Science.gov

Sample records for activation energy analysis

  1. Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) was calculated from temperature sweeps of cheeses with contrasting characteristics to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Cheddar, Colby, whole milk Mozzarella, low moisture part skim Mozzarella, Parmesan, soft goat, and Queso Fre...

  2. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  3. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  4. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  5. Energy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    1981-01-01

    The Aquatic Center at Corvallis (Oregon) is analyzed for energy use. Energy conservation in the building would be accomplished best through heavy insulation of exterior surfaces and the maximization of passive solar gain. (Author/MLF)

  6. Importance of neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis in relatively dry, low-porosity rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Philbin, P.W.; Boynton, G.R.; Wager, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of variations in the neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis, capture gamma-ray measurements were made in relatively dry, low-porosity gabbro of the Duluth Complex. Although sections of over a meter of solid rock were encountered in the borehole, there was significant fracturing with interstitial water leading to a substantial variation of water with depth in the borehole. The linear-correlation coefficients calculated for the peak intensities of several elements compared to the chemical core analyses were generally poor throughout the depth investigated. The data suggest and arguments are given which indicate that the variation of the thermal-to-intermediate-to-fast neutron flux density as a function of borehole depth is a serious source of error and is a major cause of the changes observed in the capture gamma-ray peak intensities. These variations in neutron energy may also cause a shift in the observed capture gamma-ray energy.

  7. [Energy index of heart rate spectral analysis for the assessment of autonomic nerve activities].

    PubMed

    Naito, T

    1991-02-01

    Heart rate spectral analysis was performed in 17 male healthy volunteers by changing their positions (supine or standing) and respiratory rates (8, 10, 12, 15 and 20 bpm). Furthermore, analysis was made by a multiple regression method on parameters such as R-R interval, tidal volume, respiratory time and positions of the subjects which may contribute to the peak power values of high frequency components (HFC, synchronous with respiratory patterns and of low frequency components (LFC, about 0.1Hz). HFC power was found to be significantly dependent on R-R interval and respiratory time, but not on tidal volume or position. Following equation was obtained. HFCP = 11.3 X RTX (RR-0.246) HFCP: HFC power value (msec) RT: respiratory time (sec) RR: R-R interval (sec) Therefore, HFCP or area under the curve (AUC) of HFC is not appropriate for the assessment of autonomic nerve activities, especially when respiratory rate or heart rate is changing. The intensity of physical wave is in proportion to (amplitude X frequency). Consequently, in a case where frequency is changeable, (amplitude X frequency) is a good index of the oscillatory energy. Therefore, sigma (power X frequency) is proposed as a suitable index for a certain component of power-spectrum. Parasympathetic activity should be assessed by the following index induced from the previously mentioned equation. RR adjusted HFEI (high frequency energy index) = sigma (power X frequency)/(RR-0.246) (0.15Hz less than frequency less than 0.4Hz). Similarly, low frequency components which reflect the sympathetic activity should be assessed by the following equation. LFEI (low frequency energy index) = sigma (power X frequency) (0.05Hz less than frequency less than 0.15Hz). The assessment of autonomic nerve activities becomes more appropriate by using these indices especially when heart rate and respiratory rate are changing.

  8. Large-activation-energy analysis of gaseous reactive flow in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Boza, Daniel; Iglesias, Immaculada; Sanchez, Antonio L.

    2016-11-01

    Frank-Kamenetskii's analysis of thermal explosions is applied, using also a single-reaction model with an Arrhenius rate having a large activation energy, to describe the evolution of an initially cold gaseous mixture flowing along a circular pipe with constant wall temperature for moderately large values of the relevant Reynolds number. The analysis shows two modes of combustion. There is a flameless slowly reacting mode for low wall temperatures or small pipe radii, when the temperature rise resulting from the heat released by the reaction is kept small by the heat-conduction losses to the wall, so as not to change significantly the order of magnitude of the reaction rate. In the other mode, the slow reaction rates occur only in an initial ignition stage, which ends abruptly when very large reaction rates cause a temperature runaway, or thermal explosion, at a well-defined ignition distance. The analysis determines the slow streamwise evolution for the flameless mode of combustion as well as the ignition distance for the explosive mode.

  9. Metabolomics analysis of Cistus monspeliensis leaf extract on energy metabolism activation in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells.

  10. Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

  11. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  12. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  13. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  14. Energy Model of Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Romanyshyn, Yuriy; Smerdov, Andriy; Petrytska, Svitlana

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of the neurophysiological strength-duration (amplitude-duration) curve of neuron activation (which relates the threshold amplitude of a rectangular current pulse of neuron activation to the pulse duration), as well as with the use of activation energy constraint (the threshold curve corresponds to the energy threshold of neuron activation by a rectangular current pulse), an energy model of neuron activation by a single current pulse has been constructed. The constructed model of activation, which determines its spectral properties, is a bandpass filter. Under the condition of minimum-phase feature of the neuron activation model, on the basis of Hilbert transform, the possibilities of phase-frequency response calculation from its amplitude-frequency response have been considered. Approximation to the amplitude-frequency response by the response of the Butterworth filter of the first order, as well as obtaining the pulse response corresponding to this approximation, give us the possibility of analyzing the efficiency of activating current pulses of various shapes, including analysis in accordance with the energy constraint.

  15. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  16. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  17. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Melon (Citrullus colocynthis L.) Seed Husk Using the Distributed Activation Energy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to characterize the thermochemical fuel properties of melon seed husk (MSH) as a potential biomass feedstock for clean energy and power generation. It examined the ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal decomposition of MSH. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was examined at 5, 10, 20 °C/min from 30-800 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, the Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) was applied to determine the activation energy, E, and frequency factor, A. The results revealed that thermal decomposition of MSH occurs in three (3) stages; drying (30-150 °C), devolatization (150-400 °C) and char degradation (400-800 °C). Kinetic analysis revealed that the E values fluctuated from 145.44-300 kJ/mol (Average E = 193 kJ/mol) while A ranged from 2.64 × 1010 to 9.18 × 1020 min-1 (Average E = 9.18 × 1019 min-1) highlighting the complexity of MSH pyrolysis. The fuel characterization and kinetics of MSH showed it is an environmentally friendly solid biofuel for future thermal biomass conversion.

  18. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides…

  19. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  20. On the analysis of activation energy of PS 35000 in various solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanaban, R.; Venkatramanan, K.

    2015-08-01

    Polymer is a macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Polystyrene is a polymer of styrene. Polystyrene has very low impact strength. Polystyrene generally leads to lower tensile strength, crystal grades being stiff and brittle. It is used to construct clamshell packs, cookie trays, cups, forks, spoons, cushioning materials for packaging, disposable medical devices, egg cartons, fast food containers, lids, lunch boxes, meat trays and also used in civil construction (concrete form-work or weight reduction on foundations). In the present study an attempt has been made to compute the viscosity of Polystyrene (PS 35000) in toluene and benzene in different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% & 2.5%) at different temperatures (303 K, 308 K, 313 K & 318 K). From these experimental data the activation energy is calculated and the effect of solvent is analysed.

  1. Building energy analysis tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  2. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  3. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  4. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  5. Reactivity and regioselectivity in reactions of methyl and ethyl azides with cyclooctynes: activation strain model and energy decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    de S Vilhena, Felipe; de M Carneiro, José Walkimar

    2017-01-01

    The structures and energies for the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of methyl and ethyl azides with some cyclooctynes and dibenzocyclooctynes were computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The activation strain model (ASM) and quantitative molecular orbital (MO) theory were used to investigate the reactivity and regiochemistry in these reactions. The energy decomposition analysis (EDA) was used to identify the intrinsic electronic factor that lead to the preferential formation of 1,7-regiochemistry products. The reactivity order agrees with formation of more synchronous transition states and lower distortion energies. For the reaction of N3Met with azacyclooctyne, the 1,7-regiochemistry preference is attributed to a lower FMO gap and a higher contribution of the polarization term of the interaction energy than for the 1,8-transition state. For the reaction with aza-dibenzocyclooctyne, the 1,7-preference is due to a lower strain energy and a more pronounced contribution of the exchange term of the interaction energy. Graphical Abstract In the reactions between methyl and ethyl azides with azacyclooctynes the regiochemistry is governed by the intrinsic electronic factors.

  6. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  7. Federal Assistance Program Quarterly Project Progress Report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information Dissemination, Public Outreach, and Technical Analysis Activities. Reporting Period: January 1 - March 31, 2001 [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    The final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  8. Effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetics of organic solid wastes using thermogravimetric analysis and distributed activation energy model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Mei, Qingqing; Dai, Xiaohu; Ding, Guoji

    2017-03-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis, Gaussian-fit-peak model (GFPM), and distributed activation energy model (DAEM) were firstly used to explore the effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetic of four organic solid wastes (OSW). Results showed that the OSW weight loss mainly occurred in the second pyrolysis stage relating to organic matter decomposition. Compared with raw substrate, the weight loss of corresponding digestate was lower in the range of 180-550°C, but was higher in 550-900°C. GFPM analysis revealed that organic components volatized at peak temperatures of 188-263, 373-401 and 420-462°C had a faster degradation rate than those at 274-327°C during anaerobic digestion. DAEM analysis showed that anaerobic digestion had discrepant effects on activation energy for four OSW pyrolysis, possibly because of their different organic composition. It requires further investigation for the special organic matter, i.e., protein-like and carbohydrate-like groups, to confirm the assumption.

  9. Statistical Energy Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, R. C.; Trudell, R. W.; Yano, L. I.; Nygaard, S. I.

    1985-01-01

    Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is powerful tool for estimating highfrequency vibration spectra of complex structural systems and incorporated into computer program. Basic SEA analysis procedure divided into three steps: Idealization, parameter generation, and problem solution. SEA computer program written in FORTRAN V for batch execution.

  10. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-02

    DOE2.1E-121SUNOS is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating, cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS).

  11. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R. L.

    1990-09-01

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  12. Energy dependence of hadronic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, T. A.; Groom, D. E.; Job, P. K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Stevenson, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Two features of high-energy hadronic cascades have long been known to shielding specialists: a) in a high-energy hadronic cascade in a given material (incident E ≳ 10 GeV), the relative abundance and spectrum of each hadronic species responsible for most of the energy deposition is independent of the energy or species of the incident hadron, and b) because π0 production bleeds off more and more energy into the electromagnetic sector as the energy of the incident hadron increases, the absolute level of this low-energy hadronic activity ( E ≲ 1 GeV) rises less rapidly than the incident energy, and in fact rises very nearly as a power of the incident energy. Both features are of great importance in hadron calorimetry, where it is the "universal spectrum" which makes possible the definition of an intrinsic {e}/{h}, and the increasing fraction of the energy going into π0's which leads to the energy dependence of {e}/{π}. We present evidence for the "universal spectrum," and use an induction argument and simulation results to demonstrate that the low-energy activity ss Em, with 0.80 ≲ m ≲ 0.85. The hadronic activity produced by incident pions is 15-20% less than that initiated by protons.

  13. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-24

    DOE2.1E-121 is a set of modules for energy analysis in buildings. Modules are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space in a building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating, cooling and ventilation to the building (SYSTEMS), to model energy conversion equipment that uses fuel or electricity to provide the required heating, cooling and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the cost of energy and building operation based on utility rate schedule and economic parameters (ECONOMICS). DOE2.1E-121 contains modifications to DOE2.1E which allows 1000 zones to be modeled.

  14. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  15. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  16. Current work in energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work performed at Berkeley Lab most recently. One of the Labs accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of US Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US. This analysis is described and played a key role in shaping the US position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. The Labs participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. Described also is a study of leaking electricity, which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of US residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the report summarize results of research activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national Energy Star{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China.

  17. NANA Strategic Energy Plan & Energy Options Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Hermanson; Brian Yanity

    2008-12-31

    Biomass Feasibility analysis in the upper Kobuk; • Run of the river hydroelectric development for the Upper Kobuk; • Solar photovoltaic (PV) power demonstration projects for Noatak, Ambler, Selawik, Kiana, and Noorvik; • Heat Recovery for several communities; In September 2008, the NRC team participated at the Alaska Rural Energy Conference in Girdwood, Alaska In November 2008, the NRC team gave a presentation on the NANA regional energy plans at a DOE Tribal Energy Program conference in Denver, Colorado. In January 2009, the final SEP report was submitted to NRC.

  18. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  19. Energy analysis program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This report provides an energy analysis overview. The following topics are described: building energy analysis; urban and energy environmental issues; appliance energy efficiency standards; utility planning and policy; energy efficiency, economics, and policy issues; and international energy and environmental issues.

  20. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, ``Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,`` part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program`s researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  1. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,'' part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program's researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  2. The change of activation energy in microchannel laminar flow as demonstrated by kinetic analysis of the DNA duplex-coil equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kenichi; Miyazaki, Masaya; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hideaki

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the capability of changing the activation energy of chemical reactions using microchannel laminar flow. Kinetic parameters of the duplex-coil equilibrium of DNA oligomers were studied by measuring the hysteresis between denaturation-renaturation curves using an in-house temperature-controllable microchannel-type flow cell. For this study, DNA oligomers were used because they allow physicochemical analysis and theoretical discussion. Kinetic parameters of the duplex-coil equilibrium of DNA oligomers were obtained by measuring the denaturation-renaturation hysteresis curves. Both cooling and heating curves were shifted to the high-temperature side at higher flow rates. The renaturation reaction was influenced by a slower flow rate. The effect of the slower flow rate was more pronounced for renaturation than denaturation reactions. The magnitude of the activation energies of association decreased as the flow rate increased, but that of the activation energies of the dissociation increased as the flow rate increased. Overall, these results suggest that chemical reactions' change of activation energy depends on the flow rate and the DNA molecular size.

  3. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  4. Energy analysis program, FY 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    Energy analysis attempts to understand the volitional choices of energy use and supply available to human society, and the multi-faceted consequences of choosing any one of them. Topics deal with economic impacts; assessments of regional issues and impacts; air quality evaluation; institutional and political issues in California power plant siting; assessment of environmental standards; water issues; characterization of aquatic systems dissolved oxygen profiles; modeling; computer-generated interactive graphics; energy assessment in Hawaii; solar energy in communities; utilities solar financial data; population impacts of geothermal development; energy conservation in colleges and residential sectors; energy policy; decision making; building energy performance standards; standards for residential appliances; and impact of energy performance standards on demand for peak electrical energy.

  5. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  6. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  7. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  8. Application of epithermal neutron activation in multielement analysis of silicate rocks employing both coaxial Ge(Li) and low energy photon detector systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, P.A.; Rowe, J.J.; Steinnes, E.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental activation analysis of silicate rocks using epithermal neutrons has been studied using both high resolution coaxial Ge(Li) detectors and low energy photon detectors, and applied to the determination of 23 elements in eight new U.S.G.S. standard rocks. The analytical use X-ray peaks associated with electron capture or internal conversion processes has been evaluated. Of 28 elements which can be considered to be determinable by instrumental means, the epithermal activation approach is capable of giving improved sensitivity and precision in 16 cases, over the normal INAA procedure. In eleven cases the use of the low energy photon detector is thought to show advantages over convertional coaxial Ge(Li) spectroscopy. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  9. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  10. Energy analysis program. 1995 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    This year the role of energy technology research and analysis supporting governmental and public interests is again being challenged at high levels of government. This situation is not unlike that of the early 1980s, when the Administration questioned the relevance of a federal commitment to applied energy research, especially for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Then Congress continued to support such activities, deeming them important to the nation`s interest. Today, Congress itself is challenging many facets of the federal role in energy. The Administration is also selectively reducing its support, primarily for the pragmatic objective of reducing federal expenditures, rather than because of principles opposing a public role in energy. this report is divided into three sections: International Energy and the global environment; Energy, economics, markets, and policy; and Buildings and their environment.

