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Sample records for activation energies ea

  1. Study of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays: EAS size fluctuations at a fixed primary energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allev, N.; Alimov, T.; Kakhharov, N.; Khakimov, K.; Rakhimova, N.; Tashpulatov, R.; Khristiansen, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    During the initial period of the Samarkand EAS array operations the showers were selected on the basis of charged-particle flux density, and during the subsequent periods the showers were selected on the basis of Cerenkov light flux density. This procedure made it possible to measure the shower energy, to estimate the EAS size fluctuations at a fixed primary energy, and to experimentally obtain the scaling factor K(Ne, Eo) from the EAS size spectrum to the primary energy spectrum. Six scintillators of area S = 2 sq m each were added to the array. The fluctuations of EAS sizes in the showers of fixed primary energies and the scaling factors K(Ne, Eo) were inferred from the data obtained. The showers with zenith angles 30 deg were selected. The EAS axis positions were inferred from the amplitude data of the scintillators. The primary energy Eo was determined by the method of least squares for the known EAS axis position using the data of the Cerenkov detector located at 80 to 150 m EAS axis. It is shown that the Cerenkov light flux fluctuations at 100 m from EAS axis, q sub 100, do not exceed 10% at a fixed EAS energy, so the parameter q sub 100 may be used to estimate the EAS-generating primary particle-energy.

  2. On potential energy models for EA-based ab initio protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Mijajlovic, Milan; Biggs, Mark J; Djurdjevic, Dusan P

    2010-01-01

    Ab initio protein structure prediction involves determination of the three-dimensional (3D) conformation of proteins on the basis of their amino acid sequence, a potential energy (PE) model that captures the physics of the interatomic interactions, and a method to search for and identify the global minimum in the PE (or free energy) surface such as an evolutionary algorithm (EA). Many PE models have been proposed over the past three decades and more. There is currently no understanding of how the behavior of an EA is affected by the PE model used. The study reported here shows that the EA behavior can be profoundly affected: the EA performance obtained when using the ECEPP PE model is significantly worse than that obtained when using the Amber, OPLS, and CVFF PE models, and the optimal EA control parameter values for the ECEPP model also differ significantly from those associated with the other models.

  3. Human T cell activation. III. Induction of an early activation antigen, EA 1 by TPA, mitogens and antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, T.; Jung, L.K.L.; FU, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    With human T cells activated for 12 hours by 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as immunogen, an IgG/sub 2a/ monoclonal antibody, mAb Ea 1, has been generated to a 60KD phosphorylated protein with 32KD and 28KD subunits. The antigen, Ea 1, is readily detected on 60% of isolated thymocytes by indirect immunofluorescence. A low level of Ea 1 expression is detectable on 2-6% of blood lymphocytes. Isolated T cells have been induced to express Ea 1 by TPA, mitogens and anitgens. TPA activated T cells express Ea 1 as early as 1 hour after activation. By 4 hours, greater than 95% of the T cells stain with mAb Ea 1. About 50% of the PHA or Con A activated T cells express Ea 1 with a similar kinetics. Ea 1 expression proceeds that of IL-2 receptor in these activation processes. T cells activated by soluble antigens (tetanus toxoid and PPD) and alloantigens in MLR also express Ea 1 after a long incubation. About 20% of the T cells stain for Ea 1 at day 6. Ea 1 expression is not limited to activated T cells. B cells activated by TPA or anti-IgM Ab plus B cell growth factor express Ea 1. The kinetics of Ea 1 expression is slower and the staining is less intense. Repeated attempts to detect Ea 1 on resting and activated monocytes and granulocytes have not been successful. Ea 1 expression is due to de novo synthesis for its induction is blocked by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. Ea 1 is the earliest activation antigen detectable to-date.

  4. Measuring the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays with the Yakutsk EAS array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khristiansen, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Yakutsk Extensive Air Showers (EAS) array was designed for detecting the showers generated by the 10 to the 47th power to 10 to the 20th power eV primary cosmic rays and consists of numerous electron, muon, and Cerenkov light detectors arranged on a 20 sq km area terrain. The array is featured by the feasibility to detect the EAS-produced Cerenkov light, hence, as will be shown, to find the mean energy of the primary particles generating an ensemble of EAS of given size. Date collected is discussed.

  5. Investigation of the energy characteristics of EAS muon component with the NEVOD-DECOR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Barbashina, N. S.; Dushkin, L. I.; Kindin, V. V.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Kompaniets, K. G.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Romanenkova, E. V.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Khomyakov, V. A.; Khokhlov, S. S.; Chernov, D. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yurina, E. A.; Yashin, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    Investigations of the energy characteristics of muon component with the increase of the primary cosmic rays energy can be a key to solving ‘muon puzzle’ - the problem of excess of EAS muons (observed in several experiments at high - ALEPH, DELPHI - and ultrahigh energies - DECOR, Pierre Auger Observatory) in comparison with the expected flux. The measurements results of the energy deposit of inclined muon bundles in water depending on the zenith angle and the local density of muons are presented. As a measure of the energy deposit, the total number of photoelectrons registered by PMTs of the Cherenkov water calorimeter NEVOD was used. The local density of muons, which gives an estimate of the energy of primary particles was obtained from the data of coordinate-tracking detector DECOR. The experimental data are compared with the results of calculations based on simulations of the muon component of EAS by means of the CORSIKA code.

  6. Sensitivity of EAS measurements to the energy spectrum of muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espadanal, J.; Cazon, L.; Conceição, R.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied how the energy spectrum of muons at production affects some of the most common measurements related to muons in extensive air shower studies, namely, the number of muons at the ground, the slope of the lateral distribution of muons, the apparent muon production depth, and the arrival time delay of muons at ground. We found that by changing the energy spectrum by an amount consistent with the difference between current models (namely EPOS-LHC and QGSJET-II.04), the muon surface density at ground increases 5% at 20° zenith angle and 17% at 60° zenith angle. This effect introduces a zenith angle dependence on the reconstructed number of muons which might be experimentally observed. The maximum of the muon production depth distribution at 40° increases ∼ 10 g/cm2 and ∼ 0 g/cm2 at 60°, which, from pure geometrical considerations, increases the arrival time delay of muons. There is an extra contribution to the delay due to the subluminal velocities of muons of the order of ∼ 3 ns at all zenith angles. Finally, changes introduced in the logarithmic slope of the lateral density function are less than 2%.

  7. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  8. The muon content of EAS as a function of primary energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, P. R.; Nash, W. F.; Saich, M. S.; Sephton, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers (EAS) was measured over the wide primary energy range 10 to the 16th power to 10 to the 20th power eV. It is reported that the relative muon content of EAS decreases smoothly over the energy range 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 19th power eV and concluded that the primary cosmic ray flux has a constant mass composition over this range. It is also reported that an apparent significant change in the power index occurs below 10 to the 17th power eV rho sub c (250 m) sup 0.78. Such a change indicates a significant change in primary mass composition in this range. The earlier conclusions concerning EAS of energy 10 to the 17th power eV are confirmed. Analysis of data in the 10 to the 16th power - 10 to the 17th power eV range revealed a previously overlooked selection bias in the data set. The full analysis of the complete data set in the energy range 10 to the 16th power - 10 to the 17th power ev with the selection bias eliminated is presented.

  9. Multidirectional Muon Telescopes and eEAS Arrays for High Energy Cosmic Ray Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Lev I.

    2007-11-01

    Two multidirectional muon telescopes with EAS arrays are now under construction in Israel: one from 24 scintillators on Mt. Hermon (in combination with neutron monitor), and one from 96 scintillators as semi-underground (in the big bomb-shelter in Qazrin at a distance of about 1 nkm from the Central Laboratory of the Israel Cosmic Ray & Space Weather Center). The big one consists from 49 scintillation detectors inside the special constructed building with very light roof over the bomb-shelter and 49 scintillation detectors underground inside the bomb-shelter. This multidirectional telescope contain more than two thousand elementary telescopes directed at different zenith and az-imuthal angles and formed by double coincidences of any top scintillator with each bottom scintillator (the effective energy of primary CR from about 50 GeV for vertical direction to about 1-2 TeV for very inclined directions). It will give possibility to investigate global and other types of galactic CR modulations in the Heliosphere at very high energies, near the upper limit of CR energy on which magnetic fields frozen in solar wind may yet influence. Also we plane to obtain detailed information on the sidereal CR anisotropy in this range of energy. We will measure also three types of EAS. Our estimations show that by EAS array we can continue measure high energy CR time variations in the broad range from about 1-2 TeV to about 10,000 TeV. By this experiment, we suppose to investigate with a high accuracy CR anisotropy in the Galaxy in dependence of particle energy and CR modulation in the Heliosphere at high-energy range.

  10. Large-conductance Ca²⁺-activated potassium channel in mitochondria of endothelial EA.hy926 cells.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Piotr; Koziel, Agnieszka; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Szewczyk, Adam

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, we describe the existence of a large-conductance Ca²⁺-activated potassium (BKCa) channel in the mitochondria of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926. A single-channel current was recorded from endothelial mitoplasts (i.e., inner mitochondrial membrane) using the patch-clamp technique in the mitoplast-attached mode. A potassium-selective current was recorded with a mean conductance equal to 270 ± 10 pS in a symmetrical 150/150 mM KCl isotonic solution. The channel activity, which was determined as the open probability, increased with the addition of calcium ions and the potassium channel opener NS1619. Conversely, the activity of the channel was irreversibly blocked by paxilline and iberiotoxin, BKCa channel inhibitors. The open-state probability was found to be voltage dependent. The substances known to modulate BKCa channel activity influenced the bioenergetics of mitochondria isolated from human endothelial EA.hy926 cells. In isolated mitochondria, 100 μM Ca²⁺, 10 μM NS1619, and 0.5 μM NS11021 depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential and stimulated nonphosphorylating respiration. These effects were blocked by iberiotoxin and paxilline in a potassium-dependent manner. Under phosphorylating conditions, NS1619-induced, iberiotoxin-sensitive uncoupling diverted energy from ATP synthesis during the phosphorylating respiration of the endothelial mitochondria. Immunological analysis with antibodies raised against proteins of the plasma membrane BKCa channel identified a pore-forming α-subunit and an auxiliary β₂-subunit of the channel in the endothelial mitochondrial inner membrane. In conclusion, we show for the first time that the inner mitochondrial membrane in human endothelial EA.hy926 cells contains a large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channel with properties similar to those of the surface membrane BKCa channel.

  11. Observation of arrival times of EAS with energies or = 6 x 10 (14) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere is continually being bombarded by primary cosmic ray particles which are generally believed to be high-energy nuclei. The fact that the majority of cosmic ray primaries are charged particles and that space is permeated with random magnetic fields, means that the particles do not travel in straight lines. The arrival time distribution of EAS may also transfer some information about the primary particles. Actually, if the particles come to our Earth in a completely random process, the arrival time distribution of pairs of successive particles should fit an exponential law. The work reported here was arried out at Sydney University from May 1982 to January 1983. All the data are used to plot the arrival-time distribution of the events, that is, the distribution of time-separation between consecutive events on a 1 minute bin size. During this period more than 2300 showers were recorded. The results are discussed and compared with that of some other experiments.

  12. Measurement of energy muons in EAS at energy region larger thean 10(17) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hayashida, N.; Kamata, K.; Nagano, M.; Ohoka, H.; Tanahasni, G.; Teshima, T.

    1985-01-01

    A measurement of low energy muons in extensive air showers (EAS) (threshold energies are 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.38 GeV) was carried out. The density under the concrete shielding equivalent to 0.25 GeV at core distance less than 500 m and 0.5 GeV less than 150 m suffers contamination of electromagnetic components. Therefore the thickness of concrete shielding for muon detectors for the giant air shower array is determined to be 0.5 GeV equivalence. Effects of photoproduced muons are found to be negligible in the examined ranges of shower sizes and core distances. The fluctuation of the muon density in 90 sq m is at most 25% between 200 m and 600 m from the core around 10 to the 17th power eV.

  13. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  14. Lateral distribution of high energy muons in EAS of sizes Ne approximately equals 10(5) and Ne approximately equals 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazhutov, Y. N.; Ermakov, G. G.; Fomin, G. G.; Isaev, V. I.; Jarochkina, Z. V.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Khrenov, B. A.; Khristiansen, G. B.; Kulikov, G. V.; Motova, M. V.

    1985-01-01

    Muon energy spectra and muon lateral distribution in EAS were investigated with the underground magnetic spectrometer working as a part of the extensive air showers (EAS) array. For every registered muon the data on EAS are analyzed and the following EAS parameters are obtained, size N sub e, distance r from the shower axis to muon, age parameter s. The number of muons with energy over some threshold E associated to EAS of fixed parameters are measured, I sub reg. To obtain traditional characteristics, muon flux densities as a function of the distance r and muon energy E, muon lateral distribution and energy spectra are discussed for hadron-nucleus interaction model and composition of primary cosmic rays.

  15. Effect of selected NAD+ analogues on mitochondria activity and proliferation of endothelial EA.hy926 cells.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Robert; Wrzosek, Antoni; Łukasiak, Agnieszka; Rutkowska, Magdalena; Adamus, Jan; Gebicki, Jerzy; Dołowy, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Adam; Tarasiuk, Jolanta

    2010-08-25

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) and 1-methyl-3-nitropyridine (MNP) on mitochondria activity and proliferation of endothelial EA.hy926 cells. The activity of MNA was also referred to nicotinamide (NAM) being MNA metabolic precursor. NAM and MNA used at high concentrations (up to 1 mM) had no effect on mitochondria metabolism and proliferation of EA.hy926 cells. It could be related to the fact that these compounds hardly cross the cell membrane. It supports the results of our previous study suggesting that anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects of MNA could be associated with its ability to bind to glycosaminoglycans, especially heparins, located on the endothelium membrane without entering into target cells. In contrast, MNP caused substantial changes in mitochondria activity and proliferation of EA.hy926 cells. This compound used at low concentrations (below 100 microM) blocked the cell cycle of EA.hy926 cells in G1 phase and was very effective in inhibiting cell growth (IC50=13.8+/-2.4 microM). At higher concentrations (0.1-1 mM) MNP caused a significant reduction of cell survival. The observed effects of MNP could be related, at least in part, to its ability to influence the ATP and NAD+ intracellular levels. MNP caused also important changes in Ca2+ intracellular concentration, significant decrease in inner mitochondrial membrane potential and high increase in mitochondrial respiration of EA.hy926 cells. The observed effects of MNP may be related in part to its cellular metabolites detected after 45 min incubation with 250 microM MNP.

  16. Accumulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BMRF1 protein EA-D during latent EBV activation of Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Raji.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Makoto; Horie, Kazutaka; Hoshikawa, Yoshiko; Nagata, Keiko; Osaki, Mistuhiko; Ito, Hisao; Sairenji, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    As a new model to elucidate molecular mechanisms in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation, we tested the tetracycline-inducible (Tet-On)/BZLF1-oriP plasmid system in Raji cells. Cells transfected with this Tet-On plasmid did not activate EBV by doxycycline and surprisingly EBV latency was disrupted with large amounts of BMRF1 protein (EA-D) being accumulated in the cells. Brilliant EA-D fluorescence was markedly condensed in small sized cells, intra-cellular vesicles, and extra-cellular particles. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the extra-cellular particles to be covered with a membrane. EA-D molecules of 58, 50, 48, and 44kDa were expressed in the cells. The high (58 and 50kDa) and low (48 and 44kDa) EA-D molecules appeared in the early and late stages, respectively. Low EA-D molecules were detected mostly in EA-D positive cells separated into the heaviest density layer of a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Such molecules could be created from high EA-D molecules by protein phosphatase treatment. The EA-D molecules that appeared similar were detected in EBV-activated P3HR-1 and Akata cells. Several hypotheses concerning the accumulation of EA-D molecules of various polymorphic forms and their phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in this model system are presented, with possible biological and clinical relevance.

  17. Promotion of Astragaloside IV for EA-hy926 Cell Proliferation and Angiogenic Activity via ERK1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi; Chen, Jiandong; Fu, Yuxuan; Chen, Xiaohu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pro-angiogenic effects of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) in vitro and reveal the potential mechanisms. A kind of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), named EA-hy926 cells, were treated with various dosages of AS-IV. We then utilized Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), real-time PCR and Western blot to detect EA-hy926 cells' proliferation and proangiogenic effect from AS-IV. Data showed that AS-IV promoted EA-hy926 cells proliferation, as assessed by CCK-8. The AS-IV was also associated with an increased tube formation and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the influence of AS-IV on cell proliferation and angiogenisis could be abolished by inhibitor PD98059 through suppressed extracellular signal regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. These data demonstrated that the AS-IV activated the ERK1/2 pathway to control VEGF synthesis. Our findings conclude that the AS-IV promotes EA-hy926 cells proliferation and angiogenesis through ERK1/2 pathway, and it is also a regulator of VEGF.

  18. The knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum from the simultaneous EAS charged particles and muon density spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijay, Biplab; Banik, Prabir; Bhadra, Arunava

    2016-09-01

    In this work we examine with the help of Monte Carlo simulation whether a consistent primary energy spectrum of cosmic rays emerges from both the experimentally observed total charged particles and muon size spectra of cosmic ray extensive air showers considering primary composition may or may not change beyond the knee of the energy spectrum. It is found that EAS-TOP observations consistently infer a knee in the primary energy spectrum provided the primary is pure unchanging iron whereas no consistent primary spectrum emerges from simultaneous use of the KASCADE observed total charged particle and muon spectra. However, it is also found that when primary composition changes across the knee the estimation of spectral index of total charged particle spectrum is quite tricky, depends on the choice of selection of points near the knee in the size spectrum.

  19. Determining characteristics of melting cheese by activation energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C was measured from temperature sweeps of various cheeses to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Seven cheese varieties were heated in a rheometer from 22 to 70 deg C, and Ea was calculated from the resulting ...

  20. Curcumin activates autophagy and attenuates oxidative damage in EA.hy926 cells via the Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shouyu; Long, Mingzhi; Li, Xiuzhen; Zhu, Shushu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin, which is the effective component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has previously been shown to exert potent antioxidant, antitumor and anti‑inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism underlying the protective effects of curcumin against oxidative damage in endothelial cells remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the effects of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced apoptosis and autophagy in EA.hy926 cells, and to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Cultured EA.hy926 cells were treated with curcumin (5‑20 µmol/l) 4 h prior to and for 4 h during exposure to H2O2 (200 µmol/l). Oxidative stress resulted in a significant increase in the rate of cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by an increase in the expression levels of caspase‑3 and B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein (Bax), and a decrease in the expression levels of Bcl‑2. Treatment with curcumin (5 or 20 µmol/l) significantly inhibited apoptosis, and reversed the alterations in caspase‑3, Bcl‑2 and Bax expression. Furthermore, curcumin induced autophagy and microtubule‑associated protein 1A/1B‑light chain 3‑Ⅱ expression, and suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicated that curcumin may protect cells against oxidative stress‑induced damage through inhibiting apoptosis and inducing autophagy via the Akt/mTOR pathway.

  1. Comparison of absolute intensity between EAS with gamma-families and general EAS at Mount Norikura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsumune, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Saito, T.; Sakata, M.; Shima, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Dake, S.; Kawamoto, M.; Kusumose, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-families with total energy greater than 10 TeV, found in the EX chamber which was cooperated with the EAS array were combined with EAS triggered by big bursts. The absolute intensity of the size spectrum of these combined EAS was compared with that of general EAS obtained by AS trigger. The EAS with sizes greater than 2x1 million were always accompanied by gamma-families with sigma E sub gamma H 10 TeV, n sub gamma, H 2 and Emin=3 TeV, although the rate of EAS accompaning such gamma-families decreases rapidly as their sizes decrease.

  2. A search for sources of ultra high energy gamma rays at air shower energies with Ooty EAS array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonwar, S. C.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Sreekantan, B. V.

    1985-01-01

    A 24 detector extensive air shower array is being operated at Ootacamund (2200 m altitude, 11.4 deg N latitude) in southern India to search for sources of Cosmic gamma rays of energies greater then 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV. The angular resolution of the array has been experimentally estimated to be better than about 2 deg. Since June '84, nearly 2.5 million showers have been collected and their arrival directions determined. These showers are being studied to search for very high energy gamma ray emission from interesting astrophysical objects such as Cygnus X-3, Crab pulsar and Geminga.

  3. Cerro La Negra EAS Cherenkov array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, P.; Garipov, G. K.; Khrenov, B. A.; Martínez, O.; Moreno, E.; Salazar, H.; Silaev, A. A.; Villaseñor, L.; Zepeda, A.

    2001-05-01

    The design of the air Cherenkov detector array for the Cerro La Negra site (elevation 4300 m asl) is presented. The most important features of the array are: autonomous operation of the detectors, low power electronics, laser communication lines and power supplied by solar panels and batteries. The joint operation of the array with water Cherenkov extensive air shower (EAS) particle detectors will allow to obtain information on EAS core positions, primary energies, arrival directions of the primary particles, and temporal profiles of the EAS pulses in air Cherenkov and particle detectors. The study of the EAS development above the shower maximum is among the main goals of this experiment. .

  4. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  5. 76 FR 8726 - EasTrans, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EasTrans, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 4, 2011, EasTrans, LLC (EasTrans) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) reflecting...

  6. Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) was calculated from temperature sweeps of cheeses with contrasting characteristics to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Cheddar, Colby, whole milk Mozzarella, low moisture part skim Mozzarella, Parmesan, soft goat, and Queso Fre...

  7. Calculation of magnetic field-induced current densities for humans from EAS countertop activation/deactivation devices that use ferromagnetic cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingxiang; Gandhi, Om P.

    2005-01-01

    Compliance testing of electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices requires that induced current densities in central nervous system (CNS) tissues, i.e. brain and the spinal cord, be less than the prescribed safety limits. Even though ferromagnetic cores are mostly used for activation/deactivation of embedded magnetic tags, assumed equivalent air-core coils with guessed increased number of ampere turns have always been used to calculate the magnetic fields for the proximal region to which a customer is exposed. We show that at low frequencies up to several kilohertz, duality of electric and magnetic circuits may be exploited such that the shaped high reluctance core is modelled as though it was a higher conductivity electric circuit of the corresponding shape. The proposed procedure is tested by examples of two magnetic cores typical of countertop activation/deactivation devices. The equivalent exposure magnetic fields obtained from the dual electric fields are shown to be in excellent agreement (within ±5%) with those measured for these ferromagnetic EAS devices. The previously proposed impedance method is then used to calculate the induced current densities for a 1.974 × 1.974 × 2.93 mm resolution anatomic model of a human. For the two considered EAS systems using excitation currents of 5000 A turns at 200 Hz, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged induced current densities in the CNS tissues are calculated and found to be less than the ICNIRP safety limits.

  8. 7 CFR 4280.190 - EA/REDA grant applications-content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.190 EA/REDA...) Applicant's experience as follows: (i) If applying for a renewable energy development assistance grant, the applicant's experience in completing similar renewable energy development assistance activities,...

  9. 7 CFR 4280.190 - EA/REDA grant applications-content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.190 EA/REDA...) Applicant's experience as follows: (i) If applying for a renewable energy development assistance grant, the applicant's experience in completing similar renewable energy development assistance activities,...

  10. 7 CFR 4280.190 - EA/REDA grant applications-content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.190 EA/REDA...) Applicant's experience as follows: (i) If applying for a renewable energy development assistance grant, the applicant's experience in completing similar renewable energy development assistance activities,...

  11. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EAS operation during a State or Local Area... SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.55 EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency. (a) The EAS may be activated at the State and Local Area levels by EAS Participants at their discretion...

  12. Farrerol regulates occludin expression in hydrogen peroxide-induced EA.hy926 cells by modulating ERK1/2 activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiankuan; Ge, Rui; Zhao, Chengxiao; Tang, Li; Li, Jianguo; Li, Qingshan

    2014-07-05

    Endothelial tight junction is a crucial intracellular junctional structure that controls paracellular permeability across vascular endothelium. Oxidative stress-mediated elevation in endothelial permeability is associated with pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. In the present research, the regulation of farrerol on occludin, a transmembrane proteins associated with endothelial tight junction, was investigated in hydrogen peroxide-induced human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that H2O2 exposure caused a significant decrease in occludin expression, but had little effect on ZO-1 expression, and the decrease of occludin expression was significantly attenuated by farrerol in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, immunofluorescent staining assay also demonstrated that the loss of occludin expression induced by H2O2 exposure was restored by farrerol pretreatment. Further investigations showed that farrerol prevented H2O2-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in a dose-dependent manner. The use of U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2, proved that H2O2-induced decrease of occludin in EA.hy926 cells was likely associated with activation of ERK1/2, which indicated that the regulation of farrerol on occludin expression in H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells was likely related to the modulation of ERK1/2 activation. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that farrerol has potential effects on oxidative stress-induced endothelial tight junction disruption and suggests that farrerol is a potential candidate for the intervention of endothelial permeability-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Angular Resolution of an EAS Array for Gamma Ray Astronomy at Energies Greater Than 5 x 10 (13) Ev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apte, A. R.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Tonwar, S. C.; Uma, V.

    1985-01-01

    A 24 detector extensive air shower array is being operated at Ootacamund (2300 m altitude, 11.4 deg N latitude) in southern India for a study of arrival directions of showers of energies greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV. Various configurations of the array of detectors have been used to estimate the accuracy in determination of arrival angle of showers with such an array. These studies show that it is possible to achieve an angular resolution of better than 2 deg with the Ooty array for search for point sources of Cosmic gamma rays at energies above 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV.

  14. Activation energy-activation volume master plots for ion transport behavior in polymer electrolytes and supercooled molten salts.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Malcolm D; Imrie, Corrie T; Stoeva, Zlatka; Pas, Steven J; Funke, Klaus; Chandler, Howard W

    2005-09-08

    We demonstrate the use of activation energy versus activation volume "master plots" to explore ion transport in typical fragile glass forming systems exhibiting non-Arrhenius behavior. These systems include solvent-free salt complexes in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and low molecular weight poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) and molten 2Ca(NO3)2.3KNO3 (CKN). Plots showing variations in apparent activation energy EA versus apparent activation volume VA are straight lines with slopes given by M = DeltaEA/DeltaVA. A simple ion transport mechanism is described where the rate determining step involves a dilatation (expressed as VA) around microscopic cavities and a corresponding work of expansion (EA). The slopes of the master plots M are equated to internal elastic moduli, which vary from 1.1 GPa for liquid PPO to 5.0 GPa for molten CKN on account of differing intermolecular forces in these materials.

