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Sample records for activation analysis an analytical

  1. Analyte detection using an active assay

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor; Bailey, Charles L.; Evanskey, Melissa R.

    2010-11-02

    Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

  2. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  3. A Visual Analytics Approach to Structured Data Analysis to Enhance Nonproliferation and Arms Control Verification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, David S.

    2014-08-07

    Analysis activities for Nonproliferation and Arms Control verification require the use of many types of data. Tabular structured data, such as Excel spreadsheets and relational databases, have traditionally been used for data mining activities, where specific queries are issued against data to look for matching results. The application of visual analytics tools to structured data enables further exploration of datasets to promote discovery of previously unknown results. This paper discusses the application of a specific visual analytics tool to datasets related to the field of Arms Control and Nonproliferation to promote the use of visual analytics more broadly in this domain. Visual analytics focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces (Wong and Thomas 2004). It promotes exploratory analysis of data, and complements data mining technologies where known patterns can be mined for. Also with a human in the loop, they can bring in domain knowledge and subject matter expertise. Visual analytics has not widely been applied to this domain. In this paper, we will focus on one type of data: structured data, and show the results of applying a specific visual analytics tool to answer questions in the Arms Control and Nonproliferation domain. We chose to use the T.Rex tool, a visual analytics tool developed at PNNL, which uses a variety of visual exploration patterns to discover relationships in structured datasets, including a facet view, graph view, matrix view, and timeline view. The facet view enables discovery of relationships between categorical information, such as countries and locations. The graph tool visualizes node-link relationship patterns, such as the flow of materials being shipped between parties. The matrix visualization shows highly correlated categories of information. The timeline view shows temporal patterns in data. In this paper, we will use T.Rex with two different datasets to demonstrate how interactive exploration of

  4. An Analysis of Earth Science Data Analytics Use Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Kempler, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https:earthdata.nasa.govaboutsystem-- performance). In addition, other US agency, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists provide a plethora of additional sources for studying Earth. Co--analyzing huge amounts of heterogeneous data to glean out unobvious information is a daunting task. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. It can include Data Preparation, Data Reduction, and Data Analysis. Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, a collection of Earth science data analytics use cases have been collected and analyzed for the purpose of extracting the types of Earth science data analytics employed, and requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented, based on use case needs. ESIP generated use case template, ESDA use cases, use case types, and preliminary use case analysis (this is a work in progress) will be presented.

  5. An analytical paradigm for the analysis of national inmigration patterns.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Y; Eaglstein, A S

    1988-09-01

    This study proposes and demonstrates an analytic paradigm based upon a substantive categorization of a set of inmigration correlates. It exemplifies the notion of categorizing, analyzing according to the categorization, and subsequently discussing the phenomenon in more depth. The paradigm has 2 steps: 1) the variables are categorized according to the cells resulting from the intersection of a preferably small number of nominal dimensions and 2) the data are analyzed, directly anchored in the prior categorization. The data used is Israel's 1983 census macro-data gathered from the Central Bureau of Statistics for the Israeli towns with populations of at least 5000. The authors defined 6 variables as push variables and 4 as pull variables. Results of the regression employing push variables show that 4 variables accounting for 72% of inmigration were found to significantly predict inmigration: 1) unemployment, 2) percentage of Asians-Africans, 3) town size, and 4) religiosity. Within the pull classification, the regression analysis reveals that 2 of the 4 variables explain 31% of the inmigration variance: 1) educational level (26%) and 2) income (5%). The 1st regression analysis on the 2nd dimension shows that the percentage of Asian-African origin and town population size account for 32% of the immigration variance. In the 2nd regression analysis, unemployment explains 48% of the inmigration variance and educational level explains 8%. In the 3rd regression, only home crowding explains a significant amount of the immigration variance (19%). Results of a multiple regression analysis show that unemployment level, percentage of Asian-Africans, population size, and level of religiosity account for 72% of the inmigration variance. Thus, the characteristics of a town inmigrating (push variables) are demographic, economic, and social. However, the attractive features of a town are only economic. Among all economic factors, unemployment is primary. In addition, not only are

  6. Linking TEM analytical spectroscopies for an assumptionless compositional analysis.

    PubMed

    Kothleitner, Gerald; Grogger, Werner; Dienstleder, Martina; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2014-06-01

    The classical implementation for putting quantitative figures on maps to reveal elemental compositions in transmission electron microscopy is by analytical methods like X-ray and energy-loss spectroscopy. Typically, the technique in use often depends on whether lighter or heavier elements are present and-more practically-which calibrations are available or sample-related properties are known. A framework linking electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) signals such that absolute volumetric concentrations can be derived without assumptions made a priori about the unknown sample, is largely missing. In order to combine both techniques and harness their respective potentials for a light and heavy element analysis, we have set up a powerful hardware configuration and implemented an experimental approach, which reduces the need for estimates on many parameters needed for quantitative work such as densities, absolute thicknesses, theoretical ionization cross-sections, etc. Calibrations on specimens with known geometry allow the measurement of inelastic mean free paths. As a consequence, mass-thicknesses obtained from the EDX ζ-factor approach can be broken up and quantities like concentrations and partial energy-differential ionization cross-sections become accessible. ζ-factors can then be used for conversion into EELS cross-sections that are hard to determine otherwise, or conversely, connecting EDXS and EELS in a quantitative manner quite effectively. PMID:24598412

  7. An analytical pipeline to compare and characterise the anthocyanin antioxidant activities of purple sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yijie; Deng, Liqing; Chen, Jinwu; Zhou, Siyu; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yufan; Yang, Chunxian; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min

    2016-03-01

    Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is rich in anthocyanin pigments, which are valuable constituents of the human diet. Techniques to identify and quantify anthocyanins and their antioxidant potential are desirable for cultivar selection and breeding. In this study, we performed a quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of 30 purple sweet potato (PSP) cultivars, using various assays to measure reducing power radical-scavenging activities, and linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity. Grey relational analysis (GRA) was applied to establish relationships between the antioxidant activities and the chemical fingerprints, in order to identify key bioactive compounds. The results indicated that four peonidin-based anthocyanins and three cyanidin-based anthocyanins make significant contributions to antioxidant activity. We conclude that the analytical pipeline described here represents an effective method to evaluate the antioxidant potential of, and the contributing compounds present in, PSP cultivars. This approach may be used to guide future breeding strategies.

  8. Hydraulic characterization of an activated sludge reactor with recycling system by tracer experiment and analytical models.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, F; Viedma, A; Kaiser, A S

    2016-09-15

    Fluid dynamic behaviour plays an important role in wastewater treatment. An efficient treatment requires the inexistence of certain hydraulic problems such as dead zones or short-circuiting flows. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis is an excellent technique for detecting these inefficiencies. However, many wastewater treatment installations include water or sludge recycling systems, which prevent us from carrying out a conventional tracer pulse experiment to obtain the RTD curve of the installation. This paper develops an RTD analysis of an activated sludge reactor with recycling system. A tracer experiment in the reactor is carried out. Three analytical models, derived from the conventional pulse model, are proposed to obtain the RTD curve of the reactor. An analysis of the results is made, studying which model is the most suitable for each situation. This paper is useful to analyse the hydraulic efficiency of reactors with recycling systems. PMID:27288672

  9. Hydraulic characterization of an activated sludge reactor with recycling system by tracer experiment and analytical models.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, F; Viedma, A; Kaiser, A S

    2016-09-15

    Fluid dynamic behaviour plays an important role in wastewater treatment. An efficient treatment requires the inexistence of certain hydraulic problems such as dead zones or short-circuiting flows. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis is an excellent technique for detecting these inefficiencies. However, many wastewater treatment installations include water or sludge recycling systems, which prevent us from carrying out a conventional tracer pulse experiment to obtain the RTD curve of the installation. This paper develops an RTD analysis of an activated sludge reactor with recycling system. A tracer experiment in the reactor is carried out. Three analytical models, derived from the conventional pulse model, are proposed to obtain the RTD curve of the reactor. An analysis of the results is made, studying which model is the most suitable for each situation. This paper is useful to analyse the hydraulic efficiency of reactors with recycling systems.

  10. An Analysis of Feedback from a Behavior Analytic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mangiapanello, Kathleen A; Hemmes, Nancy S

    2015-05-01

    The present paper presents a systematic analysis from a behavior analytic perspective of procedures termed feedback. Although feedback procedures are widely reported in the discipline of psychology, including in the field of behavior analysis, feedback is neither consistently defined nor analyzed. Feedback is frequently treated as a principle of behavior; however, its effects are rarely analyzed in terms of well-established principles of learning and behavior analysis. On the assumption that effectiveness of feedback procedures would be enhanced when their use is informed by these principles, we sought to provide a conceptually systematic account of feedback effects in terms of operant conditioning principles. In the first comprehensive review of this type, we compare feedback procedures with those of well-defined operant procedures. We also compare the functional relations that have been observed between parameters of consequence delivery and behavior under both feedback and operant procedures. The similarities observed in the preceding analyses suggest that processes revealed in operant conditioning procedures are sufficient to explain the phenomena observed in studies on feedback.

  11. An introduction to clinical microeconomic analysis: purposes and analytic methods.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W S; Mauldin, P D; Becker, E R

    1994-06-01

    The recent concern with health care economics has fostered the development of a new discipline that is generally called clinical microeconomics. This is a discipline in which microeconomic methods are used to study the economics of specific medical therapies. It is possible to perform stand alone cost analyses, but more profound insight into the medical decision making process may be accomplished by combining cost studies with measures of outcome. This is most often accomplished with cost-effectiveness or cost-utility studies. In cost-effectiveness studies there is one measure of outcome, often death. In cost-utility studies there are multiple measures of outcome, which must be grouped together to give an overall picture of outcome or utility. There are theoretical limitations to the determination of utility that must be accepted to perform this type of analysis. A summary statement of outcome is quality adjusted life years (QALYs), which is utility time socially discounted survival. Discounting is used because people value a year of future life less than a year of present life. Costs are made up of in-hospital direct, professional, follow-up direct, and follow-up indirect costs. Direct costs are for medical services. Indirect costs reflect opportunity costs such as lost time at work. Cost estimates are often based on marginal costs, or the cost for one additional procedure of the same type. Finally an overall statistic may be generated as cost per unit increase in effectiveness, such as dollars per QALY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10151059

  12. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  13. Teaching Analytical Method Development in an Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Katherine C.

    2008-01-01

    Method development and assessment, central components of carrying out chemical research, require problem-solving skills. This article describes a pedagogical approach for teaching these skills through the adaptation of published experiments and application of group-meeting style discussions to the curriculum of an undergraduate instrumental…

  14. Determining an Effective Intervention within a Brief Experimental Analysis for Reading: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Wagner, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The current study applied meta-analytic procedures to brief experimental analysis research of reading fluency interventions to better inform practice and suggest areas for future research. Thirteen studies were examined to determine what magnitude of effect was needed to identify an intervention as the most effective within a brief experimental…

  15. Analytically useful spectra excited in an atmospheric pressure active nitrogen afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, G.W.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1984-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure active nitrogen (APAN) discharge has been utilized for producing characteristic molecular emissions from nonmetallic species introduced into the afterglow region of the discharge. The addition of inorganic S-, P-, B-, Cl-, and Br-containing compounds into the afterglow has resulted in the formation of excited S/sub 2/, PN, BO, NCl, and NBr species, respectively. Intense molecular Br/sub 2/ emission and I/sub 2/ emission, as well as atomic I emission, have also been observed. Preliminary analytical utilization of the molecular or atomic emissions observed revealed that the APAN afterglow may serve as a potentially useful detector for the aforementioned elements.

  16. Multimedia Analysis plus Visual Analytics = Multimedia Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Chinchor, Nancy; Thomas, James J.; Wong, Pak C.; Christel, Michael; Ribarsky, Martin W.

    2010-10-01

    Multimedia analysis has focused on images, video, and to some extent audio and has made progress in single channels excluding text. Visual analytics has focused on the user interaction with data during the analytic process plus the fundamental mathematics and has continued to treat text as did its precursor, information visualization. The general problem we address in this tutorial is the combining of multimedia analysis and visual analytics to deal with multimedia information gathered from different sources, with different goals or objectives, and containing all media types and combinations in common usage.

  17. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  18. An analytical method for measuring α-amylase activity in starch-containing foods.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuo; Hirao, Takashi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2013-05-01

    The quality of starch-containing foods may be significantly impaired by contamination with very small amounts of α-amylase, which can enzymatically hydrolyze the starch and cause viscosity loss. Thus, for quality control, it is necessary to have an analytical method that can measure low amylase activity. We developed a sensitive analytical method for measuring the activity of α-amylase (from Bacillus subtilis) in starch-containing foods. The method consists of six steps: (1) crude extraction of α-amylase by centrifugation and filtration; (2) α-amylase purification by desalting and anion-exchange chromatography; (3) reaction of the purified amylase with boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-labeled substrate, which releases a fluorescent fragment upon digestion of the substrate, thus avoiding interference from starch derivatives in the sample; (4) stopping the reaction with acetonitrile; (5) reversed-phase solid-phase extraction of the fluorescent substrate to remove contaminating dye and impurities; and (6) separation and measurement of BODIPY fluorescence by HPLC. The proposed method could quantify α-amylase activities as low as 10 mU/mL, which is enough to reduce the viscosity of starch-containing foods.

  19. How Can Visual Analytics Assist Investigative Analysis? Design Implications from an Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Youn-Ah Kang; Görg, Carsten; Stasko, John

    2011-05-01

    Despite the growing number of systems providing visual analytic support for investigative analysis, few empirical studies of the potential benefits of such systems have been conducted, particularly controlled, comparative evaluations. Determining how such systems foster insight and sensemaking is important for their continued growth and study, however. Furthermore, studies that identify how people use such systems and why they benefit (or not) can help inform the design of new systems in this area. We conducted an evaluation of the visual analytics system Jigsaw employed in a small investigative sensemaking exercise, and compared its use to three other more traditional methods of analysis. Sixteen participants performed a simulated intelligence analysis task under one of the four conditions. Experimental results suggest that Jigsaw assisted participants to analyze the data and identify an embedded threat. We describe different analysis strategies used by study participants and how computational support (or the lack thereof) influenced the strategies. We then illustrate several characteristics of the sensemaking process identified in the study and provide design implications for investigative analysis tools based thereon. We conclude with recommendations on metrics and techniques for evaluating visual analytics systems for investigative analysis.

  20. Experimental approach to validation of an analytical and numerical thermal analysis of a travelling wave tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiejak, W.; Wymysłowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) is an electronic vacuum microwave device, which is used as a high power microwave amplifier, mainly in telecommunication purposes, e.g. radar systems. TWT's is an alternative solution in comparison to semiconductor devices in case of high power and high frequency applications. Thermal behaviour of TWT is one of the key aspects influencing its reliability and working parameters. The main goal of the research was to perform analytical, experimental and numerical analysis of a temperature distribution of a low band TWT in case of a typical working condition. Because the theoretical analysis seems to be very complex thus it was decided to compare the experimental results with the numerical simulations as well as with the simplified analytical formulas. As a first step of the presented research, the analytical analysis and numerical modelling of the helix TWT was carried out. The objective of the thermal analysis was to assess the temperature distribution in different parts of the helix TWT assembly during the extreme standard and working conditions. As a second stage of the research the numerical results were validated by the experimental measurements, which were carried out using a specially designed TWT test samples and corresponding experimental measurement tools.

  1. Analytical modeling and active vibration suppression of an adaptive circular composite plate with asymmetric constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Su; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the dynamic analysis of an Adaptive Circular Composite Plate (ACCP) with asymmetric constraints with respect to the angular coordinate system is investigated. Due to the asymmetric constrains, the shape functions of the circular plate could not be simply obtained from the partial differential equation by ignoring the angular dependency. Using the method of separation of variables, the mode shapes are expanded in Bessel series. The comparison of the developed analytical mode shapes with the Finite Element Method (FEM) mode shapes confirmed the validation of the analytical model. A modeling strategy using Rayleigh-Ritz method is presented to build the system model. Taking the effects of piezoelectric actuators on the dynamics of the ACCP into account, the optimal placement of the actuators is investigated. Also, employing the developed model, the simulation of the vibration control is implemented on the ACCP with one central simply support and three edge simply supports using LQR controller. The simulation results verify the best performance of the LQR controller with the optimal configuration for vibration suppression of the ACCP.

  2. An analytical approach to grid sensitivity analysis for NACA four-digit wing sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis in computational fluid dynamics with emphasis on grids and surface parameterization is described. An interactive algebraic grid-generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around NACA four-digit wing sections. An analytical procedure is developed for calculating grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters of a wing section. A comparison of the sensitivity with that obtained using a finite difference approach is made. Grid sensitivity with respect to grid parameters, such as grid-stretching coefficients, are also investigated. Using the resultant grid sensitivity, aerodynamic sensitivity is obtained using the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations.

  3. Development of Analytical Algorithm for the Performance Analysis of Power Train System of an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Lee, Kee-Man; Lee, Sang-Heon

    Power train system design is one of the key R&D areas on the development process of new automobile because an optimum size of engine with adaptable power transmission which can accomplish the design requirement of new vehicle can be obtained through the system design. Especially, for the electric vehicle design, very reliable design algorithm of a power train system is required for the energy efficiency. In this study, an analytical simulation algorithm is developed to estimate driving performance of a designed power train system of an electric. The principal theory of the simulation algorithm is conservation of energy with several analytical and experimental data such as rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, mechanical efficiency of power transmission etc. From the analytical calculation results, running resistance of a designed vehicle is obtained with the change of operating condition of the vehicle such as inclined angle of road and vehicle speed. Tractive performance of the model vehicle with a given power train system is also calculated at each gear ratio of transmission. Through analysis of these two calculation results: running resistance and tractive performance, the driving performance of a designed electric vehicle is estimated and it will be used to evaluate the adaptability of the designed power train system on the vehicle.

  4. Marketing Mix Formulation for Higher Education: An Integrated Analysis Employing Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chia-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a graduate institute at National Chiayi University (NCYU), by using a model that integrates analytic hierarchy process, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis, can develop effective marketing strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a quantitative study aimed at…

  5. An analytical investigation of the active control of the transmission of sound through plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. R.; Nelson, P. A.; Pinnington, R. J.; Elliott, S. J.

    1995-03-01

    An analytical model of a vibrating plate is used to explore the mechanisms of control involved in the reduction of harmonic sound transmission through the active control of plate vibration. A general model of the plate vibrations (previously used by Berry et al.) is presented, with the boundary conditions of the plate being modelled as variable rotational and translational elastic restraints at the edges of the plate. A variational formulation of the problem is presented and the equation of motion of the plate is derived by using a Rayleigh-Ritz method. Both an elastic plate with clamped edges and a rigid panel with free edges are considered. For the rigid panel it is found that large attenuations in transmitted sound can be obtained if either three control actuators are used (one for each rigid body mode) or the motion of the panel is restricted to piston type translation along an axis perpendicular to the panel. For the elastic plate two mechanisms of control are observed: "modal control" where the amplitudes of those modes which dominate sound radiation are reduced, and "modal rearrangement" where the relative amplitudes and phases of plate modes are adjusted to produce a vibration distribution of low radiation efficiency. The latter mechanism is shown to be both subtle (often involving little change in mode amplitudes and little change in the overall vibration amplitude of the plate) and very effective (accounting for a large proportion of the attenuations in radiated sound at most frequencies). For the frequency range of interest (0.92 less than kaless than 2.75) large attenuations in the transmitted sound could always be achieved if the number and positioning of the secondary forces is correctly chosen. The simulations also demonstrate the phenomenon of "spill-over", where inefficiently radiating plate modes are strongly excited with the introduction of control often resulting in an overall increase in the plate vibration.

  6. Moisture Analysis in Lotion by Karl Fischer Coulometry. An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann; Castriotta, Kristine

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes an experiment that can be used in an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. It allows the student analyst to measure the moisture content of various hand and body lotions using the coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) technique, providing a modern alternative to the traditional electrochemical experiments usually explored in introductory analytical chemistry courses. The experiment introduces students to an important technique in industry and commerce, which is highly sensitive, accurate, and precise, and which can be used to study a wide range of samples. The measurement times are short, allowing students to experience the analytical problem-solving process from start to finish in a single 3-hour laboratory period. One KF coulometer can adequately service even a large analytical chemistry class (>80 students). In spring 2000, students identified the KF experiment as the most popular, most useful, and most educational experiment in our analytical chemistry laboratory curriculum.

  7. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  8. Cytobank: providing an analytics platform for community cytometry data analysis and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tiffany J; Kotecha, Nikesh

    2014-01-01

    Cytometry is used extensively in clinical and laboratory settings to diagnose and track cell subsets in blood and tissue. High-throughput, single-cell approaches leveraging cytometry are developed and applied in the computational and systems biology communities by researchers, who seek to improve the diagnosis of human diseases, map the structures of cell signaling networks, and identify new cell types. Data analysis and management present a bottleneck in the flow of knowledge from bench to clinic. Multi-parameter flow and mass cytometry enable identification of signaling profiles of patient cell samples. Currently, this process is manual, requiring hours of work to summarize multi-dimensional data and translate these data for input into other analysis programs. In addition, the increase in the number and size of collaborative cytometry studies as well as the computational complexity of analytical tools require the ability to assemble sufficient and appropriately configured computing capacity on demand. There is a critical need for platforms that can be used by both clinical and basic researchers who routinely rely on cytometry. Recent advances provide a unique opportunity to facilitate collaboration and analysis and management of cytometry data. Specifically, advances in cloud computing and virtualization are enabling efficient use of large computing resources for analysis and backup. An example is Cytobank, a platform that allows researchers to annotate, analyze, and share results along with the underlying single-cell data.

  9. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  10. Non invasive analysis of miniature paintings: proposal for an analytical protocol.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Bianco, Valentina; Pellizzi, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The characterisation of palettes used in manuscript illumination is a hard analytical task, due to value and fragility of the analysed items. Analysis on miniatures must be necessarily non-invasive and fast and requires the use of several techniques since no single technique is able to provide all information needed. In this work a four-step analytical protocol is proposed for non-invasive in situ characterisation of miniature paintings. The protocol allows the identification of coloured materials through the use in sequence of complementary techniques, so as to fully exploit the information given by each instrument. Preliminarily to the instrumental investigations on ancient books and miniatures is the compilation of spectroscopic databases obtained from "standard" samples prepared on parchment, according to recipes described in medieval artistic treatises. The protocol starts with an extensive investigation with UV-visible spectrophotometry in reflectance mode, collecting spectra from all the most significant painted areas in the manuscript; chemometric classification is then performed on the spectra to highlight areas possibly containing the same materials. The second step involves in-depth inspection of miniatures under optical microscopy that guides the interpretation of reflectance spectra. XRF spectrometry is then performed to characterise pigments and metal layers, to verify the presence of overlapping layers, to identify mordants in lakes and to recognise minor components that may yield information concerning provenance; in addition, chemometric classification can be performed on element concentrations to highlight similar areas. Finally, Raman spectroscopy is used to shed light on the uncertain cases, if still present. Such a procedure offers a wealth of information without causing stress to the manuscripts under analysis. PMID:22391225

  11. Non invasive analysis of miniature paintings: Proposal for an analytical protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Bianco, Valentina; Pellizzi, Eleonora

    2012-06-01

    The characterisation of palettes used in manuscript illumination is a hard analytical task, due to value and fragility of the analysed items. Analysis on miniatures must be necessarily non-invasive and fast and requires the use of several techniques since no single technique is able to provide all information needed. In this work a four-step analytical protocol is proposed for non-invasive in situ characterisation of miniature paintings. The protocol allows the identification of coloured materials through the use in sequence of complementary techniques, so as to fully exploit the information given by each instrument. Preliminarily to the instrumental investigations on ancient books and miniatures is the compilation of spectroscopic databases obtained from "standard" samples prepared on parchment, according to recipes described in medieval artistic treatises. The protocol starts with an extensive investigation with UV-visible spectrophotometry in reflectance mode, collecting spectra from all the most significant painted areas in the manuscript; chemometric classification is then performed on the spectra to highlight areas possibly containing the same materials. The second step involves in-depth inspection of miniatures under optical microscopy that guides the interpretation of reflectance spectra. XRF spectrometry is then performed to characterise pigments and metal layers, to verify the presence of overlapping layers, to identify mordants in lakes and to recognise minor components that may yield information concerning provenance; in addition, chemometric classification can be performed on element concentrations to highlight similar areas. Finally, Raman spectroscopy is used to shed light on the uncertain cases, if still present. Such a procedure offers a wealth of information without causing stress to the manuscripts under analysis.

  12. Measuring Gravel Transport in an Active Natural System: An Analytical Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfilippo, J. D.; Lancaster, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    In order to measure sediment flux in Porter Creek, a small tributary to the North Fork of the Siuslaw River near Florence Oregon, we have deployed ~600 pieces of tracer gravel embedded with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, 8 fixed antennas, and 9 logging pressure transducers spaced along 130 m of channel comprising 3 wood jams and substrates of sand, gravel, cobble, and bedrock. Tracer deployment is uniform along the instrumented reach, analogous to constant-source solute or dye injection, so that sediment flux [L3/T] for the ith grain size class is Qi = niVpiFi/fTi, where ni is count rate, [T-1], Vpi is particle volume, and Fi and fTi are fractional coverage of the ith size class of grains and tracers, respectively. Tracer concentrations, fTi, must be large enough for accurate estimation of ni = 1/TAi where TAi is the mean inter-arrival time of tracers at an antenna, during a period of nearly constant discharge. A square wave or constant sediment injection is undertaken by placing a concentration of tracers dispersed upstream of the study reach, such that it will add to the concentration within the study reach as gravels migrate downstream, replacing the gravels within the antenna network. Preliminary results show dispersion values ranging from ~7 m2/month for 8-16mm size fraction, to ~0.2 m2/month for 32-64mm size fraction, with travel distances of 60 meters for the 8-16mm, 16 meters for the 16-32mm, 8 meters for the 32-64mm, and 4 meters for the >64mm for 1 water year. Since there is a high level of variability in dispersion within the antennae array given the heterogeneity of substrates and wood placed within the system, it is likely that some tracers will need to be added within the regions between antennae after high water events. The tracer concentration within the regions occupied between antennae must remain at such a level as to provide viable statistical relationships between tracer and non-tracer gravels, and percent mobile versus percent

  13. Publication Bias in Studies of an Applied Behavior-Analytic Intervention: An Initial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an…

  14. Analytical laboratory quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces QA guidance pertaining to design and implementation of laboratory procedures and processes for collecting DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) ESAA (environmental sampling and analysis activities) data. It addresses several goals: identifying key laboratory issues and program elements to EM HQ and field office managers; providing non-prescriptive guidance; and introducing environmental data collection program elements for EM-263 assessment documents and programs. The guidance describes the implementation of laboratory QA elements within a functional QA program (development of the QA program and data quality objectives are not covered here).

  15. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  16. An analytical theory of the motion of PHOBOS and perturbation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, N. V.; Nasonova, L. P.

    1989-08-01

    An analytical theory of the motion of Phobos is briefly described. The theory is realized by adapting the theory of artificial-satellite motion. A theoretical estimate of the coordinate computation method accuracy is about 0.5 m at an interval of 1 to 2 yrs. The perturbations of Phobos intermediate-orbit elements are analyzed and recommendations are made to account for perturbation factors. The possibility of determining the perturbing factors parameters from Phobos observations is discussed.

  17. Mathematical analysis of recent analytical approximations to the collapse of an empty spherical bubble.

    PubMed

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M

    2013-02-28

    We analyze the Rayleigh equation for the collapse of an empty bubble and provide an explanation for some recent analytical approximations to the model. We derive the form of the singularity at the second boundary point and discuss the convergence of the approximants. We also give a rigorous proof of the asymptotic behavior of the coefficients of the power series that are the basis for the approximate expressions.

  18. An Open-Source Analytical Platform for Analysis of C. elegans Swimming Induced Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, J. Andrew; Wang, Jing; Fleming, Paul A.; Fleming, Katherine A.; Whitaker, Sarah M.; Nackenoff, Alex; Snarrenberg, Chelsea L.; Hardie, Shannon L.; Zhang, Bing; Blakely, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The nematode Caenhorhabditis elegans offers great power for the identification and characterization of genes that regulate behavior. In support of this effort, analytical methods are required that provide dimensional analyses of subcomponents of behavior. Previously, we demonstrated that loss of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter, dat-1, evokes DA-dependent Swimming Induced Paralysis (Swip) (Mcdonald et al. 2007), a behavior compatible with forward genetic screens (Hardaway et al. 2012). New Method Here, we detail the development and implementation of SwimR, a set of tools that provide for an automated, kinetic analysis of C. elegans Swip. SwimR relies on open source programs that can be freely implemented and modified. Results We show that SwimR can display time-dependent alterations of swimming behavior induced by drug-treatment, illustrating this capacity with the dat-1 blocker and tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (IMI). We demonstrate the capacity of SwimR to extract multiple kinetic parameters that are impractical to obtain in manual assays. Comparison with Existing Methods Standard measurements of C. elegans swimming utilizes manual assessments of the number of animals exhibiting swimming versus paralysis. Our approach deconstructs the time course and rates of movement in an automated fashion, offering a significant increase in the information that can be obtained from swimming behavior. Conclusions The SwimR platform is a powerful tool for the deconstruction of worm thrashing behavior in the context of both genetic and pharmacological manipulations that can be used to segregate pathways that underlie nematode swimming mechanics. PMID:24792527

  19. moocRP: Enabling Open Learning Analytics with an Open Source Platform for Data Distribution, Analysis, and Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Whyte, Anthony; Kao, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of transparency, modularity, and privacy with the introduction of an open source, web-based data repository and analysis tool tailored to the Massive Open Online Course community. The tool integrates data request/authorization and distribution workflow features as well as provides a simple analytics module upload…

  20. An analytical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation in the phase-locked loop transient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Weijian

    1987-01-01

    A probabilistic approach is used to obtain an analytical solution to the Fokker-Planck equation used in the transient analysis of the phase-locked loop phase error process of the first-order phase-locked loop. The solution procedure, which is based on the Girsanov transformation, is described.

  1. Analytical laboratory comparison of major and minor constituents in an active crater lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, B.; Fazlullin, S. M.; Delmelle, P.

    2000-04-01

    The crater lake water from Maly Semiachik volcano in Kamchatka was used for the international analytical laboratory comparison of major and minor elements, and hydrogen, sulfur, and oxygen isotope data. Eight institutions participated in this program, giving analytical results of 9 major and 20 minor elements mainly by using ICP-AES for cations and IC for anions. Among the major elements, Na, Mg and Si showed coefficients of variation (CV) of 10% or more, whereas B, Al, Fe, Mn had coefficients less than 7%. The CV% of the minor elements Co, Cu, P, Cr, Pb was much greater (>30%) while the V analyses agreed well (<10%). Ti, Sr, Zn, and F were intermediate (between 10 and 20 CV%). The errors observed for these constituents are inherent to the methods applied: large dilutions and spectrometric interferences. Even the major anions such as Cl (>2000 ppm) and SO 4 (>5000 ppm) gave considerable ranges (5.1 and 8.8 CV%, respectively) as did the obtained pH values (22 CV%). The measured δ18O of the water samples and δ34S of sulfate are in excellent agreement but the δD values had CV% of 8. Technical recommendations are presented to improve the analytical results for these elements with significant deviations from the mean values.

  2. An improved analytic solution for analysis of particle trajectories in fibrous, two-dimensional filters

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, H.; Sahraoui, M.; Kaviany, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Kuwabara solution for creeping fluid flow through periodic arrangement of cylinders is widely used in analytic and numerical studies of fibrous filters. Numerical solutions have shown that the Kuwabara solution has systematic errors and when used for the particle trajectories in filters it results in some error in the predicted filter efficiency. The numerical solutions although accurate, preclude further analytic treatments and are not as compact and convenient to use as the Kuwabara solution. By re-examining the outer boundary conditions of the Kuwabara solution, we have derived a correction term to the Kuwabara solution to obtain an extended solution that is more accurate and improves prediction of the filter efficiency. By comparison with the numerical solutions, it is shown that the Kuwabara solution is the high porosity asymptote and that the extended solution has an improved porosity dependence. We explain a rectification which can make particle collection less efficient for periodic, in-line arrangements of fibers with particle diffusion or body force. This rectification also results in the alignment of particles with inertia (i.e., high Stokes number particles).

  3. Solutions for a local equation of anisotropic plant cell growth: an analytical study of expansin activity.

    PubMed

    Pietruszka, Mariusz

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a generalization of the Lockhart equation for plant cell/organ expansion in the anisotropic case. The intent is to take into account the temporal and spatial variation in the cell wall mechanical properties by considering the wall 'extensibility' (Φ), a time- and space-dependent parameter. A dynamic linear differential equation of a second-order tensor is introduced by describing the anisotropic growth process with some key biochemical aspects included. The distortion and expansion of plant cell walls initiated by expansins, a class of proteins known to enhance cell wall 'extensibility', is also described. In this approach, expansin proteins are treated as active agents participating in isotropic/anisotropic growth. Two-parameter models and an equation for describing α- and β-expansin proteins are proposed by delineating the extension of isolated wall samples, allowing turgor-driven polymer creep, where expansins weaken the non-covalent binding between wall polysaccharides. We observe that the calculated halftime (t(1/2) = εΦ(0) log 2) of stress relaxation due to expansin action can be described in mechanical terms.

  4. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation.

  5. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. PMID:26450973

  6. Analysis of the Essential Nutrient Strontium in Marine Aquariums by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Pelichy, Laurent D.; Adam, Carl; Smith, Eugene T.

    1997-10-01

    An undergraduate atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) laboratory experiment is presented involving the analysis of the essential nutrient strontium in a real-life sample, sea water. The quantitative analysis of strontium in sea water is a problem well suited for an undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory. Sea water contains numerous components which prevent the direct quantitative determination of strontium. Students learn first hand about the role of interferences in analytical measurements, and about the method of standard addition which is used to minimize these effects. This laboratory exercise also introduces undergraduate students to practical problems associated with AAS. We encourage students as a part of this experiment to collect and analyze marine water samples from local pet shops.

  7. Intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy. An analytical technique for 14C analysis with subattomole sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Murnick, Daniel E; Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan

    2008-07-01

    We show a new ultrasensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy, allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of (14)C-labeled carbon dioxide. Capable of replacing large accelerator mass spectrometers, the technique quantifies attomoles of (14)C in submicrogram samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10(-15) (14)C/(12)C ratios are obtained. Using a 15-W (14)CO2 laser, a linear calibration with samples from 10(-15) to >1.5 x 10(-12) in (14)C/(12)C ratios, as determined by accelerator mass spectrometry, is demonstrated. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized subtherapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities.

  8. Analytical design and evaluation of an active control system for helicopter vibration reduction and gust response alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. B.; Zwicke, P. E.; Gold, P.; Miao, W.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to define the basic configuration of an active control system for helicopter vibration and gust response alleviation. The study culminated in a control system design which has two separate systems: narrow band loop for vibration reduction and wider band loop for gust response alleviation. The narrow band vibration loop utilizes the standard swashplate control configuration to input controller for the vibration loop is based on adaptive optimal control theory and is designed to adapt to any flight condition including maneuvers and transients. The prime characteristics of the vibration control system is its real time capability. The gust alleviation control system studied consists of optimal sampled data feedback gains together with an optimal one-step-ahead prediction. The prediction permits the estimation of the gust disturbance which can then be used to minimize the gust effects on the helicopter.

  9. Creating and Sustaining Professional Learning Partnerships: Activity Theory as an Analytic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Dianne; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2015-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid to the forms and practices of effective school-university partnerships in recent times as they are commonly seen as a key element to improve the quality of teacher education programs and thus graduate teachers. However, analysis of the effectiveness of such partnerships has not been so evident. This article…

  10. An Analytical System Designed to Measure Multiple Malodorous Compounds Related to Kraft Mill Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulik, J. D.; And Others

    Reported upon in this research study is the development of two automated chromatographs equipped with flame photometric detectors for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of both low- and high-molecular weight sulfur compounds in kraft mill effluents. In addition the study sought to determine the relationship between total gaseous sulfur and…

  11. GeneAnalytics: An Integrative Gene Set Analysis Tool for Next Generation Sequencing, RNAseq and Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari Fuchs, Shani; Lieder, Iris; Mazor, Yaron; Buzhor, Ella; Kaplan, Sergey; Bogoch, Yoel; Plaschkes, Inbar; Shitrit, Alina; Rappaport, Noa; Kohn, Asher; Edgar, Ron; Shenhav, Liraz; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron; Guan-Golan, Yaron; Warshawsky, David; Shtrichman, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postgenomics data are produced in large volumes by life sciences and clinical applications of novel omics diagnostics and therapeutics for precision medicine. To move from “data-to-knowledge-to-innovation,” a crucial missing step in the current era is, however, our limited understanding of biological and clinical contexts associated with data. Prominent among the emerging remedies to this challenge are the gene set enrichment tools. This study reports on GeneAnalytics™ (geneanalytics.genecards.org), a comprehensive and easy-to-apply gene set analysis tool for rapid contextualization of expression patterns and functional signatures embedded in the postgenomics Big Data domains, such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), RNAseq, and microarray experiments. GeneAnalytics' differentiating features include in-depth evidence-based scoring algorithms, an intuitive user interface and proprietary unified data. GeneAnalytics employs the LifeMap Science's GeneCards suite, including the GeneCards®—the human gene database; the MalaCards—the human diseases database; and the PathCards—the biological pathways database. Expression-based analysis in GeneAnalytics relies on the LifeMap Discovery®—the embryonic development and stem cells database, which includes manually curated expression data for normal and diseased tissues, enabling advanced matching algorithm for gene–tissue association. This assists in evaluating differentiation protocols and discovering biomarkers for tissues and cells. Results are directly linked to gene, disease, or cell “cards” in the GeneCards suite. Future developments aim to enhance the GeneAnalytics algorithm as well as visualizations, employing varied graphical display items. Such attributes make GeneAnalytics a broadly applicable postgenomics data analyses and interpretation tool for translation of data to knowledge-based innovation in various Big Data fields such as precision medicine, ecogenomics, nutrigenomics

  12. GeneAnalytics: An Integrative Gene Set Analysis Tool for Next Generation Sequencing, RNAseq and Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari Fuchs, Shani; Lieder, Iris; Stelzer, Gil; Mazor, Yaron; Buzhor, Ella; Kaplan, Sergey; Bogoch, Yoel; Plaschkes, Inbar; Shitrit, Alina; Rappaport, Noa; Kohn, Asher; Edgar, Ron; Shenhav, Liraz; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron; Guan-Golan, Yaron; Warshawsky, David; Shtrichman, Ronit

    2016-03-01

    Postgenomics data are produced in large volumes by life sciences and clinical applications of novel omics diagnostics and therapeutics for precision medicine. To move from "data-to-knowledge-to-innovation," a crucial missing step in the current era is, however, our limited understanding of biological and clinical contexts associated with data. Prominent among the emerging remedies to this challenge are the gene set enrichment tools. This study reports on GeneAnalytics™ ( geneanalytics.genecards.org ), a comprehensive and easy-to-apply gene set analysis tool for rapid contextualization of expression patterns and functional signatures embedded in the postgenomics Big Data domains, such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), RNAseq, and microarray experiments. GeneAnalytics' differentiating features include in-depth evidence-based scoring algorithms, an intuitive user interface and proprietary unified data. GeneAnalytics employs the LifeMap Science's GeneCards suite, including the GeneCards®--the human gene database; the MalaCards-the human diseases database; and the PathCards--the biological pathways database. Expression-based analysis in GeneAnalytics relies on the LifeMap Discovery®--the embryonic development and stem cells database, which includes manually curated expression data for normal and diseased tissues, enabling advanced matching algorithm for gene-tissue association. This assists in evaluating differentiation protocols and discovering biomarkers for tissues and cells. Results are directly linked to gene, disease, or cell "cards" in the GeneCards suite. Future developments aim to enhance the GeneAnalytics algorithm as well as visualizations, employing varied graphical display items. Such attributes make GeneAnalytics a broadly applicable postgenomics data analyses and interpretation tool for translation of data to knowledge-based innovation in various Big Data fields such as precision medicine, ecogenomics, nutrigenomics, pharmacogenomics, vaccinomics

  13. GeneAnalytics: An Integrative Gene Set Analysis Tool for Next Generation Sequencing, RNAseq and Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari Fuchs, Shani; Lieder, Iris; Stelzer, Gil; Mazor, Yaron; Buzhor, Ella; Kaplan, Sergey; Bogoch, Yoel; Plaschkes, Inbar; Shitrit, Alina; Rappaport, Noa; Kohn, Asher; Edgar, Ron; Shenhav, Liraz; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron; Guan-Golan, Yaron; Warshawsky, David; Shtrichman, Ronit

    2016-03-01

    Postgenomics data are produced in large volumes by life sciences and clinical applications of novel omics diagnostics and therapeutics for precision medicine. To move from "data-to-knowledge-to-innovation," a crucial missing step in the current era is, however, our limited understanding of biological and clinical contexts associated with data. Prominent among the emerging remedies to this challenge are the gene set enrichment tools. This study reports on GeneAnalytics™ ( geneanalytics.genecards.org ), a comprehensive and easy-to-apply gene set analysis tool for rapid contextualization of expression patterns and functional signatures embedded in the postgenomics Big Data domains, such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), RNAseq, and microarray experiments. GeneAnalytics' differentiating features include in-depth evidence-based scoring algorithms, an intuitive user interface and proprietary unified data. GeneAnalytics employs the LifeMap Science's GeneCards suite, including the GeneCards®--the human gene database; the MalaCards-the human diseases database; and the PathCards--the biological pathways database. Expression-based analysis in GeneAnalytics relies on the LifeMap Discovery®--the embryonic development and stem cells database, which includes manually curated expression data for normal and diseased tissues, enabling advanced matching algorithm for gene-tissue association. This assists in evaluating differentiation protocols and discovering biomarkers for tissues and cells. Results are directly linked to gene, disease, or cell "cards" in the GeneCards suite. Future developments aim to enhance the GeneAnalytics algorithm as well as visualizations, employing varied graphical display items. Such attributes make GeneAnalytics a broadly applicable postgenomics data analyses and interpretation tool for translation of data to knowledge-based innovation in various Big Data fields such as precision medicine, ecogenomics, nutrigenomics, pharmacogenomics, vaccinomics

  14. An analytical quality by design (aQbD) approach for a L-asparaginase activity method.

    PubMed

    Yao, Han; Vancoillie, Jochem; D'Hondt, Matthias; Wynendaele, Evelien; Bracke, Nathalie; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase is an effective anti-tumor agent for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This work presents the development of an activity determination of L-ASNase preparations for pharmaceutical quality control purposes, in accordance with analytical Quality by Design principles. Critical method attributes, the absorbance at 450 nm (A450) of the Nessler product as well as its variability, were evaluated as a function of critical method variables, by using experimental designs. The design space of the enzyme activity assay was defined (Nessler method: C(KI)/C(HgI2) of 1.90-1.95, C(NaOH)/C(HgI2) of 17.0-18.0, C(HgI2final) of 20-40 mM and time of 10-40 min; enzyme activity conditions: temperature range of 36.6-37.4 °C, pH range of the KH2PO4 buffer from 7.1 to 7.7, KH2PO4 buffer concentration: 0.18-0.22 M and L-Asn concentration of 18-22 mM), leading to a final enzyme activity assay method. A control strategy was ultimately implemented using system suitability tests.

  15. Three ESL Students Writing a Policy Paper Assignment: An Activity-Analytic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-01-01

    How university students write from sources has been an issue of long-standing interest among researchers of advanced academic literacy. Previous research in this regard in the context of L2 writing has tended to focus on novices' textual borrowing; less attention has been given to exploring the potential light that theories from other intellectual…

  16. An Analysis of Solar Global Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Zadig

    2013-02-01

    This article proposes a unified observational model of solar activity based on sunspot number and the solar global activity in the rotation of the structures, both per 11-year cycle. The rotation rates show a variation of a half-century period and the same period is also associated to the sunspot amplitude variation. The global solar rotation interweaves with the observed global organisation of solar activity. An important role for this assembly is played by the Grand Cycle formed by the merging of five sunspot cycles: a forgotten discovery by R. Wolf. On the basis of these elements, the nature of the Dalton Minimum, the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Grand Minima are presented.

  17. An Integrated Geovisual Analytics Framework for Analysis of Energy Consumption Data and Renewable Energy Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Kramer, Ian S; Kodysh, Jeffrey B; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Steed, Chad A; Karthik, Rajasekar; Nugent, Philip J; Myers, Aaron T

    2012-01-01

    We present an integrated geovisual analytics framework for utility consumers to interactively analyze and benchmark their energy consumption. The framework uses energy and property data already available with the utility companies and county governments respectively. The motivation for the developed framework is the need for citizens to go beyond the conventional utility bills in understanding the patterns in their energy consumption. There is also a need for citizens to go beyond one-time improvements that are often not monitored and measured over time. Some of the features of the framework include the ability for citizens to visualize their historical energy consumption data along with weather data in their location. The quantity of historical energy data available is significantly more than what is available from utility bills. An overlay of the weather data provides users with a visual correlation between weather patterns and their energy consumption patterns. Another feature of the framework is the ability for citizens to compare their consumption on an aggregated basis to that of their peers other citizens living in houses of similar size and age and within the same or different geographical boundaries, such as subdivision, zip code, or county. The users could also compare their consumption to others based on the size of their family and other attributes. This feature could help citizens determine if they are among the best in class . The framework can also be used by the utility companies to better understand their customers and to plan their services. To make the framework easily accessible, it is developed to be compatible with mobile consumer electronics devices.

  18. An Overview of Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics, the analysis and representation of data about learners in order to improve learning, is a new lens through which teachers can understand education. It is rooted in the dramatic increase in the quantity of data about learners and linked to management approaches that focus on quantitative metrics, which are sometimes antithetical…

  19. An analytical model for the performance analysis of concurrent transmission in IEEE 802.15.4.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-03-20

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions.

  20. An Analytical Model for the Performance Analysis of Concurrent Transmission in IEEE 802.15.4

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions. PMID:24658624

  1. Validation of an Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Take-off and Landing analysis (AGFATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation using a computer program for active gear, flexible aircraft take off and landing analysis (AGFATL) are compared with experimental data from shaker tests, drop tests, and simulated landing tests to validate the AGFATL computer program. Comparison of experimental and analytical responses for both passive and active gears indicates good agreement for shaker tests and drop tests. For the simulated landing tests, the passive and active gears were influenced by large strut binding friction forces. The inclusion of these undefined forces in the analytical simulations was difficult, and consequently only fair to good agreement was obtained. An assessment of the results from the investigation indicates that the AGFATL computer program is a valid tool for the study and initial design of series hydraulic active control landing gear systems.

  2. Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in oil-based foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ermacora, Alessia; Hrnčiřík, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Substantial progress has been recently made in the development and optimisation of analytical methods for the quantification of 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in oils and fats, and there are a few methods currently available that allow a reliable quantification of these contaminants in bulk oils and fats. On the other hand, no standard method for the analysis of foodstuffs has yet been established. The aim of this study was the development and validation of a new method for the simultaneous quantification of 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in oil-based food products. The developed protocol includes a first step of liquid-liquid extraction and purification of the lipophilic substances of the sample, followed by the application of a previously developed procedure based on acid transesterification, for the indirect quantification of these contaminants in oils and fats. The method validation was carried out on food products (fat-based spreads, creams, margarine, mayonnaise) manufactured in-house, in order to control the manufacturing process and account for any food matrix-analyte interactions (the sample spiking was carried out on the single components used for the formulations rather than the final products). The method showed good accuracy (the recoveries ranged from 97% to 106% for bound 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD and from 88% to 115% for bound glycidol) and sensitivity (the LOD was 0.04 and 0.05 mg kg(-1) for bound MCPD and glycidol, respectively). Repeatability and reproducibility were satisfactory (RSD below 2% and 5%, respectively) for all analytes. The levels of salts and surface-active compounds in the formulation were found to have no impact on the accuracy and the other parameters of the method.

  3. An integrated analytical aeropropulsive/aeroelastic model for the dynamic analysis of hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1992-01-01

    The development of an approach to the determination of the dynamic characteristics of hypersonic vehicles which is intentionally generic and basic is given. The approach involves a 2D hypersonic aerodynamic analysis utilizing Newtonian theory, coupled with a 1D aero/thermoanalysis of the flow in a scramjet-type propulsion system. In addition, the airframe is considered to be elastic, and the structural dynamics are characterized in terms of a simple lumped-mass model of the invacuo vibration modes. The vibration modes are coupled to the rigid-body modes through the aero/propulsive forces acting on the structure. The control effectors considered on a generic study configuration include aerodynamic pitch-control surfaces, as well as engine fuel flow and diffuser area ratio. The study configuration is shown to be highly statically unstable in pitch, and to exhibit strong airframe/engine/elastic coupling in the aeroelastic and attitude dynamics, as well as the engine responses.

