The computer program RELATE is used to gauge the…

  20. Epoch '92: results from the analysis of GPS and SLR data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E. C.

    LAGEOS SLR data have been analyzed using the GSFC GEODYN II software to determine daily and high resolution (6 hours) EOP series. The results from this analysis are discussed and compared to the independently derived series from Very Long Baseline Interferometry to assess their accuracy.