  15. EAS-BUAP: Lateral Distribution and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Aguilar, S.; Villaseñor, L.

    2003-07-01

    We describe the operation and performance of the first stage of the EAS-UAP extensive air shower array, as a detector of very high energy cosmic rays (Eo > 1014eV) after one year of operation. The array is located at the Campus of Puebla University, 2200 m above sea level. It consists of 10 liquid scintillator detectors, each with an active surface of 1 m2 and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. One Auger Water Cherenkov detector is also included as part of the array. In this report we discuss the stability, the calibration and lateral distribution function reconstruction capabilities of the detector array. We also present the analysis of the shower size spectrum. In addition, the main characteristics of this array allow us to use it as an educational and training facility.

  16. The effect of metal ions on the activity and thermostability of the extracellular proteinase from a thermophilic Bacillus, strain EA.1.

    PubMed Central

    Coolbear, T; Whittaker, J M; Daniel, R M

    1992-01-01

    The proteinase from the extremely thermophilic Bacillus strain EA.1 exhibits maximum stability at a pH of approx. 6.5. In the presence of calcium ions the half-life at 95 degrees C of the enzyme at this pH was 17 min, and loss of activity followed first-order decay kinetics. The role of metal ions in the activity and stability of the enzyme was studied using the holoenzyme, the metal-depleted apoenzyme, and a zinc-enriched apoenzyme preparation. Zinc and calcium ions were the preferred bivalent cations for the active site and stabilization site(s) respectively. Stabilization by metal ions was not in itself a highly stringent process, but ions other than calcium which stabilized the enzyme generally had a concomitant inhibitory effect on activity. Inhibition and stabilization of the enzyme by cations were concentration-dependent effects and certain ions activated the apoenzyme but not the holoenzyme. Manganese(II) ions conferred some stability and also activated the enzyme, but in the latter case were not as effective as zinc ions. The results are discussed with reference to the ionic radii, co-ordination number and preferred ligand donors of the ions. Mercury(II) ions severely compromised enzyme activity and stability, and the effects of thiol-reactive agents suggest that thiol groups also have a role in enzyme integrity. PMID:1445196

  17. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  18. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  19. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  20. Esterase activity (EA), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to pollutants: Analytical validation and effects evaluation by single and mixed heavy metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lorena; Romero, Diego; García-Navarro, José A; Teles, Mariana; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2016-01-15

    The aims of the present study were to optimize and validate methods for esterase activity (EA), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) determination in mussel' gills, and to establish the relationships between these biomarkers and Pb, Cd and Cu pollution, in single form and ternary mixture. Two different buffers for sample homogenization, the need of ultracentrifugation, and analytical validation were evaluated. Coefficients of variation, when buffer without additives and ultracentrifugation were used, were <15%, and recovery were 97%-109% in all cases. The EA response tends to decrease with treatments, TOS decreased significantly in Cd and ternary groups, while TAC tended to increase in treatments with Pb, Cd and ternary groups. In conclusion, the methods for EA, TOS and TAC measurements in gills of mussel were precise and accurate and could be interesting resources in biomonitoring programmes.

  1. EA 18G Growler Aircraft (EA 18G)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-378 EA-18G Growler Aircraft (EA-18G) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year

  2. 77 FR 1676 - EasTrans, LLC; Notice Granting Extension of Time

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EasTrans, LLC; Notice Granting Extension of Time On December 16, 2011, Eas... an extension of time for EasTrans to file its section 284.123 rate petition is granted to...

  3. Electromagnetic field strength levels surrounding electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems.

    PubMed

    Harris, C; Boivin, W; Boyd, S; Coletta, J; Kerr, L; Kempa, K; Aronow, S

    2000-01-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) is used in many applications throughout the world to prevent theft. EAS systems produce electromagnetic (EM) energy around exits to create an EM interrogation zone through which protected items must pass before leaving the establishment. Specially designed EAS tags are attached to these items and must either be deactivated or removed prior to passing through the EAS EM interrogation zone to prevent the alarm from sounding. Recent reports in the scientific literature have noted the possibility that EM energy transmitted by EAS systems may interfere with the proper operation of sensitive electronic medical devices. The Food and Drug Administration has the regulatory responsibility to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. Because of the possibility of electromagnetic interference (EMI) between EAS systems and electronic medical devices, in situ measurements of the electric and magnetic fields were made around various types of EAS systems. Field strength levels were measured around four types of EAS systems: audio frequency magnetic, pulsed magnetic resonant, radio frequency, and microwave. Field strengths from these EAS systems varied with magnetic fields as high as 1073.6 Am(-1) (in close proximity to the audio frequency magnetic EAS system towers), and electric fields up to 23.8 Vm(-1) (in close proximity to the microwave EAS system towers). Medical devices are only required to withstand 3 Vm(-1) by the International Electrotechnical Commission's current medical device standards. The modulation scheme of the signal transmitted by some types of EAS systems (especially the pulsed magnetic resonant) has been shown to be more likely to cause EMI with electronic medical devices. This study complements other work in the field by attaching specific characteristics to EAS transmitted EM energy. The quantitative data could be used to relate medical device EMI with specific field strength levels and signal waveforms

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Rice Isolate Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Spence, Carla A.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105, a strain isolated from rice rhizosphere, has shown antagonistic activities against a rice fungal pathogen, and could be important in defense against rice blast. We report the draft genome sequence of EA105, which is an estimated size of 6.6 Mb. PMID:25540352

  5. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  6. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  7. Effect of [Cu(4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(acetylacetonato)]NO3, Casiopeína III-Ea, on the activity of cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Campero-Peredo, Cristina; Bravo-Gómez, María Elena; Hernández-Ojeda, Sandra Luz; Olguin-Reyes, Sitlali Del Rosario; Espinosa-Aguirre, Javier J; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Casiopeína III-Ea (Cas III-Ea(1)) is a copper complex with antiproliferative and antitumor activities, designed to act via alternative mechanisms of action different from Cisplatin. This compound has also been well characterized in preclinical test and pharmacokinetic analysis, being a good candidate for clinical phases. Since very little is known about the processes of biotransformation of therapeutic metal based drugs, this paper report the first approach to the study of the interaction between metal complex Cas III-Ea and cytochromes P450 with the aim to find out possible biotransformation pathways for this complexes and feasible drug-drug interactions. Results showed that Cas III-Ea is a strong irreversible competitive inhibitor of CYP1A1 (IC50 = 7.5 ± 1.0 μM; Ki = 240 nM). The magnitude of values indicate that it is necessary to be taken into account such effect when analyzing possible drug interactions with these new drugs in order to prevent adverse reactions derived from this inhibition.

  8. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  9. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides…

  10. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  11. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  12. Franck-Condon simulation of the photoelectron spectrum of AsCl₂ and the photodetachment spectrum of AsCl ₂⁻ employing UCCSD(T)-F12a potential energy functions: IE and EA of AsCl₂.

    PubMed

    Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Chau, Foo-Tim; Dyke, John M

    2011-06-01

    The currently most reliable theoretical estimates of the adiabatic ionization energies (AIE(0)) from the X̃(2)B(1) state of AsCl(2) to the X̃(1)A(1) and ã(3)B(1) states of AsCl 2+, and the electron affinity (EA(0)) of AsCl(2) , including ΔZPE corrections, are calculated as 8.687(11), 11.320(23), and 1.845(12) eV, respectively (estimated uncertainties based on basis-set effects at the RCCSD(T) level). State-of-the-art ab initio calculations, which include RCCSD(T), CASSCF/MRCI, and explicitly correlated RHF/UCCSD(T)-F12x (x = a or b) calculations with basis sets of up to quintuple-zeta quality, have been carried out on the X̃(2)B(1) state of AsCl(2) , the X̃(1)A(1) , ã(3)B(1) , and Ã(1)B(1) states of AsCl 2+, and the X̃(1)A(1) state of AsCl 2-. Relativistic, core correlation and complete basis-set (CBS) effects have been considered. In addition, computed UCCSD(T)-F12a potential energy functions of relevant electronic states of AsCl(2) , AsCl (2)(+), and AsCl( 2)(-) were used to calculate Franck-Condon factors, which were then used to simulate the valence photoelectron spectrum of AsCl(2) and the photodetachment spectrum of AsCl (2)(-), both yet to be recorded. Lastly, we have also computed the AIE and EA values for NCl(2) , PCl(2) , and AsCl(2) at the G4 level and for SbCl(2) at the RCCSD(T)/CBS level. The trends in the AIE and EA values of the group V pnictogen dichlorides, PnCl(2) , where Pn = N, P, As, and Sb, were examined. The AIE and EA of PCl(2) were found to be smaller than those of AsCl(2) , contrary to the order expected from the IE values of P and As.

  13. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  14. Cellulose production, activated by cyclic di-GMP through BcsA and BcsZ, is a virulence factor and an essential determinant of the three-dimensional architectures of biofilms formed by Erwinia amylovora Ea1189.

    PubMed

    Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W

    2016-10-18

    Bacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), protein and nucleic acids, which determines the architecture of the biofilm. Erwinia amylovora Ea1189 forms a biofilm inside the xylem of its host, which results in vessel plugging and water transport impairment. The production of the EPSs amylovoran and levan is critical for the formation of a mature biofilm. In addition, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has been reported to positively regulate amylovoran biosynthesis and biofilm formation in E. amylovora Ea1189. In this study, we demonstrate that cellulose is synthesized by E. amylovora Ea1189 and is a major modulator of the three-dimensional characteristics of biofilms formed by this bacterium, and also contributes to virulence during systemic host invasion. In addition, we demonstrate that the activation of cellulose biosynthesis in E. amylovora is a c-di-GMP-dependent process, through allosteric binding to the cellulose catalytic subunit BcsA. We also report that the endoglucanase BcsZ is a key player in c-di-GMP activation of cellulose biosynthesis. Our results provide evidence of the complex composition of the extracellular matrix produced by E. amylovora and the implications of cellulose biosynthesis in shaping the architecture of the biofilm and in the expression of one of the main virulence phenotypes of this pathogen.

  15. Activation Energies for an Enzyme-Catalyzed and Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis: An Introductory Interdisciplinary Experiment for Chemists and Biochemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, K. R.; Meyers, M. B.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment in which students determine and compare the Arrhenius activation energies (Ea) for the hydrolysis of salicin. This reaction is subject to catalysis both by acid and by the enzyme emulsin (beta-d-glucoside glycohydrolase). (JN)

  16. Activation energies of diffusion of organic migrants in cyclo olefin polymer.

    PubMed

    Welle, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Cyclo olefin polymer (COP) is an amorphous polymer with good optical transparency and barrier properties, which is increasingly used for pharmaceutical packaging applications like pre-filled syringes, plastic vials, nutrition bags and blisters as well as for micro-well plates. For regulatory purposes, it is important to know the amount and quantity of compounds which migrate from the polymer into the pharmaceutical product. Within the study, diffusion coefficients of organic (model) compounds in COP at various temperatures were determined and the activation energies of diffusion were calculated according to the Arrhenius approach. Correlations were established between the molecular volume V of the migrating compound and the activation energy of diffusion EA as well as between the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius equation D0 and EA. From these correlations a prediction model was established for the migration of organic compounds in COP. This might be a useful tool supporting the evaluation process of COP packed pharmaceutical products.

  17. Elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O at energies E/A between 5 and 8 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, M. P.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R. M.; Aissaoui, N.; Beck, C.; Elanique, A.; Nouicer, R.; Morsad, A.; Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.

    1999-12-01

    The elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O has been measured at nine energies between E{sub lab}=75 and 124 MeV. The data cover up to 100 degree sign in the c.m. and can be described in terms of phenomenological and folding model potentials which reproduce the main features observed. In agreement with studies at higher energies in this and similar systems, refractive effects are present in the angular distributions at all energies. In particular, the passage of Airy minima through 90 degree sign at E{sub c.m.}=40, 47.5, and 62 MeV explains the deep minima observed in the excitation function. The real part of the optical potential is found to vary very little with energy over the studied interval, but the imaginary part shows a rapid change in its shape at incident energy about 90 MeV. Nonetheless, the energy dependence of the volume integral of the real and imaginary parts is in agreement with dispersion relation predictions. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  18. 32 CFR 651.34 - EA components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true EA components. 651.34 Section 651.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.34 EA components. EAs should...

  19. 32 CFR 651.34 - EA components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true EA components. 651.34 Section 651.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.34 EA components. EAs should...

  20. 32 CFR 651.34 - EA components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EA components. 651.34 Section 651.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.34 EA components. EAs should...

  1. 32 CFR 651.34 - EA components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EA components. 651.34 Section 651.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.34 EA components. EAs should...

  2. Energy dependence of hadronic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, T. A.; Groom, D. E.; Job, P. K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Stevenson, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Two features of high-energy hadronic cascades have long been known to shielding specialists: a) in a high-energy hadronic cascade in a given material (incident E ≳ 10 GeV), the relative abundance and spectrum of each hadronic species responsible for most of the energy deposition is independent of the energy or species of the incident hadron, and b) because π0 production bleeds off more and more energy into the electromagnetic sector as the energy of the incident hadron increases, the absolute level of this low-energy hadronic activity ( E ≲ 1 GeV) rises less rapidly than the incident energy, and in fact rises very nearly as a power of the incident energy. Both features are of great importance in hadron calorimetry, where it is the "universal spectrum" which makes possible the definition of an intrinsic {e}/{h}, and the increasing fraction of the energy going into π0's which leads to the energy dependence of {e}/{π}. We present evidence for the "universal spectrum," and use an induction argument and simulation results to demonstrate that the low-energy activity ss Em, with 0.80 ≲ m ≲ 0.85. The hadronic activity produced by incident pions is 15-20% less than that initiated by protons.

  3. EAS spectrum in the primary energy region above 10 to the 15th power eV by the Akeno and Yakutsk array data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasilnikov, D. D.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, A. D.; Pavlov, V. N.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Yegorova, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers spectrum on scintillation desity Rko in primary energy region E sub approx. 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV on the Yakutsk array data and recent results of the Akeno is given.

  4. Measurement of p-nitrophenyl acetate esterase activity (EA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in gills and digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to binary mixtures of Pb, Cd and Cu.

    PubMed

    Franco-Martinez, Lorena; Romero, Diego; García-Navarro, José A; Tecles, Fernando; Teles, Mariana; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present work were (1) to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers and AChE in two tissues of wild mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of high biochemical activity and accumulation capacity (gills and digestive gland) and (2) to study the behaviour of these biomarkers in presence of heavy metals. For this, EA, TOS, TAC and AChE were measured in tissues of mussels exposed to binary combination of Pb, Cd and Cu. Mussels (n = 36) were exposed to one of the binary mixtures of Pb (1000 μg L(-1)), Cd (100 μg L(-1)) and Cu (100 μg L(-1)) for 7 days, under controlled conditions. Gills and digestive gland were extracted and frozen at -80 °C until analysis. The automatic methods employed for the measurement of EA, TAC, TOS and AChE in M. galloprovincialis revealed higher levels of these biomarkers in digestive gland than gills. Study results suggest that gills would be the tissue of election for study oxidative stress markers, whereas digestive tissue should be selected for AChE measurements in case of evaluation of combined metal toxicity in mussels.

  5. Energy Model of Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Romanyshyn, Yuriy; Smerdov, Andriy; Petrytska, Svitlana

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of the neurophysiological strength-duration (amplitude-duration) curve of neuron activation (which relates the threshold amplitude of a rectangular current pulse of neuron activation to the pulse duration), as well as with the use of activation energy constraint (the threshold curve corresponds to the energy threshold of neuron activation by a rectangular current pulse), an energy model of neuron activation by a single current pulse has been constructed. The constructed model of activation, which determines its spectral properties, is a bandpass filter. Under the condition of minimum-phase feature of the neuron activation model, on the basis of Hilbert transform, the possibilities of phase-frequency response calculation from its amplitude-frequency response have been considered. Approximation to the amplitude-frequency response by the response of the Butterworth filter of the first order, as well as obtaining the pulse response corresponding to this approximation, give us the possibility of analyzing the efficiency of activating current pulses of various shapes, including analysis in accordance with the energy constraint.

  6. e-A PHYSICS AT A COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect

    G. T. GARVEY

    2001-01-09

    An electron-nucleus (e-A) collider with center-of-mass energy in excess of 50 GeV per electron-nucleon collision will allow the physics community to obtain unprecedented new knowledge of the partonic structure of nuclei. If reliable information is to be extracted on these partonic densities, it is essential to realize that with our current level of understanding of QCD, momentum transfers to the struck partons greater than 1 GeV/c are necessary. This requirement puts a priority on high center-of-mass energy if partonic densities are to be measured over a wide range. Comparing the partonic structure of the free nucleon to that of bound nucleons and measuring the systematic changes in that structure as a function of nucleon number (A) will provide deeper insight into the origins and dynamics of nuclear binding. In addition, e-A collisions will allow the exploration of partonic densities appreciably higher than is accessible in e-p collisions. An e-A collider will allow one to measure the gluonic structure functions of nuclei down to x {approx} 10{sup -3}, information valuable in its own right and essential to a quantitative understanding of highly relativistic A-A collisions. The time-space evolution of partons can only be investigated by studying the modifications of hard collisions that take place when nuclear targets are employed. In a hard collision the partonic fragments interact, hadronize, and reinteract on their way to the distant detectors without revealing their evolution into the hadrons finally detected. Nuclear targets of differing A place varying amounts of nuclear matter in proximity to the hard collision producing unique information about the quantum fluctuations of incident projectile prior to the collision and on the early evolution of the produced partons. Using charged leptons (e, {mu}) to investigate this physics has been the richest source of information to date and extending the reach of these investigations by the constructing an e -A collider

  7. Low-frequency electroacupuncture suppresses carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in mice via sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons, while high-frequency EA suppression is mediated by the sympathoadrenal medullary axis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Uh, Dong-Kyu; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Kwon, Young-Bae; Han, Ho-Jae; Lee, Hye-Jung; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2008-03-28

    Although the frequency-dependent antinociceptive mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) have been well demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms that underlie the suppressive effects induced by different frequencies of EA stimulation on peripheral inflammation are largely unknown. We have previously reported that EA stimulation can activate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and that this activation is responsible for the EA-induced suppression of zymosan-induced leukocyte migration. The present study was designed to evaluate the differential effect of low (1Hz, LF EA) versus high (120Hz, HF EA) frequency EA stimulation on SNS activation and ultimately on carrageenan-induced inflammation. Immediately after carrageenan injection, we applied either LF EA or HF EA bilaterally to the Zusanli (ST36) acupoints. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of EA (EA-AI), paw volume and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of infiltrated leukocytes, were measured and the paw withdrawal latency to noxious heat stimulation was also assessed. Both LF EA and HF EA significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema and MPO activity. Moreover, thermal hyperalgesia was strongly attenuated in both the LF EA and HF EA groups. Adrenalectomy significantly diminished HF EA-AI without affecting LF EA-AI. Pretreatment with the corticosterone receptor antagonist, RU-486 did not affect either LF EA- or HF EA-AI. On the other hand, administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (a neurotoxin for peripheral sympathetic nerve endings) selectively blocked LF EA-AI. Propranolol (a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) completely abolished both LF EA- and HF EA-AI. The results of this study suggest that the suppressive effects of LF EA on carrageenan-induced paw inflammation are mediated by sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons, while the suppressive effects of HF EA are mediated by the sympatho-adrenal medullary axis.

  8. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  9. 47 CFR 11.18 - EAS Designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency messages from sources such as the National Weather Service or local emergency management offices... Designations. (a) National Primary (NP) is a source of EAS Presidential messages. (b) Local Primary (LP) is a... source of EAS State messages. It is part of the State Relay Network and relays National and State...

  10. 47 CFR 11.18 - EAS Designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency messages from sources such as the National Weather Service or local emergency management offices... Designations. (a) National Primary (NP) is a source of EAS Presidential messages. (b) Local Primary (LP) is a... source of EAS State messages. It is part of the State Relay Network and relays National and State...

  11. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... originator codes are: Originator ORG code EAS Participant EAS Civil authorities CIV National Weather Service... section. The Event codes must be compatible with the codes used by the NWS Weather Radio Specific Area... Information Processing Standard (FIPS) numbers as described by the U.S. Department of Commerce in...

  12. 47 CFR 11.18 - EAS Designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... emergency messages from sources such as the National Weather Service or local emergency management offices... Designations. (a) National Primary (NP) is a source of EAS Presidential messages. (b) Local Primary (LP) is a... source of EAS State messages. It is part of the State Relay Network and relays National and State...

  13. 47 CFR 11.18 - EAS Designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emergency messages from sources such as the National Weather Service or local emergency management offices... Designations. (a) National Primary (NP) is a source of EAS Presidential messages. (b) Local Primary (LP) is a... source of EAS State messages. It is part of the State Relay Network and relays National and State...

  14. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... originator codes are: Originator ORG code EAS Participant EAS Civil authorities CIV National Weather Service... section. The Event codes must be compatible with the codes used by the NWS Weather Radio Specific Area... Information Processing Standard (FIPS) numbers as described by the U.S. Department of Commerce in...

  15. 47 CFR 11.18 - EAS Designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emergency messages from sources such as the National Weather Service or local emergency management offices... Designations. (a) National Primary (NP) is a source of EAS Presidential messages. (b) Local Primary (LP) is a... source of EAS State messages. It is part of the State Relay Network and relays National and State...

  16. 47 CFR 11.54 - EAS operation during a National Level emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... serve during an EAS activation. State and Local Area identifications must be given as provided in State and Local Area EAS Plans. (2) Analog and digital broadcast stations are exempt from complying with... voice message from an alternative source, such as a broadcast network audio feed....

  17. A Comparison of Radio-loud and Radio-quiet E+A Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Yssavo; Wallack, Nicole; Learis, Anna; Liu, Charles

    2015-01-01

    E+A galaxies are systems undergoing an important evolutionary transition. Their optical spectra show significant numbers of A-type stars in an elliptical galaxy that has little to no star formation (SF). These galaxies have likely experienced a recent starburst (< 1 Gyr) followed by an even more recent quench in their SF. What caused their recent SF quench remains one of the most prominent questions surrounding E+A galaxies. Within the Goto (2007, MNRAS 381,187) catalogue of 564 E+A galaxies, there is a small fraction (~3%) that have detectable radio continuum emission from FIRST or NVSS. One possible cause for the observed radio continuum is active galactic nuclei (AGN). AGN feedback is believed to be important in galaxy evolution, including SF quenching (Dubois et al. 2013, MNRAS 433, 3297). In an effort to understand better the differences between radio-loud and radio-quiet E+As, we obtained and compared their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using the publicly available data from SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE. We also compared them to the SEDs of other known galaxy types. We find that the radio-loud and radio-quiet samples exhibit statistically insignificant differences in the optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared bands. We also compare the two samples on a (J-H) vs. (H-K) color-color diagram. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation via grant AST-1004583 to the CUNY College of Staten Island, and grant AST-1004591 to the American Museum of Natural History.

  18. Activation energy of the low-load NaCl transition from nanoindentation loading curves.

    PubMed

    Kaupp, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Access to activation energies E(a) of phase transitions is opened by unprecedented analyses of temperature dependent nanoindentation loading curves. It is based on kinks in linearized loading curves, with additional support by coincidence of kink and electrical conductivity of silicon loading curves. Physical properties of B1, B2, NaCl and further phases are discussed. The normalized low-load transition energy of NaCl (Wtrans/µN) increases with temperature and slightly decreases with load. Its semi-logarithmic plot versus T obtains activation energy E(a)/µN for calculation of the transition work for all interesting temperatures and pressures. Arrhenius-type activation energy (kJ/mol) is unavailable for indentation phase transitions. The E(a) per load normalization proves insensitive to creep-on-load, which excludes normalization to depth or volume for large temperature ranges. Such phase transition E(a)/µN is unprecedented material's property and will be of practical importance for the compatibility of composite materials under impact and further shearing interactions at elevated temperatures.

  19. 47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... message was transmitted. The message shall be in the primary language of the EAS Participant and be fully... input. (8) Decoder Programming. Access to decoder programming shall be protected by a lock or...

  20. 47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... network, or any other source that uses the EAS protocol. (2) Valid codes. There must be a means to... systems and wireless cable systems may upgrade their decoders on an optional basis to include a...

  1. 47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., satellite, public switched telephone network, or any other source that uses the EAS protocol. (2) Valid..., analog radio and television broadcast stations, analog cable systems and wireless cable systems...

  2. 47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... network, or any other source that uses the EAS protocol. (2) Valid codes. There must be a means to... systems and wireless cable systems may upgrade their decoders on an optional basis to include a...

  3. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the EA available and assure that notice is provided in the same manner as if RUS had prepared the EA....

  4. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  5. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hebron C; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50-200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways.

  6. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hebron C.; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50–200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways. PMID:26823953

  7. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  8. Effect of heating rate and kinetic model selection on activation energy of nonisothermal crystallization of amorphous felodipine.

    PubMed

    Chattoraj, Sayantan; Bhugra, Chandan; Li, Zheng Jane; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2014-12-01

    The nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of amorphous materials is routinely analyzed by statistically fitting the crystallization data to kinetic models. In this work, we systematically evaluate how the model-dependent crystallization kinetics is impacted by variations in the heating rate and the selection of the kinetic model, two key factors that can lead to significant differences in the crystallization activation energy (Ea ) of an amorphous material. Using amorphous felodipine, we show that the Ea decreases with increase in the heating rate, irrespective of the kinetic model evaluated in this work. The model that best describes the crystallization phenomenon cannot be identified readily through the statistical fitting approach because several kinetic models yield comparable R(2) . Here, we propose an alternate paired model-fitting model-free (PMFMF) approach for identifying the most suitable kinetic model, where Ea obtained from model-dependent kinetics is compared with those obtained from model-free kinetics. The most suitable kinetic model is identified as the one that yields Ea values comparable with the model-free kinetics. Through this PMFMF approach, nucleation and growth is identified as the main mechanism that controls the crystallization kinetics of felodipine. Using this PMFMF approach, we further demonstrate that crystallization mechanism from amorphous phase varies with heating rate.