  4. Hard Data Analytics Problems Make for Better Data Analysis Algorithms: Bioinformatics as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Paweł; Lazzarini, Nicola; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Data mining and knowledge discovery techniques have greatly progressed in the last decade. They are now able to handle larger and larger datasets, process heterogeneous information, integrate complex metadata, and extract and visualize new knowledge. Often these advances were driven by new challenges arising from real-world domains, with biology and biotechnology a prime source of diverse and hard (e.g., high volume, high throughput, high variety, and high noise) data analytics problems. The aim of this article is to show the broad spectrum of data mining tasks and challenges present in biological data, and how these challenges have driven us over the years to design new data mining and knowledge discovery procedures for biodata. This is illustrated with the help of two kinds of case studies. The first kind is focused on the field of protein structure prediction, where we have contributed in several areas: by designing, through regression, functions that can distinguish between good and bad models of a protein's predicted structure; by creating new measures to characterize aspects of a protein's structure associated with individual positions in a protein's sequence, measures containing information that might be useful for protein structure prediction; and by creating accurate estimators of these structural aspects. The second kind of case study is focused on omics data analytics, a class of biological data characterized for having extremely high dimensionalities. Our methods were able not only to generate very accurate classification models, but also to discover new biological knowledge that was later ratified by experimentalists. Finally, we describe several strategies to tightly integrate knowledge extraction and data mining in order to create a new class of biodata mining algorithms that can natively embrace the complexity of biological data, efficiently generate accurate information in the form of classification/regression models, and extract valuable

  5. Hard Data Analytics Problems Make for Better Data Analysis Algorithms: Bioinformatics as an Example.

    PubMed

    Bacardit, Jaume; Widera, Paweł; Lazzarini, Nicola; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2014-09-01

    Data mining and knowledge discovery techniques have greatly progressed in the last decade. They are now able to handle larger and larger datasets, process heterogeneous information, integrate complex metadata, and extract and visualize new knowledge. Often these advances were driven by new challenges arising from real-world domains, with biology and biotechnology a prime source of diverse and hard (e.g., high volume, high throughput, high variety, and high noise) data analytics problems. The aim of this article is to show the broad spectrum of data mining tasks and challenges present in biological data, and how these challenges have driven us over the years to design new data mining and knowledge discovery procedures for biodata. This is illustrated with the help of two kinds of case studies. The first kind is focused on the field of protein structure prediction, where we have contributed in several areas: by designing, through regression, functions that can distinguish between good and bad models of a protein's predicted structure; by creating new measures to characterize aspects of a protein's structure associated with individual positions in a protein's sequence, measures containing information that might be useful for protein structure prediction; and by creating accurate estimators of these structural aspects. The second kind of case study is focused on omics data analytics, a class of biological data characterized for having extremely high dimensionalities. Our methods were able not only to generate very accurate classification models, but also to discover new biological knowledge that was later ratified by experimentalists. Finally, we describe several strategies to tightly integrate knowledge extraction and data mining in order to create a new class of biodata mining algorithms that can natively embrace the complexity of biological data, efficiently generate accurate information in the form of classification/regression models, and extract valuable new

  6. An investigation on the analytical potential of polymerized liposomes bound to lanthanide ions for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marina; Roy, Bidhan C; Goicoechea, Héctor; Campiglia, Andres D; Mallik, Sanku

    2004-09-01

    We present a promising approach to protein sensing based on Eu3+ ions incorporated into polymerized liposomes. The sensitization of Eu3+ is accomplished with 5-aminosalicylic acid, which provides energy transfer for a stable reference signal and a wide wavelength excitation range free from protein interference. The lipophilic character of polymerized liposomes provides the appropriate platform for protein interaction with the lanthanide ion. Quantitative analysis is based on the linear relationship between the luminescence signal of Eu3+ and protein concentration. Because no spectral shift of the lanthanide luminescence is observed upon protein interaction, qualitative analysis is based on the luminescence lifetime of polymerized liposomes. This parameter, which changes significantly upon protein-liposome interaction, follows a well-behaved single-exponential decay that might be useful for protein identification. PMID:15327334

  7. ARPEFS as an analytic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    1991-04-01

    Two modifications to the ARPEFS technique are introduced. These are studied using p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) as a model system. The first modification is the obtaining of ARPEFS {chi}(k) curves at temperatures as low as our equipment will permit. While adding to the difficulty of the experiment, this modification is shown to almost double the signal-to-noise ratio of normal emission p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) {chi}(k) curves. This is shown by visual comparison of the raw data and by the improved precision of the extracted structural parameters. The second change is the replacement of manual fitting of the Fourier filtered {chi}(k) curves by the use of the simplex algorithm for parameter determination. Again using p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) data, this is shown to result in better agreement between experimental {chi}(k) curves and curves calculated based on model structures. The improved ARPEFS is then applied to p(2 {times} 2)S/Ni(111) and ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3) R30{degree}S/Ni(111). For p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) we find a S-Cu bond length of 2.26 {Angstrom}, with the S adatom 1.31 {Angstrom} above the fourfold hollow site. The second Cu layer appears to be corrugated. Analysis of the p(2 {times} 2)S/Ni(111) data indicates that the S adatom adatom adsorbs onto the FCC threefold hollow site 1.53 {Angstrom} above the Ni surface. The S-Ni bond length is determined to be 2.13 {Angstrom}, indicating an outwards shift of the first layer Ni atoms. We are unable to assign a unique structure to ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3)R30{degree}S/Ni(111). An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of ARPEFS as an experimental and analytic technique is presented, along with a summary of problems still to be addressed.

  8. Implementation of an analytical verification technique on three building energy-analysis codes: SUNCAT 2. 4, DOE 2. 1, and DEROB III

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, D.; O'Doherty, B.; Judkoff, R.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical verification technique for building energy analysis codes has been developed. For this technique, building models are developed that can be both solved analytically and modeled using the analysis codes. The output of the codes is then compared with the analytical solutions. In this way, the accuracy of selected mechanisms in the codes can be verified. The procedure consists of several tests and was run on SUNCAT 2.4, DOE 2.1, and DEROB III. The results are presented and analyzed.

  9. An analytical framework for the design and comparative analysis of galloping energy harvesters under quasi-steady aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibo, Amin; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a generalized formulation, analysis, and optimization of energy harvesters subjected to galloping and base excitations. The harvester consists of a cantilever beam with a bluff body attached at the free end. A nondimensional lumped-parameter model which accounts for the combined loading and different electro-mechanical transduction mechanisms is presented. The aerodynamic loading is modeled using the quasi-steady assumption with polynomial approximation. A nonlinear analysis is carried out and an approximate analytical solution is obtained. A dimensional analysis is performed to identify the important parameters that affect the system's response. The analysis of the response is divided into two parts. The first treats a harvester subjected to only galloping excitations. It is shown that, for a given shape of the bluff body and under quasi-steady flow conditions, the harvester's dimensionless response can be described by a single universal curve irrespective to the geometric, mechanical, and electrical design parameters of the harvester. In the second part, a harvester under concurrent galloping and base excitations is analyzed. It is shown that, the total output power depends on three dimensionless loading parameters; wind speed, base excitation amplitude, and excitation frequency. The response curves of the harvester are generated in terms of the loading parameters. These curves can serve as a complete design guide for scaling and optimizing the performance of galloping-based harvesters.

  10. REPK: an analytical web server to select restriction endonucleases for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Roy Eric; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2007-07-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a widespread technique for rapidly fingerprinting microbial communities. Users of T-RFLP frequently overlook the resolving power of well-chosen restriction endonucleases and often fail to report how they chose their enzymes. REPK (Restriction Endonuclease Picker) assists in the rational choice of restriction endonucleases for T-RFLP by finding sets of four restriction endonucleases that together uniquely differentiate user-designated sequence groups. With REPK, users can provide their own sequences (of any gene, not just 16S rRNA), specify the taxonomic rank of interest and choose from a number of filtering options to further narrow down the enzyme selection. Bug tracking is provided, and the source code is open and accessible under the GNU Public License v.2, at http://code.google.com/p/repk. The web server is available without access restrictions at http://rocaplab.ocean.washington.edu/tools/repk.

  11. Venous hemodynamics in neurological disorders: an analytical review with hydrodynamic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Venous abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of several neurological conditions. This paper reviews the literature regarding venous abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS), leukoaraiosis, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The review is supplemented with hydrodynamic analysis to assess the effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cerebral blood flow (CBF) of venous hypertension in general, and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in particular. CCSVI-like venous anomalies seem unlikely to account for reduced CBF in patients with MS, thus other mechanisms must be at work, which increase the hydraulic resistance of the cerebral vascular bed in MS. Similarly, hydrodynamic changes appear to be responsible for reduced CBF in leukoaraiosis. The hydrodynamic properties of the periventricular veins make these vessels particularly vulnerable to ischemia and plaque formation. Venous hypertension in the dural sinuses can alter intracranial compliance. Consequently, venous hypertension may change the CSF dynamics, affecting the intracranial windkessel mechanism. MS and NPH appear to share some similar characteristics, with both conditions exhibiting increased CSF pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius. CCSVI appears to be a real phenomenon associated with MS, which causes venous hypertension in the dural sinuses. However, the role of CCSVI in the pathophysiology of MS remains unclear. PMID:23724917

  12. An Autonomous Mobile Agent-Based Distributed Learning Architecture-A Proposal and Analytical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadiig, I. Ahmed M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The traditional learning paradigm involving face-to-face interaction with students is shifting to highly data-intensive electronic learning with the advances in Information and Communication Technology. An important component of the e-learning process is the delivery of the learning contents to their intended audience over a network. A distributed…

  13. Performance analysis for wireless networks: an analytical approach by multifarious Sym Teredo.

    PubMed

    Punithavathani, D Shalini; Radley, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    IPv4-IPv6 transition rolls out numerous challenges to the world of Internet as the Internet is drifting from IPv4 to IPv6. IETF recommends few transition techniques which includes dual stack and translation and tunneling. By means of tunneling the IPv6 packets over IPv4 UDP, Teredo maintains IPv4/IPv6 dual stack node in isolated IPv4 networks behindhand network address translation (NAT). However, the proposed tunneling protocol works with the symmetric and asymmetric NATs. In order to make a Teredo support several symmetric NATs along with several asymmetric NATs, we propose multifarious Sym Teredo (MTS), which is an extension of Teredo with a capability of navigating through several symmetric NATs. The work preserves the Teredo architecture and also offers a backward compatibility with the original Teredo protocol.

  14. Performance Analysis for Wireless Networks: An Analytical Approach by Multifarious Sym Teredo

    PubMed Central

    Punithavathani, D. Shalini; Radley, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    IPv4-IPv6 transition rolls out numerous challenges to the world of Internet as the Internet is drifting from IPv4 to IPv6. IETF recommends few transition techniques which includes dual stack and translation and tunneling. By means of tunneling the IPv6 packets over IPv4 UDP, Teredo maintains IPv4/IPv6 dual stack node in isolated IPv4 networks behindhand network address translation (NAT). However, the proposed tunneling protocol works with the symmetric and asymmetric NATs. In order to make a Teredo support several symmetric NATs along with several asymmetric NATs, we propose multifarious Sym Teredo (MTS), which is an extension of Teredo with a capability of navigating through several symmetric NATs. The work preserves the Teredo architecture and also offers a backward compatibility with the original Teredo protocol. PMID:25506611

  15. Performance analysis for wireless networks: an analytical approach by multifarious Sym Teredo.

    PubMed

    Punithavathani, D Shalini; Radley, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    IPv4-IPv6 transition rolls out numerous challenges to the world of Internet as the Internet is drifting from IPv4 to IPv6. IETF recommends few transition techniques which includes dual stack and translation and tunneling. By means of tunneling the IPv6 packets over IPv4 UDP, Teredo maintains IPv4/IPv6 dual stack node in isolated IPv4 networks behindhand network address translation (NAT). However, the proposed tunneling protocol works with the symmetric and asymmetric NATs. In order to make a Teredo support several symmetric NATs along with several asymmetric NATs, we propose multifarious Sym Teredo (MTS), which is an extension of Teredo with a capability of navigating through several symmetric NATs. The work preserves the Teredo architecture and also offers a backward compatibility with the original Teredo protocol. PMID:25506611

  16. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2015-06-11

    Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman's assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone's integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans's assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.). It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results' relevance.

  17. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay

    PubMed Central

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman’s assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone’s integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans’s assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.). It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results’ relevance. PMID:26110404

  18. Analysis of System-Wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhadra, Dipasis; Morser, Frederick R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors review the FAA s current program investments and lay out a preliminary analytical framework to undertake projects that may address some of the noted deficiencies. By drawing upon the well developed theories from corporate finance, an analytical framework is offered that can be used for choosing FAA s investments taking into account risk, expected returns and inherent dependencies across NAS programs. The framework can be expanded into taking multiple assets and realistic values for parameters in drawing an efficient risk-return frontier for the entire FAA investment programs.

  19. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  20. Analytical modeling for vibration analysis of thin rectangular orthotropic/functionally graded plates with an internal crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. V.; Jain, N. K.; Ramtekkar, G. D.

    2015-05-01

    An analytical model is presented for vibration analysis of a thin orthotropic and general functionally graded rectangular plate containing an internal crack located at the center. The continuous line crack is parallel to one of the edges of the plate. The equation of motion of the orthotropic plate is derived using the equilibrium principle. The crack terms are formulated using Line Spring Model. The effect of location of crack along the thickness of the plate on natural frequencies is analyzed using appropriate crack compliance coefficients in the Line Spring Model. By using the Berger formulation for in-plane forces, the derived equation of motion of the cracked plate is transformed into a cubic nonlinear system. Applying the Galerkin's method, the equation is converted into well known Duffing equation. The peak amplitude is obtained by employing Multiple Scales perturbation method. The effect of nonlinearity is also established by deriving frequency response equation for the cracked plate using method of multiple scales. The influence of crack length, boundary conditions and crack location along the thickness, on the natural frequencies of a square and rectangular plate is demonstrated. It is found that the vibration characteristics are affected by the length and location of crack along the thickness of the plate. It is thus deduced that the natural frequencies are minimum when crack is internal and its depth is symmetric about the mid-plane of the plate for all the three boundary conditions considered. Further, it is concluded that the presence of crack across the fibers decreases the frequency more as compared to crack along the fibers. The Effect of varying elasticity ratio on the fundamental frequencies of the cracked plate is also established.

  1. An analytical comparison of the information in sorted and non-sorted cosine-tuned spike activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, D. S.; Tiesinga, P. H. E.; Henriquez, C. S.; Wolf, P. D.

    2007-09-01

    Spike sorting is a technologically expensive component of the signal processing chain required to interpret population spike activity acquired in a neuromotor prosthesis. No systematic analysis of the value of spike sorting has been carried out, and little is known about the effects of spike sorting error on the ability of a brain-machine interface (BMI) to decode intended motor commands. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the effects of spike processing on the information available to a BMI decoder. We computed the mutual information in neural activity in a simplified model of directional cosine tuning to compare the effects of pooling activity from up to four neurons to the effects of sorting with varying amounts of spike error. The results showed that information in a small population of cosine-tuned neurons is maximized when the responses are sorted and there is diverse tuning of units, but information was affected little when pooling units with similar preferred directions. Spike error had adverse effects on information, such that non-sorted population activity had 79-92% of the information in its sorted counterpart for reasonable amounts of detection and sorting error and for units with moderate differences in preferred direction. This quantification of information loss associated with pooling units and with spike detection and sorting error will help to guide the engineering decisions in designing a BMI spike processing system.

  2. Analytical signal analysis of strange nonchaotic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kopal; Prasad, Awadhesh; Singh, Harinder P; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    2008-04-01

    We apply an analytical signal analysis to strange nonchaotic dynamics. Through this technique it is possible to obtain the spectrum of instantaneous intrinsic mode frequencies that are present in a given signal. We find that the second-mode frequency and its variance are good order parameters for dynamical transitions from quasiperiodic tori to strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs) and from SNAs to chaotic attractors. Phase fluctuation analysis shows that SNAs and chaotic attractors behave identically within short time windows as a consequence of local instabilities in the dynamics. In longer time windows, however, the globally stable character of SNAs becomes apparent. This methodology can be of great utility in the analysis of experimental time series, and representative applications are made to signals obtained from Rössler and Duffing oscillators. PMID:18517723

  3. Multivariate optimization of an analytical method for the analysis of dog and cat foods by ICP OES.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Silvânio Silvério Lopes; Pereira, Ana Cristina Lima; Passos, Elisangela Andrade; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2013-04-15

    Experimental design methodology was used to optimize an analytical method for determination of the mineral element composition (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ba, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, Sr and Zn) of dog and cat foods. Two-level full factorial design was applied to define the optimal proportions of the reagents used for microwave-assisted sample digestion (2.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 and 6% m/v H2O2). A three-level factorial design for two variables was used to optimize the operational conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, employed for analysis of the extracts. A radiofrequency power of 1.2 kW and a nebulizer argon flow of 1.0 L min(-1) were selected. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.03 μg g(-1) (Cr, 267.716 nm) and 87 μg g(-1) (Ca, 373.690 nm). The trueness of the optimized method was evaluated by analysis of five certified reference materials (CRMs): wheat flour (NIST 1567a), bovine liver (NIST 1577), peach leaves (NIST 1547), oyster tissue (NIST 1566b), and fish protein (DORM-3). The recovery values obtained for the CRMs were between 80 ± 4% (Cr) and 117 ± 5% (Cd), with relative standard deviations (RSDs) better than 5%, demonstrating that the proposed method offered good trueness and precision. Ten samples of pet food (five each of cat and dog food) were acquired at supermarkets in Aracaju city (Sergipe State, Brazil). Concentrations in the dog food ranged between 7.1 mg kg(-1) (Ba) and 2.7 g kg(-1) (Ca), while for cat food the values were between 3.7 mg kg(-1) (Ba) and 3.0 g kg(-1) (Ca). The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the food were compared with the guidelines of the United States' Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento-MAPA).

  4. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  5. Faculty Workload: An Analytical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussions of practices in higher education have tended toward muck-raking and self-styled exposure of cynical self-indulgence by faculty and administrators at the expense of students and their families, as usually occurs during periods of economic duress, rather than toward analytical studies designed to foster understanding This article…

  6. An analytical platform for mass spectrometry-based identification and chemical analysis of RNA in ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Masato; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Nobe, Yuko; Masaki, Shunpei; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2009-11-01

    We describe here a mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical platform of RNA, which combines direct nano-flow reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) on a spray tip column and a high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Operating RPLC under a very low flow rate with volatile solvents and MS in the negative mode, we could estimate highly accurate mass values sufficient to predict the nucleotide composition of a approximately 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA, detect post-transcriptional modifications in yeast tRNA, and perform collision-induced dissociation/tandem MS-based structural analysis of nucleolytic fragments of RNA at a sub-femtomole level. Importantly, the method allowed the identification and chemical analysis of small RNAs in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, such as the pre-spliceosomal RNP complex, which was pulled down from cultured cells with a tagged protein cofactor as bait. We have recently developed a unique genome-oriented database search engine, Ariadne, which allows tandem MS-based identification of RNAs in biological samples. Thus, the method presented here has broad potential for automated analysis of RNA; it complements conventional molecular biology-based techniques and is particularly suited for simultaneous analysis of the composition, structure, interaction, and dynamics of RNA and protein components in various cellular RNP complexes.

  7. An analytical platform for mass spectrometry-based identification and chemical analysis of RNA in ribonucleoprotein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Taoka, Masato; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Nobe, Yuko; Masaki, Shunpei; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical platform of RNA, which combines direct nano-flow reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) on a spray tip column and a high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Operating RPLC under a very low flow rate with volatile solvents and MS in the negative mode, we could estimate highly accurate mass values sufficient to predict the nucleotide composition of a ∼21-nucleotide small interfering RNA, detect post-transcriptional modifications in yeast tRNA, and perform collision-induced dissociation/tandem MS-based structural analysis of nucleolytic fragments of RNA at a sub-femtomole level. Importantly, the method allowed the identification and chemical analysis of small RNAs in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, such as the pre-spliceosomal RNP complex, which was pulled down from cultured cells with a tagged protein cofactor as bait. We have recently developed a unique genome-oriented database search engine, Ariadne, which allows tandem MS-based identification of RNAs in biological samples. Thus, the method presented here has broad potential for automated analysis of RNA; it complements conventional molecular biology-based techniques and is particularly suited for simultaneous analysis of the composition, structure, interaction, and dynamics of RNA and protein components in various cellular RNP complexes. PMID:19740761

  8. Phenol Analysis -- Some Analytical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, R. J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Contamination of potable water supplies with halogenated phenols in concentrations of 2-10 parts per billion (ppb) produces objectionable tastes and odors capable of influencing consumer acceptability. Routine analysis by the distillation/ 4-aminoantipyrine method is limited by lack of sensitivity and subject to interference by aryl amines. This has been overcome by developing a continuous liquid-liquid extraction system to selectively isolate phenols and eliminate major interfering substances. Stable reagents have been formulated to reduce blank color and extend sensitivity. Equipment suitable for analysis of phenols at the 1 ppb level or less in 20 minutes is described.

  9. Analytic solutions of an unclassified artifact /

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, Bruce C.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides the technical detail for analytic solutions for the inner and outer profiles of the unclassified CMM Test Artifact (LANL Part Number 157Y-700373, 5/03/2001) in terms of radius and polar angle. Furthermore, analytic solutions are derived for the legacy Sheffield measurement hardware, also in terms of radius and polar angle, using part coordinates, i.e., relative to the analytic profile solutions obtained. The purpose of this work is to determine the exact solution for the “cosine correction” term inherent to measurement with the Sheffield hardware. The cosine correction is required in order to interpret the actual measurements taken by the hardware in terms of an actual part definition, or “knot-point spline definition,” that typically accompanies a component drawing. Specifically, there are two portions of the problem: first an analytic solution must be obtained for any point on the part, e.g., given the radii and the straight lines that define the part, it is required to find an exact solution for the inner and outer profile for any arbitrary polar angle. Next, the problem of the inspection of this part must be solved, i.e., given an arbitrary sphere (representing the inspection hardware) that comes in contact with the part (inner and outer profiles) at any arbitrary polar angle, it is required to determine the exact location of that intersection. This is trivial for the case of concentric circles. In the present case, however, the spherical portion of the profiles is offset from the defined center of the part, making the analysis nontrivial. Here, a simultaneous solution of the part profiles and the sphere was obtained.

  10. Analytical study of acoustically perturbed Brillouin active magnetized semiconductor plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Arun; Jat, K. L.

    2015-07-31

    An analytical study of acoustically perturbed Brillouin active magnetized semiconductor plasma has been reported. In the present analytical investigation, the lattice displacement, acousto-optical polarization, susceptibility, acousto-optical gain constant arising due to the induced nonlinear current density and acousto-optical process are deduced in an acoustically perturbed Brillouin active magnetized semiconductor plasma using the hydrodynamical model of plasma and coupled mode scheme. The influence of wave number and magnetic field has been explored. The analysis has been applied to centrosymmetric crystal. Numerical estimates are made for n-type InSb crystal duly irradiated by a frequency doubled 10.6 µm CO{sub 2} laser. It is found that lattice displacement, susceptibility and acousto-optical gain increase linearly with incident wave number and applied dc magnetic field, while decrease with scattering angle. The gain also increases with electric amplitude of incident laser beam. Results are found to be well in agreement with available literature.

  11. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank; Dews, Peter B.; Estes, William K.; Morse, William H.; Van Orman, Willard; Herrnstein, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance. PMID:22478169

  12. An Analysis of a Subject Department in an English Secondary School Using the Collaborative Practice Analytical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Christopher; Goodhew, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the outcomes of research into the nature of and influences on collective working in an English secondary school. A design and technology department was studied over a 13-month period. Data collection was by interviews, observations and document scrutiny. The findings were analysed using collaborative practice (CP) analytical…

  13. An analytical theory of corona discharge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper we describe an analytical investigation of corona discharge systems. Electrical charge and the energy transfer mechanism are investigated based on the circuit analysis. Efficient delivery of electrical energy from the external circuit to the reactor chamber is a major issue in design studies. The optimum condition obtained in this paper ensures 100{percent} energy transfer. Second-order coupled differential equations are numerically solved. All the analytical results agree remarkably well with numerical data. The reactor capacitor plays a pivotal role in circuit performance. The voltage profile is dominated by the reactor capacitor. Corona discharge properties in the reactor chamber are also investigated, assuming that a specified voltage profile V(t) is fed through the inner conductor. The analytical description is based on the electron moment equation. Defining the plasma breakdown parameter u=V/R{sub c}p, plasma is generated for a high-voltage pulse satisfying u{gt}u{sub c}, where u{sub c} is the critical breakdown parameter defined by geometrical configuration. Here, u is in units of a million volts per m per atm, and R{sub c} is the outer conductor radius. It is found that the plasma density profile generated inside the reactor chamber depends very sensitively on the system parameters. A small change of a physical parameter can easily lead to a density change in one order of magnitude.

  14. Active controls: A look at analytical methods and associated tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Mukhopadhyay, V.; Tiffany, S. H.; Abel, I.

    1984-01-01

    A review of analytical methods and associated tools for active controls analysis and design problems is presented. Approaches employed to develop mathematical models suitable for control system analysis and/or design are discussed. Significant efforts have been expended to develop tools to generate the models from the standpoint of control system designers' needs and develop the tools necessary to analyze and design active control systems. Representative examples of these tools are discussed. Examples where results from the methods and tools have been compared with experimental data are also presented. Finally, a perspective on future trends in analysis and design methods is presented.

  15. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  16. Mothers impose physical activity restrictions on their asthmatic children and adolescents: an analytical cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activities are important for children and adolescents, especially asthmatics. A significant proportion is considered less active than their non-asthmatic peers and mother’s beliefs about asthma are thought to be a determinant factor. The research objectives were to investigate whether mothers try to impose limitations on the physical activity (PA) of their asthmatic children/adolescents; identify associated factors; and explore if this attitude has any impact on children’s PA levels. Methods In this cross sectional investigation, we studied 115 asthmatics aged between 9 and 19 years and their mothers. Asthma severity, PA level and exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) were evaluated. Mothers were questioned on their beliefs about physical activity in non-asthmatic and asthmatic children, if they imposed restrictions on their children’s physical activity, on EIB perception and personal levels of anxiety and depression. Results Ninety six percent of the mothers answered that PA are important for children and adolescents. Despite this, 37% of them admitted imposing restrictions to their children’s PA. This attitude was associated with mother’s negative opinions about asthmatics doing PA, perception of children’s dyspnea after running on a treadmill, mother’s anxiety level and children’s asthma severity. The mother’s restrictive attitudes were not associated with children’s lower PA levels. Conclusion A high proportion of the mothers said that they restrained their asthmatic children from engaging in physical activity. This fact should be recognized by health professionals and discussed with parents and caregivers as these negative beliefs may lead to conflicts and prejudiced attitudes that could discourage children’s involvement in physical activities and sports. PMID:24673939

  17. Active Learning Strategies in the Analytical Chemistry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael R.; Fulton, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an analytical chemistry course restructured around the use of cooperative groups to help students become active learners in a non-competitive environment. Five years of experience with the course indicates that the syllabus covers almost exactly the same content as old courses and that test scores compare favorably on the national level.…

  18. Guided Text Analysis Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Symons, Christopher T; DeNap, Frank A; Potok, Thomas E; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi-supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insight in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source publications related to national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term- frequency views, and multiple coordinated views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the Department of Homeland Securitys Fusion Centers, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  19. Guided text analysis using adaptive visual analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, Chad A.; Symons, Christopher T.; DeNap, Frank A.; Potok, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi-supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insight in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system-called Gryffin-that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source publications related to national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinated views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the Department of Homeland Security's Fusion Centers, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  20. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  1. Design and analysis of an intelligent controller for active geometry suspension systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Oloomi, Ehsan; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-02-01

    An active geometry suspension (AGS) system is a device to optimise suspension-related factors such as toe angle and roll centre height by controlling vehicle's suspension geometry. The suspension geometry could be changed through control of suspension mounting point's position. In this paper, analysis and control of an AGS system is addressed. First, the effects of suspension geometry change on roll centre height and toe angle are studied. Then, based on an analytical approach, the improvement of the vehicle's stability and handling due to the control of suspension geometry is investigated. In the next section, an eight-degree-of-freedom handling model of a sport utility vehicle equipped with an AGS system is introduced. Finally, a self-tuning proportional-integral controller has been designed, using the fuzzy control theory, to control the actuator that changes the geometry of the suspension system. The simulation results show that an AGS system can improve the handling and stability of the vehicle.

  2. Joint Analysis of X-Ray and Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Observations of Galaxy Clusters Using an Analytic Model of the Intracluster Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Nicole; Bulbul, Esra; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Gralla, Megan; Greer, Christopher; Lamb, James W.; Hawkins, David; Hennessy, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Landry, David; Leitch, Erik M.; Mantz, Adam; Marrone, Daniel P.; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony; Muchovej, Stephen; Plagge, Thomas; Pryke, Clem; Woody, David

    2012-01-01

    We perform a joint analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect data using an analytic model that describes the gas properties of galaxy clusters. The joint analysis allows the measurement of the cluster gas mass fraction profile and Hubble constant independent of cosmological parameters. Weak cosmological priors are used to calculate the overdensity radius within which the gas mass fractions are reported. Such an analysis can provide direct constraints on the evolution of the cluster gas mass fraction with redshift. We validate the model and the joint analysis on high signal-to-noise data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array for two clusters, A2631 and A2204.

  3. Development and optimization of an analytical system for volatile organic compound analysis coming from the heating of interstellar/cometary ice analogues.

    PubMed

    Abou Mrad, Ninette; Duvernay, Fabrice; Theulé, Patrice; Chiavassa, Thierry; Danger, Grégoire

    2014-08-19

    This contribution presents an original analytical system for studying volatile organic compounds (VOC) coming from the heating and/or irradiation of interstellar/cometary ice analogues (VAHIIA system) through laboratory experiments. The VAHIIA system brings solutions to three analytical constraints regarding chromatography analysis: the low desorption kinetics of VOC (many hours) in the vacuum chamber during laboratory experiments, the low pressure under which they sublime (10(-9) mbar), and the presence of water in ice analogues. The VAHIIA system which we developed, calibrated, and optimized is composed of two units. The first is a preconcentration unit providing the VOC recovery. This unit is based on a cryogenic trapping which allows VOC preconcentration and provides an adequate pressure allowing their subsequent transfer to an injection unit. The latter is a gaseous injection unit allowing the direct injection into the GC-MS of the VOC previously transferred from the preconcentration unit. The feasibility of the online transfer through this interface is demonstrated. Nanomoles of VOC can be detected with the VAHIIA system, and the variability in replicate measurements is lower than 13%. The advantages of the GC-MS in comparison to infrared spectroscopy are pointed out, the GC-MS allowing an unambiguous identification of compounds coming from complex mixtures. Beyond the application to astrophysical subjects, these analytical developments can be used for all systems requiring vacuum/cryogenic environments.

  4. Development and optimization of an analytical system for volatile organic compound analysis coming from the heating of interstellar/cometary ice analogues.

    PubMed

    Abou Mrad, Ninette; Duvernay, Fabrice; Theulé, Patrice; Chiavassa, Thierry; Danger, Grégoire

    2014-08-19

    This contribution presents an original analytical system for studying volatile organic compounds (VOC) coming from the heating and/or irradiation of interstellar/cometary ice analogues (VAHIIA system) through laboratory experiments. The VAHIIA system brings solutions to three analytical constraints regarding chromatography analysis: the low desorption kinetics of VOC (many hours) in the vacuum chamber during laboratory experiments, the low pressure under which they sublime (10(-9) mbar), and the presence of water in ice analogues. The VAHIIA system which we developed, calibrated, and optimized is composed of two units. The first is a preconcentration unit providing the VOC recovery. This unit is based on a cryogenic trapping which allows VOC preconcentration and provides an adequate pressure allowing their subsequent transfer to an injection unit. The latter is a gaseous injection unit allowing the direct injection into the GC-MS of the VOC previously transferred from the preconcentration unit. The feasibility of the online transfer through this interface is demonstrated. Nanomoles of VOC can be detected with the VAHIIA system, and the variability in replicate measurements is lower than 13%. The advantages of the GC-MS in comparison to infrared spectroscopy are pointed out, the GC-MS allowing an unambiguous identification of compounds coming from complex mixtures. Beyond the application to astrophysical subjects, these analytical developments can be used for all systems requiring vacuum/cryogenic environments. PMID:25025518

  5. Production Workers' Literacy and Numeracy Practices: Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) as an Analytical Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasukawa, Keiko; Brown, Tony; Black, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Public policy discourses claim that there is a "crisis" in the literacy and numeracy levels of the Australian workforce. In this paper, we propose a methodology for examining this "crisis" from a critical perspective. We draw on findings from an ongoing research project by the authors which investigates production workers'…

  6. An analytical approach to thermal modeling of Bridgman type crystal growth: One dimensional analysis. Computer program users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cothran, E. K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer program written in support of one dimensional analytical approach to thermal modeling of Bridgman type crystal growth is presented. The program listing and flow charts are included, along with the complete thermal model. Sample problems include detailed comments on input and output to aid the first time user.

  7. Typology of Analytical Errors in Qualitative Educational Research: An Analysis of the 2003-2007 Education Science Dissertations in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Engin

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the level of quality of the qualitative research design used and the analytic mistakes made in the doctorate dissertations carried out in the field of education science in Turkey have been tried to be identified. Case study design has been applied in the study in which qualitative research techniques have been used. The universe…

  8. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  9. Green analytical method development for statin analysis.

    PubMed

    Assassi, Amira Louiza; Roy, Claude-Eric; Perovitch, Philippe; Auzerie, Jack; Hamon, Tiphaine; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Green analytical chemistry method was developed for pravastatin, fluvastatin and atorvastatin analysis. HPLC/DAD method using ethanol-based mobile phase with octadecyl-grafted silica with various grafting and related-column parameters such as particle sizes, core-shell and monolith was studied. Retention, efficiency and detector linearity were optimized. Even for column with particle size under 2 μm, the benefit of keeping efficiency within a large range of flow rate was not obtained with ethanol based mobile phase compared to acetonitrile one. Therefore the strategy to shorten analysis by increasing the flow rate induced decrease of efficiency with ethanol based mobile phase. An ODS-AQ YMC column, 50 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm was selected which showed the best compromise between analysis time, statin separation, and efficiency. HPLC conditions were at 1 mL/min, ethanol/formic acid (pH 2.5, 25 mM) (50:50, v/v) and thermostated at 40°C. To reduce solvent consumption for sample preparation, 0.5mg/mL concentration of each statin was found the highest which respected detector linearity. These conditions were validated for each statin for content determination in high concentrated hydro-alcoholic solutions. Solubility higher than 100mg/mL was found for pravastatin and fluvastatin, whereas for atorvastatin calcium salt the maximum concentration was 2mg/mL for hydro-alcoholic binary mixtures between 35% and 55% of ethanol in water. Using atorvastatin instead of its calcium salt, solubility was improved. Highly concentrated solution of statins offered potential fluid for per Buccal Per-Mucous(®) administration with the advantages of rapid and easy passage of drugs. PMID:25582487

  10. Detailed analysis of the promoter activity of an attenuated lentivirus.

    PubMed

    Blatti-Cardinaux, Laure; Sanjosé, Leticia; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Zanoni, Reto; Reina, Ramses; Bertoni, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    In spite of an eradication campaign that eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-induced arthritis in the Swiss goat population, seroconversions are still observed. In the affected flocks, viruses belonging mainly to the small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype are regularly isolated. These viruses are considered attenuated, except in the mammary gland, where high viral loads and histopathological lesions have been observed. We previously characterized and sequenced such field isolates, detecting several potentially attenuating mutations in their LTR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the promoter activity of these genetic elements, which was comparable to those of virulent isolates. An AP-1 binding site was shown to be crucial for promoter activity in reporter gene assays and also in the context of a replicating molecular clone. Other sites, such as AML(vis) and a conserved E-box, appeared to be less crucial. Analysis of a unique AP-4 site showed a clear discrepancy between results obtained with reporter gene assays and those with mutated viruses. Within the limits of this in vitro study, we did not find evidence pointing to the LTR as the genetic correlate of attenuation for these viruses. Finally, the limited replication of SRLV A4 in mammary cell culture could not explain the suggested mammary tropism. In contrast, and in view of the abundance of macrophages in the mammary gland, it is the striking replication capacity of SRLV A4 in these cells, unaffected by all LTR mutations tested, which may explain the apparent mammary tropism of these viruses.

  11. Detailed analysis of the promoter activity of an attenuated lentivirus.

    PubMed

    Blatti-Cardinaux, Laure; Sanjosé, Leticia; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Zanoni, Reto; Reina, Ramses; Bertoni, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    In spite of an eradication campaign that eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-induced arthritis in the Swiss goat population, seroconversions are still observed. In the affected flocks, viruses belonging mainly to the small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype are regularly isolated. These viruses are considered attenuated, except in the mammary gland, where high viral loads and histopathological lesions have been observed. We previously characterized and sequenced such field isolates, detecting several potentially attenuating mutations in their LTR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the promoter activity of these genetic elements, which was comparable to those of virulent isolates. An AP-1 binding site was shown to be crucial for promoter activity in reporter gene assays and also in the context of a replicating molecular clone. Other sites, such as AML(vis) and a conserved E-box, appeared to be less crucial. Analysis of a unique AP-4 site showed a clear discrepancy between results obtained with reporter gene assays and those with mutated viruses. Within the limits of this in vitro study, we did not find evidence pointing to the LTR as the genetic correlate of attenuation for these viruses. Finally, the limited replication of SRLV A4 in mammary cell culture could not explain the suggested mammary tropism. In contrast, and in view of the abundance of macrophages in the mammary gland, it is the striking replication capacity of SRLV A4 in these cells, unaffected by all LTR mutations tested, which may explain the apparent mammary tropism of these viruses. PMID:27114068

  12. Analytical Hopf Bifurcation and Stability Analysis of T System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, A. Van Gorder; Roy Choudhury, S.

    2011-04-01

    Complex dynamics are studied in the T system, a three-dimensional autonomous nonlinear system. In particular, we perform an extended Hopf bifurcation analysis of the system. The periodic orbit immediately following the Hopf bifurcation is constructed analytically for the T system using the method of multiple scales, and the stability of such orbits is analyzed. Such analytical results complement the numerical results present in the literature. The analytical results in the post-bifurcation regime are verified and extended via numerical simulations, as well as by the use of standard power spectra, autocorrelation functions, and fractal dimensions diagnostics. We find that the T system exhibits interesting behaviors in many parameter regimes.

  13. Analytical techniques and instrumentation: A compilation. [analytical instrumentation, materials performance, and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical information is presented covering the areas of: (1) analytical instrumentation useful in the analysis of physical phenomena; (2) analytical techniques used to determine the performance of materials; and (3) systems and component analyses for design and quality control.

  14. Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Groundwater Reveals an Active Anammox Bacterial Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Thomas, B. C.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.; Beller, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is a major natural resource, yet little is known about the contribution of microbial anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity to subsurface nitrogen cycling. During anammox, energy is generated as ammonium is oxidized under anaerobic conditions to dinitrogen gas, using nitrite as the final electron acceptor. This process is a global sink for fixed nitrogen. Only a narrow range of monophyletic bacteria within the Planctomycetes carries out anammox, and the full extent of their metabolism, and subsequent impact on nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, is still unknown. Here, we employ a metatranscriptomic analysis on enriched mRNA to identify the abundance and activity of a population of anammox bacteria within an aquifer at Rifle, CO. Planktonic biomass was collected over a two-month period after injection of up to 1.5 mM nitrate. Illumina-generated sequences were mapped to a phylogenetically binned Rifle metagenome database. We identified transcripts for genes with high protein sequence identities (81-98%) to those of anammox strain KSU-1 and to two of the five anammox bacteria genera, Brocadia and Kuenenia, suggesting an active, if not diverse, anammox population. Many of the most abundant anammox transcripts mapped to a single scaffold, indicative of a single dominant anammox species. Transcripts of the genes necessary for the anammox pathway were present, including an ammonium transporter (amtB), nitrite/formate transporter, nitrite reductase (nirK), and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzoB). The form of nitrite reductase encoded by anammox is species-dependent, and we only identified nirK, with no evidence of anammox nirS. In addition to the anammox pathway we saw evidence of the anammox bacterial dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium pathway (narH, putative nrfA, and nrfB), which provides an alternate means of generating substrates for anammox from nitrate, rather than relying on an external pool. Transcripts for hydroxylamine

  15. Making Sense of Total VET Activity: An Initial Market Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    Following the successful first national publication of total vocational education and training (VET) activity and presentation of various informative data products, NCVER has continued to undertake further analysis of the submitted data. This paper is the first in a suite of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) authored…

  16. Concurrent Validity For an Activity Vector Analysis Index of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing 182 subjects, this study determined the concurrent validity between the Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) index of anxiety and scores on the IPAT Anxiety Scale. The IPAT and the AVA index of anxiety seem essentially to measure the same construct of basic anxiety. (Author/PN)

  17. Meta-Analytically Informed Network Analysis of Resting State fMRI Reveals Hyperconnectivity in an Introspective Socio-Affective Network in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schilbach, Leonhard; Müller, Veronika I.; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Clos, Mareike; Goya-Maldonado, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of social cognition and dysfunctional interpersonal expectations are thought to play an important role in the etiology of depression and have, thus, become a key target of psychotherapeutic interventions. The underlying neurobiology, however, remains elusive. Based upon the idea of a close link between affective and introspective processes relevant for social interactions and alterations thereof in states of depression, we used a meta-analytically informed network analysis to investigate resting-state functional connectivity in an introspective socio-affective (ISA) network in individuals with and without depression. Results of our analysis demonstrate significant differences between the groups with depressed individuals showing hyperconnectivity of the ISA network. These findings demonstrate that neurofunctional alterations exist in individuals with depression in a neural network relevant for introspection and socio-affective processing, which may contribute to the interpersonal difficulties that are linked to depressive symptomatology. PMID:24759619

  18. Analytical heat transfer of a porous media: An analysis of the thermal characteristics of synthetic lightweight aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellickson, Timothy H.

    The thermal insulative properties of a sustainable concrete-based aggregate infused with recycling waste plus fly-ash are investigated to define the effective thermal conductivity based upon optimal volume ratio of the constituent materials. The complex structures were characterized with the use of metallographic sectioning and image processing by exploiting the information given by the gradient of the color held within the image. Next, a tri-skeleton mesh was mapped over the image and a finite element analysis was conducted. The output of the finite element analysis was the temperature contour and an integrated flux over each surface from which the effective thermal conductivity of the material could be calculated via Fourier's Law. The development of a new methodology that evaluates the effective thermal conductivity for a conductivity ratio of less than 10 and a volume density of 0.60 was developed based upon the material properties, the microscopic geometry and a non-interaction approximation. Lastly, the results of the thermal test were used validate the finite element program.

  19. An analytical system for single nanomaterials: combination of capillary electrophoresis with Raman spectroscopy or with scanning probe microscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotube analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Murakami, Yoichi; Motoyanagi, Jin; Fukushima, Takanori; Maruyama, Shigeo; Kato, Masaru

    2009-09-01

    Nanomaterials continue to attract widespread attention in many scientific and technological fields. The sizes and shapes of nanomaterials determine their physical and chemical properties. We have developed an analytical system for single nanomaterials that combines capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a highly sensitive detection method. In this manuscript, we combined CE with Raman spectroscopy or with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for the analysis of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). To combine CE with these detection techniques, we fabricated a fraction collection system that can collect droplets of small volume (<300 nL) in a small hydrophilic spot on a fractionation glass plate. The CE-separated fractions were concentrated by the evaporation of effluent, thus increasing the sensitivity by more than a factor of 10 in the case of Raman spectroscopic analysis. We characterized the fractionated SWNTs by means of Raman spectroscopy and SPM, both of which detected single SWNTs. Raman analysis enabled us to recognize a diameter difference of only 0.02 nm between SWNTs, and it was supposed that the separation by CE occurred based on the diameters of the SWNTs. We also observed a fibrous SWNT structure 1 nm high via SPM, and this structure was thought to be a single SWNT. These combined analytical systems enable the precise separation and characterization of individual SWNTs. We expect that methods developed herein can be applied to the analysis of many nanomaterials, because these methods offer separation and analysis with nanometer-scale precision. The characterization of nanomaterials at the single-compound level will be a necessity as the field of nanomaterials continues to evolve, and these combined methods may become indispensable techniques for the analysis of widely available nanomaterials.

  20. An Approach for the Analysis of Regulatory Analytes in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.; Miller, M.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1999-01-04

    Radiation levels, salt concentration, and the oxidizing nature of the waste dictates modifications to the SW-846 methods. Modified methods will be used to meet target EQLs and QC currently in SW-846. Method modifications will be validated per SW-846 and HASQARD and will be documented consistent with WAC 173-303-910. The affect of modifications to holding times and storage conditions will be evaluated using techniques developed by Maskarinec and Bayne (1996). After validating the methods and performing the holding time study on a minimum of two Phase 1 candidate feed source tank wastes, DOE and Ecology will assess: whether different methods are needed, whether holding time/storage conditions should be altered, whether the high priority analyte list should be refined, and which additional tank waste needs to be characterized.

  1. PDAs as Lifelong Learning Tools: An Activity Theory Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waycott, Jenny; Jones, Ann; Scanlon, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an activity theory (AT) framework to analyze the ways that distance part time learners and mobile workers adapted and appropriated mobile devices for their activities and in turn how their use of these new tools changed the ways that they carried out their learning or their work. It is argued that there are two key…

  2. Adult Active Transport in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Its Contribution to Physical Activity Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Elliot; Böcker, Lars; Helbich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling. Methods Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 – 2012), this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics. Results The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel. Conclusion The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of

  3. An Introduction to Social Network Data Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.

    The advent of online social networks has been one of the most exciting events in this decade. Many popular online social networks such as Twitter, LinkedIn, and Facebook have become increasingly popular. In addition, a number of multimedia networks such as Flickr have also seen an increasing level of popularity in recent years. Many such social networks are extremely rich in content, and they typically contain a tremendous amount of content and linkage data which can be leveraged for analysis. The linkage data is essentially the graph structure of the social network and the communications between entities; whereas the content data contains the text, images and other multimedia data in the network. The richness of this network provides unprecedented opportunities for data analytics in the context of social networks. This book provides a data-centric view of online social networks; a topic which has been missing from much of the literature. This chapter provides an overview of the key topics in this field, and their coverage in this book.

  4. Retail video analytics: an overview and survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Jonathan; Fan, Quanfu; Gabbur, Prasad; Haas, Norman; Pankanti, Sharath; Trinh, Hoang

    2013-03-01

    Today retail video analytics has gone beyond the traditional domain of security and loss prevention by providing retailers insightful business intelligence such as store traffic statistics and queue data. Such information allows for enhanced customer experience, optimized store performance, reduced operational costs, and ultimately higher profitability. This paper gives an overview of various camera-based applications in retail as well as the state-ofthe- art computer vision techniques behind them. It also presents some of the promising technical directions for exploration in retail video analytics.

  5. Reflections on the Nature of Analysis and Some Analytical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, D. F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Before a meaningful account can be given of scholarly communication an investigation of the nature of "analytical skills" is required--the aim of this article. It sets out to come to terms with the meaning of analysis by showing that it rests on two mutually cohering features, namely identifying and distinguishing. Since identification implies…

  6. The New Numerical Galaxy Catalog (ν2GC): An updated semi-analytic model of galaxy and active galactic nucleus formation with large cosmological N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiya, Ryu; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagashima, Masahiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Okoshi, Katsuya; Oogi, Taira; Shirakata, Hikari

    2016-04-01

    We present a new cosmological galaxy formation model, ν2GC, as an updated version of our previous model νGC. We adopt the so-called "semi-analytic" approach, in which the formation history of dark matter halos is computed by N-body simulations, while the baryon physics such as gas cooling, star formation, and supernova feedback are simply modeled by phenomenological equations. Major updates of the model are as follows: (1) the merger trees of dark matter halos are constructed in state-of-the-art N-body simulations, (2) we introduce the formation and evolution process of supermassive black holes and the suppression of gas cooling due to active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, (3) we include heating of the intergalactic gas by the cosmic UV background, and (4) we tune some free parameters related to the astrophysical processes using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Our N-body simulations of dark matter halos have unprecedented box size and mass resolution (the largest simulation contains 550 billion particles in a 1.12 Gpc h-1 box), enabling the study of much smaller and rarer objects. The model was tuned to fit the luminosity functions of local galaxies and mass function of neutral hydrogen. Local observations, such as the Tully-Fisher relation, the size-magnitude relation of spiral galaxies, and the scaling relation between the bulge mass and black hole mass were well reproduced by the model. Moreover, the model also reproduced well the cosmic star formation history and redshift evolution of rest-frame K-band luminosity functions. The numerical catalog of the simulated galaxies and AGNs is publicly available on the web.

  7. Toward a Shared Vocabulary for Visual Analysis: An Analytic Toolkit for Deconstructing the Visual Design of Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Literacy educators might advocate using graphic novels to develop students' visual literacy skills, but teachers who lack a vocabulary for engaging in close analysis of visual texts may be reluctant to teach them. Recognizing this, teacher educators should equip preservice teachers with a vocabulary for analyzing visual texts. This article…

  8. Quantifying construction and demolition waste: An analytical review

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zezhou; Yu, Ann T.W.; Shen, Liyin; Liu, Guiwen

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Prevailing C and D waste quantification methodologies are identified and compared. • One specific methodology cannot fulfill all waste quantification scenarios. • A relevance tree for appropriate quantification methodology selection is proposed. • More attentions should be paid to civil and infrastructural works. • Classified information is suggested for making an effective waste management plan. - Abstract: Quantifying construction and demolition (C and D) waste generation is regarded as a prerequisite for the implementation of successful waste management. In literature, various methods have been employed to quantify the C and D waste generation at both regional and project levels. However, an integrated review that systemically describes and analyses all the existing methods has yet to be conducted. To bridge this research gap, an analytical review is conducted. Fifty-seven papers are retrieved based on a set of rigorous procedures. The characteristics of the selected papers are classified according to the following criteria - waste generation activity, estimation level and quantification methodology. Six categories of existing C and D waste quantification methodologies are identified, including site visit method, waste generation rate method, lifetime analysis method, classification system accumulation method, variables modelling method and other particular methods. A critical comparison of the identified methods is given according to their characteristics and implementation constraints. Moreover, a decision tree is proposed for aiding the selection of the most appropriate quantification method in different scenarios. Based on the analytical review, limitations of previous studies and recommendations of potential future research directions are further suggested.

  9. Analytical analysis of particle-core dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri K

    2010-01-01

    Particle-core interaction is a well-developed model of halo formation in high-intensity beams. In this paper, we present an analytical solution for averaged, single particle dynamics, around a uniformly charged beam. The problem is analyzed through a sequence of canonical transformations of the Hamiltonian, which describes nonlinear particle oscillations. A closed form expression for maximum particle deviation from the axis is obtained. The results of this study are in good agreement with numerical simulations and with previously obtained data.