  11. Coupled dynamics analysis of wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative description of all key elements of a complete wind energy system computer analysis code is presented. The analysis system addresses the coupled dynamics characteristics of wind energy systems, including the interactions of the rotor, tower, nacelle, power train, control system, and electrical network. The coupled dynamics are analyzed in both the frequency and time domain to provide the basic motions and loads data required for design, performance verification and operations analysis activities. Elements of the coupled analysis code were used to design and analyze candidate rotor articulation concepts. Fundamental results and conclusions derived from these studies are presented.

  12. Strategic Energy Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    NREL complements its scientific research with high-quality, credible, technology-neutral, objective analysis that informs policy and investment decisions as renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies move from innovation through integration. This sheet highlights NREL's analytical capabilities and achievements.

  13. Final report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities. April 1, 1999 to December 31, 2001. USDOE Grant No. DE-FG01-99-EE35098

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    This is the final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association, and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  14. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  15. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  16. Pyrolysis kinetic and product analysis of different microalgal biomass by distributed activation energy model and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuewei; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Juan; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay Jiayang; Sun, Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To assess the energy potential of different microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Monoraphidium were selected for studying the pyrolytic behavior at different heating rates with the analytical method of thermogravimetric analysis (TG), distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results presented that Monoraphidium 3s35 showed superiority for pyrolysis at low heating rate. Calculated by DAEM, during the conversion rate range from 0.1 to 0.7, the activation energies of C. sorokiniana 21 were much lower than that of Monoraphidium 3s35. Both C. sorokiniana 21 and Monoraphidium 3s35 can produce certain amount (up to 20.50%) of alkane compounds, with 9-Octadecyne (C18H34) as the primary compound. Short-chain alkanes (C7-C13) with unsaturated carbon can be released in the pyrolysis at 500°C for both microalgal biomass. It was also observed that the pyrolysis of C. sorokiniana 21 released more alcohol compounds, while Monoraphidium 3s35 produced more saccharides.

  17. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year 1990 applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities. Four MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for energy testing and program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities.

  18. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  19. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  20. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Ruth

    This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  1. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  2. Energy savings analysis for energy monitoring and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, Ken; Pierpoint, William

    1995-01-01

    The energy savings analysis report and software was developed to calculate savings when implementing typical energy conservation strategies. The analysis is based on ASHRAE Bin methods. Strategies include: scheduled start/stop, optimized start/stop, and temperature reset.

  3. Analysis of Potential Energy Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, G. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Introduces different methodological strategies in analyzing potential energy surfaces (PES) used in chemical reactivity studies. Discusses the theory of PES and gives examples to be used for student work. Provides procedures for calculating normal coordinates and vibrational properties of an activated complex. (ML)

  4. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  5. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  6. [Determination of content and specific activity of radioactive elements in phosphate slag by spectral and energy spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Bao, P Y

    2001-10-01

    Phosphate slag is the slag discarded after phosphate ore is smelted. The content and specific activity of radioactive elements in slag must be determined accurately for environmental protection and comprehensive utilization. This paper discusses how IR spectrum and X-ray diffraction method are used to study its components. The main phase composition is glassy slag. The samples are decomposed with HF-HNO3-HClO4. After anion-exchange separation, arsenazo III is used to determine the content of uranium and thorium in slag. The average content of U is 32.11 micrograms.g-1 and 8.5 micrograms.g-1 for Th. gamma spectrum is used to determine the specific activity of radioactive nuclear elements in it. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 112 +/- 2.0% Bq.kg-1, 18.8 +/- 6.4% Bq.kg-1 and 77.6 +/- 3.7% Bq.kg-1, respectively. The values are calculated as follow: M(Ra) = 0.6 Bq.kg-1, M gamma = 0.5 Bq.kg-1. The results show that the values are below 1.0 Bq.kg-1, which is stipulated by national GB6566-86 standard for radioactivity of building materials. The slag is therefore can be utilized to produce slag cement. This provides theoretical basis for the treatment of it.

  7. Entropy in statistical energy analysis.

    PubMed

    Le Bot, Alain

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, the second principle of thermodynamics is discussed in the framework of statistical energy analysis (SEA). It is shown that the "vibrational entropy" and the "vibrational temperature" of sub-systems only depend on the vibrational energy and the number of resonant modes. A SEA system can be described as a thermodynamic system slightly out of equilibrium. In steady-state condition, the entropy exchanged with exterior by sources and dissipation exactly balances the production of entropy by irreversible processes at interface between SEA sub-systems.

  8. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  9. High energy beam lifetime analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Sterne, P.A.; Hartley, J.; Cowan, T.E.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a positron lifetime defect analysis capability based on a 3 MeV electrostatic accelerator. The high energy beam lifetime spectrometer is operational with a 60 mCi {sup 22}Na source providing a current of 7 10{sup 5} positrons per second. Lifetime data are derived from a thin plastic transmission detector providing an implantation time and a BaF{sub 2} detector to determine the annihilation time. Positron lifetime analysis is performed with a 3 MeV positron beam on thick sample specimens at counting rates in excess of 2000 per second. The instrument is being used for bulk sample analysis and analysis of samples encapsulated in controlled environments for in situ measurements.

  10. Analysis of Flow Cytometry DNA Damage Response Protein Activation Kinetics Following X-rays and High Energy Iron Nuclei Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Universities Space Research Association; Chappell, Lori J.; Whalen, Mary K.; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janice M.

    2010-12-15

    We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylations ensuing various qualities of low dose radiation in normal human fibroblast cells. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetic results for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low dose range. Distributional analysis reveals significant differences between control and low dose samples when distributions are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Radiation quality differences are found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model is used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phosphoprotein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase and radiation quality dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for {gamma}H2AX were higher following Fe nuclei as compared to X-rays in G1 cells (4.5 {+-} 0.46 h vs 3.26 {+-} 0.76 h, respectively), and in S/G2 cells (5.51 {+-} 2.94 h vs 2.87 {+-} 0.45 h, respectively). The RBE in G1 cells for Fe nuclei relative to X-rays for {gamma}H2AX was 2.05 {+-} 0.61 and 5.02 {+-} 3.47, at 2 h and 24-h postirradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect is observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for Fe nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X-rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.66 {+-} 0.13 and 1.66 {+-} 0.46 at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 levels comparing irradiated samples to control were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy) using these methods of analysis. These results reveal that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to uncover important and subtle differences following exposure to various qualities of low dose radiation.

  11. Energy Conservation Activities, Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Colorado Educational Board of Cooperative Services, Boulder.

    This publication is a collection of energy education activities for grades 1-6. The activities were written or selected to be used with daily lesson plans and the existing school curriculum. Activities are classified by: (1) content area (fine arts, mathematics, physical education, reading and language arts, science, and social studies; and (2)…

  12. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  13. Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sai Yi; DesMeules, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Energy intake, physical activity, and obesity are modifiable lifestyle factors. This chapter reviews and summarizes the epidemiologic evidence on the relation of energy intake, physical activity, and obesity to cancer. High energy intake may increase the risk of cancers of colon-rectum, prostate (especially advanced prostate cancer), and breast. However, because physical activity, body size, and metabolic efficiency are highly related to total energy intake and expenditure, it is difficult to assess the independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk. There are sufficient evidences to support a role of physical activity in preventing cancers of the colon and breast, whereas the association is stronger in men than in women for colon cancer and in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women for breast cancer. The evidence also suggests that physical activity likely reduces the risk of cancers of endometrium, lung, and prostate (to a lesser extent). On the other hand, there is little or no evidence that the risk of rectal cancer is related to physical activity, whereas the results have been inconsistent regarding the association between physical activity and the risks of cancers of pancreas, ovary and kidney. Epidemiologic studies provide sufficient evidence that obesity is a risk factor for both cancer incidence and mortality. The evidence supports strong links of obesity with the risk of cancers of the colon, rectum, breast (in postmenopausal women), endometrium, kidney (renal cell), and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Epidemiologic evidence also indicates that obesity is probably related to cancers of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, and aggressive prostate cancer, while it seems that obesity is not associated with lung cancer. The role of obesity in other cancer risks is unclear.

  14. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  15. Asymptotic modal analysis and statistical energy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, Earl H.

    1992-01-01

    Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA) is a method which is used to model linear dynamical systems with many participating modes. The AMA method was originally developed to show the relationship between statistical energy analysis (SEA) and classical modal analysis (CMA). In the limit of a large number of modes of a vibrating system, the classical modal analysis result can be shown to be equivalent to the statistical energy analysis result. As the CMA result evolves into the SEA result, a number of systematic assumptions are made. Most of these assumptions are based upon the supposition that the number of modes approaches infinity. It is for this reason that the term 'asymptotic' is used. AMA is the asymptotic result of taking the limit of CMA as the number of modes approaches infinity. AMA refers to any of the intermediate results between CMA and SEA, as well as the SEA result which is derived from CMA. The main advantage of the AMA method is that individual modal characteristics are not required in the model or computations. By contrast, CMA requires that each modal parameter be evaluated at each frequency. In the latter, contributions from each mode are computed and the final answer is obtained by summing over all the modes in the particular band of interest. AMA evaluates modal parameters only at their center frequency and does not sum the individual contributions from each mode in order to obtain a final result. The method is similar to SEA in this respect. However, SEA is only capable of obtaining spatial averages or means, as it is a statistical method. Since AMA is systematically derived from CMA, it can obtain local spatial information as well.

  16. Energy Analysis Program. 1992 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Program became deeply involved in establishing 4 Washington, D.C., project office diving the last few months of fiscal year 1942. This project office, which reports to the Energy & Environment Division, will receive the majority of its support from the Energy Analysis Program. We anticipate having two staff scientists and support personnel in offices within a few blocks of DOE. Our expectation is that this office will carry out a series of projects that are better managed closer to DOE. We also anticipate that our representation in Washington will improve and we hope to expand the Program, its activities, and impact, in police-relevant analyses. In spite of the growth that we have achieved, the Program continues to emphasize (1) energy efficiency of buildings, (2) appliance energy efficiency standards, (3) energy demand forecasting, (4) utility policy studies, especially integrated resource planning issues, and (5) international energy studies, with considerate emphasis on developing countries and economies in transition. These continuing interests are reflected in the articles that appear in this report.

  17. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-05

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  18. Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Tanford, C

    1982-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic state of each substrate through the reaction cycle. These procedures clarify the mechanism of free energy transduction, even without step-by-step analysis. The results show that free energy exchange must occur in its entirety among protein-bound species. Imposition of conditions for an adequate rate of physiological function further indicates (i) that the standard free energy of hydrolysis of protein-bound ATP (to yield protein-bound products) needs to differ substantially from the standard free energy of hydrolysis in solution and (ii) that binding sites for the transported ions must have different affinities when facing opposite sides of the membrane. The results also demonstrate that step-by-step "basic" free energy changes (often used in the form of free energy level diagrams) are inherently unsuited for analysis of the mechanism of free energy transduction. PMID:6216483

  19. Asymptotic modal analysis and statistical energy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, Earl H.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is defined by considering the asymptotic limit of Classical Modal Analysis, an approach called Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA). The general approach is described for both structural and acoustical systems. The theoretical foundation is presented for structural systems, and experimental verification is presented for a structural plate responding to a random force. Work accomplished subsequent to the grant initiation focusses on the acoustic response of an interior cavity (i.e., an aircraft or spacecraft fuselage) with a portion of the wall vibrating in a large number of structural modes. First results were presented at the ASME Winter Annual Meeting in December, 1987, and accepted for publication in the Journal of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress and Reliability in Design. It is shown that asymptotically as the number of acoustic modes excited becomes large, the pressure level in the cavity becomes uniform except at the cavity boundaries. However, the mean square pressure at the cavity corner, edge and wall is, respectively, 8, 4, and 2 times the value in the cavity interior. Also it is shown that when the portion of the wall which is vibrating is near a cavity corner or edge, the response is significantly higher.

  20. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  1. Scripted Building Energy Modeling and Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Macumber, D.

    2012-10-01

    Building energy analysis is often time-intensive, error-prone, and non-reproducible. Entire energy analyses can be scripted end-to-end using the OpenStudio Ruby API. Common tasks within an analysis can be automated using OpenStudio Measures. Graphical user interfaces (GUI's) and component libraries reduce time, decrease errors, and improve repeatability in energy modeling.

  2. Dynamics Analysis of Wind Energy Production Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, V. I.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the introduction experience and dynamics development of the world wind energy production. Calculated the amount of wind energy sources investments and the production capacity growth dynamics of the wind turbines. The studies have shown that the introduction dynamics of new wind energy sources is higher than any other energy source.

  3. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  4. Energy analysis of convectively induced wind perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.; Buechler, Dennis E.

    1989-01-01

    Budgets of divergent and rotational components of kinetic energy (KD and KR) are examined for four upper level wind speed maxima that develop during the fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE IV) and the first AVE-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME I). A similar budget analysis is performed for a low-level jet stream during AVE-SESAME I. The energetics of the four upper level speed maxima is found to have several similarities. The dominant source of KD is cross-contour flow by the divergent wind, and KD provides a major source of KR via a conversion process. Conversion from available potential energy provides an additional source of KR in three of the cases. Horizontal maps reveal that the conversions involving KD are maximized in regions poleward of the convection. Low-level jet development during AVE-SESAME I appears to be assisted by convective activity to the west.

  5. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  6. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  7. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  8. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  9. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  10. Energy, entropy, and economic analysis: some new directions

    SciTech Connect

    Huettner, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    A review of the literature on economic modeling of exhaustible resources notes the debate over how energy analysis, entropy analysis, and economic analysis are related since they all yield different results. The choice of analysis among decision makers shows them dividing into three camps on the basis of the value they give to particular energy sources, the environment, technological change, and other factors. The solution will be a method which combines a realistic treatment of human activity and sees energy as one of several constraints. Future modeling efforts should continue to explore intergenerational equity under uncertainty as well as efficiency. 31 references, 2 figures. (DCK)

  11. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  12. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  13. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  14. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  15. Energy-aware activity classification using wearable sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors.

  16. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors. PMID:25075266

  17. Comparative Lifecycle Energy Analysis: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jeffrey; Canzoneri, Diana

    1992-01-01

    Explores the position that more energy is conserved through recycling secondary materials than is generated from municipal solid waste incineration. Discusses one component of a lifecycle analysis--a comparison of energy requirements for manufacturing competing products. Includes methodological issues, energy cost estimates, and difficulties…

  18. The activation energy for dislocation nucleation at a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James R.; Beltz, Glenn E.

    1994-02-01

    T HE ACTIVATION energy for dislocation nucleation from a stressed crack tip is calculated within the Peierls framework, in which a periodic shear stress vs displacement relation is assumed to hold on a slip plane emanating from the crack tip. Previous results have revealed that the critical G (energy release rate corresponding to the "screened" crack tip stress field) for dislocation nucleation scales with γ us (the unstable stacking energy), in an analysis which neglects any coupling between tension and shear along the slip plane. That analysis represents instantaneous nucleation and takes thermal effects into account only via the weak temperature dependence of the elastic constants. In this work, the energy required to thermally activate a stable, incipient dislocation into its unstable "saddle-point" configuration is directly calculated for loads less than that critical value. We do so only with the simplest case, for which the slip plane is a prolongation of the crack plane. A first calculation reported is 2D in nature, and hence reveals an activation energy per unit length. A more realistic scheme for thermal activation involves the emission of a dislocation loop, an inherently 3D phenomenon. Asymptotic calculations of the activation energy for loads close to the critical load are performed in 2D and in 3D. It is found that the 3D activation energy generally corresponds to the 2D activation energy per unit length multiplied by about 5-10 Burgers vectors (but by as many as 17 very near to the critical loading). Implications for the emission of dislocations in copper, α-iron, and silicon at elevated temperature are discussed. The effects of thermal activation are very significant in lowering the load for emission. Also, the appropriate activation energy to correspond to molecular dynamics simulations of crack tips is discussed. Such simulations, as typically carried out with only a few atomic planes in a periodic repeat direction parallel to the crack tip, are

  19. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  20. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  1. Towards an optimum design of a P-MOS radiation detector for use in high-energy medical photon beams and neutron facilities: analysis of activation materials.