  9. Paeoniflorin protects human EA.hy926 endothelial cells against gamma-radiation induced oxidative injury by activating the NF-E2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Qi, Xin; Che, Juanjuan; Cao, Bangwei

    2013-04-26

    Pulmonary endothelial cells have been demonstrated to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung injury. Our preliminary experiments indicated that paeoniflorin protected human EA.hy926 endothelial cells from radiation-induced oxidative injury. This study was designed to confirm the protective effect of paeoniflorin against radiation-induced endothelial cellular damage and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Preincubation of EA.hy926 cells with paeoniflorin before γ-radiation resulted in significant inhibition of apoptosis, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced cell viability. In particular, we showed that paeoniflorin significantly reduced the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and enhanced production of the endogenous antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in EA.hy926 cells. Treatment of these cells with paeoniflorin significantly induced HO-1 expression. Moreover, paeoniflorin promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor-2 (Nrf-2). The paeoniflorin-induced HO-1 expression was abrogated by Nrf2 siRNA. Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 with zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZNPP) significantly reversed the protective effect of paeoniflorin against radiation-induced damage in EA.hy926 cells. Our findings confirmed that paeoniflorin protected EA.hy926 cells against radiation-induced injury through the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  10. 47 CFR 11.46 - EAS public service announcements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS public service announcements. 11.46 Section...) Organization § 11.46 EAS public service announcements. EAS Participants may use Public Service Announcements or obtain commercial sponsors for announcements, infomercials, or programs explaining the EAS to the......

  11. 47 CFR 11.46 - EAS public service announcements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EAS public service announcements. 11.46 Section...) Organization § 11.46 EAS public service announcements. EAS Participants may use Public Service Announcements or obtain commercial sponsors for announcements, infomercials, or programs explaining the EAS to the......

  12. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  13. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  14. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption of an EA. RUS may adopt a Federal EA or EIS or a portion thereof as its EA. RUS shall make the...

  15. EA-18G Growler Aircraft (EA-18G)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Budget Authority/Budget Activity BY - Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD...APR 2007 OCT 2007 JUL 2007 Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E)(Start) SEP 2008 SEP 2008 MAR 2009 SEP 2008 Initial Operational Capability...Initial SAR Baseline to Current SAR Baseline (TY $M) Initial PAUC Dev Est Changes PAUC Prod Est Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total 93.573 4.150

  16. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  17. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  18. A Pilot Study: Dietary Energy Density is Similar between Active Women with and without Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Taryn M.; Howe, Stephanie; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Hoffman, Charlotte P. Guebels; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Low energy availability (EA) (e.g., insufficient energy intake (EI) to match energy needs, including exercise energy expenditure) has been identified as a primary contributor to exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) in active women. For health reasons, active women may self-select diets lower in energy density (ED, kcal/g), which can inadvertently contribute to inadequate EI. Using data from two studies, we compared the ED of active women with ExMD (n = 9; 24 ± 6 years) to eumenorrheic (EU) active controls (EU: n = 18, 27 ± 6 years). ED was calculated from 6 to 7 days weighted food records using two methods: with/without beverages. ANOVA and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum were used to test group differences. ED was not different between groups, but there was a trend toward a lower median ED (10%) (p = 0.049 unadjusted; p = 0.098 adjusted) in the ExMD-group (Method 1—all beverages: ExMD = 1.01 kcal/g (range = 0.52–1.41), EU = 1.22 kcal/g (range = 0.72–1.72); Method 2—without beverages: ExMD = 1.51 kcal/g (range = 1.26–2.06), EU = 1.69 kcal/g (range = 1.42–2.54)). This lower ED represents a 9% decrease (~219 kcal/day) in EI (ExMD = 2237 ± 378 kcal/day; EU = 2456 ± 470 kcal/day; p > 0.05). EI and macro/micronutrient intakes were similar for groups. In the ExMD-group, low ED could contribute to lower EI and EA. Future research should examine the interaction of ED and exercise on appetite, EI, and EA in active women, especially those with ExMD. PMID:27104560

  19. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year 1990 applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities. Four MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for energy testing and program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities.

  20. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  1. 24 CFR 50.31 - The EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The EA. 50.31 Section 50.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental Assessments and Related Reviews § 50.31 The...

  2. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Participant EAS Civil authorities CIV National Weather Service WXR Primary Entry Point System PEP (e) The... section. The Event codes must be compatible with the codes used by the NWS Weather Radio Specific Area... described in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard, ANSI INCITS 31-2009...

  3. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Participant EAS Civil authorities CIV National Weather Service WXR Primary Entry Point System PEP (e) The... section. The Event codes must be compatible with the codes used by the NWS Weather Radio Specific Area... described in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard, ANSI INCITS 31-2009...

  4. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Participant EAS Civil authorities CIV National Weather Service WXR Primary Entry Point System PEP (e) The... section. The Event codes must be compatible with the codes used by the NWS Weather Radio Specific Area... described in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard, ANSI INCITS 31-2009...

  5. 24 CFR 50.31 - The EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The EA. 50.31 Section 50.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental Assessments and Related Reviews § 50.31 The...

  6. 24 CFR 50.31 - The EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The EA. 50.31 Section 50.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental Assessments and Related Reviews § 50.31 The...

  7. 24 CFR 50.31 - The EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The EA. 50.31 Section 50.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental Assessments and Related Reviews § 50.31 The...

  8. 24 CFR 50.31 - The EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The EA. 50.31 Section 50.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Environmental Assessments and Related Reviews § 50.31 The...

  9. TRANSPORT PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF HFC-236EA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of transport properties of 1,1,1,2,3,3,-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea), with liquid viscosity and thermal conductivity being the two main transport properties of interest. In addition, the specific heat and density of refrigerant/lubrican...

  10. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Ruth

    This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  11. Studies on the nature of EA binding by lymphocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharpin, Rosemary K. C.; Wilson, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Investigation of the nature of the increased erythrocyte-antibody (EA) binding activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients reported in the preceding paper has revealed that IgG is the active class of antibody in this rosette formation. Some IgM binding also occurs. SRBC sensitized with F(ab)2 preparations of IgG do not give rosette formation even at high concentrations. EA binding is inhibited by prior incubation of lymphocytes with heat-aggregated human IgG but antigen-antibody complexes did not give significant inhibition. The majority of these rosettes were found to be stable at 4°C and room temperature but labile at 37°C. Enzyme studies with pronase, trypsin, neuraminidase and treatment with sodium azide gave results strongly supporting the conclusion that the increased binding observed is increased Fc-receptor activity. This activity appears not to be a result of Fc binding by cell-bound rheumatoid factor. A range of titres of antibody and of IgG was used to sensitize erythrocytes to form EA and the enhanced EA-rosette formation by PBL from RA patients occurred throughout the range of concentrations of sensitizing antibody. Significantly more EA were bound by individual lymphocytes from RA patients than control subjects. This data suggest that the Fc receptors on RA lymphocytes are more avid for EA than receptors on lymphocytes from healthy people. PMID:908173

  12. Activation energy of negative fixed charges in thermal ALD Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Richter, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-08-01

    A study of the thermally activated negative fixed charges Qtot and the interface trap densities Dit at the interface between Si and thermal atomic-layer-deposited amorphous Al2O3 layers is presented. The thermal activation of Qtot and Dit was conducted at annealing temperatures between 220 °C and 500 °C for durations between 3 s and 38 h. The temperature-induced differences in Qtot and Dit were measured using the characterization method called corona oxide characterization of semiconductors. Their time dependency were fitted using stretched exponential functions, yielding activation energies of EA = (2.2 ± 0.2) eV and EA = (2.3 ± 0.7) eV for Qtot and Dit, respectively. For annealing temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C, the changes in Qtot and Dit were similar for both p- and n-type doped Si samples. In contrast, at 220 °C the charging process was enhanced for p-type samples. Based on the observations described in this contribution, a charging model leading to Qtot based on an electron hopping process between the silicon and Al2O3 through defects is proposed.

  13. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  14. On Linsley Effect and Electromagnetic Radiation from Large EAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Manab Jyoti

    The aim of the present work was to study the following aspects of EAS : i) Detection and determination of air showers parameters by measuring the particle densities. ii) Measurement of inclination of shower axis by recording arrival time distribution of shower front particles. iii) Measurement of FWHM of pulses photographed and study of Linsley effect. iv) Characteristics of Cherenkov radiation from air showers. v) Characteristics of low frequency (120 KHz) radio signal from showers. The experiments based on the above investigations were carried out at the Cosmic Ray Research Laboratory, Gauhati University, India, since September 91 to March, 1994. Electromagnetic radiation both optical Cherenkov radiation and radio frequency (120 KHz) as well as pulses associated with extensive air showers (EAS) of energy ranging from 1.5 X 1015ev to 2.1 X 10 18ev and zenith angles 15° < 0 < 60° were selected for the present analysis. The lateral distribution of Cherenkov pulses were assumed to have an exponential form fitted with an exponential law with an exponent reflecting the depth of shower maxima (Xm). The variation of rise time (FWHM) with core distance (R) was studied from pulses photographed. The high field associated with low frequency radio signal (120KHz) and its variation with primary energy (Ep), core distance and zenith angle (0) were observed. The thesis consists of the following five chapters: 1. INTRODUCTION - This chapter contains a brief history of cosmic rays, its composition, development of EAS, emission of electromagnetic radiation from EAS, a brief introduction to the present work including review of the earlier works and aim of the experiment. 2. THEORY - This chapter mainly reviews the theories and numerical calculations. 3. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP - This chapter describes in detail the instrumentation developed, working principle, calibration etc. 4. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS - This chapter includes data collection, selection of data for required

  15. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  16. 47 CFR 90.761 - EA and Regional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regional licenses. (a) EA licenses for spectrum blocks listed in Table 2 of § 90.721(b) are available in 175 Economic Areas (EAs) as defined in § 90.7. (b) Regional licenses for spectrum blocks listed...

  17. 47 CFR 90.761 - EA and Regional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regional licenses. (a) EA licenses for spectrum blocks listed in Table 2 of § 90.721(b) are available in 175 Economic Areas (EAs) as defined in § 90.7. (b) Regional licenses for spectrum blocks listed...

  18. 47 CFR 90.761 - EA and Regional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regional licenses. (a) EA licenses for spectrum blocks listed in Table 2 of § 90.721(b) are available in 175 Economic Areas (EAs) as defined in § 90.7. (b) Regional licenses for spectrum blocks listed...

  19. 36 CFR 1010.11 - Preparation of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation of an EA. 1010.11... Preparation of an EA. (a) When to prepare. The Trust will begin the preparation of an EA (or require it to be... prepare or require an EA at any time to assist planning and decision-making. (b) Content and format. An...

  20. 47 CFR 11.61 - Tests of EAS procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Tests § 11.61 Tests of EAS.... The time and script content will be developed by State Emergency Communications Committees in cooperation with affected EAS Participants. Script content may be in the primary language of the...

  1. 47 CFR 101.1329 - EA Station license, location, modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EA Station license, location, modifications... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems System Requirements § 101.1329 EA Station license, location, modifications. EA licensees may construct master and remote stations...

  2. 33 CFR 230.10 - Environmental Assessments (EA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Assessments (EA..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.10 Environmental Assessments (EA). (a) Purpose. An EA is a brief document which provides sufficient information to the district commander...

  3. 36 CFR 1010.11 - Preparation of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Preparation of an EA. 1010.11... Preparation of an EA. (a) When to prepare. The Trust will begin the preparation of an EA (or require it to be... determines that an EIS is required, then prior to preparation of an EIS, the proposal may be revised in...

  4. 36 CFR 1010.11 - Preparation of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparation of an EA. 1010.11... Preparation of an EA. (a) When to prepare. The Trust will begin the preparation of an EA (or require it to be... determines that an EIS is required, then prior to preparation of an EIS, the proposal may be revised in...

  5. 36 CFR 1010.11 - Preparation of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparation of an EA. 1010.11... Preparation of an EA. (a) When to prepare. The Trust will begin the preparation of an EA (or require it to be... determines that an EIS is required, then prior to preparation of an EIS, the proposal may be revised in...

  6. 36 CFR 1010.11 - Preparation of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preparation of an EA. 1010.11... Preparation of an EA. (a) When to prepare. The Trust will begin the preparation of an EA (or require it to be... determines that an EIS is required, then prior to preparation of an EIS, the proposal may be revised in...

  7. 47 CFR 11.44 - EAS message priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS message priorities. 11.44 Section 11.44 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.44 EAS... sources (NP, LP, SP and SR) and Participating National (PN) sources that remain on the air during...

  8. The Environment of ``E+A'' Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabludoff, Ann I.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Shectman, Stephen A.; Oemler, Augustus; Kirshner, Robert P.

    1996-07-01

    The spectrum of an "E + A" galaxy (Dressier & Gunn) which is dominated by a young stellar component but lacks the emission lines characteristic of any significant, on-going star formation suggests that the galaxy experienced a brief, powerful starburst within the last gigayear (Dressler & Gunn; Couch & Sharples). In past work, this violent star formation history and the detection of these galaxies almost exclusively in distant clusters linked them to the Butcher-Oemler (B-O) effect (Butcher & Oemler) and argued for the influence of cluster environment in the evolution of galaxies. However, no statistical survey of the environments of "E+A"s had ever been made. From 11,113 galaxy spectra in the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (Shectman and coworkers), we have obtained a unique and well-defined sample of 21 nearby "E+A" galaxies with the same spectral characteristics as "E+A"s in distant clusters. These "E+A"s are selected to have the strongest Balmer absorption lines (the average of the equivalent widths of Hβ, γ, δ is >5.5 A) and weakest [O II] emission-line equivalent widths (<2.5 A, which corresponds to a detection of [O II] of less than 2 σ significance) of any of the galaxies in the survey. In contrast to inferences drawn from previous studies, we find that a large fraction (75%) of nearby "E + A "s lie in the field, well outside of clusters and rich groups of galaxies. We conclude that interactions with the cluster environment, in the form of the intracluster medium or cluster potential, are not essential for "E+A" formation and therefore that the presence of these galaxies in distant clusters does not provide strong evidence for the effects of cluster environment on galaxy evolution. If one mechanism is responsible for "E+A" formation, then the observations that "E+A"s exist in the field and that at least five of the 21 in our sample have clear tidal features argue that galaxy-galaxy interactions and mergers are that mechanism. The most likely environments

  9. Changes in Temperature Sensitivity and Activation Energy of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Different Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; He, Nianpeng; Wei, Xuehong; Gao, Yang; Zuo, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grasslands are unique geographical regions and store substantial soil organic matter (SOM) in the soil surface, which make them very sensitive to global climate change. Here, we focused on three main grassland types (alpine meadow, steppe, and desert) and conducted a soil incubation experiment at five different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) to investigate SOM decomposition rates (R), temperature sensitivity (Q10), and activation energy (Ea). The results showed that grassland type and incubation temperature had significant impact on R (P < 0.001), and the values of R were exponential correlated with incubation temperature in three alpine grasslands. At the same temperature, R was in the following order: alpine meadow > alpinesteppe > alpine desert. The Q10 values differed significantly among different grasslands, and the overall trends were as follows: alpine meadow (1.56 ± 0.09) < alpine steppe (1.88 ± 0.23) < alpine desert (2.39 ± 0.32). Moreover, the Ea values differed significantly across different grassland types (P < 0.001) and increased with increasing incubation time. The exponential negative correlations between Ea and R at 20°C across all grassland types (all Ps < 0.001) indicated that the substrate-quality temperature hypothesis is applicable to the alpine grasslands. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the responses of SOM decomposition and storage to warming scenarios in this Plateau. PMID:26176705

  10. Changes in Temperature Sensitivity and Activation Energy of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Different Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; He, Nianpeng; Wei, Xuehong; Gao, Yang; Zuo, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grasslands are unique geographical regions and store substantial soil organic matter (SOM) in the soil surface, which make them very sensitive to global climate change. Here, we focused on three main grassland types (alpine meadow, steppe, and desert) and conducted a soil incubation experiment at five different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) to investigate SOM decomposition rates (R), temperature sensitivity (Q10), and activation energy (Ea). The results showed that grassland type and incubation temperature had significant impact on R (P < 0.001), and the values of R were exponential correlated with incubation temperature in three alpine grasslands. At the same temperature, R was in the following order: alpine meadow > alpinesteppe > alpine desert. The Q10 values differed significantly among different grasslands, and the overall trends were as follows: alpine meadow (1.56 ± 0.09) < alpine steppe (1.88 ± 0.23) < alpine desert (2.39 ± 0.32). Moreover, the Ea values differed significantly across different grassland types (P < 0.001) and increased with increasing incubation time. The exponential negative correlations between Ea and R at 20°C across all grassland types (all Ps < 0.001) indicated that the substrate-quality temperature hypothesis is applicable to the alpine grasslands. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the responses of SOM decomposition and storage to warming scenarios in this Plateau.

  11. Performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches in VQ codebook generation for image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to generate vector quantisation (VQ) codebooks by integrating principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm, Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm, and evolutionary algorithms (EAs). The EAs include genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation (PSO), honey bee mating optimisation (HBMO), and firefly algorithm (FF). The study is to provide performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches. The PCA-EA-LBG approaches contain PCA-GA-LBG, PCA-PSO-LBG, PCA-HBMO-LBG, and PCA-FF-LBG, while the PCA-LBG-EA approaches contain PCA-LBG, PCA-LBG-GA, PCA-LBG-PSO, PCA-LBG-HBMO, and PCA-LBG-FF. All training vectors of test images are grouped according to PCA. The PCA-EA-LBG used the vectors grouped by PCA as initial individuals, and the best solution gained by the EAs was given for LBG to discover a codebook. The PCA-LBG approach is to use the PCA to select vectors as initial individuals for LBG to find a codebook. The PCA-LBG-EA used the final result of PCA-LBG as an initial individual for EAs to find a codebook. The search schemes in PCA-EA-LBG first used global search and then applied local search skill, while in PCA-LBG-EA first used local search and then employed global search skill. The results verify that the PCA-EA-LBG indeed gain superior results compared to the PCA-LBG-EA, because the PCA-EA-LBG explores a global area to find a solution, and then exploits a better one from the local area of the solution. Furthermore the proposed PCA-EA-LBG approaches in designing VQ codebooks outperform existing approaches shown in the literature.

  12. Energy Conservation Activities, Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Colorado Educational Board of Cooperative Services, Boulder.

    This publication is a collection of energy education activities for grades 1-6. The activities were written or selected to be used with daily lesson plans and the existing school curriculum. Activities are classified by: (1) content area (fine arts, mathematics, physical education, reading and language arts, science, and social studies; and (2)…

  13. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  14. Activation Energy of the Low-pH-Induced Lamellar to Bicontinuous Cubic Phase Transition in Dioleoylphosphatidylserine/Monoolein.

    PubMed

    Oka, Toshihiko; Saiki, Takahiro; Alam, Jahangir Md; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-02-09

    Electrostatic interaction is an important factor for phase transitions between lamellar liquid-crystalline (Lα) and inverse bicontinuous cubic (QII) phases. We investigated the effect of temperature on the low-pH-induced Lα to double-diamond cubic (QII(D)) phase transition in dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS)/monoolein (MO) using time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering with a stopped-flow apparatus. Under all conditions of temperature and pH, the Lα phase was directly transformed into an intermediate inverse hexagonal (HII) phase, and subsequently the HII phase slowly converted to the QII(D) phase. We obtained the rate constants of the initial step (i.e., the Lα to HII phase transition) and of the second step (i.e., the HII to QII(D) phase transition) using the non-negative matrix factorization method. The rate constant of the initial step increased with temperature. By analyzing this result, we obtained the values of its apparent activation energy, Ea (Lα → HII), which did not change with temperature but increased with an increase in pH. In contrast, the rate constant of the second step decreased with temperature at pH 2.6, although it increased with temperature at pH 2.7 and 2.8. These results indicate that the value of Ea (HII → QII(D)) at pH 2.6 increased with temperature, but the values of Ea (HII → QII(D)) at pH 2.7 and 2.8 were constant with temperature. The values of Ea (HII → QII(D)) were smaller than those of Ea (Lα → HII) at the same pH. We analyzed these results using a modified quantitative theory on the activation energy of phase transitions of lipid membranes proposed initially by Squires et al. (Squires, A. M.; Conn, C. E.; Seddon, J. M.; Templer, R. H. Soft Matter 2009, 5, 4773). On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of this phase transition.

  15. A method of observing cherenkov light from extensive air shower at Yakutsk EAS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Lev; Anatoly, Ivanov

    2016-07-01

    Proposed a new method for measuring the cherenkov light from the extensive air shower (EAS) of cosmic rays (CR), which allows to determine not only the primary particle energy and angle of arrival, but also the parameters of the shower in the atmosphere - the maximum depth and "age". For measurements Cherenkov light produced by EAS is proposed to use a ground network of wide-angle telescopes which are separated from each other by a distance 100-300 m depending on the total number of telescopes operating in the coincidence signals, acting autonomously, or includes a detector of the charged components, radio waves, etc. as part of EAS. In a results such array could developed, energy measurement and CR angle of arrival data on the depth of the maximum and the associated mass of the primary particle generating by EAS. This is particularly important in the study of galactic cosmic ray in E> 10^14 eV, where currently there are no direct measurements of the maximum depth of the EAS.

  16. Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sai Yi; DesMeules, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Energy intake, physical activity, and obesity are modifiable lifestyle factors. This chapter reviews and summarizes the epidemiologic evidence on the relation of energy intake, physical activity, and obesity to cancer. High energy intake may increase the risk of cancers of colon-rectum, prostate (especially advanced prostate cancer), and breast. However, because physical activity, body size, and metabolic efficiency are highly related to total energy intake and expenditure, it is difficult to assess the independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk. There are sufficient evidences to support a role of physical activity in preventing cancers of the colon and breast, whereas the association is stronger in men than in women for colon cancer and in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women for breast cancer. The evidence also suggests that physical activity likely reduces the risk of cancers of endometrium, lung, and prostate (to a lesser extent). On the other hand, there is little or no evidence that the risk of rectal cancer is related to physical activity, whereas the results have been inconsistent regarding the association between physical activity and the risks of cancers of pancreas, ovary and kidney. Epidemiologic studies provide sufficient evidence that obesity is a risk factor for both cancer incidence and mortality. The evidence supports strong links of obesity with the risk of cancers of the colon, rectum, breast (in postmenopausal women), endometrium, kidney (renal cell), and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Epidemiologic evidence also indicates that obesity is probably related to cancers of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, and aggressive prostate cancer, while it seems that obesity is not associated with lung cancer. The role of obesity in other cancer risks is unclear.

  17. Type Determination for SN 2005ea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal-Yam, A.; Leonard, D. C.

    2005-10-01

    A. Gal-Yam and D. Leonard report for the CCCP: We have observed SN 2005ea (Gray and Lane; IAUC #8600) with the DBSP spectrograph mounted on the Hale 200" telescope at Palomar Observatory on 2005 October 25 UT, under poor conditions. Reduction of the noisy red spectrum shows it is similar to that of SN Ia 1994D around 30 days after maximum light (Filippenko 1997, ARA&A, 35, 309). We therefore tentatively identify this event as a type Ia SN.

  18. Increased cardiogenesis in P19-GFP teratocarcinoma cells expressing the propeptide IGF-1Ea

    SciTech Connect

    Poudel, Bhawana; Bilbao, Daniel; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Germack, Renee; Rosenthal, Nadia; Santini, Maria Paola

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, we explored the function of IGF-1Ea propeptide in inducing cardiogenesis of stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-1Ea promoted cardiac mesodermal induction in uncommitted cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under differentiation condition, IGF-1Ea increased expression of cardiac differentiation markers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Furthermore, it promoted formation of finely organized sarcomeric structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-1Ea propeptide may be a good candidate to improve production of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent cells. -- Abstract: The mechanism implicated in differentiation of endogenous cardiac stem cells into cardiomyocytes to regenerate the heart tissue upon an insult remains elusive, limiting the therapeutical goals to exogenous cell injection and/or gene therapy. We have shown previously that cardiac specific overexpression of the insulin-like growth factor 1 propeptide IGF-1Ea induces beneficial myocardial repair after infarct. Although the mechanism is still under investigation, the possibility that this propeptide may be involved in promoting stem cell differentiation into the cardiac lineage has yet to be explored. To investigate whether IGF-1Ea promote cardiogenesis, we initially modified P19 embryonal carcinoma cells to express IGF-1Ea. Taking advantage of their cardiomyogenic nature, we analyzed whether overexpression of this propeptide affected cardiac differentiation program. The data herein presented showed for the first time that constitutively overexpressed IGF-1Ea increased cardiogenic differentiation program in both undifferentiated and DMSO-differentiated cells. In details, IGF-1Ea overexpression promoted localization of alpha-actinin in finely organized sarcomeric structure compared to control cells and upregulated the cardiac mesodermal marker NKX-2.5 and the ventricular structural protein MLC2v. Furthermore, activated IGF-1 signaling promoted cardiac

  19. Crystal Structure and Functional Characterization of an Esterase (EaEST) from Exiguobacterium antarcticum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boo-Young; Yoo, Wanki; Ryu, Bum Han; Kim, Han-Woo; Shin, Seung Chul; Kim, Sunghwan; Park, Hyun; Kim, T. Doohun; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    A novel microbial esterase, EaEST, from a psychrophilic bacterium Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7, was identified and characterized. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing structural analysis and biochemical characterization of an esterase isolated from the genus Exiguobacterium. Crystal structure of EaEST, determined at a resolution of 1.9 Å, showed that the enzyme has a canonical α/β hydrolase fold with an α-helical cap domain and a catalytic triad consisting of Ser96, Asp220, and His248. Interestingly, the active site of the structure of EaEST is occupied by a peracetate molecule, which is the product of perhydrolysis of acetate. This result suggests that EaEST may have perhydrolase activity. The activity assay showed that EaEST has significant perhydrolase and esterase activity with respect to short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (≤C8), naphthyl derivatives, phenyl acetate, and glyceryl tributyrate. However, the S96A single mutant had low esterase and perhydrolase activity. Moreover, the L27A mutant showed low levels of protein expression and solubility as well as preference for different substrates. On conducting an enantioselectivity analysis using R- and S-methyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpropionate, a preference for R-enantiomers was observed. Surprisingly, immobilized EaEST was found to not only retain 200% of its initial activity after incubation for 1 h at 80°C, but also retained more than 60% of its initial activity after 20 cycles of reutilization. This research will serve as basis for future engineering of this esterase for biotechnological and industrial applications. PMID:28125606

  20. Relation between gamma-ray family and EAS core: Monte-Carlo simulation of EAS core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanagita, T.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of Monte-Carlo simulation on Extensive Air Showers (EAS) (Ne=100,000) core is reported. For the first collision at the top of the atmosphere, high multiplicity (high rapidity, density) and a large Pt (1.5GeV average) model is assumed. Most of the simulated cores show a complicated structure.