  10. An Experimental Introduction to Interlaboratory Exercises in Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puignou, L.; Llaurado, M.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental exercise on analytical proficiency studies in collaborative trials is proposed. This practical provides students in advanced undergraduate courses in chemistry, pharmacy, and biochemistry, with the opportunity to improve their quality assurance skills. It involves an environmental analysis, determining the concentration of a…

  11. Microemulsification: an approach for analytical determinations.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renato S; Shiroma, Leandro Y; Teixeira, Alvaro V N C; de Toledo, José R; do Couto, Bruno C; de Carvalho, Rogério M; Carrilho, Emanuel; Kubota, Lauro T; Gobbi, Angelo L

    2014-09-16

    We address a novel method for analytical determinations that combines simplicity, rapidity, low consumption of chemicals, and portability with high analytical performance taking into account parameters such as precision, linearity, robustness, and accuracy. This approach relies on the effect of the analyte content over the Gibbs free energy of dispersions, affecting the thermodynamic stabilization of emulsions or Winsor systems to form microemulsions (MEs). Such phenomenon was expressed by the minimum volume fraction of amphiphile required to form microemulsion (Φ(ME)), which was the analytical signal of the method. Thus, the measurements can be taken by visually monitoring the transition of the dispersions from cloudy to transparent during the microemulsification, like a titration. It bypasses the employment of electric energy. The performed studies were: phase behavior, droplet dimension by dynamic light scattering, analytical curve, and robustness tests. The reliability of the method was evaluated by determining water in ethanol fuels and monoethylene glycol in complex samples of liquefied natural gas. The dispersions were composed of water-chlorobenzene (water analysis) and water-oleic acid (monoethylene glycol analysis) with ethanol as the hydrotrope phase. The mean hydrodynamic diameter values for the nanostructures in the droplet-based water-chlorobenzene MEs were in the range of 1 to 11 nm. The procedures of microemulsification were conducted by adding ethanol to water-oleic acid (W-O) mixtures with the aid of micropipette and shaking. The Φ(ME) measurements were performed in a thermostatic water bath at 23 °C by direct observation that is based on the visual analyses of the media. The experiments to determine water demonstrated that the analytical performance depends on the composition of ME. It shows flexibility in the developed method. The linear range was fairly broad with limits of linearity up to 70.00% water in ethanol. For monoethylene glycol in

  12. Microemulsification: an approach for analytical determinations.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renato S; Shiroma, Leandro Y; Teixeira, Alvaro V N C; de Toledo, José R; do Couto, Bruno C; de Carvalho, Rogério M; Carrilho, Emanuel; Kubota, Lauro T; Gobbi, Angelo L

    2014-09-16

    We address a novel method for analytical determinations that combines simplicity, rapidity, low consumption of chemicals, and portability with high analytical performance taking into account parameters such as precision, linearity, robustness, and accuracy. This approach relies on the effect of the analyte content over the Gibbs free energy of dispersions, affecting the thermodynamic stabilization of emulsions or Winsor systems to form microemulsions (MEs). Such phenomenon was expressed by the minimum volume fraction of amphiphile required to form microemulsion (Φ(ME)), which was the analytical signal of the method. Thus, the measurements can be taken by visually monitoring the transition of the dispersions from cloudy to transparent during the microemulsification, like a titration. It bypasses the employment of electric energy. The performed studies were: phase behavior, droplet dimension by dynamic light scattering, analytical curve, and robustness tests. The reliability of the method was evaluated by determining water in ethanol fuels and monoethylene glycol in complex samples of liquefied natural gas. The dispersions were composed of water-chlorobenzene (water analysis) and water-oleic acid (monoethylene glycol analysis) with ethanol as the hydrotrope phase. The mean hydrodynamic diameter values for the nanostructures in the droplet-based water-chlorobenzene MEs were in the range of 1 to 11 nm. The procedures of microemulsification were conducted by adding ethanol to water-oleic acid (W-O) mixtures with the aid of micropipette and shaking. The Φ(ME) measurements were performed in a thermostatic water bath at 23 °C by direct observation that is based on the visual analyses of the media. The experiments to determine water demonstrated that the analytical performance depends on the composition of ME. It shows flexibility in the developed method. The linear range was fairly broad with limits of linearity up to 70.00% water in ethanol. For monoethylene glycol in

  13. Quantifying construction and demolition waste: an analytical review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zezhou; Yu, Ann T W; Shen, Liyin; Liu, Guiwen

    2014-09-01

    Quantifying construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation is regarded as a prerequisite for the implementation of successful waste management. In literature, various methods have been employed to quantify the C&D waste generation at both regional and project levels. However, an integrated review that systemically describes and analyses all the existing methods has yet to be conducted. To bridge this research gap, an analytical review is conducted. Fifty-seven papers are retrieved based on a set of rigorous procedures. The characteristics of the selected papers are classified according to the following criteria - waste generation activity, estimation level and quantification methodology. Six categories of existing C&D waste quantification methodologies are identified, including site visit method, waste generation rate method, lifetime analysis method, classification system accumulation method, variables modelling method and other particular methods. A critical comparison of the identified methods is given according to their characteristics and implementation constraints. Moreover, a decision tree is proposed for aiding the selection of the most appropriate quantification method in different scenarios. Based on the analytical review, limitations of previous studies and recommendations of potential future research directions are further suggested.

  14. Focused analyte spray emission apparatus and process for mass spectrometric analysis

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2012-01-17

    An apparatus and process are disclosed that deliver an analyte deposited on a substrate to a mass spectrometer that provides for trace analysis of complex organic analytes. Analytes are probed using a small droplet of solvent that is formed at the junction between two capillaries. A supply capillary maintains the droplet of solvent on the substrate; a collection capillary collects analyte desorbed from the surface and emits analyte ions as a focused spray to the inlet of a mass spectrometer for analysis. The invention enables efficient separation of desorption and ionization events, providing enhanced control over transport and ionization of the analyte.

  15. An Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The documentation and user's guide are presented for the analytical satellite orbit predictor computer program which is intended to be used for computation of near-earth orbits including those of the shuttle orbiter and its payloads. The Poincare-Similar elements used make it possible to compute near-earth orbits to within an accuracy of a few meters. Recursive equations are used instead of complicated formulas. Execution time is on the order of a few milliseconds.

  16. Activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 16 chapters on the application of activation analysis in the fields of life sciences, biological materials, coal and its effluents, environmental samples, archaeology, material science, and forensics. Each chapter is processed separately for the data base.

  17. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  18. Right Brain Activities to Improve Analytical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Marion E.

    Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…

  19. Behavioural Activation for Depression; An Update of Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Sub Group Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ekers, David; Webster, Lisa; Van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim; Richards, David; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. Method Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. Results Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD −0.74 CI −0.91 to −0.56, k = 25, N = 1088) and medication (SMD −0.42 CI −0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283). Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. Conclusions The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:24936656

  20. Precise determination of the low-energy hadronic contribution to the muon g -2 from analyticity and unitarity: An improved analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, Irinel; Das, Diganta; Imsong, I. Sentitemsu

    2016-06-01

    The two-pion low-energy contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, aμ≡(g -2 )μ/2 , expressed as an integral over the modulus squared of the pion electromagnetic form factor, brings a relatively large contribution to the theoretical error, since the low accuracy of experimental measurements in this region is amplified by the drastic increase of the integration kernel. We derive stringent constraints on the two-pion contribution by exploiting analyticity and unitarity of the pion electromagnetic form factor. To avoid the poor knowledge of the modulus of this function, we use instead its phase, known with high precision in the elastic region from Roy equations for pion-pion scattering via the Fermi-Watson theorem. Above the inelastic threshold we adopt a conservative integral condition on the modulus, determined from data and perturbative QCD. Additional high precision data on the modulus in the range 0.65-0.71 GeV, obtained from e+e- annihilation and τ -decay experiments, are used to improve the predictions on the modulus at lower energies by means of a parametrization-free analytic extrapolation. The results are optimal for a given input and do not depend on the unknown phase of the form factor above the inelastic threshold. The present work improves a previous analysis based on the same technique, including more experimental data and employing better statistical tools for their treatment. We obtain for the contribution to aμ from below 0.63 GeV the value (133.258 ±0.723 )×10-10 , which amounts to a reduction of the theoretical error by about 6 ×10-11 .

  1. Analytical Validation of Telomerase Activity for Cancer Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P.; Wang, Wendy; Barker, Peter E.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Atha, Donald H.

    2004-01-01

    Activation of telomerase plays a critical role in unlimited proliferation and immortalization of cells. Telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with tumor progression, indicating that tumors expressing this enzyme possess aggressive clinical behavior and that telomerase activity may be a useful biomarker for early detection of cancer. However, measurements of telomerase activity by current methods such as telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)/polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody-based radioimmunoassay (RIA) are low-throughput and not robust enough to easily accommodate the required statistical analysis to determine whether telomerase activity is a practical biomarker. As part of the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network of analytical validation, we have developed a robot assisted TRAP assay (RApidTRAP) of telomerase, a potential biomarker for cancer early detection. Measurements of human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT) mRNA were performed in concert with measurement of telomerase activity. For this purpose we determined hTERT mRNA concentration and telomerase activity in human normal (RPE-28) and cancer (A549) cell lines as well as in human serum (SRM 1951A). Telomerase activity measurements were made using the TRAP/PCR capillary electrophoresis (CE) method on (50 to 1000) cells/reaction isolated from cell extracts. Measurement of hTERT mRNA was made using specific primers and probes on a LightCycler in the range of (10 to 7000) cells/reaction. Comparison of high-throughput telomerase activity measurements using the robot and those performed manually were consistent in sensitivity and reproducibility. Using this combination of telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA measurements, the automated system improved efficiency over traditional TRAP/PCR methods. PMID:15269291

  2. Corporate cost of occupational accidents: an activity-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Rikhardsson, Pall M; Impgaard, Martin

    2004-03-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents for a company with 3.600 employees was estimated to approximately US$ 682.000. The paper includes an introduction regarding accident cost analysis in companies, a presentation of the SACA project methodology and the SACA method itself, a short overview of some of the results of the SACA project and a conclusion. Further information about the project is available at http://www.asb.dk/saca. PMID:14642872

  3. Corporate cost of occupational accidents: an activity-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Rikhardsson, Pall M; Impgaard, Martin

    2004-03-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents for a company with 3.600 employees was estimated to approximately US$ 682.000. The paper includes an introduction regarding accident cost analysis in companies, a presentation of the SACA project methodology and the SACA method itself, a short overview of some of the results of the SACA project and a conclusion. Further information about the project is available at http://www.asb.dk/saca.

  4. An Improved Analytic Model for Microdosimeter Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An analytic model used to predict energy deposition fluctuations in a microvolume by ions through direct events is improved to include indirect delta ray events. The new model can now account for the increase in flux at low lineal energy when the ions are of very high energy. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated results and available data for laboratory ion beams. Comparison of GCR (galactic cosmic ray) flux between Shuttle TEPC (tissue equivalent proportional counter) flight data and current calculations draws a different assessment of developmental work required for the GCR transport code (HZETRN) than previously concluded.

  5. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  6. Numerical Analysis of an Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikeos, J.; Rowe, A.; Tura, A.

    2006-04-01

    An alternative cycle proposed for refrigeration and gas liquefaction is active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration. This technology relies on solid materials exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect (MCE), a nearly reversible temperature change induced by a magnetic field change. This work focuses on numerical simulations of the AMR refrigeration cycle. A transient one-dimensional finite element model developed in FEMLAB™ incorporates energy equations for the refrigerant and the heat transfer fluid. The results of the model are validated by comparison to room temperature experiments with Gd. Predictions are then made for the performance of DyAl2 AMR beds near 70 K. Numerical results for simulations significantly above the Curie temperature are found to be dependent upon the initial conditions.

  7. Human hair neutron activation analysis: Analysis on population level, mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, L. I.; Kist, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia.

  8. Lessons Learned from Deploying an Analytical Task Management Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, Daniel A.; Welch, Clara; Arceneaux, Joshua; Bulgatz, Dennis; Hunt, Mitch; Young, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Defining requirements, missions, technologies, and concepts for space exploration involves multiple levels of organizations, teams of people with complementary skills, and analytical models and simulations. Analytical activities range from filling a To-Be-Determined (TBD) in a requirement to creating animations and simulations of exploration missions. In a program as large as returning to the Moon, there are hundreds of simultaneous analysis activities. A way to manage and integrate efforts of this magnitude is to deploy a centralized database that provides the capability to define tasks, identify resources, describe products, schedule deliveries, and generate a variety of reports. This paper describes a web-accessible task management system and explains the lessons learned during the development and deployment of the database. Through the database, managers and team leaders can define tasks, establish review schedules, assign teams, link tasks to specific requirements, identify products, and link the task data records to external repositories that contain the products. Data filters and spreadsheet export utilities provide a powerful capability to create custom reports. Import utilities provide a means to populate the database from previously filled form files. Within a four month period, a small team analyzed requirements, developed a prototype, conducted multiple system demonstrations, and deployed a working system supporting hundreds of users across the aeros pace community. Open-source technologies and agile software development techniques, applied by a skilled team enabled this impressive achievement. Topics in the paper cover the web application technologies, agile software development, an overview of the system's functions and features, dealing with increasing scope, and deploying new versions of the system.

  9. An analytic approach to cyber adversarial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Cybenko, George

    2012-06-01

    To date, cyber security investment by both the government and commercial sectors has been largely driven by the myopic best response of players to the actions of their adversaries and their perception of the adversarial environment. However, current work in applying traditional game theory to cyber operations typically assumes that games exist with prescribed moves, strategies, and payos. This paper presents an analytic approach to characterizing the more realistic cyber adversarial metagame that we believe is being played. Examples show that understanding the dynamic metagame provides opportunities to exploit an adversary's anticipated attack strategy. A dynamic version of a graph-based attack-defend game is introduced, and a simulation shows how an optimal strategy can be selected for success in the dynamic environment.

  10. Teacher Mentoring: An Analysis of Roles, Activities, and Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Terry M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Mentors' notes and comments were analyzed to determine their perceptions of roles, activities, and conditions influencing their work with beginning teachers. Mentors had many helping strategies that developed and shaped complex roles. A conceptual framework of eight categories of mentoring activities addressing five domains of beginning teachers'…

  11. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  12. Electrochemical flow injection analysis of hydrazine in an excess of an active pharmaceutical ingredient: achieving pharmaceutical detection limits electrochemically.

    PubMed

    Channon, Robert B; Joseph, Maxim B; Bitziou, Eleni; Bristow, Anthony W T; Ray, Andrew D; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-10-01

    The quantification of genotoxic impurities (GIs) such as hydrazine (HZ) is of critical importance in the pharmaceutical industry in order to uphold drug safety. HZ is a particularly intractable GI and its detection represents a significant technical challenge. Here, we present, for the first time, the use of electrochemical analysis to achieve the required detection limits by the pharmaceutical industry for the detection of HZ in the presence of a large excess of a common active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), acetaminophen (ACM) which itself is redox active, typical of many APIs. A flow injection analysis approach with electrochemical detection (FIA-EC) is utilized, in conjunction with a coplanar boron doped diamond (BDD) microband electrode, insulated in an insulating diamond platform for durability and integrated into a two piece flow cell. In order to separate the electrochemical signature for HZ such that it is not obscured by that of the ACM (present in excess), the BDD electrode is functionalized with Pt nanoparticles (NPs) to significantly shift the half wave potential for HZ oxidation to less positive potentials. Microstereolithography was used to fabricate flow cells with defined hydrodynamics which minimize dispersion of the analyte and optimize detection sensitivity. Importantly, the Pt NPs were shown to be stable under flow, and a limit of detection of 64.5 nM or 0.274 ppm for HZ with respect to the ACM, present in excess, was achieved. This represents the first electrochemical approach which surpasses the required detection limits set by the pharmaceutical industry for HZ detection in the presence of an API and paves the wave for online analysis and application to other GI and API systems. PMID:26302058

  13. SAAF: SANS data Analysis using Analytical Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed Extended Q-Range Small Angle Scattering Diffractometer (EQ-SANS) has put the focus on its software needs with renewed urgency. In a series of efforts, we aim at providing a complete set of software solutions on the EQ-SANS instrument. These programs include initial data processing, data correction and reduction, analytical model fitting to the scattering data, Monte Carlo simulation for structure determination, and virtual instrument simulation for experiment planning. SAAF is one such program for analytical data modeling. It takes the reduced EQ-SANS data and allows users to fit the data to analytical models. These models are easy to write. They can either be user written, or from the pre-supplied model library.

  14. An Integrated Approach to Predictive Genomic Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Baddeley, Robert L.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Jensen, Russell S.

    2010-08-02

    A variety of methods and algorithms have recently been employed in the analysis of gene expression data, including reverse-engineering and knowledge-based pathway modeling, semantic gene similarity, network analysis and clustering. These methods and algorithms address different subparts of the same overall challenge and need to be applied in combination to address predictive genomic analysis as a whole. In this paper, we present an integrated approach to predictive genomic analysis that achieves this objective and describe an application of the approach to the study of neuroprotection in stroke.

  15. An analytical framework for aeolian saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M. D.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The process of aeolian saltation has been a focus of extensive research, but analytical solutions for the balance between the flux of grains and the adjustment of the wind velocity profile have yet to be described. Because several of the functional relationships between variables could not be known a priori, as for example the splash functions of the impact-induced ejection of grains from the bed, the process has been studied primarily through experiments and numerical modeling. Grain-scale experiments have now however yielded robust empirical relationships for functions such as splash function distributions, and we can use these relationships to make the aeolian saltation process analytically tractable. We construct an analytical framework for steady state saltation in terms of a threshold height, above which the wind velocity is strong enough to carry a grain from reptation to saltation. This threshold height is raised as the wind profile magnitude is lowered by the increasing number of saltating grains being accelerated by the wind, until the number of grains being demoted below this threshold equals the number being promoted. Grain demotion results from the loss of energy to collisions with the bed, while grain promotion results from the distribution of splash-ejected grains that exceed the threshold height. The balance of these populations at steady state determines both the total number of grains in saltation and the saturated wind velocity profile, while the approach to this balance describes the transient evolution to this state. We also formulate the critical impact Shields stress, defined as the stress below which transport ceases (as opposed to the higher critical fluid Shields stress at which transport is initiated). The difference between the critical fluid and impact Shields stresses also implies the existence of a minimum population of saltating grains. Finally, we extend our developed framework to comment on related open questions. We test the

  16. Method and apparatus for detecting an analyte

    DOEpatents

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J.

    2011-11-29

    We describe the use of coordination polymers (CP) as coatings on microcantilevers for the detection of chemical analytes. CP exhibit changes in unit cell parameters upon adsorption of analytes, which will induce a stress in a static microcantilever upon which a CP layer is deposited. We also describe fabrication methods for depositing CP layers on surfaces.

  17. Flipping the Audience Script: An Activity That Integrates Research and Audience Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chris; Hannah, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a flipped classroom activity that requires students to integrate research and audience analysis. The activity uses Twitter as a data source. In the activity, students identify a sample, collect customer tweets, and analyze the language of the tweets in an effort to construct knowledge about an audience's values, needs, and…

  18. Synthesis of Biologically Active Piperidine Metabolites of Clopidogrel: Determination of Structure and Analyte Development.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Scott A; Balasubramanian, Balu; Bonacorsi, Samuel; Cortes, Janet Caceres; Cao, Kevin; Chen, Bang-Chi; Dai, Jun; Decicco, Carl; Goswami, Animesh; Guo, Zhiwei; Hanson, Ronald; Humphreys, W Griffith; Lam, Patrick Y S; Li, Wenying; Mathur, Arvind; Maxwell, Brad D; Michaudel, Quentin; Peng, Li; Pudzianowski, Andrew; Qiu, Feng; Su, Shun; Sun, Dawn; Tymiak, Adrienne A; Vokits, Benjamin P; Wang, Bei; Wexler, Ruth; Wu, Dauh-Rurng; Zhang, Yingru; Zhao, Rulin; Baran, Phil S

    2015-07-17

    Clopidogrel is a prodrug anticoagulant with active metabolites that irreversibly inhibit the platelet surface GPCR P2Y12 and thus inhibit platelet activation. However, gaining an understanding of patient response has been limited due to imprecise understanding of metabolite activity and stereochemistry, and a lack of acceptable analytes for quantifying in vivo metabolite formation. Methods for the production of all bioactive metabolites of clopidogrel, their stereochemical assignment, and the development of stable analytes via three conceptually orthogonal routes are disclosed.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of an Egyptian monazite ore sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, E. A.; Rofail, N. B.; Ashmawy, L. S.; Hassan, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    The absolute sensitivity of a gamma-ray line following thermal or epithermal neutron activation is expressed as a product of four terms, namely, the intrinsic, irradiation, decay and measurement factors. The total absolute sensitivity is the sum of the absolute sensitivities due to thermal and epithermal activation. A. FORTRAN computer program was prepared on the TANDY 3000 NL PCA to calculate the total absolute sensitivity of the intensive gamma-ray lines from the thermal and epithermal neutron activation of all the naturally occurring nuclides. Another program was prepared for the determination of the total absolute sensitivity for gammarays emitted by radioactive daughters such as233Pa from233Th and239Np from239U. Long time irradiation periods (about 48 hours) for specimens of the monazite ore sample were carried out at the (ET-RR-1) reactor core periphery. The monazite ore sample was separated from the associating minerals in the sand of Abou-Khashaba of Rashied (Rosetta) area on the Mediterranean (North of Egypt). The separated monazite ore sample was provided by the Nuclear Material Authority of Egypt. The cadmium difference method was applied to thin gold foils for absolute thermal and epithermal neutron flux determination. The gamma-ray spectra were measured using a spectrometer with a HPGe coaxial detector. The evaluated absolute sensitivity tables were helpful in identifying the radioisotopes contributing to the gamma- ray spectra and in evaluating the elemental concentration of the monazite constitutents. Most of the rare earth elements were observed and their concentrations are reported. La, Ce, Nd, Sd and Th were found as major elements, U, Tb, Hf and Eu as minor elements.

  20. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  1. An extensible framework for provenance in human terrain visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rick; Slingsby, Aiden; Dykes, Jason; Xu, Kai; Wood, Jo; Nguyen, Phong H; Stephens, Derek; Wong, B L William; Zheng, Yongjun

    2013-12-01

    We describe and demonstrate an extensible framework that supports data exploration and provenance in the context of Human Terrain Analysis (HTA). Working closely with defence analysts we extract requirements and a list of features that characterise data analysed at the end of the HTA chain. From these, we select an appropriate non-classified data source with analogous features, and model it as a set of facets. We develop ProveML, an XML-based extension of the Open Provenance Model, using these facets and augment it with the structures necessary to record the provenance of data, analytical process and interpretations. Through an iterative process, we develop and refine a prototype system for Human Terrain Visual Analytics (HTVA), and demonstrate means of storing, browsing and recalling analytical provenance and process through analytic bookmarks in ProveML. We show how these bookmarks can be combined to form narratives that link back to the live data. Throughout the process, we demonstrate that through structured workshops, rapid prototyping and structured communication with intelligence analysts we are able to establish requirements, and design schema, techniques and tools that meet the requirements of the intelligence community. We use the needs and reactions of defence analysts in defining and steering the methods to validate the framework.

  2. Active Flash: Out-of-core Data Analytics on Flash Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Boboila, Simona; Kim, Youngjae; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Desnoyers, Peter; Shipman, Galen M

    2012-01-01

    Next generation science will increasingly come to rely on the ability to perform efficient, on-the-fly analytics of data generated by high-performance computing (HPC) simulations, modeling complex physical phenomena. Scientific computing workflows are stymied by the traditional chaining of simulation and data analysis, creating multiple rounds of redundant reads and writes to the storage system, which grows in cost with the ever-increasing gap between compute and storage speeds in HPC clusters. Recent HPC acquisitions have introduced compute node-local flash storage as a means to alleviate this I/O bottleneck. We propose a novel approach, Active Flash, to expedite data analysis pipelines by migrating to the location of the data, the flash device itself. We argue that Active Flash has the potential to enable true out-of-core data analytics by freeing up both the compute core and the associated main memory. By performing analysis locally, dependence on limited bandwidth to a central storage system is reduced, while allowing this analysis to proceed in parallel with the main application. In addition, offloading work from the host to the more power-efficient controller reduces peak system power usage, which is already in the megawatt range and poses a major barrier to HPC system scalability. We propose an architecture for Active Flash, explore energy and performance trade-offs in moving computation from host to storage, demonstrate the ability of appropriate embedded controllers to perform data analysis and reduction tasks at speeds sufficient for this application, and present a simulation study of Active Flash scheduling policies. These results show the viability of the Active Flash model, and its capability to potentially have a transformative impact on scientific data analysis.

  3. An analysis of the history of dust activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L. J.; Zurek, R. W.

    1993-02-01

    A comprehensive list of dust storm activity on Mars has been compiled from various published lists and additional data. For uniformity and clarity, each event is classified using a new system that includes a well-defined nomenclature. Maps showing the reported locations of events have been compiled. Detailed commentaries describe the events and/or circumstances of their observation. The seasonal distribution of Martian dust events is diagrammed and discussed together with a seasonal and annual (Mars years) timeline that includes the frequency of photographic coverage. Regional dust storms tend to occur most frequently, and all planet-encircling dust storms have been observed during the southern spring and summer seasons, although there is significant interannual variability.

  4. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  5. Economic Risk Analysis: Using Analytical and Monte Carlo Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Brendan R.; Hickner, Michael A.; Barna, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and instructional use of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet template that facilitates analytical and Monte Carlo risk analysis of investment decisions. Discusses a variety of risk assessment methods followed by applications of the analytical and Monte Carlo methods. Uses a case study to illustrate use of the spreadsheet tool…

  6. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool

    PubMed Central

    Latha, Rewanthwar Swathi; Lakshmi, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue) which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields. PMID:22470887

  7. Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarick, Richard T.

    1998-12-01

    The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost/benefits in a more quantitative manner. This paper addresses both the process used to conduct this program, as well as a generalized look at the results, which have been achieved for the initial airport assessments. The process description covers the acquisition approach, the project structure, and a review of the various methodologies and tools being used by the sever performing organizations (Abacus Technology, Battelle, CTI, Lockwood Greene, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, SAIC, and Science & Engineering Associates). The tools described include ASSESS, SAM, RiskWatch, CASRAP, and AVAT. Included in the process is the utilization of an advisory panel made up predominantly of experts from the National Laboratories 9Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne and Brookhaven). The results portion addresses the findings and products resulting from the initial airport assessments. High level (unrestricted) summaries of the results are presented, along with initial trends in commonly recommended security improvements (countermeasures). Opportunities for the application of optics technology are identified.

  8. Analytical Essay Writing: A New Activity Introduced to a Traditional Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kommalage, Mahinda

    2012-01-01

    Medical students following a traditional curriculum get few opportunities to engage in activities such as a literature search, scientific writing, and active and collaborative learning. An analytical essay writing activity (AEWA) in physiology was introduced to first-year students. Each student prepared an essay incorporating new research findings…

  9. Integrating Variances into an Analytical Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    For this project, I enrolled in numerous SATERN courses that taught the basics of database programming. These include: Basic Access 2007 Forms, Introduction to Database Systems, Overview of Database Design, and others. My main job was to create an analytical database that can handle many stored forms and make it easy to interpret and organize. Additionally, I helped improve an existing database and populate it with information. These databases were designed to be used with data from Safety Variances and DCR forms. The research consisted of analyzing the database and comparing the data to find out which entries were repeated the most. If an entry happened to be repeated several times in the database, that would mean that the rule or requirement targeted by that variance has been bypassed many times already and so the requirement may not really be needed, but rather should be changed to allow the variance's conditions permanently. This project did not only restrict itself to the design and development of the database system, but also worked on exporting the data from the database to a different format (e.g. Excel or Word) so it could be analyzed in a simpler fashion. Thanks to the change in format, the data was organized in a spreadsheet that made it possible to sort the data by categories or types and helped speed up searches. Once my work with the database was done, the records of variances could be arranged so that they were displayed in numerical order, or one could search for a specific document targeted by the variances and restrict the search to only include variances that modified a specific requirement. A great part that contributed to my learning was SATERN, NASA's resource for education. Thanks to the SATERN online courses I took over the summer, I was able to learn many new things about computers and databases and also go more in depth into topics I already knew about.

  10. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  11. Semi Active Control of Civil Structures, Analytical and Numerical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerboua, M.; Benguediab, M.; Megnounif, A.; Benrahou, K. H.; Kaoulala, F.

    Structural control for civil structures was born out of a need to provide safer and more efficient designs with the reality of limited resources. The purpose of structural control is to absorb and to reflect the energy introduced by dynamic loads such as winds, waves, earthquakes, and traffic. Today, the protection of civil structures from severe dynamic loading is typically achieved by allowing the structures to be damaged. Semi-active control devices, also called "smart" control devices, assume the positive aspects of both the passive and active control devices. A semi-active control strategy is similar to the active control strategy. Only here, the control actuator does not directly apply force to the structure, but instead it is used to control the properties of a passive energy device, a controllable passive damper. Semi-active control strategies can be used in many of the same civil applications as passive and active control. One method of operating smart cable dampers is in a purely passive capacity, supplying the dampers with constant optimal voltage. The advantages to this strategy are the relative simplicity of implementing the control strategy as compared to a smart or active control strategy and that the dampers are more easily optimally tuned in- place, eliminating the need to have passive dampers with unique optimal damping coefficients. This research investigated semi-active control of civil structures for natural hazard mitigation. The research has two components, the seismic protection of buildings and the mitigation of wind-induced vibration in structures. An ideal semi-active motion equation of a composite beam that consists of a cantilever beam bonded with a PZT patch using Hamilton's principle and Galerkin's method was treated. A series R-L and a parallel R-L shunt circuits are coupled into the motion equation respectively by means of the constitutive relation of piezoelectric material and Kirchhoff's law to control the beam vibration. A

  12. Deinstitutionalization: An Analytical Review and Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachrach, Leona L.

    The document presents an analysis of recent literature on the deinstitutionalization of emotionally disturbed persons. Discussed are opposing views with emphasis on the idea of reliance on community resources and the present trend toward the provision of a continuum of treatment alternatives. Brief sections cover issues related to such problems as…

  13. An analytic model for the Phobos surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic expressions are derived to model the surface topography and the normal to the surface of Phobos. The analytic expressions are comprised of a spherical harmonic expansion for the global figure of Phobos, augmented by addition terms for the large crater Stickney and other craters. Over 300 craters were measured in more than 100 Viking Orbiter images to produce the model. In general, the largest craters were measured since they have a significant effect on topography. The topographic model derived has a global spatial and topographic accuracy ranging from about 100 m in areas having the highest resolution and convergent, stereo coverage, up to 500 m in the poorest areas.

  14. An analytic model for the PHOBOS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, T. C.

    1991-02-01

    Analytic expressions are derived to model the surface topography and the normal to the surface of Phobos. The analytic expressions are comprised of a spherical harmonic expansion for the global figure of Phobos, augmented by addition terms for the large crater Stickney and other craters. Over 300 craters were measured in more than 100 Viking Orbiter images to produce the model. In general, the largest craters were measured since they have a significant effect on topography. The topographic model derived has a global spatial and topographic accuracy ranging from about 100 m in areas having the highest resolution and convergent, stereo coverage, up to 500 m in the poorest areas.

  15. Facilitating the Analysis of Immunological Data with Visual Analytic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Shih, David C.; Ho, Kevin C.; Melnick, Kyle M.; Rensink, Ronald A.; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Fortuno III, Edgardo S.

    2011-01-01

    Visual analytics (VA) has emerged as a new way to analyze large dataset through interactive visual display. We demonstrated the utility and the flexibility of a VA approach in the analysis of biological datasets. Examples of these datasets in immunology include flow cytometry, Luminex data, and genotyping (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism) data. Contrary to the traditional information visualization approach, VA restores the analysis power in the hands of analyst by allowing the analyst to engage in real-time data exploration process. We selected the VA software called Tableau after evaluating several VA tools. Two types of analysis tasks analysis within and between datasets were demonstrated in the video presentation using an approach called paired analysis. Paired analysis, as defined in VA, is an analysis approach in which a VA tool expert works side-by-side with a domain expert during the analysis. The domain expert is the one who understands the significance of the data, and asks the questions that the collected data might address. The tool expert then creates visualizations to help find patterns in the data that might answer these questions. The short lag-time between the hypothesis generation and the rapid visual display of the data is the main advantage of a VA approach. PMID:21248691

  16. Facilitating the analysis of immunological data with visual analytic techniques.

    PubMed

    Shih, David C; Ho, Kevin C; Melnick, Kyle M; Rensink, Ronald A; Kollmann, Tobias R; Fortuno, Edgardo S

    2011-01-02

    Visual analytics (VA) has emerged as a new way to analyze large dataset through interactive visual display. We demonstrated the utility and the flexibility of a VA approach in the analysis of biological datasets. Examples of these datasets in immunology include flow cytometry, Luminex data, and genotyping (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism) data. Contrary to the traditional information visualization approach, VA restores the analysis power in the hands of analyst by allowing the analyst to engage in real-time data exploration process. We selected the VA software called Tableau after evaluating several VA tools. Two types of analysis tasks analysis within and between datasets were demonstrated in the video presentation using an approach called paired analysis. Paired analysis, as defined in VA, is an analysis approach in which a VA tool expert works side-by-side with a domain expert during the analysis. The domain expert is the one who understands the significance of the data, and asks the questions that the collected data might address. The tool expert then creates visualizations to help find patterns in the data that might answer these questions. The short lag-time between the hypothesis generation and the rapid visual display of the data is the main advantage of a VA approach.

  17. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: a functional analytic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapke, M.; Oberrath, J.; Mussenbrock, T.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2013-04-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ denotes a class of diagnostic methods which employ the ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the plasma frequency. The basic idea dates back to the early days of discharge physics: a signal in the GHz range is coupled to the plasma via an electrical probe; the spectral response is recorded, and then evaluated with a mathematical model to obtain information on the electron density and other plasma parameters. In recent years, the concept has found renewed interest as a basis of industry compatible plasma diagnostics. This paper analyzes the diagnostic technique in terms of a general description based on functional analytic (or Hilbert Space) methods which hold for arbitrary probe geometries. It is shown that the response function of the plasma-probe system can be expressed as a matrix element of the resolvent of an appropriately defined dynamical operator. A specialization of the formalism to a symmetric probe design is given, as well as an interpretation in terms of a lumped circuit model consisting of series resonance circuits. We present ideas for an optimized probe design based on geometric and electrical symmetry.

  18. An Analytical Method of Estimating Turbine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochendorfer, Fred D; Nettles, J Cary

    1948-01-01

    A method is developed by which the performance of a turbine over a range of operating conditions can be analytically estimated from the blade angles and flow areas. In order to use the method, certain coefficients that determine the weight flow and friction losses must be approximated. The method is used to calculate the performance of the single-stage turbine of a commercial aircraft gas-turbine engine and the calculated performance is compared with the performance indicated by experimental data. For the turbine of the typical example, the assumed pressure losses and turning angles give a calculated performance that represents the trends of the experimental performance with reasonable accuracy. The exact agreement between analytical performance and experimental performance is contingent upon the proper selection of the blading-loss parameter. A variation of blading-loss parameter from 0.3 to 0.5 includes most of the experimental data from the turbine investigated.

  19. An analytical method of estimating turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochendorfer, Fred D; Nettles, J Cary

    1949-01-01

    A method is developed by which the performance of a turbine over a range of operating conditions can be analytically estimated from the blade angles and flow areas. In order to use the method, certain coefficients that determine the weight flow and the friction losses must be approximated. The method is used to calculate the performance of the single-stage turbine of a commercial aircraft gas-turbine engine and the calculated performance is compared with the performance indicated by experimental data. For the turbine of the typical example, the assumed pressure losses and the tuning angles give a calculated performance that represents the trends of the experimental performance with reasonable accuracy. The exact agreement between analytical performance and experimental performance is contingent upon the proper selection of a blading-loss parameter.

  20. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  1. Analysis of Whiskey by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry: An Upper Division Analytical Chemistry Experiment Guided by Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Janel E.; Zimmerman, Laura B.; Gardner, Michael A.; Lowe, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of whiskey samples prepared by a green microextraction technique, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), before analysis by a qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, is described as a laboratory experiment for an upper division instrumental methods of analysis laboratory course. Here, aroma compounds in…

  2. School-based friendship networks and children's physical activity: A spatial analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Macdonald-Wallis, Kyle; Jago, Russell; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L

    2011-07-01

    Despite the known health benefits, the majority of children do not meet physical activity guidelines, with past interventions to increase physical activity yielding little success. Social and friendship networks have been shown to influence obesity, smoking and academic achievement, and peer-led interventions have successfully reduced the uptake of adolescent smoking. However, the role of social networks on physical activity is not clear. This paper investigates the extent to which friendship networks influence children's physical activity, and attempts to quantify the association using spatial analytical techniques to account for the social influence. Physical activity data were collected for 986 children, aged 10-11 years old, from 40 schools in Bristol, UK. Data from 559 children were used for analysis. Mean accelerometer counts per minute (CPM) and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (MVPA) were calculated as objective measures of physical activity. Children nominated up to 4 school-friends, and school-based friendship networks were constructed from these nominations. Networks were tested to assess whether physical activity showed spatial dependence (in terms of social proximity in social space) using Moran's I statistic. Spatial autoregressive modelling was then used to assess the extent of spatial dependence, whilst controlling for other known predictors of physical activity. This model was compared with linear regression models for improvement in goodness-of-fit. Results indicated spatial autocorrelation of both mean MVPA (I = .346) and mean CPM (I = .284) in the data, indicating that children clustered in friendship groups with similar activity levels. Spatial autoregressive modelling of mean MVPA concurred that spatial dependence was present (ρ = .26, p < .001), and improved model fit by 31% on the linear regression model. These results demonstrate an association between physical activity levels of children and their

  3. An analytical approach based on ESI-MS, LC-MS and PCA for the quali-quantitative analysis of cycloartane derivatives in Astragalus spp.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Assunta; Akay, Seref; Mari, Angela; Bedir, Erdal; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2013-11-01

    Astragalus species are widely used as health foods and dietary supplements, as well as drugs in traditional medicine. To rapidly evaluate metabolite similarities and differences among the EtOH extracts of the roots of eight commercial Astragalus spp., an approach based on direct analyses by ESI-MS followed by PCA of ESI-MS data, was carried out. Successively, quali-quantitative analyses of cycloartane derivatives in the eight Astragalus spp. by LC-ESI-MS(n) and PCA of LC-ESI-MS data were performed. This approach allowed to promptly highlighting metabolite similarities and differences among the various Astragalus spp. PCA results from LC-ESI-MS data of Astragalus samples were in reasonable agreement with both PCA results of ESI-MS data and quantitative results. This study affords an analytical method for the quali-quantitative determination of cycloartane derivatives in herbal preparations used as health and food supplements.

  4. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for an International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the systems dynamics was created using an Excel Spreadsheet. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  5. An atomic orbital-based formulation of analytical gradients and nonadiabatic coupling vector elements for the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field method on graphical processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, James W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.

    2015-10-21

    We recently presented an algorithm for state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) orbital optimization that capitalizes on sparsity in the atomic orbital basis set to reduce the scaling of computational effort with respect to molecular size. Here, we extend those algorithms to calculate the analytic gradient and nonadiabatic coupling vectors for SA-CASSCF. Combining the low computational scaling with acceleration from graphical processing units allows us to perform SA-CASSCF geometry optimizations for molecules with more than 1000 atoms. The new approach will make minimal energy conical intersection searches and nonadiabatic dynamics routine for molecular systems with O(10{sup 2}) atoms.

  6. A Double Scattering Analytical Model For Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barradas, N. P.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Darakchieva, V.

    2011-06-01

    We present an analytical model for calculation of double scattering in elastic recoil detection measurements. Only events involving the beam particle and the recoil are considered, i.e. 1) an ion scatters off a target element and then produces a recoil, and 2) an ion produces a recoil which then scatters off a target element. Events involving intermediate recoils are not considered, i.e. when the primary ion produces a recoil which then produces a second recoil. If the recoil element is also present in the stopping foil, recoil events in the stopping foil are also calculated. We included the model in the standard code for IBA data analysis NDF, and applied it to the measurement of hydrogen in Si.

  7. A novel meta-analytic approach: mining frequent co-activation patterns in neuroimaging databases.

    PubMed

    Caspers, Julian; Zilles, Karl; Beierle, Christoph; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, coordinate-based meta-analyses have become a powerful and widely used tool to study co-activity across neuroimaging experiments, a development that was supported by the emergence of large-scale neuroimaging databases like BrainMap. However, the evaluation of co-activation patterns is constrained by the fact that previous coordinate-based meta-analysis techniques like Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) and Multilevel Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) reveal all brain regions that show convergent activity within a dataset without taking into account actual within-experiment co-occurrence patterns. To overcome this issue we here propose a novel meta-analytic approach named PaMiNI that utilizes a combination of two well-established data-mining techniques, Gaussian mixture modeling and the Apriori algorithm. By this, PaMiNI enables a data-driven detection of frequent co-activation patterns within neuroimaging datasets. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by means of several analyses on simulated data as well as a real application. The analyses of the simulated data show that PaMiNI identifies the brain regions underlying the simulated activation foci and perfectly separates the co-activation patterns of the experiments in the simulations. Furthermore, PaMiNI still yields good results when activation foci of distinct brain regions become closer together or if they are non-Gaussian distributed. For the further evaluation, a real dataset on working memory experiments is used, which was previously examined in an ALE meta-analysis and hence allows a cross-validation of both methods. In this latter analysis, PaMiNI revealed a fronto-parietal "core" network of working memory and furthermore indicates a left-lateralization in this network. Finally, to encourage a widespread usage of this new method, the PaMiNI approach was implemented into a publicly available software system. PMID:24365675

  8. Analysis of analytic nonresonant background removal algorithm for MCARS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberson, Stephen D.; Bowman Pilkington, Sherrie; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2016-05-01

    Multiplex Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (MCARS) has been shown to generate a complete Raman spectrum of a material on a millisecond time scale which allows for rapid identification of a wide variety of molecular targets. Along with the desired resonant spectrum due to the vibrational Raman spectroscopy of the analyte, MCARS is known to simultaneously generate a nonresonant spectrum that can obscure the desired Raman spectrum which hinders detection. Extracting the desired resonant Raman signal analytically from the overall MCARS signal has proven difficult without having prior knowledge of the analyte. We have developed an algorithm that utilizes a combination of the maximum entropy method in conjunction with advanced Fourier filtering to analytically remove the nonresonant background from our MCARS spectra without having prior knowledge of the vibrational spectrum of the analyte. In this report, we will report on the theoretical background for this algorithm as well as our experimental work testing this algorithm under various nonresonant spectra conditions for a number of analytes. We will systematically vary the amount of nonresonant background generated in the sample by changing the temporal overlap of the two beams necessary to generate the MCARS signal. Additionally, we place the analyte into increasing concentrations of water to generate increasing amounts of nonresonant background spectra to test the algorithm's effectiveness. Finally, we compare the analyte vibrational spectral output from the algorithm to the Raman spectrum measured with the spontaneous Raman system in the laboratory of the same sample in an effort to ascertain accuracy of the output spectra.

  9. Analytical Characterization of Erythritol Tetranitrate, an Improvised Explosive.

    PubMed

    Matyáš, Robert; Lyčka, Antonín; Jirásko, Robert; Jakový, Zdeněk; Maixner, Jaroslav; Mišková, Linda; Künzel, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), an ester of nitric acid and erythritol, is a solid crystalline explosive with high explosive performance. Although it has never been used in any industrial or military application, it has become one of the most prepared and misused improvise explosives. In this study, several analytical techniques were explored to facilitate analysis in forensic laboratories. FTIR and Raman spectrometry measurements expand existing data and bring more detailed assignment of bands through the parallel study of erythritol [(15) N4 ] tetranitrate. In the case of powder diffraction, recently published data were verified, and (1) H, (13) C, and (15) N NMR spectra are discussed in detail. The technique of electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was successfully used for the analysis of ETN. Described methods allow fast, versatile, and reliable detection or analysis of samples containing erythritol tetranitrate in forensic laboratories.

  10. Unifying Approach to Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Analysis: Problem-Oriented Role of Chemical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Harry L.; Woo, Jannie

    1984-01-01

    Proposes an approach to teaching analytical chemistry and chemical analysis in which a problem to be resolved is the focus of a course. Indicates that this problem-oriented approach is intended to complement detailed discussions of fundamental and applied aspects of chemical determinations and not replace such discussions. (JN)

  11. Three-dimensional analysis of optical forces generated by an active tractor beam using radial polarization.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador

    2014-02-10

    We theoretically study the three-dimensional behavior of nanoparticles in an active optical conveyor. To do this, we solved the Langevin equation when the forces are generated by a focusing system at the near field. Analytical expressions for the optical forces generated by the optical conveyor were obtained by solving the Richards and Wolf vectorial diffraction integrals in an approximated form when a mask of two annular pupils is illuminated by a radially polarized Hermite-Gauss beam. Trajectories, in both the transverse plane and the longitudinal direction, are analyzed showing that the behavior of the optical conveyor can be optimized by conveniently choosing the configuration of the mask of the two annular pupils (inner and outer radius of the two rings) in order to trap and transport all particles at the focal plane. PMID:24663619

  12. Analytical analysis of single- and three-phase induction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The analysis of single and multiphase induction motors continues to represent a challenge to researchers in computational electromagnetics due to the presence of r{Omega} x B electric fields. This contribution cannot be inserted into the Green`s function for boundary element codes; finite difference and finite element approaches are forced to hard code these effects, compensating at high speeds with upwinding techniques. The direct computation of these affects using transfer relations in a linear environment offers an analytical backdrop both for benchmark testing numerical codes and for design assessment criteria. In addition to torque-speed predictions, the terminal relations and total power dissipation in the rotor are computed for an exposed winding three-phase and single-phase machine.

  13. Analytical-HZETRN Model for Rapid Assessment of Active Magnetic Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, S. A.; Blattnig, S. R.; Singleterry, R. C.; Westover, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of active radiation shielding designs has the potential to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on deep-space missions at a significantly lower mass penalty than designs utilizing only passive shielding. Unfortunately, the determination of the radiation exposure inside these shielded environments often involves lengthy and computationally intensive Monte Carlo analysis. In order to evaluate the large trade space of design parameters associated with a magnetic radiation shield design, an analytical model was developed for the determination of flux inside a solenoid magnetic field due to the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) radiation environment. This analytical model was then coupled with NASA's radiation transport code, HZETRN, to account for the effects of passive/structural shielding mass. The resulting model can rapidly obtain results for a given configuration and can therefore be used to analyze an entire trade space of potential variables in less time than is required for even a single Monte Carlo run. Analyzing this trade space for a solenoid magnetic shield design indicates that active shield bending powers greater than 15 Tm and passive/structural shielding thicknesses greater than 40 g/cm2 have a limited impact on reducing dose equivalent values. Also, it is shown that higher magnetic field strengths are more effective than thicker magnetic fields at reducing dose equivalent.

  14. Analytical-HZETRN model for rapid assessment of active magnetic radiation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, S. A.; Blattnig, S. R.; Singleterry, R. C.; Westover, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of active radiation shielding designs has the potential to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on deep-space missions at a significantly lower mass penalty than designs utilizing only passive shielding. Unfortunately, the determination of the radiation exposure inside these shielded environments often involves lengthy and computationally intensive Monte Carlo analysis. In order to evaluate the large trade space of design parameters associated with a magnetic radiation shield design, an analytical model was developed for the determination of flux inside a solenoid magnetic field due to the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) radiation environment. This analytical model was then coupled with NASA's radiation transport code, HZETRN, to account for the effects of passive/structural shielding mass. The resulting model can rapidly obtain results for a given configuration and can therefore be used to analyze an entire trade space of potential variables in less time than is required for even a single Monte Carlo run. Analyzing this trade space for a solenoid magnetic shield design indicates that active shield bending powers greater than ∼15 Tm and passive/structural shielding thicknesses greater than 40 g/cm2 have a limited impact on reducing dose equivalent values. Also, it is shown that higher magnetic field strengths are more effective than thicker magnetic fields at reducing dose equivalent.

  15. Cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis at NIST - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.L.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    An instrument for cold neutron capture prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (CNPGAA), located in the cold neutron research facility (CNRF) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has proven useful for the analysis of hydrogen and other elements in a wide variety of materials. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the instrument, focusing on recent improvements and the impact of these improvement on measurements.

  16. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  17. Automating the analytical laboratory via the Chemical Analysis Automation paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.; Rzeszutko, C.

    1997-10-01

    To address the need for standardization within the analytical chemistry laboratories of the nation, the Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program within the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology`s Robotic Technology Development Program is developing laboratory sample analysis systems that will automate the environmental chemical laboratories. The current laboratory automation paradigm consists of islands-of-automation that do not integrate into a system architecture. Thus, today the chemist must perform most aspects of environmental analysis manually using instrumentation that generally cannot communicate with other devices in the laboratory. CAA is working towards a standardized and modular approach to laboratory automation based upon the Standard Analysis Method (SAM) architecture. Each SAM system automates a complete chemical method. The building block of a SAM is known as the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). The SLM, either hardware or software, automates a subprotocol of an analysis method and can operate as a standalone or as a unit within a SAM. The CAA concept allows the chemist to easily assemble an automated analysis system, from sample extraction through data interpretation, using standardized SLMs without the worry of hardware or software incompatibility or the necessity of generating complicated control programs. A Task Sequence Controller (TSC) software program schedules and monitors the individual tasks to be performed by each SLM configured within a SAM. The chemist interfaces with the operation of the TSC through the Human Computer Interface (HCI), a logical, icon-driven graphical user interface. The CAA paradigm has successfully been applied in automating EPA SW-846 Methods 3541/3620/8081 for the analysis of PCBs in a soil matrix utilizing commercially available equipment in tandem with SLMs constructed by CAA.

  18. Units of analysis in task-analytic research.

    PubMed

    Haring, T G; Kennedy, C H

    1988-01-01

    We develop and discuss four criteria for evaluating the appropriateness of units of analysis for task-analytic research and suggest potential alternatives to the units of analysis currently used. Of the six solutions discussed, the most commonly used unit of analysis in current behavior analytic work, percentage correct, meets only one of the four criteria. Five alternative units of analysis are presented and evaluated: (a) percentage of opportunities to perform meeting criterion, (b) trials to criteria, (c) cumulative competent performances, (d) percentage correct with competent performance coded, and (e) percentage correct with competent performance coded and a grid showing performance on individual steps of the task analysis. Of the solutions evaluated, only one--percentage correct with competent performance coded and a task analysis grid--met all four criteria.

  19. Visual analytics for model selection in time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Bögl, Markus; Aigner, Wolfgang; Filzmoser, Peter; Lammarsch, Tim; Miksch, Silvia; Rind, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Model selection in time series analysis is a challenging task for domain experts in many application areas such as epidemiology, economy, or environmental sciences. The methodology used for this task demands a close combination of human judgement and automated computation. However, statistical software tools do not adequately support this combination through interactive visual interfaces. We propose a Visual Analytics process to guide domain experts in this task. For this purpose, we developed the TiMoVA prototype that implements this process based on user stories and iterative expert feedback on user experience. The prototype was evaluated by usage scenarios with an example dataset from epidemiology and interviews with two external domain experts in statistics. The insights from the experts' feedback and the usage scenarios show that TiMoVA is able to support domain experts in model selection tasks through interactive visual interfaces with short feedback cycles.

  20. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain operational issues (such as how to

  1. Analytical formulation of selected activities of the remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    Existing analysis of Orbiter-RMS-Payload kinematics were surveyed, including equations dealing with the two body kinematics in the presence of a massless RMS and compares analytical explicit solutions with numerical solutions. For the following operational phases of the RMS numerical demonstration, problems are provided: (1) payload capture; (2) payload stowage and removal from cargo bay; and (3) payload deployment. The equation of motion provided accounted for RMS control forces and torque moments and could be extended to RMS flexibility and control loop simulation without increasing the degrees of freedom of the two body system.

  2. Research progress of pharmacological activities and analytical methods for plant origin proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-hong; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-ning; Yang, Feng-qing

    2015-07-01

    As one of the important active components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), plant origin active proteins have many significant pharmacological functions. According to researches on the plant origin active proteins reported in recent years, pharmacological effects include anti-tumor, immune regulation, anti-oxidant, anti-pathogeny microorganism, anti-thrombus, as well as hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities of plant origin were reviewed, respectively. On the other hand, the analytical methods including chromatography, spectroscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for plant origin proteins analysis were also summarized. The main purpose of this paper is providing a reference for future development and application of plant active proteins.