    PubMed

    Price, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of packaged and unpackaged ESAPMOS4 RadFET radiation detectors (NMRC Cork, Ireland) was investigated when used in the mixed photon and neutron environment of a medical linear accelerator operating above the nucleon separation energy and in a 14 MeV neutron field provided by a D-T generator. Within the uncertainty of the experimental set-up (4% at 95% confidence level) the unpackaged device was found to have essentially zero activation dose-burden whereas the packaged device exhibits a considerable degree of post irradiation absorbed dose due to deactivation radiation.

  2. Current Work in Energy Analysis (Energy Analysis Program -1996 Annual Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Analysis Program

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work that Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been doing most recently. One of our proudest accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. This analysis played a key role in shaping the U.S. position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. Our participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. We are also especially proud of our study of ''leaking electricity,'' which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of U.S. residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the following pages summarize results of research. activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China. These are the intellectual endeavors of a talented team of researchers dedicated to public service.

  3. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  4. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  5. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  6. Analysis of Energy-Absorbing Foundations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-15

    1ENN51YVAN&A 5TATL UNIV UNIVERSITY PARK DEPT OF ENGI-CYTC F/S 13/h ANALYSIS OF ENERGY -ABSORBING POUNDATIONS.(U) ECC 78 V H NEUBERT, S Ji YIN DNA01-78...C-0036 UNCLASSIFIED DNA-48OFP NL "M~ENOMOEE MIflfl END ______ 1 32 112.2 MICROCOPY RILSOLUTION TEST CHIART LELL ,NA 480 MIL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ...8217 REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Final Report for Period ANALYSIS OF ENERGY -ABSORBING FOUNDATIONS I Dee 77-1S Dee 78 6. PERFORMING ORG, REPORT NUMBER 7AUTHOR

  7. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  8. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  9. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  10. Parametric and working fluid analysis of a combined organic Rankine-vapor compression refrigeration system activated by low-grade thermal energy.

    PubMed

    Saleh, B

    2016-09-01

    The potential use of many common hydrofluorocarbons and hydrocarbons as well as new hydrofluoroolefins, i.e. R1234yf and R1234ze(E) working fluids for a combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression refrigeration (ORC-VCR) system activated by low-grade thermal energy is evaluated. The basic ORC operates between 80 and 40 °C typical for low-grade thermal energy power plants while the basic VCR cycle operates between 5 and 40 °C. The system performance is characterized by the overall system coefficient of performance (COPS) and the total mass flow rate of the working fluid for each kW cooling capacity ([Formula: see text]). The effects of different working parameters such as the evaporator, condenser, and boiler temperatures on the system performance are examined. The results illustrate that the maximum COPS values are attained using the highest boiling candidates with overhanging T-s diagram, i.e. R245fa and R600, while R600 has the lowest [Formula: see text] under the considered operating conditions. Among the proposed candidates, R600 is the best candidate for the ORC-VCR system from the perspectives of environmental issues and system performance. Nevertheless, its flammability should attract enough attention. The maximum COPS using R600 is found to reach up to 0.718 at a condenser temperature of 30 °C and the basic values for the remaining parameters.

  11. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  12. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching mathematics. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting…

  13. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  14. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  15. Advanced nuclear energy analysis technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Murata, Kenneth K.; Romero, Vicente JosÔe; Young, Michael Francis; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2004-05-01

    A two-year effort focused on applying ASCI technology developed for the analysis of weapons systems to the state-of-the-art accident analysis of a nuclear reactor system was proposed. The Sandia SIERRA parallel computing platform for ASCI codes includes high-fidelity thermal, fluids, and structural codes whose coupling through SIERRA can be specifically tailored to the particular problem at hand to analyze complex multiphysics problems. Presently, however, the suite lacks several physics modules unique to the analysis of nuclear reactors. The NRC MELCOR code, not presently part of SIERRA, was developed to analyze severe accidents in present-technology reactor systems. We attempted to: (1) evaluate the SIERRA code suite for its current applicability to the analysis of next generation nuclear reactors, and the feasibility of implementing MELCOR models into the SIERRA suite, (2) examine the possibility of augmenting ASCI codes or alternatives by coupling to the MELCOR code, or portions thereof, to address physics particular to nuclear reactor issues, especially those facing next generation reactor designs, and (3) apply the coupled code set to a demonstration problem involving a nuclear reactor system. We were successful in completing the first two in sufficient detail to determine that an extensive demonstration problem was not feasible at this time. In the future, completion of this research would demonstrate the feasibility of performing high fidelity and rapid analyses of safety and design issues needed to support the development of next generation power reactor systems.

  16. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is

  17. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool, which is designed to assess impacts of future land use/built environment patterns on transportation-related energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tool can be used to evaluate a range of population distribution and urban design scenarios for 2030 and 2050. This tool was produced as part of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. 76 FR 55278 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 810 RIN 1994-AA02 Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities AGENCY.... SUMMARY: DOE proposes to amend its regulation concerning unclassified assistance to foreign atomic energy... territories for which a general authorization for foreign atomic energy activities is available. This...

  19. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document contains teaching activities which are intended to strengthen students' mathematics skills and concepts, while broadening their understanding of energy concepts. Each of the 24…

  20. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  1. Solar energy in Italy: A profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, C. A.

    1980-12-01

    The energy profile includes: imported energy sources; solar research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. The country overview includes: Italian Republic geopolitical analysis; economic analysis; and cultural aspects.

  2. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  3. Magnetic properties and energy-mapping analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hongjun; Lee, Changhoon; Koo, Hyun-Joo; Gong, Xingao; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-28

    The magnetic energy levels of a given magnetic solid are closely packed in energy because the interactions between magnetic ions are weak. Thus, in describing its magnetic properties, one needs to generate its magnetic energy spectrum by employing an appropriate spin Hamiltonian. In this review article we discuss how to determine and specify a necessary spin Hamiltonian in terms of first principles electronic structure calculations on the basis of energy-mapping analysis and briefly survey important concepts and phenomena that one encounters in reading the current literature on magnetic solids. Our discussion is given on a qualitative level from the perspective of magnetic energy levels and electronic structures. The spin Hamiltonian appropriate for a magnetic system should be based on its spin lattice, i.e., the repeat pattern of its strong magnetic bonds (strong spin exchange paths), which requires one to evaluate its Heisenberg spin exchanges on the basis of energy-mapping analysis. Other weaker energy terms such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin exchange and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies, which a spin Hamiltonian must include in certain cases, can also be evaluated by performing energy-mapping analysis. We show that the spin orientation of a transition-metal magnetic ion can be easily explained by considering its split d-block levels as unperturbed states with the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) as perturbation, that the DM exchange between adjacent spin sites can become comparable in strength to the Heisenberg spin exchange when the two spin sites are not chemically equivalent, and that the DM interaction between rare-earth and transition-metal cations is governed largely by the magnetic orbitals of the rare-earth cation.

  4. HEAO-1 analysis of Low Energy Detectors (LED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nousek, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The activities at Penn State University are described. During the period Oct. 1990 to Dec. 1991 work on HEAO-1 analysis of the Low Energy Detectors (LED) concentrated on using the improved detector spectral simulation model and fitting diffuse x-ray background spectral data. Spectral fitting results, x-ray point sources, and diffuse x-ray sources are described.

  5. High Energy Propulsion System (HEPS) Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    PL-TR-92-3025 APL-TR-PLTR92305 D A254 343 92-3025 1111I1111lI lllilllllllllltlllllllNll1111rýlr HIGH ENERGY PROPULSION SYSTEMS (HEPS) ANALYSIS Robert...T. Nachtrieb OLAC-PLIRKFE Edwards AFB, CA 93523-5000 July 1992 DTIC ELECTE AUG13 1992 Final Report S A 92-22749 PHILLIPS LABORATORY Propulsion ...NUMBERS HIGH ENERGY PROPULSION SYSTEM (HEPS) ANALYSIS PE: 62302F PR: 3058 6. AUTHOR(S) TA: OOP6 ROBERT T. NACHTRIEB 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  6. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  7. Analysis on energy efficiency in healthcare buildings.

    PubMed

    García-Sanz-Calcedo, Justo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze and quantify the average healthcare centres' energy behavior and estimate the possibilities of savings through the use of concrete measures to reduce their energy demand in Extremadura, Spain. It provides the average energy consumption of 55 healthcare centres sized between 500 and 3,500 m². The analysis evaluated data of electricity and fossil fuel energy consumption as well as water use and other energy-consuming devices. The energy solutions proposed to improve the efficiency are quantified and listed. The average annual energy consumption of a healthcare centre is 86.01 kWh/m², with a standard deviation of 16.8 kWh/m². The results show that an annual savings of €4.77/m² is possible. The potential to reduce the energy consumption of a healthcare centre of size 1,000 m² is 10,801 kWh by making an average investment of €11,601, thus saving €2,961/year with an average payback of 3.92 years.

  8. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  9. Portfolio Analysis of Renewable Energy Opportunities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Allison; Deprizio, Jodi; Anderson, Kate; DiOrio, Nick; Elgqvist, Emma; Simpkins, Travis

    2016-11-01

    Time Warner Cable (TWC), now Charter Communications (CC), partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the technical and economic potential for solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and ground-source heat-pump systems at 696 TWC facilities. NREL identified 306 sites where adding a renewable energy system would provide cost savings over the project life-cycle. In general, the top sites have some combination of high electricity rates ($0.16-$0.29/kWh), significant state incentives, and favorable net-metering policies. If all projects were implemented via third-party power purchase agreements, TWC/CC would save $37 million over 25 years and meet 10.5% of their energy consumption with renewable energy. This paper describes the portfolio screening methodology used to identify and prioritize renewable energy opportunities across the TWC sites, as well as a summary of the potential cost savings that may be realized by implementing these projects. This may provide a template for other companies interested in identifying and prioritizing renewable energy opportunities across a large number of geographically dispersed sites. Following this initial portfolio analysis, NREL will be conducting in-depth analysis of project development opportunities at ten sites and evaluating off-grid solutions that may enable carbon emission reduction and grid independence at select facilities.

  10. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    PubMed

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-05-15

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  11. 76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of... the request for information on Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis published in the Federal Register... Energy Code Cost Analysis and provide docket number EERE-2011-BT-BC-0046. Comments may be submitted...

  12. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  13. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  14. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and…

  15. Energy Conservation Activities for the Classroom K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Dept. of Energy, Frankfort.

    After a brief introduction entitled "Where Does the Energy We Use Come From," this unit presents 86 activities. Each activity gives the title, concept, objectives, subject area, level, time involved, materials needed, procedures, and related career activities. Topics cover everything from housing insulation to alternate sources of energy to energy…

  16. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 6. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 6 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade six. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  17. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 4. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 4 is one in a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade four. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  18. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  19. 76 FR 57982 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis Correction In notice... components''. BILLING CODE 1505-01-P...

  20. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  1. Simplified building energy analysis tool for architects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisuparasmikul, Pongsak

    applicable to the earliest stage of design, where more informed analysis of possible alternatives could yield the most benefit and the greatest cost savings both economic and environmental. This is where computer modeling and simulation can really lead to better and energy efficient buildings. Both apply to internal environment and human comfort, and environmental impact from surroundings.

  2. Lac Courte Oreilles Energy Analysis Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Isham; Denise Johnson

    2009-04-01

    and funding to do so will be sought. While we already are in ownership of a Hydro Dam it is currently not functioning to its full capacity we are seeking operation and maintenance firm proposals and funding sources. One of our biggest accomplishment this project gave us was our total Carbon Emissions 9989.45 tons, this will be the number that we will use to base our reductions from. It will help us achieve our goals we have set for ourselves in achieving the Kyoto Protocol and saving our Earth for our future generations. Another major accomplishment and lesson learned is we need to educate ourselves and our people on how to conserve energy to both impact the environment and our own budgets. The Lac Courte Oreilles (LCO) Energy Analysis Project will perform an energy audit to gather information on the Tribe's energy usage and determine the carbon emissions. By performing the audit we will be able to identify areas where conservation efforts are most viable and recommend policies that can be implemented. These steps will enable LCO to begin achieving the goals that have been set by the Tribal Governing Board and adopted through resolutions. The goals are to reduce emissions by 25% and to produce 25% of its energy using sustainable sources. The project objectives were very definitive to assist the Tribe in achieving its goals; reducing carbon emissions and obtaining a sustainable source of energy. The following were the outlined objectives: (1) Coordinate LCO's current and future conservation and renewable energy projects; (2) Establish working relationships with outside entities to share information and collaborate on future projects; (3) Complete energy audit and analyze LCO's energy load and carbon emissions; (4) Identify policy changes, education programs and conservation efforts which are appropriate for the LCO Reservation; and (5) Create a plan to identify the most cost effective renewable energy options for LCO.

  3. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  4. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How to Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Intermediate 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers in the intermediate elementary grades (3-5) and is designed to enable students to develop a comprehensive understanding of energy concepts. Each…

  5. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How To Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Intermediate 3-5. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers in the intermediate elementary grades (3-5) and is designed to enable students to develop a comprehensive understanding of energy concepts. Each…

  6. Bifurcations analysis of turbulent energy cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Divitiis, Nicola de

    2015-03-15

    This note studies the mechanism of turbulent energy cascade through an opportune bifurcations analysis of the Navier–Stokes equations, and furnishes explanations on the more significant characteristics of the turbulence. A statistical bifurcations property of the Navier–Stokes equations in fully developed turbulence is proposed, and a spatial representation of the bifurcations is presented, which is based on a proper definition of the fixed points of the velocity field. The analysis first shows that the local deformation can be much more rapid than the fluid state variables, then explains the mechanism of energy cascade through the aforementioned property of the bifurcations, and gives reasonable argumentation of the fact that the bifurcations cascade can be expressed in terms of length scales. Furthermore, the study analyzes the characteristic length scales at the transition through global properties of the bifurcations, and estimates the order of magnitude of the critical Taylor-scale Reynolds number and the number of bifurcations at the onset of turbulence.

  7. Department of Defense Operational Energy Strategy: A Content Analysis of Energy Literature from 1973-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Applications: Solar, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal , Hydrokinetic Energy , Biofuels and Synfuels, Fuel Cells, Microgrids, Smart meters, and Energy Efficiency...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE OPERATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENS-14-M-26 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE OPERATIONAL ENERGY STRATEGY: A CONTENT ANALYSIS

  8. Human Energy Field: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shields, Deborah; Fuller, Ann; Resnicoff, Marci; Butcher, Howard K; Frisch, Noreen

    2016-11-23

    The human energy field (HEF) as a phenomenon of interest across disciplines has gained increased attention over the 20th and 21st centuries. However, a concern has arisen that there is a lack of evidence to support the concept of the HEF as a phenomenon of interest to professional nurses and nursing practice. Using Chinn and Kramer's method of creating conceptual meaning, a concept analysis was conducted for the purpose of developing a conceptual definition of HEF. A systematic review of the literature using the CINAHL database yielded a total of 81 articles and text sources that were determined to be relevant to the concept analysis. The HEF is defined as a luminous field of energy that comprises a person, extends beyond the physical body, and is in a continuous mutual process with the environmental energy field. It is a vital energy that is a continuous whole and is recognized by its unique pattern; it is dynamic, creative, nonlinear, unpredictable, and flows in lower and higher frequencies. The balanced HEF is characterized by flow, rhythm, symmetry, and gentle vibration.