  1. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart D of... - Classes of Actions that Normally Require EAs but not Necessarily EISs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... resource, hydropower, geothermal, fossil fuel, biomass, and solar energy, but excluding nuclear). For... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classes of Actions that Normally Require EAs but not Necessarily EISs C Appendix C to Subpart D of Part 1021 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart D of... - Classes of Actions That Normally Require EAS but not Necessarily EISs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... resource, hydropower, geothermal, fossil fuel, biomass, and solar energy, but excluding nuclear). For... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classes of Actions That Normally Require EAS but not Necessarily EISs C Appendix C to Subpart D of Part 1021 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart D of... - Classes of Actions that Normally Require EAs But Not Necessarily EISs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., geothermal, fossil fuel, biomass, and solar energy pilot projects. C13Approval or disapproval of an... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of Actions that Normally Require EAs But Not Necessarily EISs C Appendix C to Subpart D of Part 1021 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart D of... - Classes of Actions that Normally Require EAs but not Necessarily EISs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to, wind resource, hydropower, geothermal, fossil fuel, biomass, and solar energy, but excluding... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classes of Actions that Normally Require EAs but not Necessarily EISs C Appendix C to Subpart D of Part 1021 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart D of... - Classes of Actions that Normally Require EAs But Not Necessarily EISs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., geothermal, fossil fuel, biomass, and solar energy pilot projects. C13Approval or disapproval of an... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classes of Actions that Normally Require EAs But Not Necessarily EISs C Appendix C to Subpart D of Part 1021 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL...

  6. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-05

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  7. Observation of EAS Core with the Small Scintillation Detector at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuyama, H.; Kuramochi, Hiroshi; Obara, Hitoshi; Ono, Shunichi; Origasa, Satoru; Mochida, Akinori; Sakayama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Noboru

    2003-07-01

    We have observed the core structure of extensive air showers(EAS) that primary energy above 1016 eV. To measure the more detail and the correct density of the incident particles near EAS core, we installed 100 small scintillation detectors (using plastic scintillator : 15cm × 15cm × 2.5cm) that are placed on a lattice 10 × 10, and 40cm separation, at Taro Cosmic Ray Lab oratory, at autumn 2002. We report the detail of the small detector, and preliminary results.

  8. EAS accompanied by gamma-families at Mt. Norikura and comparison with Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shima, M.; Saito, T.; Sakata, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Yuda, T.; Torii, S.; Hotta, N.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data of extensive air showers (EAS) accompanied by gamma-families, with total energy greater than 10 TeV, were compared with a Monte Carlo simulation with a rising cross section proportional to E sup 0.04 for the p-air inelastic cross section. It is found that the absolute intensity of size spectrum of such EAS is strongly affected by the primary protons intensity at 10 to the 15th power approx. 10 to the 16th power eV region and the experimental size spectrum agrees with the simulated spectra for the p-poor primary composition better than the p-rich one.

  9. Genotoxicity of Casiopeina III-Ea in mouse bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Barrera, Lucila; Rodríguez-Mercado, Juan J; López-Chaparro, Michel; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario A

    2016-10-26

    Casiopeina III-Ea® (Cas III-Ea®) is a chelated copper complex with antineoplastic activity that is capable of reducing tumor size and inducing antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. However, little is known about its in vivo genotoxic effects. Therefore, this study evaluated two cytogenetic and two proliferative parameters 24 h after the administration of Casiopeina III-Ea® to male CD-1 mice. Three doses of Cas III-Ea® were administered by intraperitoneal injections of 1.69, 3.39 and 6.76 mg/kg (corresponding to 1/8, 1/4 and 1/2 of LD50, respectively). A reduction in the mitotic index (MI) and an increased numbers of cells with structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) were detected. Additionally, a low but significant increase in the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was observed at the highest dose. Changes in the DNA replication index (RI) were not observed. These results indicate that Casiopeina III-Ea® shows cytotoxic and clastogenic activity in bone marrow cells from treated mice.

  10. 78 FR 57470 - Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of Autothrottle Functions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... an update to the aircraft software to activate the previously installed autothrottle provisions in... Type Certificate (STC) to update the aircraft software for implementation of an autothrottle function on the EA500 aircraft. Included with the software upgrade is the activation of previously...

  11. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  12. Efficient PCA-driven EAs and metamodel-assisted EAs, with applications in turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriacou, Stylianos A.; Asouti, Varvara G.; Giannakoglou, Kyriakos C.

    2014-07-01

    This article presents methods to enhance the efficiency of Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), particularly those assisted by surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. The gain in efficiency becomes important in applications related to industrial optimization problems with a great number of design variables. The development is based on the principal components analysis of the elite members of the evolving EA population, the outcome of which is used to guide the application of evolution operators and/or train dependable metamodels/artificial neural networks by reducing the number of sensory units. Regarding the latter, the metamodels are trained with less computing cost and yield more relevant objective function predictions. The proposed methods are applied to constrained, single- and two-objective optimization of thermal and hydraulic turbomachines.

  13. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  14. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  15. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  16. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  17. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  18. 47 CFR 101.1311 - Initial EA license authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial EA license authorization. 101.1311 Section 101.1311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... EA license authorization. (a) Winning bidders must file an application (FCC Form 601) for an...

  19. 47 CFR 101.1327 - Renewal expectancy for EA licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal expectancy for EA licensees. 101.1327 Section 101.1327 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... expectancy for EA licensees. (a) A renewal applicant shall receive a renewal expectancy at the end of...

  20. 47 CFR 90.904 - Aggregation of EA licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aggregation of EA licenses. 90.904 Section 90.904 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... Service § 90.904 Aggregation of EA licenses. The Commission will license each Spectrum Block A through...

  1. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES... Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall prepare supplements to either...

  2. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Video interrupt must cause all channels that carry programming to flash for the duration of the EAS... transmission of data such as interactive games. Wireless Cable Systems (BRS/EBS STATIONS) System Size and... all channels that carry programming to flash for the duration of the EAS emergency message. The...

  3. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... all channels that carry programming to flash for the duration of the EAS emergency message. The audio... as interactive games.] Wireless Cable Systems (BRS/EBS Stations) Wireless cable systems are subject... to flash for the duration of the EAS emergency message. The audio alert must give the channel...

  4. 7 CFR 1794.23 - Proposals normally requiring an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... water and waste programs. An EA shall be prepared for applications for financial assistance for all... classification are: (1) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel generating... be covered in the EA; (2) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.23 - Proposals normally requiring an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... water and waste programs. An EA shall be prepared for applications for financial assistance for all... classification are: (1) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel generating... be covered in the EA; (2) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or...

  6. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  7. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  8. Protective Effect of 2,4',5'-Trihydroxyl-5,2'-dibromo diphenylmethanone, a New Halophenol, against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced EA.hy926 Cells Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Feng, Xiue; Ge, Rui; Li, Jiankuan; Li, Qingshan

    2015-08-05

    Vascular endothelial cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the process of energy metabolism in aerobic respiration. A growing body of evidence indicates that excessive ROS is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. The newly synthesized halophenol, 2,4',5'-trihydroxyl-5,2'-dibromo diphenylmethanone (TDD), exhibits antioxidative and cytoprotective activities in vitro. In this study, the protective effect of TDD against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury of EA.hy926 cells was investigated. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while the effect of TDD on the transcription profile of EA.hy926 cells subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative injury was evaluated by microarray analysis. Several signaling pathways, including apoptosis, were significantly associated with TDD. Flow cytometric analysis was used to evaluate anti-apoptotic effect of TDD. Subsequently, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expressions of the apoptosis-associated protein, Bcl-2 and Bax. Meanwhile the expression of cleaved caspase-3, an executioner of apoptosis, was also detected by Western blot. The results showed that pretreatment of EA.hy926 cells with TDD prevented the decrease of cell viability induced by H2O2, and attenuated H2O2-induced elevation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 while increased Bcl-2 expressions. In summary, TDD inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative injury of EA.hy926 cells through negative regulation of apoptosis. These findings suggest that TDD is a potential candidate for therapeutic intervention in oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  10. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  11. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  12. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  13. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  14. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  15. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching mathematics. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting…

  16. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  17. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  18. The arrival time distribution of EAS at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, T.; Kuramochi, H.; Ono, S.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.

    The arrival time distribution of EAS has been observed since 1995 at Taro cosmicray laboratory (200m above sea level). The EAS arrays consist of 1m2 and 0.25m2 scintillation detectors, 0.25m2 fast timing counters and ultra fast Cherenkov detectors (UFC). 169 0.25m2 scintillation detectors are arranged in alattice configuration with a unit distance of 1.5m. UFC is placed at 20m from the center of lattice array. The arrival time distribution has been analyzed with distance from EAS core (r=10-60m). One of the results shows that the radius of corvature increases as shower size (Ne), near to the EAS core.

  19. Differential expression of a novel gene EaF82a in green and yellow sectors of variegated Epipremnum aureum leaves is related to uneven distribution of auxin.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Umstead, Makendra L; Chen, Jianjun; Holliday, Bronwyn M; Kittur, Farooqahmed S; Henny, Richard J; Burkey, Kent O; Xie, Jiahua

    2014-12-01

    EaF82, a gene identified in previous studies of the variegated plant Epipremnum aureum, exhibited a unique expression pattern with greater transcript abundance in yellow sectors than green sectors of variegated leaves, but lower abundance in regenerated pale yellow plants than in green plants derived from leaf tissue culture. Studies of its full-length cDNA and promoter region revealed two members with only the EaF82a expressed. Immunoblotting confirmed that EaF82a encodes a 12 kDa protein and its accumulation consistent with its gene expression patterns in different color tissues. Transient expression of EaF82a-sGFP fusion proteins in protoplasts showed that EaF82a seems to be present in the cytosol as unidentified spots. Sequence motif search reveals a potential auxin responsive element in promoter region. Using transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings carrying EaF82a promoter driving the bacterial uidA (GUS) gene, an increased GUS activity was observed when IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) concentration was elevated. In E. aureum, EaF82a is more abundant at the site where axillary buds emerge and at the lower side of bending nodes where more IAA accumulates relative to the upper side. The measurement of endogenous IAA levels in different color tissues revealed the same pattern of IAA distribution as that of EaF82a expression, further supporting that EaF82a is an IAA responsive gene. EaF82a expression in etiolated transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings responded to IAA under the influence of light suggesting a microenvironment of uneven light condition affects the EaF82a transcript levels and protein accumulation in variegated leaves.

  20. Thermophysical Properties and Spectral Characterization of EA 6043

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    methylphosphonothiolate, identified in this report as EA 6043, were determined and are reported herein. The title compound is a structural isomer of VX...data. Comparisons of selected properties of the structural isomers are provided when possible. Electron impact mass; 1 H, 13 C, and 31 P nuclear...provided in this report. Previous reports include similar data for two isomers of EA 6043: VX [O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl

  1. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is

  2. 76 FR 55278 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 810 RIN 1994-AA02 Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities AGENCY.... SUMMARY: DOE proposes to amend its regulation concerning unclassified assistance to foreign atomic energy... territories for which a general authorization for foreign atomic energy activities is available. This...

  3. Extensive Air Shower Array at the University of Puebla (EAS-BUAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Moreno, E.; Cotzomi, J.; Villaseñor, L.

    2003-06-01

    We describe the design and operation of the first stage of the EAS-UAP extensive air shower array, as a detector of very high energy cosmic rays (1016 > Eo > 1014eV). The array is located at the Campus of Puebla University. It consist of 18 liquid scintillator detectors, with an active surface of 1 m2 each and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. One Auger Water Cherenkov detector is also included as part of the array. In this report we discuss the stability, the calibration, the arrival direction and lateral distribution function reconstruction capabilities of the detector array, as derived from the 10 detectors in operation in the first stage. Our results shows that the angular accuracy in arrival direction is less than 5.5° in the range from 20° to 60°. The measurements in the Water Cherenkov Detector show us the possibility to separete electromagnetic and muon component. The main characteristics of the array allow us also to use it as educational and training facility.

  4. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document contains teaching activities which are intended to strengthen students' mathematics skills and concepts, while broadening their understanding of energy concepts. Each of the 24…

  5. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  6. Structure of an Aspergillus fumigatus old yellow enzyme (EasA) involved in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Annemarie S.; Ellis, Ashley L.; Lamb, Audrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus fumigatus old yellow enzyme (OYE) EasA reduces chano­clavine-I aldehyde to dihydrochanoclavine aldehyde and works in conjunction with festuclavine synthase at the branchpoint for ergot alkaloid pathways. The crystal structure of the FMN-loaded EasA was determined to 1.8 Å resolution. The active-site amino acids of OYE are conserved, supporting a similar mechanism for reduction of the α/β-unsaturated aldehyde. The C-terminal tail of one monomer packs into the active site of a monomer in the next asymmetric unit, which is most likely to be a crystallization artifact and not a mechanism of self-regulation. PMID:25286934

  7. 7 CFR 520.6 - Preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA). 520.6... Preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA). (a) Actions requiring EA. The following actions would normally require an EA: (1) Programs, supported in the majority by ARS, which may assist in the...

  8. 47 CFR 90.685 - Authorization, construction and implementation of EA licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of EA licenses. 90.685 Section 90.685 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Licensing and Use of Ea-Based Smr Systems in the 809-824/851-869 Mhz Band § 90.685 Authorization, construction and implementation of EA licenses. (a) EA licenses in the 809-824/854-869 MHz band will be...

  9. 47 CFR 11.52 - EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring... SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.52 EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring requirements. (a) EAS Participants must be capable of receiving the Attention Signal required by § 11.32(a)(9) and emergency...

  10. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS operation during a State or Local Area... SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.55 EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency. (a) All... conducted as specified in State and Local Area EAS Plans. The plans must list all authorized...

  11. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  12. Observation of EAS using a large water tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, K.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-08-01

    Using a large water tank (30 m in diameter, 4.5 m in depth) transition of extensive air showers (EAS) was investigated at Taro (200 m above sea level). There are set 150,0.4 sq m proportional counters on the bottom of the water tank. A conventional EAS array of 25 plastic scintillation detectors was arranged within several tens meter from the water tank. A proportional counter (10x10x200 cc x2) is made of a square shaped pipe of iron. Tungsten wire (100 mu m phi) is stretched tight in the center of the counter. A gas mixture of 90% argon and 10% methane is used at 760 mmHg. About 3000 EAS were obtained through 1 m of water since 1984.

  13. Observation of EAS using a large water tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, K.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-01-01

    Using a large water tank (30 m in diameter, 4.5 m in depth) transition of extensive air showers (EAS) was investigated at Taro (200 m above sea level). There are set 150,0.4 sq m proportional counters on the bottom of the water tank. A conventional EAS array of 25 plastic scintillation detectors was arranged within several tens meter from the water tank. A proportional counter (10x10x200 cc x2) is made of a square shaped pipe of iron. Tungsten wire (100 mu m phi) is stretched tight in the center of the counter. A gas mixture of 90% argon and 10% methane is used at 760 mmHg. About 3000 EAS were obtained through 1 m of water since 1984.

  14. Gamma-ray bounds from EAS detectors and heavy decaying dark matter constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, Arman; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2015-10-07

    The very high energy Galactic γ-ray sky is partially opaque in the (0.1–10) PeV energy range. In the light of the recently detected high energy neutrino flux by IceCube, a comparable very high energy γ-ray flux is expected in any scenario with a sizable Galactic contribution to the neutrino flux. Here we elaborate on the peculiar energy and anisotropy features imposed upon these very high energy γ-rays by the absorption on the cosmic microwave background photons and Galactic interstellar light. As a notable application of our considerations, we study the prospects of probing the PeV-scale decaying DM scenario, proposed as a possible source of IceCube neutrinos, by extensive air shower (EAS) cosmic ray experiments. In particular, we show that anisotropy measurements at EAS experiments are already sensitive to τ{sub DM}∼O(10{sup 27}) s and future measurements, using better gamma/hadron separation, can improve the limit significantly.

  15. Gamma-ray bounds from EAS detectors and heavy decaying dark matter constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, Arman; Serpico, Pasquale Dario E-mail: serpico@lapth.cnrs.fr

    2015-10-01

    The very high energy Galactic γ-ray sky is partially opaque in the (0.1–10) PeV energy range. In the light of the recently detected high energy neutrino flux by IceCube, a comparable very high energy γ-ray flux is expected in any scenario with a sizable Galactic contribution to the neutrino flux. Here we elaborate on the peculiar energy and anisotropy features imposed upon these very high energy γ-rays by the absorption on the cosmic microwave background photons and Galactic interstellar light. As a notable application of our considerations, we study the prospects of probing the PeV-scale decaying DM scenario, proposed as a possible source of IceCube neutrinos, by extensive air shower (EAS) cosmic ray experiments. In particular, we show that anisotropy measurements at EAS experiments are already sensitive to τ{sub DM}∼ O(10{sup 27}) s and future measurements, using better gamma/hadron separation, can improve the limit significantly.

  16. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  17. Immobilization of aminoglycosidic aminocyclitols antibiotic onto soap-free poly(MMA-EA-AA) latex particles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kai; Kan, Chengyou; Du, Yi; Liu, Deshan; Yeung, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Monodispersed soap-free poly(MMA-EA-AA) latex particles with surface carboxyl groups were synthesized by emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethyl acrylate (EA) and acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous medium, and streptomycin sulfate (SMS) was immobilized onto these particles using three different methods. A model experiment was designed to test the feasibility of the reaction between the carboxyl groups of polymer and the amino groups of the medicine. The covalent coupling between the latex particles and the medicine was confirmed by XPS. Results showed that the medicine molecules were located on the particle surface after immobilization, and the coupling efficiency of SMS in pre-adsorption method was higher than that in direct method. The highest coupling efficiency of this medicine was achieved using the spacer-arm method. It was demonstrated that the immobilized medicine had similar antimicrobial activity as the free form using Escherichia coli as an evaluating organism.

  18. Sensitivity of depth of maximum and absorption depth of EAS to hadron production mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonov, R. A.; Galkin, V. I.; Hein, L. A.; Ivanenko, I. P.; Kanevsky, B. L.; Kuzmin, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of experimental data on depth of extensive air showers (EAS) development maximum in the atmosphere, T sub M and path of absorption, lambda, in the lower atmosphere of EAS with fixed particle number in the energy region eV with the results of calculation show that these parameters are sensitive mainly to the inelastic interaction cross section and scaling violation in the fragmentation and pionization region. The data are explained in a unified manner within the framework of a model in which scaling is violated slightly in the fragmentation region and strongly in the pionization region at primary cosmic rays composition close to the normal one and a permanent increase of inelastic interaction cross section. It is shown that, while interpreting the experimental data, disregard of two methodical points causes a systematic shift in T sub M: (1) shower selection system; and (2) EAS electron lateral distribution when performing the calculations on basis of which the transfer is made from the Cerenkov pulse FWHM to the depth of shower maximum, T sub M.

  19. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  20. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and…

  1. Energy Conservation Activities for the Classroom K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Dept. of Energy, Frankfort.

    After a brief introduction entitled "Where Does the Energy We Use Come From," this unit presents 86 activities. Each activity gives the title, concept, objectives, subject area, level, time involved, materials needed, procedures, and related career activities. Topics cover everything from housing insulation to alternate sources of energy to energy…

  2. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 6. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 6 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade six. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  3. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 4. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 4 is one in a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade four. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  4. Temperature-dependent hydration at micellar surface: activation energy barrier crossing model revisited.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Rajib Kumar; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2007-07-05

    In recent years, the validity of the activation energy barrier crossing model at the micellar surface brings notable controversy (Sen, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Halder, A.; Bhattacharyya, K. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2004, 385, 357-361. Kumbhakar, M.; Goel, T.; Mukherjee, T.; Pal, H. J. Phys. Chem. B 2004, 108, 19246-19254.) in the literature. In order to check the validity of the model by time-resolved solvation of a probe fluorophore, a wider range of temperature must be considered. At the same time, spatial heterogeneity (solubilization) of the probe and structural perturbation of the host micelle should carefully be avoided, which was not strictly maintained in the earlier studies. We report here the solvation dynamics of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6(p-dimethylamino-styryl) 4H-pyran (DCM) in the SDS micelle at 298, 323, and 348 K. The probe DCM is completely insoluble in bulk water in this wide range of temperature. The size of the micelle at different temperatures using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique is found to have insignificant change. The hydration number of the micelle, determined by sound velocity measurements, decreases with increasing temperature. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy reveals the retention of the probe in the micellar interface within the temperature range. The average solvation time decreases with increasing temperature. The result of the solvation study has been analyzed in the light of energetics of bound to free water conversion at a constant size and decreasing hydration number at the micellar surface. The solvation process at the micellar surface has been found to be the activation energy barrier crossing type, in which interfacially bound type water molecules get converted into free type molecules. We have calculated Ea to be 3.5 kcal mol-1, which is in good agreement with that obtained by molecular dynamics simulation studies.

  5. Ganglion and “Dendrite” Populations in EAS Ears

    PubMed Central

    Rask-Andersen, Helge; Liu, Wei; Linthicum, Fred H

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims EAS technique combines electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear and utilizes both low frequency acoustic hearing and electric stimulation of preserved neurons. We present data of ganglion cell and dendrite populations in ears from normal individuals and those suffered from adult-onset hereditary progressive hearing loss with various residual low tone hearing. Some of these were potential candidates for EAS surgery. The data may give us information about the neuro-anatomic situation in EAS ears. Methods Dendrites and ganglion cells were calculated and audio-cytocochleograms constructed. The temporal bones were from the collection at the House Ear Institute in Los Angeles, USA. Normal human anatomy, based on surgical specimens, is presented. Results IHCs and OHCs, supporting cells, ganglion cells and dendrites were preserved in the apical region. In the mid-frequency region, around 1 kHz, the OC with inner and outer hair cells were often conserved while in the lower basal turn, representing frequencies above 3 kHz, OC was atrophic and replaced by thin cells. Despite loss of hair cells and lamina fibers ganglion cells were present even after 28 years duration of deafness. Conclusions Conditions with profound SNHL with preserved low tone hearing may have several causes and the pathology may vary accordingly. In our patients with progressive adult-onset SNHL (amalgamated into “presbyacusis”) neurons were conserved even after long duration of deafness. These spiral ganglion cells may be excellent targets for electric stimulation using EAS technique. PMID:19955718

  6. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcast networks, cable networks and program suppliers; and other entities and industries operating on an... transmission of data such as interactive games. Wireless Cable Systems (BRS/EBS STATIONS) System Size and... EAS message. Note: Programmed channels do not include channels used for the transmission of...

  7. 47 CFR 101.1311 - Initial EA license authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initial EA license authorization. 101.1311 Section 101.1311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems System License Requirements § 101.1311...

  8. 7 CFR 1794.23 - Proposals normally requiring an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... classification are: (1) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel generating... be covered in the EA; (2) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel...) at a fossil-fueled generating station where the existing fuel combustion technology of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1794.23 - Proposals normally requiring an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... classification are: (1) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel generating... be covered in the EA; (2) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel...) at a fossil-fueled generating station where the existing fuel combustion technology of the...

  10. 7 CFR 1794.23 - Proposals normally requiring an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... classification are: (1) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel generating... be covered in the EA; (2) Construction of fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel...) at a fossil-fueled generating station where the existing fuel combustion technology of the...

  11. Mechanical properties of Hysol EA-9394 structural adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D.; Stavig, M.E.

    1995-02-01

    Dextor`s Hysol EA-9394 is a room temperature curable paste adhesive representative of the adhesives used in wind turbine blade joints. A mechanical testing program has been performed to characterize this adhesive. Tension, compression stress relaxation, flexural, butt tensile, and fracture toughness test results are reported.

  12. 7 CFR 1794.71 - Adoption of an EA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Adoption of an EA. 1794.71 Section 1794.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.71 Adoption...

  13. 47 CFR 90.904 - Aggregation of EA licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aggregation of EA licenses. 90.904 Section 90.904 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for 800 MHz Specialized Mobile...

  14. 47 CFR 90.904 - Aggregation of EA licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aggregation of EA licenses. 90.904 Section 90.904 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for 800 MHz Specialized Mobile...

  15. 47 CFR 90.904 - Aggregation of EA licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aggregation of EA licenses. 90.904 Section 90.904 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for 800 MHz Specialized Mobile...

  16. 47 CFR 90.904 - Aggregation of EA licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aggregation of EA licenses. 90.904 Section 90.904 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for 800 MHz Specialized Mobile...

  17. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  18. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  19. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  20. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  1. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  2. 47 CFR 11.61 - Tests of EAS procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... channels monthly (excluding local-into-local channels for which the monthly transmission tests are passed through by the DBS provider), with channels tested varying from month to month, so that over the course of a given year, 100% of all channels are tested. (2) Required Weekly Tests: (i) EAS Header Codes...

  3. Methotrexate modulates folate phenotype and inflammatory profile in EA.hy 926 cells.

    PubMed

    Summers, Carolyn M; Hammons, Andrea L; Arora, Jasbir; Zhang, Suhong; Jochems, Jeanine; Blair, Ian A; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2014-06-05

    EA.hy 926 cells grown under low folate conditions adopt a "pro-atherosclerotic" morphology and biochemical phenotype. Pharmacologically relevant doses of the antifolate drug methotrexate (MTX) were applied to EA.hy 926 cells maintained in normal (Hi) and low (Lo) folate culture media. Under both folate conditions, MTX caused inhibition of cell proliferation without significantly compromising metabolic activity. MTX treated Hi cells were depleted of folate derivatives, which were present in altered proportions relative to untreated cells. Transcript profiling using microarrays indicated that MTX treatment modified the transciptome in similar ways for both Hi and Lo cells. Many inflammation-related genes, most prominently those encoding C3 and IL-8, were up-regulated, whereas many genes involved in cell division were down-regulated. The results for C3 and IL-8 were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. MTX appears to modify the inflammatory potential of EA.hy 926 cells such that its therapeutic properties may, at least under some conditions, be accompanied by the induction of a subset of gene products that promote and/or maintain comorbid pathologies.

  4. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  5. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How to Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Intermediate 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers in the intermediate elementary grades (3-5) and is designed to enable students to develop a comprehensive understanding of energy concepts. Each…

  6. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How To Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Intermediate 3-5. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers in the intermediate elementary grades (3-5) and is designed to enable students to develop a comprehensive understanding of energy concepts. Each…

  7. A new paradigm for Environmental Assessment (EA) in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Young-Il; Glasson, John

    2010-02-15

    Over the last 30 years, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Korea has played an important role in decision-making processes particularly for environmentally sensitive projects. However, the EIA system alone has sometimes not been effective enough to ensure the successful resolution of environmental concerns. In order to compensate for the limitations of the EIA system, a new assessment system called Prior Environmental Review System (PERS), which is relevant to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in some aspects, was introduced in 1993. PERS aims to balance development and preservation by identifying possible environmental impacts of some administrative plans mainly related to development projects in the early stages of planning. However, PERS still appeared to have some weak points such as a limited range of subjects to be assessed, and weakness of tiering (or vertical integration) from PERS to EIA. Therefore, the necessity for reform of the Korean Environmental Assessment (EA) system, including PERS, was raised. In response, the Korean government sought to establish its policy direction for implementing SEA by enhancing the objectivity and expertise of PERS. The policy was approved by the National Assembly in May 2005, and went into effect in June 2006. The introduction of SEA, by enhancing PERS, provides a framework for a system of EA from the strategic level, including PPPs, to the project level. Yet, despite such improvements, some managerial and technical problems associated with subsequent EA implementation remain. This paper critically reviews the evolution of the EA system in Korea and suggests essential improvements for the current EA system based on experiences of implementation of both EIA and SEA since June 2006, in the context of international good practice.