  3. An insight-based longitudinal study of visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Purvi; North, Chris; Lam, Vy; Duca, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    Visualization tools are typically evaluated in controlled studies that observe the short-term usage of these tools by participants on preselected data sets and benchmark tasks. Though such studies provide useful suggestions, they miss the long-term usage of the tools. A longitudinal study of a bioinformatics data set analysis is reported here. The main focus of this work is to capture the entire analysis process that an analyst goes through from a raw data set to the insights sought from the data. The study provides interesting observations about the use of visual representations and interaction mechanisms provided by the tools, and also about the process of insight generation in general. This deepens our understanding of visual analytics, guides visualization developers in creating more effective visualization tools in terms of user requirements, and guides evaluators in designing future studies that are more representative of insights sought by users from their data sets.

  4. Emphasizing Mineral Chemistry in an Analytical Chemistry Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jeffrey G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an analytical chemistry unit in the second year of the chemistry degree course at Curtin University that was designed to reflect the numerous employment opportunities for chemistry graduates in the mineral processing industries and private analytical laboratories. Presents the lecture syllabus, the laboratory course description, and…

  5. A study of the analytical behaviour of selected psycho-active drugs using liquid chromatography, ion trap mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and polarography and the construction of an appropriate database for drug characterisation.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Bernadette; O'Donnell, Fionnuala; Smyth, W Franklin; Leslie, Julian C; Ramachandran, Venkataraman N; Boyd, Neil S; Hack, Catherine J; O'Kane, Edmund; McClean, Stephen

    2007-04-30

    This paper provides analytical chemical information on a range of psycho-active drugs. This analytical chemical information on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)), gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GLC-FID) and polarographic behaviour is then incorporated into a database which is of use in drug characterisation. Application is found in the determination of selected drug compounds in hair samples.

  6. Determination of natural and depleted uranium in urine at the ppt level: an interlaboratory analytical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ough, E A; Lewis, B J; Andrews, W S; Bennett, L G I; Hancock, R G V; D'Agastino, P A

    2006-05-01

    An analytical exercise was initiated in order to determine those procedures with the capability to measure total uranium and uranium (238U/235U) isotopic ratios in urine samples containing >0.02 microg U kg-1 urine. A host laboratory prepared six identical sets of twelve synthetic urine samples containing total uranium in the range of 25 to 770 ng U kg-1 urine and with 238U/235U isotopic ratios ranging from 138 (100% NU) to 215 (51% DU). Sets of samples were shipped to five testing laboratories (four based in Canada and one based in Europe). Each laboratory utilized one of the following analytical techniques: sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS), quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), and instrumental/delayed neutron activation analysis (I/DNAA), in their analyses. PMID:16607181

  7. Academic Analytics: Anatomy of an Exploratory Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Sérgio André; Andrade, António

    2016-01-01

    Investment in technological subsystems to support the activity of teaching and learning and the various areas of the life of Higher Education Institutions (HEI) is of increasing importance in the implementation of the policy and strategy of these organizations. Each of these subsystems collects a huge amount of data that, if properly organized,…

  8. Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modelling Revisited: Controlling for Activation Base Rates

    PubMed Central

    Langner, Robert; Rottschy, Claudia; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    Co-activation of distinct brain regions is a measure of functional interaction, or connectivity, between those regions. The co-activation pattern of a given region can be investigated using seed-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data stored in databases such as BrainMap. This method reveals inter-regional functional connectivity by determining brain regions that are consistently co-activated with a given region of interest (the “seed”) across a broad range of experiments. In current implementations of this meta-analytic connectivity modelling (MACM), significant spatial convergence (i.e. consistent co-activation) is distinguished from noise by comparing it against an unbiased null-distribution of random spatial associations between experiments according to which all grey-matter voxels have the same chance of convergence. As the a priori probability of finding activation in different voxels markedly differs across the brain, computing such a quasi-rectangular null-distribution renders the detection of significant convergence more likely in those voxels that are frequently activated. Here, we propose and test a modified MACM approach that takes this activation frequency bias into account. In this new specific co-activation likelihood estimation (SCALE) algorithm, a null-distribution is generated that reflects the base rate of reporting activation in any given voxel and thus equalizes the a priori chance of finding across-study convergence in each voxel of the brain. Using four exemplary seed regions (right visual area V4, left anterior insula, right intraparietal sulcus, and subgenual cingulum), our tests corroborated the enhanced specificity of the modified algorithm, indicating that SCALE may be especially useful for delineating distinct core networks of co-activation. PMID:24945668

  9. Design and Analysis of Hammerhead Ribozyme Activity Against an Artificial Gene Target

    PubMed Central

    Carter, James; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro cleavage assays are routinely conducted to properly assess the catalytic activity of hammerhead ribozymes (HHR) against target RNA molecules like the dengue virus RNA genomes. These experiments are performed for initial assessment of HHR catalysis in a cell-free system and have been simplified by the substitution of agarose gel electrophoresis for SDS-PAGE. Substituting mobility assays enables the analysis of ribozymes in a more rapid fashion without radioisotopes. Here we describe the in vitro transcription of an HHR and corresponding target from T7-promoted plasmids into RNA molecules leading to the analysis of HHR activity against the RNA target by in vitro cleavage assays. PMID:24318886

  10. Linking New Learning with Previous Experiences: An Activity in Teaching Dimensional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Werner, Jana Rae

    Throughout America's secondary science classrooms, students struggle to master fundamental science principles, especially when math-related applications are involved. For example, in chemistry students struggle to solve quantitative problems. This paper presents an activity that leads to a useful understanding of dimensional analysis; i.e., unit…

  11. Critical Access Hospitals and Retail Activity: An Empirical Analysis in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lara; Whitacre, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper takes an empirical approach to determining the effect that a critical access hospital (CAH) has on local retail activity. Previous research on the relationship between hospitals and economic development has primarily focused on single-case, multiplier-oriented analysis. However, as the efficacy of federal and state-level rural…

  12. An interlaboratory transfer of a multi-analyte assay between continents.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Alexandra; Dong, Kelly; Hughes, Stephen; Barfield, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Alex has worked at GlaxoSmithKline for the past 15 years and currently works within the bioanalytical and toxicokinetic group in the United Kingdom. Alex's role in previous years has been the in-house support of preclinical and clinical bioanalysis, from method development through to sample analysis activities as well as acting as PI for GLP bioanalysis and toxicokinetics. For the past two years, Alex has applied this analytical and regulatory experience to focus on the outsourcing of preclinical bioanalysis, toxicokinetics and clinical bioanalysis, working closely with multiple bioanalytical and in-life CRO partners worldwide. Alex works to support DMPK and Safety Assessment outsourcing activities for GSK across multiple therapeutic areas, from the first GLP study through to late stage clinical PK studies. Transfer and cross-validation of an existing analytical assay between a laboratory providing current analytical support, and a laboratory needed for new or additional support, can present the bioanalyst with numerous challenges. These challenges can be technical or logistical in nature and may prove to be significant when transferring an assay between laboratories in different continents. Part of GlaxoSmithKline's strategy to improve confidence in providing quality data, is to cross-validate between laboratories. If the cross-validation fails predefined acceptance criteria, then a subsequent investigation would follow. This may also prove to be challenging. The importance of thorough planning and good communication throughout assay transfer, cross-validation and any subsequent investigations is illustrated in this case study.

  13. Integrating bio-inorganic and analytical chemistry into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy exercise as part of a five-week long laboratory-based project on the purification of myoglobin from beef. Students were required to prepare samples for chemical analysis, operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, critically evaluate their iron data, and integrate these data into a study of myoglobin.

  14. Analytic Hierarchy Process to Define the Most Important Factors and Related Technologies for Empowering Elderly People in Taking an Active Role in their Health.

    PubMed

    Fico, G; Gaeta, E; Arredondo, M T; Pecchia, L

    2015-09-01

    Successful management of health conditions in older population is determined by strategic involvement of a professional team of careers and by empowering patients and their caregivers to take over a central role and responsibility in the daily management of condition. Identifying, structuring and ranking the most important needs related to these aspects could pave the way for improved strategies in designing systems and technological solutions supporting user empowerment. This paper presents the preliminary results of a study aiming to elicit these needs. Healthcare professionals, working together in the European and Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP-AHA) initiative, have defined a set of needs and factors that have been organized in two hierarchies around the concepts of patient activation and proactive and prepared care team, defined in the Chronic Care Model. The two hierarchies have been mapped, by a team of experts in computer science, with technologies and solutions that could facilitate the achievement of the identified needs.

  15. Clinical laboratory analytics: Challenges and promise for an emerging discipline.

    PubMed

    Shirts, Brian H; Jackson, Brian R; Baird, Geoffrey S; Baron, Jason M; Clements, Bryan; Grisson, Ricky; Hauser, Ronald George; Taylor, Julie R; Terrazas, Enrique; Brimhall, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The clinical laboratory is a major source of health care data. Increasingly these data are being integrated with other data to inform health system-wide actions meant to improve diagnostic test utilization, service efficiency, and "meaningful use." The Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists hosted a satellite meeting on clinical laboratory analytics in conjunction with their annual meeting on May 29, 2014 in San Francisco. There were 80 registrants for the clinical laboratory analytics meeting. The meeting featured short presentations on current trends in clinical laboratory analytics and several panel discussions on data science in laboratory medicine, laboratory data and its role in the larger healthcare system, integrating laboratory analytics, and data sharing for collaborative analytics. One main goal of meeting was to have an open forum of leaders that work with the "big data" clinical laboratories produce. This article summarizes the proceedings of the meeting and content discussed.

  16. Clinical laboratory analytics: Challenges and promise for an emerging discipline

    PubMed Central

    Shirts, Brian H.; Jackson, Brian R.; Baird, Geoffrey S.; Baron, Jason M.; Clements, Bryan; Grisson, Ricky; Hauser, Ronald George; Taylor, Julie R.; Terrazas, Enrique; Brimhall, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The clinical laboratory is a major source of health care data. Increasingly these data are being integrated with other data to inform health system-wide actions meant to improve diagnostic test utilization, service efficiency, and “meaningful use.” The Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists hosted a satellite meeting on clinical laboratory analytics in conjunction with their annual meeting on May 29, 2014 in San Francisco. There were 80 registrants for the clinical laboratory analytics meeting. The meeting featured short presentations on current trends in clinical laboratory analytics and several panel discussions on data science in laboratory medicine, laboratory data and its role in the larger healthcare system, integrating laboratory analytics, and data sharing for collaborative analytics. One main goal of meeting was to have an open forum of leaders that work with the “big data” clinical laboratories produce. This article summarizes the proceedings of the meeting and content discussed. PMID:25774320

  17. An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell

  18. Analytical essay writing: a new activity introduced to a traditional curriculum.

    PubMed

    Kommalage, Mahinda

    2012-03-01

    Medical students following a traditional curriculum get few opportunities to engage in activities such as a literature search, scientific writing, and active and collaborative learning. An analytical essay writing activity (AEWA) in physiology was introduced to first-year students. Each student prepared an essay incorporating new research findings with existing knowledge on a medical topic. Students were expected to study on the topic in detail from textbooks as well as from research publications and write a descriptive and critical analysis. This activity would help them to be aware of new developments in the field and understand the complexity and rapidity of changes in the subject. The aim of this study was to learn how students used the AEWA as a learning process. For this purpose, student perceptions were assessed quantitatively and those of the faculty staff were assessed qualitatively. The data from the students showed considerable achievements in the medical database search, scientific writing, group work, and search for new scientific knowledge. The activity was influenced by prior capabilities in computer use, English language knowledge, and writing ability. Resources available at the medical school had a greater influence on the activity. Faculty staff appreciated the quality of the essay while highlighting areas of improvement. The students seemed to be satisfied with the supervisory role of the faculty staff, whereas the staff felt that the students used the supervisors less than expected. The AEWA was a successful activity promoting many aspects of active and collaborative learning. The low availability of books and information and communications technology (ICT) resources, poor internet connection, and insufficient English language skills were probably responsible for the negative feedback on this activity in this resource-deprived environment. PMID:22383413

  19. Analytical essay writing: a new activity introduced to a traditional curriculum.

    PubMed

    Kommalage, Mahinda

    2012-03-01

    Medical students following a traditional curriculum get few opportunities to engage in activities such as a literature search, scientific writing, and active and collaborative learning. An analytical essay writing activity (AEWA) in physiology was introduced to first-year students. Each student prepared an essay incorporating new research findings with existing knowledge on a medical topic. Students were expected to study on the topic in detail from textbooks as well as from research publications and write a descriptive and critical analysis. This activity would help them to be aware of new developments in the field and understand the complexity and rapidity of changes in the subject. The aim of this study was to learn how students used the AEWA as a learning process. For this purpose, student perceptions were assessed quantitatively and those of the faculty staff were assessed qualitatively. The data from the students showed considerable achievements in the medical database search, scientific writing, group work, and search for new scientific knowledge. The activity was influenced by prior capabilities in computer use, English language knowledge, and writing ability. Resources available at the medical school had a greater influence on the activity. Faculty staff appreciated the quality of the essay while highlighting areas of improvement. The students seemed to be satisfied with the supervisory role of the faculty staff, whereas the staff felt that the students used the supervisors less than expected. The AEWA was a successful activity promoting many aspects of active and collaborative learning. The low availability of books and information and communications technology (ICT) resources, poor internet connection, and insufficient English language skills were probably responsible for the negative feedback on this activity in this resource-deprived environment.

  20. Analytical analysis of borehole experiments for the estimation of subsurface thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscoso Lembcke, Luis G.; Roubinet, Delphine; Gidel, Floriane; Irving, James; Pehme, Peeter; Parker, Beth L.

    2016-05-01

    Estimating subsurface thermal properties is required in many research fields and applications. To this end, borehole experiments such as the thermal response test (TRT) and active-line-source (ALS) method are of significant interest because they allow us to determine thermal property estimates in situ. With these methods, the subsurface thermal conductivity and diffusivity are typically estimated using asymptotic analytical expressions, whose simplifying assumptions have an impact on the accuracy of the values obtained. In this paper, we develop new analytical tools for interpreting borehole thermal experiments, and we use these tools to assess the impact of such assumptions on thermal property estimates. Quite importantly, our results show that the simplifying assumptions of currently used analytical models can result in errors in the estimated thermal conductivity and diffusivity of up to 60% and 40%, respectively. We also show that these errors are more important for short-term analysis and can be reduced with an appropriate choice of experimental duration. Our results demonstrate the need for cautious interpretation of the data collected during TRT and ALS experiments as well as for improvement of the existing in-situ experimental methods.

  1. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 6; Theoretical Analysis for Coupling of Active Noise Control Actuator Ring Sources to an Annular Duct with Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an analytical model for the coupling of active noise control (ANC) piston-type actuators that are mounted flush to the inner and outer walls of an annular duct to the modes in the duct generated by the actuator motion. The analysis will be used to couple the ANC actuators to the modal analysis propagation computer program for the annular duct, to predict the effects of active suppression of fan-generated engine noise sources. This combined program will then be available to assist in the design or evaluation of ANC systems in fan engine annular exhaust ducts. An analysis has been developed to predict the modes generated in an annular duct due to the coupling of flush-mounted ring actuators on the inner and outer walls of the duct. The analysis has been combined with a previous analysis for the coupling of modes to a cylindrical duct in a FORTRAN computer program to perform the computations. The method includes the effects of uniform mean flow in the duct. The program can be used for design or evaluation purposes for active noise control hardware for turbofan engines. Predictions for some sample cases modeled after the geometry of the NASA Lewis ANC Fan indicate very efficient coupling in both the inlet and exhaust ducts for the m = 6 spinning mode at frequencies where only a single radial mode is cut-on. Radial mode content in higher order cut-off modes at the source plane and the required actuator displacement amplitude to achieve 110 dB SPL levels in the desired mode were predicted. Equivalent cases with and without flow were examined for the cylindrical and annular geometry, and little difference was found for a duct flow Mach number of 0.1. The actuator ring coupling program will be adapted as a subroutine to the cylindrical duct modal analysis and the exhaust duct modal analysis. This will allow the fan source to be defined in terms of characteristic modes at the fan source plane and predict the propagation to the

  2. Complexity analysis of simulations with analytic bond-order potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teijeiro, Carlos; Hammerschmidt, Thomas; Seiser, Bernhard; Drautz, Ralf; Sutmann, Godehard

    2016-02-01

    The modeling of materials at the atomistic level with interatomic potentials requires a reliable description of different bonding situations and relevant system properties. For this purpose, analytic bond-order potentials (BOPs) provide a systematic and robust approximation to density functional theory (DFT) and tight binding (TB) calculations at reasonable computational cost. This paper presents a formal analysis of the computational complexity of analytic BOP simulations, based on a detailed assessment of the most computationally intensive parts. Different implementation algorithms are presented alongside with optimizations for efficient numerical processing. The theoretical complexity study is complemented by systematic benchmarks of the scalability of the algorithms with increasing system size and accuracy level of the BOP approximation. Both approaches demonstrate that the computation of atomic forces in analytic BOPs can be performed with a similar scaling as the computation of atomic energies.

  3. An Analytic Technique for Investigating Mode-Locked Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Usechak, N.G.; Agrawal, G.P.

    2005-09-30

    We present an analytic theory capable of predicting pulse parameters in mode-locked lasers in the presence of dispersion and nonlinearity. Excellent agreement is obtained between this approach and full numerical solutions.

  4. Analytic Model for Description of Above-Threshold Ionization by an Intense, Short Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anthony F.; Frolov, M. V.; Knyazeva, D. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Geng, J.-W.; Peng, L.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    We present an analytic model for above-threshold ionization (ATI) of an atom by an intense, linearly-polarized short laser pulse. Our quantum analysis provides closed-form formulas for the differential probability of ATI, with amplitudes given by a coherent sum of partial amplitudes describing ionization by neighboring optical cycles near the peak of the intensity envelope of a short laser pulse. These analytic results explain key features of short-pulse ATI spectra, such as the left-right asymmetry in the ionized electron angular distribution, the multi-plateau structures, and both large-scale and fine-scale oscillation patterns resulting from quantum interferences of electron trajectories. The ATI spectrum in the middle part of the ATI plateau is shown to be sensitive to the spatial symmetry of the initial bound state of the active electron owing to contributions from multiple-return electron trajectories. An extension of our analytic formulas to real atoms provides results that are in good agreement with results of numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He and Ar atoms. Research supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-1208059, by RFBR Grant No. 13-02-00420, by Ministry of Ed. & Sci. of the Russian Fed. Proj. No. 1019, by NNSFC Grant Nos. 11322437, 11174016, and 11121091, and by the Dynasty Fdn. (MVF & DVK).

  5. Analytical studies: a framework for quality improvement design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Provost, Lloyd P

    2011-04-01

    Conducting studies for learning is fundamental to improvement. Deming emphasised that the reason for conducting a study is to provide a basis for action on the system of interest. He classified studies into two types depending on the intended target for action. An enumerative study is one in which action will be taken on the universe that was studied. An analytical study is one in which action will be taken on a cause system to improve the future performance of the system of interest. The aim of an enumerative study is estimation, while an analytical study focuses on prediction. Because of the temporal nature of improvement, the theory and methods for analytical studies are a critical component of the science of improvement.

  6. Developing an Emergency Physician Productivity Index Using Descriptive Health Analytics.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding became a major barrier to receiving timely emergency care. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, we identified variables and factors affecting crowding and performance to develop indicators to help evaluation and improvement. Measuring efficiency of work and activity of throughput processes; it was important to develop an ED physician productivity index. Data on all ED patients' encounters over the last six months of 2014 were retrieved and descriptive health analytics methods were used. Three variables were identified for their influence on productivity and performance; Number of Treated Patients per Physician, Patient Acuity Level and Treatment Time. The study suggested a formula to calculate the productivity index of each physician through dividing the Number of Treated Patients by Patient Acuity Level squared and Treatment Time to identify physicians with low productivity index and investigate causes and factors.

  7. MAGNETARS AS HIGHLY MAGNETIZED QUARK STARS: AN ANALYTICAL TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Orsaria, M.; Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; Vucetich, H.

    2011-06-10

    We present an analytical model of a magnetar as a high-density magnetized quark bag. The effect of strong magnetic fields (B > 5 x 10{sup 16} G) in the equation of state is considered. An analytic expression for the mass-radius relationship is found from the energy variational principle in general relativity. Our results are compared with observational evidence of possible quark and/or hybrid stars.

  8. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366 nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432 nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475 nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509 nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources.

  9. The persistence of equatorial spread F - an analysis on seasonal, solar activity and geomagnetic activity aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Devasia, C. V.; Ravindran, Sudha; Sridharan, R.

    2009-02-01

    The persistence (duration) of Equatorial Spread F (ESF), which has significant impact on communication systems, is addressed. Its behavior during different seasons and geomagnetic activity levels under the solar maximum (2001) and minimum (2006) conditions, is reported using the data from the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip 0.5° N) in India. The study reveals that the persistence of the irregularities can be estimated to a reasonable extent by knowing the post sunset F region vertical drift velocity (Vz) and the magnetic activity index Kp. Any sort of advance information on the possible persistence of the ionospheric irregularities responsible for ESF is important for understanding the scintillation morphology, and the results which form the first step in this direction are presented and discussed.

  10. Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds.

  11. Chitosan hydrogels for chondroitin sulphate controlled release: an analytical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bianchera, Annalisa; Salomi, Enrico; Pezzanera, Matteo; Ruwet, Elisabeth; Bettini, Ruggero; Elviri, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical characterization of chitosan scaffolds obtained by freeze-gelation toward the uptake and the controlled release of chondroitin sulphate (CS), as cartilage repair agent, under different pH conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and liquid chromatography-UV spectrophotometry (LC-UV) techniques were exploited to obtain qualitative and quantitative descriptions of polymer and drug behaviour in the biomaterial. As for morphology, SEM analysis allowed the evaluation of scaffold porosity in terms of pore size and distribution both at the surface (Feret diameter 58 ± 19 μm) and on the cross section (Feret diameter 106 ± 51 μm). LC and ATR-FTIR evidenced a pH-dependent CS loading and release behaviour, strongly highlighting the role of electrostatic forces on chitosan/chondroitin sulphate interactions. PMID:25614850

  12. An investigation of helicopter dynamic coupling using an analytical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    Many attempts have been made in recent years to predict the off-axis response of a helicopter to control inputs, and most have had little success. Since physical insight is limited by the complexity of numerical simulation models, this paper examines the off-axis response problem using an analytical model, with the goal of understanding the mechanics of the coupling. A new induced velocity model is extended to include the effects of wake distortion from pitch rate. It is shown that the inclusion of these results in a significant change in the lateral flap response to a steady pitch rate. The proposed inflow model is coupled with the full rotor/body dynamics, and comparisons are made between the model and flight test data for a UH-60 in hover. Results show that inclusion of induced velocity variations due to shaft rate improves correlation in the pitch response to lateral cycle inputs.

  13. Defining Behavior-Environment Interactions: Translating and Developing An Experimental and Applied Behavior-Analytic Vocabulary in and to the National Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomisto, Marti T.; Parkkinen, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Verbal behavior, as in the use of terms, is an important part of scientific activity in general and behavior analysis in particular. Many glossaries and dictionaries of behavior analysis have been published in English, but few in any other language. Here we review the area of behavior analytic terminology, its translations, and development in…

  14. A literature review of methods of analysis of organic analytes in radioactive wastes with an emphasis on sources from the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report, compiled by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), examines literature originating through the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear industry relating to the analyses of organic constituents of radioactive waste. Additionally, secondary references from the UK and other counties, including the United States, have been reviewed. The purpose of this literature review was to find analytical methods that would apply to the mixed-waste matrices found at Hanford.

  15. An Analytical Model of Tribocharging in Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, D. P.; Hartzell, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    discuss the design of an experiment planned to test the charging estimates provided by the model presented and the potential implications for our understanding of regolith behavior.

  16. The cause of complexity in nature: An analytical and computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    This work is going to present the cause of complexity in nature from an analytical and computational point of view. The cause of complex pattern formation is explained by the local activity of cells in complex systems which are analytically modeled by nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations in physics, chemistry, biology and brain research. There are not only rigorous analytical criteria of local activity and the edge of chaos, but also constructive procedures to visualize them by computer simulations. In technology, the question arises whether these criteria and procedures can be used to construct artificial life and artificial minds.

  17. Combining metabolic pathway analysis with Evolutionary Game Theory: explaining the occurrence of low-yield pathways by an analytic optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Stefan; de Figueiredo, Luis F; Schroeter, Anja; Kaleta, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    Elementary-mode analysis is a powerful method for detecting all potential pathways in a metabolic network and computing the associated molar yields. Metabolic pathways can be interpreted as different strategies of organisms. Thus, methods from Evolutionary Game Theory can be employed. In Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), it is usually assumed that molar yields of relevant products (such as biomass or ATP) have been maximized during evolution. This has been questioned on game-theoretical grounds. In particular, in situations that can be characterized as a Prisoner's Dilemma, maximization of flux is not in line with maximization of yield. Under other conditions (that is, for other parameter values of maximal velocities), a Harmony game can result, where the above two maximization criteria give the same result. Here, we analyse the optimal situations under varying conditions. In particular, we consider the case where the cell can allocate a certain amount of protein on several enzymes in a varying distribution and model this by a linear programming problem in which not only the rates but also the maximal velocities are variable. It turns out that in the case of low or moderate synthesis costs for the enzymes of the high-yield pathway, maximizing pathway flux is in line with maximizing molar yield while in the case of high costs, it is not. This may explain the observation that many cells such as striated muscle cells, tumour cells, activated lymphocytes and several yeasts do not reallocate protein away from glycolytic enzymes towards TCA cycle and respiratory chain enzymes, in spite of the higher efficiency of respiration. This provides a straightforward explanation of the Warburg effect in tumour cells.

  18. Digital forensics: an analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM).

    PubMed

    Bulbul, Halil Ibrahim; Yavuzcan, H Guclu; Ozel, Mesut

    2013-12-10

    In order to ensure that digital evidence is collected, preserved, examined, or transferred in a manner safeguarding the accuracy and reliability of the evidence, law enforcement and digital forensic units must establish and maintain an effective quality assurance system. The very first part of this system is standard operating procedures (SOP's) and/or models, conforming chain of custody requirements, those rely on digital forensics "process-phase-procedure-task-subtask" sequence. An acceptable and thorough Digital Forensics (DF) process depends on the sequential DF phases, and each phase depends on sequential DF procedures, respectively each procedure depends on tasks and subtasks. There are numerous amounts of DF Process Models that define DF phases in the literature, but no DF model that defines the phase-based sequential procedures for crime scene identified. An analytical crime scene procedure model (ACSPM) that we suggest in this paper is supposed to fill in this gap. The proposed analytical procedure model for digital investigations at a crime scene is developed and defined for crime scene practitioners; with main focus on crime scene digital forensic procedures, other than that of whole digital investigation process and phases that ends up in a court. When reviewing the relevant literature and interrogating with the law enforcement agencies, only device based charts specific to a particular device and/or more general perspective approaches to digital evidence management models from crime scene to courts are found. After analyzing the needs of law enforcement organizations and realizing the absence of crime scene digital investigation procedure model for crime scene activities we decided to inspect the relevant literature in an analytical way. The outcome of this inspection is our suggested model explained here, which is supposed to provide guidance for thorough and secure implementation of digital forensic procedures at a crime scene. In digital forensic

  19. Analytical parameters for amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Yohei; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Hideji

    2010-01-01

    Analytical conditions of amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis, the basic concept of which was recently proposed by our group, are investigated for higher sample throughput rate. The performance of the improved system is evaluated by applying it to the determination of chloride ions. The flow rates of two sample solutions are independently varied in accordance with sinusoidal voltage signals, each having different frequency. The solutions are merged with a reagent solution and/or a diluent, while the total flow rate is held constant. Downstream, the analytical signal V(d) is monitored with a spectrophotometer. The V(d) shows a complicated profile resulting from amplitude modulated and multiplexed information on the two samples. The V(d) can, however, be deconvoluted to the contribution of each sample through fast Fourier transform (FFT). The amplitudes of the separated wave components are closely related to the concentrations of the analytes in the samples. By moving the window for FFT analysis with time, a temporal profile of the amplitudes can be obtained in real-time. Analytical conditions such as modulation period and system configuration have been optimized using aqueous solutions of Malachite Green (MG). Adequate amplitudes are obtained at the period of as low as 5 s. At this period, the calibration curve for the MG concentration of 0-30 micromol dm(-3) has enough linearity (r(2) = 0.999) and the limit of detection (3.3sigma) is 1.3 micromol dm(-3); the relative standard deviation of repeated measurements (C(MG) = 15 micromol dm(-3), n = 10) is 2.4%. The developed system has been applied to the determination of chloride ions by a mercury(II) thiocyanate method. The system can adequately follow the changes in analyte concentration. The recoveries of chloride ion spiked in real water samples (river and tap water) are satisfactory, around 100%. PMID:20631441

  20. Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

    2012-10-01

    This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester

  1. An analytic performance model of disk arrays and its application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Edward K.; Katz, Randy H.

    1991-01-01

    As disk arrays become widely used, tools for understanding and analyzing their performance become increasingly important. In particular, performance models can be invaluable in both configuring and designing disk arrays. Accurate analytic performance models are desirable over other types of models because they can be quickly evaluated, are applicable under a wide range of system and workload parameters, and can be manipulated by a range of mathematical techniques. Unfortunately, analytical performance models of disk arrays are difficult to formulate due to the presence of queuing and fork-join synchronization; a disk array request is broken up into independent disk requests which must all complete to satisfy the original request. We develop, validate, and apply an analytic performance model for disk arrays. We derive simple equations for approximating their utilization, response time, and throughput. We then validate the analytic model via simulation and investigate the accuracy of each approximation used in deriving the analytical model. Finally, we apply the analytical model to derive an equation for the optimal unit of data striping in disk arrays.

  2. Active Storage with Analytics Capabilities and I/O Runtime System for Petascale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Alok

    2015-03-18

    Computational scientists must understand results from experimental, observational and computational simulation generated data to gain insights and perform knowledge discovery. As systems approach the petascale range, problems that were unimaginable a few years ago are within reach. With the increasing volume and complexity of data produced by ultra-scale simulations and high-throughput experiments, understanding the science is largely hampered by the lack of comprehensive I/O, storage, acceleration of data manipulation, analysis, and mining tools. Scientists require techniques, tools and infrastructure to facilitate better understanding of their data, in particular the ability to effectively perform complex data analysis, statistical analysis and knowledge discovery. The goal of this work is to enable more effective analysis of scientific datasets through the integration of enhancements in the I/O stack, from active storage support at the file system layer to MPI-IO and high-level I/O library layers. We propose to provide software components to accelerate data analytics, mining, I/O, and knowledge discovery for large-scale scientific applications, thereby increasing productivity of both scientists and the systems. Our approaches include 1) design the interfaces in high-level I/O libraries, such as parallel netCDF, for applications to activate data mining operations at the lower I/O layers; 2) Enhance MPI-IO runtime systems to incorporate the functionality developed as a part of the runtime system design; 3) Develop parallel data mining programs as part of runtime library for server-side file system in PVFS file system; and 4) Prototype an active storage cluster, which will utilize multicore CPUs, GPUs, and FPGAs to carry out the data mining workload.

  3. Drug target identification using network analysis: Taking active components in Sini decoction as an example

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si; Jiang, Hailong; Cao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Hu, Ziheng; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chai, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the molecular targets for the beneficial effects of active small-molecule compounds simultaneously is an important and currently unmet challenge. In this study, we firstly proposed network analysis by integrating data from network pharmacology and metabolomics to identify targets of active components in sini decoction (SND) simultaneously against heart failure. To begin with, 48 potential active components in SND against heart failure were predicted by serum pharmacochemistry, text mining and similarity match. Then, we employed network pharmacology including text mining and molecular docking to identify the potential targets of these components. The key enriched processes, pathways and related diseases of these target proteins were analyzed by STRING database. At last, network analysis was conducted to identify most possible targets of components in SND. Among the 25 targets predicted by network analysis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was firstly experimentally validated in molecular and cellular level. Results indicated that hypaconitine, mesaconitine, higenamine and quercetin in SND can directly bind to TNF-α, reduce the TNF-α-mediated cytotoxicity on L929 cells and exert anti-myocardial cell apoptosis effects. We envisage that network analysis will also be useful in target identification of a bioactive compound. PMID:27095146

  4. Analysis of Cultural Heritage by Accelerator Techniques and Analytical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Toque, Jay Arre; Murayama, Yusuke

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present the result of experimental investigation using two very important accelerator techniques: (1) synchrotron radiation XRF and XAFS; and (2) accelerator mass spectrometry and multispectral analytical imaging for the investigation of cultural heritage. We also want to introduce a complementary approach to the investigation of artworks which is noninvasive and nondestructive that can be applied in situ. Four major projects will be discussed to illustrate the potential applications of these accelerator and analytical imaging techniques: (1) investigation of Mongolian Textile (Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan Period) using XRF, AMS and electron microscopy; (2) XRF studies of pigments collected from Korean Buddhist paintings; (3) creating a database of elemental composition and spectral reflectance of more than 1000 Japanese pigments which have been used for traditional Japanese paintings; and (4) visible light-near infrared spectroscopy and multispectral imaging of degraded malachite and azurite. The XRF measurements of the Japanese and Korean pigments could be used to complement the results of pigment identification by analytical imaging through spectral reflectance reconstruction. On the other hand, analysis of the Mongolian textiles revealed that they were produced between 12th and 13th century. Elemental analysis of the samples showed that they contained traces of gold, copper, iron and titanium. Based on the age and trace elements in the samples, it was concluded that the textiles were produced during the height of power of the Mongol empire, which makes them a valuable cultural heritage. Finally, the analysis of the degraded and discolored malachite and azurite demonstrates how multispectral analytical imaging could be used to complement the results of high energy-based techniques.

  5. An analytic approach to perturbations from an initially anisotropic universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Minamitsuji, Masato E-mail: masato.minamitsuji@kwansei.ac.jp

    2011-03-01

    We present the analytic forms for the spectra of the cosmological perturbations from an initially anisotropic universe for the high momentum modes in the context of WKB approximations, as the continuation of the work [29]. We consider the Einstein gravity coupled to a light scalar field. We then assume that the scalar field has the zero velocity initially and then slowly rolls down on the potential toward the origin. In the slow-roll approximations, the Kasner-de Sitter universe with a planar symmetry is a good approximation as the background evolution. Quantization of the perturbations in the adiabatic vacuum, which we call the anisotropic vacuum, is carried out. For non-planar high momentum modes whose comoving momentum component orthogonal to the plane is bigger than the Hubble parameter at the inflationary phase, the WKB approximation is valid for the whole stage of the isotropization. On the other hand, the planar modes whose comoving momentum component orthogonal to the plane is comparable to the Hubble parameter, is amplified during the process of the anisotropic expansion. In the final gravitational wave spectra, we find that there is an asymmetry between the two polarizations of the gravitational wave because the initial mode mixing does not vanish.

  6. Tank 241-AN-105, cores 152 and 153, analytical results for the 45 day report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1996-09-20

    This document is the 45-day laboratory report for tank 241-AN-105 push mode core segments collected between June 10, 1996 and June 28, 1996. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-AN-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). The analytical results are included in the data summary table. None of the samples submitted for Total Alpha Activity or Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded notification limits as stated in the Safety Screening DQO. Statistical evaluation on results by calculating the 95% upper confidence limit is not performed by the 222-S Laboratory and is not considered in this report. Primary safety screening results and the raw data from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and DSC analyses are included in this report.

  7. Linear Closed-form Solution and Finite-element Analysis of an Active Tensegrity Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmeť, Stanislav; Platko, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Results of the linear closed form solution of an active or adaptive tensegrity unit, as well as its numerical analysis using finite element method are presented in the paper. The shape of the unit is an octahedral cell with a square base and it is formed by thirteen members (four bottom and four top cables, four edge struts and one central strut). The central strut is designed as an actuator that allows for an adjustment of the shape of the unit which leads to changes of tensile forces in the cables. Due to the diagonal symmetry of the 3D tensegrity unit the closed-form analysis is based on the 2D solution of the equivalent planar biconvex cable system with one central strut under a vertical point load.

  8. An analytic reconstruction method for PET based on cubic splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastis, George A.; Kyriakopoulou, Dimitra; Fokas, Athanasios S.

    2014-03-01

    PET imaging is an important nuclear medicine modality that measures in vivo distribution of imaging agents labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides. Image reconstruction is an essential component in tomographic medical imaging. In this study, we present the mathematical formulation and an improved numerical implementation of an analytic, 2D, reconstruction method called SRT, Spline Reconstruction Technique. This technique is based on the numerical evaluation of the Hilbert transform of the sinogram via an approximation in terms of 'custom made' cubic splines. It also imposes sinogram thresholding which restricts reconstruction only within object pixels. Furthermore, by utilizing certain symmetries it achieves a reconstruction time similar to that of FBP. We have implemented SRT in the software library called STIR and have evaluated this method using simulated PET data. We present reconstructed images from several phantoms. Sinograms have been generated at various Poison noise levels and 20 realizations of noise have been created at each level. In addition to visual comparisons of the reconstructed images, the contrast has been determined as a function of noise level. Further analysis includes the creation of line profiles when necessary, to determine resolution. Numerical simulations suggest that the SRT algorithm produces fast and accurate reconstructions at realistic noise levels. The contrast is over 95% in all phantoms examined and is independent of noise level.

  9. Numerical verification of an analytical model predicting the modal crosscorrelation coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel, G.; Cuvelliez, C.

    1996-12-01

    In the seismic analysis of linear systems using the Response Spectrum Method, the most probable maximum response is usually given by the double sum equation. The contribution of the crosscorrelations to the response has been investigated by various authors. An analytical method was previously developed by one of the authors aiming at defining an expression of the crosscorrelation coefficient taking into account the limited duration of the seismic excitation. Numerical verification is here performed to test the accuracy of the proposed analytical method.

  10. Automation of statistical analysis in the WIPP hazardous waste facility permit for analytical results from characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shokes, T.; Einerson, J.

    2007-07-01

    One goal of characterizing, processing, and shipping waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to make all activities as efficient as possible. Data management and repetitive calculations are a critical part of the process that can be automated, thereby increasing the accuracy and rate at which work is completed and reducing costs. This paper presents the tools developed to automate statistical analysis and other calculations required by the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP). Statistical analyses are performed on the analytical results on gas samples from the headspace of waste containers and solid samples from the core of the waste container. The calculations include determining the number of samples, test for the shape of the distribution of the analytical results, mean, standard deviation, upper 90-percent confidence limit of the mean, and the minimum required Waste Acceptance Plan (WAP) sample size. The input data for these calculations are from the batch data reports for headspace gas analytical results and solids analysis, which must also be obtained and collated for proper use. The most challenging component of the statistical analysis, if performed manually, is the determination of the distribution shape; therefore, the distribution testing is typically performed using a certified software tool. All other calculations can be completed manually, with a spreadsheet, custom developed software, and/or certified software tool. Out of the options available, manually performing the calculations or using a spreadsheet are the least desirable. These methods rely heavily on the availability of an expert, such as a statistician, to perform the calculation. These methods are also more open to human error such as transcription or 'cut and paste' errors. A SAS program is in the process of being developed to perform the calculations. Due to the potential size of the data input files and the need to archive the data in an accessible format, the SAS

  11. Fractal analysis reveals subclasses of neurons and suggests an explanation of their spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Favela, Luis H; Coey, Charles A; Griff, Edwin R; Richardson, Michael J

    2016-07-28

    The present work used fractal time series analysis (detrended fluctuation analysis; DFA) to examine the spontaneous activity of single neurons in an anesthetized animal model, specifically, the mitral cells in the rat main olfactory bulb. DFA bolstered previous research in suggesting two subclasses of mitral cells. Although there was no difference in the fractal scaling of the interspike interval series at the shorter timescales, there was a significant difference at longer timescales. Neurons in Group B exhibited fractal, power-law scaled interspike intervals, whereas neurons in Group A exhibited random variation. These results raise questions about the role of these different cells within the olfactory bulb and potential explanations of their dynamics. Specifically, self-organized criticality has been proposed as an explanation of fractal scaling in many natural systems, including neural systems. However, this theory is based on certain assumptions that do not clearly hold in the case of spontaneous neural activity, which likely reflects intrinsic cell dynamics rather than activity driven by external stimulation. Moreover, it is unclear how self-organized criticality might account for the random dynamics observed in Group A, and how these random dynamics might serve some functional role when embedded in the typical activity of the olfactory bulb. These theoretical considerations provide direction for additional experimental work. PMID:27189719

  12. Evaluation of the WIND System atmospheric models: An analytic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, J.D.

    1991-11-25

    An analytic approach was used in this study to test the logic, coding, and the theoretical limits of the WIND System atmospheric models for the Savannah River Plant. In this method, dose or concentration estimates predicted by the models were compared to the analytic solutions to evaluate their performance. The results from AREA EVACUATION and PLTFF/PLUME were very nearly identical to the analytic solutions they are based on and the evaluation procedure demonstrated that these models were able to reproduce the theoretical characteristics of a puff or a plume. The dose or concentration predicted by PLTFF/PLUME was always within 1% of the analytic solution. Differences between the dose predicted by 2DPUF and its analytic solution were substantially greater than those associated with PUFF/PLUME, but were usually smaller than 6%. This behavior was expected because PUFF/PLUME solves a form of the analytic solution for a single puff, and 2DPUF performs an integration over a period of time for several puffs to obtain the dose. Relatively large differences between the dose predicted by 2DPUF and its analytic solution were found to occur close to the source under stable atmospheric conditions. WIND System users should be aware of these situations in which the assumptions of the System atmospheric models may be violated so that dose predictions can be interpreted correctly. The WIND System atmospheric models are similar to many other dispersion codes used by the EPA, NRC, and DOE. If the quality of the source term and meteorological data is high, relatively accurate and timely forecasts for emergency response situations can be made by the WIND System atmospheric models.

  13. Conflicting notions of citizenship in old age: An analysis of an activation practice.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Susan; Horstman, Klasien; Jansen, Maria; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Ageing societies and increasing healthcare expenditures are inducing Western welfare states to reform their care arrangements. In a qualitative research project, we explored how citizenship in old age is constructed in a public innovative care practice situated in the southern part of the Netherlands: the shaping of 'life cycle robust neighbourhoods'. Life cycle robustness entails a further not formally defined ideal of age-friendly places, enabling older adults to live independently for longer periods of time. Participation is being presented as an important element towards life cycle robustness. We used ethnographic methods to understand different constructions of citizenship in old age. We analysed documents and interviewed local policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors in the fields of housing, care and welfare, professionals working for these organisations, and older adults living (independently) in these neighbourhoods (n=73). Additionally, we observed formal and informal meetings and organised focus groups. Our findings demonstrate conflicting notions of old age. Policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors, professionals, and even representatives of older adults share a belief an activation policy is necessary, although they differ in how they interpret this need. Policymakers and civil servants are convinced that societal and financial incentives necessitate current reforms, managers and directors talk about quality and organisational needs, while professionals mainly strive to empower older adults (as citizens). Simultaneously, older adults try to live their lives as independent as possible. We argue that, whereas old age became a distinct category in the last century, we now recognise a new period in which this category is being more and more de-categorised.

  14. Testing microtaphofacies as an analytic tool for integrated facies and sedimentological analysis using Lower Miocene mixed carbonate/siliciclastic sediments from the North Alpine Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebelsick, James; Bieg, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    Taphonomic studies have mostly concentrated on the investigation and quantification of isolated macroscopic faunal and floral elements. Carbonate rocks, in contrary to isolated macroscopic objects, have rarely been specifically addressed in terms of taphonomic features, although many aspects of microfacies analyses are directly related to the preservation of constituent biogenic components. There is thus a high potential for analyzing and quantifying taphonomic features in carbonate rocks (microtaphofacies), not the least as an additional tool for facies analysis. Analyzing the role of taphonomy in carbonate environments can be used to determine how different skeletal architectures through time and evolving synecological relationships (bioerosion and encrustation) have influence carbonate environments and their preservation in the rock record. This pilot study analyses the microtaphofacies of Lower Miocene, shallow water, mixed carbonate - siliciclastic environment from the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Molasse Sea) of southern Germany. The sediments range from biogenic bryomol carbonates to pure siliciclastics. This allows environmental interpretation to be made not only with respect to biogenic composition (dominated by bivalves, gastropods, bryozoans and barnacles), but also to siliciclastic grain characteristics and sedimentary features. Facies interpretation is relatively straight forward with a somewhat varied near shore facies distribution characterized dominated by carbonate which grade into higher energy, siliciclastic offshore sediments. Taphonomic features are assessed along this gradient with respect to total component composition as well as by following the trajectories of individual components types. The results are interpreted with respect to biogenic production, fragmentation, abrasion and transport.

  15. An analytic model of high solidity vertical axis windmills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carothers, R. G.; Bragg, G. M.

    By introducing an induced cross flow to the conventional flow models used for vertical-axis windmills an analytic model for high solidity rotors is developed. Results as predicted by the model are compared with those determined from wind tunnel tests.

  16. An analytical formulation for phase noise in MEMS oscillators.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Deepak; Seshia, Ashwin

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the design of low-noise MEMS oscillators. This paper presents a new analytical formulation for noise in a MEMS oscillator encompassing essential resonator and amplifier nonlinearities. The analytical expression for oscillator noise is derived by solving a second-order nonlinear stochastic differential equation. This approach is applied to noise modeling of an electrostatically addressed MEMS resonator-based square-wave oscillator in which the resonator and oscillator circuit nonlinearities are integrated into a single modeling framework. By considering the resulting amplitude and phase relations, we derive additional noise terms resulting from resonator nonlinearities. The phase diffusion of an oscillator is studied and the phase diffusion coefficient is proposed as a metric for noise optimization. The proposed nonlinear phase noise model provides analytical insight into the underlying physics and a pathway toward the design optimization for low-noise MEMS oscillators.

  17. Study of an analytical method for hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, O P; Bumsted, H E; Grunder, F I; Hunt, B L; Manning, G E; Riemann, R A; Samuels, J K; Tatone, V; Waldschmidt, S J; Hernandez, P

    1983-06-01

    The diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method was evaluated by analyzing spiked PVC filters prepared by an AIHA-accredited consultant laboratory for chromium (VI). All seven participating laboratories received the samples and performed the analyses at the same time. Three laboratories simultaneously tested three alternative analytical procedures. Reduced amounts of chromium (VI) were found by both the consultant and participating laboratories when using the test procedure and one of the alternative methods. Two of the alternative analytical methods, both of which involve an alkaline extraction procedure, provided higher recoveries and more precise values for the test filters. It appears that the alkaline extraction procedure may be more appropriate for occupational health samples taken in steel industry environments which may include several interferents. Suggestions are made for further studies to determine the most appropriate analytical method.

  18. Multicriteria decision analysis in ranking of analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Orłowski, Aleksander

    2015-03-27

    The study presents the possibility of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) application when choosing analytical procedures with low environmental impact. A type of MCDA, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), was chosen as versatile tool that meets all the analytical chemists--decision makers requirements. Twenty five analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water samples (as an example) were selected as input alternatives to MCDA analysis. Nine different criteria describing the alternatives were chosen from different groups--metrological, economical and the most importantly--environmental impact. The weights for each criterion were obtained from questionnaires that were sent to experts, giving three different scenarios for MCDA results. The results of analysis show that PROMETHEE is very promising tool to choose the analytical procedure with respect to its greenness. The rankings for all three scenarios placed solid phase microextraction and liquid phase microextraction--based procedures high, while liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and stir bar sorptive extraction--based procedures were placed low in the ranking. The results show that although some of the experts do not intentionally choose green analytical chemistry procedures, their MCDA choice is in accordance with green chemistry principles. The PROMETHEE ranking results were compared with more widely accepted green analytical chemistry tools--NEMI and Eco-Scale. As PROMETHEE involved more different factors than NEMI, the assessment results were only weakly correlated. Oppositely, the results of Eco-Scale assessment were well-correlated as both methodologies involved similar criteria of assessment.

  19. Design Evaluation of Wind Turbine Spline Couplings Using an Analytical Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Wallen, R.; Errichello, R.; Halse, C.; Lambert, S.

    2015-02-01

    Articulated splines are commonly used in the planetary stage of wind turbine gearboxes for transmitting the driving torque and improving load sharing. Direct measurement of spline loads and performance is extremely challenging because of limited accessibility. This paper presents an analytical model for the analysis of articulated spline coupling designs. For a given torque and shaft misalignment, this analytical model quickly yields insights into relationships between the spline design parameters and resulting loads; bending, contact, and shear stresses; and safety factors considering various heat treatment methods. Comparisons of this analytical model against previously published computational approaches are also presented.

  20. Hybridizing experimental, numerical, and analytical stress analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Robert E.

    2001-06-01

    Good measurements enjoy the advantage of conveying what actually occurs. However, recognizing that vast amounts of displacement, strain and/or stress-related information can now be recorded at high resolution, effective and reliable means of processing the data become important. It can therefore be advantageous to combine measured result with analytical and computations methods. This presentation will describe such synergism and applications to engineering problems. This includes static and transient analysis, notched and perforated composites, and fracture of composites and fiber-filled cement. Experimental methods of moire, thermo elasticity and strain gages are emphasized. Numerical techniques utilized include pseudo finite-element and boundary-element concepts.

  1. Analysis of the Isomerase and Chaperone-Like Activities of an Amebic PDI (EhPDI)

    PubMed Central

    Meléndez-López, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are eukaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds during folding of substrate proteins. Structurally, PDI enzymes share as a common feature the presence of at least one active thioredoxin-like domain. PDI enzymes are also involved in holding, refolding, and degradation of unfolded or misfolded proteins during stressful conditions. The EhPDI enzyme (a 38 kDa polypeptide with two active thioredoxin-like domains) has been used as a model to gain insights into protein folding and disulfide bond formation in E. histolytica. Here, we performed a functional complementation assay, using a ΔdsbC mutant of E. coli, to test whether EhPDI exhibits isomerase activity in vivo. Our preliminary results showed that EhPDI exhibits isomerase activity; however, further mutagenic analysis revealed significant differences in the functional role of each thioredoxin-like domain. Additional studies confirmed that EhPDI protects heat-labile enzymes against thermal inactivation, extending our knowledge about its chaperone-like activity. The characterization of EhPDI, as an oxidative folding catalyst with chaperone-like function, represents the initial step to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in protein folding in E. histolytica. PMID:25695056

  2. An analytical model of the HINT performance metric

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The HINT benchmark was developed to provide a broad-spectrum metric for computers and to measure performance over the full range of memory sizes and time scales. We have extended our understanding of why HINT performance curves look the way they do and can now predict the curves using an analytical model based on simple hardware specifications as input parameters. Conversely, by fitting the experimental curves with the analytical model, hardware specifications such as memory performance can be inferred to provide insight into the nature of a given computer system.