  9. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O'Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  10. Scripted Building Energy Modeling and Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E.; Macumber, D.; Benne, K.; Goldwasser, D.

    2012-08-01

    Building energy modeling and analysis is currently a time-intensive, error-prone, and nonreproducible process. This paper describes the scripting platform of the OpenStudio tool suite (http://openstudio.nrel.gov) and demonstrates its use in several contexts. Two classes of scripts are described and demonstrated: measures and free-form scripts. Measures are small, single-purpose scripts that conform to a predefined interface. Because measures are fairly simple, they can be written or modified by inexperienced programmers.

  11. Nonlinear transient analysis via energy minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.; Knight, N. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The formulation basis for nonlinear transient analysis of finite element models of structures using energy minimization is provided. Geometric and material nonlinearities are included. The development is restricted to simple one and two dimensional finite elements which are regarded as being the basic elements for modeling full aircraft-like structures under crash conditions. The results indicate the effectiveness of the technique as a viable tool for this purpose.

  12. Biomass energy analysis for crop dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.P.; Haase, S.G.; Quinn, M.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1994, an agricultural processing facility was constructed in southern New Mexico for spice and herb dehydration. Annual operational costs are dominated by energy costs, due primarily to the energy intensity of dehydration. A feasibility study was performed to determine whether the use of biomass resources as a feedstock for a cogeneration system would be an economical option. The project location allowed access to unusual biomass feedstocks including cotton gin trash, pecan shells and in-house residues. A resource assessment of the immediate project area determined that approximately 120,000 bone dry tons of biomass feedstocks are available annually. Technology characterization for the plant energy requirements indicated gasification systems offer fuel flexibility advantages over combustion systems although vendor support and commercial experience are limited. Regulatory siting considerations introduce a level of uncertainty because of a lack of a precedent in New Mexico for gasification technology and because vendors of commercial gasifiers have little experience operating such a facility nor gathering emission data. A public opinion survey indicated considerable support for renewable energy use and biomass energy utilization. However, the public opinion survey also revealed limited knowledge of biomass technologies and concerns regarding siting of a biomass facility within the geographic area. The economic analysis conducted for the study is based on equipment vendor quotations, and indicates there will be difficulty competing with current prices of natural gas.

  13. Energy Flow Analysis of Coupled Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, P. E.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1998-04-01

    Energy flow analysis (EFA) is an analytical tool for prediction of the frequency-averaged vibrational response of built-up structures at high audible frequencies. The procedure is based on two developments; first, the derivation of the partial differential equations that govern the propagation of energy-related quantities in simple structural elements such as rods, beams, plates, and acoustic cavities; and second, the derivation of coupling relationships in terms of energy-related quantities that describe the transfer of energy for various joints (e.g., beam-to-beam, rod-to-beam, plate-to-plate, structure-to-acoustic field coupling). In this investigation, the energy flow coupling relationships at these joints for rods and beams are derived. EFA is used to predict the frequency-averaged vibrational response of a frame structure with a three-dimensional joint, where four wave types propagate in the structure. The predicted results of EFA are shown to be a good approximation of the frequency-averaged “exact” energetics, which are computed from classical displacement solutions.

  14. Analysis of lunar regolith thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of using lunar regolith as a thermal energy storage medium was evaluated. The concept was examined by mathematically modeling the absorption and transfer of heat by the lunar regolith. Regolith thermal and physical properties were established through various sources as functions of temperature. Two cases were considered: a semi-infinite, constant temperature, cylindrical heat source embedded in a continuum of lunar regolith and a spherically shaped molten zone of lunar regolith set with an initial temperature profile. The cylindrical analysis was performed in order to examine the amount of energy which can be stored in the regolith during the day. At night, the cylinder acted as a perfect insulator. This cycling was performed until a steady state situation was reached in the surrounding regolith. It was determined that a cycling steady state occurs after approximately 15 day/night cycles. Results were obtained for cylinders of various diameters. The spherical molten zone analysis was performed to establish the amount of thermal energy, within the regolith, necessary to maintain some molten material throughout a nighttime period. This surrounding temperature profile was modeled after the cycling steady state temperature profile established by the cylindrical analysis. It was determined that a molten sphere diameter of 4.76 m is needed to maintain a core temperature near the low end of the melting temperature range throughout one nighttime period.

  15. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  16. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  17. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  18. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics.

  19. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  20. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 3. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This notebook for grade 3 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade three. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  1. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How To Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units 1 through 8 containing three activities…

  2. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How to Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units I through VIII containing three…

  3. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  4. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  5. Global sensitivity analysis in wind energy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, O.; Ouarda, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, it is not yet a common source of energy, although there is enough wind potential to supply world's energy demand. One of the most prominent obstacles on the way of employing wind energy is the uncertainty associated with wind energy assessment. Global sensitivity analysis (SA) studies how the variation of input parameters in an abstract model effects the variation of the variable of interest or the output variable. It also provides ways to calculate explicit measures of importance of input variables (first order and total effect sensitivity indices) in regard to influence on the variation of the output variable. Two methods of determining the above mentioned indices were applied and compared: the brute force method and the best practice estimation procedure In this study a methodology for conducting global SA of wind energy assessment at a planning stage is proposed. Three sampling strategies which are a part of SA procedure were compared: sampling based on Sobol' sequences (SBSS), Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and pseudo-random sampling (PRS). A case study of Masdar City, a showcase of sustainable living in the UAE, is used to exemplify application of the proposed methodology. Sources of uncertainty in wind energy assessment are very diverse. In the case study the following were identified as uncertain input parameters: the Weibull shape parameter, the Weibull scale parameter, availability of a wind turbine, lifetime of a turbine, air density, electrical losses, blade losses, ineffective time losses. Ineffective time losses are defined as losses during the time when the actual wind speed is lower than the cut-in speed or higher than the cut-out speed. The output variable in the case study is the lifetime energy production. Most influential factors for lifetime energy production are identified with the ranking of the total effect sensitivity indices. The results of the present

  6. Energy flow analysis of coupled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Phillip Eung-Ho

    1993-01-01

    Energy flow analysis (EFA) is an analytical tool for prediction of the frequency-averaged vibrational response of built-up structures at high audible frequencies. The procedure is based on two developments; firstly, the derivation of the partial differential equations that govern the propagation of energy-related quantities in simple structural elements such as rods, beams, plates, and acoustic cavities; secondly, the derivation of coupling relationships in terms of energy-related quantities that describe the transfer of energy for various joints (e.g., beam-to-beam, plate-to-plate, and structure-to acoustic field couplings). In this investigation, EFA is used to predict the vibrational response of various coupled structures. In the process of predicting the vibrational response of the coupled structures, the energy flow coupling relationships at the joints of these structures are derived. In addition, the finite element formulation of the governing energy equations are developed. Because the energy density is discontinuous at the joint, a special global assembly procedure is developed to assemble the finite element matrix equations into global matrix equations. The global matrix assembly procedure is predicated on the development of joint element matrix equations using energy flow coupling relationships for various structural joints. The results predicted by EFA for a frame structure with a three-dimensional joint, where four wave types propagate in the structure, are shown to be a reasonable approximation of the frequency-averaged 'exact' energetics, which are computed from classical displacement solutions. The accuracy of the results predicted by EFA increased with high mode count and modal overlap factor or high non-dimensional wavenumber band and non-dimensional damped wavenumber band in the frequency band of interest. An experimental investigation of vibrational response of a light truck frame structure was performed to verify the results of EFA when applied

  7. Comprehensive energy analysis of a near zero energy home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannumahanthi, Madhuri

    Buildings consume nearly 40% of the entire energy used in the United States. To reduce the residential energy consumption, the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with Building America is evaluating various energy efficient technologies that might be integrated to produce a Zero Energy Home (ZEH). The research presented in this thesis focuses on evaluating the energy use of individual energy saving components and a near ZEH system in Salt Lake City, Utah. A state-of-the-art software tool, DesignBuilder, which employs an EnergyPlus simulation engine, was used to evaluate the performance of the prototype models. The major energy saving features in the house included photovoltaic thermal (PVT) panels; the hybrid solar panels that combine PV and solar thermal panel technology in a single entity; OASys, a new evaporative cooling unit that has a SEER 40+; structural insulated panels (SIPs); and a hydronic furnace. With real time data acquisition, the performance of the individual components and the near ZEH system was studied. PVT performs with nearly 20% greater efficiency than a conventional photovoltaic (PV) system. OASys reduces the cooling energy use by 60% in comparison with a regular vapor compression air conditioning system. Simulation results indicate 30% reduced energy use with SIPs. The hydronic furnace provides comfortable heating with 2% of the total heating energy as preheat to the water heater. The high efficiency water heater has a peak monthly efficiency of 83%. The actual data usage indicates that the energy efficient house has nearly 50% reduced energy use over a simulated model without the energy saving features and 60% fewer carbon dioxide emissions than a regular house.

  8. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  9. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  10. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  11. Energy decomposition analysis in an adiabatic picture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuezhi; Horn, Paul R; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2017-02-22

    Energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of electronic structure calculations has facilitated quantitative understanding of diverse intermolecular interactions. Nevertheless, such analyses are usually performed at a single geometry and thus decompose a "single-point" interaction energy. As a result, the influence of the physically meaningful EDA components on the molecular structure and other properties are not directly obtained. To address this gap, the absolutely localized molecular orbital (ALMO)-EDA is reformulated in an adiabatic picture, where the frozen, polarization, and charge transfer energy contributions are defined as energy differences between the stationary points on different potential energy surfaces (PESs), which are accessed by geometry optimizations at the frozen, polarized and fully relaxed levels of density functional theory (DFT). Other molecular properties such as vibrational frequencies can thus be obtained at the stationary points on each PES. We apply the adiabatic ALMO-EDA to different configurations of the water dimer, the water-Cl(-) and water-Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) complexes, metallocenes (Fe(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+)), and the ammonia-borane complex. This method appears to be very useful for unraveling how physical effects such as polarization and charge transfer modulate changes in molecular properties induced by intermolecular interactions. As an example of the insight obtained, we find that a linear hydrogen bond geometry for the water dimer is preferred even without the presence of polarization and charge transfer, while the red shift in the OH stretch frequency is primarily a charge transfer effect; by contrast, a near-linear geometry for the water-chloride hydrogen bond is achieved only when charge transfer is allowed.

  12. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-12-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions (one of them recurrent) inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with other available differently defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in Active Regions NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. The quantity 1/4π{B}n\\cdot{B}p is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear to the difference between the potential (Bp) and the non-potential magnetic field (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density shows clear changes before the powerful solar flares in Active Region NOAA 11158, which is consistent with the change in magnetic fields in the flaring lower atmosphere.

  13. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  14. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  15. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  16. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Canadian Energy Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector is one of the main end-use sectors in Canada accounting for 16.7% of total end-use site energy consumption in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012. pp, 4-5). In this year, the residential sector accounted for 54.5% of buildings total site energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, Canadian household energy consumption grew by less than 11%. Nonetheless, households contributed to 14.6% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012). This is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s second study to help provide a better understanding of the factors impacting residential energy consumption and intensity in North America (mainly the United States and Canada) by using similar methodology for analyses in both countries.

  17. Recent advances in statistical energy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heron, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has traditionally been developed using modal summation and averaging approach, and has led to the need for many restrictive SEA assumptions. The assumption of 'weak coupling' is particularly unacceptable when attempts are made to apply SEA to structural coupling. It is now believed that this assumption is more a function of the modal formulation rather than a necessary formulation of SEA. The present analysis ignores this restriction and describes a wave approach to the calculation of plate-plate coupling loss factors. Predictions based on this method are compared with results obtained from experiments using point excitation on one side of an irregular six-sided box structure. Conclusions show that the use and calculation of infinite transmission coefficients is the way forward for the development of a purely predictive SEA code.

  18. Analysis of flow cytometry DNA damage response protein activation kinetics after exposure to x rays and high-energy iron nuclei.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Lori J; Whalen, Mary K; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A; Pluth, Janice M

    2010-12-01

    We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of γ-H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylation in normal human fibroblast cells after exposure to various qualities of low-dose radiation. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetics for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low-dose range. Distributional analysis revealed significant differences between control and low-dose samples when distributions were compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Differences in radiation quality were found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model was used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phospho-protein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase- and radiation quality-dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for γ-H2AX were higher after exposure to iron nuclei compared to X rays in G(1) cells and in S/G(2) cells. The RBE in G(1) cells for iron nuclei relative to X rays for γ-H2AX was 2.1 ± 0.6 and 5.0 ± 3.5 at 2 and 24 h after irradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect was observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for iron nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.7 ± 0.1 and 1.7 ± 0.5 at 2 and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in γ-H2AX and pATF2 levels when irradiated samples were compared to controls were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy). These results show that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to identify important and subtle differences after exposure to various qualities of low-dose radiation.

  19. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  20. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  1. Thermopower and conductivity activation energies in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Dyalsingh, H.M.; Kakalios, J.

    1996-12-31

    The long range fluctuation model has been widely used to account for the difference in activation energies seen experimentally in dark conductivity and thermopower measurements in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The authors report on a test of this model using measurements of the conductivity and thermoelectric effects carried out in both open and short circuit configurations. While the thermopower activation energy is less than that of the dark conductivity, the short circuit Seebeck conductivity is found to be nearly identical to the dark conductivity in both activation energy and magnitude, consistent with the long range fluctuation model.

  2. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  3. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  4. 76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of... changes to residential building energy codes. DOE supports the development of the International Code Council's (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), the national model code adopted by...

  5. Overview of Energy Systems' safety analysis report programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility's safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs'' Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  6. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  7. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  8. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  9. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  10. Removing the barrier to the calculation of activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-10-06

    Approaches for directly calculating the activation energy for a chemical reaction from a simulation at a single temperature are explored with applications to both classical and quantum systems. The activation energy is obtained from a time correlation function that can be evaluated from the same molecular dynamics trajectories or quantum dynamics used to evaluate the rate constant itself and thus requires essentially no extra computational work.

  11. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) Predictions for a Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    Comet Enflow is a commercially available, high frequency vibroacoustic analysis software founded on Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) and Energy Boundary Element Analysis (EBEA). Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) was validated on a floor-equipped composite cylinder by comparing EFEA vibroacoustic response predictions with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and experimental results. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions were made using the commercial software program VA One 2009 from ESI Group. The frequency region of interest for this study covers the one-third octave bands with center frequencies from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz.

  12. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  13. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  14. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Jenkin, T.; Milford, J.; Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Evans, D.; Lieberman, E.; Goldstein, G.; Wright, E.; Jayaraman, K.; Venkatech, B.; Kleiman, G.; Namovicz, C.; Smith, B.; Palmer, K.; Wiser, R.; Wood, F.

    2009-09-30

    The Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling and Analysis Partnership (REMAP) sponsors ongoing workshops to discuss individual 'renewable' technologies, energy/economic modeling, and - to some extent - policy issues related to renewable energy. Since 2002, the group has organized seven workshops, each focusing on a different renewable technology (geothermal, solar, wind, etc.). These workshops originated and continue to be run under an informal partnership of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE). EPA originally funded the activities, but support is now shared between EPA and EERE. REMAP has a wide range of participating analysts and models/modelers that come from government, the private sector, and academia. Modelers include staff from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), NREL, EPA, Resources for the Future (RFF), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), Regional Economic Models Inc. (REMI), ICF International, OnLocation Inc., and Boston University. The working group has more than 40 members, which also includes representatives from DOE, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and ACORE. This report summarizes the activities and findings of the REMAP activity that started in late 2006 with a kickoff meeting, and concluded in mid-2008 with presentations of final results. As the project evolved, the group compared results across models and across technologies rather than just examining a specific technology or activity. The overall goal was to better understand how and why different energy models give similar and

  15. Prompt-Gamma Activation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Richard M

    1993-01-01

    A permanent, full-time instrument for prompt-gamma activation analysis is nearing completion as part of the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The design of the analytical system has been optimized for high gamma detection efficiency and low background, particularly for hydrogen. Because of the purity of the neutron beam, shielding requirements are modest and the scatter-capture background is low. As a result of a compact sample-detector geometry, the sensitivity (counting rate per gram of analyte) is a factor of four better than the existing Maryland-NIST thermal-neutron instrument at this reactor. Hydrogen backgrounds of a few micrograms have already been achieved, which promises to be of value in numerous applications where quantitative nondestructive analysis of small quantities of hydrogen in materials is necessary.