  8. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  9. ELECTRON–MUON IDENTIFICATION BY ATMOSPHERIC SHOWER AND ELECTRON BEAM IN A NEW EAS DETECTOR CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect

    Iori, M.; Denizli, H.; Yilmaz, A.; Ferrarotto, F.; Russ, J.

    2015-03-10

    We present results demonstrating the time resolution and μ/e separation capabilities of a new concept  for an EAS detector capable of measuring cosmic rays arriving with large zenith angles. This kind of detector has been designed to be part of a large area (several square kilometer) surface array designed to measure ultra high energy (10–200 PeV) τ neutrinos using the Earth-skimming technique. A criterion to identify electron-gammas is also shown and the particle identification capability is tested by measurements in coincidence with the KASKADE-GRANDE experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany.

  10. Evaluation of a wide-sky survey method for EAS experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Taoli; Liu, Maoyuan; Cui, Shuwang; Hou, Zhengtao

    2012-12-01

    Several ground-based extensive air shower (EAS) experiments such as As γ and Milagro have observed that CRs show large scale anisotropy in the TeV energy region with an amplitude of about 0.1%. The amplitude of anisotropy is so weak that we have to deal carefully with potential errors introduced by analysis methods. In this paper, we discuss a method based on χ2-iteration algorithm for wide sky survey analysis in the use of equi-zenith angle method with large sample data. The results show that χ2-iteration method leads to accurate and reasonable results in the case of large scale anisotropy in data samples.

  11. ChEA: transcription factor regulation inferred from integrating genome-wide ChIP-X experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Alexander; Xu, Huilei; Krishnan, Jayanth; Berger, Seth I.; Mazloom, Amin R.; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Experiments such as ChIP-chip, ChIP-seq, ChIP-PET and DamID (the four methods referred herein as ChIP-X) are used to profile the binding of transcription factors to DNA at a genome-wide scale. Such experiments provide hundreds to thousands of potential binding sites for a given transcription factor in proximity to gene coding regions. Results: In order to integrate data from such studies and utilize it for further biological discovery, we collected interactions from such experiments to construct a mammalian ChIP-X database. The database contains 189 933 interactions, manually extracted from 87 publications, describing the binding of 92 transcription factors to 31 932 target genes. We used the database to analyze mRNA expression data where we perform gene-list enrichment analysis using the ChIP-X database as the prior biological knowledge gene-list library. The system is delivered as a web-based interactive application called ChIP Enrichment Analysis (ChEA). With ChEA, users can input lists of mammalian gene symbols for which the program computes over-representation of transcription factor targets from the ChIP-X database. The ChEA database allowed us to reconstruct an initial network of transcription factors connected based on shared overlapping targets and binding site proximity. To demonstrate the utility of ChEA we present three case studies. We show how by combining the Connectivity Map (CMAP) with ChEA, we can rank pairs of compounds to be used to target specific transcription factor activity in cancer cells. Availability: The ChEA software and ChIP-X database is freely available online at: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/lib/chea.jsp Contact: avi.maayan@mssm.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20709693

  12. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  13. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  14. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics.

  15. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  16. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 3. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This notebook for grade 3 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade three. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  17. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How To Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units 1 through 8 containing three activities…

  18. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How to Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units I through VIII containing three…

  19. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  20. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  1. Nuclear higher-twist effects in eA DIS

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, B. G.

    2009-03-23

    We discuss the relation between the treatments of the higher twist nuclear effects in eA DIS based on the pQCD collinear approximation and the light-cone path integral formalism. We show that in the collinear approximation the N = 1 rescattering contribution to the gluon emission vanishes. It is demonstrated that the nonzero gluon spectrum obtained by Guo, Wang and Zhang is a consequence of unjustified neglect of some terms in the collinear expansion.

  2. 47 CFR 11.56 - Obligation to process CAP-formatted EAS messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and EAS Header Codes, audio Attention Signal, audio message, and Preamble and EAS End of Message (EOM... voluntary basis). (3) Processing such converted messages in accordance with the other sections of this...

  3. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  4. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-12-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions (one of them recurrent) inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with other available differently defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in Active Regions NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. The quantity 1/4π{B}n\\cdot{B}p is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear to the difference between the potential (Bp) and the non-potential magnetic field (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density shows clear changes before the powerful solar flares in Active Region NOAA 11158, which is consistent with the change in magnetic fields in the flaring lower atmosphere.

  5. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  6. 47 CFR 90.681 - EA-based SMR service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EA-based SMR service areas. 90.681 Section 90..., 851-869, 896-901, and 935-940 MHz Bands Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Ea-Based Smr Systems in the 809-824/851-869 Mhz Band § 90.681 EA-based SMR service areas. EA licenses in for...

  7. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  8. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  9. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  10. Attenuation analysis of real GPR wavelets: The equivalent amplitude spectrum (EAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Nikos; Kritikakis, George

    2016-03-01

    Absorption of a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) pulse is a frequency dependent attenuation mechanism which causes a spectral shift on the dominant frequency of GPR data. Both energy variation of GPR amplitude spectrum and spectral shift were used for the estimation of Quality Factor (Q*) and subsequently the characterization of the subsurface material properties. The variation of the amplitude spectrum energy has been studied by Spectral Ratio (SR) method and the frequency shift by the estimation of the Frequency Centroid Shift (FCS) or the Frequency Peak Shift (FPS) methods. The FPS method is more automatic, less robust. This work aims to increase the robustness of the FPS method by fitting a part of the amplitude spectrum of GPR data with Ricker, Gaussian, Sigmoid-Gaussian or Ricker-Gaussian functions. These functions fit different parts of the spectrum of a GPR reference wavelet and the Equivalent Amplitude Spectrum (EAS) is selected, reproducing Q* values used in forward Q* modeling analysis. Then, only the peak frequencies and the time differences between the reference wavelet and the subsequent reflected wavelets are used to estimate Q*. As long as the EAS is estimated, it is used for Q* evaluation in all the GPR section, under the assumption that the selected reference wavelet is representative. De-phasing and constant phase shift, for obtaining symmetrical wavelets, proved useful in the sufficiency of the horizons picking. Synthetic, experimental and real GPR data were examined in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  11. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  12. Thermopower and conductivity activation energies in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Dyalsingh, H.M.; Kakalios, J.

    1996-12-31

    The long range fluctuation model has been widely used to account for the difference in activation energies seen experimentally in dark conductivity and thermopower measurements in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The authors report on a test of this model using measurements of the conductivity and thermoelectric effects carried out in both open and short circuit configurations. While the thermopower activation energy is less than that of the dark conductivity, the short circuit Seebeck conductivity is found to be nearly identical to the dark conductivity in both activation energy and magnitude, consistent with the long range fluctuation model.

  13. 76 FR 24874 - Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... AGENCY Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts related to the reissuance of the National.... The EA will evaluate the potential environmental impacts from the discharge of pollutants...

  14. 7 CFR 1794.24 - Proposals normally requiring an EA with scoping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposals normally requiring an EA with scoping. 1794... Classification of Proposals § 1794.24 Proposals normally requiring an EA with scoping. (a) General. Applications... development of the EA. These types of actions are subject to the requirements of §§ 1794.50 through...

  15. 76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Environmental Assessment (EA)/Finding of No Significant Impact... implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 6), EPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to analyze the...

  16. 47 CFR 90.763 - EA, Regional and nationwide system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EA, Regional and nationwide system operations... Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide Systems § 90.763 EA, Regional and nationwide system operations. (a) A nationwide...

  17. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... prepare an EA or an EIS is found in Subpart G of Part 1940 of this Chapter. Assessments must be made...

  18. 78 FR 68835 - Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... AGENCY Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts related to the reissuance of the National..., also referred to as the Multi-Sector General Permit. The EA will evaluate the potential...

  19. 36 CFR 1010.6 - Determination of requirement for EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for EA or EIS. 1010.6 Section 1010.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.6 Determination of requirement for EA or EIS. In deciding whether to require the preparation of an EA or an EIS, the NEPA Compliance Coordinator will determine whether the proposal is...

  20. 7 CFR 650.8 - When to prepare an environmental assessment (EA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When to prepare an environmental assessment (EA). 650... for NRCS-Assisted Programs § 650.8 When to prepare an environmental assessment (EA). An environmental assessment (EA) is to be prepared for: (a) Land and water resource projects that are not included in §...

  1. 47 CFR 90.767 - Construction and implementation of EA and Regional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction and implementation of EA and... Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide Systems § 90.767 Construction and implementation of EA and Regional licenses....

  2. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  3. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  4. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  5. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  6. 47 CFR 11.45 - Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. 11.45 Section 11.45 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.45 Prohibition of false or deceptive EAS transmissions. No person...

  7. 78 FR 46295 - Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of Autothrottle Functions Under Part 23

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of... proposed special conditions. SUMMARY: This action proposes special conditions for the Eclipse EA500.... The Eclipse Model EA500 was certificated under part 23 by the FAA on September 30, 2006...

  8. 47 CFR 90.359 - Field strength limits for EA-licensed LMS systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Field strength limits for EA-licensed LMS... § 90.359 Field strength limits for EA-licensed LMS systems. EA-licensed multilateration systems shall limit the field strength of signals transmitted from their base stations to 47 dBuV/m at their...

  9. Study of the shower maximum depth by the method of detection of the EAS Cerenkov light pulse shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aliev, N.; Alimov, T.; Kakhkharov, M.; Khakimov, N.; Makhmudov, B. M.; Rakhimova, N.; Tashpulatov, R.; Khristiansen, G. B.; Prosin, V. V.; Zhukov, V. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The results of processing the data on the shape of the EAS Cerenkov light pulses recorded by the extensive air showers (EAS) array are presented. The pulse FWHM is used to find the mean depth of EAS maximum.

  10. The genome of the Erwinia amylovora phage PhiEaH1 reveals greater diversity and broadens the applicability of phages for the treatment of fire blight.

    PubMed

    Meczker, Katalin; Dömötör, Dóra; Vass, János; Rákhely, Gábor; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight. This study presents the analysis of the complete genome of phage PhiEaH1, isolated from the soil surrounding an E. amylovora-infected apple tree in Hungary. Its genome is 218 kb in size, containing 244 ORFs. PhiEaH1 is the second E. amylovora infecting phage from the Siphoviridae family whose complete genome sequence was determined. Beside PhiEaH2, PhiEaH1 is the other active component of Erwiphage, the first bacteriophage-based pesticide on the market against E. amylovora. Comparative genome analysis in this study has revealed that PhiEaH1 not only differs from the 10 formerly sequenced E. amylovora bacteriophages belonging to other phage families, but also from PhiEaH2. Sequencing of more Siphoviridae phage genomes might reveal further diversity, providing opportunities for the development of even more effective biological control agents, phage cocktails against Erwinia fire blight disease of commercial fruit crops.

  11. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  12. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  13. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  14. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  15. Removing the barrier to the calculation of activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-10-06

    Approaches for directly calculating the activation energy for a chemical reaction from a simulation at a single temperature are explored with applications to both classical and quantum systems. The activation energy is obtained from a time correlation function that can be evaluated from the same molecular dynamics trajectories or quantum dynamics used to evaluate the rate constant itself and thus requires essentially no extra computational work.

  16. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  17. ChEAS Data: The Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study

    DOE Data Explorer

    Davis, Kenneth J. [Penn State

    The Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) is a multi-organizational research effort studying biosphere/atmosphere interactions within a northern mixed forest in Northern Wisconsin. A primary goal is to understand the processes controlling forest-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and the response of these processes to climate change. Another primary goal is to bridge the gap between canopy-scale flux measurements and the global CO2 flask sampling network. The ChEAS flux towers participate in AmeriFlux, and the region is an EOS-validation site. The WLEF tower is a NOAA-CMDL CO2 sampling site. ChEAS sites are primarily located within or near the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, with one site in the Ottawa National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Current studies observe forest/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide at canopy and regional scales, forest floor respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration at the leaf level and use models to scale to canopy and regional levels. EOS-validation studies quantitatively assess the land cover of the area using remote sensing and conduct extensive ground truthing of new remote sensing data (i.e. ASTER and MODIS). Atmospheric remote sensing work is aimed at understanding atmospheric boundary layer dynamics, the role of entrainment in regulating the carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles through the lower troposphere, and feedback between boundary layer dynamics and vegetation (especially via the hydrologic cycle). Airborne studies have included include balloon, kite and aircraft observations of the CO2 profile in the troposphere.

  18. Experimental determination of the transmission factor for the Omicron EA125 electron analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffieux, P.; Schwaller, P.; Gröning, O.; Schlapbach, L.; Gröning, P.; Herd, Q. C.; Funnemann, D.; Westermann, J.

    2000-10-01

    In this article a study of the transmission factor of the Omicron EA125 analyzer equipped with the universal lens is presented. The procedure is based on a model by Cross and Castle [J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 22, 53 (1981)] and is applicable to every spectrometer which can be operated in the constant analyzer energy (CAE) and in the constant retarding ratio measuring mode. The advantage of the method is its independence on the sample and on the inelastic mean free path of the electrons. We find that the transmission factor for the CAE mode is proportional to Ekin-1 for most measuring setups. This dependence is predicted by theory for an ideal analyzer. Deviations from this behavior are observed if the retarding ratio for a given kinetic energy is too small. The limit value of the retarding ratio for ideal behavior, i.e., an Ekin-1 transmission factor, depends on the analyzer entrance slit aperture which has been selected.

  19. EA-6B high-lift wing modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Allison, D. O.

    1987-01-01

    NASA-Langley has accomplished the computational design and experimental verification of EA-6B aircraft wing modifications for improved high lift capability. The modifications are comparatively simple, and attempt to improve low speed high lift performance while maintaining high speed cruise efficiency. Several two- and three-dimensional low speed and transonic computational techniques were employed, together with extensive wind tunnel tests. The modified inboard and outboard edge slat/flap system sections yielded efficiency improvements that were verified by three-dimensional wind tunnel experiments to amount to an 11-percent wing-body lift coefficient enhancement at low speed.

  20. Reactive Ni/Al Nanocomposites: Structural Characteristics and Activation Energy.

    PubMed

    Shuck, Christopher E; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2017-02-16

    Stochastically structured Ni/Al reactive nanocomposites (RNCs) were prepared using short-term high-energy ball milling. Several milling times were utilized to prepare RNCs with differing internal nanostructures. These internal structures were quantitatively and statistically analyzed by use of serial focused ion beam sectioning coupled with 3D reconstruction techniques. The reaction kinetics were analyzed using the electrothermal explosion technique for each milling condition. It is shown that the effective activation energy (Eef) ranges from 79 to 137 kJ/mol and is directly related to the surface area contact between the reactants. Essentially, the reaction kinetics can be accurately controlled through mechanical processing techniques. Finally, the nature of the reaction is considered; the mechanistic effect of the reactive and three diffusive activation energies on the effective activation energy is examined.

  1. Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making…

  2. Enzyme activation through the utilization of intrinsic dianion binding energy.

    PubMed

    Amyes, T L; Malabanan, M M; Zhai, X; Reyes, A C; Richard, J P

    2016-11-29

    We consider 'the proposition that the intrinsic binding energy that results from the noncovalent interaction of a specific substrate with the active site of the enzyme is considerably larger than is generally believed. An important part of this binding energy may be utilized to provide the driving force for catalysis, so that the observed binding energy represents only what is left over after this utilization' [Jencks,W.P. (1975) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas. Mol. Biol., 43: , 219-410]. The large ~12 kcal/mol intrinsic substrate phosphodianion binding energy for reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is divided into 4-6 kcal/mol binding energy that is expressed on the formation of the Michaelis complex in anchoring substrates to the respective enzyme, and 6-8 kcal/mol binding energy that is specifically expressed at the transition state in activating the respective enzymes for catalysis. A structure-based mechanism is described where the dianion binding energy drives a conformational change that activates these enzymes for catalysis. Phosphite dianion plays the active role of holding TIM in a high-energy closed active form, but acts as passive spectator in showing no effect on transition-state structure. The result of studies on mutant enzymes is presented, which support the proposal that the dianion-driven enzyme conformational change plays a role in enhancing the basicity of side chain of E167, the catalytic base, by clamping the base between a pair of hydrophobic side chains. The insight these results provide into the architecture of enzyme active sites and the development of strategies for the de novo design of protein catalysts is discussed.

  3. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  4. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  5. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  6. The activation energy for dislocation nucleation at a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James R.; Beltz, Glenn E.

    1994-02-01

    T HE ACTIVATION energy for dislocation nucleation from a stressed crack tip is calculated within the Peierls framework, in which a periodic shear stress vs displacement relation is assumed to hold on a slip plane emanating from the crack tip. Previous results have revealed that the critical G (energy release rate corresponding to the "screened" crack tip stress field) for dislocation nucleation scales with γ us (the unstable stacking energy), in an analysis which neglects any coupling between tension and shear along the slip plane. That analysis represents instantaneous nucleation and takes thermal effects into account only via the weak temperature dependence of the elastic constants. In this work, the energy required to thermally activate a stable, incipient dislocation into its unstable "saddle-point" configuration is directly calculated for loads less than that critical value. We do so only with the simplest case, for which the slip plane is a prolongation of the crack plane. A first calculation reported is 2D in nature, and hence reveals an activation energy per unit length. A more realistic scheme for thermal activation involves the emission of a dislocation loop, an inherently 3D phenomenon. Asymptotic calculations of the activation energy for loads close to the critical load are performed in 2D and in 3D. It is found that the 3D activation energy generally corresponds to the 2D activation energy per unit length multiplied by about 5-10 Burgers vectors (but by as many as 17 very near to the critical loading). Implications for the emission of dislocations in copper, α-iron, and silicon at elevated temperature are discussed. The effects of thermal activation are very significant in lowering the load for emission. Also, the appropriate activation energy to correspond to molecular dynamics simulations of crack tips is discussed. Such simulations, as typically carried out with only a few atomic planes in a periodic repeat direction parallel to the crack tip, are

  7. Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Tanford, C

    1982-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic state of each substrate through the reaction cycle. These procedures clarify the mechanism of free energy transduction, even without step-by-step analysis. The results show that free energy exchange must occur in its entirety among protein-bound species. Imposition of conditions for an adequate rate of physiological function further indicates (i) that the standard free energy of hydrolysis of protein-bound ATP (to yield protein-bound products) needs to differ substantially from the standard free energy of hydrolysis in solution and (ii) that binding sites for the transported ions must have different affinities when facing opposite sides of the membrane. The results also demonstrate that step-by-step "basic" free energy changes (often used in the form of free energy level diagrams) are inherently unsuited for analysis of the mechanism of free energy transduction. PMID:6216483

  8. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  9. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  10. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  11. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  12. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  13. Energy-aware activity classification using wearable sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors.

  14. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors. PMID:25075266

  15. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  16. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-08

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  17. Cellular requirements for the formation of EA rosettes by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Passwell, J H; Schneeberger, E; Merler, E

    1978-01-01

    The binding of sensitized red cells to Fc receptors in human monocytes was studied by evaluating the effects of various pharmacological reagents and other treatments on EA rosette formation. Cytochalasin B and 2-deoxyglucose inhibited rosette formation in a dose-dependent manner. Sodium azide and incubation at 4 degrees also inhibited rosette formation, while at 37 degrees increased numbers of RBCs bound to the monocytes. The microtubular poisons, vinblastine and colchicine at high concentrations resulted in decreased adherence of monocytes and inhibition of rosette formation, while at low concentrations of colchicine, enhanced rosette formation was sometimes observed. Contrary to the effects on rosette formation, binding of [125I] IgG to monocyte monolayers was not altered by treatment of the monocytes with drugs. Magnesium ions were required to promote monocyte adherence, but both magnesium and calcium were needed for the best rosette formation. We conclude that the formation of EA rosettes is dependent not merely on binding of IgG to the Fc receptor but requires metabolically active monocytes, an intact cytostructure and suitable environmental conditions (temperature and cation concentration). Images Figure 3 PMID:738764

  18. Pharmacokinetics and hematotoxicity of a novel copper-based anticancer agent: casiopeina III-Ea, after a single intravenous dose in rats.

    PubMed

    Vértiz, Guadalupe; García-Ortuño, Luis Enrique; Bernal, Juan Pablo; Bravo-Gómez, María Elena; Lounejeva, Elena; Huerta, Amada; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena

    2014-02-01

    Casiopeina III-Ea is a mixed chelate copper (II) complex that has shown cytotoxic and antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of total copper derived from casiopeina III-Ea administered by intravenous bolus injection to Wistar rats. Other objective was to evaluate the hematotoxicity produced by this compound in those animals. Wistar rats received a single intravenous dose of 4 mg/kg of casiopeina III-Ea. Blood samples were taken and pharmacokinetics evaluated. Furthermore, erythrocyte copper levels were determined to identify a potential target and Zn levels were analyzed to determine a possible change. For the evaluation of hematotoxicity, both blood and urine samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analyses; moreover, Fe determination was performed. Blood copper and zinc levels, red blood cell copper levels as well as copper, zinc, and iron amounts excreted into urine were analyzed by ICP-MS. The blood concentration-time profile of copper derived from casiopeina III-Ea was fitted to a two-compartment model with a zero-order input. Cumulative amounts of Cu, Zn, and Fe excreted into rat urine after administration of casiopeina III-Ea were different with respect to control. Hematological and biochemical data indicated a hemolytic toxicity. Pharmacokinetic analysis of total copper derived from casiopeina III-Ea provided a general knowledge about distribution and elimination process of this compound. Additionally, the systemic exposure of the copper derived from casiopeina III-Ea accounts for the hematotoxicity of this complex at test dose.

  19. 77 FR 67862 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and... of a Final EA and FONSI/ROD. SUMMARY: The FAA has issued the final EA final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Aberdeen Regional Airport Updates and FONSI/ROD for the proposed decoupling of runways...

  20. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  1. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  2. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  3. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  4. Environmental assessment of facility operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a sitewide environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue and expand present-day activities on the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Because DOE-GJPO regularly proposes and conducts many different on-site activities, DOE decided to evaluate these activities in one sitewide EA rather than in multiple, activity-specific documents. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for facility operations, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Multigap resistive plate chambers for EAS study in the EEE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, S.; Antolini, R.; Badalà, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Blanco, F.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Coccia, E.; de Pasquale, S.; di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Garbini, M.; Giuliano, A.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Imponente, G.; Kim, J.; La Rocca, P.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Menghetti, H.; Miozzi, S.; Moro, R.; Pace, E.; Panareo, M.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Sbarra, C.; Selvi, M.; Williams, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2007-10-01

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, is an experiment to study very high-energetic air showers (EAS) through the detection of the shower's muon component using a network of tracking detectors, installed in Italian high schools. The single tracking telescope is composed of three large area (˜2m) Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). The data collected by the telescopes will be used for studies of air showers and also for the search of time correlations between sites which are far apart. The first telescope, recently installed in the Liceo B. Touschek in Grottaferrata (Rome), is successfully running, and other telescopes are going to be installed in a short time in other towns, opening up the way for the first search of long-distance coincidences over a total area of ˜10km.

  6. Burst activity of the Crab Nebula and its pulsar at high and ultra-high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidvansky, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of the flares of gamma rays detected from the Crab Nebula by the AGILE and Fermi-LAT satellite instruments are compared with those of a gamma ray burst recorded by several air shower arrays on February 23, 1989 and with one recent observation made by ARGO-YBJ array. It is demonstrated that though pulsar-periodicity and energy spectra of emissions at 100 MeV (satellite gamma ray telescopes) and 100 TeV (EAS arrays) are different, their time structures seem to be similar. Moreover, may be the difference between "flares" and "waves" recently found in the Crab Nebula emission by AGILE team also exists at ultra-high energies.

  7. Photoacoustic microscopy of electronic acupuncture (EA) effect in small animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinge; Wu, Dan; Tang, Yong; Jiang, Huabei

    2017-02-01

    Acupuncture has been an effective treatment for various pain in China for several thousand years. However, the mechanisms underlying this mysterious ancient healing are still largely unknown. Here we applied photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to investigate brain hemodynamic changes in response to electronic acupuncture (EA) at ST36 (Zusanli). Due to the high optical absorption of blood at 532 nm, PAM could sensitively probe changes in hemoglobin concentration (HbT, i.e., cerebral blood volume [CBV]) of cortical regions in high resolution. Six healthy mice were stimulated at the acupoint and three healthy mice were stimulated at sham points. Remarkable CBV changes in sensorimotor and retrosplenial agranular cortex were observed. Results showed the potential of PAM as a visualization tool to study the acupuncture effect on brain hemodynamics in animal models. (a) Schematic showing the stimulation points. (b) B-scan images overlaid with mouse atlas. (c) & (d) Statistical results of CBV changes from cortical regions.

  8. Energy expenditure and habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE) and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD) and SenseWear armband (SWA), were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr) simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113) without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal) did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training. Key pointsThe activity diary and Sensewear armband provide comparable estimates of TEE in adolescent sprint athletes.A high inter-individual variation was observed in time spent in high-intensity physical activities, advocating an individual based assessment when coaching

  9. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Crawford, C.L.; Pickett, M.A.

    1993-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

  10. Energy and angular dependence of active-type personal dosemeter for high-energy neutron.

    PubMed

    Rito, Hirotaka; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Oda, Keiji

    2011-07-01

    In order to develop an active-type personal dosemeter having suitable sensitivity to high-energy neutrons, the characteristic response of silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. An agreement of the shape of pulse-height distribution, its change with radiator thickness and the relative sensitivity was confirmed between the calculated and experimental results for 14.8-MeV neutrons. The angular dependence was estimated for other neutron energies, and found that the angular dependence decreased with the incident energy. The reason was also discussed with regard to the radiator thickness relative to maximum range of recoil protons.