  3. Beamforming and holography image formation methods: an analytic study.

    PubMed

    Solimene, Raffaele; Cuccaro, Antonio; Ruvio, Giuseppe; Tapia, Daniel Flores; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-04-18

    Beamforming and holographic imaging procedures are widely used in many applications such as radar sensing, sonar, and in the area of microwave medical imaging. Nevertheless, an analytical comparison of the methods has not been done. In this paper, the Point Spread Functions pertaining to the two methods are analytically determined. This allows a formal comparison of the two techniques, and to easily highlight how the performance depends on the configuration parameters, including frequency range, number of scatterers, and data discretization. It is demonstrated that the beamforming and holography basically achieve the same resolution but beamforming requires a cheaper (less sensors) configuration.. PMID:27137336

  4. Beamforming and holography image formation methods: an analytic study.

    PubMed

    Solimene, Raffaele; Cuccaro, Antonio; Ruvio, Giuseppe; Tapia, Daniel Flores; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-04-18

    Beamforming and holographic imaging procedures are widely used in many applications such as radar sensing, sonar, and in the area of microwave medical imaging. Nevertheless, an analytical comparison of the methods has not been done. In this paper, the Point Spread Functions pertaining to the two methods are analytically determined. This allows a formal comparison of the two techniques, and to easily highlight how the performance depends on the configuration parameters, including frequency range, number of scatterers, and data discretization. It is demonstrated that the beamforming and holography basically achieve the same resolution but beamforming requires a cheaper (less sensors) configuration..

  5. Delayed feedback control of the Lorenz system: an analytical treatment at a subcritical Hopf bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Pyragas, V; Pyragas, K

    2006-03-01

    We develop an analytical approach for the delayed feedback control of the Lorenz system close to a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. The periodic orbits arising at this bifurcation have no torsion and cannot be stabilized by a conventional delayed feedback control technique. We utilize a modification based on an unstable delayed feedback controller. The analytical approach employs the center manifold theory and the near identity transformation. We derive the characteristic equation for the Floquet exponents of the controlled orbit in an analytical form and obtain simple expressions for the threshold of stability as well as for an optimal value of the control gain. The analytical results are supported by numerical analysis of the original system of nonlinear differential-difference equations.

  6. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN FPGA-BASED ACTIVE FEEDBACK DAMPING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zaipeng; Schulte, Mike; Deibele, Craig Edmond

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a high-intensity proton-based accelerator that produces neutron beams for neutronscattering research. As the most powerful pulsed neutron source in the world, the SNS accelerator has experienced an unprecedented beam instability that has a wide bandwidth (0 to 300MHz) and fast growth time (10 to100 s). In this paper, we propose and analyze several FPGA-based designs for an active feedback damping system. This signal processing system is the first FPGA-based design for active feedback damping of wideband instabilities in high intensity accelerators. It can effectively mitigate instabilities in highintensity protons beams, reduce radiation, and boost the accelerator s luminosity performance. Unlike existing systems, which are designed using analog components, our FPGA-based active feedback damping system offers programmability while maintaining high performance. To meet the system throughput and latency requirements, our proposed designs are guided by detailed analysis of resource and performance tradeoffs. These designs are mapped onto a reconfigurable platform that includes Xilinx Virtex-II Pro FPGAs and high-speed analog-to-digital and digital-toanalog converters. Our results show that our FPGA-based active feedback damping system can provide increased flexibility and improved signal processing performance that are not feasible with existing analog systems.

  7. Using Presentation Software to Flip an Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Neil; Li, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    An undergraduate analytical chemistry course has been adapted to a flipped course format. Course content was provided by video clips, text, graphics, audio, and simple animations organized as concept maps using the cloud-based presentation platform, Prezi. The advantages of using Prezi to present course content in a flipped course format are…

  8. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing of Aqueous Iron: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Stuart, Dean; Gray, H. Neil

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory experiment to illustrate the use of spectroelectrochemical techniques for determination of aqueous iron. The experiment described in this article is applicable to an undergraduate laboratory course in analytical chemistry. Students are asked to fabricate spectroelectrochemical sensors, make electrochemical and optical…

  9. An Interactive Analytical Chemistry Summer Camp for Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Mary E.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    A summer outreach program, which was implemented for the first time in the summer of 2004, that provided middle school girls with an opportunity to conduct college-level analytical chemistry experiments under the guidance of female graduate students is explained. The program proved beneficial to participants at each level.

  10. INTEGRATING BIOANALYTICAL CAPABILITY IN AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a book chapter which is an introductory and summary chapter for the reference work "Immunoassays and Other Bianalytical Techniques" to be published by CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Books. The chapter provides analytical chemists information on new techni...

  11. Analytical approaches to expanding the use of capillary electrophoresis in routine food analysis.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Gregorio; Rodríguez-Flores, Juana; Ríos, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) is becoming an ever more powerful analytical technique for the separation, identification, and quantification of a wide variety of compounds of interest in many application fields. Particularly in food analysis this technique can offer interesting advantages over chromatographic techniques because of its greater simplicity and efficiency. Nevertheless, CE needs to advance with regard to compatibility with sample matrices, sensitivity, and robustness of the methodologies in order to gain even wider acceptance in food analysis laboratories, specially for routine work. This article presents various approaches to expanding the analytical usefulness of CE in food analysis, discussing their advantages over conventional CE. These approaches focus on sample screening, automated sample preparation with on-line CE arrangements, and the automatic integration of calibration in routine analytical work with CE.

  12. Temperature Analysis of an Active Region Core Loop Using AIA and XRT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garst, Jennifer W.; Schmelz, J.; Kimble, J.

    2012-05-01

    Data obtained on December 10, 2010 by both the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) are co-aligned and appropriately scaled in order to do a differential emission measure analysis of the combined data. This project uses Hybrid abundances from Fludra & Schmelz and atomic data from the CHIANTI atomic physics database to analyze an active region core loop and report on the multithermal analysis of the combined data set. The loop being analyzed is visible in the 94, 131, 171, 193, 211, 335 Å passbands on AIA; and the Al-thick, Ti-poly, Al-mesh, Al-poly/Ti-poly, C-Poly/Ti-poly, C-poly, Be-thin, Be-med, Al-med, and Al-poly filters on XRT. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NSF ATM-0402729 as well as a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO.

  13. An analytic approach to understanding and predicting healthcare coverage.

    PubMed

    Delen, Dursun; Fuller, Christie

    2013-01-01

    The inequality in the level of healthcare coverage among the people in the US is a pressing issue. Unfortunately, many people do not have healthcare coverage and much research is needed to identify the factors leading to this phenomenon. Hence, the goal of this study is to examine the healthcare coverage of individuals by applying popular analytic techniques on a wide-variety of predictive factors. A large and feature-rich dataset is used in conjunction with four popular data mining techniques-artificial neural networks, decision trees, support vector machines and logistic regression-to develop prediction models. Applying sensitivity analysis to the developed prediction models, the ranked importance of variables is determined. The experimental results indicated that the most accurate classifier for this phenomenon was the support vector machines that had an overall classification accuracy of 82.23% on the 10-fold holdout/test sample. The most important predictive factors came out as income, employment status, education, and marital status. The ability to identify and explain the reasoning of those likely to be without healthcare coverage through the application of accurate classification models can potentially be used in reducing the disparity in health care coverage.

  14. An analytically linearized helicopter model with improved modeling accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Patrick T.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An analytically linearized model for helicopter flight response including rotor blade dynamics and dynamic inflow, that was recently developed, was studied with the objective of increasing the understanding, the ease of use, and the accuracy of the model. The mathematical model is described along with a description of the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter and flight test used to validate the model. To aid in utilization of the model for sensitivity analysis, a new, faster, and more efficient implementation of the model was developed. It is shown that several errors in the mathematical modeling of the system caused a reduction in accuracy. These errors in rotor force resolution, trim force and moment calculation, and rotor inertia terms were corrected along with improvements to the programming style and documentation. Use of a trim input file to drive the model is examined. Trim file errors in blade twist, control input phase angle, coning and lag angles, main and tail rotor pitch, and uniform induced velocity, were corrected. Finally, through direct comparison of the original and corrected model responses to flight test data, the effect of the corrections on overall model output is shown.

  15. Prompt-gamma activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    A permenent, full-time instrument for prompt-gamma activation analysis is nearing completion as part of the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The design of the analytical system has been optimized for high gamma detection efficiency and low background, particularly for hydrogen. Because of the purity of the neutron beam, shielding requirements are modest and the scatter-capture background is low. As a result of a compact sample-detector geometry, the sensitivity (counting rate per gram of analyte) is a factor of four better than the existing Maryland-NIST thermal-neutron instrument at the reactor. Hydrogen backgrounds of a few micrograms have already been achieved, which promises to be of value in numerous applications where quantitative nondestructive analysis of small quantities of hydrogen in materials is necessary.

  16. Risk Based Requirements for Long Term Stewardship: A Proof-of-Principle Analysis of an Analytic Method Tested on Selected Hanford Locations

    SciTech Connect

    GM Gelston; JW Buck; LR Huesties; MS Peffers; TB Miley; TT Jarvis; WB Andrews

    1998-12-03

    Since 1989, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has managed the environmental legacy of US nuclear weapons production research and testing at 137 facilities in 31 states and one US territory. The EM program has conducted several studies on the public risks posed by contaminated sites at these facilities. In Risks and the Risk Debate DOE, 1995a, the Department analyzed the risks at sites before, during, and after remediation work by the EM program. The results indicated that aside from a few urgent risks, most hazards present little inherent risk because physical and active site management controls limit both the releases of site contaminants, and public access to these hazards. Without these controls, these sites would pose greater risks to the public. Past risk reports, however, provided little irdiormation about post- cleanup risk, primarily because of uncertainty about fiture site uses and site characteristics at the end of planned cleanup activities. This is of concern because in many cases current cleanup technologies, and remedies, will last a shorter period of time than the waste itself and the resulting contamination will remain hazardous.

  17. Risk based requirements for long term stewardship: A proof-of-principle analysis of an analytic method tested on selected Hanford locations

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, T.T.; Andrews, W.B.; Buck, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    Since 1989, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has managed the environmental legacy of US nuclear weapons production, research and testing at 137 facilities in 31 states and one US territory. The EM program has conducted several studies on the public risks posed by contaminated sites at these facilities. In Risks and the Risk Debate [DOE, 1995a], the Department analyzed the risks at sites before, during, and after remediation work by the EM program. The results indicated that aside from a few urgent risks, most hazards present little inherent risk because physical and active site management controls limit both the releases of site contaminants, and public access to these hazards. Without these controls, these sites would pose greater risks to the public. Past risk reports, however, provided little information about post-cleanup risk, primarily because of uncertainty about future site uses and site characteristics at the end of planned cleanup activities. This is of concern because in many cases current cleanup technologies, and remedies, will last a shorter period of time than the waste itself and the resulting contamination will remain hazardous.

  18. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job. PMID:26299761

  19. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job.

  20. Analytics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  1. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  2. An analytical method for predicting postwildfire peak discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method presented here that predicts postwildfire peak discharge was developed from analysis of paired rainfall and runoff measurements collected from selected burned basins. Data were collected from 19 mountainous basins burned by eight wildfires in different hydroclimatic regimes in the western United States (California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and South Dakota). Most of the data were collected for the year of the wildfire and for 3 to 4 years after the wildfire. These data provide some estimate of the changes with time of postwildfire peak discharges, which are known to be transient but have received little documentation. The only required inputs for the analytical method are the burned area and a quantitative measure of soil burn severity (change in the normalized burn ratio), which is derived from Landsat reflectance data and is available from either the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service or the U.S. Geological Survey. The method predicts the postwildfire peak discharge per unit burned area for the year of a wildfire, the first year after a wildfire, and the second year after a wildfire. It can be used at three levels of information depending on the data available to the user; each subsequent level requires either more data or more processing of the data. Level 1 requires only the burned area. Level 2 requires the burned area and the basin average value of the change in the normalized burn ratio. Level 3 requires the burned area and the calculation of the hydraulic functional connectivity, which is a variable that incorporates the sequence of soil burn severity along hillslope flow paths within the burned basin. Measurements indicate that the unit peak discharge response increases abruptly when the 30-minute maximum rainfall intensity is greater than about 5 millimeters per hour (0.2 inches per hour). This threshold may relate to a change in runoff generation from saturated-excess to infiltration-excess overland flow. The

  3. Concurrent Validity for an Activity Vector Analysis Index of Social Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.; Goldfarb, Lori A.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) (N=144 adults) to examine the concurrent validity of the AVA. Results supported the validity of the AVA's social adjustment measure. (LLL)

  4. Analytic model of an IR radiation heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    An IR radiation heat pipe made from multilayer insulation blankets and proposed to be used aboard spacecraft to transfer waste heat was modeled analytically. A circular cross section pipe 9-in. in diameter, 10-ft long, with a specular reflectivity of 0.94 was found to have an efficiency of 58.6 percent. Several key parameters were varied for the circular model to understand their significance. In addition, square and triangular cross section pipes were investigated.

  5. A rational design change methodology based on experimental and analytical modal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinacht, D.J.; Bennett, J.G.

    1993-08-01

    A design methodology that integrates analytical modeling and experimental characterization is presented. This methodology represents a powerful tool for making rational design decisions and changes. An example of its implementation in the design, analysis, and testing of a precisions machine tool support structure is given.

  6. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  7. An analytical study on the bending of prismatic SMA beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Arghavani, Jamal; Poorasadion, Saeid

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an analytical solution is presented for pure bending of shape memory alloy (SMA) beams with symmetric cross section as well as symmetric behavior in tension and compression. To this end, a three-dimensional constitutive equation is reduced to one-dimensional form and employed to study the bending response of SMA beams at high (pseudo-elasticity) and low (shape memory effect) temperatures. An analytical expression for bending stress as well as polynomial approximation for shear stress and deflection are obtained. Derived equations for bending are employed to analyze an SMA beam with rectangular cross section and results are compared with those of the finite element method. The results of this work show good agreement when compared with experimental data and finite element results. Furthermore, the existence of several zero-stress fibers during unloading of SMA beams at low temperature is demonstrated.

  8. Anti-Onchocerca activity and phytochemical analysis of an essential oil from Cyperus articulatus L

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of a safe and effective adult worm drug and the emergence of resistant animal parasite strains to the only recommended drug, the microfilaricide, ivermectin put many at risk of the devastating effects of the onchocerciasis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the acclaimed anti-Onchocerca activity of the roots/rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus in the traditional treatment of onchocerciasis in North Western Cameroon and to assess the plant as a new source of potential filaricidal lead compounds. Methods Crude extracts were prepared from the dried plant parts using hexane, methylene chloride and methanol. The antifilarial activity was evaluated in vitro on microfilariae (Mfs) and adult worms of the bovine derived Onchocerca ochengi, a close relative of Onchocerca volvulus. The viabilities of microfilariae and adult male worms were determined based on motility reduction, while for the adult female worms the viability was based on the standard MTT/formazan assay. Cytotoxicity of the active extract was assessed on monkey kidney epithelial cells in vitro and the selectivity indices (SI) were determined. Acute toxicity of the promising extract was investigated in mice. Chemical composition of the active extract was unraveled by GC/MS analysis. Results Only the hexane extract, an essential oil exhibited anti-Onchocerca activity. The oil killed both the microfilariae and adult worms of O. ochengi in a dose manner dependently, with IC50s of 23.4 μg/ml on the Mfs, 23.4 μg/ml on adult male worms and 31.25 μg/ml on the adult female worms. Selectivity indices were 4, 4, and 2.99 for Mfs, adult males and adult females, respectively. At a single limit dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight, none of 6 mice that received the essential oil by gavage died. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of terpenoids, hydrocarbons and fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives as components of the oil. Conclusions The essential oil from the roots/rhizomes of Cyperus

  9. Analytical applications of microbial fuel cells. Part II: Toxicity, microbial activity and quantification, single analyte detection and other uses.

    PubMed

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, Maria C; Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Cortón, Eduardo

    2015-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells were rediscovered twenty years ago and now are a very active research area. The reasons behind this new activity are the relatively recent discovery of electrogenic or electroactive bacteria and the vision of two important practical applications, as wastewater treatment coupled with clean energy production and power supply systems for isolated low-power sensor devices. Although some analytical applications of MFCs were proposed earlier (as biochemical oxygen demand sensing) only lately a myriad of new uses of this technology are being presented by research groups around the world, which combine both biological-microbiological and electroanalytical expertises. This is the second part of a review of MFC applications in the area of analytical sciences. In Part I a general introduction to biological-based analytical methods including bioassays, biosensors, MFCs design, operating principles, as well as, perhaps the main and earlier presented application, the use as a BOD sensor was reviewed. In Part II, other proposed uses are presented and discussed. As other microbially based analytical systems, MFCs are satisfactory systems to measure and integrate complex parameters that are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise, such as water toxicity (where the toxic effect to aquatic organisms needed to be integrated). We explore here the methods proposed to measure toxicity, microbial metabolism, and, being of special interest to space exploration, life sensors. Also, some methods with higher specificity, proposed to detect a single analyte, are presented. Different possibilities to increase selectivity and sensitivity, by using molecular biology or other modern techniques are also discussed here.

  10. LC-MS screening techniques for wastewater analysis and analytical data handling strategies: Sartans and their transformation products as an example.

    PubMed

    Letzel, Thomas; Bayer, Anne; Schulz, Wolfgang; Heermann, Alexandra; Lucke, Thomas; Greco, Giorgia; Grosse, Sylvia; Schüssler, Walter; Sengl, Manfred; Letzel, Marion

    2015-10-01

    A large number of anthropogenic trace contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, their human metabolites and further transformation products (TPs) enter wastewater treatment plants on a daily basis. A mixture of known, expected, and unknown molecules are discharged into the receiving aquatic environment because only partial elimination occurs for many of these chemicals during physical, biological and chemical treatment processes. In this study, an array of LC-MS methods from three collaborating laboratories was applied to detect and identify anthropogenic trace contaminants and their TPs in different waters. Starting with theoretical predictions of TPs, an efficient workflow using the combination of target, suspected-target and non-target strategies for the identification of these TPs in the environment was developed. These techniques and strategies were applied to study anti-hypertensive drugs from the sartan group (i.e., candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, olmesartan, and valsartan). Degradation experiments were performed in lab-scale wastewater treatment plants, and a screening workflow including an inter-laboratory approach was used for the identification of transformation products in the effluent samples. Subsequently, newly identified compounds were successfully analyzed in effluents of real wastewater treatment plants and river waters. PMID:26246044

  11. LC-MS screening techniques for wastewater analysis and analytical data handling strategies: Sartans and their transformation products as an example.

    PubMed

    Letzel, Thomas; Bayer, Anne; Schulz, Wolfgang; Heermann, Alexandra; Lucke, Thomas; Greco, Giorgia; Grosse, Sylvia; Schüssler, Walter; Sengl, Manfred; Letzel, Marion

    2015-10-01

    A large number of anthropogenic trace contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, their human metabolites and further transformation products (TPs) enter wastewater treatment plants on a daily basis. A mixture of known, expected, and unknown molecules are discharged into the receiving aquatic environment because only partial elimination occurs for many of these chemicals during physical, biological and chemical treatment processes. In this study, an array of LC-MS methods from three collaborating laboratories was applied to detect and identify anthropogenic trace contaminants and their TPs in different waters. Starting with theoretical predictions of TPs, an efficient workflow using the combination of target, suspected-target and non-target strategies for the identification of these TPs in the environment was developed. These techniques and strategies were applied to study anti-hypertensive drugs from the sartan group (i.e., candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, olmesartan, and valsartan). Degradation experiments were performed in lab-scale wastewater treatment plants, and a screening workflow including an inter-laboratory approach was used for the identification of transformation products in the effluent samples. Subsequently, newly identified compounds were successfully analyzed in effluents of real wastewater treatment plants and river waters.

  12. Nine-analyte detection using an array-based biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taitt, Chris Rowe; Anderson, George P.; Lingerfelt, Brian M.; Feldstein, s. Mark. J.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2002-01-01

    A fluorescence-based multianalyte immunosensor has been developed for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples. While the standard 6 x 6 format of the array sensor has been used to analyze six samples for six different analytes, this same format has the potential to allow a single sample to be tested for 36 different agents. The method described herein demonstrates proof of principle that the number of analytes detectable using a single array can be increased simply by using complementary mixtures of capture and tracer antibodies. Mixtures were optimized to allow detection of closely related analytes without significant cross-reactivity. Following this facile modification of patterning and assay procedures, the following nine targets could be detected in a single 3 x 3 array: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Bacillus globigii, Francisella tularensis LVS, Yersiniapestis F1 antigen, MS2 coliphage, and Salmonella typhimurium. This work maximizes the efficiency and utility of the described array technology, increasing only reagent usage and cost; production and fabrication costs are not affected.

  13. Analytical methodology for the profiling and characterization of androgen receptor active compounds in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Indiveri, Paolo; Horwood, Julia; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Arrebola, Juan P; Olea, Nicolas; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2014-08-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during foetal development has been proposed to cause reproductive dysfunctions in the neonate or later life. In order to support such studies, an analytical method was developed to profile the receptor mediated (anti)androgenic activities present in extracts of placenta samples. Placenta samples from women giving birth to healthy male neonates were extracted and fractionated by HPLC. Fractions containing androgen receptor (AR) activity were detected using an in vitro yeast-based human androgen receptor transcription screen. GC-MS analyses of receptor active fractions resulted in detection of chemical contaminants including antimicrobial and cosmetic compounds which exhibited AR antagonist activity in the yeast screen, and endogenously derived steroids which contributed to both the agonist and antagonistic activity in the samples. The bioassay-directed fractionation methodology developed in this study revealed the potential to identify mixtures of chemical contaminants that should be investigated for potential effects on the reproductive system.

  14. Synergistic effect of combining two nondestructive analytical methods for multielemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yosuke; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Hara, Kaoru Y; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Kitatani, Fumito; Furutaka, Kazuyoshi

    2014-12-16

    We developed a new analytical technique that combines prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) and time-of-flight elemental analysis (TOF) by using an intense pulsed neutron beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. It allows us to obtain the results from both methods at the same time. Moreover, it can be used to quantify elemental concentrations in the sample, to which neither of these methods can be applied independently, if a new analytical spectrum (TOF-PGA) is used. To assess the effectiveness of the developed method, a mixed sample of Ag, Au, Cd, Co, and Ta, and the Gibeon meteorite were analyzed. The analytical capabilities were compared based on the gamma-ray peak selectivity and signal-to-noise ratios. TOF-PGA method showed high merits, although the capability may differ based on the target and coexisting elements. PMID:25371049

  15. Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    1997-11-26

    Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR.

  16. Quantitative 1H NMR: Development and Potential of an Analytical Method – an Update

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Guido F.; Gödecke, Tanja; Jaki, Birgit U.; Lankin, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Covering the literature from mid-2004 until the end of 2011, this review continues a previous literature overview on quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) methodology and its applications in the analysis of natural products (NPs). Among the foremost advantages of qHNMR is its accurate function with external calibration, the lack of any requirement for identical reference materials, a high precision and accuracy when properly validated, and an ability to quantitate multiple analytes simultaneously. As a result of the inclusion of over 170 new references, this updated review summarizes a wealth of detailed experiential evidence and newly developed methodology that supports qHNMR as a valuable and unbiased analytical tool for natural product and other areas of research. PMID:22482996

  17. Health Informatics for Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Analytical Modeling Perspective.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Hamzeh; Mench-Bressan, Nadja; McGregor, Carolyn; Pugh, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of data within intensive care units (ICUs) has great potential to create new cloud-based health analytics solutions for disease prevention or earlier condition onset detection. The Artemis project aims to achieve the above goals in the area of neonatal ICUs (NICU). In this paper, we proposed an analytical model for the Artemis cloud project which will be deployed at McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton. We collect not only physiological data but also the infusion pumps data that are attached to NICU beds. Using the proposed analytical model, we predict the amount of storage, memory, and computation power required for the system. Capacity planning and tradeoff analysis would be more accurate and systematic by applying the proposed analytical model in this paper. Numerical results are obtained using real inputs acquired from McMaster Children's Hospital and a pilot deployment of the system at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto. PMID:27170907

  18. Effect of Sediment on Dynamic Pressure of Gravity Dams Using an Analytical Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Khiavi, Majid Pasbani; Gharabaghi, Ahmad R. M.; Abedi, Karim

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents an analytical solution to get a reliable estimation of the earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressure on gravity dams by proposing closed-form formulas for the eigenvalues involved when solving the fluid and dam interaction problem. A new analytical technique is presented for calculation of earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressure on rigid gravity dams allowing for water compressibility and wave absorption at the reservoir bottom. This new analytical solution can take into account the effect of bottom material on seismic response of gravity dams. The obtained results are in good agreement with other classical solutions. The main capability of proposed analytical solution is direct calculation of eigenvalues, without any need for numerical solution. In addition the method can be easily incorporated in dynamic analysis of a dam.

  19. Health Informatics for Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Analytical Modeling Perspective.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Hamzeh; Mench-Bressan, Nadja; McGregor, Carolyn; Pugh, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of data within intensive care units (ICUs) has great potential to create new cloud-based health analytics solutions for disease prevention or earlier condition onset detection. The Artemis project aims to achieve the above goals in the area of neonatal ICUs (NICU). In this paper, we proposed an analytical model for the Artemis cloud project which will be deployed at McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton. We collect not only physiological data but also the infusion pumps data that are attached to NICU beds. Using the proposed analytical model, we predict the amount of storage, memory, and computation power required for the system. Capacity planning and tradeoff analysis would be more accurate and systematic by applying the proposed analytical model in this paper. Numerical results are obtained using real inputs acquired from McMaster Children's Hospital and a pilot deployment of the system at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto.

  20. A curious metaphor. Engaging with trauma: an analytical perspective.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Sharn

    2010-02-01

    This paper explores the metaphor of in vitro fertilization in respect to those parts of the individual 'frozen' through early trauma. It describes the conditions necessary for the reintroduction of the frozen 'embryo' in the therapeutic relationship through use of an extended example. The role of the analytic relationship and the analyst's countertransference are highlighted within the context of implications for the process of therapy.

  1. Analytic Solution of the Boltzmann Equation in an Expanding System.

    PubMed

    Bazow, D; Denicol, G S; Heinz, U; Martinez, M; Noronha, J

    2016-01-15

    For a massless gas with a constant cross section in a homogeneous, isotropically expanding spacetime we reformulate the relativistic Boltzmann equation as a set of nonlinear coupled moment equations. For a particular initial condition this set can be solved exactly, yielding the first analytical solution of the Boltzmann equation for an expanding system. The nonequilibrium behavior of this relativistic gas can be mapped onto that of a homogeneous, static nonrelativistic gas of Maxwell molecules. PMID:26824535

  2. Target effects on package response: An experimental and analytical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, A.

    1987-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed an experimental and analytical evaluation to compare the effects of a simple model transportation cask impacting on targets encompassing a range of stiffnesses. The cylindrical shaped unit was impacted into soil, concrete, and ''unyielding'' targets at velocities varying from 44 ft/s (30 mph) to 110 ft/s (75 mph). The 44 ft/s impact velocity correlates directly to a 30-ft drop height used in regulatory testing. 18 refs., 69 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; SwanII, J. Edward; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Jankun-Kelly, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today s increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today s data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. This chapter provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  4. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; SwanII, J. Edward; Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Jankun-Kelly, T.J.

    2012-02-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today's increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a novel visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today's data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. The current work provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  5. Evidence for an analytic perception of multiharmonic sounds in the bat, Megaderma lyra, and its possible role for echo spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, K; Schmidt, S

    2001-04-01

    For echolocation, the gleaning bat Megaderma lyra relies on short and broadband calls consisting of multiple harmonic components, each of which is downward frequency modulated. The harmonic components in M. lyra's calls have a relatively small frequency excursion and do not overlap spectrally. Broadband calls of other bat species, on the other hand, often consist of only a few harmonics which are modulated over broad and sometimes overlapping frequency ranges. A call consisting of narrow and nonoverlapping harmonic components may provide a less complete representation of target structure than a call which consists of broadly modulated components. However, a multiharmonic call may help the bats to perceive local spectral changes in the echo from shifts in the peak frequencies of single harmonics, and thereby to extract additional information about the target. To assess this hypothesis, the accuracy with which M. lyra can analyze frequency shifts of single partials in multiharmonic complex tones was investigated. A two-alternative, forced-choice behavioral task was used to measure M. lyra's frequency discrimination threshold for the third partial in complex tones whose spectral composition resembled that of the bat's sonar calls. The discrimination threshold for the third partial in a 21.5-kHz harmonic tone amounted to about 2% and was similar to the bat's pure-tone discrimination threshold at 64.5 kHz. Discrimination performance was essentially unaffected by random frequency changes of the other partials and by reducing stimulus duration from 50.5 to 1.5 ms. Both findings are in accordance with predictions made on the basis of the shape of M. Ivra's cochlear filters. The comparison between the observed frequency discrimination performance and a computational estimate of the expected frequency shift in the third harmonic of an echo reflected by a simple, two-front target showed that M. lyra's frequency resolution is sufficient for analyzing the target

  6. AN ANALYTIC THEORY FOR THE ORBITS OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Gene C. K.; Lee, Man Hoi

    2013-02-15

    Three transiting circumbinary planets (Kepler-16 b, Kepler-34 b, and Kepler-35 b) have recently been discovered from photometric data taken by the Kepler spacecraft. Their orbits are significantly non-Keplerian because of the large secondary-to-primary mass ratio and orbital eccentricity of the binaries, as well as the proximity of the planets to the binaries. We present an analytic theory, with the planet treated as a test particle, which shows that the planetary motion can be represented by the superposition of the circular motion of a guiding center, the forced oscillations due to the non-axisymmetric components of the binary's potential, the epicyclic motion, and the vertical motion. In this analytic theory, the periapse and ascending node of the planet precess at nearly equal rates in opposite directions. The largest forced oscillation term corresponds to a forced eccentricity (which is an explicit function of the parameters of the binary and of the guiding center radius of the planet), and the amplitude of the epicyclic motion (which is a free parameter of the theory) is the free eccentricity. Comparisons with direct numerical orbit integrations show that this analytic theory gives an accurate description of the planetary motion for all three Kepler systems. We find that all three Kepler circumbinary planets have nonzero free eccentricities.

  7. An analytic model for buoyancy resonances in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Zhu, Zhaohuan E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-04-10

    Zhu et al. found in three-dimensional shearing box simulations a new form of planet-disk interaction that they attributed to a vertical buoyancy resonance in the disk. We describe an analytic linear model for this interaction. We adopt a simplified model involving azimuthal forcing that produces the resonance and permits an analytic description of its structure. We derive an analytic expression for the buoyancy torque and show that the vertical torque distribution agrees well with the results of the Athena simulations and a Fourier method for linear numerical calculations carried out with the same forcing. The buoyancy resonance differs from the classic Lindblad and corotation resonances in that the resonance lies along tilted planes. Its width depends on damping effects and is independent of the gas sound speed. The resonance does not excite propagating waves. At a given large azimuthal wavenumber k{sub y} > h {sup –1} (for disk thickness h), the buoyancy resonance exerts a torque over a region that lies radially closer to the corotation radius than the Lindblad resonance. Because the torque is localized to the region of excitation, it is potentially subject to the effects of nonlinear saturation. In addition, the torque can be reduced by the effects of radiative heat transfer between the resonant region and its surroundings. For each azimuthal wavenumber, the resonance establishes a large scale density wave pattern in a plane within the disk.

  8. Development of AN Automotive Joint Model Using AN Analytically Based Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y.-M.; Lee, T.-H.; Park, Y.-P.

    1999-03-01

    A FE model of an automotive structure consists of beam and shell elements. Generally, the pillars and rockers are modelled as beam elements and other parts as shell elements. Beam elements are used since they are more efficient than shell elements. A joint is defined as an intersection region of beam elements, and is generally modelled as coupled rotational springs. In this study, a joint modelling methodology is presented. First, the definition and assumptions of the joint are discussed. Second, the joint stiffness analytical model is proposed using static load test results. The proposed method is more efficient and accurate than existing evaluation methods. Third, the sensitivity analysis method (Nelson's method) and a joint stiffness updating algorithm are presented. To verify these methods, the FE analysis results of a half size structural model of an automobile with rigid joints and rotational spring joints are compared with experimental modal analysis results.

  9. Readability Analysis of the Package Leaflets for Biological Medicines Available on the Internet Between 2007 and 2013: An Analytical Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The package leaflet included in the packaging of all medicinal products plays an important role in the transmission of medicine-related information to patients. Therefore, in 2009, the European Commission published readability guidelines to try to ensure that the information contained in the package leaflet is understood by patients. Objective The main objective of this study was to calculate and compare the readability levels and length (number of words) of the package leaflets for biological medicines in 2007, 2010, and 2013. Methods The sample of this study included 36 biological medicine package leaflets that were downloaded from the European Medicines Agency website in three different years: 2007, 2010, and 2013. The readability of the selected package leaflets was obtained using the following readability formulas: SMOG grade, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Szigriszt’s perspicuity index. The length (number of words) of the package leaflets was also measured. Afterwards, the relationship between these quantitative variables (three readability indexes and length) and categorical (or qualitative) variables were analyzed. The categorical variables were the year when the package leaflet was downloaded, the package leaflet section, type of medicine, year of authorization of biological medicine, and marketing authorization holder. Results The readability values of all the package leaflets exceeded the sixth-grade reading level, which is the recommended value for health-related written materials. No statistically significant differences were found between the three years of study in the readability indexes, although differences were observed in the case of the length (P=.002), which increased over the study period. When the relationship between readability indexes and length and the other variables was analyzed, statistically significant differences were found between package leaflet sections (P<.001) and between the groups of medicine only with regard

  10. Phononic heat transport in the transient regime: An analytic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuovinen, Riku; Säkkinen, Niko; Karlsson, Daniel; Stefanucci, Gianluca; van Leeuwen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the time-resolved quantum transport properties of phonons in arbitrary harmonic systems connected to phonon baths at different temperatures. We obtain a closed analytic expression of the time-dependent one-particle reduced density matrix by explicitly solving the equations of motion for the nonequilibrium Green's function. This is achieved through a well-controlled approximation of the frequency-dependent bath self-energy. Our result allows for exploring transient oscillations and relaxation times of local heat currents, and correctly reduces to an earlier known result in the steady-state limit. We apply the formalism to atomic chains, and benchmark the validity of the approximation against full numerical solutions of the bosonic Kadanoff-Baym equations for the Green's function. We find good agreement between the analytic and numerical solutions for weak contacts and baths with a wide energy dispersion. We further analyze relaxation times from low to high temperature gradients.

  11. An analytic cosmology solution of Poincaré gauge gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianbo; Chee, Guoying

    2016-06-01

    A cosmology of Poincaré gauge theory is developed. An analytic solution is obtained. The calculation results agree with observation data and can be compared with the ΛCDM model. The cosmological constant puzzle is the coincidence and fine tuning problem are solved naturally at the same time. The cosmological constant turns out to be the intrinsic torsion and curvature of the vacuum universe, and is derived from the theory naturally rather than added artificially. The dark energy originates from geometry, includes the cosmological constant but differs from it. The analytic expression of the state equations of the dark energy and the density parameters of the matter and the geometric dark energy are derived. The full equations of linear cosmological perturbations and the solutions are obtained.

  12. An analytical pressure-transient model for complex reservoir scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Edmond; Ambastha, Anil K.

    1994-10-01

    Reservoir deposition occurs through long periods of time, thus most reservoirs are heterogeneous in nature. The presence of various zones and layers of different rock and fluid properties is the usual circumstance in petroleum reservoirs. A secondary recovery operation, such as steam-flooding, results in a composite reservoir situation because of the presence of zones of different fluid properties. Because of reservoir heterogeneity and gravity override effects, fluid boundaries separating two zones may have complicated or irregular shapes. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new analytical pressure-transient model which can accommodate complex reservoir scenarios resulting from reservoir heterogeneity and from thermal recovery or other fluid-injection operations. Mathematically, our analytical model considers such complex situations as a generalized eigenvalue system resulting in a system of linear equations. Computational difficulties faced, validation approach of the new model, and an application for complex reservoir scenarios are discussed.

  13. Assessing Proposals for New Global Health Treaties: An Analytic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Røttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2015-01-01

    We have presented an analytic framework and 4 criteria for assessing when global health treaties have reasonable prospects of yielding net positive effects. First, there must be a significant transnational dimension to the problem being addressed. Second, the goals should justify the coercive nature of treaties. Third, proposed global health treaties should have a reasonable chance of achieving benefits. Fourth, treaties should be the best commitment mechanism among the many competing alternatives. Applying this analytic framework to 9 recent calls for new global health treaties revealed that none fully meet the 4 criteria. Efforts aiming to better use or revise existing international instruments may be more productive than is advocating new treaties. PMID:26066926

  14. Assessing Proposals for New Global Health Treaties: An Analytic Framework.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2015-08-01

    We have presented an analytic framework and 4 criteria for assessing when global health treaties have reasonable prospects of yielding net positive effects. First, there must be a significant transnational dimension to the problem being addressed. Second, the goals should justify the coercive nature of treaties. Third, proposed global health treaties should have a reasonable chance of achieving benefits. Fourth, treaties should be the best commitment mechanism among the many competing alternatives. Applying this analytic framework to 9 recent calls for new global health treaties revealed that none fully meet the 4 criteria. Efforts aiming to better use or revise existing international instruments may be more productive than is advocating new treaties. PMID:26066926

  15. Analysis and analytical characterization of bioheat transfer during radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keyong; Tavakkoli, Fatemeh; Wang, Shujuan; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-04-13

    Understanding thermal transport and temperature distribution within biological organs is important for therapeutic aspects related to hyperthermia treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Unlike surface heating, the RFA treatment volumetrically heats up the biological media using a heating probe which provides the input energy. In this situation, the shape of the affected region is annular, which is described by an axisymmetric geometry. To better understand the temperature responses of the living tissues subject to RFA, comprehensive characteristics of bioheat transport through the annular biological medium is presented under local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) condition. Following the operational features of the RFA treatment, based on the porous media theory, analytical solutions have been derived for the blood and tissue temperature distributions as well as an overall heat exchange correlation in cylindrical coordinates. Our analytical results have been validated against three limiting cases which exist in the literature. The effects of various physiological parameters, such as metabolic heat generation, volume fraction of the vascular space, ratio of the effective blood to tissue conductivities, different biological media and the rate of heat exchange between the lumen and the tissue are investigated. Solutions developed in this study are valuable for thermal therapy planning of RFA. A criterion is also established to link deep heating protocol to surface heating.

  16. An Analytic Function of Lunar Surface Temperature for Exospheric Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Grava, Cesare; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Retherford, Kurt D.; Siegler, Matthew; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytic expression to represent the lunar surface temperature as a function of Sun-state latitude and local time. The approximation represents neither topographical features nor compositional effects and therefore does not change as a function of selenographic latitude and longitude. The function reproduces the surface temperature measured by Diviner to within +/-10 K at 72% of grid points for dayside solar zenith angles of less than 80, and at 98% of grid points for nightside solar zenith angles greater than 100. The analytic function is least accurate at the terminator, where there is a strong gradient in the temperature, and the polar regions. Topographic features have a larger effect on the actual temperature near the terminator than at other solar zenith angles. For exospheric modeling the effects of topography on the thermal model can be approximated by using an effective longitude for determining the temperature. This effective longitude is randomly redistributed with 1 sigma of 4.5deg. The resulting ''roughened'' analytical model well represents the statistical dispersion in the Diviner data and is expected to be generally useful for future models of lunar surface temperature, especially those implemented within exospheric simulations that address questions of volatile transport.

  17. The big bang and inflation united by an analytic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2011-02-15

    Exact analytic solutions for a class of scalar-tensor gravity theories with a hyperbolic scalar potential are presented. Using an exact solution we have successfully constructed a model of inflation that produces the spectral index, the running of the spectral index, and the amplitude of scalar perturbations within the constraints given by the WMAP 7 years data. The model simultaneously describes the big bang and inflation connected by a specific time delay between them so that these two events are regarded as dependent on each other. In solving the Friedmann equations, we have utilized an essential Weyl symmetry of our theory in 3+1 dimensions which is a predicted remaining symmetry of 2T-physics field theory in 4+2 dimensions. This led to a new method of obtaining analytic solutions in the 1T field theory which could in principle be used to solve more complicated theories with more scalar fields. Some additional distinguishing properties of the solution includes the fact that there are early periods of time when the slow-roll approximation is not valid. Furthermore, the inflaton does not decrease monotonically with time; rather, it oscillates around the potential minimum while settling down, unlike the slow-roll approximation. While the model we used for illustration purposes is realistic in most respects, it lacks a mechanism for stopping inflation. The technique of obtaining analytic solutions opens a new window for studying inflation, and other applications, more precisely than using approximations.

  18. Analytical Model of Water Flow in Coal with Active Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemek, Jakub; Stopa, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents new analytical model of gas-water flow in coal seams in one dimension with emphasis on interactions between water flowing in cleats and coal matrix. Coal as a flowing system, can be viewed as a solid organic material consisting of two flow subsystems: a microporous matrix and a system of interconnected macropores and fractures. Most of gas is accumulated in the microporous matrix, where the primary flow mechanism is diffusion. Fractures and cleats existing in coal play an important role as a transportation system for macro scale flow of water and gas governed by Darcy's law. The coal matrix can imbibe water under capillary forces leading to exchange of mass between fractures and coal matrix. In this paper new partial differential equation for water saturation in fractures has been formulated, respecting mass exchange between coal matrix and fractures. Exact analytical solution has been obtained using the method of characteristics. The final solution has very simple form that may be useful for practical engineering calculations. It was observed that the rate of exchange of mass between the fractures and the coal matrix is governed by an expression which is analogous to the Newton cooling law known from theory of heat exchange, but in present case the mass transfer coefficient depends not only on coal and fluid properties but also on time and position. The constant term of mass transfer coefficient depends on relation between micro porosity and macro porosity of coal, capillary forces, and microporous structure of coal matrix. This term can be expressed theoretically or obtained experimentally. W artykule zaprezentowano nowy model matematyczny przepływu wody i gazu w jednowymiarowej warstwie węglowej z uwzględnieniem wymiany masy między systemem szczelin i matrycą węglową. Węgiel jako system przepływowy traktowany jest jako układ o podwójnej porowatości i przepuszczalności, składający się z mikroporowatej matrycy węglowej oraz z

  19. Identifying functional subdivisions in the human brain using meta-analytic activation modeling-based parcellation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Chu, Congying; Zhuo, Junjie; Wang, Jiaojian; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Parcellation of the human brain into fine-grained units by grouping voxels into distinct clusters has been an effective approach for delineating specific brain regions and their subregions. Published neuroimaging studies employing coordinate-based meta-analyses have shown that the activation foci and their corresponding behavioral categories may contain useful information about the anatomical-functional organization of brain regions. Inspired by these developments, we proposed a new parcellation scheme called meta-analytic activation modeling-based parcellation (MAMP) that uses meta-analytically obtained information. The raw meta data, including the experiments and the reported activation coordinates related to a brain region of interest, were acquired from the Brainmap database. Using this data, we first obtained the "modeled activation" pattern by modeling the voxel-wise activation probability given spatial uncertainty for each experiment that featured at least one focus within the region of interest. Then, we processed these "modeled activation" patterns across the experiments with a K-means clustering algorithm to group the voxels into different subregions. In order to verify the reliability of the method, we employed our method to parcellate the amygdala and the left Brodmann area 44 (BA44). The parcellation results were quite consistent with previous cytoarchitectonic and in vivo neuroimaging findings. Therefore, the MAMP proposed in the current study could be a useful complement to other methods for uncovering the functional organization of the human brain.

  20. Results of an IAEA inter-comparison exercise to assess 137Cs and total 210Pb analytical performance in soil.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Mabit, L

    2009-01-01

    Fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as (210)Pb and (137)Cs have been widely used to assess soil erosion and sedimentation processes. It is of major importance to obtain accurate analytical results of FRNs by gamma analysis before any data treatment through conversion model and to allow subsequent comparison of erosion and sedimentation rates from different case studies. Therefore, IAEA organized an inter-comparison exercise to assess the validity and reliability of the analytical results of (137)Cs and total (210)Pb using gamma-spectrometry in the various laboratories participating in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on "Assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management using fallout radionuclides". Reference materials were distributed to 14 participating laboratories and, using a rating system, their analytical results were compared to the reference values assigned. In the case of (137)Cs, the analytical results were satisfactory with 66% of the laboratories producing acceptable results. Only the sample with low (137)Cs activity (2.6+/-0.2Bqkg(-1)) gave less accurate results with more than 25% not acceptable results. The total (210)Pb analysis indicated a clear need for corrective actions in the analysis process as only 36% of the laboratories involved in the proficiency test was able to access total (210)Pb with occurrence (bias 10%). This inter-laboratory test underlines that further inter-comparison exercises should be organized by IAEA or regional laboratories to ensure the quality of the analytical data produced in Member States. As a result of the above-mentioned proficiency test, some recommendations have been provided to improve accurate gamma measurement of both (137)Cs and total (210)Pb. PMID:18760612

  1. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  2. Organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Hoopes, V.; Rau, J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the status of organic analyses and developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-103 (Tank 103-SY). The analytical data are to serve as an example of the status of methods development and application. Samples of the convective and nonconvective layers from Tank 103-SY were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC). The TOC value obtained for the nonconvective layer using the hot persulfate method was 10,500 {mu}g C/g. The TOC value obtained from samples of Tank 101-SY was 11,000 {mu}g C/g. The average value for the TOC of the convective layer was 6400 {mu}g C/g. Chelator and chelator fragments in Tank 103-SY samples were identified using derivatization. gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic components were quantified using GC/flame ionization detection. Major components in both the convective and nonconvective-layer samples include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), succinic acid, nitrosoiminodiacetic acid (NIDA), citric acid, and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A). Preliminary results also indicate the presence of C16 and C18 carboxylic acids in the nonconvective-layer sample. Oxalic acid was one of the major components in the nonconvective layer as determined by derivatization GC/flame ionization detection.

  3. Causality, analyticity and an IR obstruction to UV completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Allan; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dubovsky, Sergei; Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2006-10-01

    We argue that certain apparently consistent low-energy effective field theories described by local, Lorentz-invariant Lagrangians, secretly exhibit macroscopic non-locality and cannot be embedded in any UV theory whose S-matrix satisfies canonical analyticity constraints. The obstruction involves the signs of a set of leading irrelevant operators, which must be strictly positive to ensure UV analyticity. An IR manifestation of this restriction is that the ``wrong'' signs lead to superluminal fluctuations around non-trivial backgrounds, making it impossible to define local, causal evolution, and implying a surprising IR breakdown of the effective theory. Such effective theories can not arise in quantum field theories or weakly coupled string theories, whose S-matrices satisfy the usual analyticity properties. This conclusion applies to the DGP brane-world model modifying gravity in the IR, giving a simple explanation for the difficulty of embedding this model into controlled stringy backgrounds, and to models of electroweak symmetry breaking that predict negative anomalous quartic couplings for the W and Z. Conversely, any experimental support for the DGP model, or measured negative signs for anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings at future accelerators, would constitute direct evidence for the existence of superluminality and macroscopic non-locality unlike anything previously seen in physics, and almost incidentally falsify both local quantum field theory and perturbative string theory.

  4. Preheating and locked inflation: an analytic approach towards parametric resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingfei

    2011-12-01

    We take an analytic approach towards the framework of parametric resonance and apply it on preheating and locked inflation. A two-scalar toy model is analytically solved for the λφ{sup 2}χ{sup 2} coupling for the homogenous modes. The effects of dynamic universe background and backreaction are taken into account. We show the average effect of parametric resonance to be that χ's amplitude doubles for each cycle of φ. Our framework partly solves the broad resonance for preheating scenario, showing two distinct stages of preheating and making the parameters of preheating analytically calculable. It is demonstrated for slowroll inflation models, preheating is terminated, if by backreaction, typically in the 5th e-fold. Under our framework, a possible inhomogeneity amplification effect is also found during preheating, which both may pose strong constraints on some inflationary models and may amplify tiny existing inhomogeneities to the desired scale. For demonstration, we show it rules out the backreaction end of preheating of the quadratic slowroll inflation model with mass m ∼ 10{sup −6}. For locked inflation, parametric resonance is found to be inhibited if φ has more than one real component.

  5. Understanding Emotions as Situated, Embodied, and Fissured: Thinking with Theory to Create an Analytical Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging theoretical perspective is that emotions are a verb or something we do in relation to others. Studies that demonstrate ways to analyze emotions from a performative stance are scarce. In this article, a new analytical tool is introduced; a critical performative analysis of emotion (CPAE) that draws upon three theoretical perspectives:…

  6. Development and Evaluation of an Analytical Method for the Determination of Total Atmospheric Mercury. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, D. L.; And Others

    Total mercury in ambient air can be collected in iodine monochloride, but the subsequent analysis is relatively complex and tedious, and contamination from reagents and containers is a problem. A sliver wool collector, preceded by a catalytic pyrolysis furnace, gives good recovery of mercury and simplifies the analytical step. An instrumental…

  7. Maternal and infant activity: Analytic approaches for the study of circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2015-11-01

    The study of infant and mother circadian rhythm entails choice of instruments appropriate for use in the home environment as well as selection of analytic approach that characterizes circadian rhythm. While actigraphy monitoring suits the needs of home study, limited studies have examined mother and infant rhythm derived from actigraphy. Among this existing research a variety of analyses have been employed to characterize 24-h rhythm, reducing ability to evaluate and synthesize findings. Few studies have examined the correspondence of mother and infant circadian parameters for the most frequently cited approaches: cosinor, non-parametric circadian rhythm analysis (NPCRA), and autocorrelation function (ACF). The purpose of this research was to examine analytic approaches in the study of mother and infant circadian activity rhythm. Forty-three healthy mother and infant pairs were studied in the home environment over a 72h period at infant age 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Activity was recorded continuously using actigraphy monitors and mothers completed a diary. Parameters of circadian rhythm were generated from cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and ACF. The correlation among measures of rhythm center (cosinor mesor, NPCRA mid level), strength or fit of 24-h period (cosinor magnitude and R(2), NPCRA amplitude and relative amplitude (RA)), phase (cosinor acrophase, NPCRA M10 and L5 midpoint), and rhythm stability and variability (NPCRA interdaily stability (IS) and intradaily variability (IV), ACF) was assessed, and additionally the effect size (eta(2)) for change over time evaluated. Results suggest that cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and autocorrelation provide several comparable parameters of infant and maternal circadian rhythm center, fit, and phase. IS and IV were strongly correlated with the 24-h cycle fit. The circadian parameters analyzed offer separate insight into rhythm and differing effect size for the detection of change over time. Findings inform selection of analysis and

  8. Maternal and infant activity: Analytic approaches for the study of circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2015-11-01

    The study of infant and mother circadian rhythm entails choice of instruments appropriate for use in the home environment as well as selection of analytic approach that characterizes circadian rhythm. While actigraphy monitoring suits the needs of home study, limited studies have examined mother and infant rhythm derived from actigraphy. Among this existing research a variety of analyses have been employed to characterize 24-h rhythm, reducing ability to evaluate and synthesize findings. Few studies have examined the correspondence of mother and infant circadian parameters for the most frequently cited approaches: cosinor, non-parametric circadian rhythm analysis (NPCRA), and autocorrelation function (ACF). The purpose of this research was to examine analytic approaches in the study of mother and infant circadian activity rhythm. Forty-three healthy mother and infant pairs were studied in the home environment over a 72h period at infant age 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Activity was recorded continuously using actigraphy monitors and mothers completed a diary. Parameters of circadian rhythm were generated from cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and ACF. The correlation among measures of rhythm center (cosinor mesor, NPCRA mid level), strength or fit of 24-h period (cosinor magnitude and R(2), NPCRA amplitude and relative amplitude (RA)), phase (cosinor acrophase, NPCRA M10 and L5 midpoint), and rhythm stability and variability (NPCRA interdaily stability (IS) and intradaily variability (IV), ACF) was assessed, and additionally the effect size (eta(2)) for change over time evaluated. Results suggest that cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and autocorrelation provide several comparable parameters of infant and maternal circadian rhythm center, fit, and phase. IS and IV were strongly correlated with the 24-h cycle fit. The circadian parameters analyzed offer separate insight into rhythm and differing effect size for the detection of change over time. Findings inform selection of analysis and

  9. An analytical and experimental study of crack extension in center-notched composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The normal stress ratio theory for crack extension in anisotropic materials is studied analytically and experimentally. The theory is applied within a microscopic-level analysis of a single center notch of arbitrary orientation in a unidirectional composite material. The bulk of the analytical work of this study applies an elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center line to obtain critical stress and crack growth direction predictions. An elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center elliptical flaw is also used to obtain qualitative predictions of the location of crack initiation on the border of a rounded notch tip. The analytical portion of the study includes the formulation of a new crack growth theory that includes local shear stress. Normal stress ratio theory predictions are obtained for notched unidirectional tensile coupons and unidirectional Iosipescu shear specimens. These predictions are subsequently compared to experimental results.