  16. Energy component analysis of π interactions.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, C David

    2013-04-16

    Fundamental features of biomolecules, such as their structure, solvation, and crystal packing and even the docking of drugs, rely on noncovalent interactions. Theory can help elucidate the nature of these interactions, and energy component analysis reveals the contributions from the various intermolecular forces: electrostatics, London dispersion terms, induction (polarization), and short-range exchange-repulsion. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) provides one method for this type of analysis. In this Account, we show several examples of how SAPT provides insight into the nature of noncovalent π-interactions. In cation-π interactions, the cation strongly polarizes electrons in π-orbitals, leading to substantially attractive induction terms. This polarization is so important that a cation and a benzene attract each other when placed in the same plane, even though a consideration of the electrostatic interactions alone would suggest otherwise. SAPT analysis can also support an understanding of substituent effects in π-π interactions. Trends in face-to-face sandwich benzene dimers cannot be understood solely in terms of electrostatic effects, especially for multiply substituted dimers, but SAPT analysis demonstrates the importance of London dispersion forces. Moreover, detailed SAPT studies also reveal the critical importance of charge penetration effects in π-stacking interactions. These effects arise in cases with substantial orbital overlap, such as in π-stacking in DNA or in crystal structures of π-conjugated materials. These charge penetration effects lead to attractive electrostatic terms where a simpler analysis based on atom-centered charges, electrostatic potential plots, or even distributed multipole analysis would incorrectly predict repulsive electrostatics. SAPT analysis of sandwich benzene, benzene-pyridine, and pyridine dimers indicates that dipole/induced-dipole terms present in benzene-pyridine but not in benzene dimer are relatively

  17. Some New Observations on Activation Energy of Crystal Growth for Thermally Activated Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Kumar, A

    2016-02-18

    Calorimetric study of glass/crystal phase transformation in disordered semiconductors is a significant tool for understanding their crystallization kinetics. Such studies provide the basis for practical application of glasses. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is one of the advanced techniques for the analysis of thermally induced crystallization in glassy or amorphous systems. We are reporting the nonisothermal DSC measurements on four amorphous systems of Se70Te30 alloy with Ag, Cd, Sb, and Zn as chemical modifiers. In general, the rate constant (K) shows Arrhenian dependence on temperature (T), i.e., K = K0 exp (-Eg/RT) where Eg is the activation energy of crystal growth and K0 is called the pre-exponential factor of rate constant. In the present work, an experiment is designed to see the effect of composition on the activation energy of crystal growth. We have found Meyer-Neldel relation (MNR) between Eg and K0 for present systems. Another interesting feature of present work is the observation of further relation between Meyer-Neldel prefactor and Meyer-Neldel energy.

  18. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  19. Reactive Ni/Al Nanocomposites: Structural Characteristics and Activation Energy.

    PubMed

    Shuck, Christopher E; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2017-02-16

    Stochastically structured Ni/Al reactive nanocomposites (RNCs) were prepared using short-term high-energy ball milling. Several milling times were utilized to prepare RNCs with differing internal nanostructures. These internal structures were quantitatively and statistically analyzed by use of serial focused ion beam sectioning coupled with 3D reconstruction techniques. The reaction kinetics were analyzed using the electrothermal explosion technique for each milling condition. It is shown that the effective activation energy (Eef) ranges from 79 to 137 kJ/mol and is directly related to the surface area contact between the reactants. Essentially, the reaction kinetics can be accurately controlled through mechanical processing techniques. Finally, the nature of the reaction is considered; the mechanistic effect of the reactive and three diffusive activation energies on the effective activation energy is examined.

  20. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles.

  1. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    PubMed Central

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  2. Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making…

  3. Enzyme activation through the utilization of intrinsic dianion binding energy.

    PubMed

    Amyes, T L; Malabanan, M M; Zhai, X; Reyes, A C; Richard, J P

    2016-11-29

    We consider 'the proposition that the intrinsic binding energy that results from the noncovalent interaction of a specific substrate with the active site of the enzyme is considerably larger than is generally believed. An important part of this binding energy may be utilized to provide the driving force for catalysis, so that the observed binding energy represents only what is left over after this utilization' [Jencks,W.P. (1975) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas. Mol. Biol., 43: , 219-410]. The large ~12 kcal/mol intrinsic substrate phosphodianion binding energy for reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is divided into 4-6 kcal/mol binding energy that is expressed on the formation of the Michaelis complex in anchoring substrates to the respective enzyme, and 6-8 kcal/mol binding energy that is specifically expressed at the transition state in activating the respective enzymes for catalysis. A structure-based mechanism is described where the dianion binding energy drives a conformational change that activates these enzymes for catalysis. Phosphite dianion plays the active role of holding TIM in a high-energy closed active form, but acts as passive spectator in showing no effect on transition-state structure. The result of studies on mutant enzymes is presented, which support the proposal that the dianion-driven enzyme conformational change plays a role in enhancing the basicity of side chain of E167, the catalytic base, by clamping the base between a pair of hydrophobic side chains. The insight these results provide into the architecture of enzyme active sites and the development of strategies for the de novo design of protein catalysts is discussed.

  4. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we explore energy storage and the role it is playing and could potentially play in increasing grid flexibility and renewable energy integration. We explore energy storage as one building block for a more flexible power system, policy and R and D as drivers of energy storage deployment, methods for valuing energy storage in grid applications, ways that energy storage supports renewable integration, and emerging opportunities for energy storage in the electric grid.

  5. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  6. Training Manual for the Energy Conservation Analysis Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document is the Massachusetts Energy Extension Service training manual for Residential Energy Auditors. This manual is part of a four-week program to train persons to perform home energy audits and was developed under the Energy Conservation Analysis Project (ECAP) at the University of Massachusetts. The chapter titles include: (1) Project…

  7. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  8. A fundamental analysis of means of producing and storing energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Michael S.

    shown to offer no practical means of producing net energy. Furthermore, fusion fuels other than Deuterium-Tritium (DT) have triple product requirements roughly two orders of magnitude greater for net energy production. The analysis of a "catalyzed deuterium" plasma presented herein shows it to be less promising than previous analyses have indicated. The flux of 14.1 MeV neutrons from a DT plasma presents a significant challenge that is likely to limit or prevent commercialization of DT fusion power. The primary alternative approach that may become viable is a so-called helium catalyzed DD cycle. However, there are two significant challenges (the need for active tritium removal and the large onsite tritium inventory) that must be addressed for this option to have significant potential. Greater focus therefore should be placed on advanced fission reactors, in particular thermal thorium reactors and driven subcritical reactors, such as of the general design proposed in this dissertation.

  9. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  10. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  11. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  12. Energy-Dependent Electron Activated Dissociation of Metal-Adducted Permethylated Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang; Huang, Yiqun; Lin, Cheng; Costello, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of varying the electron energy and cationizing agents on electron activated dissociation (ExD) of metal-adducted oligosaccharides were explored, using permethylated maltoheptaose as the model system. Across the examined range of electron energy, the metal-adducted oligosaccharide exhibited several fragmentation processes, including electron capture dissociation (ECD) at low energies, hot-ECD at intermediate energies, and electronic excitation dissociation (EED) at high energies. The dissociation threshold depended on the metal charge carrier(s), whereas the types and sequence spans of product ions were influenced by the metal-oligosaccharide binding pattern. Theoretical modeling contributed insight into the metal-dependent behavior of carbohydrates during low-energy ECD. When ExD was applied to a permethylated high mannose N-linked glycan, EED provided more structural information than either collision-induced dissociation (CID) or low-energy ECD, thus demonstrating its potential for oligosaccharide linkage analysis. PMID:22881449

  13. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  14. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  15. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  16. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-08

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  17. Analysis of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, B.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Brix, V.L.

    1980-02-01

    Solar energy's share in the national energy budget has caused policy makers to speculate on the reasons for the large difference between present and potential use. Complex technical, economic, legal, institutional, and political interrelationships appear and an attempt is made to present an understanding of that relationship and to enhance the design of solar energy policy. Federal incentives that have been previously used on other energy sources are examined and the report identifies, quantifies, and analyzes such incentives and relates them to current thought about solar energy. The chapters presented are: A Theoretical Approach to Analyzing Incentives for Energy Production; Generic Analysis of Energy Incentives; Nuclear Energy Incentives; Hydroenergy Incentives; Coal Energy Incentives; Oil Energy Incentives; Natural Gas Energy Incentives; and Electricity. Conclusions with respect to solar energy policy for each of these are summed. (MCW)

  18. Energy engineering analysis program, Anniston Army Depot. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) study (Increment F) conducted at the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama by Science Applications, Incorporated (SAl) under Contract No. DACAOl-83-C-0099. The report includes an analysis of energy conservation projects that can be accomplished using various Army funds, Post funds, and new management procedures. Also found in the report is a complete listing of recently implemented energy conservation projects, recommended similar future projects and a presentation of current and projected Post energy usage. The result of this analysis indicates that current energy use (FY 1983) can be reduced by 23 percent if these recommendations are adopted.

  19. Realizing a Clean Energy Future: Highlights of NREL Analysis (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Profound energy system transformation is underway. In Hawaiian mythology, Maui set out to lasso the sun in order to capture its energy. He succeeded. That may have been the most dramatic leap forward in clean energy systems that the world has known. Until now. Today, another profound transformation is underway. A combination of forces is taking us from a carbon-centric, inefficient energy system to one that draws from diverse energy sources - including the sun. NREL analysis is helping guide energy systems policy and investment decisions through this transformation. This brochure highlights NREL analysis accomplishments in the context of four thematic storylines.

  20. Early Design Energy Analysis Using Building Information Modeling Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    for building energy use are derived from several key Federal policy instruments. Key Federal laws and statutes that govern building energy use include...energy analysis The first step of energy modeling is to develop an energy model at the ma- cro level. It includes exploring different building shapes...own, how to export the necessary gbXML file, and how to use Green Building Studio™. Re- ports of their experience are due to CERL within a couple of

  1. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  2. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  3. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  4. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  5. Energetic and Ecological Analysis of Energy Saving and Passive Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanytsky, Myroslav; Sekret, Robert; Wojcikiewicz, Mariusz

    2012-06-01

    In this paper results of influence of building-installation system parameters on value of energetic coefficients were calculated. Three types of buildings (standard, energy saving and low energy) with heating surface of 100, 150 i 200 m2 were used. The above types of buildings differ on thermal barrier and heating system efficiency. The influence of the gravity and mechanical ventilation systems on the final heat energy of different kinds of houses was shown. Parameters of the certificate for energy characteristics of building were used. Mathematics models of influence of thermal barrier parameters and heating surface on the value of energy characteristics, namely final energy EF, primary energy EP and useful energy EU were established. Influence of such parameters as heating energy factors, ventilation system and energy sources on the energy efficiency improvement of buildings was analyzed. The building environmental assessment system was proposed on the base of energetic and ecological analysis of houses.

  6. Chemical/hydrogen energy systems analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, M.

    1982-12-01

    Four hydrogen energy technologies are addressed including: hydrogen recovery from hydrogen separation using hydride technology, photochemical hydrogen production, anode depolarization in electrolytic hydrogen production.

  7. Energy management analysis of lunar oxygen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazzolari, R.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.

    1990-01-01

    Energy load models in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being developed. The load models will be used as a first step to ultimately determine the optimal energy system needed to supply the power requirements for the process. The goal is to determine the energy requirements in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite to produce oxygen. The general approach is shown, and the objectives are to determine the energy loads of the processes in the system. Subsequent energy management studies will be made to minimize the system losses (irreversibilities) and to design optimal energy system power requirements. A number of processes are being proposed as possible candidates for lunar application and some detailed experimental efforts are being conducted within this project at the University of Arizona. Priorities are directed toward developing the energy models for each of the proposed processes being considered. The immediate goals are to identify the variables that would impact energy requirements and energy sources of supply.

  8. Analysis of energy utilization in spinach processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chhinnan, M.S.; Singh, R.P.; Pedersen, L.D.; Carroad, P.A.; Rose, W.W.; Jacob, N.L.

    1980-03-01

    The equipment and methods used to monitor the electrical and thermal energy consumed in various unit operations in a spinach processing plant are described and the results of a processing plant energy audit are presented. It is concluded that it requires 6.5 MJ of natural gas and fuel oil and 0.072 MJ of electric power to process one kg of new spinach; the energy intensive operations in spinach processing are associated with exhaust boxes, blanchers, and retorts; uniform product flow through the canning line is essential to energy conservation; and design improvements are needed for the blancher, exhaust box, and retort. (LCL)

  9. An analysis of the correlation energy contribution to the interaction energy of inert gas dimers.

    PubMed

    Snook, Ian; Per, Manolo C; Russo, Salvy P

    2008-10-28

    An accurate description of electron correlation is essential for the calculation of interaction energies in cases where dispersion energy is a major component, for example, for the rare gas atoms, physisorption on graphite, and graphene-graphene interactions. Such calculations are computationally demanding using supermolecule methods and the energies calculated lack a simple, physical interpretation. Alternatively density functional theories (DFTs) may be used to give an approximate estimate of the correlation energy. However, the physical nature of this DFT estimate of electron correlation energy is not well understood and, in fact, most current DFT methods do not describe dispersion energy at all. Hence, an analysis of the correlation energy contribution to interaction energies where dispersion energy is important is needed. In order to do this we provide an analysis of the correlation energy contribution to the potential energy curves of He(2), Ne(2), and Ar(2) in terms of the Hartree-Fock (HF) interaction term DeltaE(int) (HF), a dispersion energy term E(disp) and an electron correlation term DeltaE(int) (C). DeltaE(int) (C) includes all other correlation energy effects besides E(disp) and is shown to be repulsive, of a similar short range character to, but of smaller magnitude than DeltaE(int) (HF). This analysis was used to develop a theoretical model which gives a very good estimate of the potential energy wells for He(2), Ne(2), Ar(2), HeNe, HeAr, and NeAr.

  10. A time to search: finding the meaning of variable activation energy.

    PubMed

    Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2016-07-28

    This review deals with the phenomenon of variable activation energy frequently observed when studying the kinetics in the liquid or solid phase. This phenomenon commonly manifests itself through nonlinear Arrhenius plots or dependencies of the activation energy on conversion computed by isoconversional methods. Variable activation energy signifies a multi-step process and has a meaning of a collective parameter linked to the activation energies of individual steps. It is demonstrated that by using appropriate models of the processes, the link can be established in algebraic form. This allows one to analyze experimentally observed dependencies of the activation energy in a quantitative fashion and, as a result, to obtain activation energies of individual steps, to evaluate and predict other important parameters of the process, and generally to gain deeper kinetic and mechanistic insights. This review provides multiple examples of such analysis as applied to the processes of crosslinking polymerization, crystallization and melting of polymers, gelation, and solid-solid morphological and glass transitions. The use of appropriate computational techniques is discussed as well.

  11. Energy expenditure and habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE) and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD) and SenseWear armband (SWA), were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr) simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113) without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal) did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training. Key pointsThe activity diary and Sensewear armband provide comparable estimates of TEE in adolescent sprint athletes.A high inter-individual variation was observed in time spent in high-intensity physical activities, advocating an individual based assessment when coaching

  12. Flexible Framework for Building Energy Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E.; Macumber, D.; Weaver, E.; Shekhar, D.