  11. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  12. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  13. Mechanism and activation energy of magnetic skyrmion annihilation obtained from minimum energy path calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Igor S.; Jónsson, Hannes; Uzdin, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism and activation energy for the annihilation of a magnetic skyrmion is studied by finding the minimum energy path for the transition in a system described by a Heisenberg-type Hamiltonian extended to include dipole-dipole, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya, and anisotropy interactions so as to represent a Co monolayer on a Pt(111) surface. The annihilation mechanism involves isotropic shrinking of the skyrmion and slow increase of the energy until the transition state is reached after which the energy drops abruptly as the ferromagnetic final state forms. The maximum energy along the minimum energy path, which gives an estimate of the activation energy within the harmonic approximation of transition state theory, is found to be in excellent agreement with direct Langevin dynamics simulations at relatively high temperature carried out by Rohart et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 214412 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.214412]. The dipole-dipole interaction, the computationally most demanding term in the Hamiltonian, is found to be important but its effect on the stability of the skyrmion and shape of the transition path can be mimicked accurately by reducing the anisotropy constant in the Hamiltonian.

  14. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.

  15. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA) Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianwei; Guo, Zhuo; Yang, Xinjing; Sun, Lan; Wang, Sihan; Yingge, A; He, Xiaotian; Ya, Tu

    2014-01-01

    Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA) was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 29) showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region.

  16. Sea Cucumber Saponin Echinoside A (EA) Stimulates Hepatic Fatty Acid β-Oxidation and Suppresses Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Coupling in a Diurnal Pattern.

    PubMed

    Wen, Min; Fu, Xueyuan; Han, Xiuqing; Hu, Xiaoqian; Dong, Ping; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms control aspects of physiological events, including lipid metabolism, showing rhythmic fluctuation over 24 h. Therefore, it is not sufficient to evaluate thoroughly how dietary components regulate lipid metabolism with a single time-point assay. In the present study, a time-course study was performed to analyze the effect of sea cucumber saponin echinoside A (EA) on lipid metabolism over 24 h. Results showed that EA lowered the levels of TC and TG in both serum and liver at most time-points during the 24 h. Activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes and lipolytic enzymes were inhibited and elevated respectively by EA to varied degrees at different time-points. Meanwhile, parallel variation trends of gene expression involved in fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation were observed accordingly. The interaction between EA and lipid metabolism showed a time-dependent effect. Overall, EA impaired fatty acid synthesis and enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation in ad libitum feeding over 24 h.

  17. Human mesenchymal stem cells stimulate EaHy926 endothelial cell migration: combined proteomic and in vitro analysis of the influence of donor-donor variability

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Merlin N.M.; Kohli, Nupur; Khan, Neelam; Major, Triin; Fuller, Heidi; Wright, Karina T.; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Johnson, William E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) stimulate angiogenesis within a wound environment and this effect is mediated through paracrine interactions with the endothelial cells present. Here we report that human MSC-conditioned medium (n=3 donors) significantly increased EaHy-926 endothelial cell adhesion and cell migration, but that this stimulatory effect was markedly donor-dependent. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry demonstrated that whilst collagen type I and fibronectin were secreted by all of the MSC cultures, the small leucine rich proteoglycan, decorin was secreted only by the MSC culture that was least effective upon EaHy-926 cells. These individual extracellular matrix components were then tested as culture substrata. EaHy-926 cell adherence was greatest on fibronectin-coated surfaces with least adherence on decorin-coated surfaces. Scratch wound assays were used to examine cell migration. EaHy-926 cell scratch wound closure was quickest on substrates of fibronectin and slowest on decorin. However, EaHy-926 cell migration was stimulated by the addition of MSC-conditioned medium irrespective of the types of culture substrates. These data suggest that whilst the MSC secretome may generally be considered angiogenic, the composition of the secretome is variable and this variation probably contributes to donor-donor differences in activity. Hence, screening and optimizing MSC secretomes will improve the clinical effectiveness of pro-angiogenic MSC-based therapies. PMID:26195891

  18. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA) Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tianwei; Guo, Zhuo; Yang, Xinjing; Sun, Lan; Wang, Sihan; Yingge, A.; He, Xiaotian; Ya, Tu

    2014-01-01

    Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA) was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 29) showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:24795767

  19. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  20. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  1. Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Ko, Wai Man; Zhou, Xian; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Lee, Simon M. Y.; Hoi, Maggie P. M.; Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Liu, Jianxun

    2017-01-01

    Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926). SLT (1–50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed the H2O2-induced cell death and abolished the H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, H2O2 (0.5 mM; 24 h) caused a ~2-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from the EA.hy926 cells which were significantly suppressed by SLT (1–50 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of SLT (50 µg/mL) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and suppressed the H2O2-enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that SLT protects EA.hy916 cells against H2O2-mediated injury via direct reduction of intracellular ROS generation and an increase in SOD activity. These protective effects are closely associated with the inhibition of the apoptotic death cascade via the suppression of caspase-3 activation and reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, thereby indicating a potential mechanism of action for the clinical effects observed. PMID:28067784

  2. Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H₂O₂)-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells.

    PubMed

    Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Ko, Wai Man; Zhou, Xian; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Lee, Simon M Y; Hoi, Maggie P M; Steiner, Genevieve Z; Liu, Jianxun

    2017-01-05

    Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926). SLT (1-50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed the H₂O₂-induced cell death and abolished the H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, H₂O₂ (0.5 mM; 24 h) caused a ~2-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from the EA.hy926 cells which were significantly suppressed by SLT (1-50 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of SLT (50 µg/mL) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and suppressed the H₂O₂-enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that SLT protects EA.hy916 cells against H₂O₂-mediated injury via direct reduction of intracellular ROS generation and an increase in SOD activity. These protective effects are closely associated with the inhibition of the apoptotic death cascade via the suppression of caspase-3 activation and reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, thereby indicating a potential mechanism of action for the clinical effects observed.

  3. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  4. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  5. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    PubMed Central

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

  6. Compensation effects and relation between the activation energy of spin transition and the hysteresis loop width for an iron(ii) complex.

    PubMed

    Bushuev, Mark B; Pishchur, Denis P; Nikolaenkova, Elena B; Krivopalov, Viktor P

    2016-06-22

    The enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the cooperative → spin transition (the phase is a mononuclear complex [FeL2](BF4)2, L is 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-methylpyrimidine). The physical origin of this effect is the fact that the → spin transition is the first order phase transition accompanied by noticeable variations in the Tonset↑, ΔH and ΔS values. Higher ΔH and ΔS values are correlated with higher Tonset↑ values. The higher the enthalpy and entropy of the spin transition, the wider the hysteresis loop. The kinetic compensation effect, i.e. a linear relationship between ln A and Ea, was observed for the → spin transition. Moreover, an isokinetic relationship was detected in this system: the Arrhenius lines (ln k vs. 1/T) obtained from magnetochemical data for different samples of the phase undergoing the → transition show a common point of intersection (Tiso = 490 ± 2 K, ln kiso = -6.0 ± 0.2). The validity of this conclusion was confirmed by the Exner-Linert statistical method. This means that the isokinetic relationship and the kinetic compensation effect (ln A vs. Ea) in this system are true ones. The existence of a true kinetic compensation effect is supported independently by the fact that the hysteresis loop width for the cooperative spin transition ↔ increases with increasing activation barrier height. Estimating the energy of excitations for the phase with Tiso ∼ 490 K yields wavenumbers of ca. 340 cm(-1) corresponding to the frequencies of the stretching vibrations of the Fe(LS)-N bonds, i.e. the bonds directly involved in the mechanism of the spin transition. This is the first observation of the kinetic compensation effect (ln A vs. Ea) and the isokinetic relationship for a cooperative spin crossover system showing thermal hysteresis. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that the higher the activation barrier for the spin transition, the wider the hysteresis loop for a

  7. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  8. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  9. Resistin impairs glucose permeability in EA.hy926 cells by down-regulating GLUT1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Cai, Yuxi; Huang, Jing; Yu, Xiaolan; Sun, Jun; Yang, Zaiqing; Zhou, Lei

    2016-10-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease which is now affecting the health of more and more people in the world. Resistin, discovered in 2001, is considered to be closely related to metabolic dysfunction and obesity. Previous study showed that hyperglycemia is always accompanied by a high serum resistin concentration. We therefore investigated whether resistin can mediate glucose transfer across the blood-tissue barrier. Here, we employed a transwell system to analyze glucose permeability in EA.hy926 human endothelial cells treated without or with human resistin. In EA.hy926 cells treated with resistin, the permeability to glucose was heavily impaired. This was due to the down-regulation of GLUT1 expression as a result of the treatment, rather than regulation of tight junctions. In addition, overexpression of GLUT1 in EA.hy926 cells was able to recover the blocking effect of resistin on glucose permeability. We further found that resistin could inhibit the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and consequently impede the transcription of GLUT1. The results of the present study suggested that resistin could cause glucose retention in serum and thus result in hyperglycemia. This provides a novel explanation for hyperglycemia and a potential new way of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  11. Protective effects of farrerol against hydrogen-peroxide-induced apoptosis in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Kuan; Ge, Rui; Tang, Li; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-09-01

    Vascular endothelium plays an important role in the physiological homeostasis of blood vessels. Endothelial injury is considered to be implicated in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Farrerol, a flavonoid considered to be the major bioactive component in a traditional Chinese herb, "Man-shan-hong", which is the dried leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L., displays many bioactive properties, including antibechic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and the inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. In this study, the protective effects of farrerol on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells were investigated. The results showed that farrerol significantly inhibited the loss of cell viability and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells. Meanwhile, farrerol inhibited H2O2-induced elevation in the levels of intracellular malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as cell apoptosis. Furthermore, real time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that farrerol significantly decreased the expression of Bax mRNA, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and phosph-p38 MAPK, while increasing the exporession of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bcl-2 in H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells. These results are the first demonstration that farrerol has protective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis in EA.hy926 cells, and suggests that farrerol is a potential candidate for the intervention of endothelial-injury-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Directed transport of active particles over asymmetric energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, N; Maggi, C; Di Leonardo, R

    2014-08-21

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the transport of active colloids to target regions, delimited by asymmetric energy barriers. We show that it is possible to introduce a generalized effective temperature that is related to the local variance of particle velocities. The stationary probability distributions can be derived from a simple diffusion equation in the presence of an inhomogeneous effective temperature resulting from the action of external force fields. In particular, transition rates over asymmetric energy barriers can be unbalanced by having different effective temperatures over the two slopes of the barrier. By varying the type of active noise, we find that equal values of diffusivity and persistence time may produce strongly varied effective temperatures and thus stationary distributions.

  13. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section 101.1317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... License Requirements § 101.1317 Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA...

  14. 47 CFR 11.52 - EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...), EAS Participants' EAS equipment must interface with the Federal Emergency Management Agency's Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS) to enable (whether through “pull” interface technologies, such as Really Simple Syndication (RSS) and Atom Syndication Format (ATOM), or “push”...

  15. 7 CFR 650.8 - When to prepare an environmental assessment (EA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that the EE reveals may be a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. (c) Criteria for determining the need for a program EA: (1) A program EA is to be prepared when NRCS has determined, based on the environmental evaluation, that a program EIS is not required and...

  16. 47 CFR 73.4097 - EBS (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems. 73.4097 Section 73.4097 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems. See Public Notice dated March 1, 1979....

  17. 47 CFR 11.54 - EAS operation during a National Level emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Discontinue normal programming and follow the transmission procedures in the appropriate section of the EAS Operating Handbook. Announcements may be made in the same language as the primary language of the EAS... visually and aurally as specified in § 11.51(j). (8) Announcements may be made in the same language as...

  18. Analysis of equi-intensity curves and NU distribution of EAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, G.

    1985-08-01

    The distribution of the number of muons in extensive air showers (EAS) and the equi-intensity curves of EAS are analyzed on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation of various cosmic ray composition and the interaction models. Problems in the two best combined models are discussed.

  19. 47 CFR 90.683 - EA-based SMR system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to U.S./Canadian and U.S./Mexican border areas; (3) The EA licensee limits the field strength of its base stations at any location on the border of the EA service area in accordance with § 90.689;...

  20. 47 CFR 90.683 - EA-based SMR system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to U.S./Canadian and U.S./Mexican border areas; (3) The EA licensee limits the field strength of its base stations at any location on the border of the EA service area in accordance with § 90.689;...

  1. 47 CFR 90.683 - EA-based SMR system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to U.S./Canadian and U.S./Mexican border areas; (3) The EA licensee limits the field strength of its base stations at any location on the border of the EA service area in accordance with § 90.689;...

  2. 47 CFR 90.683 - EA-based SMR system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to U.S./Canadian and U.S./Mexican border areas; (3) The EA licensee limits the field strength of its base stations at any location on the border of the EA service area in accordance with § 90.689;...

  3. 47 CFR 90.683 - EA-based SMR system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to U.S./Canadian and U.S./Mexican border areas; (3) The EA licensee limits the field strength of its base stations at any location on the border of the EA service area in accordance with § 90.689;...

  4. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH FOUR DIFFERENT EXXON LUBRICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density data for the refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea (or R-236ea) and four lubricants supplied by Exxon Corporation. Such data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for ...

  5. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  6. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... include the location codes for the State and counties in its service area. When transmitting the required..., Event, Location and the valid time period of an EAS message. Effective June 30, 2012, visual messages derived from CAP-formatted EAS messages shall contain the Originator, Event, Location and the valid...

  7. 47 CFR 90.359 - Field strength limits for EA-licensed LMS systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... systems. 90.359 Section 90.359 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio Service § 90.359 Field strength limits for EA-licensed LMS systems. EA-licensed multilateration systems...

  8. Raman active high energy excitations in URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhot, Jonathan; Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain; Piekarz, Przemysław; Lapertot, Gérard; Aoki, Dai; Méasson, Marie-Aude

    2017-02-01

    We have performed Raman scattering measurements on URu2Si2 single crystals on a large energy range up to ∼1300 cm-1 and in all the Raman active symmetries as a function of temperature down to 15 K. A large excitation, active only in the Eg symmetry, is reported. It has been assigned to a crystal electric field excitation on the Uranium site. We discuss how this constrains the crystal electric field scheme of the Uranium ions. Furthermore, three excitations in the A1g symmetry are observed. They have been associated to double Raman phonon processes consistently with ab initio calculations of the phonons dispersion.

  9. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  10. High-energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, Marek

    1994-01-01

    Two recent findings concerning high-energy radiation properties of active galactic nuclei -- discovery of breaks in hard X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies, and discovery of huge fluxes of hard gamma rays from blazars -- seem to press us to change our standard views about radiation production in these objects. I review briefly the existing radiation models, confront them with the newest observations, and discuss newly emerging theoretical pictures which attempt to account for the discoveries.

  11. NFE approximation for the e/a determination for 3d-transition metal elements and their intermetallic compounds with Al and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Inukai, M.; Zijlstra, E. S.; Mizutani, U.

    2013-08-01

    First-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) band calculations with subsequent FLAPW-Fourier analyses have been performed for elements from K to Cu in period 4 of the periodic table to determine the effective electrons per atom ratio (e/a). For the series of 3d-transition metals (TM), the determination of the square of the Fermi diameter ? , from which e/a is derived, has been recognized not to be straightforward because of the presence of a huge anomaly associated with the TM-d states across the Fermi level in the energy dispersion relation for electrons outside the muffin-tin sphere. The nearly free electron (NFE) approximation is newly devised to circumvent this difficulty. The centre of gravity energy ? is calculated from the energy distribution of the square of the Fourier coefficients for the FLAPW state ? . The NFE dispersion relation is constructed for the set of ? and ? in combination with the tetrahedron method. The resulting e/a values are distributed over positive numbers in the vicinity of unity for elements from Ti to Co. Instead, the e/a values for the early elements K, Ca and Sc and the late TM elements Ni and Cu were determined to be close to one, two, three, 0.50 and unity, respectively, using our previously designed local reading method. In addition, the composition dependence of e/a values for intermetallic compounds in X-TM (X = Al and Zn) alloy systems was studied to justify an appropriate choice between the local reading and NFE methods for respective elements.

  12. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  13. EA follow-up in the Ghanaian mining sector: Challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Appiah-Opoku, Seth; Bryan, Hobson C.

    2013-07-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) follow-up provides a means for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of environmental impact studies. It is integral to the success or failure of a project or program. In spite of its importance, very little attention is given to the need for follow-up programs in most jurisdictions in Africa. Using a case study in the Ghanaian mining sector, this paper explores the challenges and opportunities within the country's EA process for an effective follow-up program. The paper is based on informal interviews, content analysis of relevant publications, official EA documents, and internet searches. The authors suggest a standard EA follow-up program to be formalized as an integral part of Ghana's environmental assessment policy. They also propose a follow-up process that harnesses existing opportunities within the country's EA system. This approach can be replicated in other African countries.

  14. A randomized trial of 4-aminopyridine in EA2 and related familial episodic ataxias

    PubMed Central

    Kalla, R.; Claassen, J.; Adrion, C.; Mansmann, U.; Klopstock, T.; Freilinger, T.; Neugebauer, H.; Spiegel, R.; Dichgans, M.; Lehmann-Horn, F.; Jurkat-Rott, K.; Brandt, T.; Jen, J.C.; Jahn, K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The therapeutic effects of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial in 10 subjects with familial episodic ataxia with nystagmus. Methods: After randomization, placebo or 4AP (5 mg 3 times daily) was administered for 2 3-month-long treatment periods separated by a 1-month-long washout period. The primary outcome measure was the number of ataxia attacks per month; the secondary outcome measures were the attack duration and patient-reported quality of life (Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale [VDADL]). Nonparametric tests and a random-effects model were used for statistical analysis. Results: The diagnosis of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) was genetically confirmed in 7 subjects. Patients receiving placebo had a median monthly attack frequency of 6.50, whereas patients taking 4AP had a frequency of 1.65 (p = 0.03). Median monthly attack duration decreased from 13.65 hours with placebo to 4.45 hours with 4AP (p = 0.08). The VDADL score decreased from 6.00 to 1.50 (p = 0.02). 4AP was well-tolerated. Conclusions: This controlled trial on EA2 and familial episodic ataxia with nystagmus demonstrated that 4AP decreases attack frequency and improves quality of life. Level of evidence: This crossover study provides Class II evidence that 4AP decreases attack frequency and improves the patient-reported quality of life in patients with episodic ataxia and related familial ataxias. PMID:21734179

  15. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  16. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  17. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  18. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  19. DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The general conditions for DOD-DOE interactions were delineated in an October 1978, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that identified two basic goals: improving energy efficiency and availability within DOD, and utilizing DOD and DOE expertise and facilities to carry out projects of mutual interest. There has been considerable interaction between DOD and DOE, including a number of proposed joint initiatives but a systematic and coordinated approach for nurturing, maintaining, and expanding these relationships has not been developed. A DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities was held on March 10-12, 1980. The workshop was structured into five working groups - Mobility Fuels, Conservation, Fossil Fuels for Fixed Facilities, Solar and Renewable Energy Sources, and Special Projects - with DOD and DOE cochairmen for each. Over a hundred DOD and DOE management, program, and policymaking representatives were brought together by the workshop Steering Committee to identify specific programs for inclusion in an overall plan for implementing the MOU and to deal with fundamental issues and problems of maintaining future communications. The workshop accomplished its goals, these being to: (1) improve communication among the appropriate key DOD and DOE personnel at all levels and promote information exchange; (2) review ongoing and already-proposed joint DOD and DOE programs; (3) initiate a coordinated, systematic effort to establish joint DOD-DOE energy-security programs; and (4) propose specific programs and projects of mutual interest for inclusion in a follow-on joint-implementation plan.

  20. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Language Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Among the lessons included are an energy debate, puzzles, energy poetry, and energy life styles. Also contained in the IDEAS program are activity sets…

  1. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler: 6-12. Social Studies. Revised 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    Thirty-eight energy related classroom activities for sixth to twelfth grade are included in this document. The activities are based on the following conceptual themes: (1) energy is basic; (2) energy's usefulness is limited; (3) energy exchanges affect the environment; (4) energy conservation is essential; and (5) people can develop and share…

  2. Nonadiabatic coupling reduces the activation energy in thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J; Penfold, T J

    2017-03-22

    The temperature dependent rate of a thermally activated process is given by the Arrhenius equation. The exponential decrease in the rate with activation energy, which this imposes, strongly promotes processes with small activation barriers. This criterion is one of the most challenging during the design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters used in organic light emitting diodes. The small activation energy is usually achieved with donor-acceptor charge transfer complexes. However, this sacrifices the radiative rate and is therefore incommensurate with the high luminescence quantum yields required for applications. Herein we demonstrate that the spin-vibronic mechanism, operative for efficient TADF, overcomes this limitation. Nonadiabatic coupling between the lowest two triplet states give rise to a strong enhancement of the rate of reserve intersystem crossing via a second order mechanism and promotes population transfer between the T1 to T2 states. Consequently the rISC mechanism is actually operative between initial and final state exhibiting an energy gap that is smaller than between the T1 and S1 states. This contributes to the small activation energies for molecules exhibiting a large optical gap, identifies limitations of the present design procedures and provides a basis from which to construct TADF molecules with simultaneous high radiative and rISC rates.

  3. Blockade of the brachial plexus abolishes activation of specific brain regions by electroacupuncture at LI4: a functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Jiang, Wei; He, Jingwei; Liu, Songbin; Wang, Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to test the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) at acupuncture point LI4 activates specific brain regions by nerve stimulation that is mediatied through a pathway involving the brachial plexus. Methods Twelve acupuncture naive right-handed volunteers were allocated to receive three sessions of EA at LI4 in a random different order (crossover): (1) EA alone (EA); EA after injection of local anaesthetics into the deltoid muscle (EA+LA); and (3) EA after blockade of the brachial plexus (EA+NB). During each session, participants were imaged in a 3 T MRI scanner. Brain regions showing change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal (activation) were identified. Subjective acupuncture sensation was quantified after functional MRI scanning was completed. Results were compared between the three sessions for each individual, and averaged. Results Blockade of the brachial plexus inhibited acupuncture sensation during EA. EA and EA+LA activated the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and left putamen, whilst no significant activation was observed during EA+NB. The BOLD signal of the thalamus correlated significantly with acupuncture sensation score during EA. Conclusions Blockade of the brachial plexus completely abolishes patterns of brain activation induced by EA at LI4. The results suggest that EA activates specific brain regions through stimulation of the local nerves supplying the tissues at LI4, which transmit sensory information via the brachial plexus. Trial registration number ChiCTR-OO-13003389. PMID:26464415

  4. Analysing domestic activity to reduce household energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Fréjus, Myriam; Guibourdenche, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on the issue of behavioral change according to energy conservation constraints and on the status of sustainability in the design of ambient interactive systems at home. We point out how ergonomics contributes to the study of human factors underlying energy consumption. Relating to situated cognition and human computer interaction, our approach relies both on the ergonomic evaluation of feedback consumption displays and on the modeling of domestic activities in order to identify household concerns in real settings. We present empirical results to illustrate this global approach. The results of those studies allow the design of interactive systems: informative and pedagogical systems as well as pervasive and adaptive ambient systems. In our approach, sustainability is taken into account as a design criterion, as security could be, whereas the main design purpose is to aid households in their daily life in order to build a "sustainable situation".

  5. Activation Energies of Fragmentations of Disaccharides by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Szabó, Katalin E.; Antal, Borbála; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2014-03-01

    A simple multiple collision model for collision induced dissociation (CID) in quadrupole was applied for the estimation of the activation energy (Eo) of the fragmentation processes for lithiated and trifluoroacetated disaccharides, such as maltose, cellobiose, isomaltose, gentiobiose, and trehalose. The internal energy-dependent rate constants k(Eint) were calculated using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) or the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (RRK) theory. The Eo values were estimated by fitting the calculated survival yield (SY) curves to the experimental ones. The calculated Eo values of the fragmentation processes for lithiated disaccharides were in the range of 1.4-1.7 eV, and were found to increase in the order trehalose < maltose < isomaltose < cellobiose < gentiobiose.

  6. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  7. Cytosolic calcium coordinates mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Amit K; Ivannikov, Maxim V; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R; Macleod, Gregory T

    2012-01-25

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations that blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+ and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11 nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13 nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates, [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs.

  8. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  9. 78 FR 8190 - Commercial Wind Leasing and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Leasing and Site Assessment Activities on the Atlantic... Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment (EA) for Commercial Wind Leasing and...

  10. Effect of particle size on activation energy and peak temperature of the thermoluminescence glow curve of undoped ZnS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chandra, B P; Chandrakar, Raju Kumar; Chandra, V K; Baghel, R N

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of particle size on the thermoluminescence (TL) of undoped ZnS nanoparticles. ZnS nanoparticles were prepared using a chemical precipitation method in which mercaptoethanol was used as the capping agent. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. When the concentrations of mercaptoethanol used are 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.025, 0.040 and 0.060 M, the sizes of the nanoparticles are 2.86, 2.81, 2.69, 2.40, 2.10, 1.90 and 1.80 nm, respectively. Initially, the TL intensity of UV-irradiated ZnS nanoparticles increases with temperature, attains a peak value Im for a particular temperature Tm, and then decreases with further increases in temperature. The values of both Im and Tm increase with decreasing nanoparticle size. Whereas the activation energy decreases slightly with decreasing nanoparticle size, the frequency factor decreases significantly as the nanoparticle size is reduced. The order of kinetics for the TL glow curve of ZnS nanoparticles is 2. Expressions are derived for the dependence of activation energy (Ea) and Tm on nanoparticle size, and good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical results.

  11. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  12. Array for measurement of the EAS pulse temporal structure at distances R>500 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Arturo

    Indications of the existence of temporal structure in the signals of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) of energies 10 greater than 17 eV at core distances of about 500 m (Atrashkevich et al ,1997, J.Phys.G, Nucl. Part. Phys., v.23,p. 237 and papers cited there) and the preliminary analysis of the Auger Water Cherenkov Detector (WCD) signal traces (Fernandez et al, this conference) stimulated us to intensify the temporal signal studies. For this aim we started to construct a hybrid array of one WCD plus an array of seven Air Cherenkov Detectors (ACD) one near the WCD and six in a regular hexagonal network centered on the WCD. Separation between ACDs is of about 750 m. The correlation in the temporal structure of the WCD signals and the position of the maximum obtained from the ACD array is studied. This hybrid array is located at the campus of the University of Puebla which is inside the city. Evidence that such an array can be successfully used to detect EASs with 10 primary energies above 16 eV in conditions of moderate to heavy light pollution environment such as the city of Puebla is presented.