  10. An analytical method for 14C in environmental water based on a wet-oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Guo, Gui-Yin; Wu, Lian-Sheng; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Qin, Hong-Juan; Shang-Guan, Zhi-Hong

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method for (14)C in environmental water based on a wet-oxidation process was developed. The method can be used to determine the activity concentrations of organic and inorganic (14)C in environmental water, or total (14)C, including in drinking water, surface water, rainwater and seawater. The wet-oxidation of the organic component allows the conversion of organic carbon to an inorganic form, and the extraction of the inorganic (14)C can be achieved by acidification and nitrogen purging. Environmental water with a volume of 20 L can be used for the wet-oxidation and extraction, and a detection limit of about 0.02 Bq/g(C) can be achieved for water with carbon content above 15 mg(C)/L, obviously lower than the natural level of (14)C in the environment. The collected carbon is sufficient for measurement with a low level liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for typical samples. Extraction or recovery experiments for inorganic carbon and organic carbon from typical materials, including analytical reagents of organic benzoquinone, sucrose, glutamic acid, nicotinic acid, humic acid, ethane diol, et cetera., were conducted with excellent results based on measurement on a total organic carbon analyzer and LSC. The recovery rate for inorganic carbon ranged tween 98.7%-99.0% with a mean of 98.9(± 0.1)%, for organic carbon recovery ranged between 93.8% and 100.0% with a mean of 97.1(± 2.6)%. Verification and an uncertainty budget of the method are also presented for a representative environmental water. The method is appropriate for (14)C analysis in environmental water, and can be applied also to the analysis of liquid effluent from nuclear facilities. PMID:25590997

  11. An analytical method for 14C in environmental water based on a wet-oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Guo, Gui-Yin; Wu, Lian-Sheng; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Qin, Hong-Juan; Shang-Guan, Zhi-Hong

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method for (14)C in environmental water based on a wet-oxidation process was developed. The method can be used to determine the activity concentrations of organic and inorganic (14)C in environmental water, or total (14)C, including in drinking water, surface water, rainwater and seawater. The wet-oxidation of the organic component allows the conversion of organic carbon to an inorganic form, and the extraction of the inorganic (14)C can be achieved by acidification and nitrogen purging. Environmental water with a volume of 20 L can be used for the wet-oxidation and extraction, and a detection limit of about 0.02 Bq/g(C) can be achieved for water with carbon content above 15 mg(C)/L, obviously lower than the natural level of (14)C in the environment. The collected carbon is sufficient for measurement with a low level liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for typical samples. Extraction or recovery experiments for inorganic carbon and organic carbon from typical materials, including analytical reagents of organic benzoquinone, sucrose, glutamic acid, nicotinic acid, humic acid, ethane diol, et cetera., were conducted with excellent results based on measurement on a total organic carbon analyzer and LSC. The recovery rate for inorganic carbon ranged tween 98.7%-99.0% with a mean of 98.9(± 0.1)%, for organic carbon recovery ranged between 93.8% and 100.0% with a mean of 97.1(± 2.6)%. Verification and an uncertainty budget of the method are also presented for a representative environmental water. The method is appropriate for (14)C analysis in environmental water, and can be applied also to the analysis of liquid effluent from nuclear facilities.

  12. A Cladistic Analysis of Phenotypic Associations with Haplotypes Inferred from Restriction Endonuclease Mapping. I. Basic Theory and an Analysis of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    Because some genes have been cloned that have a known biochemical or physiological function, genetic variation can be measured in a population at loci that may directly influence a phenotype of interest. With this measured genotype approach, specific alleles or haplotypes in the probed DNA region can be assigned phenotypic effects. In this paper we address several problems encountered in implementing the measured genotype approach with restriction site data. A number of analytical problems arise in part as a consequence of the linkage disequilibrium that is commonly encountered when dealing with small DNA regions: 1) different restriction site polymorphisms are not statistically independent, 2) the sites being measured are not likely to be the direct cause of the associated phenotypic effects, 3) haplotype classes may be phenotypically heterogeneous, and 4) the sites that are most strongly associated with phenotypic effects are not necessarily the most closely linked to the actual genetic cause of the effects. When recombination and gene conversion are rare, the primary cause of linkage disequilibrium is history (mutational origin, genetic drift, hitchhiking, etc.). We deal with historical association directly by producing a cladogram that partially reconstructs the evolutionary history of the present-day haplotype variability. The cladogram defines a nested analysis of variance that simultaneously detects phenotypic effects, localizes the effects within the cladogram, and identifies haplotypes that are potentially heterogeneous in their phenotypic associations. The power of this approach is illustrated by an analysis of the associations between alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and restriction site variability in a 13-kb fragment surrounding the ADH locus in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:2822535

  13. Promoting Active Learning by Practicing the "Self-Assembly" of Model Analytical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algar, W. Russ; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2010-01-01

    In our upper-year instrumental analytical chemistry course, we have developed "cut-and-paste" exercises where students "build" models of analytical instruments from individual schematic images of components. These exercises encourage active learning by students. Instead of trying to memorize diagrams, students are required to think deeply about…

  14. Development of an accelerator based system for in vivo neutron activation analysis measurements of manganese in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle Lynn

    2001-11-01

    Manganese is required by the human body, but as with many heavy elements, in large amounts it can be toxic, producing a neurological disorder similar to that of Parkinson's Disease. The primary industrial uses of the element are for the manufacturing of steel and alkali batteries. Environmental exposure may occur via drinking water or exhaust emissions from vehicles using gasoline with the manganese containing compound MMT as an antiknock agent (MMT has been approved for use in both Canada and the United States). Preclinical symptoms of toxicity have recently been detected in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne manganese at levels below the present threshold limit value set by the EPA. Evidence also suggests that early detection of manganese toxicity is crucial since once the symptoms have developed past a certain point, the syndrome will continue to progress even if manganese exposure ceases. The development of a system for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) measurement of manganese levels was investigated, with the goal being to have a means of monitoring both over exposed and manganese deficient populations. The McMaster KN-accelerator was used to provide low-energy neutrons, activation within an irradiation site occurred via the 55Mn(n,gamma) 56Mn capture reaction, and the 847 keV gamma-rays emitted when 56Mn decayed were measured using one or more Nal(TI) detectors. The present data regarding manganese metabolism and storage within the body are limited, and it is unclear what the optimal measurement site would be to provide a suitable biomarker of past exposure. Therefore the feasibility of IVNAA measurements in three sites was examined---the liver, brain and hand bones. Calibration curves were derived, minimum detectable limits determined and resulting doses calculated for each site (experimentally in the case of the liver and hand bones, and through computer simulations for the brain). Detailed analytical calculations of the 7Li(p,n) 7Be

  15. Analytical band Monte Carlo analysis of electron transport in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoh, K. H.; Ong, D. S.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Yong, T. K.; Lim, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    An analytical band Monte Carlo (AMC) with linear energy band dispersion has been developed to study the electron transport in suspended silicene and silicene on aluminium oxide (Al2O3) substrate. We have calibrated our model against the full band Monte Carlo (FMC) results by matching the velocity-field curve. Using this model, we discover that the collective effects of charge impurity scattering and surface optical phonon scattering can degrade the electron mobility down to about 400 cm2 V-1 s-1 and thereafter it is less sensitive to the changes of charge impurity in the substrate and surface optical phonon. We also found that further reduction of mobility to ˜100 cm2 V-1 s-1 as experimentally demonstrated by Tao et al (2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 227) can only be explained by the renormalization of Fermi velocity due to interaction with Al2O3 substrate.

  16. GUST86 - An analytical ephemeris of the Uranian satellites. [General Uranus Satellite Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskar, J.; Jacobson, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    The General Uranus Satellite Theory GUST (Laskar, 1986) is used for the construction of an analytical ephemeris for the Uranian satellites. The theory is fitted against earth-based observations from 1911 to 1986, and all radio and optical data obtained during Voyager encounter with Uranus. Earth-based observations alone allow the determination of masses which are within 15 percent of the values determined by the Uranus flyby. The analysis of all the observations confirm the values of the masses obtained during the encounter (Stone and Miner, 1986) and give a complete set of dynamical parameters for the analytical theory. An analytical ephemeris, GUST86, with an estimated precision of about 100 km with respect to Uranus is obtained.

  17. Nonlinear acoustic behavior at a caustic - An approximate analytical solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, P. M.; Seebass, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper discusses an approximate analytical solution to the nonlinear behavior of a discontinuous acoustic signal near a caustic. The Seebass transformation (1970) is refined to provide results which satisfy the governing equation to any prescribed accuracy, except across the shock wave produced by reflection of the simple wave at the caustic. The solution is approximate in the sense that the basic equation is satisfied wherever the solution is continuous but can satisfy only one of the two jump conditions at the reflected shock. The results give essential geometric features of the exact solution and provide a quantitative estimate of the strength of the so-called superboom.

  18. An Analytical Thermal Model for Autonomous Soaring Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing an analytical thermal model used to enable research on autonomous soaring for a small UAV aircraft is given. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Approach; 3) SURFRAD Data; 4) Convective Layer Thickness; 5) Surface Heat Budget; 6) Surface Virtual Potential Temperature Flux; 7) Convective Scaling Velocity; 8) Other Calculations; 9) Yearly trends; 10) Scale Factors; 11) Scale Factor Test Matrix; 12) Statistical Model; 13) Updraft Strength Calculation; 14) Updraft Diameter; 15) Updraft Shape; 16) Smoothed Updraft Shape; 17) Updraft Spacing; 18) Environment Sink; 19) Updraft Lifespan; 20) Autonomous Soaring Research; 21) Planned Flight Test; and 22) Mixing Ratio.

  19. An analytic model for flow reversal in divertor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, P.I.H.; Prinja, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    An analytic model is developed and used to study the phenomenon of flow reversal which is observed in two-dimensional simulations of divertor plasmas. The effect is shown to be caused by the radial spread of neutral particles emitted from the divertor target which can lead to a strong peaking of the ionization source at certain radial locations. The results indicate that flow reversal over a portion of the width of the scrape-off layer is inevitable in high recycling conditions. Implications for impurity transport and particle removal in reactors are discussed.

  20. An integrated security framework for GOSS power grid analytics platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Tara D.; Ciraci, Selim; Sharma, Poorva; Allwardt, Craig H.; Rice, Mark J.; Akyol, Bora A.

    2014-06-23

    In power grid operations, security is an essential component for any middleware platform. Security protects data against unwanted access as well as cyber attacks. GridOpticsTM Software System (GOSS) is an open source power grid analytics platform that facilitates ease of access between applications and data sources and promotes development of advanced analytical applications. GOSS contains an API that abstracts many of the difficulties in connecting to various heterogeneous data sources. A number of applications and data sources have already been implemented to demonstrate functionality and ease of use. A security framework has been implemented which leverages widely accepted, robust JavaTM security tools in a way such that they can be interchanged as needed. This framework supports the complex fine-grained, access control rules identified for the diverse data sources already in GOSS. Performance and reliability are also important considerations in any power grid architecture. An evaluation is done to determine the overhead cost caused by security within GOSS and ensure minimal impact to performance.

  1. An analytical model of a longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Budairi, Hassan; Lucas, Margaret

    2012-08-01

    The combination of longitudinal and torsional (LT) vibrations at high frequencies finds many applications such as ultrasonic drilling, ultrasonic welding, and ultrasonic motors. The LT mode can be obtained by modifications to the design of a standard bolted Langevin ultrasonic transducer driven by an axially poled piezoceramic stack, by a technique that degenerates the longitudinal mode to an LT motion by a geometrical alteration of the wave path. The transducer design is developed and optimised through numerical modelling which can represent the geometry and mechanical properties of the transducer and its vibration response to an electrical input applied across the piezoceramic stack. However, although these models can allow accurate descriptions of the mechanical behaviour, they do not generally provide adequate insights into the electrical characteristics of the transducer. In this work, an analytical model is developed to present the LT transducer based on the equivalent circuit method. This model can represent both the mechanical and electrical aspects and is used to extract many of the design parameters, such as resonance and anti-resonance frequencies, the impedance spectra and the coupling coefficient of the transducer. The validity of the analytical model is demonstrated by close agreement with experimental results.

  2. Transitional Probability Analysis of Two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Rodrigo Nunes; Kanter, Jonathan William; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to highlight the process of therapist direct contingent responding to shape client behavior in two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy (CBAT) cases using transitional probabilities. The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) was used to code client behaviors and the Multidimensional System for Coding Behaviors in…

  3. Social cognition and the cerebellum: A meta-analytic connectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Overwalle, Frank; D'aes, Tine; Mariën, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) study explores the functional connectivity of the cerebellum with the cerebrum in social cognitive processes. In a recent meta-analysis, Van Overwalle, Baetens, Mariën, and Vandekerckhove (2014) documented that the cerebellum is implicated in social processes of "body" reading (mirroring; e.g., understanding other persons' intentions from observing their movements) and "mind" reading (mentalizing, e.g., inferring other persons' beliefs, intentions or personality traits, reconstructing persons' past, future, or hypothetical events). In a recent functional connectivity study, Buckner et al. (2011) offered a novel parcellation of cerebellar topography that substantially overlaps with the cerebellar meta-analytic findings of Van Overwalle et al. (2014). This overlap suggests that the involvement of the cerebellum in social reasoning depends on its functional connectivity with the cerebrum. To test this hypothesis, we explored the meta-analytic co-activations as indices of functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebrum during social cognition. The MACM results confirm substantial and distinct connectivity with respect to the functions of (a) action understanding ("body" reading) and (b) mentalizing ("mind" reading). The consistent and strong connectivity findings of this analysis suggest that cerebellar activity during social judgments reflects distinct mirroring and mentalizing functionality, and that these cerebellar functions are connected with corresponding functional networks in the cerebrum. PMID:26419890

  4. An analytical approach of CO2 injection induced caprock deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Barès, Paul; Laloui, Lyesse

    2014-05-01

    CO2 storage in geological formation, especially in deep aquifers, is becoming a compromising method to reduce the impact of CO2 on the greenhouse effect. Practically, large-volume (>1Mt/year) of CO2 could be injected into a deep aquifer. However, the response of such system is complex because of coupling between the flow and mechanical responses. High rate injection could result in an abrupt fluid pressures build-up, deforming the aquifer and result in surface uplifting, which highly affect public acceptation to the CO2 storage projects. The study focuses on a specific problem related to the surface uplift induced by the injection of CO2 at depth. The methodology in this study includes the development of a mathematical model that incorporates elastic behaviour of storage mediums and two immiscible fluids (CO2 and water) flow within the aquifers while surface rock layer is modelled as a thin plate. Governing equations are solved for the axisymmetric flexure deflection due to a constant rate injection of CO2. Coupling between porosity and permeability is included via an iterative schema. Numerical integration stability has been improved as well. Results show that this semi-analytical solution is capable to capture the pressure build-up during the very early stage of injection, resulting in a high rate surface uplift. With hydromechanical effects, pressure tends to stabilize and surface deformation rate decreases. Compared to FEM simulation, the calculation time carried out by the semi-analytical solution is very short. It can be employed as a preliminary design tool for risk assessment such as injection rate, porosity, rock properties and geological structures. This semi-analytical solution provides a convenient way to estimate the influence of high rate injection of CO2 on the surface uplift. The methodology in this development can easily incorporate other pressure distributions. Thus one can benefit from the advances in hydrology researches as well.

  5. Use of analytical electron microscopy for the individual particle analysis of the Arctic haze aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of the analytical electron microscope for the analysis and source apportionment of individual aerosol particles, aerosol samples amenable to individual particle analysis were collected from a remote region. These samples were from the Arctic haze aerosol, and were collected on board a research aircraft during the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program in spring 1983. Before elemental analysis by analytical electron microscopy (AEM) could be performed, an extensive relative sensitivity factor study was undertaken to calibrate the microscope/detector system for quanitative x-ray microanalysis. Subsequently determined elemental data, along with morphological information, were used to group the particles into classes with similar characteristics. Forty-seven classes of particles were found in the Arctic samples, the most populous classes containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ droplets, carbonaceous particles, lithophilic particles, CaSO/sub 4/ or NaCl. Several classes containing anthropogenic particles were also identified.

  6. Significance probability mapping: an aid in the topographic analysis of brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Duffy, F H; Bartels, P H; Burchfiel, J L

    1981-05-01

    We illustrate the application of significance probability mapping (SPM) to the analysis of topographic maps of spectral analyzed EEG and visual evoked potential (VEP) activity from patients with brain tumors, boys with dyslexia, and control subjects. When the VEP topographic plots of tumor patients were displayed as number of standard deviations from a reference mean, more subjects were correctly identified than by inspection of the underlying raw data. When topographic plots of EEG alpha activity obtained while listening to speech or music were compared by t statistic to plots of resting alpha activity, regions of cortex presumably activated by speech or music were delineated. DIfferent regions were defined in dyslexic boys and controls. We propose that SPM will prove valuable in the regional localization of normal and abnormal functions in other clinical situations. PMID:6165544

  7. An analytical and experimental investigation of resistojet plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, Lynnette M.; Hoffman, David J.; Breyley, Loranell R.; Serafini, John S.

    1987-01-01

    As a part of the electrothermal propulsion plume research program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, efforts have been initiated to analytically and experimentally investigate the plumes of resistojet thrusters. The method of Simons for the prediction of rocket exhaust plumes is developed for the resistojet. Modifications are made to the source flow equations to account for the increased effects of the relatively large nozzle boundary layer. Additionally, preliminary mass flux measurements of a laboratory resistojet using CO2 propellant at 298 K have been obtained with a cryogenically cooled quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). There is qualitative agreement between analysis and experiment, at least in terms of the overall number density shape functions in the forward flux region.

  8. An analytical and experimental investigation of resistojet plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, L. M.; Hoffman, D. J.; Breyley, L. R.; Serafini, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    As a part of the electrothermal propulsion plume research program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, efforts have been initiated to analytically and experimentally investigate the plumes of resistojet thrusters. The method of G.A. Simons for the prediction of rocket exhaust plumes is developed for the resistojet. Modifications are made to the source flow equations to account for the increased effects of the relatively large nozzle boundary layer. Additionally, preliminary mass flux measurements of a laboratory resistojet using CO2 propellant at 298 K have been obtained with a cryogenically cooled quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). There is qualitative agreement between analysis and experiment, at least in terms of the overall number density shape functions in the forward flux region.

  9. Analytical modeling and vibration analysis of internally cracked rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. V.; Jain, N. K.; Ramtekkar, G. D.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes an analytical model for nonlinear vibrations in a cracked rectangular isotropic plate containing a single and two perpendicular internal cracks located at the center of the plate. The two cracks are in the form of continuous line with each parallel to one of the edges of the plate. The equation of motion for isotropic cracked plate, based on classical plate theory is modified to accommodate the effect of internal cracks using the Line Spring Model. Berger's formulation for in-plane forces makes the model nonlinear. Galerkin's method used with three different boundary conditions transforms the equation into time dependent modal functions. The natural frequencies of the cracked plate are calculated for various crack lengths in case of a single crack and for various crack length ratio for the two cracks. The effect of the location of the part through crack(s) along the thickness of the plate on natural frequencies is studied considering appropriate crack compliance coefficients. It is thus deduced that the natural frequencies are maximally affected when the crack(s) are internal crack(s) symmetric about the mid-plane of the plate and are minimally affected when the crack(s) are surface crack(s), for all the three boundary conditions considered. It is also shown that crack parallel to the longer side of the plate affect the vibration characteristics more as compared to crack parallel to the shorter side. Further the application of method of multiple scales gives the nonlinear amplitudes for different aspect ratios of the cracked plate. The analytical results obtained for surface crack(s) are also assessed with FEM results. The FEM formulation is carried out in ANSYS.

  10. How Do Users Evaluate Individual Documents? An Analysis of Dimensions of Evaluation Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Iris; Benoit, Edward, III; Zhang, Huan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation plays an important role in users' information searching and retrieving processes. While previous research mainly focuses on applied criteria, less research is on other dimensions of evaluation. This study explores the dimensions of evaluation activities including criteria applied, elements examined, activity engaged in and…

  11. Social-Cultural-Historical Contradictions in an L2 Listening Lesson: A Joint Activity System Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Informed and inspired by neo-Vygotskian theory, this article outlines a study exploiting a contemporary conceptualization of Wells's (2002) joint activity system model as an exploratory framework for examining and depicting the social-cultural-historical contradictions in second-language (L2) learners' joint activity. The participants were a pair…

  12. Discovering the Thermodynamics of Simultaneous Equilibria: An Entropy Analysis Activity Involving Consecutive Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    An activity is presented in which the thermodynamics of simultaneous, consecutive equilibria are explored. The activity is appropriate for second-year high school or AP chemistry. Students discover that a reactant-favored (entropy-diminishing or endergonic) reaction can be caused to happen if it is coupled with a product-favored reaction of…

  13. Verification of an Analytical Method for Measuring Crystal Nucleation Rates in Glasses from DTA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranasinghe, K. S.; Wei, P. F.; Kelton, K. F.; Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    A recently proposed analytical (DTA) method for estimating the nucleation rates in glasses has been evaluated by comparing experimental data with numerically computed nucleation rates for a model lithium disilicate glass. The time and temperature dependent nucleation rates were predicted using the model and compared with those values from an analysis of numerically calculated DTA curves. The validity of the numerical approach was demonstrated earlier by a comparison with experimental data. The excellent agreement between the nucleation rates from the model calculations and fiom the computer generated DTA data demonstrates the validity of the proposed analytical DTA method.

  14. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample. PMID:22165025

  15. Chemical analysis and antihyperglycemic activity of an original extract from burdock root (Arctium lappa).

    PubMed

    Tousch, Didier; Bidel, Luc P R; Cazals, Guillaume; Ferrare, Karine; Leroy, Jeremy; Faucanié, Marie; Chevassus, Hugues; Tournier, Michel; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Azay-Milhau, Jacqueline

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we obtained a dried burdock root extract (DBRE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids derivatives. We performed the chemical characterization of DBRE and explored its antihyperglycemic potential in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chemical analysis of DBRE using LC-MS and GC-MS revealed the presence of a great majority of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives (75.4%) of which 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O-maloylquinic acid represents 44% of the extract. In the in vitro experiments, DBRE is able to increase glucose uptake in cultured L6 myocytes and to decrease glucagon-induced glucose output from rat isolated hepatocytes together with a reduction of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase activity. DBRE did not increase insulin secretion in the INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line. In vivo, DBRE improves glucose tolerance both after intraperitoneal and oral subchronic administration. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that DBRE constitutes an original set of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives displaying antihyperglycemic properties.

  16. Chemical analysis and antihyperglycemic activity of an original extract from burdock root (Arctium lappa).

    PubMed

    Tousch, Didier; Bidel, Luc P R; Cazals, Guillaume; Ferrare, Karine; Leroy, Jeremy; Faucanié, Marie; Chevassus, Hugues; Tournier, Michel; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Azay-Milhau, Jacqueline

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we obtained a dried burdock root extract (DBRE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids derivatives. We performed the chemical characterization of DBRE and explored its antihyperglycemic potential in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chemical analysis of DBRE using LC-MS and GC-MS revealed the presence of a great majority of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives (75.4%) of which 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O-maloylquinic acid represents 44% of the extract. In the in vitro experiments, DBRE is able to increase glucose uptake in cultured L6 myocytes and to decrease glucagon-induced glucose output from rat isolated hepatocytes together with a reduction of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase activity. DBRE did not increase insulin secretion in the INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line. In vivo, DBRE improves glucose tolerance both after intraperitoneal and oral subchronic administration. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that DBRE constitutes an original set of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives displaying antihyperglycemic properties. PMID:24933284

  17. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample.

  18. An analytical approach for diagnosing areas of strong error growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, G.; Hua, L.

    2003-04-01

    In order to explain and quantify the error growth due to initial uncertainties in the model state, local mechanisms that enable a perturbation to extract energy from the basic flow are studied. More specifically, we have examined the alignment dynamics of the perturbation velocity vector in a barotropic quasigeostrophic context. Preferred orientations of the perturbation velocity vector implying perturbation kinetic energy growth that depend on the basic flow properties are identified. These results are used to develop a new method for initializing a unique perturbation, based on an analytical criterion depending on the basic state velocity and acceleration gradient tensors. The kinetic energy evolution of this unique perturbation compares favorably with the kinetic energy error growth obtained with an ensemble prediction (Monte-Carlo method) and allows a good representation of the areas where the average error grows most rapidly. The analytical initialization forecast error is more relevant to diagnose the average Monte-Carlo error than single forecast errors obtained for initial perturbations taken as the leading singular vector for various norms.

  19. An analytical approach to estimate curvature effect of coseismic deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jie; Sun, Wenke; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-08-01

    We present an analytical approach to compute the curvature effect by the new analytical solutions of coseismic deformation derived for the homogeneous sphere model. We consider two spheres with different radii: one is the same as earth and the other with a larger radius can approximate a half-space model. Then, we calculate the coseismic displacements for the two spheres and define the relative percentage of the displacements as the curvature effect. The near-field curvature effect is defined relative to the maximum coseismic displacement. The results show that the maximum curvature effect is about 4 per cent for source depths of less than 100 km, and about 30 per cent for source depths of less than 600 km. For the far-field curvature effect, we define it relative to the observing point. The curvature effect is extremely large and sometimes exceeds 100 per cent. Moreover, this new approach can be used to estimate any planet's curvature effect quantitatively. For a smaller sphere, such as the Moon, the curvature effect is much larger than that of the Earth, with an inverse ratio to the earth's radius.

  20. Ultrafast 2D NMR: an emerging tool in analytical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry--from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications. PMID:25014342

  1. An example of verification analysis for a Eulerian Hydrocode

    SciTech Connect

    Clover, M.; Kamm, J.

    2000-11-01

    An important activity in the process of code development is code verification, by which we mean detailed examination of and numerical demonstration that the equations are being solved correctly. This process can entail the comparison of code calculations for problems that possess analytic or quasi-analytic solutions. In this presentation we provide results of a verification analysis of the RAGE hydrocode for two particularly challenging problems: (1) the pure hydrodynamic problem of an adiabatically compressing region, and (2) the coupled hydrodynamics/conduction problem of Reinicke and Meyer-ter-Vehn. We present a comparison of code results with the analytic solutions and convergence rates for these cases.

  2. Portraying the Work of Instructional Designing: An Activity-Oriented Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Gail A.

    This study tested the usefulness of an activity-oriented approach in describing and explaining the work of designing an international distance education course in business entrepreneurship at Indiana University. The course was team taught with an instructor at the City University of Hong Kong; video conferencing and Internet-based technologies…

  3. Electrophoretic and densitometric analysis of esterase activity as an indicator of mercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, M.J.; Guttman, S.I.

    1995-12-31

    In an earlier experiment, esterase activity as determined by starch gel electrophoresis was absent in larval caddisflies (Nectopsyche albida) that succumbed to mercury exposure, but was present in control larvae. To test the effects of mercury exposure duration on esterase activity, additional larval N. albida were exposed under conditions identical to those in the earlier experiment, and esterase activity was determined by electrophoresis of several live individuals every 12 hours. To test the effects of mercury concentration on esterase activity, homogenates of unexposed N. albida were electrophoresed, and esterase activity was determined using esterase-specific stains spiked with various concentrations of mercury. Following both experiments, esterase activity was quantified by laser densitometry of stained electrophoresis gels, Results indicate that: (1) inorganic mercury inhibited esterase activity, (2) inhibition increased with exposure time, and (3) inhibition increased with mercury concentration. Esterase inhibition may be a causal factor in mortality related to mercury exposure. Quantification of esterase activity by densitometry of electrophoretic gels may be an alternative method of rapid toxicity assessment.

  4. An analytic approach to optimize tidal turbine fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, P.; Metzler, M.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by global warming due to CO2-emission various technologies for harvesting of energy from renewable sources are developed. Hydrokinetic turbines get applied to surface watercourse or tidal flow to gain electrical energy. Since the available power for hydrokinetic turbines is proportional to the projected cross section area, fields of turbines are installed to scale shaft power. Each hydrokinetic turbine of a field can be considered as a disk actuator. In [1], the first author derives the optimal operation point for hydropower in an open-channel. The present paper concerns about a 0-dimensional model of a disk-actuator in an open-channel flow with bypass, as a special case of [1]. Based on the energy equation, the continuity equation and the momentum balance an analytical approach is made to calculate the coefficient of performance for hydrokinetic turbines with bypass flow as function of the turbine head and the ratio of turbine width to channel width.

  5. Finite element formulation and analysis for an arterial wall with residual and active stresses.

    PubMed

    Kida, Naoki; Adachi, Taiji

    2015-08-01

    In this study, for predicting arterial function and pathogenesis from a mechanical viewpoint, we develop a continuum mechanical model of an arterial wall that embodies residual and active stresses following a traditional anisotropic passive constitutive law. The residual and active stresses are incorporated into finite element methods based on a two-field variational principle described in the Lagrangian form. The linearisation of nonlinear weak-form equations derived from this variational principle is then described for developing an original finite element algorithm. Numerical simulations reveal the following: (i) residual stresses lead to a reduction in stress gradient regardless of the magnitude of external load; (ii) active stresses help homogenise stress distribution under physiological external load, but this homogeneity collapses under pathological external load; (iii) when residual and active stresses act together, the effect of the residual stresses is relatively obscured by that of the active stresses. We conclude that residual stresses have minor but persistent mechanical effects on the arterial wall under both physiological and pathological external loads; active stresses play an important role in the physiological functions and pathogenesis of arteries, and the mechanical effect of residual stresses is dependent on the presence/absence of active stresses.

  6. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: an analytic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wayne; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1995-05-01

    We introduce a conceptually simple yet powerful analytic method which traces the structure of cosmic microwave background anisotropies to better than 5%-10% in temperature fluctuations on all scales. It is applicable to any model in which the gravitational potential is known and last scattering is sufficiently early. Moreover, it recovers and explains the presence of the 'Doppler peaks' at degree scales as driven acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid. We treat in detail such subtleties as the time dependence of the gravitational driving force, anisotropic stress from the neutrino quadrupole, and damping during the recombination process, again all from an analytic standpoint. We apply this formalism to the standard cold dark matter model to gain physical insight into the anisotropies, including the dependence of the peak locations and heights on cosmological parameters such as Omegab and h. Furthermore, the ionization history controls damping due to the finite thickness of the last scattering surface, which is in fact mianly caused by photon diffusion. In addition to being a powerful probe into the nature of anisotropies, this treatment can be used in place of the standard Boltzmann code where 5%-10% accuracy in temperature fluctuations is satisfactory and/or speed is essential. Equally importantly, it can be used as a portable standard by which numerical codes can be tested and compared.

  7. A basis in an invariant subspace of analytic functions

    SciTech Connect

    Krivosheev, A S; Krivosheeva, O A

    2013-12-31

    The existence problem for a basis in a differentiation-invariant subspace of analytic functions defined in a bounded convex domain in the complex plane is investigated. Conditions are found for the solvability of a certain special interpolation problem in the space of entire functions of exponential type with conjugate diagrams lying in a fixed convex domain. These underlie sufficient conditions for the existence of a basis in the invariant subspace. This basis consists of linear combinations of eigenfunctions and associated functions of the differentiation operator, whose exponents are combined into relatively small clusters. Necessary conditions for the existence of a basis are also found. Under a natural constraint on the number of points in the groups, these coincide with the sufficient conditions. That is, a criterion is found under this constraint that a basis constructed from relatively small clusters exists in an invariant subspace of analytic functions in a bounded convex domain in the complex plane. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  8. Detecting Secreted Analytes from Immune Cells: An Overview of Technologies.

    PubMed

    Pike, Kelly A; Hui, Caitlyn; Krawczyk, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is largely shaped by secreted factors and infiltrating immune cells and the nature of this environment can profoundly influence tumor growth and progression. As such, there is an increasing need to identify and quantify secreted factors by tumor cells, tumor-associated cells, and infiltrating immune cells. To meet this need, the dynamic range of immunoassays such as ELISAs and ELISpots have been improved and the scope of reagents commercially available has been expanded. In addition, new bead-based and membrane-based screening arrays have been developed to allow for the simultaneous detection of multiple analytes in one sample. Similarly, the optimization of intracellular staining for flow cytometry now allows for the quantitation of multiple cytokines from either a purified cell population or a complex mixed cell suspension. Herein, we review the rapidly evolving technologies that are currently available to detect secreted analytes. Emphasis is placed on discussing the advantages and disadvantages of these assays and their applications. PMID:27581018

  9. AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Catling, David C.

    2012-09-20

    We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

  10. An Analytical Dynamics Approach to the Control of Mechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylapilli, Harshavardhan

    A new and novel approach to the control of nonlinear mechanical systems is presented in this study. The approach is inspired by recent results in analytical dynamics that deal with the theory of constrained motion. The control requirements on the dynamical system are viewed from an analytical dynamics perspective and the theory of constrained motion is used to recast these control requirements as constraints on the dynamical system. Explicit closed form expressions for the generalized nonlinear control forces are obtained by using the fundamental equation of mechanics. The control so obtained is optimal at each instant of time and causes the constraints to be exactly satisfied. No linearizations and/or approximations of the nonlinear dynamical system are made, and no a priori structure is imposed on the nature of nonlinear controller. Three examples dealing with highly nonlinear complex dynamical systems that are chosen from diverse areas of discrete and continuum mechanics are presented to demonstrate the control approach. The first example deals with the energy control of underactuated inhomogeneous nonlinear lattices (or chains), the second example deals with the synchronization of the motion of multiple coupled slave gyros with that of a master gyro, and the final example deals with the control of incompressible hyperelastic rubber-like thin cantilever beams. Numerical simulations accompanying these examples show the ease, simplicity and the efficacy with which the control methodology can be applied and the accuracy with which the desired control objectives can be met.

  11. Experimental validation of an analytical method of calculating photon distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.G.; Celler, A.; Harrop, R.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed a method for analytically calculating photon distributions in SPECT projections. This method models primary photon distributions as well as first and second order Compton scattering and Rayleigh scattering. It uses no free fitting parameters and so the projections produced are completely determined by the characteristics of the SPECT camera system, the energy of the isotope, an estimate of the source distribution and an attenuation map of the scattering object. The method was previously validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and we are now verifying its accuracy with respect to phantom experiments. We have performed experiments using a Siemens MS3 SPECT camera system for a point source (2mm in diameter) within a homogeneous water bath and a small spherical source (1cm in diameter) within both a homogeneous water cylinder and a non-homogeneous medium consisting of air and water. Our technique reproduces well the distribution of photons in the experimentally acquired projections.

  12. Laser satellite constellations for strategic defense - an analytic model

    SciTech Connect

    Parmentola, J.A.; Milton, A.F.

    1987-10-01

    Using mainly geometric reasoning, an analytic model is constructed that predicts the required characteristics of an orbiting constellation of laser battle stations, each of which is designed to destroy ballistic missiles during their boost phase. The geometry of the constellation configuration and some general aspects of the coverage problem are discussed. The determination of the absentee ratio falls into two main categories that depend upon whether the Soviet ICBM threat is concentrated at a single location or whether it is distributed as it is now. A point-threat model and a distributive threat model are considered, the determination of the respective kill rates for these models is discussed, and the scaling properties of the laser constellation with respect to a change in the quantitative nature of the two types of ICBM threats are considered.

  13. An Activity Theory Analysis of Teaching Goals versus Student Epistemological Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Barbara; Robinson, Carol; Matthews, Janette; Croft, Tony

    2012-01-01

    A teaching innovation for first year engineering students' was designed to involve inquiry-based questions, an electronic graphical medium, small group activity and modifications to assessment. The use of an inquiry approach was intended to encourage students' deeper engagement with mathematics and more conceptual understanding. Data were…

  14. Tensor scale: An analytic approach with efficient computation and applications☆

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Saha, Punam K.; Dasgupta, Soura

    2015-01-01

    Scale is a widely used notion in computer vision and image understanding that evolved in the form of scale-space theory where the key idea is to represent and analyze an image at various resolutions. Recently, we introduced a notion of local morphometric scale referred to as “tensor scale” using an ellipsoidal model that yields a unified representation of structure size, orientation and anisotropy. In the previous work, tensor scale was described using a 2-D algorithmic approach and a precise analytic definition was missing. Also, the application of tensor scale in 3-D using the previous framework is not practical due to high computational complexity. In this paper, an analytic definition of tensor scale is formulated for n-dimensional (n-D) images that captures local structure size, orientation and anisotropy. Also, an efficient computational solution in 2- and 3-D using several novel differential geometric approaches is presented and the accuracy of results is experimentally examined. Also, a matrix representation of tensor scale is derived facilitating several operations including tensor field smoothing to capture larger contextual knowledge. Finally, the applications of tensor scale in image filtering and n-linear interpolation are presented and the performance of their results is examined in comparison with respective state-of-art methods. Specifically, the performance of tensor scale based image filtering is compared with gradient and Weickert’s structure tensor based diffusive filtering algorithms. Also, the performance of tensor scale based n-linear interpolation is evaluated in comparison with standard n-linear and windowed-sinc interpolation methods. PMID:26236148

  15. Selective sorption behavior of iodine species on an activated carbon disk and its implication for the speciation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Lee, J.; An, J.

    2013-12-01

    In recent times, iodate (IO3-) which can be generated under highly oxidized conditions such as the ozonation process in a water treatment plant has been receiving increasing attention due to its high toxicity to human and environment. In this respect, sorption behavior of iodide (I-) and IO3- on an activated carbon (AC) disk as a solid sorbent was investigated for the further development of efficient removal and analytical techniques. To this end, batch sorption tests were performed as a function of pH, sample volume, and initial concentration. Sorption of I- occurred preferentially on the surface of AC disk, regardless of pH levels (i.e., 4, 6, and 8). However, IO3- was quite sensitive to pH levels and the sorption capability of IO3- on the AC disk was much smaller than that of I-. Maximum sorption capacities of I- and IO3- in the different matrices (i.e., deionized water and seawater) were also assessed. In addition, the analytical strategy for the iodine speciation was also introduced. Iodine species were separated and pre-concentrated onto the AC disk based on their selective sorption properties according to the pH levels. Then, the AC disk pre-concentrated was directly analyzed using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant from the Korea Basic Science Institute (project No. E33300).

  16. Peer Reviewing of OER in a Contested Domain--An Activity Theoretical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algers, Anne; Ljung, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Globally, we experience numerous initiatives to increase the adoption of open educational resources (OER), but quality concerns challenge the adoption. In this study we present an analysis of the peer review process of an OER. The OER under review is produced by the European Commission (EU). It has the goal to teach children about farm animal…

  17. An Overview of Conventional and Emerging Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Cigić, Irena Kralj; Prosen, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various pathological conditions has led to widespread screening of foods and feeds potentially polluted with them. Maximum permissible levels in different matrices have also been established for some toxins. As these are quite low, analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins have to be both sensitive and specific. In addition, an appropriate sample preparation and pre-concentration method is needed to isolate analytes from rather complicated samples. In this article, an overview of methods for analysis and sample preparation published in the last ten years is given for the most often encountered mycotoxins in different samples, mainly in food. Special emphasis is on liquid chromatography with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection, while in the field of sample preparation various solid-phase extraction approaches are discussed. However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given. Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples). Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results. PMID:19333436

  18. An in vitro thermal analysis during different light-activated hydrogen peroxide bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabbach, W.; Zezell, D. M.; Bandéca, M. C.; Pereira, T. M.; Andrade, M. F.

    2010-09-01

    This study measured the critical temperature reaching time and also the variation of temperature in the surface of the cervical region and within the pulp chamber of human teeth submitted to dental bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide gel activated by three different light sources. The samples were randomly divided into 3 groups ( n = 15), according to the catalyst light source: Halogen Light (HL), High Intensity Diode Laser (DL), and Light Emmited Diode (LED). The results of temperature variation were submitted to the analysis of variance and Tukey test with p < 0.05. The temperature increase (mean value and standard deviation) inside the pulp chamber for the HL group was 6.8 ± 2.8°C; for the DL group was 15.3 ± 8.8°C; and for the LED group was 1.9 ± 1.0°C for. The temperature variation (mean value and standard deviation) on the tooth surface, for the group irradiated with HL was 9.1 ± 2.2°C; for the group irradiated with DL were 25.7 ± 18.9°C; and for the group irradiated with LED were 2.6 ± 1.4°C. The mean temperature increase values were significantly higher for the group irradiated with DL when compared with groups irradiated with HL and LED ( p < 0.05). When applying the inferior limits of the interval of confidence of 95%, an application time of 38.7 s was found for HL group, and 4.4 s for DL group. The LED group did not achieve the critical temperatures for pulp or the periodontal, even when irradiated for 360 s. The HL and DL light sources may be used for dental bleaching for a short period of time. The LED source did not heat the target tissues significantly within the parameters used in this study.

  19. Peer assisted learning in the clinical setting: an activity systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Kelly, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) is a common feature of medical education. Understanding of PAL has been based on processes and outcomes in controlled settings, such as clinical skills labs. PAL in the clinical setting, a complex learning environment, requires fresh evaluation. Socio-cultural theory is proposed as a means to understand educational interventions in ways that are practical and meaningful. We describe the evaluation of a PAL intervention, introduced to support students' transition into full time clinical attachments, using activity theory and activity systems analysis (ASA). Our research question was How does PAL transfer to the clinical environment? Junior students on their first clinical attachments undertook a weekly same-level, reciprocal PAL activity. Qualitative data was collected after each session, and focus groups (n = 3) were held on completion. Data was analysed using ASA. ASA revealed two competing activity systems on clinical attachment; Learning from Experts, which students saw as the primary function of the attachment and Learning with Peers, the PAL intervention. The latter took time from the first and was in tension with it. Tensions arose from student beliefs about how learning takes place in clinical settings, and the importance of social relationships, leading to variable engagement with PAL. Differing perspectives within the group were opportunities for expansive learning. PAL in the clinical environment presents challenges specific to that context. Using ASA helped to describe student activity on clinical attachment and to highlight tensions and contradictions relating PAL in that setting. Planning learning opportunities on clinical placements, must take account of how students learn in workplaces, and the complexity of the multiple competing activity systems related to learning and social activities.

  20. An analytical model for guided wave inspection optimization for prismatic structures of any cross section.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Ruth M; Catton, Philip P

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an analytical modeling technique for the simulation of long-range ultrasonic guided waves in structures. The model may be used to predict the displacement field in a prismatic structure arising from any excitation arrangement and may therefore be used as a tool to design new inspection systems. It is computationally efficient and relatively simple to implement, yet gives accuracy similar to finite element analysis and semi-analytical finite element analysis methods. The model has many potential applications; one example is the optimization of part-circumferential arrays where access to the full circumference of the pipe is restricted. The model has been successfully validated by comparison with finite element solutions. Experimental validation has also been carried out using an array of piezoelectric transducer elements to measure the displacement field arising from a single transducer element in an 88.9-mm-diameter pipe. Good agreement has been obtained between the two models and the experimental data.

  1. Ohmic Inflation of Hot Jupiters: an Analytical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em

    2015-12-01

    Many giant exoplanets in close orbits have observed radii which exceed theoretical predictions.One suggested explanation for this discrepancy is heat deposited deep inside the atmospheres of these hot Jupiters.We present an analytical model for the evolution of such irradiated, and internally heated gas giants, and derive scaling laws for their cooling rates and radii.We estimate the Ohmic dissipation resulting from the interaction between the atmospheric winds and the planet's magnetic field, and apply our model to Ohmically heated planets.Our model can account for the observed radii of many inflated planets, but not the most extreme ones.We show that Ohmically heated planets have already reached their equilibrium phase and they no longer contract.We show that it is possible to re-inflate planets, but we confirm that re-heating timescales are longer by about a factor of 30 than cooling times.

  2. An analytical method for regional dental manpower training.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, P J; Foley, W J; Schneider, D P

    1978-07-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for dental manpower planning for use by Health Systems Agencies. The planning methods discard geopolitical boundaries in favor of Dental Service Areas (DSA). A method for defining DSAs by aggregating Minor Civil Divisions based on current population mobility and current distribution of dentists is presented. The Dental Manpower Balance Model (DMBM) is presented to calculate shortages (or surpluses) of dentists. This model uses sociodemographic data to calculate the demand for dental services and age adjusted productivity measures to calculate the effective supply of dentists. A case study for the HSA region in Northeastern New York is presented. The case study demonstrates that, although the planning methods are quite simple, they are more flexible and produce more sensitive results than the normative ratio method of manpower planning. PMID:10308627

  3. An analytical study of electric vehicle handling dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, J. E.; Segal, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Hypothetical electric vehicle configurations were studied by applying available analytical methods. Elementary linearized models were used in addition to a highly sophisticated vehicle dynamics computer simulation technique. Physical properties of specific EV's were defined for various battery and powertrain packaging approaches applied to a range of weight distribution and inertial properties which characterize a generic class of EV's. Computer simulations of structured maneuvers were performed for predicting handling qualities in the normal driving range and during various extreme conditions related to accident avoidance. Results indicate that an EV with forward weight bias will possess handling qualities superior to a comparable EV that is rear-heavy or equally balanced. The importance of properly matching tires, suspension systems, and brake system front/rear torque proportioning to a given EV configuration during the design stage is demonstrated.

  4. An analytic formula for the supercluster mass function

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Seunghwan; Lee, Jounghun E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-03-01

    We present an analytic formula for the supercluster mass function, which is constructed by modifying the extended Zel'dovich model for the halo mass function. The formula has two characteristic parameters whose best-fit values are determined by fitting to the numerical results from N-body simulations for the standard ΛCDM cosmology. The parameters are found to be independent of redshifts and robust against variation of the key cosmological parameters. Under the assumption that the same formula for the supercluster mass function is valid for non-standard cosmological models, we show that the relative abundance of the rich superclusters should be a powerful indicator of any deviation of the real universe from the prediction of the standard ΛCDM model.

  5. An ecological analysis of environmental correlates of active commuting in urban U.S.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2014-11-01

    We conduct a cross-sectional ecological analysis to examine environmental correlates of active commuting in 39,660 urban tracts using data from the 2010 Census, 2007-2011 American Community Survey, and other sources. The five-year average (2007-2011) prevalence is 3.05% for walking, 0.63% for biking, and 7.28% for public transportation to work, with higher prevalence for all modes in lower-income tracts. Environmental factors account for more variances in public transportation to work but economic and demographic factors account for more variances in walking and biking to work. Population density, median housing age, street connectivity, tree canopy, distance to parks, air quality, and county sprawl index are associated with active commuting, but the association can vary in size and direction for different transportation mode and for higher-income and lower-income tracts.

  6. An ecological analysis of environmental correlates of active commuting in urban U.S.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2014-11-01

    We conduct a cross-sectional ecological analysis to examine environmental correlates of active commuting in 39,660 urban tracts using data from the 2010 Census, 2007-2011 American Community Survey, and other sources. The five-year average (2007-2011) prevalence is 3.05% for walking, 0.63% for biking, and 7.28% for public transportation to work, with higher prevalence for all modes in lower-income tracts. Environmental factors account for more variances in public transportation to work but economic and demographic factors account for more variances in walking and biking to work. Population density, median housing age, street connectivity, tree canopy, distance to parks, air quality, and county sprawl index are associated with active commuting, but the association can vary in size and direction for different transportation mode and for higher-income and lower-income tracts. PMID:25460907

  7. Tank 241-AN-103, cores 166 and 167 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-05-15

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-AN-103 [Hydrogen Watch Listed] push mode core segments collected between September 13, 1996 and September 23, 1996. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-AN-103 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) and the Flammable Gas Data Quality Objective (DQO). The analytical results are included in the data summary table. The raw data are included in this document. None of the samples submitted for Total Alpha Activity (AT), Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Plutonium analyses exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP. One sample submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis exceeded the notification limit of 480 Joules/g (dry weight basis) as stated in the Safety Screening DQO. Appropriate notifications were made. Statistical evaluation of results by calculating the 95% upper confidence limit is not performed by the 222-S Laboratory and is not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is a cross reference to relate the tank farm identification numbers to the 222-S Laboratory LabCore/LIMS sample numbers. The subsamples generated in the laboratory for analyses are identified in these diagrams with their sources shown. The diagrams identifying the core composites are also included. Core 166 Nineteen push mode core segments were removed from tank 241-AN-103 riser 12A between September 13, 1996 and September 17, 1996. Segments were received by the 222-S Laboratory between September 20, 1996 and September 30, 1996. Table 2 summarizes the extrusion information. Selected segments (2, 5 and 14) were sampled using the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) and extruded by the Process Chemistry and Statistical Analysis Group. Core 167 Eighteen push mode core segments were removed from tank 241-AN-103 riser 21A between September 18, 1996 and September 23, 1996. Tank Farm Operations were

  8. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING AN ISOTOPIC NEUTRON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Raymond Sigg, R

    2006-08-14

    NAA using {sup 252}Cf is used to address important areas of applied interest at SRS. Sensitivity needs for many of the applications are not severe; analyses are accomplished using a 21 mg {sup 252}Cf NAA facility. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, it offers strong advantages for samples in difficult-to-digest matrices when its sensitivity is sufficient. Following radiochemical separation with stable carrier addition, chemical yields for a number methods are determined by neutron activation of the stable carrier. In some of the cases where no suitable stable carriers exist, the source has been used to generate radioactive tracers to yield separations.