    2012-09-01

    In the building energy research and advanced practitioner communities, building models are perturbed across large parameter spaces to assess energy and cost performance in the face of programmatic and economic constraints. This paper describes the OpenStudio software framework for performing such analyses.

  13. Energy and angular dependence of active-type personal dosemeter for high-energy neutron.

    PubMed

    Rito, Hirotaka; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Oda, Keiji

    2011-07-01

    In order to develop an active-type personal dosemeter having suitable sensitivity to high-energy neutrons, the characteristic response of silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. An agreement of the shape of pulse-height distribution, its change with radiator thickness and the relative sensitivity was confirmed between the calculated and experimental results for 14.8-MeV neutrons. The angular dependence was estimated for other neutron energies, and found that the angular dependence decreased with the incident energy. The reason was also discussed with regard to the radiator thickness relative to maximum range of recoil protons.

  14. Determining characteristics of melting cheese by activation energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C was measured from temperature sweeps of various cheeses to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Seven cheese varieties were heated in a rheometer from 22 to 70 deg C, and Ea was calculated from the resulting ...

  15. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  16. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  17. Mechanism and activation energy of magnetic skyrmion annihilation obtained from minimum energy path calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Igor S.; Jónsson, Hannes; Uzdin, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism and activation energy for the annihilation of a magnetic skyrmion is studied by finding the minimum energy path for the transition in a system described by a Heisenberg-type Hamiltonian extended to include dipole-dipole, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya, and anisotropy interactions so as to represent a Co monolayer on a Pt(111) surface. The annihilation mechanism involves isotropic shrinking of the skyrmion and slow increase of the energy until the transition state is reached after which the energy drops abruptly as the ferromagnetic final state forms. The maximum energy along the minimum energy path, which gives an estimate of the activation energy within the harmonic approximation of transition state theory, is found to be in excellent agreement with direct Langevin dynamics simulations at relatively high temperature carried out by Rohart et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 214412 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.214412]. The dipole-dipole interaction, the computationally most demanding term in the Hamiltonian, is found to be important but its effect on the stability of the skyrmion and shape of the transition path can be mimicked accurately by reducing the anisotropy constant in the Hamiltonian.

  18. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.

  19. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  20. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  1. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  2. Renewable Energy Analysis for Strategic Responsiveness 2 (REASR 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    The analysis of renewable energy within a hybrid electric generator system for remote military applications has not been studied. This report...added that renewable energy can bring to tactical operation centers and remote power stations (for purposes of homeland security) in terms of increased operational readiness, reduced cost, energy savings and pollution abatement.

  3. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  4. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  5. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  6. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  7. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    PubMed Central

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

  8. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, S.

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  9. Energy flow: image correspondence approximation for motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangliang; Li, Ruifeng; Fang, Yajun

    2016-04-01

    We propose a correspondence approximation approach between temporally adjacent frames for motion analysis. First, energy map is established to represent image spatial features on multiple scales using Gaussian convolution. On this basis, energy flow at each layer is estimated using Gauss-Seidel iteration according to the energy invariance constraint. More specifically, at the core of energy invariance constraint is "energy conservation law" assuming that the spatial energy distribution of an image does not change significantly with time. Finally, energy flow field at different layers is reconstructed by considering different smoothness degrees. Due to the multiresolution origin and energy-based implementation, our algorithm is able to quickly address correspondence searching issues in spite of background noise or illumination variation. We apply our correspondence approximation method to motion analysis, and experimental results demonstrate its applicability.

  10. Analysis of metabolic energy utilization in the Skylab astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Skylab biomedical data regarding man's metabolic processes for extended periods of weightlessness is presented. The data was used in an integrated metabolic balance analysis which included analysis of Skylab water balance, electrolyte balance, evaporative water loss, and body composition. A theoretical analysis of energy utilization in man is presented. The results of the analysis are presented in tabular and graphic format.

  11. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, Joyce

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  12. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  13. Multifractal characterization of energy stocks in China: A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impacts of oil price changes on energy stocks in Chinese stock market from the multifractal perspective. The well-known multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is applied to detect the multifractality. We find that both returns and volatilities of energy industry index display apparent multifractal behavior. Oil market activity is an important source of multifractality in energy stocks index in addition to long-range correlations and fat-tail distributions.

  14. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  15. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  16. Biomass energy analysis for crop dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.P.; Haase, S.G.; Quinn, M.W.; Zachritz, W.; Lansford, R.; Swanson, D.

    1995-06-01

    In 1994, an agricultural processing facility began constructing a new spice and herb dehydration facility in southern New Mexico. Because of the considerable energy intensity of the dehydration operation, management of energy costs is of special concern to the facility. Biomass energy conversion offers the potential for firms to reduce annual operating costs-especially firms with access to low-cost resources. Because the selected facility produces a biomass by-product as a result of its dehydration operation, it is appropriate to explore the technical, regulatory, institutional and economic conditions that affect the successful utilization of biomass resources. The facility is characterized as a small-scale installation, relative to other energy users. In this context, small-scale represents less than 100 million Btu per hour of thermal load and less than 1 MWe of electrical load. However, the projected annual energy bill is approximately $1.1 million and represents a significant portion of operational costs for the firm. For this study, the biomass resources in southern New Mexico and western Texas are detailed. Annual supplies of various biomass resources (i.e., wood chips, pecan shells, discarded tires and cotton gin trash) were inventoried. Further, delivered costs are projected for each of the resource forms. A technical assessment for the small-scale gasification and combustion systems is presented.

  17. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR: Utility Bill Analysis on Homes Participating in Austin Energy's Program

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.; Mosey, G.; Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.

    2007-07-01

    Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) is a jointly managed program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This program focuses on improving energy efficiency in existing homes via a whole-house approach to assessing and improving a home's energy performance, and helping to protect the environment. As one of HPwES's local sponsors, Austin Energy's HPwES program offers a complete home energy analysis and a list of recommendations for efficiency improvements, along with cost estimates. To determine the benefits of this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a statistical analysis using energy consumption data of HPwES homes provided by Austin Energy. This report provides preliminary estimates of average savings per home from the HPwES Loan Program for the period 1998 through 2006. The results from this preliminary analysis suggest that the HPwES program sponsored by Austin Energy had a very significant impact on reducing average cooling electricity for participating households. Overall, average savings were in the range of 25%-35%, and appear to be robust under various criteria for the number of households included in the analysis.

  18. Variational Energy Decomposition Analysis of Chemical Bonding. 1. Spin-Pure Analysis of Single Bonds.

    PubMed

    Levine, Daniel S; Horn, Paul R; Mao, Yuezhi; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-10-11

    We have designed an energy decomposition analysis (EDA) to gain a deeper understanding of single chemical bonds, that is, those in which the interacting fragments are doublet open-shell systems but the supersystem is closed-shell. The method is a spin-pure extension of the absolutely localized molecular orbital (ALMO) EDA to the one-pair perfect pairing energy (equivalently to an active space of two electrons in two orbitals). The total interaction energy is broken up into four terms: frozen interactions, spin-coupling, polarization, and charge-transfer. A variety of single bonds are analyzed and, in addition, we use this method to show how solvation changes the nature of bonds, producing different results in the gas-phase and with explicit solvent molecules.

  19. Analysis of PURPA and solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.

    1980-03-01

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) is designed to promote energy conservation, the efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates. PURPA specifically directs the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to encourage small power production from renewable resources (and also cogeneration of electric energy as well as heat) by setting standards under which facilities qualify for interconnection, and guidelines for sales between utilities and independent facilities. The way FERC carries out this mandate may critically affect the development of solar alternatives to electric power production from fossil and nuclear resources. This report comments on proposed FERC regulations and suggests ways to encourage small power production within the PURPA mandate. In addition, some internal strains within PURPA are analyzed that seem to limit the effectiveness with which FERC can encourage independent facilities, and possible modifications to PURPA are suggested. 255 references.

  20. Guidelines for the analysis of free energy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimovich, Pavel V.; Shirts, Michael R.; Mobley, David L.

    2015-05-01

    Free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations show considerable promise for applications ranging from drug discovery to prediction of physical properties and structure-function studies. But these calculations are still difficult and tedious to analyze, and best practices for analysis are not well defined or propagated. Essentially, each group analyzing these calculations needs to decide how to conduct the analysis and, usually, develop its own analysis tools. Here, we review and recommend best practices for analysis yielding reliable free energies from molecular simulations. Additionally, we provide a Python tool, http://arxiv.org/abs/alchemical-analysis.py, freely available on GitHub as part of the pymbar package (located at http://github.com/choderalab/pymbar), that implements the analysis practices reviewed here for several reference simulation packages, which can be adapted to handle data from other packages. Both this review and the tool covers analysis of alchemical calculations generally, including free energy estimates via both thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation-based estimators. Our Python tool also handles output from multiple types of free energy calculations, including expanded ensemble and Hamiltonian replica exchange, as well as standard fixed ensemble calculations. We also survey a range of statistical and graphical ways of assessing the quality of the data and free energy estimates, and provide prototypes of these in our tool. We hope this tool and discussion will serve as a foundation for more standardization of and agreement on best practices for analysis of free energy calculations.

  1. Guidelines for the analysis of free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Klimovich, Pavel V; Shirts, Michael R; Mobley, David L

    2015-05-01

    Free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations show considerable promise for applications ranging from drug discovery to prediction of physical properties and structure-function studies. But these calculations are still difficult and tedious to analyze, and best practices for analysis are not well defined or propagated. Essentially, each group analyzing these calculations needs to decide how to conduct the analysis and, usually, develop its own analysis tools. Here, we review and recommend best practices for analysis yielding reliable free energies from molecular simulations. Additionally, we provide a Python tool, alchemical-analysis.py, freely available on GitHub as part of the pymbar package (located at http://github.com/choderalab/pymbar), that implements the analysis practices reviewed here for several reference simulation packages, which can be adapted to handle data from other packages. Both this review and the tool covers analysis of alchemical calculations generally, including free energy estimates via both thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation-based estimators. Our Python tool also handles output from multiple types of free energy calculations, including expanded ensemble and Hamiltonian replica exchange, as well as standard fixed ensemble calculations. We also survey a range of statistical and graphical ways of assessing the quality of the data and free energy estimates, and provide prototypes of these in our tool. We hope this tool and discussion will serve as a foundation for more standardization of and agreement on best practices for analysis of free energy calculations.

  2. Guidelines for the analysis of free energy calculations

    PubMed Central

    Klimovich, Pavel V.; Shirts, Michael R.; Mobley, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show considerable promise for applications ranging from drug discovery to prediction of physical properties and structure-function studies. But these calculations are still difficult and tedious to analyze, and best practices for analysis are not well defined or propagated. Essentially, each group analyzing these calculations needs to decide how to conduct the analysis and, usually, develop its own analysis tools. Here, we review and recommend best practices for analysis yielding reliable free energies from molecular simulations. Additionally, we provide a Python tool, alchemical–analysis.py, freely available on GitHub at https://github.com/choderalab/pymbar–examples, that implements the analysis practices reviewed here for several reference simulation packages, which can be adapted to handle data from other packages. Both this review and the tool covers analysis of alchemical calculations generally, including free energy estimates via both thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation-based estimators. Our Python tool also handles output from multiple types of free energy calculations, including expanded ensemble and Hamiltonian replica exchange, as well as standard fixed ensemble calculations. We also survey a range of statistical and graphical ways of assessing the quality of the data and free energy estimates, and provide prototypes of these in our tool. We hope these tools and discussion will serve as a foundation for more standardization of and agreement on best practices for analysis of free energy calculations. PMID:25808134

  3. Overview of Energy Systems` safety analysis report programs. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility`s safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This ``Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs`` Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  4. Directed transport of active particles over asymmetric energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, N; Maggi, C; Di Leonardo, R

    2014-08-21

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the transport of active colloids to target regions, delimited by asymmetric energy barriers. We show that it is possible to introduce a generalized effective temperature that is related to the local variance of particle velocities. The stationary probability distributions can be derived from a simple diffusion equation in the presence of an inhomogeneous effective temperature resulting from the action of external force fields. In particular, transition rates over asymmetric energy barriers can be unbalanced by having different effective temperatures over the two slopes of the barrier. By varying the type of active noise, we find that equal values of diffusivity and persistence time may produce strongly varied effective temperatures and thus stationary distributions.

  5. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership (REMAP): An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Nate; Jenkin, Thomas; Milford, James; Short, Walter; Sullivan, Patrick; Evans, David; Lieberman, Elliot; Goldstein, Gary; Wright, Evelyn; Jayaraman, Kamala R.; Venkatesh, Boddu; Kleiman, Gary; Namovicz, Christopher; Smith, Bob; Palmer, Karen; Wiser, Ryan; Wood, Frances

    2009-09-01

    Energy system modeling can be intentionally or unintentionally misused by decision-makers. This report describes how both can be minimized through careful use of models and thorough understanding of their underlying approaches and assumptions. The analysis summarized here assesses the impact that model and data choices have on forecasting energy systems by comparing seven different electric-sector models. This analysis was coordinated by the Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership (REMAP), a collaboration among governmental, academic, and nongovernmental participants.

  6. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Lai, Rixin; Ning, Puqi; Rajashekara, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  7. Raman active high energy excitations in URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhot, Jonathan; Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain; Piekarz, Przemysław; Lapertot, Gérard; Aoki, Dai; Méasson, Marie-Aude

    2017-02-01

    We have performed Raman scattering measurements on URu2Si2 single crystals on a large energy range up to ∼1300 cm-1 and in all the Raman active symmetries as a function of temperature down to 15 K. A large excitation, active only in the Eg symmetry, is reported. It has been assigned to a crystal electric field excitation on the Uranium site. We discuss how this constrains the crystal electric field scheme of the Uranium ions. Furthermore, three excitations in the A1g symmetry are observed. They have been associated to double Raman phonon processes consistently with ab initio calculations of the phonons dispersion.

  8. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  9. Serum metabolites related to cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity energy expenditure, sedentary time and vigorous activity.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Floegel, Anna; Knüppel, Sven; Vigl, Matthaeus; Drogan, Dagmar; Adamski, Jerzy; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics in a population- based study. A total of 100 subjects provided 2 fasting blood samples and engaged in a CRF and PA measurement at 2 visits 4 months apart. CRF was estimated from a step test, whereas physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), time spent sedentary and time spend in vigorous activity were measured by a combined heart rate and movement sensor for a total of 8 days. Serum metabolite concentrations were determined by flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS). Linear mixed models were applied with multivariable adjustment and p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Furthermore, we explored the associations between CRF, PA and two metabolite factors that have previously been linked to risk of Type 2 diabetes. CRF was associated with two phosphatidylcholine clusters independently of all other exposures. Lysophosphatidylcholine C14:0 and methionine were significantly negatively associated with PAEE and sedentary time. CRF was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. Vigorous activity was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes risk factor in the mutually adjusted model. Our results suggest that CRF and PA are associated with serum metabolites, especially CRF with phosphatidylcholines and with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. PAEE and sedentary time were associated with methionine. The identified metabolites could be potential mediators of the protective effects of CRF and PA on chronic disease risk.

  10. High-energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, Marek

    1994-01-01

    Two recent findings concerning high-energy radiation properties of active galactic nuclei -- discovery of breaks in hard X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies, and discovery of huge fluxes of hard gamma rays from blazars -- seem to press us to change our standard views about radiation production in these objects. I review briefly the existing radiation models, confront them with the newest observations, and discuss newly emerging theoretical pictures which attempt to account for the discoveries.