  13. Comparison of self-reported energy availability and metabolic hormones to assess adequacy of dietary energy intake in young elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Achtzehn, Silvia; Braun, Hans; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2013-07-01

    Previous intervention studies suggest that leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and triiodthyronine (T3) are sensitive markers of inadequate energy intake in relation to exercise expenditures. Because of limitations in metabolic hormone measurements, self-reported energy availability (EA) based on food and activity records may present an alternative for characterizing energy status in young athletes. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether self-reported EA is related to leptin, insulin, IGF-1, and T3 in 352 young athletes. Sex, body composition, sport participation, and acute weight changes were considered as confounding variables. Multiple linear regression revealed that EA was negatively associated with leptin (p < 0.05) but not with insulin, IGF-1, or T3. Female athletes with low EA (<30 kcal·kg(-1) fat-free mass (FFM)) had higher leptin concentrations (5.0 ± 4.7 ng·mL(-1)) and more body fat (18.3% ± 5.1%) than did females with normal EA (leptin, 3.1 ± 2.4 ng·mL(-1); body fat, 15.8% ± 4.2%; both, p < 0.001). Athletes reporting acute weight loss (>1 kg·week(-1)) had a lower EA (18.9 ± 7.4 kcal·kg(-1) FFM) than did weight-stable athletes (30.0 ± 11.2 kcal·kg(-1) FFM) or athletes reporting weight gain (>1 kg; 49.7 ± 13.1 kcal·kg(-1) FFM). IGF-1 and T3 were also reduced in athletes who lost weight (p < 0.01). This cross-sectional study reveals a lack of association between self-reported EA and metabolic hormones indicative of energy status in young athletes. Further studies are needed to investigate whether self-reported EA and metabolic hormones are in better agreement when measured repeatedly.

  14. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  15. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  16. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  17. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-21

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004)]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  18. Macroautophagy regulates energy metabolism during effector T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Vanessa M; Valdor, Rut; Patel, Bindi; Singh, Rajat; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando

    2010-12-15

    Macroautophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosomal-mediated protein degradation that plays a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by recycling amino acids, reducing the amount of damaged proteins, and regulating protein levels in response to extracellular signals. We have found that macroautophagy is induced after effector T cell activation. Engagement of the TCR and CD28 results in enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) processing, increased numbers of LC3-containing vesicles, and increased LC3 flux, indicating active autophagosome formation and clearance. The autophagosomes formed in stimulated T cells actively fuse with lysosomes to degrade their cargo. Using a conditional KO mouse model where Atg7, a critical gene for macroautophagy, is specifically deleted in T cells, we have found that macroautophagy-deficient effector Th cells have defective IL-2 and IFN-γ production and reduced proliferation after stimulation, with no significant increase in apoptosis. We have found that ATP generation is decreased when autophagy is blocked, and defects in activation-induced cytokine production are restored when an exogenous energy source is added to macroautophagy-deficient T cells. Furthermore, we present evidence showing that the nature of the cargo inside autophagic vesicles found in resting T cells differs from the cargo of autophagosomes in activated T cells, where mitochondria and other organelles are selectively excluded. These results suggest that macroautophagy is an actively regulated process in T cells that can be induced in response to TCR engagement to accommodate the bioenergetic requirements of activated T cells.

  19. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  20. Social Studies. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document provides activities for teachers to use with students in teaching social studies. The activities are intended to demonstrate the impact of energy technology on today's society.…

  1. Energy- and Activity-Dependent Loss Timescales for Inner Magnetospheric keV-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) inner magnetospheric drift physics model has recently been modified to include keV-energy electron scattering rates by VLF chorus and hiss waves, thus allowing for the calculation of the electron phase space distribution in the inner magnetosphere and electron precipitation to the upper atmosphere. Comparisons of calculated electron fluxes are made with low-Earth orbit electron precipitation data and dayside electron measurements to validate the scattering implementation procedure. The energy-dependent scattering rate coefficients are adjusted to take into account geomagnetic activity and plasmapause location, providing a scattering rate that best matches the simulations to the observed electron fluxes. In addition, the electron ring current intensities and spatio-temporal evolution are compared against simulation results for the hot ion species. While the electron total energy content is typically 10 times smaller than the ion total energy content in the inner magnetosphere, it can be significantly higher than this during the late main phase of magnetic storms.

  2. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  3. 78 FR 54635 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for EA-18G Growler Airfield...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for EA-18G Growler... intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for EA-18G Growler airfield operations at Naval... effects associated with the introduction of two additional EA-18G Growler expeditionary squadrons...

  4. 76 FR 54525 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and a Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... EA) and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)/Record of Decision (ROD) for a Proposed Airport... Assessment (Final EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)/Record of Decision (ROD) for a Proposed... Decision (ROD) based on the Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) for a Proposed Airport...

  5. 75 FR 49016 - Notice of Public Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Public Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of availability of a final EA and FONSI/ROD for the... County Airport in Bowman County, North Dakota. SUMMARY: The FAA has made available the final EA and...

  6. 75 FR 42820 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and a Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and... Assessment (Final EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)/Record of Decision (ROD) for a Proposed... (FONSI)/Record of Decision (ROD) based on the Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) for a...

  7. 75 FR 42819 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and a Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and...: Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and Finding of No Significant...)/Record of Decision (ROD) based on the Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) for the Proposed...

  8. Redox Active Polymers as Soluble Nanomaterials for Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Mark; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-11-15

    It is an exciting time for exploring the synergism between the chemical and dimensional properties of redox nanomaterials for addressing the manifold performance demands faced by energy storage technologies. The call for widespread adoption of alternative energy sources requires the combination of emerging chemical concepts with redesigned battery formats. Our groups are interested in the development and implementation of a new strategy for nonaqueous flow batteries (NRFBs) for grid energy storage. Our motivation is to solve major challenges in NRFBs, such as the lack of membranes that simultaneously allow fast ion transport while minimizing redox active species crossover between anolyte (negative electrolyte) and catholyte (positive electrolyte) compartments. This pervasive crossover leads to deleterious capacity fade and materials underutilization. In this Account, we highlight redox active polymers (RAPs) and related polymer colloids as soluble nanoscopic energy storing units that enable the simple but powerful size-exclusion concept for NRFBs. Crossover of the redox component is suppressed by matching high molecular weight RAPs with simple and inexpensive nanoporous commercial separators. In contrast to the vast literature on the redox chemistry of electrode-confined polymer films, studies on the electrochemistry of solubilized RAPs are incipient. This is due in part to challenges in finding suitable solvents that enable systematic studies on high polymers. Here, viologen-, ferrocene- and nitrostyrene-based polymers in various formats exhibit properties that make amenable their electrochemical exploration as solution-phase redox couples. A main finding is that RAP solutions store energy efficiently and reversibly while offering chemical modularity and size versatility. Beyond the practicality toward their use in NRFBs, the fundamental electrochemistry exhibited by RAPs is fascinating, showing clear distinctions in behavior from that of small molecules. Whereas

  9. Redox Active Colloids as Discrete Energy Storage Carriers.

    PubMed

    Montoto, Elena C; Nagarjuna, Gavvalapalli; Hui, Jingshu; Burgess, Mark; Sekerak, Nina M; Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Wei, Teng-Sing; Kneer, Marissa; Grolman, Joshua; Cheng, Kevin J; Lewis, Jennifer A; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-10-12

    Versatile and readily available battery materials compatible with a range of electrode configurations and cell designs are desirable for renewable energy storage. Here we report a promising class of materials based on redox active colloids (RACs) that are inherently modular in their design and overcome challenges faced by small-molecule organic materials for battery applications, such as crossover and chemical/morphological stability. RACs are cross-linked polymer spheres, synthesized with uniform diameters between 80 and 800 nm, and exhibit reversible redox activity as single particles, as monolayer films, and in the form of flowable dispersions. Viologen-based RACs display reversible cycling, accessing up to 99% of their capacity and 99 ± 1% Coulombic efficiency over 50 cycles by bulk electrolysis owing to efficient, long-distance intraparticle charge transfer. Ferrocene-based RACs paired with viologen-based RACs cycled efficiently in a nonaqueous redox flow battery employing a simple size-selective separator, thus demonstrating a possible application that benefits from their colloidal dimensions. The unprecedented versatility in RAC synthetic and electrochemical design opens new avenues for energy storage.

  10. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  11. Activation energy of tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, Octavio G.; Munir, Zuhair A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2011-01-15

    The activation energy of a sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HPSPS) technique at 300 and 400 C. The ignition temperatures were investigated under high heating rates (500-2000 C min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Samples consolidated at 300 C exhibit an abrupt change in temperature response prior to the main ignition temperature. This change in temperature response is attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465 to 670 C. The activation energies of the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite consolidated at 300 and 400 C were determined to be 38{+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1} and 57 {+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  12. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  13. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  14. Standing wave tube electro active polymer wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Philippe; Wattez, Ambroise; Ardoise, Guillaume; Melis, C.; Van Kessel, R.; Fourmon, A.; Barrabino, E.; Heemskerk, J.; Queau, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 4 years SBM has developed a revolutionary Wave Energy Converter (WEC): the S3. Floating under the ocean surface, the S3 amplifies pressure waves similarly to a Ruben's tube. Only made of elastomers, the system is entirely flexible, environmentally friendly and silent. Thanks to a multimodal resonant behavior, the S3 is capable of efficiently harvesting wave energy from a wide range of wave periods, naturally smoothing the irregularities of ocean wave amplitudes and periods. In the S3 system, Electro Active Polymer (EAP) generators are distributed along an elastomeric tube over several wave lengths, they convert wave induced deformations directly into electricity. The output is high voltage multiphase Direct Current with low ripple. Unlike other conventional WECs, the S3 requires no maintenance of moving parts. The conception and operating principle will eventually lead to a reduction of both CAPEX and OPEX. By integrating EAP generators into a small scale S3, SBM achieved a world first: direct conversion of wave energy in electricity with a moored flexible submerged EAP WEC in a wave tank test. Through an extensive testing program on large scale EAP generators, SBM identified challenges in scaling up to a utility grid device. French Government supports the consortium consisting of SBM, IFREMER and ECN in their efforts to deploy a full scale prototype at the SEMREV test center in France at the horizon 2014-2015. SBM will be seeking strategic as well as financial partners to unleash the true potentials of the S3 Standing Wave Tube Electro Active Polymer WEC.

  15. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis.

  16. Isoquercitrin Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis of EA.hy926 Cells via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meixia; Li, Jiankuan; Wang, Ke; Hao, Xuliang; Ge, Rui; Li, Qingshan

    2016-03-21

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in endothelial injury and the pathogenesis of diverse cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-glucoside), a flavonoid distributed widely in plants, exhibits many biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of isoquercitrin on H2O2-induced apoptosis of EA.hy926 cells was evaluated. MTT assays showed that isoquercitrin significantly inhibited H2O2-induced loss of viability in EA.hy926 cells. Hoechst33342/PI and Annexin V-FITC/PI fluorescent double staining indicated that isoquercitrin inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis of EA.hy926 cells. Western blotting demonstrated that isoquercitrin prevented H2O2-induced increases in cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, while increasing expression of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Additionally, isoquercitrin significantly increased the expression of p-Akt and p-GSK3β in a dose-dependent manner in EA.hy926 cells. LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, inhibited isoquercitrin-induced GSK3β phosphorylation and increase of Mcl-1 expression, which indicated that regulation of isoquercitrin on Mcl-1 expression was likely related to the modulation of Akt activation. These results demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effect of isoquercitrin on H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells was likely associated with the regulation of isoquercitrin on Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway and that isoquercitrin could be used clinically to interfere with the progression of endothelial injury-associated cardiovascular disease.

  17. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  18. Town of Chino Valley Municipal Water System Improvement Project FONSI and EA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 9 has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) describing the potential environmental impacts associated with, and the alternatives to, the proposed Water System Improvement Project in the town of China Valley, Arizona. This Finding of No Signi

  19. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, AND VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, and viscosity measurements of refrigerant R-236ea with three potential lubricants. (NOTE: The data were needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The lubricants...

  20. Business Architecture Development at Public Administration - Insights from Government EA Method Engineering Project in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, Katariina; Leppänen, Mauri

    Governments worldwide are concerned for efficient production of services to customers. To improve quality of services and to make service production more efficient, information and communication technology (ICT) is largely exploited in public administration (PA). Succeeding in this exploitation calls for large-scale planning which embraces issues from strategic to technological level. In this planning the notion of enterprise architecture (EA) is commonly applied. One of the sub-architectures of EA is business architecture (BA). BA planning is challenging in PA due to a large number of stakeholders, a wide set of customers, and solid and hierarchical structures of organizations. To support EA planning in Finland, a project to engineer a government EA (GEA) method was launched. In this chapter, we analyze the discussions and outputs of the project workshops and reflect emerged issues on current e-government literature. We bring forth insights into and suggestions for government BA and its development.

  1. Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles Dennison; Giebels, Berrie

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV γ rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of γ-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called ;blazars;. The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with γ-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of a few FSRQs and several BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of γ-ray-emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Soft γ-ray emission has been detected from a few nearby Seyfert galaxies, though it is not clear whether those γ rays originate from the nucleus. Blazars and their misaligned counterparts make up most of the ≳100 MeV extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), and are suspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future ;Cherenkov Telescope Array;, in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on the ground, will write the next chapter

  2. Electron and thermal neutron lateral distribution functions in EAS at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchegolev, O. B.; Alekseenko, V. V.; Cai, Z. Y.; Cao, Z.; Cui, S. W.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Guo, X. W.; He, H. H.; Liu, Y.; Ma, X.; Stenkin, Yu V.; Stepanov, V. I.; Zhao, J.

    2016-05-01

    EAS array of novel type have been constructed on the base of ARGO-YBJ experiment (Tibet, China). It consists of the four specially designed scintillator en-detectors capable to measure two main EAS components: hadrons through thermal neutrons (n) and electrons (e). The results of simulation for these arrays using CORSIKA and GEANT4 codes are presented. Simulated thermal neutron and electron lateral distributions are compared with experimental data. Obtained distributions are compared with those obtained by other arrays.

  3. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  4. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Charu; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J.; Bednarek, Maria; Novak, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of melanocortin peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  7. Imprint of the atmospheric attenuation process on electron distribution in EAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, R. K.; Dam, S.; Ray, S.

    2017-04-01

    The lateral density distribution (LDD) of shower particles in an extensive air shower (EAS) experiment is commonly approximated by a particular type of lateral density function (LDF). A standard perception is being used in air shower physics since long, according to which the LDD is assumed to be symmetric about the EAS axis, and the adopted LDF is adequate for the description of the LDD. However, the simulated electron density of a non-vertical EAS is asymmetric. In this work, such asymmetry in the LDD can be qualitatively explained as the atmospheric attenuation suffered by each shower particle. Quantitatively, the asymmetry can be roughly described in terms of a gap length (GL) between the EAS core and the center of the modified density pattern consisting of several equi-density ellipses. This study also validates the use of such a modeling of the atmospheric attenuation on the electromagnetic component in an EAS by investigating the so called GL in simulated density data. A modified LDF is proposed, based on these features of the simulated densities for the purpose of shower reconstruction in EAS experiments. The GL arises from attenuation effect is found to increase with the mass of the shower initiating particle. A different radial dependence of the local age parameter (LAP) is seen, if the modified LDF is applied to simulated electron densities. Primary cosmic-ray mass sensitivity of the LAP is also re-examined.

  8. Ionization energy and active cation vibrations of trans-2-fluorostyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pei Ying; Tzeng, Sheng Yuan; Hsu, Ya Chu; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2017-02-01

    We applied the two-color resonant two-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) technique to record the cation spectra of trans-2-fluorostyrene by ionizing via six intermediate vibronic levels. The adiabatic ionization energy was determined to be 69 304 ± 5 cm-1. The distinct MATI bands at 67, 124, 242, 355, 737, 806, 833, and 993 cm-1 were assigned to the active cation vibrations related to out-of-plane substituent-sensitive bending vibrations and in-plane ring deformation and bending motions. Many combination vibrations were also observed. Our experimental results suggest that the molecular geometry and vibrational coordinates of the trans-2-fluorostyrene cation in the D0 state resemble those of the neutral species in the S1 state.

  9. Home Economics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document was developed to provide home economics teachers with background information on energy, and activities that can be used/adapted with a minimum of preparation time. The…

  10. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  11. Automatic and integrated micro-enzyme assay (AIμEA) platform for highly sensitive thrombin analysis via an engineered fluorescence protein-functionalized monolithic capillary column.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lihua; Liu, Shengquan; Nie, Zhou; Chen, Yingzhuang; Lei, Chunyang; Wang, Zhen; Yin, Chao; Hu, Huiping; Huang, Yan; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-04-21

    Nowadays, large-scale screening for enzyme discovery, engineering, and drug discovery processes require simple, fast, and sensitive enzyme activity assay platforms with high integration and potential for high-throughput detection. Herein, a novel automatic and integrated micro-enzyme assay (AIμEA) platform was proposed based on a unique microreaction system fabricated by a engineered green fluorescence protein (GFP)-functionalized monolithic capillary column, with thrombin as an example. The recombinant GFP probe was rationally engineered to possess a His-tag and a substrate sequence of thrombin, which enable it to be immobilized on the monolith via metal affinity binding, and to be released after thrombin digestion. Combined with capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF), all the procedures, including thrombin injection, online enzymatic digestion in the microreaction system, and label-free detection of the released GFP, were integrated in a single electrophoretic process. By taking advantage of the ultrahigh loading capacity of the AIμEA platform and the CE automatic programming setup, one microreaction column was sufficient for many times digestion without replacement. The novel microreaction system showed significantly enhanced catalytic efficiency, about 30 fold higher than that of the equivalent bulk reaction. Accordingly, the AIμEA platform was highly sensitive with a limit of detection down to 1 pM of thrombin. Moreover, the AIμEA platform was robust and reliable to detect thrombin in human serum samples and its inhibition by hirudin. Hence, this AIμEA platform exhibits great potential for high-throughput analysis in future biological application, disease diagnostics, and drug screening.

  12. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles.

  13. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  14. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory - Semiannual Report: April 1, 1990, Through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1990. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. MELs are equipped for the on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. This report describes the testing, test results, and suggested courses of action.

  15. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  16. Mass and charge distributions in chlorine-induced nuclear reactions. [[sup 35]Cl at E/A = 15 MeV, [sup 37]Cl at E/A = 7. 3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Projectile-like fragments were detected and characterized in terms of A, Z, and energy for the reactions [sup 37]Cl on [sup 40]Ca and [sup 209]Bi at E/A = 7.3 MeV, and [sup 35]Cl, on [sup 209]Bi at E/A = 15 MeV, at angles close to the grazing angle. Mass and charge distributions were generated in the N-Z plane as a function of energy loss, and have been parameterized in terms of their centroids, variances, and coefficients of correlation. Due to experimental problems, the mass resolution corresponding to the [sup 31]Cl on [sup 209]Bi reaction was very poor. This prompted the study and application of a deconvolution technique for peak enhancement. The drifts of the charge and mass centroids for the system [sup 37]Cl on [sup 40]Ca are consistent with a process of mass and charge equilibration mediated by nucleon exchange between the two partners, followed by evaporation. The asymmetric systems show a strong drift towards larger asymmetry, with the production of neutron-rich nuclei. It was concluded that this is indicative of a net transfer of protons from the light to the heavy partner, and a net flow of neutrons in the opposite direction. The variances for all systems increase with energy loss, as it would be expected from a nucleon exchange mechanism; however, the variances for the reaction [sup 37]Cl on [sup 40]Ca are higher than those expected from that mechanism. The coefficients of correlation indicate that the transfer of nucleons between projectile and target is correlated. The results were compared to the predictions of two current models based on a stochastic nucleon exchange mechanism. In general, the comparisons between experimental and predicted variances support this mechanism; however, the need for more realistic driving forces in the model calculations is indicated by the disagreement between predicted and experimental centroids.

  17. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  18. Activity related energy expenditure, appetite and energy intake: potential implications for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance.

  19. Homogeneous near surface activity distribution by double energy activation for TLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.

    2007-10-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a versatile tool for activating thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the activated parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal activity-depth distribution in the sample. Different activity-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce activity that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant activity layer can be increased or the deviation of the activity distribution from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct activation, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases activation of a point-like spot (several mm2) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be activated uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory.

  20. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  1. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching industrial arts/technology education. The activities are intended to present energy…

  2. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  3. Solar energy in Italy: A profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, C. A.

    1980-12-01

    The energy profile includes: imported energy sources; solar research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. The country overview includes: Italian Republic geopolitical analysis; economic analysis; and cultural aspects.

  4. Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Foston, Marcus; Bokade, Vijay; Azarpira, Ali; Lu, Fachuang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Ralph, John; Dale, Bruce; Balan, Venkatesh

    2016-05-05

    One of the key challenges facing lignin conversion to fuels and chemicals is related to the level of carbohydrate and ash impurities found in extracted lignin. Structural modifications of lignin may also occur as a result of biomass pretreatment and harsh lignin extraction protocols. Extractive-Ammonia (EA) is a new pretreatment technology that uses liquid ammonia to cleave lignin–carbohydrate complexes, decrystallize cellulose, solubilize lignin, and selectively extract lignin from lignocellulosic biomass, enabling better utilization of both lignin and carbohydrate components in a biorefinery. The EA-based biorefinery produces two different lignin-rich streams, with different properties, that could potentially be upgraded to fuels and chemicals using green processes. In this work, a water/ethanol-based fractionation method was developed to enrich the ammonia-soluble extractives, resulting in a major product stream containing 92% lignin. Detailed characterization of the various streams resulting from EA treatment, including compositional analysis, structural characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, elemental analysis, molecular weight analysis, and thermo-gravimetric analysis provides a broad evaluation of the EA-derived lignin product stream structures and properties, assessing their potential for commercial applications. In summary, EA-derived lignins preserve much of lignin's functionality, including the sensitive β-aryl ether units. Furthermore, nitrogen incorporation was observed in the lignin-rich streams, notably due to the presence of hydroxycinnamoyl amides formed during ammonia pretreatment.

  5. Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Foston, Marcus; Bokade, Vijay; ...

    2016-05-05

    One of the key challenges facing lignin conversion to fuels and chemicals is related to the level of carbohydrate and ash impurities found in extracted lignin. Structural modifications of lignin may also occur as a result of biomass pretreatment and harsh lignin extraction protocols. Extractive-Ammonia (EA) is a new pretreatment technology that uses liquid ammonia to cleave lignin–carbohydrate complexes, decrystallize cellulose, solubilize lignin, and selectively extract lignin from lignocellulosic biomass, enabling better utilization of both lignin and carbohydrate components in a biorefinery. The EA-based biorefinery produces two different lignin-rich streams, with different properties, that could potentially be upgraded to fuelsmore » and chemicals using green processes. In this work, a water/ethanol-based fractionation method was developed to enrich the ammonia-soluble extractives, resulting in a major product stream containing 92% lignin. Detailed characterization of the various streams resulting from EA treatment, including compositional analysis, structural characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, elemental analysis, molecular weight analysis, and thermo-gravimetric analysis provides a broad evaluation of the EA-derived lignin product stream structures and properties, assessing their potential for commercial applications. In summary, EA-derived lignins preserve much of lignin's functionality, including the sensitive β-aryl ether units. Furthermore, nitrogen incorporation was observed in the lignin-rich streams, notably due to the presence of hydroxycinnamoyl amides formed during ammonia pretreatment.« less

  6. Characterization of a new ViI-like Erwinia amylovora bacteriophage phiEa2809.

    PubMed

    Lagonenko, Alexander L; Sadovskaya, Olga; Valentovich, Leonid N; Evtushenkov, Anatoly N

    2015-04-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria causing fire blight disease in many Rosaceae species. A novel E. amylovora bacteriophage, phiEa2809, was isolated from symptomless apple leaf sample collected in Belarus. This phage was also able to infect Pantoea agglomerans strains. The genome of phiEa2809 is a double-stranded linear DNA 162,160 bp in length, including 145 ORFs and one tRNA gene. The phiEa2809 genomic sequence is similar to the genomes of the Serratia plymutica phage MAM1, Shigella phage AG-3, Dickeya phage vB DsoM LIMEstone1 and Salmonella phage ViI and lacks similarity to described E. amylovora phage genomes. Based on virion morphology (an icosahedral head, long contractile tail) and genome structure, phiEa2809 was classified as a member of Myoviridae, ViI-like bacteriophages group. PhiEa2809 is the firstly characterized ViI-like bacteriophage able to lyse E. amylovora.

  7. High-energy spectra of active nuclei. 1: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaguti, G.; Bassani, L.; Caroli, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of high-energy spectra (E is greater than or equal to 0.01 keV) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The catalog contains 209 objects (140 Seyfert galaxies, 65 quasars, and 4 objects otherwise classified), for a total of 1030 spectra. Most of the data have been collected from the literature over a period spanning more than 20 yr starting from the early 1970s up to the end of 1992. For a numbner of objects (17), EXOSAT/ME data have been extracted and analyzed, and the 27 spectra obtained have been added to the database. For each object we report individual observation spectral fit parameters using a power-law model corrected for cold gas absorption along the line of sight (photon index, 1 keV intensity and hydrogen column density), plus other relevant data. It is hoped that this database can become a useful tool for the study of the AGN phenomenon in its various aspects.

  8. High energy neutrinos from radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Mészáros, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Most active galactic nuclei (AGN) lack prominent jets, and show modest radio emission and significant x-ray emission which arises mainly from the galactic core, very near the central black hole. We use a quantitative scenario of such core-dominated radio-quiet AGN, which attributes a substantial fraction of the x-ray emission to the presence of abortive jets involving the collision of gas blobs in the core. Here we investigate the consequences of the acceleration of protons in the shocks from such collisions. We find that protons will be accelerated up to energies above the pion photoproduction threshold on both the x rays and the UV photons from the accretion disk. The secondary charged pions decay, producing neutrinos. We predict significant fluxes of TeV-PeV neutrinos, and show that the AMANDA II detector is already constraining several important astrophysical parameters of these sources. Larger cubic kilometer detectors such as IceCube will be able to detect such neutrinos in less than one year of operation, or otherwise rule out this scenario.

  9. Calculating activation energies for temperature compensation in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2011-10-01

    Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.

  10. Activation energy of methyl radical decay in methane hydrate.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Kei; Nango, Kouhei; Sugahara, Takeshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari; Tani, Atsushi

    2005-11-10

    The thermal stability of gamma-ray-induced methyl radicals in methane hydrate was studied using the ESR method at atmospheric pressure and 210-260 K. The methyl radical decay proceeded with the second-order reaction, and ethane molecules were generated from the dimerization process. The methyl radical decay proceeds by two different temperature-dependent processes, that is, the respective activation energies of these processes are 20.0 +/- 1.6 kJ/mol for the lower temperature region of 210-230 K and 54.8 +/- 5.7 kJ/mol for the higher temperature region of 235-260 K. The former agrees well with the enthalpy change of methane hydrate dissociation into ice and gaseous methane, while the latter agrees well with the enthalpy change into liquid water and gaseous methane. The present findings reveal that methane hydrates dissociate into liquid (supercooled) water and gaseous methane in the temperature range of 235-260 K.