  9. Structuring Health in Colorectal Cancer Screening Conversations: An Analysis of Intersecting Activity Systems

    PubMed Central

    Canary, Heather; Bullis, Connie; Cummings, Jennifer; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study used structurating activity theory to analyze 21 conversations between genetic counselors and individuals at increased risk for familial colorectal cancer (CRC). The qualitative analysis revealed ways elements of family, primary healthcare, cancer prevention and treatment, and other systems emerged in intervention conversations as shaping CRC screening attitudes and behaviors. Results indicate that family stories, norms, and roles are resources for enacting health practices in families and that the authority of healthcare providers is a resource for making screening decisions. Conclusions include practical implications for using findings in clinical applications as well as future research directions to build on this exploratory study. PMID:27182185

  10. Answering the Call for Accountability: An Activity and Cost Analysis Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Rozana; Kisker, Carrie B.; Chang, June; Schirmer, James

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a case study on the creation and application of an activity-based cost accounting model that links community college salary expenditures to mission-critical practices within academic divisions of a southern California community college. Although initially applied as a financial management tool in private…

  11. Enhanced Lipid and Biodiesel Production from Glucose-Fed Activated Sludge: Kinetics an Microbial Community Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative approach to increase biofuel feedstock lipid yields from municipal sewage sludge via manipulation of carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio and glucose loading in activated sludge bioreactors was investigated. Sludge lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) yields (% cel...

  12. An analytical method for computing atomic contact areas in biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

    2013-01-15

    We propose a new analytical method for detecting and computing contacts between atoms in biomolecules. It is based on the alpha shape theory and proceeds in three steps. First, we compute the weighted Delaunay triangulation of the union of spheres representing the molecule. In the second step, the Delaunay complex is filtered to derive the dual complex. Finally, contacts between spheres are collected. In this approach, two atoms i and j are defined to be in contact if their centers are connected by an edge in the dual complex. The contact areas between atom i and its neighbors are computed based on the caps formed by these neighbors on the surface of i; the total area of all these caps is partitioned according to their spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagram on the surface of i. This method is analytical and its implementation in a new program BallContact is fast and robust. We have used BallContact to study contacts in a database of 1551 high resolution protein structures. We show that with this new definition of atomic contacts, we generate realistic representations of the environments of atoms and residues within a protein. In particular, we establish the importance of nonpolar contact areas that complement the information represented by the accessible surface areas. This new method bears similarity to the tessellation methods used to quantify atomic volumes and contacts, with the advantage that it does not require the presence of explicit solvent molecules if the surface of the protein is to be considered. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Detecting doping use: more than an analytical problem.

    PubMed

    Delanghe, J R; Maenhout, T M; Speeckaert, M M; De Buyzere, M L

    2014-01-01

    The recent Armstrong case, where more than 250 negative doping tests are confronted with the athlete's confession of erythropoietin use, blood doping, steroid, and growth hormone abuse, illustrates the limitations of current laboratory tests in detecting doping in sport. Despite numerous doping controls and simultaneous indications of common doping abuse among professional athletes in the last two decades, the number of positive urine tests for recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) remains remarkably low. Athletes are using various masking strategies, among them protease inhibitors, intravenous injections of rHuEPO and alternative erythropoiesis stimulating agents. As one of the countermeasures, the Athlete's Biological Passport has been introduced. The sensitivity of the Athlete's Biological Passport is limited if the effect of a low-dose doping remains within the intra-individual reference range. A possible solution could be the use of a novel Epo test (MAIIA Diagnostics). Another performance-enhancing strategy is the return to 'old' doping techniques, such as autologous blood transfusions. Several indirect methods to detect autologous blood transfusions have been proposed with the majority relying on changes in erythropoiesis-sensitive blood markers. Currently, an algorithm based on the haemoglobin (Hb) level concentration and the percentage of reticulocytes (OFF-hr model; Hb(g/l)-60·√%ret) is approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Genetic factors have been identified which may interfere with test interpretation. A large inter- and intra-ethnic variation in testosterone glucuronidation and excretion has been described. Consideration of genetic variation should improve performance of the testosterone doping test. Taking into account the pre-analytical care and better tailoring of the threshold values could increase test sensitivity. Anti-doping laboratories should routinely adjust for multiple testing as failure of doping control to detect cheaters

  14. Electromagnetic and structural coupled finite element analysis of active control in an anti-vibration device

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, Eiji; Chen, Q.M.; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Brauer, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    An active control model of an anti-vibration device is analyzed using a coupled electromagnetic and structural finite element technique. The model consists of two parallel conducting wires moving in a uniform magnetic field. Displacement and velocity of the wires are detected and transformed into voltages. Those voltages are fed back to each wire to control the motion by Lorentz force. Calculated response of the motion is shown to agree with the theory of the equivalent mechanical model.

  15. An analytic description of electrodynamic dispersion in free-flow zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debashis

    2015-07-24

    The present work analyzes the electrodynamic dispersion of sample streams in a free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) chamber resulting due to partial or complete blockage of electroosmotic flow (EOF) across the channel width by the sidewalls of the conduit. This blockage of EOF has been assumed to generate a pressure-driven backflow in the transverse direction for maintaining flow balance in the system. A parallel-plate based FFZE device with the analyte stream located far away from the channel side regions has been considered to simplify the current analysis. Applying a method-of-moments formulation, an analytic expression was derived for the variance of the sample zone at steady state as a function of its position in the separation chamber under these conditions. It has been shown that the increase in stream broadening due to the electrodynamic dispersion phenomenon is additive to the contributions from molecular diffusion and sample injection, and simply modifies the coefficient for the hydrodynamic dispersion term for a fixed lateral migration distance of the sample stream. Moreover, this dispersion mechanism can dominate the overall spatial variance of analyte zones when a significant fraction of the EOF is blocked by the channel sidewalls. The analysis also shows that analyte streams do not undergo any hydrodynamic broadening due to unwanted pressure-driven cross-flows in an FFZE chamber in the absence of a transverse electric field. The noted results have been validated using Monte Carlo simulations which further demonstrate that while the sample concentration profile at the channel outlet approaches a Gaussian distribution only in FFZE chambers substantially longer than the product of the axial pressure-driven velocity and the characteristic diffusion time in the system, the spatial variance of the exiting analyte stream is well described by the Taylor-Aris dispersion limit even in analysis ducts much shorter than this length scale.

  16. An analytic description of electrodynamic dispersion in free-flow zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debashis

    2015-07-24

    The present work analyzes the electrodynamic dispersion of sample streams in a free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) chamber resulting due to partial or complete blockage of electroosmotic flow (EOF) across the channel width by the sidewalls of the conduit. This blockage of EOF has been assumed to generate a pressure-driven backflow in the transverse direction for maintaining flow balance in the system. A parallel-plate based FFZE device with the analyte stream located far away from the channel side regions has been considered to simplify the current analysis. Applying a method-of-moments formulation, an analytic expression was derived for the variance of the sample zone at steady state as a function of its position in the separation chamber under these conditions. It has been shown that the increase in stream broadening due to the electrodynamic dispersion phenomenon is additive to the contributions from molecular diffusion and sample injection, and simply modifies the coefficient for the hydrodynamic dispersion term for a fixed lateral migration distance of the sample stream. Moreover, this dispersion mechanism can dominate the overall spatial variance of analyte zones when a significant fraction of the EOF is blocked by the channel sidewalls. The analysis also shows that analyte streams do not undergo any hydrodynamic broadening due to unwanted pressure-driven cross-flows in an FFZE chamber in the absence of a transverse electric field. The noted results have been validated using Monte Carlo simulations which further demonstrate that while the sample concentration profile at the channel outlet approaches a Gaussian distribution only in FFZE chambers substantially longer than the product of the axial pressure-driven velocity and the characteristic diffusion time in the system, the spatial variance of the exiting analyte stream is well described by the Taylor-Aris dispersion limit even in analysis ducts much shorter than this length scale. PMID:26044384

  17. An Analytic Description of Electrodynamic Dispersion in Free-Flow Zone Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    The present work analyzes the electrodynamic dispersion of sample streams in a free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) chamber resulting due to partial or complete blockage of electroosmotic flow (EOF) across the channel width by the sidewalls of the conduit. This blockage of EOF has been assumed to generate a pressure-driven backflow in the transverse direction for maintaining flow balance in the system. A parallel-plate based FFZE device with the analyte stream located far away from the channel side regions has been considered to simplify the current analysis. Applying a method-of-moments formulation, an analytic expression was derived for the variance of the sample zone at steady state as a function of its position in the separation chamber under these conditions. It has been shown that the increase in stream broadening due to the electrodynamic dispersion phenomenon is additive to the contributions from molecular diffusion and sample injection, and simply modifies the coefficient for the hydrodynamic dispersion term for a fixed lateral migration distance of the sample stream. Moreover, this dispersion mechanism can dominate the overall spatial variance of analyte zones when a significant fraction of the EOF is blocked by the channel sidewalls. The analysis also shows that analyte streams do not undergo any hydrodynamic broadening due to unwanted pressure-driven cross-flows in an FFZE chamber in the absence of a transverse electric field. The noted results have been validated using Monte Carlo simulations which further demonstrate that while the sample concentration profile at the channel outlet approaches a Gaussian distribution only in FFZE chambers substantially longer than the product of the axial pressure-driven velocity and the characteristic diffusion time in the system, the spatial variance of the exiting analyte stream is well described by the Taylor-Aris dispersion limit even in analysis ducts much shorter than this length scale. PMID:26044384

  18. Phase-recovery improvement using analytic wavelet transform analysis of a noisy interferogram cepstrum.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Vadnjal, Ana Laura; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2012-09-15

    We evaluate the extension of the exact nonlinear reconstruction technique developed for digital holography to the phase-recovery problems presented by other optical interferometric methods, which use carrier modulation. It is shown that the introduction of an analytic wavelet analysis in the ridge of the cepstrum transformation corresponding to the analyzed interferogram can be closely related to the well-known wavelet analysis of the interferometric intensity. Subsequently, the phase-recovery process is improved. The advantages and limitations of this framework are analyzed and discussed using numerical simulations in singular scalar light fields and in temporal speckle pattern interferometry. PMID:23041878

  19. Screening foods for radionuclide contamination via analysis of composited analytical portions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, William C

    2014-02-01

    A procedure is presented for screening foods for radionuclide contamination. It was developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) to be an option for augmenting analytical capability following a major radiological contamination event involving beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides. The expected application of this procedure would be during late-phase monitoring, after initial monitoring suggests an area is contamination-free or levels are negligible but additional confirming data are desired. When food is taken from multiple samples and a composite analytical portion is prepared and analyzed using a quantitative method, it is possible to show that radionuclide activity levels are below a regulatory limit for a number of samples simultaneously. Although radionuclide activity levels are not obtained for individual samples, the number of samples that can be processed can be increased dramatically. In application, a limited number of selected samples would be analyzed using the usual unmodified quantitative method while the screening method would be used to provide supporting information for bulk quantities of samples. The procedure involves combining equal-mass portions from a number (n) of food samples to make a composite analytical portion, which is then analyzed using a quantitative method. Instead of comparing results with the regulatory limit, they are compared with a screening level equal to 1/n of the regulatory limit. If the observed activity concentration for the composite analytical portion is below the screening level, then the radionuclide levels are below the regulatory limit for all samples represented by it. Screening throughput will therefore depend on n. For n = 2, 3, etc., sample throughput will double, triple, etc., respectively. The maximum number of samples that may be combined is subject to limitations such as those associated with sample nonhomogeneity, detection capability, and the need to be able to discern abnormal

  20. Estrogenic activity of ternary UV filter mixtures in fish (Pimephales promelas) - An analysis with nonlinear isobolograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Petra Y.; Fent, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Numerous estrogenic compounds are present in aquatic environments, but currently it is not well understood how compounds that differ in maxima and slope of their individual dose-response curves contribute to the overall mixture effect. In order to better understand such interactions we investigated 3 commonly used UV filters, for their estrogenic mixture activity and analysed their joint effects by using the concentration addition (CA) concept. Thereby, we extended the method of isoboles for analysis of 3 compounds that differ in maxima and slopes of their dose-response curves. 3-Benzylidene camphor (3BC), benzophenone-1 (BP1) and benzophenone-2 (BP2) are estrogenic in fish and act as pure- or partial estrogen receptor {alpha} agonists. First we exposed juvenile fathead minnows for 14 days to six concentrations of each UV filter alone to determine vitellogenin (VTG) induction curves, calculate equi-effective mixture concentrations and predict mixture effects. For 3BC, BP1 and BP2 significant VTG-induction occurred at 420, 2668, and 4715 {mu}g/L, respectively. BP2 displayed a full dose-response curve, whereas 3BC and BP1 showed submaximal activity of 70 and 78%, respectively. Second, we exposed fish to 6 equi-effective mixtures (EC-NOEC, EC1, EC5, EC10, EC20, EC30) of these UV filters. Significant VTG-induction occurred at EC5 and higher. Submaximal activity of 67% as compared to the control EE2 (100 ng/L) was reached. The curves for the observed and predicted mixture activity agreed for mixture levels (EC10 to EC30), however, at EC-NOEC, EC1 and EC5, lower activity was observed than predicted by CA. Detailed isobolographic analysis indicate additivity at EC10 to EC30, and antagonism at low levels (EC-NOEC to EC5). Our data show for the first time, that for compounds with differences in maxima and slope, considerably more mixture combinations are additive than previously thought. This should be taken into account for hazard and risk assessment of UV filters and

  1. Empirical analysis of individual popularity and activity on an online music service system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-Bo; Han, Ding-Yi

    2008-10-01

    Quantitative understanding of human behaviors supplies basic comprehension of the dynamics of many socio-economic systems. Based on the log data of an online music service system, we investigate the statistical characteristics of individual activity and popularity, and find that the distributions of both of them follow a stretched exponential form which interpolates between exponential and power law distribution. We also study the human dynamics on the online system and find that the distribution of interevent time between two consecutive listenings of music shows the fat tail feature. Besides, with the reduction of user activity the fat tail becomes more and more irregular, indicating different behavior patterns for users with diverse activities. The research results may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of collective behaviors in socio-economic systems.

  2. A kinetic analysis using fractals of cellular analyte-receptor binding and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Sadana, A; Vo-Dinh, T

    2001-02-01

    A fractal analysis is presented for cellular analyte-receptor binding and dissociation kinetics using a biosensor. Data taken from the literature may be modelled, in the case of binding, using a single-fractal analysis or a dual-fractal analysis. The dual-fractal analysis represents a change in the binding mechanism as the reaction progresses on the surface. The predictive relationship developed for the equilibrium constant, K (affinity which is equal to k(d)/k(1or2)), as a function of the analyte concentration is of particular value since it provides a means by which the affinity may be manipulated. This should be of assistance in cell-surface reactions, drug-candidate optimization and for the design of immunodiagnostic devices. Relationships are also presented for the binding and dissociation rate coefficients as a function of their corresponding fractal dimension, D(f) or the degree of heterogeneity that exists on the surface, and the analyte concentration in solution. When analyte-receptor binding or dissociation is involved, an increase in the heterogeneity on the surface (increase in D(f) or D(fd) as the case may be) leads to an increase in the binding and the dissociation rate coefficients. It is suggested that an increase in the degree of heterogeneity on the surface leads to an increase in the turbulence on the surface owing to the irregularities on the surface. This turbulence promotes mixing, minimizes diffusional limitations and leads subsequently to an increase in the binding and the dissociation rate coefficients. The binding and dissociation rate coefficients are rather sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity, D(f) and D(fd), respectively, that exists on the biosensor surface. The heterogeneity on the surface in general affects the binding and dissociation rate coefficients differently. In general, the analyte concentration in solution has a mild affect on the fractal dimension for binding or the fractal dimension for dissociation. This is indicated

  3. Analysis of brain activity and response to colour stimuli during learning tasks: an EEG study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folgieri, Raffaella; Lucchiari, Claudio; Marini, Daniele

    2013-02-01

    The research project intends to demonstrate how EEG detection through BCI device can improve the analysis and the interpretation of colours-driven cognitive processes through the combined approach of cognitive science and information technology methods. To this end, firstly it was decided to design an experiment based on comparing the results of the traditional (qualitative and quantitative) cognitive analysis approach with the EEG signal analysis of the evoked potentials. In our case, the sensorial stimulus is represented by the colours, while the cognitive task consists in remembering the words appearing on the screen, with different combination of foreground (words) and background colours. In this work we analysed data collected from a sample of students involved in a learning process during which they received visual stimuli based on colour variation. The stimuli concerned both the background of the text to learn and the colour of the characters. The experiment indicated some interesting results concerning the use of primary (RGB) and complementary (CMY) colours.

  4. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  5. Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Eickhoff, Simon B.; Bzdok, Danilo; Laird, Angela R.; Kurth, Florian; Fox, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    A widely used technique for coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging data is activation likelihood estimation (ALE), which determines the convergence of foci reported from different experiments. ALE analysis involves modelling these foci as probability distributions whose width is based on empirical estimates of the spatial uncertainty due to the between-subject and between-template variability of neuroimaging data. ALE results are assessed against a null-distribution of random spatial association between experiments, resulting in random-effects inference. In the present revision of this algorithm, we address two remaining drawbacks of the previous algorithm. First, the assessment of spatial association between experiments was based on a highly time-consuming permutation test, which nevertheless entailed the danger of underestimating the right tail of the null-distribution. In this report, we outline how this previous approach may be replaced by a faster and more precise analytical method. Second, the previously applied correction procedure, i.e. controlling the false discovery rate (FDR), is supplemented by new approaches for correcting the family-wise error rate and the cluster-level significance. The different alternatives for drawing inference on meta-analytic results are evaluated on an exemplary dataset on face perception as well as discussed with respect to their methodological limitations and advantages. In summary, we thus replaced the previous permutation algorithm with a faster and more rigorous analytical solution for the null-distribution and comprehensively address the issue of multiple-comparison corrections. The proposed revision of the ALE-algorithm should provide an improved tool for conducting coordinate-based meta-analyses on functional imaging data. PMID:21963913

  6. Lignocellulose-based analytical devices: bamboo as an analytical platform for chemical detection

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Chen-Meng; York, Roger L.; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of lignocellulose-based analytical devices (LADs) for rapid bioanalysis in low-resource settings. LADs are constructed using either a single lignocellulose or a hybrid design consisting of multiple types of lignocellulose. LADs are simple, low-cost, easy to use, provide rapid response, and do not require external instrumentation during operation. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of LADs for food and water safety (i.e., nitrite assay in hot-pot soup, bacterial detection in water, and resazurin assay in milk) and urinalysis (i.e., nitrite, urobilinogen, and pH assays in human urine). Notably, we created a unique approach using simple chemicals to achieve sensitivity similar to that of commercially available immunochromatographic strips that is low-cost, and provides on-site, rapid detection, for instance, of Eschericia coli (E. coli) in water. PMID:26686576

  7. An analytical bond-order potential for carbon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Xiaowang; Ward, Donald K.; Foster, Michael E.

    2015-05-27

    Carbon is the most widely studied material today because it exhibits special properties not seen in any other materials when in nano dimensions such as nanotube and graphene. Reduction of material defects created during synthesis has become critical to realize the full potential of carbon structures. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in principle, allow defect formation mechanisms to be studied with high fidelity, and can, therefore, help guide experiments for defect reduction. Such MD simulations must satisfy a set of stringent requirements. First, they must employ an interatomic potential formalism that is transferable to a variety of carbon structures. Second, themore » potential needs to be appropriately parameterized to capture the property trends of important carbon structures, in particular, diamond, graphite, graphene, and nanotubes. The potential must predict the crystalline growth of the correct phases during direct MD simulations of synthesis to achieve a predictive simulation of defect formation. An unlimited number of structures not included in the potential parameterization are encountered, thus the literature carbon potentials are often not sufficient for growth simulations. We have developed an analytical bond order potential for carbon, and have made it available through the public MD simulation package LAMMPS. We also demonstrate that our potential reasonably captures the property trends of important carbon phases. As a result, stringent MD simulations convincingly show that our potential accounts not only for the crystalline growth of graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes but also for the transformation of graphite to diamond at high pressure.« less

  8. An analytical bond-order potential for carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaowang; Ward, Donald K.; Foster, Michael E.

    2015-05-27

    Carbon is the most widely studied material today because it exhibits special properties not seen in any other materials when in nano dimensions such as nanotube and graphene. Reduction of material defects created during synthesis has become critical to realize the full potential of carbon structures. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in principle, allow defect formation mechanisms to be studied with high fidelity, and can, therefore, help guide experiments for defect reduction. Such MD simulations must satisfy a set of stringent requirements. First, they must employ an interatomic potential formalism that is transferable to a variety of carbon structures. Second, the potential needs to be appropriately parameterized to capture the property trends of important carbon structures, in particular, diamond, graphite, graphene, and nanotubes. The potential must predict the crystalline growth of the correct phases during direct MD simulations of synthesis to achieve a predictive simulation of defect formation. An unlimited number of structures not included in the potential parameterization are encountered, thus the literature carbon potentials are often not sufficient for growth simulations. We have developed an analytical bond order potential for carbon, and have made it available through the public MD simulation package LAMMPS. We also demonstrate that our potential reasonably captures the property trends of important carbon phases. As a result, stringent MD simulations convincingly show that our potential accounts not only for the crystalline growth of graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes but also for the transformation of graphite to diamond at high pressure.

  9. An analytical bond-order potential for carbon.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X W; Ward, D K; Foster, M E

    2015-09-01

    Carbon is the most widely studied material today because it exhibits special properties not seen in any other materials when in nano dimensions such as nanotube and graphene. Reduction of material defects created during synthesis has become critical to realize the full potential of carbon structures. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in principle, allow defect formation mechanisms to be studied with high fidelity, and can, therefore, help guide experiments for defect reduction. Such MD simulations must satisfy a set of stringent requirements. First, they must employ an interatomic potential formalism that is transferable to a variety of carbon structures. Second, the potential needs to be appropriately parameterized to capture the property trends of important carbon structures, in particular, diamond, graphite, graphene, and nanotubes. Most importantly, the potential must predict the crystalline growth of the correct phases during direct MD simulations of synthesis to achieve a predictive simulation of defect formation. Because an unlimited number of structures not included in the potential parameterization are encountered, the literature carbon potentials are often not sufficient for growth simulations. We have developed an analytical bond order potential for carbon, and have made it available through the public MD simulation package LAMMPS. We demonstrate that our potential reasonably captures the property trends of important carbon phases. Stringent MD simulations convincingly show that our potential accounts not only for the crystalline growth of graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes but also for the transformation of graphite to diamond at high pressure.

  10. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates: Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, D. N.; Allen, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted with 15 participants. Experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 2219-T8 aluminum plate provided the basis for the inter-laboratory study (ILS). The study proceeded in a blind fashion given that the analysis methodology was not specified to the participants, and key experimental results were withheld. This approach allowed the ILS to serve as a current measure of the state of the art for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The analytical results and the associated methodologies were collected for comparison, and sources of variability were studied and isolated. The results of the study revealed that the J-integral analysis methodology using the domain integral method is robust, providing reliable J-integral values without being overly sensitive to modeling details. General modeling choices such as analysis code, model size (mesh density), crack tip meshing, or boundary conditions, were not found to be sources of significant variability. For analyses controlled only by far-field boundary conditions, the greatest source of variability in the J-integral assessment is introduced through the constitutive model. This variability can be substantially reduced by using crack mouth opening displacements to anchor the assessment. Conclusions provide recommendations for analysis standardization.

  11. Oscillatory activity of single units in a somatosensory cortex of an awake monkey and their possible role in texture analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ahissar, E; Vaadia, E

    1990-01-01

    Neuronal activity was extracellularly recorded in the cortex of an awake monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Single units displaying oscillatory firing patterns were found in the upper bank of the lateral sulcus in a region where most of the neurons responded to somatosensory stimuli. The spectral energies of the oscillating activity were distributed in a trimodal fashion--0-15, 15-50, and 80-250 Hz--with the most common frequencies around 30 Hz. The oscillatory activity was not affected by anesthesia, but it was often reduced by tactile stimulation or self-initiated movements. Analysis of the spike trains suggests that the majority of oscillatory activity was intrinsically generated by the neurons. A neural model of texture analysis is offered based on a corticothalamic phase-locked loop. The newly identified oscillators play a key role in this model. The relevance of the model to physiological, anatomical, and psychophysical data, as well as testable predictions, are discussed. Images PMID:2247469

  12. An analytical filter design method for guided wave phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyu-Sang; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for designing a spatial filter that processes the data from an array of two-dimensional guided wave transducers. An inverse problem is defined where the spatial filter coefficients are determined in such a way that a prescribed beam shape, i.e., a desired array output is best approximated in the least-squares sense. Taking advantage of the 2π-periodicity of the generated wave field, Fourier-series representation is used to derive closed-form expressions for the constituting matrix elements. Special cases in which the desired array output is an ideal delta function and a gate function are considered in a more explicit way. Numerical simulations are performed to examine the performance of the filters designed by the proposed method. It is shown that the proposed filters can significantly improve the beam quality in general. Most notable is that the proposed method does not compromise between the main lobe width and the sidelobe levels; i.e. a narrow main lobe and low sidelobes are simultaneously achieved. It is also shown that the proposed filter can compensate the effects of nonuniform directivity and sensitivity of array elements by explicitly taking these into account in the formulation. From an example of detecting two separate targets, how much the angular resolution can be improved as compared to the conventional delay-and-sum filter is quantitatively illustrated. Lamb wave based imaging of localized defects in an elastic plate using a circular array is also presented as an example of practical applications.

  13. Reprint of: Active subspaces for sensitivity analysis and dimension reduction of an integrated hydrologic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, Jennifer L.; Gilbert, James M.; Constantine, Paul G.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2016-05-01

    Integrated hydrologic models coupled to land surface models require several input parameters to characterize the land surface and to estimate energy fluxes. Uncertainty of input parameter values is inherent in any model and the sensitivity of output to these uncertain parameters becomes an important consideration. To better understand these connections in the context of hydrologic models, we use the ParFlow-Common Land Model (PF-CLM) to estimate energy fluxes given variations in 19 vegetation and land surface parameters over a 144-hour period of time. Latent, sensible and ground heat fluxes from bare soil and grass vegetation were estimated using single column and tilted-v domains. Energy flux outputs, along with the corresponding input parameters, from each of the four scenario simulations were evaluated using active subspaces. The active subspace method considers parameter sensitivity by quantifying a weight for each parameter. The method also evaluates the potential for dimension reduction by identifying the input-output relationship through the active variable - a linear combination of input parameters. The aerodynamic roughness length was the most important parameter for bare soil energy fluxes. Multiple parameters were important for energy fluxes from vegetated surfaces and depended on the type of energy flux. Relationships between land surface inputs and output fluxes varied between latent, sensible and ground heat, but were consistent between domain setup (i.e., with or without lateral flow) and vegetation type. A quadratic polynomial was used to describe the input-output relationship for these energy fluxes. The reduced-dimension model of land surface dynamics can be compared to observations or used to solve the inverse problem. Considering this work as a proof-of-concept, the active subspace method can be applied and extended to a range of domain setups, land cover types and time periods to obtain a reduced-form representation of any output of interest

  14. Sociologics: An Analytical Tool for Examining Socioscientific Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain, Renee-Marie

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the framework of sociologists extends commonly used analytical frameworks in socioscientific research in education. Foregrounds the social construction of knowledge and highlights the nature of knowledge production. (DDR)

  15. Incorporating Information Literacy Skills into Analytical Chemistry: An Evolutionary Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Mary M.; Jackson, Paul T.

    2007-01-01

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) has recently decided to incorporate various information literacy skills for teaching analytical chemistry to the students. The methodology has been found to be extremely effective, as it provides better understanding to the students.

  16. An analytical quality framework for learning cities and regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisinger-Kleine, Randolph

    2013-09-01

    There is broad agreement that innovation, knowledge and learning have become the main source of wealth, employment and economic development of cities, regions and nations. Over the past two decades, the number of European cities and regions which label themselves as "learning city" or "learning region" has constantly grown. However, there are also pitfalls and constraints which not only hinder them in unlocking their full potential, but also significantly narrow their effects and their wider impact on society. Most prominently, learning cities and regions manifest serious difficulties in rendering transparent the surplus value they generate, which is vital for attracting investment into lifelong learning. While evaluation and quality management are still perceived as being a bureaucratic necessity rather than a lesson one could learn from or an investment in the future, it is also true that without evaluation and quality assurance local networks do not have the means to examine their strengths and weaknesses. In order to design strategies to maximise the strengths and effectively address the weaknesses it is necessary to understand the factors that contribute to success and those that pose challenges. This article proposes an analytical quality framework which is generic and can be used to promote a culture of quality in learning cities and regions. The proposed framework builds on the findings and results of the R3L+ project, part-funded by the European Commission under the Grundtvig (adult education) strand of the Lifelong Learning programme 2007-2013.

  17. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Predicting survival of Salmonella in low-water activity foods: an analysis of literature data.

    PubMed

    Santillana Farakos, Sofia M; Schaffner, Donald W; Frank, Joseph F

    2014-09-01

    Factors such as temperature, water activity (aw), substrate, culture media, serotype, and strain influence the survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods. Predictive models for Salmonella survival in low-aw foods at temperatures ranging from 21 to 80(u) C and water activities below 0.6 were previously developed. Literature data on survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods were analyzed in the present study to validate these predictive models and to determine global influencing factors. The results showed the Weibull model provided suitable fits to the data in 75% of the curves as compared with the log-linear model. The secondary models predicting the time required for log-decimal reduction (log δ) and shape factor (log β) values were useful in predicting the survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods. Statistical analysis indicated overall fail-safe secondary models, with 88% of the residuals in the acceptable and safe zones (<0.5 log CFU) and a 59% correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.35). A high variability in log δ-values and log β-values was observed, emphasizing the importance of experimental design. Factors of significant influence on the times required for first log-decimal reduction included temperature, aw, product, and serotype. Log β-values were significantly influenced by serotype, the type of inoculum (wet or dry), and whether the recovery media was selective or not. The results of this analysis provide a general overview of survival kinetics of Salmonella in low-aw foods and its influencing factors. PMID:25198835

  19. Predicting survival of Salmonella in low-water activity foods: an analysis of literature data.

    PubMed

    Santillana Farakos, Sofia M; Schaffner, Donald W; Frank, Joseph F

    2014-09-01

    Factors such as temperature, water activity (aw), substrate, culture media, serotype, and strain influence the survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods. Predictive models for Salmonella survival in low-aw foods at temperatures ranging from 21 to 80(u) C and water activities below 0.6 were previously developed. Literature data on survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods were analyzed in the present study to validate these predictive models and to determine global influencing factors. The results showed the Weibull model provided suitable fits to the data in 75% of the curves as compared with the log-linear model. The secondary models predicting the time required for log-decimal reduction (log δ) and shape factor (log β) values were useful in predicting the survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods. Statistical analysis indicated overall fail-safe secondary models, with 88% of the residuals in the acceptable and safe zones (<0.5 log CFU) and a 59% correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.35). A high variability in log δ-values and log β-values was observed, emphasizing the importance of experimental design. Factors of significant influence on the times required for first log-decimal reduction included temperature, aw, product, and serotype. Log β-values were significantly influenced by serotype, the type of inoculum (wet or dry), and whether the recovery media was selective or not. The results of this analysis provide a general overview of survival kinetics of Salmonella in low-aw foods and its influencing factors.

  20. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  1. An analytical model for predicting the aerodynamic performance of a turbine cascade with film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, E. R.; Tabakoff, W.

    1977-01-01

    Various analytical approaches to predicting the performance of film cooled turbine blades are reviewed. A two-dimensional cascade flow solution is developed for calculating the effects of the coolant injection on the total flow field. This solution is used with an available analytical performance predicting method to provide an improved method. Comparisons are made with experimental data and other analytical results.

  2. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William S; Peerani, Paolo

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  3. Evaluation and expansion of an analytical model for fatigue of notched composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramkumar, R. L.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Pipes, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    The analytical and experimental study performed to expand the existing static and fatigue failure analysis is described. The analytical effort extended the analysis to include interlaminar effects, while the experimental effort developed methods to obtain basic experimental data required as input to the analysis. The static failure analysis for notched laminates was modified to include interlaminar effects near the notch. Three dimensional elastic and two dimensional elasticplastic finite element analysis were performed for some notched laminates.

  4. A Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Device (μPAD) for Aerosol Oxidative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Panymeesamer, Pantila; Supalakorn, Natcha; Koehler, Kirsten; Chailapakul, Orawon; Henry, Charles S.; Volckens, John

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been linked with respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases, in addition to various cancers. Consistent among all of these associations is the hypothesis that PM induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the affected tissue. Consequently, a variety of assays have been developed to quantify the oxidative activity of PM as a means to characterize its ability to induced oxidative stress. The vast majority of these assays rely on high-volume, fixed-location sampling methods due to limitations in assay sensitivity and detection limit. As a result, our understanding of how personal exposure contributes to the intake of oxidative air pollution is limited. To further this understanding, we present a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for measuring PM oxidative activity on filters collected by personal sampling. The μPAD is inexpensive to fabricate and provides fast and sensitive analysis of aerosol oxidative activity. The oxidative activity measurement is based on the dithiothreitol assay (DTT assay), uses colorimetric detection, and can be completed in the field within 30 min following sample collection. The μPAD assay was validated against the traditional DTT assay using 13 extracted aerosol samples including urban aerosols, biomass burning PM, cigarette smoke and incense smoke. The results showed no significant differences in DTT consumption rate measured by the two methods. To demonstrate the utility of the approach, personal samples were collected to estimate human exposures to PM from indoor air, outdoor air on a clean day, and outdoor air on a wildfire-impacted day in Fort Collins, CO. Filter samples collected on the wildfire day gave the highest oxidative activity on a mass normalized basis, whereas typical ambient background air showed the lowest oxidative activity. PMID:23227907

  5. Dynamic buckling analysis of delaminated composite plates using semi-analytical finite strip method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovesy, H. R.; Totounferoush, A.; Ghannadpour, S. A. M.

    2015-05-01

    The delamination phenomena can become of paramount importance when the design of the composite plates is concerned. In the current study, the effect of through-the-width delamination on dynamic buckling behavior of a composite plate is studied by implementing semi-analytical finite strip method. In this method, the energy and work integrations are computed analytically due to the implementation of trigonometric functions. Moreover, the method can lead to converged results with comparatively small number of degrees of freedom. These features have made the method quite efficient. To account for delamination effects, displacement field is enriched by adding appropriate terms. Also, the penetration of the delamination surfaces is prevented by incorporating an appropriate contact scheme into the time response analysis. Some selected results are validated against those available in the literature.

  6. Modeling of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography: Analytical solutions and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2015-08-01

    In closed-loop recycling (CLR) chromatography, the effluent from the outlet of a column is directly returned into the column through the sample feed line and continuously recycled until the required separation is reached. To select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture, an appropriate mathematical description of the process is required. This work is concerned with the analysis of models for the CLR separations. Due to the effect of counteracting mechanisms on separation of solutes, analytical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand and optimize chromatographic processes. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the CLR counter-current (liquid-liquid) chromatography (CCC). The equilibrium dispersion and cell models were used to describe the transport and separation of solutes inside a CLR CCC column. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations. Several possible CLR chromatography methods for the binary and complex mixture separations are simulated.

  7. Application of Multidimensional Spectrum Analysis for Analytical Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Toh, Yosuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Oshima, Masumi

    1999-12-31

    Feasibility of application of the multidimensional {gamma} ray spectroscopy for analytical chemistry was examined. Two reference igneous rock (JP-1, JB-1a) samples issued by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) were irradiated at a research reactor with thermal neutrons, and {gamma} rays from the radioisotopes produced by neutron capture reactions were measured using a {gamma}-ray detector array. Simultaneously 27 elements were observed with no chemical separation.

  8. Characterization and RNA-seq analysis of underperformer, an activation-tagged potato mutant.

    PubMed

    Aulakh, Sukhwinder S; Veilleux, Richard E; Dickerman, Allan W; Tang, Guozhu; Flinn, Barry S

    2014-04-01

    The potato cv. Bintje and a Bintje activation-tagged mutant, underperformer (up) were compared. Mutant up plants grown in vitro were dwarf, with abundant axillary shoot growth, greater tuber yield, altered tuber traits and early senescence compared to wild type. Under in vivo conditions, the dwarf and early senescence phenotypes of the mutant remained, but the up plants exhibited a lower tuber yield and fewer axillary shoots compared to wild type. Southern blot analyses indicated a single T-DNA insertion in the mutant, located on chromosome 10. Initial PCR-based gene expression studies indicated transcriptional activation/repression of several genes in the mutant flanking the insertion. The gene immediately flanking the right border of the T-DNA insertion, which encoded an uncharacterized Broad complex, Tramtrac, Bric-a-brac; also known as Pox virus and Zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domain-containing protein (StBTB/POZ1) containing an Armadillo repeat region, was up-regulated in the mutant. Global gene expression comparisons between Bintje and up using RNA-seq on leaves from 60 day-old plants revealed a dataset of over 1,600 differentially expressed genes. Gene expression analyses suggested a variety of biological processes and pathways were modified in the mutant, including carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell division and cell cycle activity, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and proteolysis.

  9. Topologic analysis and comparison of brain activation in children with epilepsy versus controls: an fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Khalid J.; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Loew, Murray H.; Zara, Jason M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the development of novel computer-aided analysis algorithms to identify the language activation patterns at a certain Region of Interest (ROI) in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Previous analysis techniques have been used to compare typical and pathologic activation patterns in fMRI images resulting from identical tasks but none of them analyzed activation topographically in a quantitative manner. This paper presents new analysis techniques and algorithms capable of identifying a pattern of language activation associated with localization related epilepsy. fMRI images of 64 healthy individuals and 31 patients with localization related epilepsy have been studied and analyzed on an ROI basis. All subjects are right handed with normal MRI scans and have been classified into three age groups (4-6, 7-9, 10-12 years). Our initial efforts have focused on investigating activation in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (LIFG). A number of volumetric features have been extracted from the data. The LIFG has been cut into slices and the activation has been investigated topographically on a slice by slice basis. Overall, a total of 809 features have been extracted, and correlation analysis was applied to eliminate highly correlated features. Principal Component analysis was then applied to account only for major components in the data and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been applied to test for significantly different features between normal and patient groups. Twenty Nine features have were found to be significantly different (p<0.05) between patient and control groups

  10. An analytical model of anisotropic low-field electron mobility in wurtzite indium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shulong; Liu, Hongxia; Song, Xin; Guo, Yulong; Yang, Zhaonian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of anisotropic transport properties and develops an anisotropic low-field electron analytical mobility model for wurtzite indium nitride (InN). For the different effective masses in the Γ-A and Γ-M directions of the lowest valley, both the transient and steady state transport behaviors of wurtzite InN show different transport characteristics in the two directions. From the relationship between velocity and electric field, the difference is more obvious when the electric field is low in the two directions. To make an accurate description of the anisotropic transport properties under low field, for the first time, we present an analytical model of anisotropic low-field electron mobility in wurtzite InN. The effects of different ionized impurity scattering models on the low-field mobility calculated by Monte Carlo method (Conwell-Weisskopf and Brooks-Herring method) are also considered.

  11. Co-governing decentralised water systems: an analytical framework.

    PubMed

    Yu, C; Brown, R; Morison, P

    2012-01-01

    Current discourses in urban water management emphasise a diversity of water sources and scales of infrastructure for resilience and adaptability. During the last 2 decades, in particular, various small-scale systems emerged and developed so that the debate has largely moved from centralised versus decentralised water systems toward governing integrated and networked systems of provision and consumption where small-scale technologies are embedded in large-scale centralised infrastructures. However, while centralised systems have established boundaries of ownership and management, decentralised water systems (such as stormwater harvesting technologies for the street, allotment/house scales) do not, therefore the viability for adoption and/or continued use of decentralised water systems is challenged. This paper brings together insights from the literature on public sector governance, co-production and social practices model to develop an analytical framework for co-governing such systems. The framework provides urban water practitioners with guidance when designing co-governance arrangements for decentralised water systems so that these systems continue to exist, and become widely adopted, within the established urban water regime.

  12. Quasiharmonic thermal elasticity of crystals: An analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongqing; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2011-05-01

    First-principles quasiharmonic calculations play a very important role in mineral physics because they can predict the structural and thermodynamic properties of materials at pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's interior that are still challenging for experiments. They also enable calculations of thermal elastic properties by providing second-order derivatives of free energies with respect to strain. The latter are essential to interpret seismic tomography of the mantle in terms of temperature, composition, and mineralogy, in the context of geophysical processes. However, these are exceedingly demanding computations requiring up to ˜103 parallel jobs running on tens or more processors each. Here we introduce an analytical and computationally simpler approach that requires only calculations of static elastic constants and phonon density of states for unstrained configurations. This approach, currently implemented for crystals with up to orthorhombic symmetry, decreases the computational effort, i.e., CPU time and human labor, by up to two orders of magnitude. Results for the major mantle phases periclase (MgO) and forsterite (α-Mg2SiO4) show excellent agreement with previous first-principles results and experimental data.

  13. An analytically tractable model for community ecology with many species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Benjamin; Fisher, Charles; Mehta, Pankaj; Pankaj Mehta Biophysics Theory Group Team

    A fundamental problem in community ecology is to understand how ecological processes such as selection, drift, and immigration yield observed patterns in species composition and diversity. Here, we present an analytically tractable, presence-absence (PA) model for community assembly and use it to ask how ecological traits such as the strength of competition, diversity in competition, and stochasticity affect species composition in a community. In our PA model, we treat species as stochastic binary variables that can either be present or absent in a community: species can immigrate into the community from a regional species pool and can go extinct due to competition and stochasticity. Despite its simplicity, the PA model reproduces the qualitative features of more complicated models of community assembly. In agreement with recent work on large, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, the PA model exhibits distinct ecological behaviors organized around a special (``critical'') point corresponding to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity. Our results suggest that the concepts of ``phases'' and phase diagrams can provide a powerful framework for thinking about community ecology and that the PA model captures the essential ecological dynamics of community assembly. Pm was supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems and a Sloan Research Fellowship.

  14. An updated analytic model for attenuation by the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Akio K.; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Iwata, Ikuru; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2014-08-01

    We present an updated version of the so-called Madau model for attenuation of the radiation from distant objects by intergalactic neutral hydrogen. First, we derive the distribution function of intergalactic absorbers from the latest observational statistics of the Lyα forest, Lyman-limit systems and damped Lyα systems. The distribution function reproduces the observed redshift evolution of the Lyα depression and the mean-free path of the Lyman continuum excellently and simultaneously. We then derive a set of analytic functions describing the mean intergalactic attenuation curve for objects at z > 0.5. The new model predicts less (or more) Lyα attenuation for z ≃ 3-5 (z > 6) sources through the usual broad-band filters relative to the original Madau model. This may cause a systematic difference in the photometric redshift estimates, which is, however, still small: about 0.05. Finally, we find a more than 0.5 mag overestimation of Lyman-continuum attenuation in the original Madau model at z > 3, which causes a significant overcorrection against direct observations of the Lyman continuum of galaxies.

  15. An analytical study of various telecomminication networks using markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Jayamani, E.; Ezhumalai, P.

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine issues relating to the performance of various Telecommunication networks, and applied queuing theory for better design and improved efficiency. Firstly, giving an analytical study of queues deals with quantifying the phenomenon of waiting lines using representative measures of performances, such as average queue length (on average number of customers in the queue), average waiting time in queue (on average time to wait) and average facility utilization (proportion of time the service facility is in use). In the second, using Matlab simulator, summarizes the finding of the investigations, from which and where we obtain results and describing methodology for a) compare the waiting time and average number of messages in the queue in M/M/1 and M/M/2 queues b) Compare the performance of M/M/1 and M/D/1 queues and study the effect of increasing the number of servers on the blocking probability M/M/k/k queue model.

  16. Situation Analysis of R & D Activities: An Empirical Study in Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies

    PubMed Central

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Vatankhah-Mohammadabadi, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    As global competition intensifies, research and development (R & D) organizations need to enhance their strategic management in order to become goal-directed communities for innovation and allocate their resources consistent with their overall R & D strategy. The world pharmaceutical market has undergone fast, unprecedented, tremendous and complex changes in the last several years. The pharmaceutical industry is today still one of the most inventive, innovative and lucrative of the so-called “high-tech” industries. This industry serves a dual role in modern society. On one hand, it is a growing industry, and its output makes a direct contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). On the other side, drugs, this industry’s major output, are an input in the production of good health. The purpose of this study is to evaluate R & D activities of pharmaceutical companies, and also to highlight critical factors which have influential effect on results of these activities. To run this study a valid questionnaire based on literature review and experts’ opinion was designed and delivered to 11 pharmaceutical companies. Empirical data show there is not acceptable situations considering of the factors that should be taken in to account by managers including; management commitment, human resource management, information technology and financial management. Furthermore, we concluded some interesting results related to different aspects of R & D management. In conclusion, managers must be aware about their performance in R & D activities, accordingly they will able to take a comprehensive policy in both national and within the company. PMID:24250532

  17. Modulation of electroencephalograph activity by manual acupuncture stimulation in healthy subjects: An autoregressive spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Han, Chun-Xiao

    2013-02-01

    To investigate whether and how manual acupuncture (MA) modulates brain activities, we design an experiment where acupuncture at acupoint ST36 of the right leg is used to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in healthy subjects. We adopt the autoregressive (AR) Burg method to estimate the power spectrum of EEG signals and analyze the relative powers in delta (0 Hz-4 Hz), theta (4 Hz-8 Hz), alpha (8 Hz-13 Hz), and beta (13 Hz-30 Hz) bands. Our results show that MA at ST36 can significantly increase the EEG slow wave relative power (delta band) and reduce the fast wave relative powers (alpha and beta bands), while there are no statistical differences in theta band relative power between different acupuncture states. In order to quantify the ratio of slow to fast wave EEG activity, we compute the power ratio index. It is found that the MA can significantly increase the power ratio index, especially in frontal and central lobes. All the results highlight the modulation of brain activities with MA and may provide potential help for the clinical use of acupuncture. The proposed quantitative method of acupuncture signals may be further used to make MA more standardized.

  18. Situation analysis of R & d activities: an empirical study in Iranian pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Vatankhah-Mohammadabadi, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    As global competition intensifies, research and development (R & D) organizations need to enhance their strategic management in order to become goal-directed communities for innovation and allocate their resources consistent with their overall R & D strategy. The world pharmaceutical market has undergone fast, unprecedented, tremendous and complex changes in the last several years. The pharmaceutical industry is today still one of the most inventive, innovative and lucrative of the so-called "high-tech" industries. This industry serves a dual role in modern society. On one hand, it is a growing industry, and its output makes a direct contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). On the other side, drugs, this industry's major output, are an input in the production of good health. The purpose of this study is to evaluate R & D activities of pharmaceutical companies, and also to highlight critical factors which have influential effect on results of these activities. To run this study a valid questionnaire based on literature review and experts' opinion was designed and delivered to 11 pharmaceutical companies. Empirical data show there is not acceptable situations considering of the factors that should be taken in to account by managers including; management commitment, human resource management, information technology and financial management. Furthermore, we concluded some interesting results related to different aspects of R & D management. In conclusion, managers must be aware about their performance in R & D activities, accordingly they will able to take a comprehensive policy in both national and within the company.

  19. Bats at risk? Bat activity and insecticide residue analysis of food items in an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Peter; Brühl, Carsten A

    2012-07-01

    Although bats are reported as being threatened by pesticides, they are currently not considered in European Union pesticide risk assessments. The reason for that contradiction is probably related to the scarcity of information on bat activity in pesticide-treated fields and the pesticide residues on their food items. The authors recorded bat activity and measured pesticide residues on bat-specific food items following applications of two insecticides in an apple orchard. High activity levels of the common pipistrelle bat, a foraging habitat generalist, were detected. Airborne foragers and bats that take part of their food by gleaning arthropods from the vegetation were recorded frequently. The initial value and the decline of pesticide residues were found to depend on the arthropod type, their surface to volume ratio, their mobility, and the mode of action of the applied pesticide. The highest initial residue values were measured on foliage-dwelling arthropods. By following the toxicity-exposure ratio approaches of the current pesticide risk assessment, no acute dietary risk was found for all recorded bat species. However, a potential reproductive risk for bat species that include foliage-dwelling arthropods in their diet was indicated. The results emphasize the importance of adequately evaluating the risks of pesticides to bats, which, compared to other mammals, are potentially more sensitive due to their ecological traits.

  20. Modeling, analysis, and validation of an active T-shaped noise barrier.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rongping; Su, Zhongqing; Cheng, Li

    2013-09-01

    With ever-increasing land traffic, abatement of traffic noise using noise barriers remains significant, yet it is a challenging task due to spatial competition with other infrastructure. In this study, a deep insight into the diffraction characteristics of acoustic fields near noise barriers of various geometries and surface conditions was achieved using numerical simulations. A T-shaped passive noise barrier with acoustically soft upper surfaces was demonstrated to outperform other candidates in a middle- or high-frequency range. Based on attributes of the acoustic field diffracted by T-shaped barriers, an active control strategy was developed to revamp the T-shaped barrier, in which a filtered minimax algorithm was established to drive the secondary sound sources. This algorithm resulted in more uniformly distributed residual sound fields than a filtered-X least mean square algorithm. Performance of the actively controlled barrier was evaluated at different positions and spacings of secondary sound sources and error sensors, leading to a series of optimal criteria for the design of active noise barriers. A prototype was fabricated and validated experimentally, manifesting particular effectiveness in insulating low-frequency noise, supplementing well the capacity of a passive T-shaped barrier which is effective in the middle- or high-frequency range.

  1. Transient conduction-radiation analysis of an absolute active cavity radiometer using finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Kowsary, F.; Tira, N.; Gardiner, B. D.

    1987-01-01

    A NASA-developed finite element-based model of a generic active cavity radiometer (ACR) has been developed in order to study the dependence on operating temperature of the closed-loop and open-loop transient response of the instrument. Transient conduction within the sensing element is explored, and the transient temperature distribution resulting from the application of a time-varying radiative boundary condition is calculated. The results verify the prediction that operation of an ACR at cryogenic temperatures results in large gains in frequency response.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL STANDARDS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of analytical standards for the analysis of organic compounds present in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). The methods and analytical standards described in the paper are designed to be implemented in a b...

  3. An analytical solution for quantum size effects on Seebeck coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabetoglu, S.; Sisman, A.; Ozturk, Z. F.