  11. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Liu, Bing

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to assess the relative energy and energy cost performance of commercial buildings designed to meet the requirements found in the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. As many states have historically adopted the IECC for both residential and commercial buildings, PNNL has evaluated the impacts of the commercial provisions of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 editions of the IECC. PNNL also compared energy performance with corresponding editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  12. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  13. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  14. Proceedings of the 1991 Socioeconomic Energy Research and Analysis Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    These proceedings analyze US energy policy as it pertains to minority groups. Example topics include: Economic impacts of the National Energy Strategy on minority and majority households, Utility measures to assist payment-troubled customers, Equity impacts of controlling energy usage through market-based versus regulatory approaches, Technical and planning support for the DOE-HUD initiative for energy efficiency in housing, an analysis of residential energy consumption and expenditures by minority households by home type and housing vintage, and methodical issues in evaluating integrated least cost planning programs.

  15. Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, C; Sokolov, M

    1982-11-15

    The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing coating surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube, and (2) a semitransparent inner tube filled with an absorbing fluid surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube. The formation of ray cascades in the semitransparent tubes is considered. A numerical simulation to investigate the influence of the angle of incidence, sizing, thickness, and coefficient of extinction of the tubes was performed. A comparison was made between receiver elements with and without cover tubes. Ray tracing analyses in which rays were followed within the tubular receiver element as well as throughout the rest of the collector were performed for parabolic and circular trough concentrating collectors.

  16. Regional analysis of energy facility siting

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F W; Meier, P M; Kleinman, L I

    1980-01-01

    This paper has examined some of the regional environmental parameters of energy facility siting, with emphasis on air quality impacts. An example of a siting optimization study was presented, and it was shown how difficult it presently is to specify an environmental objective function that is universally applicable. The importance of regional background effects was discussed, and long-range transport models were used to analyze the relative importance of local and long-range impacts.

  17. Local Energy Monitoring and Control Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-28

    reducing total operating cost and enabling the system to run more efficiently and thus use less energy. (j) Enthalpy Control Through the use, when...efficient, of outside air instead of conditioned air a building may be cooled without the use of a mechanical cooling system. (see (a)) (k) Enthalpy ...outdoor and return air DB temperature or can be a more com- ... plex system based on the total heat or enthalpy of the supply air. Single zone single

  18. Neutron energy analysis by silicon prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, J.; Ott, F.; Hülsen, Ch.; Krist, Th.

    2013-11-01

    Neutron energy analysing by refraction with prisms allows to measure different wavelengths at the same time thus avoiding losses due to monochromatization. We built and tested a refractive energy analysing device made from small prisms, where losses only occur due to the attenuation in the material. We measured the refraction and the transmission of MgF2 and Si prisms at the V14 reflectometer in Berlin at 4.9 Å to check their applicability. The experimentally determined linear attenuation coefficients are 0.055 cm-1 for the MgF2 and 0.03 cm-1 for the Si prisms. An energy analyser consisting of silicon prism layers was measured at the EROS reflectometer at the LLB in a white neutron beam. The useful wavelength band was 2.4-7.6 Å. At 6.7 Å a wavelength resolution of 5% and a transmission of 53% were achieved. The surface roughness of the prisms could be determined to be (0.011±0.006)deg.

  19. Estimating Physical Activity Energy Expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an Exergaming Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q.; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks). Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the active video gaming

  20. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    PubMed

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks). Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the active video gaming

  1. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  2. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions.

  3. Asymmetric-Structure Analysis of Carbon and Energy Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Guangxi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the asymmetric structure between the carbon and energy markets from two aspects of different trends (up or down) and volatility-transmission direction using asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficient test, multifractal asymmetric DCCA (MF-ADCCA) method, asymmetric volatility-constrained correlation metric and time rate of information-flow approach. We sampled 1283 observations from January 2008 to December 2012 among pairs of carbon and energy markets for analysis. Empirical results show that the (1) asymmetric characteristic from the cross-correlation between carbon and returns in the energy markets is significant, (2) asymmetric cross-correlation between carbon and energy market price returns is persistent and multifractral and (3) volatility of the base assets of energy market returns is more influential to the base asset of the carbon market than that of the energy market.

  4. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various energy usages

  5. Understanding Community Wind Energy Development in Oregon: An Integrated Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yao

    This research intends to provide insights into community wind energy development in Oregon using an integrated analysis approach, which incorporates GIS Suitability Analysis, Socio-Political Analysis, and Empirical Case Studies. In the GIS analysis, we developed a model through a series of steps (including data acquisition, preprocessing, data management, manipulation and analysis, and output generation) to measure how suitable a location is for developing wind energy in Oregon. The socio-political analysis adopts the Socio-Political Evaluation of Energy Deployment (SPEED) framework and categorized policies and incentives that are applicable to community wind projects into three classes: strategic, tactical, and operational. The empirical case studies, focused on seven projects in Oregon, are analyzed using the actor-network theoretical framework, and their opportunities and barriers are explored as well.

  6. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  7. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  8. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  9. Analysis of Remote Site Energy Storage and Generation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    alternate energy sources for remote site applications. The first phase of the effort centered on the broad based study of hydrogen storage, thermal storage...divided into two phases, the first phase was a generalized study and analysis of potential remote site alternate energy and energy storage systems. The...systems consisted of the following seven steps. First , the power system output requirements were established based on the work statement requirements

  10. Comparative analysis of net energy balance for satellite power systems (SPS) and other energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Cho, B.S.; Monarch, M.R.; Levine, E.P.

    1980-04-01

    The net energy balance of seven electric energy systems is assessed: two coal-based, one nuclear, two terrestrial solar, and two solar power satellites, with principal emphasis on the latter two systems. Solar energy systems require much less operating energy per unit of electrical output. However, on the basis of the analysis used here, coal and nuclear systems are two to five times more efficient at extracting useful energy from the primary resource base than are the solar energy systems. The payback period for all systems is less than 1.5 years, except for the terrestrial photovoltaic (19.8 yr) and the solar power satellite system (6.4 yr), both of which rely on energy-intensive silicon cells.

  11. Comparisons of a Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Healthy Young Adults Depending on their Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Verney, Julien; Schwartz, Chloé; Amiche, Saliha; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing BIA and DXA results in assessing body composition in young adults depending on their physical activity level. Eighty healthy 19–30 years old subjects were enrolled and their body composition (Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and by a newly developed Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA - Tanita MC780). A seven-day physical activity level was assessed using a 3-axial accelerometer. DXA-FM% and BIA-FM% were correlated (p<0.001; r= 0.852; ICC [IC95%]: 0.84 [0.75 – 0.90]; concordance coefficient: 0.844). DXA-FFM and BIA FFM were correlated (p<0.001; r=0.976; ICC [IC95%]: 0.95 [0.93 – 0.97], concordance coefficient: 0.955). DXA and BIA measurements of FM% and FFM were highly correlated in both boys and girls regardless of the physical activity level. Compared with DXA scans, newly developed bioelectrical impedance analyzers provide satisfactory fat mass and lean mass measures in healthy young women and men, despite their physical activity level. PMID:26557191

  12. Comparisons of a Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Healthy Young Adults Depending on their Physical Activity Level.

    PubMed

    Verney, Julien; Schwartz, Chloé; Amiche, Saliha; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed at comparing BIA and DXA results in assessing body composition in young adults depending on their physical activity level. Eighty healthy 19-30 years old subjects were enrolled and their body composition (Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and by a newly developed Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA - Tanita MC780). A seven-day physical activity level was assessed using a 3-axial accelerometer. DXA-FM% and BIA-FM% were correlated (p<0.001; r= 0.852; ICC [IC95%]: 0.84 [0.75 - 0.90]; concordance coefficient: 0.844). DXA-FFM and BIA FFM were correlated (p<0.001; r=0.976; ICC [IC95%]: 0.95 [0.93 - 0.97], concordance coefficient: 0.955). DXA and BIA measurements of FM% and FFM were highly correlated in both boys and girls regardless of the physical activity level. Compared with DXA scans, newly developed bioelectrical impedance analyzers provide satisfactory fat mass and lean mass measures in healthy young women and men, despite their physical activity level.

  13. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  14. Applications analysis of high energy lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.; Mackay, J. S.; Nishioka, K.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and comparison of laser technology with competing technologies were made to determine possible laser applications. The analysis was undertaken as follows: (1) possible applications were listed and categorized; (2) required components were enumerated and the characteristics of these components were extrapolated; (3) complete system characteristics were calculated parametrically for selected applications using the postulated component characteristics; and (4) where possible and appropriate, comparisons were made with competing systems. It was found that any large scale replacement of existing systems and methods by lasers requires many technological advances in laser and associated systems. However, several applications appear feasible, such as low orbit drag make-up, orbit changing, communications, and illumination applications.

  15. BMEWS Capture and Analysis of Reflected Energy Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BMEWS Capture and Analysis of Reflected Energy - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  16. DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The general conditions for DOD-DOE interactions were delineated in an October 1978, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that identified two basic goals: improving energy efficiency and availability within DOD, and utilizing DOD and DOE expertise and facilities to carry out projects of mutual interest. There has been considerable interaction between DOD and DOE, including a number of proposed joint initiatives but a systematic and coordinated approach for nurturing, maintaining, and expanding these relationships has not been developed. A DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities was held on March 10-12, 1980. The workshop was structured into five working groups - Mobility Fuels, Conservation, Fossil Fuels for Fixed Facilities, Solar and Renewable Energy Sources, and Special Projects - with DOD and DOE cochairmen for each. Over a hundred DOD and DOE management, program, and policymaking representatives were brought together by the workshop Steering Committee to identify specific programs for inclusion in an overall plan for implementing the MOU and to deal with fundamental issues and problems of maintaining future communications. The workshop accomplished its goals, these being to: (1) improve communication among the appropriate key DOD and DOE personnel at all levels and promote information exchange; (2) review ongoing and already-proposed joint DOD and DOE programs; (3) initiate a coordinated, systematic effort to establish joint DOD-DOE energy-security programs; and (4) propose specific programs and projects of mutual interest for inclusion in a follow-on joint-implementation plan.

  17. Biomass compositional analysis for energy applications.

    PubMed

    Hames, Bonnie R

    2009-01-01

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  18. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  19. Orienting the Neighborhood: A Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a new computerized Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool being developed to allow users to interactively design subdivision street layouts while receiving feedback about energy impacts based on user-specified building design variants and availability of roof surfaces for photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.

  20. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  1. Path Analysis of Household Energy Use - Neighborhood Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenjin, Nanako

    Many have studied residential energy use in relation with appliance types and efficiency, dwelling types, behavior, socio-demographics, and geography. Yet little is understood about the interrelations among the variables in the context of energy use. We used data collected through residential energy surveys from two neighborhoods in California. Path analysis models with emphasis on the appliance characteristics, appliance usage, and household energy use were developed and statistically tested. Our study showed that even a simple demographic variable like household size has unique effect channels on household energy use and also the channel was significant in one neighborhood but not in the other. While our model leaves much to be improved, the model supports a framework of energy use to explain energy use from a behavioral perspective in which household decisions were related to socio-demographic characteristics but neighborhood difference also plays a major role.

  2. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Language Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Among the lessons included are an energy debate, puzzles, energy poetry, and energy life styles. Also contained in the IDEAS program are activity sets…

  3. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler: 6-12. Social Studies. Revised 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    Thirty-eight energy related classroom activities for sixth to twelfth grade are included in this document. The activities are based on the following conceptual themes: (1) energy is basic; (2) energy's usefulness is limited; (3) energy exchanges affect the environment; (4) energy conservation is essential; and (5) people can develop and share…

  4. Nonadiabatic coupling reduces the activation energy in thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J; Penfold, T J

    2017-03-22

    The temperature dependent rate of a thermally activated process is given by the Arrhenius equation. The exponential decrease in the rate with activation energy, which this imposes, strongly promotes processes with small activation barriers. This criterion is one of the most challenging during the design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters used in organic light emitting diodes. The small activation energy is usually achieved with donor-acceptor charge transfer complexes. However, this sacrifices the radiative rate and is therefore incommensurate with the high luminescence quantum yields required for applications. Herein we demonstrate that the spin-vibronic mechanism, operative for efficient TADF, overcomes this limitation. Nonadiabatic coupling between the lowest two triplet states give rise to a strong enhancement of the rate of reserve intersystem crossing via a second order mechanism and promotes population transfer between the T1 to T2 states. Consequently the rISC mechanism is actually operative between initial and final state exhibiting an energy gap that is smaller than between the T1 and S1 states. This contributes to the small activation energies for molecules exhibiting a large optical gap, identifies limitations of the present design procedures and provides a basis from which to construct TADF molecules with simultaneous high radiative and rISC rates.

  5. Analysing domestic activity to reduce household energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Fréjus, Myriam; Guibourdenche, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on the issue of behavioral change according to energy conservation constraints and on the status of sustainability in the design of ambient interactive systems at home. We point out how ergonomics contributes to the study of human factors underlying energy consumption. Relating to situated cognition and human computer interaction, our approach relies both on the ergonomic evaluation of feedback consumption displays and on the modeling of domestic activities in order to identify household concerns in real settings. We present empirical results to illustrate this global approach. The results of those studies allow the design of interactive systems: informative and pedagogical systems as well as pervasive and adaptive ambient systems. In our approach, sustainability is taken into account as a design criterion, as security could be, whereas the main design purpose is to aid households in their daily life in order to build a "sustainable situation".

  6. Activation Energies of Fragmentations of Disaccharides by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Szabó, Katalin E.; Antal, Borbála; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2014-03-01

    A simple multiple collision model for collision induced dissociation (CID) in quadrupole was applied for the estimation of the activation energy (Eo) of the fragmentation processes for lithiated and trifluoroacetated disaccharides, such as maltose, cellobiose, isomaltose, gentiobiose, and trehalose. The internal energy-dependent rate constants k(Eint) were calculated using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) or the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (RRK) theory. The Eo values were estimated by fitting the calculated survival yield (SY) curves to the experimental ones. The calculated Eo values of the fragmentation processes for lithiated disaccharides were in the range of 1.4-1.7 eV, and were found to increase in the order trehalose < maltose < isomaltose < cellobiose < gentiobiose.

  7. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  8. Cytosolic calcium coordinates mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Amit K; Ivannikov, Maxim V; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R; Macleod, Gregory T

    2012-01-25

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations that blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+ and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11 nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13 nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates, [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs.