  11. Some New Observations on Activation Energy of Crystal Growth for Thermally Activated Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Kumar, A

    2016-02-18

    Calorimetric study of glass/crystal phase transformation in disordered semiconductors is a significant tool for understanding their crystallization kinetics. Such studies provide the basis for practical application of glasses. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is one of the advanced techniques for the analysis of thermally induced crystallization in glassy or amorphous systems. We are reporting the nonisothermal DSC measurements on four amorphous systems of Se70Te30 alloy with Ag, Cd, Sb, and Zn as chemical modifiers. In general, the rate constant (K) shows Arrhenian dependence on temperature (T), i.e., K = K0 exp (-Eg/RT) where Eg is the activation energy of crystal growth and K0 is called the pre-exponential factor of rate constant. In the present work, an experiment is designed to see the effect of composition on the activation energy of crystal growth. We have found Meyer-Neldel relation (MNR) between Eg and K0 for present systems. Another interesting feature of present work is the observation of further relation between Meyer-Neldel prefactor and Meyer-Neldel energy.

  12. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  13. 75 FR 54116 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Powerex Corp

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-22064] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-171-C] Application To Export Electric... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA...)). On February 25, 1998, the DOE issued Order No. EA-171 which authorized Powerex to transmit...

  14. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  15. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-four multidisciplinary activities for grades seven through twelve are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I helps students understand energy and the current crisis by studying laws which govern energy flow and using examples of how these laws illustrate stable energy utilization…

  16. Energy in the Classroom, Vol. I, Activities Guide for K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kathy Baker; Sherman, Deborah Fick

    This booklet is a teacher's guide for teaching about energy, types of energy, sources of energy, and ways to conserve energy. It is designed for students in grades K-3. Included are a variety of activities, sheets that can be copied for handouts, and a bibliography of student references. (RH)

  17. Energy in the Classroom, Vol. II, Activities Guide for 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kathy Baker; Sherman, Deborah Fick

    This booklet is a teacher's guide for teaching about energy, types of energy, sources of energy, and ways to conserve energy. It is designed for students in grades 4-7. Included are a variety of activities, sheets that can be copied for handouts, and a bibliography of student references. (RH)

  18. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-seven multidisciplinary activities for grades K-6 are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I introduces students to the topic of energy by emphasizing human interaction with the environment. It focuses on personal energy, food as the source of human energy, food chains, and the sun as…

  19. Integrated one-pot enrichment and immobilization of styrene monooxygenase (StyA) using SEPABEAD EC-EA and EC-Q1A anion-exchange carriers.

    PubMed

    Ruinatscha, Reto; Karande, Rohan; Buehler, Katja; Schmid, Andreas

    2011-07-18

    A straightforward one-pot procedure combining enrichment and immobilization of recombinantely expressed FADH₂ dependent styrene monooxygenase (StyA) directly from Escherichia coli cell extracts was investigated. Sepabeads EC-EA and EC-Q1A anion-exchange carriers were employed to non-covalently adsorb StyA from the cell extracts depending on basic parameters such as varying initial protein concentrations and pH. The protein fraction of the cell extract contained around 25% StyA. At low initial protein concentrations (2.5 mg mL⁻¹) and pH 6, the enzyme could be enriched up to 52.4% on Sepabeads EC-EA and up to 46.0% on Sepabeads EC-Q1A, accounting for an almost complete StyA adsorption from the cell extracts. Higher initial protein concentrations were necessary to exploit the high loading capacity of the beads. At 20 mg mL⁻¹, up to 37.6% of the theoretical bead loading capacity could be utilized for StyA binding using Sepabeads EC-EA, and 34.0% using Sepabeads EC-Q1A. For both carriers, protein leakage under reaction conditions could be reduced to less than 2%. During assays, the FADH₂ cofactor necessary for StyA activity was supplied by the NADH-FAD reductase component styrene monooxygenase B (StyB). StyA immobilized on Sepabeads EC-Q1A displayed twice as high styrene epoxidation rates (0.2 U mg(StyA)⁻¹) as compared to Sepabeads EC-EA. This activity could be increased to 0.7 U mg(StyA)⁻¹ by co-immobilizing StyB on Sepabeads EC-Q1A, which corresponds to 33% of the soluble StyA activity.

  20. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  1. Vaccarin attenuates the human EA.hy926 endothelial cell oxidative stress injury through inhibition of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fengshan; Cai, Weiwei; Liu, Yanling; Li, Yue; Du, Bin; Feng, Lei; Qiu, Liying

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell injury is an essential component of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Atherosclerosis and other macrovascular diseases are the most common complications of diabetes. Vaccarin is a major flavonoid glycoside in Vaccariae semen, and is expected to be useful in the treatment of vascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effects of vaccarin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926) induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and its underlying mechanism in the prevention and treatment of H2O2 injury. In this study, the EA.hy926 cells were exposed to 250, 500 and 1000 µM H2O2 for 2 and 4 h in the absence or presence of vaccarin, and the cell injury induced by H2O2 was examined via SRB. Cell migratory ability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated by the wound healing assay and corresponding assay kits. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide Apoptosis Detection kit and Hoechst staining. Furthermore, western blot detected the protein expressions of Notch1, Hes1 and caspase-3. Following treatment with H2O2, it was found that H2O2 stimulated cell injury in a dose-dependent manner, including reducing cell viability and cell migratory ability, increasing LDH leakage and MDA levels, and decreasing SOD activity. H2O2 further accelerated cell apoptosis via activation of Notch1 and the downstream molecule Hes1. Preincubation with vaccarin was found to protect EA.hy926 cells from H2O2-induced cell oxidative stress injury, which promoted cell viability and cell migratory ability, inhibited the level of LDH and MDA, but enhanced the activity of SOD. In particular, in addition to downregulation Notch signaling, vaccarin treatments also downregulated caspase-3, a cell apoptotic pathway-related protein. These findings indicated that vaccarin may be able to selectively protect

  2. New aspects in nucleon-nucleus collisions and EAS properties around 10(6) GeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capdevielle, J. N.; Gawin, J.

    1985-01-01

    At energies higher than 2 x 10 to the 5 GeV, very little information exists on detailed properties of nucleon-nucleon collision; the rare elements are coming from jets, and, as nondirect improvements from gamma-ray families. The results exhibit some conflicting features, or, at least, very large fluctuations like copious production of gamma-rays in opposition to Centauro-like events, sometimes suggest that phase transition to quark gluon plasma occurs in nucleus-nucleus collisions and even in nucleon-nucleus collision. The multicluster phenomenological model (MPM) extrapolated for extensive air showers EAS simulation up to 5 x 10 to the 6 GeV to put in evidence some significant deviation between experimental data and prediction.

  3. Activities of the U. S. Department of Energy in education. Annual status report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The energy-related education activities administered in FY 1979 by DOE are described: projections for FY 1980 are also given. This document provides assistance for DOE program managers who wish to use the educational process in their operations, and it provides guidance and information to educators and the general public about DOE energy-related education activities. The education activities are classified as energy information (curriculum packages, studies, workshops and forums conferences, other materials), energy skills development, institutional resource enhancement, and other activities. A chart gives the category of activity, type of audience, and type of services provided. (RWR)

  4. Effect of low frequency noise on the echocardiographic parameter E/A ratio.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pao-Chiang; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Juang, Yow-Jer; Hu, Ching-Yao; Chen, Chiou-Jong

    2012-01-01

    The hearing condition of the Taiwanese aerospace maintenance workers affected by the low frequency noise had not been reported. The purpose of this research is to clarify the maintenance workers' health effect when exposed to low frequency and/or general noises and to understand the relationship between the variations of the worker's echocardiographic E/A ratio and the low frequency noise. The low frequency noise monitoring and echocardiographic E/A ratio results obtained for 213 aerospace maintenance workers indicated that the workers' hearing loss was more serious at high frequency 4k and 6k when exposed to the low frequency noise and could be more than 40 dB. The abnormality of echocardiographic E/A ratio was also higher than that of control group.

  5. Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xin-Lin; Jin, Wu-Yin; Ma, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh-Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372122 and 11365014).

  6. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  7. Probing Quark-Gluon Structure of Matter with e-p and e-A Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the strong interaction (QCD) in the truly strong ('non-perturbative') region remains a major challenge in modern physics. Nucleon and nuclei provide natural laboratories to study the strong interaction. The quark-gluon structure of the nucleon and nuclei are important by themselves since they are the main (>99%) part of the visible world. With electroweak interaction well-understood, e-p and e-A are clean means to probe the nucleon and nuclear structure and to study the strong interaction (QCD). Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinally-polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions (PDFs). It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse structure (both transverse spatial structure via generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse momentum structure via transverse- momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs)) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction(QCD). The transverse spin, GPDs and TMDs have been the subjects of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With 12 GeV energy upgrade, Jefferson Lab (JLab) will provide the most precise multi-dimensional map of the TMDs and GPDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) and Deep-Exclusive experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum and spatial spaces. The precision information on TMDs and GPDs will provide access to the quark orbital angular momentum and its correlation with the quark and the nucleon spins. The planned future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) will enable a precision study of the TMDs and GPDs of the sea quarks and gluons, in addition to completing the study in the valence region. The EIC will also open a new window to study the role of gluons in nuclei.

  8. Environmental Assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies across the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), for the proposed granting of DOE permission of offloading activities to support the movement Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies (SGSAs) across the Savannah River Site (SRS). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact. On the basis of the floodplain/wetlands assessment in the EA, DOE has determined that there is no practicable alternative to the proposed activities and that the proposed action has been designed to minimize potential harm to or within the floodplain of the SRS boat ramp. No wetlands on SRS would be affected by the proposed action.

  9. Design and Development of an Affective Interface for Supporting Energy-saving Activities and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kyoko; Tomita, Daisuke; Imaki, Tomotaka; Hongo, Taishiro; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    Toward a sustainable society, energy and environmental issues are very important and controversial problems, and it is expected to support various human activities for the measures by using Information Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an affective interface for supporting people's energy-saving activities. First, a model for supporting people's energy-saving activities involving affective elements has been constructed for supporting people's energy-saving activities, based on social psychological approaches. Based on the proposed model, the requirements on an affective interface for people's energy-saving activities have been considered. In this study, the affective interface presents suitable energy-saving activities and current electric energy consumption by a character agent with a graphical shape and synthesized voice. The character agent recommends people's energy-saving activities, tells the method of energy-saving activities and the effectiveness, and so on. The affective interface for supporting energy-saving activities has been designed in detail and developed. Then, the evaluation experiment of the developed interface has been conducted, and the results of the experiments were analyzed.

  10. Discrimination in Degradability of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter Follows a Return-On-Energy-Investment Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Omar R.; Myers-Pigg, Allison N.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Kuehn, Kevin A.; Louchouarn, Patrick

    2016-08-16

    A fundamental understanding of biodegradability is central to elucidating the role(s) of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) in biogeochemical cycles. Since microbial community and ecosystem dynamics are driven by net energy flows, then a quantitative assessment of energy value versus energy requirement for oxidation of PyOM should yield important insights into their biodegradability. We used bomb calorimetry, step-wise isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (isoTGA) and 5-year in-situ bidegradation data, to develop energy-biodegradability relationships for a suite of plant- and manure-derived PyOM (n = 10). The net energy value (ΔE) for PyOM was between 4.0 and 175 kJ mol-1; with manure-derived PyOM having the highest ΔE. Thermal-oxidation activation energy (Ea) requirements ranged from 51 to 125 kJ mol-1, with wood-derived PyOM having the highest Ea requirements. We propose a return-on-investment (ROI) parameter (ΔE/Ea) for differentiating short-to-medium term biodegradability of PyOM and deciphering if biodegradation will most likely proceed via co-metabolism (ROI < 1) or direct metabolism (ROI ≥ 1). The ROI-biodegradability relationship was sigmoidal with higher biodegradability associated with PyOM of higher ROI; indicating that microbes exhibit a higher preference for “high investment value” PyOM.

  11. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides learning activities for teachers to use with students in industrial arts/technology education. Each of the 17…

  12. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3).

  13. Temporal and lateral distributions of EAS neutron component measured with PRISMA-32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromushkin, D. M.; Bogdanov, F. A.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shchegolev, O. B.; Stenkin, Yu V.; Stepanov, V. I.; Yashin, I. I.; Yurin, K. O.

    2017-01-01

    Some results on the EAS neutron component measurements by means of the PRISMA-32 array are presented. The array consists of 32 electron-neutron detectors (en-detectors) capable to detect two main EAS components: electromagnetic one consisting of charged particles, and hadronic one by measuring delayed thermal neutrons accompanying the showers. For thermal neutrons detection, a compound of a well-known inorganic scintillator ZnS(Ag) and LiF, enriched to 90 % with 6Li isotope is used. The setup allows us to record neutron component over the whole array area.

  14. Muon fluctuation studies of EAS 10(17) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, P. R.; Luksys, M.; Nash, W. F.; Sephton, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Fluctuation studies need to compare a parameter which is sensitive to longitudinal fluctuations against a parameter which is insensitive. Cascade calculations indicate that the shower size parameter at Haverah Park, rho (500), and the muon density are insensitive while parameters that significantly reflect the longitudinal development of a particular extensive air shower (EAS) include the muon/water Cerenkov response ratio and the muon arrival time dispersion. This paper presents conclusions based on muon fluctuation studies of EAS measured between 1976 and 1981 at Haverah Park.

  15. Investigation of the Muon Pseudorapidities in EAS with the Muon Tracking Detector of the KASCADE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabierowski, J.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W. D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Büttner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Feßler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K-H.; Klages, H. O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Müller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Vardanyan, A.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.

    2003-07-01

    High angular accuracy of muon track measurements in KASCADE Muon Tracking Detector (MTD), together with the high precision in determination of the shower direction and shower core position, allow to investigate the pseudorapidity of muons in EAS using the concept of radial and tangential angles. Preliminary results of the pseudorapidity distribution of muons registered by the KASCADE experiment are presented. Mean muon pseudorapidity values at different stages of the longitudinal development of the EAS cascade are calculated using additionally the reconstructed muon production height provided by the MTD data. experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Case histories of EA documents for nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vocke, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear power programs and policies in the United States have been subject to environmental assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) since 1971. NEPA documentation prepared for programmatic policy decision-making within the nuclear fuel cycle and concurrent federal policy are examined as they relate to radioactive waste management in this paper. Key programmatic environmental impact statements that address radioactive waste management include: the Atomic Energy Commission document on management of commercial high-level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive waste, which focussed on development of engineered retrievable surface storage facilities (RSSF); the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) document on use of recycled plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors, which focussed on plutonium recycle and RSSF; the NRC statement on handling of spent light water power reactor fuel, which focussed on spent fuel storage; and the Department of Energy (DOE) statement on management of commercially generated radioactive wastes, which focussed on development of deep geologic repositories. DOE is currently pursuing the deep geologic repository option, with monitored retrievable storage as a secondary option.

  17. Communicating Wave Energy: An Active Learning Experience for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Trongnghia; Hou, Gene; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an education project to communicate the wave energy concept to high school students. A virtual reality system that combines both hardware and software is developed in this project to simulate the buoy-wave interaction. This first-of-its-kind wave energy unit is portable and physics-based, allowing students to conduct a number of…

  18. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... Washington, DC on October 18, 2011. Anne Harrington, Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P...

  19. Expression of an early Epstein-Barr virus antigen (EA-D) in E. coli. Brief report.

    PubMed

    Roeckel, D; Boos, H; Mueller-Lantzsch, N

    1987-01-01

    The 1.34 kb BcII-BgIII-fragment of the BamHI-M region of Epstein-Barr virus genome, comprising the complete BMRF1 open reading frame, was cloned into the tryptophan regulated E. coli expression vector pATH1. The resulting fusion protein, having a molecular weight of 80 kd, is recognized not only by anti-early antigen (EA)-positive human sera but also by the monoclonal antibody R3 directed against the diffuse component of EA (EA-D). A possible use for this fusion protein as an indicator protein in diagnosis of IgA antibodies against EA-D is presented.

  20. Mississippi Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Report. A snap shot of related activities in the state of Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Sumesh M.; Linton, Joseph A.

    2011-05-11

    In recent years, due to concerns over national security from both economic and military standpoints, increased attention has been given to the production of renewable energy in order to reduce American dependence on foreign supplies of energy. These concerns, along with those related to the effect of fossil fuels on the environment, have served to heighten the enthusiasm for finding replacements for traditional energy sources, along with helping to highlight the need for energy efficiency in American homes and businesses. Throughout the nation, this has been exemplified in an increased entrepreneurial activity to produce liquid fuels, thermal energy and electricity from a vast range of sources such as plants, trees, bacteria, the sun, wind, waves and the Earth itself. Coupled with tax subsidies, loan guarantees, renewable fuel standards, and various other government incentives and legislative encouragements we have seen a big jump in the production of renewable energy in the United States in the last ten years. But we are just getting started!

  1. U.S. Department of Energy thermal energy storage research activities review: 1989 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.W.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offers the opportunity for the recovery and re-use of heat currently rejected to the ambient environment. Further, through the ability of TES to match an energy supply with a thermal energy demand, TES increases efficiencies of energy systems and improves capacity factors of power plants. The US Department of Energy has been the leader in TES research, development, and demonstration since recognition in 1976 of the need for fostering energy conservation as a component of the national energy budget. The federal program on TES R and D is the responsibility of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The overall program is organized into three program areas: diurnal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat for use in residential and commercial buildings on a daily cycle; industrial--relating primarily to higher temperature heat for use in industrial and utility processes on an hourly to daily cycle; seasonal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat or chill for use in residential complexes (central supply as for apartments or housing developments), commercial (light manufacturing, processing, or retail), and industrial (space conditioning) on a seasonal to annual cycle. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  3. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  4. Identification of general linear relationships between activation energies and enthalpy changes for dissociation reactions at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Angelos; Liu, Z-P; Zhang, C J; Alavi, Ali; King, David A; Hu, P

    2003-04-02

    The activation energy to reaction is a key quantity that controls catalytic activity. Having used ab inito calculations to determine an extensive and broad ranging set of activation energies and enthalpy changes for surface-catalyzed reactions, we show that linear relationships exist between dissociation activation energies and enthalpy changes. Known in the literature as empirical Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relationships, we identify and discuss the physical origin of their presence in heterogeneous catalysis. The key implication is that merely from knowledge of adsorption energies the barriers to catalytic elementary reaction steps can be estimated.

  5. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer.

  6. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  7. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004), 10.1080/08927020412331294869]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  8. A summary of USSR thermionic energy conversion activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasor, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the research and development associated with thermionic energy conversion in the USSR. Consideration is given to the basic physics of the thermionic converter, the development of thermionic nuclear reactors including the three TOPAZ models, radioisotope-heated generators, and the thermionic topping of fossil-fueled electric-power plants. Comparisons are made between U.S. and USSR capabilities in thermionic energy conversion and potential cooperative programs are noted.

  9. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  10. Energy Expenditure of Selected Household Activities during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Freedson, Patty S.; Roberts, Dawn E.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Fragala, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurately measuring pregnancy physical activity is critical to assess the percentage of pregnant women meeting the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines. In addition, valid assessment of pregnancy physical activity is important for epidemiologic studies assessing the relationship between physical activity and…

  11. Energy and Change. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 3 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  12. 25. C.W. Todd and E.A. Rand, May 1902 'OUTLINE,' SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. C.W. Todd and E.A. Rand, May 1902 'OUTLINE,' SHOWING END AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF THE 4,000-VOLT, ATB-TYPE GENERATORS (4 AND 5) - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  13. 47 CFR 90.359 - Field strength limits for EA-licensed LMS systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Field strength limits for EA-licensed LMS systems. 90.359 Section 90.359 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio...

  14. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA AND CFC-114 IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a heat transfer evaluation of the refrigerants hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea) and 1,1,2,2-dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114). (NOTE: With the mandatory phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), as dictated by the Montreal Protocol and Clean Air Act Ame...

  15. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section 101.1317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems...

  16. 47 CFR 90.763 - EA, Regional and nationwide system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authorized pursuant to § 90.761 may construct and operate any number of land mobile or paging base stations...-nationwide base stations as follows: (i) The EA or Regional licensee must locate its land mobile or paging base stations, or fixed stations transmitting on base station transmit frequencies, at least 120...

  17. 47 CFR 90.763 - EA, Regional and nationwide system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authorized pursuant to § 90.761 may construct and operate any number of land mobile or paging base stations...-nationwide base stations as follows: (i) The EA or Regional licensee must locate its land mobile or paging base stations, or fixed stations transmitting on base station transmit frequencies, at least 120...

  18. 47 CFR 90.763 - EA, Regional and nationwide system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... authorized pursuant to § 90.761 may construct and operate any number of land mobile or paging base stations...-nationwide base stations as follows: (i) The EA or Regional licensee must locate its land mobile or paging base stations, or fixed stations transmitting on base station transmit frequencies, at least 120...

  19. 47 CFR 90.763 - EA, Regional and nationwide system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... authorized pursuant to § 90.761 may construct and operate any number of land mobile or paging base stations...-nationwide base stations as follows: (i) The EA or Regional licensee must locate its land mobile or paging base stations, or fixed stations transmitting on base station transmit frequencies, at least 120...

  20. Evaluation of EA-934NA with 2.5 percent Cab-O-Sil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Gordon A.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, Hysol adhesive EA-934NA is used to bond the Field Joint Protection System on the Shuttle rocket motors at Kennedy Space Center. However, due to processing problems, an adhesive with a higher viscosity is needed to alleviate these difficulties. One possible solution is to add Cab-O-Sil to the current adhesive. The adhesive strength and bond strengths that can be obtained when 2.5 percent Cab-O-Sil is added to adhesive EA-934NA are examined and tested over a range of test temperatures from -20 to 300 F. Tensile adhesion button and lap shear specimens were bonded to D6AC steel and uniaxial tensile specimens (testing for strength, initial tangent modulus, elongation and Poisson's ratio) were prepared using Hysol adhesive EA-934NA with 2.5 percent Cab-O-Sil added. These specimens were tested at -20, 20, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200, 250, and 300 F, respectively. Additional tensile adhesion button specimens bonding Rust-Oleum primed and painted D6AC steel to itself and to cork using adhesive EA-934NA with 2.5 percent Cab-O-Sil added were tested at 20, 75, 125, 200, and 300 F, respectively. Results generally show decreasing strength values with increasing test temperatures. The bond strengths obtained using cork as a substrate were totally dependent on the cohesive strength of the cork.

  1. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...), that the proposal will have a significant environmental impact upon the quality of the human...); findings of no significant impact. 1.1308 Section 1.1308 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... significant impact. (a) Applicants shall prepare EAs for actions that may have a significant...

  2. 78 FR 70529 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Cotton... Service (ARS) has made a FONSI for transferring the land and real estate at the Cotton Quality Research... and facilities at the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) from the USDA Agricultural...

  3. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE ENHANCED TUBES IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the heat transfer performance of pure hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea for high performance enhanced tubes which had not been previously used in Navy shipboard chillers. Shell-side heat transfer coefficient data are presented for condensa...

  4. NEW CHEMICAL ALTERNATIVE FOR OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES: HFC-236EA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a preliminary evaluation of a new hydrofluorocarbon (HFC-236ea or 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3-hexafluoropropane) as a possible alternative for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 (1, 2-dichloro-1, 1, 2, 2-tetrafluoroethane) refrigerant in chillers and high-temperature i...

  5. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  8. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  9. 7 CFR 520.6 - Preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... may have a significant environmental impact and thus warrant preparation of an EIS. The EA will... need for the project or other proposal, alternatives, environmental impacts of the proposed action and... or that no significant environmental impact will occur, and will document the decision and...

  10. 47 CFR 11.54 - EAS operation during a National Level emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... systems, digital cable systems, and wireless cable systems shall transmit all EAS announcements visually... letters and analog cable systems, digital cable systems and wireless cable systems may transmit the names... analog cable systems, digital cable systems and wireless cable systems operating and identified with...

  11. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Public Works Facility, City of West Wendover, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-11

    be approximately 10 feet bgs. The scoping discussions did not identify any issues related to quantity of water, groundwater, or wellhead protection ...Act EA Environmental Assessment EIAP Environmental Impact Analysis Process EIS Environmental Impact Statement EPA Environmental Protection Agency...Nevada, implemented by the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Protection . • Safety guidelines of the

  12. 47 CFR 90.691 - Emission mask requirements for EA-based systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... frequency block greater than 37.5 kHz, the power of any emission shall be attenuated below the transmitter... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission mask requirements for EA-based systems... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing Licensing and Use...

  13. 76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and... of Transportation. ACTIONS: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code Sec. 4321-4347 (as amended), Council on Environmental Quality...

  14. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR..., fees, bonds and royalties; (5) Management, formulation, allocation, transfer and reprogramming of the... materials and structures in order to restore natural conditions when such removal has no potential...

  15. COMPARISON OF CFC-114 AND HFC-236EA PERFORMANCE IN SHIPBOARD VAPOR COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of the performance of two refrigerants - 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea) and 1,2-dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114) - in shipboard vapor compression refrigeration systems. (NOTE: In compliance with the Montreal Protocol and Dep...

  16. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... materials and structures in order to restore natural conditions when such removal has no potential for..., installation of traffic control devices, and repair/replacement of guardrails, culverts, signs, and other...

  17. 75 FR 45075 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Register on July 9, 2010 (75 FR 39472), and applies to certain Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. (Eclipse) Model... Reduction Modification per any revision level of Eclipse SB 500-99-001'' instead of ``000039 through...

  18. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emergency. 11.55 Section 11.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT... include: Toxic gas leaks or liquid spills, widespread power failures, industrial explosions, and civil... State Relay Network or follow the State EAS plan for instructions from the State Primary (SP) source....

  19. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency. 11.55 Section 11.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT... leaks or liquid spills, widespread power failures, industrial explosions, and civil disorders. (1) DBS... (SR) sources monitor the State Relay Network or follow the State EAS plan for instructions from...

  20. 47 CFR 11.55 - EAS operation during a State or Local Area emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... emergency. 11.55 Section 11.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT... include: Toxic gas leaks or liquid spills, widespread power failures, industrial explosions, and civil... State Relay Network or follow the State EAS plan for instructions from the State Primary (SP) source....