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous experimental and numerical studies about quantum size effects on Seebeck coefficient. In contrast, in this study, we obtain analytical expressions for Seebeck coefficient under quantum size effects. Seebeck coefficient of a Fermi gas confined in a rectangular domain is considered. Analytical expressions, which represent the size dependency of Seebeck coefficient explicitly, are derived in terms of confinement parameters. A fundamental form of Seebeck coefficient based on infinite summations is used under relaxation time approximation. To obtain analytical results, summations are calculated using the first two terms of Poisson summation formula. It is shown that they are in good agreement with the exact results based on direct calculation of summations as long as confinement parameters are less than unity. The analytical results are also in good agreement with experimental and numerical ones in literature. Maximum relative errors of analytical expressions are less than 3% and 4% for 2D and 1D cases, respectively. Dimensional transitions of Seebeck coefficient are also examined. Furthermore, a detailed physical explanation for the oscillations in Seebeck coefficient is proposed by considering the relative standard deviation of total variance of particle number in Fermi shell.

  4. Analysis of Hydrogen Tunneling in an Enzyme Active Site using von Neumann Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    2010-01-01

    We build on our earlier quantum wavepacket study of hydrogen transfer in the biological enzyme, soybean lipoxygenase-1, by using von Neumann quantum measurement theory to gain qualitative insights into the transfer event. We treat the enzyme active site as a measurement device which acts on the tunneling hydrogen nucleus via the potential it exerts at each configuration. A series of changing active site geometries during the tunneling process effects a sequential projection of the initial, reactant state onto the final, product state. We study this process using several different kinds of von Neumann measurements and show how a discrete sequence of such measurements not only progressively increases the projection of the hydrogen nuclear wavepacket onto the product side but also favors proton over deuteron transfer. Several qualitative features of the hydrogen tunneling problem found in wavepacket dynamics studies are also recovered here. These include the shift in the “transition state” towards the reactant as a result of nuclear quantization, greater participation of excited states in the case of deuterium, and presence of critical points along the reaction coordinate that facilitate hydrogen and deuterium transfer and coincide with surface crossings. To further “tailor” the dynamics, we construct a perturbation to the sequence of measurements, that is a perturbation to the dynamical sequence of active site geometry evolution, which leads us to insight on the existence of sensitive regions of the reaction profile where subtle changes to the dynamics of the active site can have an effect on the hydrogen and deuterium transfer process. PMID:22933858

  5. Analytical methods for the determination of personal care products in human samples: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2014-11-01

    Personal care products (PCPs) are organic chemicals widely used in everyday human life. Nowadays, preservatives, UV-filters, antimicrobials and musk fragrances are widely used PCPs. Different studies have shown that some of these compounds can cause adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity, which could even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, or estrogenicity because of their endocrine disruption activity. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is an increasing demand of analytical methods that allow the determination of those compounds in human samples in order to obtain more information regarding their behavior and fate in the human body. The complexity of the biological matrices and the low concentration levels of these compounds make necessary the use of advanced sample treatment procedures that afford both, sample clean-up, to remove potentially interfering matrix components, as well as the concentration of analytes. In the present work, a review of the more recent analytical methods published in the scientific literature for the determination of PCPs in human fluids and tissue samples, is presented. The work focused on sample preparation and the analytical techniques employed.

  6. Health Informatics for Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Analytical Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mench-Bressan, Nadja; McGregor, Carolyn; Pugh, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of data within intensive care units (ICUs) has great potential to create new cloud-based health analytics solutions for disease prevention or earlier condition onset detection. The Artemis project aims to achieve the above goals in the area of neonatal ICUs (NICU). In this paper, we proposed an analytical model for the Artemis cloud project which will be deployed at McMaster Children’s Hospital in Hamilton. We collect not only physiological data but also the infusion pumps data that are attached to NICU beds. Using the proposed analytical model, we predict the amount of storage, memory, and computation power required for the system. Capacity planning and tradeoff analysis would be more accurate and systematic by applying the proposed analytical model in this paper. Numerical results are obtained using real inputs acquired from McMaster Children’s Hospital and a pilot deployment of the system at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto. PMID:27170907

  7. InfoStar : an adaptive visual analytics platform for mobile devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Gatchell, Doug; Borchers, Bob; Schrager, Matthew A.; Thornton, Susan; Collins, Sharon; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Danielson, Gary; Riensche, Rick; May, Richard; Baddeley, Bob; Sanfilippo, Antonio; Washington, Kenneth Edward

    2005-03-01

    We present the design and implementation of InfoStar, an adaptive Visual Analytics platform for mobile devices such a PDAs, laptops, Tablet PCs and mobile phones. InfoStar extends the reach of visual analytics technology beyond the traditional desktop paradigm to provide ubiquitous access to inter-active visualizations of information spaces. These visualizations are critical in addressing the knowledge needs of human agents operating in the field, in areas as diverse as business, homeland security, law enforcement, protective services, emergency medical services and scientific discovery. We describe an initial real world deployment of this technology, in which the InfoStar platform has been used to offer mobile access to scheduling and venue information to conference attendees at Supercomputing 2004.

  8. InfoStar: An Adaptive Visual Analytics Platform for Mobile Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; May, Richard A.; Danielson, Gary R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Collins, Sharon; Thornton, Susan E.; Washington, Kenneth; Schrager, Matt; Van Randwyk, Jamie; Borchers, Bob; Gatchell, Doug

    2005-05-09

    We present the design and implementation of InfoStar, an adaptive Visual Analytics platform for mobile devices such a PDAs, laptops, Tablet PCs and mobile phones. InfoStar extends the reach of visual analytics technology beyond the traditional desktop paradigm to provide ubiquitous access to inter-active visualizations of information spaces. These visualizations are critical in addressing the knowledge needs of human agents operating in the field, in areas as diverse as business, homeland security, law enforcement, protective services, emergency medical services and scientific discovery. We describe an initial real world deployment of this technology, in which the InfoStar platform has been used to offer mobile access to scheduling and venue information to conference attendees at Supercomputing 2004.

  9. [Governance in Public Health: towards an analytical framework].

    PubMed

    Hufty, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the governance analytical framework (GAF) is a methodology having strong potential for investigation in social policy, particularly in the case of public health. It defines the concept of governance in a pragmatic way as being the processes of interactions between the actors involved in a public affair leading to decision-making or to formulating social norms. It is postulated that any society has governance processes and, unlike other approaches, that these can be observed and be analysed from a non-normative perspective. A methodology for analysing governance processes based on five main analytical units is presented here: problems/stakes, actors, norms, processes and nodal points. These logically articulated analytical units make up a coherent methodology aimed at being used as a tool for social policy research.

  10. [Governance in Public Health: towards an analytical framework].

    PubMed

    Hufty, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the governance analytical framework (GAF) is a methodology having strong potential for investigation in social policy, particularly in the case of public health. It defines the concept of governance in a pragmatic way as being the processes of interactions between the actors involved in a public affair leading to decision-making or to formulating social norms. It is postulated that any society has governance processes and, unlike other approaches, that these can be observed and be analysed from a non-normative perspective. A methodology for analysing governance processes based on five main analytical units is presented here: problems/stakes, actors, norms, processes and nodal points. These logically articulated analytical units make up a coherent methodology aimed at being used as a tool for social policy research. PMID:20963301

  11. Global sensitivity analysis of analytical vibroacoustic transmission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, Jean-Loup; Ichchou, Mohamed; Troclet, Bernard; Bareille, Olivier; Ouisse, Morvan

    2016-04-01

    Noise reduction issues arise in many engineering problems. One typical vibroacoustic problem is the transmission loss (TL) optimisation and control. The TL depends mainly on the mechanical parameters of the considered media. At early stages of the design, such parameters are not well known. Decision making tools are therefore needed to tackle this issue. In this paper, we consider the use of the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) for the analysis of the impact of mechanical parameters on features of interest. FAST is implemented with several structural configurations. FAST method is used to estimate the relative influence of the model parameters while assuming some uncertainty or variability on their values. The method offers a way to synthesize the results of a multiparametric analysis with large variability. Results are presented for transmission loss of isotropic, orthotropic and sandwich plates excited by a diffuse field on one side. Qualitative trends found to agree with the physical expectation. Design rules can then be set up for vibroacoustic indicators. The case of a sandwich plate is taken as an example of the use of this method inside an optimisation process and for uncertainty quantification.

  12. An Integrated Gate Turnaround Management Concept Leveraging Big Data Analytics for NAS Performance Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Ingram, Carla D.; Ahlquist, Douglas Kurt; Chachad, Girish H.

    2016-01-01

    unique airport attributes (e.g., runway, taxiway, terminal, and gate configurations and tenants), and combined statistics from past data and live data based on a specific set of ATM concept-of-operations (ConOps) and operational parameters via systems analysis using an analytic network learning model. The IGTM tool will then bound the uncertainties that arise from nominal and off-nominal operational conditions with direct assessment of the gate turnaround status and the impact of a certain operational decision on the NAS performance, and provide a set of recommended actions to optimize the NAS performance by allowing stakeholders to take mitigation actions to reduce uncertainty and time deviation of planned operational events. An IGTM prototype was developed at NASA Ames Simulation Laboratories (SimLabs) to demonstrate the benefits and applicability of the concept. A data network, using the System Wide Information Management (SWIM)-like messaging application using the ActiveMQ message service, was connected to the simulated data warehouse, scheduled flight plans, a fast-time airport simulator, and a graphic UI. A fast-time simulation was integrated with the data warehouse or Big Data/Analytics (BAI), scheduled flight plans from Aeronautical Operational Control AOC, IGTM Controller, and a UI via a SWIM-like data messaging network using the ActiveMQ message service, illustrated in Figure 1, to demonstrate selected use-cases showing the benefits of the IGTM concept on the NAS performance.

  13. An Analysis of an Automatic Coolant Bypass in the International Space Station Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clanton, Stephen E.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A challenging part of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control design is the ability to incorporate design changes into an integrated system without negatively impacting performance. The challenge presents itself in that the typical ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consists of an integrated hardware/software system that provides active coolant resources to a variety of users. Software algorithms control the IATCS to specific temperatures, flow rates, and pressure differentials in order to meet the user-defined requirements. What may seem to be small design changes imposed on the system may in fact result in system instability or the temporary inability to meet user requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the solution process and analyses used to implement one such design change that required the incorporation of an automatic coolant bypass in the ISS Node 2 element.

  14. Canonical Correlation Analysis as a General Analytical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao

    This paper focuses on three aspects related to the conceptualization and application of canonical correlation analysis as a dominant statistical model: (1) partial canonical correlation analysis and its application in statistical testing; (2) the relation between canonical correlation analysis and discriminant analysis; and (3) the relation…

  15. Analytical Problems and Suggestions in the Analysis of Behavioral Economic Demand Curves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral economic demand curves (Hursh, Raslear, Shurtleff, Bauman, & Simmons, 1988) are innovative approaches to characterize the relationships between consumption of a substance and its price. In this article, we investigate common analytical issues in the use of behavioral economic demand curves, which can cause inconsistent interpretations of demand curves, and then we provide methodological suggestions to address those analytical issues. We first demonstrate that log transformation with different added values for handling zeros changes model parameter estimates dramatically. Second, demand curves are often analyzed using an overparameterized model that results in an inefficient use of the available data and a lack of assessment of the variability among individuals. To address these issues, we apply a nonlinear mixed effects model based on multivariate error structures that has not been used previously to analyze behavioral economic demand curves in the literature. We also propose analytical formulas for the relevant standard errors of derived values such as P max, O max, and elasticity. The proposed model stabilizes the derived values regardless of using different added increments and provides substantially smaller standard errors. We illustrate the data analysis procedure using data from a relative reinforcement efficacy study of simulated marijuana purchasing. PMID:26741176

  16. Gray matter atrophy in narcolepsy: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsu-Huei; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung; Wu, Chih-Ying; Lee, Meng; Lin, Yu-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-12-01

    The authors reviewed the literature on the use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in narcolepsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies via the use of a meta-analysis of neuroimaging to identify concordant and specific structural deficits in patients with narcolepsy as compared with healthy subjects. We used PubMed to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and March 2014. The authors included all VBM research on narcolepsy and compared the findings of the studies by using gray matter volume (GMV) or gray matter concentration (GMC) to index differences in gray matter. Stereotactic data were extracted from 8 VBM studies of 149 narcoleptic patients and 162 control subjects. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique and found significant regional gray matter reduction in the bilateral hypothalamus, thalamus, globus pallidus, extending to nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left mid orbital and rectal gyri (BAs 10 and 11), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), and the right superior temporal gyrus (BA 41) in patients with narcolepsy. The significant gray matter deficits in narcoleptic patients occurred in the bilateral hypothalamus and frontotemporal regions, which may be related to the emotional processing abnormalities and orexin/hypocretin pathway common among populations of patients with narcolepsy.

  17. Reinforcement Learning Models and Their Neural Correlates: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Poornima; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement learning describes motivated behavior in terms of two abstract signals. The representation of discrepancies between expected and actual rewards/punishments – prediction error – is thought to update the expected value of actions and predictive stimuli. Electrophysiological and lesion studies suggest that mesostriatal prediction error signals control behavior through synaptic modification of cortico-striato-thalamic networks. Signals in the ventromedial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex are implicated in representing expected value. To obtain unbiased maps of these representations in the human brain, we performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that employed algorithmic reinforcement learning models, across a variety of experimental paradigms. We found that the ventral striatum (medial and lateral) and midbrain/thalamus represented reward prediction errors, consistent with animal studies. Prediction error signals were also seen in the frontal operculum/insula, particularly for social rewards. In Pavlovian studies, striatal prediction error signals extended into the amygdala, while instrumental tasks engaged the caudate. Prediction error maps were sensitive to the model-fitting procedure (fixed or individually-estimated) and to the extent of spatial smoothing. A correlate of expected value was found in a posterior region of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, caudal and medial to the orbitofrontal regions identified in animal studies. These findings highlight a reproducible motif of reinforcement learning in the cortico-striatal loops and identify methodological dimensions that may influence the reproducibility of activation patterns across studies. PMID:25665667

  18. Modelling and analysis of bacterial tracks suggest an active reorientation mechanism in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Gabriel; Baker, Ruth E.; Armitage, Judith P.; Fletcher, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Most free-swimming bacteria move in approximately straight lines, interspersed with random reorientation phases. A key open question concerns varying mechanisms by which reorientation occurs. We combine mathematical modelling with analysis of a large tracking dataset to study the poorly understood reorientation mechanism in the monoflagellate species Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The flagellum on this species rotates counterclockwise to propel the bacterium, periodically ceasing rotation to enable reorientation. When rotation restarts the cell body usually points in a new direction. It has been assumed that the new direction is simply the result of Brownian rotation. We consider three variants of a self-propelled particle model of bacterial motility. The first considers rotational diffusion only, corresponding to a non-chemotactic mutant strain. Two further models incorporate stochastic reorientations, describing ‘run-and-tumble’ motility. We derive expressions for key summary statistics and simulate each model using a stochastic computational algorithm. We also discuss the effect of cell geometry on rotational diffusion. Working with a previously published tracking dataset, we compare predictions of the models with data on individual stopping events in R. sphaeroides. This provides strong evidence that this species undergoes some form of active reorientation rather than simple reorientation by Brownian rotation. PMID:24872500

  19. The effects of physical activity on sleep: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Kredlow, M Alexandra; Capozzoli, Michelle C; Hearon, Bridget A; Calkins, Amanda W; Otto, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    A significant body of research has investigated the effects of physical activity on sleep, yet this research has not been systematically aggregated in over a decade. As a result, the magnitude and moderators of these effects are unclear. This meta-analytical review examines the effects of acute and regular exercise on sleep, incorporating a range of outcome and moderator variables. PubMed and PsycINFO were used to identify 66 studies for inclusion in the analysis that were published through May 2013. Analyses reveal that acute exercise has small beneficial effects on total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, stage 1 sleep, and slow wave sleep, a moderate beneficial effect on wake time after sleep onset, and a small effect on rapid eye movement sleep. Regular exercise has small beneficial effects on total sleep time and sleep efficiency, small-to-medium beneficial effects on sleep onset latency, and moderate beneficial effects on sleep quality. Effects were moderated by sex, age, baseline physical activity level of participants, as well as exercise type, time of day, duration, and adherence. Significant moderation was not found for exercise intensity, aerobic/anaerobic classification, or publication date. Results were discussed with regards to future avenues of research and clinical application to the treatment of insomnia.

  20. Linear models of activation cascades: analytical solutions and coarse-graining of delayed signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Desikan, Radhika; Barahona, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Cellular signal transduction usually involves activation cascades, the sequential activation of a series of proteins following the reception of an input signal. Here, we study the classic model of weakly activated cascades and obtain analytical solutions for a variety of inputs. We show that in the special but important case of optimal gain cascades (i.e. when the deactivation rates are identical) the downstream output of the cascade can be represented exactly as a lumped nonlinear module containing an incomplete gamma function with real parameters that depend on the rates and length of the cascade, as well as parameters of the input signal. The expressions obtained can be applied to the non-identical case when the deactivation rates are random to capture the variability in the cascade outputs. We also show that cascades can be rearranged so that blocks with similar rates can be lumped and represented through our nonlinear modules. Our results can be used both to represent cascades in computational models of differential equations and to fit data efficiently, by reducing the number of equations and parameters involved. In particular, the length of the cascade appears as a real-valued parameter and can thus be fitted in the same manner as Hill coefficients. Finally, we show how the obtained nonlinear modules can be used instead of delay differential equations to model delays in signal transduction.

  1. Linear models of activation cascades: analytical solutions and coarse-graining of delayed signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Desikan, Radhika; Barahona, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Cellular signal transduction usually involves activation cascades, the sequential activation of a series of proteins following the reception of an input signal. Here, we study the classic model of weakly activated cascades and obtain analytical solutions for a variety of inputs. We show that in the special but important case of optimal gain cascades (i.e. when the deactivation rates are identical) the downstream output of the cascade can be represented exactly as a lumped nonlinear module containing an incomplete gamma function with real parameters that depend on the rates and length of the cascade, as well as parameters of the input signal. The expressions obtained can be applied to the non-identical case when the deactivation rates are random to capture the variability in the cascade outputs. We also show that cascades can be rearranged so that blocks with similar rates can be lumped and represented through our nonlinear modules. Our results can be used both to represent cascades in computational models of differential equations and to fit data efficiently, by reducing the number of equations and parameters involved. In particular, the length of the cascade appears as a real-valued parameter and can thus be fitted in the same manner as Hill coefficients. Finally, we show how the obtained nonlinear modules can be used instead of delay differential equations to model delays in signal transduction. PMID:27581482

  2. Linear models of activation cascades: analytical solutions and coarse-graining of delayed signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Desikan, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Cellular signal transduction usually involves activation cascades, the sequential activation of a series of proteins following the reception of an input signal. Here, we study the classic model of weakly activated cascades and obtain analytical solutions for a variety of inputs. We show that in the special but important case of optimal gain cascades (i.e. when the deactivation rates are identical) the downstream output of the cascade can be represented exactly as a lumped nonlinear module containing an incomplete gamma function with real parameters that depend on the rates and length of the cascade, as well as parameters of the input signal. The expressions obtained can be applied to the non-identical case when the deactivation rates are random to capture the variability in the cascade outputs. We also show that cascades can be rearranged so that blocks with similar rates can be lumped and represented through our nonlinear modules. Our results can be used both to represent cascades in computational models of differential equations and to fit data efficiently, by reducing the number of equations and parameters involved. In particular, the length of the cascade appears as a real-valued parameter and can thus be fitted in the same manner as Hill coefficients. Finally, we show how the obtained nonlinear modules can be used instead of delay differential equations to model delays in signal transduction. PMID:27581482

  3. An analytical solution to the characterization of antigen-antibody interactions by kinetic exclusion assay.

    PubMed

    Winzor, Donald J

    2013-07-01

    A simpler derivation of the basic expression for the dependence of fluorimetric response ratio (R(Ag)/Ro) on free antigen concentration has demonstrated the universal invalidity of the analysis that is incorporated into the manufacturer's software for determining immunoaffinities by kinetic exclusion assay, and traced the error to inadequate allowance for antibody bivalence in the solution phase of the assay. An analytical solution to the quantitative characterization of antigen-antibody interactions from the dependence of R(Ag)/Ro on total antigen concentration is also described, thereby eliminating the necessity for the extensive simulative procedures employed in current determinations of dissociation constants by kinetic exclusion assay. In the illustrative application of this analytical approach to published results on the interaction between a metal chelate (cadmium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Cd-EDTA) and an elicited monoclonal antibody, the analytical processing of the data has been performed on a calculator. However, there is no need to replace the more sophisticated procedure that is incorporated into the Sapidyne software provided that programming changes are made to rectify the erroneous equation on which the simulative analysis is based. PMID:23535275

  4. categoryCompare, an analytical tool based on feature annotations

    PubMed Central

    Flight, Robert M.; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Mohammad, Fahim; Bunge, Mary B.; Moon, Lawrence D. F.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Rouchka, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of high-throughput—omics data initially focuses on relative or raw levels of a particular feature, such as an expression value for a transcript, protein, or metabolite. At a second level, analyses of annotations including known or predicted functions and associations of each individual feature, attempt to distill biological context. Most currently available comparative- and meta-analyses methods are dependent on the availability of identical features across data sets, and concentrate on determining features that are differentially expressed across experiments, some of which may be considered “biomarkers.” The heterogeneity of measurement platforms and inherent variability of biological systems confounds the search for robust biomarkers indicative of a particular condition. In many instances, however, multiple data sets show involvement of common biological processes or signaling pathways, even though individual features are not commonly measured or differentially expressed between them. We developed a methodology, categoryCompare, for cross-platform and cross-sample comparison of high-throughput data at the annotation level. We assessed the utility of the approach using hypothetical data, as well as determining similarities and differences in the set of processes in two instances: (1) denervated skin vs. denervated muscle, and (2) colon from Crohn's disease vs. colon from ulcerative colitis (UC). The hypothetical data showed that in many cases comparing annotations gave superior results to comparing only at the gene level. Improved analytical results depended as well on the number of genes included in the annotation term, the amount of noise in relation to the number of genes expressing in unenriched annotation categories, and the specific method in which samples are combined. In the skin vs. muscle denervation comparison, the tissues demonstrated markedly different responses. The Crohn's vs. UC comparison showed gross similarities in inflammatory

  5. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-05-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine.

  6. Why School is not Easy: An Analytical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David W.

    2011-04-01

    An overarching theory that enables a systematic study of learning recently has been developed. Motivation, for example, is something we all think we know when we see. It was an important step to recognize that motivation can be conceptualized in terms of allocating working memory and especially attention to a learning task. The unified learning model (ULM) was synthesized from the literature with this in mind. Using the ULM as a basis for analysis, it is possible to consider all aspects of learning. A good place to begin concerns schools in general and why, in particular, school is not thought of as being easy. The ULM explains that allocating working memory often requires effort, and any exertion of such effort may be perceived as being hard. This paper is an analysis of school learning and especially science learning (STEM learning) in terms of the ULM.

  7. Fluxball magnetic field analysis using a hybrid analytical/FEM/BEM with equivalent currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, João F. P.; Camilo, Fernando M.; Machado, V. Maló

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a fluxball electric machine is analyzed concerning the magnetic flux, force and torque. A novel method is proposed based in a special hybrid FEM/BEM (Finite Element Method/Boundary Element Method) with equivalent currents by using an analytical treatment for the source field determination. The method can be applied to evaluate the magnetic field in axisymmetric problems, in the presence of several magnetic materials. Same results obtained by a commercial Finite Element Analysis tool are presented for validation purposes with the proposed method.

  8. An analytical approach to customer requirement information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zude; Xiao, Zheng; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong

    2013-11-01

    'Customer requirements' (CRs) management is a key component of customer relationship management (CRM). By processing customer-focused information, CRs management plays an important role in enterprise systems (ESs). Although two main CRs analysis methods, quality function deployment (QFD) and Kano model, have been applied to many fields by many enterprises in the past several decades, the limitations such as complex processes and operations make them unsuitable for online businesses among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Currently, most SMEs do not have the resources to implement QFD or Kano model. In this article, we propose a method named customer requirement information (CRI), which provides a simpler and easier way for SMEs to run CRs analysis. The proposed method analyses CRs from the perspective of information and applies mathematical methods to the analysis process. A detailed description of CRI's acquisition, classification and processing is provided.

  9. Optimizing an Immersion ESL Curriculum Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative…

  10. An analytical method for designing low noise helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Bowes, M. A.; Royal, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    The development and experimental validation of a method for analytically modeling the noise mechanism in the helicopter geared power transmission systems is described. This method can be used within the design process to predict interior noise levels and to investigate the noise reducing potential of alternative transmission design details. Examples are discussed.

  11. Multitrait-Multimethod Data: An Evaluation of Five Analytic Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Grayson, David

    The multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) design of D. T. Campbell and D. W. Fiske (1959) is the most widely used paradigm for testing construct validity, but it continues to be plagued by problems associated with definition of terms, operationalizations of their guidelines, and analytic procedures used to test them. Using five diverse MTMM data sets,…

  12. An Analytical Solution for Transient Thermal Response of an Insulated Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical solution was derived for the transient response of an insulated aerospace vehicle structure subjected to a simplified heat pulse. This simplified problem approximates the thermal response of a thermal protection system of an atmospheric entry vehicle. The exact analytical solution is solely a function of two non-dimensional parameters. A simpler function of these two parameters was developed to approximate the maximum structural temperature over a wide range of parameter values. Techniques were developed to choose constant, effective properties to represent the relevant temperature and pressure-dependent properties for the insulator and structure. A technique was also developed to map a time-varying surface temperature history to an equivalent square heat pulse. Using these techniques, the maximum structural temperature rise was calculated using the analytical solutions and shown to typically agree with finite element simulations within 10 to 20 percent over the relevant range of parameters studied.

  13. A Critical Analysis of Active Learning and an Alternative Pedagogical Framework for Introductory Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning has been championed in academic circles as the pedagogical fix to boring lectures typically found in introduction to information systems courses. However, the literature on active learning is mixed. In this paper, we critically examine active learning research and discover a misplaced emphasis leading to paradoxical findings in…

  14. Physically Active Adults: An Analysis of the Key Variables That Keep Them Moving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of adults are insufficiently physically active, and researchers have yet to determine the factors that enable individuals to maintain adequate levels of physical activity throughout adulthood. Purpose: This study sought to identify the key variables linked with consistent physical activity in adulthood as elucidated…

  15. An Analytical Representation of Non-gyrotropic Distributions and Related Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leubner, M. P.

    Clear evidence of non-gyrotropic energetic electron distributions was found re- cently by in situ observations of the WIND plasma experiment just upstream of the Earth's bow shock. On the other hand, the appearance of non-gyrotropic ion veloc- ity distributions in the magnetotail provides evidence of magnetic reconnection pro- cesses. Motivated by these findings we introduce an analytical representation of non- Maxwellian/non-gyrotropic distribution functions, accurately fitting the characteris- tics of observations, where Maxwellians are recovered as special case of these highly general velocity space distributions. In particular, the analytical distribution function model can serve as basis of detailed wave-particle interaction analysis and of studies of the physical background of the evolution of both, non-gyrotropic electron and ion distributions, which is discussed for various space plasma environments.

  16. An analytical pipeline for genomic representations used for cytosine methylation studies

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Reid F.; Reimers, Mark; Khulan, Batbayar; Gissot, Mathieu; Richmond, Todd A.; Chen, Quan; Zheng, Xin; Kim, Kami

    2016-01-01

    Motivation Representations of the genome can be generated by the selection of a subpopulation of restriction fragments using ligation-mediated PCR. Such representations form the basis for a number of high-throughput assays, including the HELP assay to study cytosine methylation. We find that HELP data analysis is complicated not only by PCR amplification heterogeneity but also by a complex and variable distribution of cytosine methylation. To address this, we created an analytical pipeline and novel normalization approach that improves concordance between microarray-derived data and single locus validation results, demonstrating the value of the analytical approach. A major influence on the PCR amplification is the size of the restriction fragment, requiring a quantile normalization approach that reduces the influence of fragment length on signal intensity. Here we describe all of the components of the pipeline, which can also be applied to data derived from other assays based on genomic representations. PMID:18353789

  17. ANALYTICAL COMPUTATION OF THE LYOT CORONAGRAPH RESPONSE TO AN EXTENDED SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, Andre; Aime, Claude

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives analytical expressions of the intensity in a Lyot coronagraph when the object is a resolved uniform disk. Intensities are given inside the Lyot stop and in the final plane. The derivation relies on the decomposition of the impinging waves on Zernike functions which allows the computation of the expansion of the intensities on infinite series. The expression in the final plane assumes that the sizes of the Lyot stop and the pupil are the same. An analysis of the truncation error is provided. These expressions are validated by computer simulations which makes it possible to recover known results such as the so-called diffraction ring observed by solar astronomers inside the Lyot stop. These analytical results and simulations bring deeper insight into the understanding of a Lyot coronagraph, for example, the fact that although the geometrical image of the source is behind the mask, a ghost image of the source can still be observed in the final plane.

  18. Advances in Analytical and Numerical Dispersion Modeling of Pollutants Releasing from an Area-source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmatoori, Praneeth

    The air quality near agricultural activities such as tilling, plowing, harvesting, and manure application is of main concern because they release fine particulate matter into the atmosphere. These releases are modeled as area-sources in the air quality modeling research. None of the currently available dispersion models relate and incorporate physical characteristics and meteorological conditions for modeling the dispersion and deposition of particulates emitting from such area-sources. This knowledge gap was addressed by developing the advanced analytical and numerical methods for modeling the dispersion of particulate matter. The development, application, and evaluation of new dispersion modeling methods are discussed in detail in this dissertation. In the analytical modeling, a ground-level area source analytical dispersion model known as particulate matter deposition -- PMD was developed for predicting the concentrations of different particle sizes. Both the particle dynamics (particle physical characteristics) and meteorological conditions which have significant effect on the dispersion of particulates were related and incorporated in the PMD model using the formulations of particle gravitational settling and dry deposition velocities. The modeled particle size concentrations of the PMD model were evaluated statistically after applying it to particulates released from a biosolid applied agricultural field. The evaluation of the PMD model using the statistical criteria concluded effective and successful inclusion of dry deposition theory for modeling particulate matter concentrations. A comprehensive review of analytical area-source dispersion models, which do not account for dry deposition and treat pollutants as gases, was conducted and determined three models -- the Shear, the Parker, and the Smith. A statistical evaluation of these dispersion models was conducted after applying them to two different field data sets and the statistical results concluded that

  19. The Policy Dystopia Model: An Interpretive Analysis of Tobacco Industry Political Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA) are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA’s social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents. Building on this literature, including systematic reviews, we develop a critically informed conceptual model of tobacco industry political activity. Methods and Findings We thematically analysed published papers included in two systematic reviews examining tobacco industry influence on taxation and marketing of tobacco; we included 45 of 46 papers in the former category and 20 of 48 papers in the latter (n = 65). We used a grounded theory approach to build taxonomies of “discursive” (argument-based) and “instrumental” (action-based) industry strategies and from these devised the Policy Dystopia Model, which shows that the industry, working through different constituencies, constructs a metanarrative to argue that proposed policies will lead to a dysfunctional future of policy failure and widely dispersed adverse social and economic consequences. Simultaneously, it uses diverse, interlocking insider and outsider instrumental strategies to disseminate this narrative and enhance its persuasiveness in order to secure its preferred policy outcomes. Limitations are that many papers were historical (some dating back to the 1970s) and focused on high-income regions. Conclusions The model provides an evidence-based, accessible way of understanding diverse corporate political strategies. It should enable public health actors and officials to preempt these strategies and develop realistic assessments of the industry’s claims. PMID:27649386

  20. 2D CFD Analysis of an Airfoil with Active Continuous Trailing Edge Flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksich, Dylan; Shen, Jinwei

    2014-11-01

    Efficient and quieter helicopter rotors can be achieved through on-blade control devices, such as active Continuous Trailing-Edge Flaps driven by embedded piezoelectric material. This project aims to develop a CFD simulation tool to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with CTEF using open source code: OpenFOAM. Airfoil meshes used by OpenFOAM are obtained with MATLAB scripts. Once created it is possible to rotate the airfoil to various angles of attack. When the airfoil is properly set up various OpenFOAM properties, such as kinematic viscosity and flow velocity, are altered to achieve the desired testing conditions. Upon completion of a simulation, the program gives the lift, drag, and moment coefficients as well as the pressure and velocity around the airfoil. The simulation is then repeated across multiple angles of attack to give full lift and drag curves. The results are then compared to previous test data and other CFD predictions. This research will lead to further work involving quasi-steady 2D simulations incorporating NASTRAN to model aeroelastic deformation and eventually to 3D aeroelastic simulations. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  1. Structural Analysis of an Open Active Site Conformation of Nonheme Iron Halogenase CytC3

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cintyu; Galonic Fujimori, Danica; Walsh, Christopher T.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2009-04-28

    CytC3, a member of the recently discovered class of nonheme Fe(II) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}KG)-dependent halogenases, catalyzes the double chlorination of l-2-aminobutyric acid (Aba) to produce a known Streptomyces antibiotic, {gamma},{gamma}-dichloroaminobutyrate. Unlike the majority of the Fe(II)-{alpha}KG-dependent enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation reactions, halogenases catalyze a transfer of halides. To examine the important enzymatic features that discriminate between chlorination and hydroxylation, the crystal structures of CytC3 both with and without {alpha}KG/Fe(II) have been solved to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. These structures capture CytC3 in an open active site conformation, in which no chloride is bound to iron. Comparison of the open conformation of CytC3 with the closed conformation of another nonheme iron halogenase, SyrB2, suggests two important criteria for creating an enzyme-bound FeCl catalyst: (1) the presence of a hydrogen-bonding network between the chloride and surrounding residues, and (2) the presence of a hydrophobic pocket in which the chloride resides.

  2. Analytical quality of environmental analysis: Recent results and future trends of the IAEA-ILMR's Analytical Quality Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Holm, E.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P. )

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services Program of the IAEA-ILMR covers a wide variety of intercalibration and reference materials. The purpose of the program is to ensure the comparability of the results obtained by the different participants and to enable laboratories engaged in low-level analyses of marine environmental materials to control their analytical performance. Within the past five years, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco has organized eight intercomparison exercises, on a world-wide basis, on natural materials of marine origin comprising sea water, sediment, seaweed and fish flesh. Results on artificial (fission and activation products, transuranium elements) and natural radionuclides were compiled and evaluated. Reference concentration values were established for a number of the intercalibration samples allowing them to become certified as reference materials available for general distribution. The results of the fish flesh sample and those of the deep-sea sediment are reviewed. The present status of three on-going intercomparison exercises on post-Chernobyl samples IAEA-306 (Baltic Sea sediment), IAEA-307 (Mediterranean sea-plant Posidonia oceanica) and IAEA-308 (Mediterranean mixed seaweed) is also described. 1 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    PubMed

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  4. An analytical approach of thermodynamic behavior in a gas target system on a medical cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Pouyan; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Buckley, Ken; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul; Martinez, D Mark; Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of gas targets used to produce medical isotopes, assuming that the system reaches steady-state. It is based on an integral analysis of the mass and energy balance of the gas-target system, the ideal gas law, and the deformation of the foil. The heat transfer coefficients for different target bodies and gases have been calculated. Excellent agreement is observed between experiments performed at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron and the model.

  5. An analytical approach of thermodynamic behavior in a gas target system on a medical cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Pouyan; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Buckley, Ken; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul; Martinez, D Mark; Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of gas targets used to produce medical isotopes, assuming that the system reaches steady-state. It is based on an integral analysis of the mass and energy balance of the gas-target system, the ideal gas law, and the deformation of the foil. The heat transfer coefficients for different target bodies and gases have been calculated. Excellent agreement is observed between experiments performed at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron and the model. PMID:26562450

  6. Real-time analysis for intensive care: development and deployment of the artemis analytic system.

    PubMed

    Blount, Marion; Ebling, Maria R; Eklund, J Mikael; James, Andrew G; McGregor, Carolyn; Percival, Nathan; Smith, Kathleen P; Sow, Daby

    2010-01-01

    The lives of many thousands of children born premature or ill at term around the world have been saved by those who work within neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Modern-day neonatologists, together with nursing staff and other specialists within this domain, enjoy modern technologies for activities such as financial transactions, online purchasing, music, and video on demand. Yet, when they move into their workspace, in many cases, they are supported by nearly the same technology they used 20 years ago. Medical devices provide visual displays of vital signs through physiological streams such as electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, blood oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), and respiratory rate. Electronic health record initiatives around the world provide an environment for the electronic management of medical records, but they fail to support the high-frequency interpretation of streaming physiological data. We have taken a collaborative research approach to address this need to provide a flexible platform for the real-time online analysis of patients' data streams to detect medically significant conditions that precede the onset of medical complications. The platform supports automated or clinician-driven knowledge discovery to discover new relationships between physiological data stream events and latent medical conditions as well as to refine existing analytics. Patients benefit from the system because earlier detection of signs of the medical conditions may lead to earlier intervention that may potentially lead to improved patient outcomes and reduced length of stays. The clinician benefits from a decision support tool that provides insight into multiple streams of data that are too voluminous to assess with traditional methods. The remainder of this article summarizes the strengths of our research collaboration and the resulting environment known as Artemis, which is currently being piloted within the NICU of The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto

  7. Real-time analysis for intensive care: development and deployment of the artemis analytic system.

    PubMed

    Blount, Marion; Ebling, Maria R; Eklund, J Mikael; James, Andrew G; McGregor, Carolyn; Percival, Nathan; Smith, Kathleen P; Sow, Daby

    2010-01-01

    The lives of many thousands of children born premature or ill at term around the world have been saved by those who work within neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Modern-day neonatologists, together with nursing staff and other specialists within this domain, enjoy modern technologies for activities such as financial transactions, online purchasing, music, and video on demand. Yet, when they move into their workspace, in many cases, they are supported by nearly the same technology they used 20 years ago. Medical devices provide visual displays of vital signs through physiological streams such as electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, blood oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), and respiratory rate. Electronic health record initiatives around the world provide an environment for the electronic management of medical records, but they fail to support the high-frequency interpretation of streaming physiological data. We have taken a collaborative research approach to address this need to provide a flexible platform for the real-time online analysis of patients' data streams to detect medically significant conditions that precede the onset of medical complications. The platform supports automated or clinician-driven knowledge discovery to discover new relationships between physiological data stream events and latent medical conditions as well as to refine existing analytics. Patients benefit from the system because earlier detection of signs of the medical conditions may lead to earlier intervention that may potentially lead to improved patient outcomes and reduced length of stays. The clinician benefits from a decision support tool that provides insight into multiple streams of data that are too voluminous to assess with traditional methods. The remainder of this article summarizes the strengths of our research collaboration and the resulting environment known as Artemis, which is currently being piloted within the NICU of The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto

  8. Determination of bisphosphonate active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceuticals and biological material: a review of analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Zacharis, Constantinos K; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D

    2008-11-01

    Bisphosphonates is a class of chemical compounds finding extensive medical applications against bone disorders including osteoporosis, Pagets' disease, etc. Non-N-containing members include etidronate, clodronate and tiludronate, while N-containing bisphosphonates include active pharmaceutical compounds such as pamidronate, neridronate, olpadronate, alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate and zoledronate. The present study covers 20 years of analytical research on this group of compounds, focusing on bioanalytical and pharmaceutical QC applications. A wide range of analytical techniques is presented and critically discussed including among others liquid and gas phase separations, electrophoretic, electroanalytical, automated and enzymatic approaches.

  9. An improved analytical strategy combining microextraction by packed sorbent combined with ultra high pressure liquid chromatography for the determination of fluoxetine, clomipramine and their active metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vera; Gonçalves, João; Conceição, Carlota; Teixeira, Helena M; Câmara, José S

    2015-08-21

    A powerful and sensitive method, by microextraction packed sorbent (MEPS), and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with a photodiode array (PDA) detection, is described for the determination of fluoxetine, clomipramine and their active metabolites in human urine samples. The MEPS variables, such as sample volume, pH, number of extraction cycles (draw-eject), and desorption conditions (solvent and solvent volume of elution) were optimized. The analysis were carried out using small sample volumes (500μL) and in a short time period (5min for the entire sample preparation step). Good linearity was obtained for all antidepressants with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) above 0.9965. The limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.068 to 0.087μgmL(-1). The recoveries were from 93% to 98%, with relative standard deviations less than 6%. The inter-day precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, varied between 3.8% and 8.5% while the intra-day precision between 3.0% and 7.1%. In order to evaluate the proposed method for clinical use, the MEPS/UHPLC-PDA method was applied to analysis of urine samples from depressed patients.

  10. An analytical method for the measurement of nonviable bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, M Y; Foarde, K K; Ensor, D S

    2001-10-01

    Exposures from indoor environments are a major issue for evaluating total long-term personal exposures to the fine fraction (<2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) of particulate matter (PM). It is widely accepted in the indoor air quality (IAQ) research community that biocontamination is one of the important indoor air pollutants. Major indoor air biocontaminants include mold, bacteria, dust mites, and other antigens. Once the biocontaminants or their metabolites become airborne, IAQ could be significantly deteriorated. The airborne biocontaminants or their metabolites can induce irritational, allergic, infectious, and chemical responses in exposed individuals. Biocontaminants, such as some mold spores or pollen grains, because of their size and mass, settle rapidly within the indoor environment. Over time they may become nonviable and fragmented by the process of desiccation. Desiccated nonviable fragments of organisms are common and can be toxic or allergenic, depending upon the specific organism or organism component. Once these smaller and lighter fragments of biological PM become suspended in air, they have a greater tendency to stay suspended. Although some bioaerosols have been identified, few have been quantitatively studied for their prevalence within the total indoor PM with time, or for their affinity to penetrate indoors. This paper describes a preliminary research effort to develop a methodology for the measurement of nonviable biologically based PM, analyzing for mold and ragweed antigens and endotoxins. The research objectives include the development of a set of analytical methods and the comparison of impactor media and sample size, and the quantification of the relationship between outdoor and indoor levels of bioaerosols. Indoor and outdoor air samples were passed through an Andersen nonviable cascade impactor in which particles from 0.2 to 9.0 microm were collected and analyzed. The presence of mold, ragweed, and endotoxin was found in all eight

  11. High-resolution seismic structure analysis of an active submarine mud volcano area off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    In order to better understand the subsurface structure related to an active mud volcano MV1 and to understand their relationship with gas hydrate/cold seep formation, we conducted deep-towed side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP), multibeam echo sounding (MBES), and multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) surveys off SW Taiwan from 2009 to 2011. As shown in the high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and EK500 sonar data, the detailed structures reveal more gas seeps and gas flares in the study area. In addition, the survey profiles show several submarine landslides occurred near the thrust faults. Based on the MCS results, we can find that the MV1 is located on top of a mud diapiric structure. It indicates that the MV1 has the same source as the associated mud diapir. The blanking of the seismic signal may indicate the conduit for the upward migration of the gas (methane or CO2). Therefore, we suggest that the submarine mud volcano could be due to a deep source of mud compressed by the tectonic convergence. Fluids and argillaceous materials have thus migrated upward along structural faults and reach the seafloor. The gas-charged sediments or gas seeps in sediments thus make the seafloor instable and may trigger submarine landslides.

  12. Cortical midline structures and autobiographical-self processes: an activation-likelihood estimation meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Helder F; Kaplan, Jonas; Damasio, Antonio

    2013-09-04

    The autobiographical-self refers to a mental state derived from the retrieval and assembly of memories regarding one's biography. The process of retrieval and assembly, which can focus on biographical facts or personality traits or some combination thereof, is likely to vary according to the domain chosen for an experiment. To date, the investigation of the neural basis of this process has largely focused on the domain of personality traits using paradigms that contrasted the evaluation of one's traits (self-traits) with those of another person's (other-traits). This has led to the suggestion that cortical midline structures (CMSs) are specifically related to self states. Here, with the goal of testing this suggestion, we conducted activation-likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses based on data from 28 neuroimaging studies. The ALE results show that both self-traits and other-traits engage CMSs; however, the engagement of medial prefrontal cortex is greater for self-traits than for other-traits, while the posteromedial cortex is more engaged for other-traits than for self-traits. These findings suggest that the involvement CMSs is not specific to the evaluation of one's own traits, but also occurs during the evaluation of another person's traits.

  13. Cortical Midline Structures and Autobiographical-Self Processes: An Activation-Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Helder F.; Kaplan, Jonas; Damasio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The autobiographical-self refers to a mental state derived from the retrieval and assembly of memories regarding one’s biography. The process of retrieval and assembly, which can focus on biographical facts or personality traits or some combination thereof, is likely to vary according to the domain chosen for an experiment. To date, the investigation of the neural basis of this process has largely focused on the domain of personality traits using paradigms that contrasted the evaluation of one’s traits (self-traits) with those of another person’s (other-traits). This has led to the suggestion that cortical midline structures (CMSs) are specifically related to self states. Here, with the goal of testing this suggestion, we conducted activation-likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses based on data from 28 neuroimaging studies. The ALE results show that both self-traits and other-traits engage CMSs; however, the engagement of medial prefrontal cortex is greater for self-traits than for other-traits, while the posteromedial cortex is more engaged for other-traits than for self-traits. These findings suggest that the involvement CMSs is not specific to the evaluation of one’s own traits, but also occurs during the evaluation of another person’s traits. PMID:24027520

  14. The characteristic analysis of an active region producing a number of CME's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z. G.; Wang, M.; Zhang, B. R.; Yan, Y. H.

    2001-11-01

    There are 6 successive major burst events in the AR 8210 on the solar disk during April and May, 1998.The data are collected for this active region including the observation on soft X ray, UV, type II and IV radio bursts and radio-heliograph. It is found the energy accumulation process is fast and there is similarity among the time profile of the 3 SXR bursts. When CMEs are there on the disk, the magnetic loop opens only partially and soon contracts into closed. The loop is then reheated through bombarding by non-thermal electrons and produces strong X ray bursts, radio types II and IV bursts. The frail part of the loop just like a volcanic crater from where bursts could be taking place again and again. The turning point between a non-thermal process and a thermal process may be found from investigating the time profiles of SXR on which it displays as an catastrophe point of the slope. Furthermore the existence of type III bursts could be a corresponding signature. The appearance of type II radio bursts coming from the different coronal layers can be a convincing evidence for the occurring of CMEs and a criterion for judging the speed of CMEs' motion.

  15. A Purposive Approach to Content Analysis: Designing Analytical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbic, Philippa; Stacey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Content analysis of computer conferences provides a rich source of data for researching and understanding online learning. However, the complexities of using content analysis in a relatively new research field have resulted in researchers often avoiding this method and using more familiar methods such as survey and interview instead. This article…

  16. Analytical mitigation of solute-capillary interactions in double detection Taylor Dispersion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Latunde-Dada, Seyi; Bott, Rachel; Hampton, Karl; Leszczyszyn, Oksana Iryna

    2015-08-21

    Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) in the presence of interactions between solutes and capillary walls yields inaccurate results for the diffusion coefficients of the solutes because the resulting concentration profiles are broadened and asymmetric. Whilst there are practical ways of mitigating these interactions, it is not always possible to eradicate them completely. In this paper, an analytical method of mitigating the effects of the adsorptions is presented. By observing the dispersion of the solute molecules at two detection points and using the expected relations between measured parameters, such as the standard deviations and peak amplitudes, the dispersive components of the profiles were isolated with a constrained fitting algorithm. The method was successfully applied to lysozyme and cytochrome C which adsorb onto fused silica capillary walls. Furthermore, this illustrates an advantage of using the fitting method for Taylor Dispersion Analysis. PMID:26189206

  17. Discovery and analysis of an active long terminal repeat-retrotransposable element in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Jie Jin, Feng; Hara, Seiichi; Sato, Atsushi; Koyama, Yasuji

    2014-01-01

    Wild-type Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 contains two copies of the AO090005001597 gene. We previously constructed A. oryzae RIB40 strain, RKuAF8B, with multiple chromosomal deletions, in which the AO090005001597 copy number was found to be increased significantly. Sequence analysis indicated that AO090005001597 is part of a putative 6,000-bp retrotransposable element, flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of 669 bp, with characteristics of retroviruses and retrotransposons, and thus designated AoLTR (A. oryzae LTR-retrotransposable element). AoLTR comprised putative reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase domains. The deduced amino acid sequence alignment of AoLTR showed 94% overall identity with AFLAV, an A. flavus Tf1/sushi retrotransposon. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that AoLTR gene expression was significantly increased in the RKuAF8B, in accordance with the increased copy number. Inverse PCR indicated that the full-length retrotransposable element was randomly integrated into multiple genomic locations. However, no obvious phenotypic changes were associated with the increased AoLTR gene copy number. PMID:24646755

  18. HPLC-DAD Analysis, Antileishmanial, Antiproliferative, and Antibacterial Activities of Lacistema pubescens: An Amazonian Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Mello da Silva, Josiane; Antinarelli, Luciana Maria Ribeiro; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Coimbra, Elaine Soares; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Lacistema are traditionally used by Brazilian and Peruvian indigenous communities. The present study investigated the in vitro antileishmanial activity against several Leishmania species, cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages, antiproliferative activity against HL60 and Jurkat cells, and antibacterial activities against seven bacteria strains of the aerial parts of the methanolic crude extract and fractions of Lacistema pubescens. In addition, their chemical profile was also evaluated. Hexane fraction showed the most significant IC50 values against all promastigotes of Leishmania species tested, except for L. chagasi (IC50 = 4.2 µg/mL for L. major and IC50 = 3.5 µg/mL for L. amazonensis). This fraction also exhibited a strong activity against amastigotes of L. amazonensis (IC50 = 6.9 µg/mL). The antiproliferative activity was also observed for methanolic extract and hexane fraction with IC50 = 47.2 µg/mL and IC50 = 39.7 µg/mL for HL60, respectively. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the overall antibacterial activity was not very significative. Phytol and sitosterol were identified in the methanolic extract. Additionally, previous studies also revealed the presence of those compounds in the hexane fraction. Among other compounds, phytol and sitosterol were probably involved in the antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activities observed in this study. PMID:25177694

  19. Collective Digital Storytelling: An Activity-Theoretical Analysis of Second Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyaniwala-Thapliyal, Carmenne

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the collective activity of a group of four students who created a digital story as a teaching resource that was to be used for teaching English as a foreign language. It uncovers and analyzes the actual processes underlining the activity as it unfolds from one stage to another. Four processes, viz., sociocognitive…

  20. Research in Activity: An Analysis of Speed Bumps as Mediational Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Stephen P.; Haas, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This article traces the historical and conceptual development of what is known as activity theory, from Vygotsky and Luria, to A. N. Leontev, to Engestrm, in order to illustrate what I see as two problems with the activity theoretic approach, especially as manifest in the work of Leontev and Engestrm: what I call the boundary and/or focus problem…