  9. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  10. Energy Navigation: Simulation Evaluation and Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lewis, Elliot T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from two simulation studies investigating the use of advanced flight-deck-based energy navigation (ENAV) and conventional transport-category vertical navigation (VNAV) for conducting a descent through a busy terminal area, using Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures. This research was part of the Low Noise Flight Procedures (LNFP) element within the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project, and the subsequent Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO) research focus area of the Airspace Project. A piloted simulation study addressed development of flight guidance, and supporting pilot and Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures for high density terminal operations. The procedures and charts were designed to be easy to understand, and to make it easy for the crew to make changes via the Flight Management Computer Control-Display Unit (FMC-CDU) to accommodate changes from ATC.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  12. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  13. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  14. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  15. Ecological and scaling analysis of the energy expenditure of rest, activity, flight, and evaporative water loss in Passeriformes and non-Passeriformes in relation to seasonal migrations and to the occupation of boreal stations in high and moderate latitudes.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Valery M

    2014-06-01

    A unified system of bioenergetic parameters that describe thermal regulation and energy metabolism in many passerine and non-passerine species has been developed. These parameters have been analyzed as functions of ambient temperature, and bioenergetic models for various species have been developed. The level of maximum food energy or maximal existence metabolism (MPE) is 1.3 times higher in passerines than in non-passerines, which is consistent with the ratio of their basal metabolic rates (BMR). The optimal ambient temperature for maximizing productive processes (e.g., reproduction, molting) is lower for passerines than for non passerines, which allows passerines to have higher production rates at moderate ambient temperatures. This difference in the optimal ambient temperature may explain the variation in bioenergetic parameters along latitudinal gradients, such as the well-known ecological rule of clutch size (or mass) increase in the more northerly passerine birds. The increased potential for productive energy output in the north may also allow birds to molt faster there. This phenomenon allows passerine birds to occupy a habitat that fluctuates widely in ambient temperature compared with non-passerine birds of similar size. Passerines have a more effective system for maintaining heat balance at both high and low temperatures. The high metabolism and small body sizes of passerines are consistent with omnivore development and with ecological plasticity. Among large passerines, the unfavorable ratio of MPE to BMR should decrease the energy that is available for productive processes. This consequence limits both the reproductive output and the development of long migration (particularly in Corvus corax). The hypothesis regarding BMR increase in passerines was suggested based on an aerodynamic analysis of the flight speed and the wing characteristics. This allometric analysis shows that the flight velocity is approximately 20% lower in Passeriformes than in non

  16. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  17. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-21

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004)]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  18. Macroautophagy regulates energy metabolism during effector T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Vanessa M; Valdor, Rut; Patel, Bindi; Singh, Rajat; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando

    2010-12-15

    Macroautophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosomal-mediated protein degradation that plays a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by recycling amino acids, reducing the amount of damaged proteins, and regulating protein levels in response to extracellular signals. We have found that macroautophagy is induced after effector T cell activation. Engagement of the TCR and CD28 results in enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) processing, increased numbers of LC3-containing vesicles, and increased LC3 flux, indicating active autophagosome formation and clearance. The autophagosomes formed in stimulated T cells actively fuse with lysosomes to degrade their cargo. Using a conditional KO mouse model where Atg7, a critical gene for macroautophagy, is specifically deleted in T cells, we have found that macroautophagy-deficient effector Th cells have defective IL-2 and IFN-γ production and reduced proliferation after stimulation, with no significant increase in apoptosis. We have found that ATP generation is decreased when autophagy is blocked, and defects in activation-induced cytokine production are restored when an exogenous energy source is added to macroautophagy-deficient T cells. Furthermore, we present evidence showing that the nature of the cargo inside autophagic vesicles found in resting T cells differs from the cargo of autophagosomes in activated T cells, where mitochondria and other organelles are selectively excluded. These results suggest that macroautophagy is an actively regulated process in T cells that can be induced in response to TCR engagement to accommodate the bioenergetic requirements of activated T cells.

  19. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  20. Social Studies. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document provides activities for teachers to use with students in teaching social studies. The activities are intended to demonstrate the impact of energy technology on today's society.…

  1. Energy- and Activity-Dependent Loss Timescales for Inner Magnetospheric keV-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) inner magnetospheric drift physics model has recently been modified to include keV-energy electron scattering rates by VLF chorus and hiss waves, thus allowing for the calculation of the electron phase space distribution in the inner magnetosphere and electron precipitation to the upper atmosphere. Comparisons of calculated electron fluxes are made with low-Earth orbit electron precipitation data and dayside electron measurements to validate the scattering implementation procedure. The energy-dependent scattering rate coefficients are adjusted to take into account geomagnetic activity and plasmapause location, providing a scattering rate that best matches the simulations to the observed electron fluxes. In addition, the electron ring current intensities and spatio-temporal evolution are compared against simulation results for the hot ion species. While the electron total energy content is typically 10 times smaller than the ion total energy content in the inner magnetosphere, it can be significantly higher than this during the late main phase of magnetic storms.

  2. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  3. A Habermasian Analysis of Local Renewable Energy Deliberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This study pursues a Habermasian analysis of citizen discussions and of the local public sphere to shed light on renewable energy futures in rural east-central Canada. Using data from group discussions, it pursues an investigation of utterances, validity claims and of discourses. The analysis is supplemented by participant observation of publicly…

  4. Redox Active Polymers as Soluble Nanomaterials for Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Mark; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-11-15

    It is an exciting time for exploring the synergism between the chemical and dimensional properties of redox nanomaterials for addressing the manifold performance demands faced by energy storage technologies. The call for widespread adoption of alternative energy sources requires the combination of emerging chemical concepts with redesigned battery formats. Our groups are interested in the development and implementation of a new strategy for nonaqueous flow batteries (NRFBs) for grid energy storage. Our motivation is to solve major challenges in NRFBs, such as the lack of membranes that simultaneously allow fast ion transport while minimizing redox active species crossover between anolyte (negative electrolyte) and catholyte (positive electrolyte) compartments. This pervasive crossover leads to deleterious capacity fade and materials underutilization. In this Account, we highlight redox active polymers (RAPs) and related polymer colloids as soluble nanoscopic energy storing units that enable the simple but powerful size-exclusion concept for NRFBs. Crossover of the redox component is suppressed by matching high molecular weight RAPs with simple and inexpensive nanoporous commercial separators. In contrast to the vast literature on the redox chemistry of electrode-confined polymer films, studies on the electrochemistry of solubilized RAPs are incipient. This is due in part to challenges in finding suitable solvents that enable systematic studies on high polymers. Here, viologen-, ferrocene- and nitrostyrene-based polymers in various formats exhibit properties that make amenable their electrochemical exploration as solution-phase redox couples. A main finding is that RAP solutions store energy efficiently and reversibly while offering chemical modularity and size versatility. Beyond the practicality toward their use in NRFBs, the fundamental electrochemistry exhibited by RAPs is fascinating, showing clear distinctions in behavior from that of small molecules. Whereas

  5. Redox Active Colloids as Discrete Energy Storage Carriers.

    PubMed

    Montoto, Elena C; Nagarjuna, Gavvalapalli; Hui, Jingshu; Burgess, Mark; Sekerak, Nina M; Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Wei, Teng-Sing; Kneer, Marissa; Grolman, Joshua; Cheng, Kevin J; Lewis, Jennifer A; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-10-12

    Versatile and readily available battery materials compatible with a range of electrode configurations and cell designs are desirable for renewable energy storage. Here we report a promising class of materials based on redox active colloids (RACs) that are inherently modular in their design and overcome challenges faced by small-molecule organic materials for battery applications, such as crossover and chemical/morphological stability. RACs are cross-linked polymer spheres, synthesized with uniform diameters between 80 and 800 nm, and exhibit reversible redox activity as single particles, as monolayer films, and in the form of flowable dispersions. Viologen-based RACs display reversible cycling, accessing up to 99% of their capacity and 99 ± 1% Coulombic efficiency over 50 cycles by bulk electrolysis owing to efficient, long-distance intraparticle charge transfer. Ferrocene-based RACs paired with viologen-based RACs cycled efficiently in a nonaqueous redox flow battery employing a simple size-selective separator, thus demonstrating a possible application that benefits from their colloidal dimensions. The unprecedented versatility in RAC synthetic and electrochemical design opens new avenues for energy storage.

  6. Activation energy of tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, Octavio G.; Munir, Zuhair A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2011-01-15

    The activation energy of a sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HPSPS) technique at 300 and 400 C. The ignition temperatures were investigated under high heating rates (500-2000 C min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Samples consolidated at 300 C exhibit an abrupt change in temperature response prior to the main ignition temperature. This change in temperature response is attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465 to 670 C. The activation energies of the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite consolidated at 300 and 400 C were determined to be 38{+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1} and 57 {+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  7. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  8. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  9. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O'Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  10. Standing wave tube electro active polymer wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Philippe; Wattez, Ambroise; Ardoise, Guillaume; Melis, C.; Van Kessel, R.; Fourmon, A.; Barrabino, E.; Heemskerk, J.; Queau, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 4 years SBM has developed a revolutionary Wave Energy Converter (WEC): the S3. Floating under the ocean surface, the S3 amplifies pressure waves similarly to a Ruben's tube. Only made of elastomers, the system is entirely flexible, environmentally friendly and silent. Thanks to a multimodal resonant behavior, the S3 is capable of efficiently harvesting wave energy from a wide range of wave periods, naturally smoothing the irregularities of ocean wave amplitudes and periods. In the S3 system, Electro Active Polymer (EAP) generators are distributed along an elastomeric tube over several wave lengths, they convert wave induced deformations directly into electricity. The output is high voltage multiphase Direct Current with low ripple. Unlike other conventional WECs, the S3 requires no maintenance of moving parts. The conception and operating principle will eventually lead to a reduction of both CAPEX and OPEX. By integrating EAP generators into a small scale S3, SBM achieved a world first: direct conversion of wave energy in electricity with a moored flexible submerged EAP WEC in a wave tank test. Through an extensive testing program on large scale EAP generators, SBM identified challenges in scaling up to a utility grid device. French Government supports the consortium consisting of SBM, IFREMER and ECN in their efforts to deploy a full scale prototype at the SEMREV test center in France at the horizon 2014-2015. SBM will be seeking strategic as well as financial partners to unleash the true potentials of the S3 Standing Wave Tube Electro Active Polymer WEC.

  11. Survey of the Relationship Between Activity Energy Expenditure Metabolic Equivalents and Barrier Factors of Physical Activity in the Elderly in Kashan

    PubMed Central

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Khalili, Zahra; Pour Nazari, Robab; Mohammadi, Majid; Ahmadi Khatir, Maryam; Mossadegh, Najima

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity in the elderly is influenced by aspects of aging that cause personal, mental, environmental, and social changes. Increases in factors that are barriers to activity cause physical energy expenditure to decrease. Objectives The aim of the present study was to survey the relationship between energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (MET) and factors that are barriers to physical activity in elderly people in Kashan, Iran Methods This is a descriptive analysis done in 2014. The study population was 400 people above 60 years old in medical facilities in Kashan. Multistage sampling was used in 10 clinics in 5 areas of Kashan. The sample size was varied according to gender and elderly population. Contributors were given questionnaires concerning energy expenditure levels in physical activity and factors that are barriers to being active. Results The average age among the study population was 67.6 ± 6.8 years median, and the interquartile range (IQR) of barriers to physical activity among Kashan’s elderly was (8.75) ± 33. Average energy expenditure was 326.21 ± 364.84 based on metabolic equivalent units (MET). In fact, 340 persons (85%) were practically without any active energy expenditure. The most common barrier was the lack of an appropriate place for doing physical activity; 298 (74%) of the participants cited this barrier. The results show the Spearman rank-order correlation is significant (P = 0.038, r = 0.104) between barriers to physical activity and activity energy expenditure in Kashan’s elderly. Conclusions Decreasing barriers to physical activity among the elderly causes physical activities to increase; therefore, energy expenditure is increased. Decreasing social and environmental problems for the elderly is effective in increasing physical activity and energy expenditure. PMID:28191341

  12. Neutron Activation Analysis of Water - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, John D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent developments in this field are emphasized. After a brief review of basic principles, topics discussed include sources of neutrons, pre-irradiation physical and chemical treatment of samples, neutron capture and gamma-ray analysis, and selected applications. Applications of neutron activation analysis of water have increased rapidly within the last few years and may be expected to increase in the future.

  13. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  14. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-04-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  15. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xie, YuLong; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhuge, Jing Wei; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  16. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xie, YuLong; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhuge, Jing Wei; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  17. ACMV Energy Analysis for Academic Building: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hywel, R.; Tee, B. T.; Arifin, M. Y.; Tan, C. F.; Gan, C. K.; Chong, CT

    2015-09-01

    Building energy audit examines the ways actual energy consumption is currently used in the facility, in the case of a completed and occupied building and identifies some alternatives to reduce current energy usage. Implementation of energy audit are practically used to analyze energy consumption pattern, monitoring on how the energy used varies with time in the building, how the system element interrelate, and study the effect of external environment towards building. In this case study, a preliminary energy audit is focusing on Air-Conditioning & Mechanical Ventilation (ACMV) system which reportedly consumed 40% of the total energy consumption in typical building. It is also the main system that provides comfortable and healthy environment for the occupants. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the current ACMV system performance, energy optimization and identifying the energy waste on UTeM's academic building. To attain this, the preliminary data is collected and then analyzed. Based on the data, economic analysis will be determined before cost-saving methods are being proposed.

  18. Zero Energy Ready Home Multifamily Case Study Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, Jordan; Alaigh, Kunal

    2016-02-05

    Two multifamily buildings planned in Climate Zone 4 were analyzed to determine the cost, energy and performance implications of redesigning them to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home, a recognition program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Energy modeling was conducted on one representative apartment in each building using BEopt. Construction costs were obtained from the developer and subcontractors to determine savings and cost increases over ENERGY STAR. It was found that seven items would be necessary to change to comply with ZERH criteria when starting from the original design which was compliant with ENERGY STAR version 3.0. Design changes were made to the exterior walls, domestic water heating system, duct protection, duct design, garage ventilation, and pest control to comply with ZERH requirements. Energy impacts of upgrading from the original design to ZERH resulted in 2 to 8% reduction in modeled source energy consumption, or 1.7 to 10.4 MMBtu per year, although the original design was already about 8% better than a design configured to minimum ENERGY STAR criteria. According to the BEopt analysis, annualized energy related costs of the ZERH design were slightly higher for the apartment and slightly lower for the townhome when compared to the original design.

  19. IMPLICATIONS OF MASS AND ENERGY LOSS DUE TO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-02-20

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power-law relationships between the 1-8 A flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE = kE {sup -{alpha}}. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of {alpha} and are very large: M-dot {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and E-dot {approx}0.1 L{sub sun}. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence {approx}> 10{sup 31} erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10{sup -3} L {sub bol} X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L {sub bol}, the CME mass loss rate is about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  20. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis.

  1. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-08-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  2. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  3. Solvation mechanisms of nedocromil sodium from activation energy and reaction enthalpy measurements of dehydration and dealcoholation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Alison C; McColm, Ian J; Harness, J Barrie

    2002-04-01

    Two independent athermal methods of analysis have been used to determine the activation energies associated with the dehydration of nedocromil sodium hydrates. For the highest temperature reaction, monohydrate to the anhydrate, the differences in the measured activation energies indicate a three-dimensional nucleation mechanism in the bulk of the crystal with subsequent three-dimensional anhydrate crystal growth. The number of critical nuclei varies inversely with heating rate. Measured enthalpy values for successive removal of water molecules at 31.7 +/- 1.0, 91.3 +/- 0.8, and 193 +/- 0.6 degrees C are the same, within experimental error, at 21.6 +/- 2.6 kJ (mol H(2)O)(-1), as determined from differential thermal analysis traces. This result implies that an earlier concept of "strong" and "weak" water binding is not relevant and temperatures at which H(2)O molecules are removed is related to nucleation effects and not bond energies. The low temperature shoulder on the 91.3 degrees C peak is identified as an effect arising from open pan analysis conditions. The appearance of "transient" peaks in the conditioning stage of nedocromil sodium trihydrate thermal analysis experiments have been investigated and an explanation based on the presence of alcoholates [(NS)(4) small middle dot 5CH(3)OH, (NS)(5) small middle dot 9C(2)H(5)OH, and (NS)(2) small middle dot C(3)H(7)OH] in the preparations is proposed.

  4. Kinetic study of solid waste pyrolysis using distributed activation energy model.

    PubMed

    Bhavanam, Anjireddy; Sastry, R C

    2015-02-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of municipal solid waste, agricultural residues such as ground nut shell, cotton husk and their blends are investigated using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with in a temperature range of 30-900 °C at different heating rates of 10 °C, 30 °C and 50 °C/min in inert atmosphere. From the thermograms obtained from TGA, it is observed that the maximum rate of degradation occurred in the second stage of the pyrolysis process for all the solid wastes. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) is used to study the pyrolysis kinetics of the solid wastes. The kinetic parameters E (activation energy), k0 (frequency factor) are calculated from this model. It is found that the range of activation energies for agricultural residues are lower than the municipal solid waste. The activation energies for the municipal solid waste pyrolysis process drastically decreased with addition of agricultural residues. The proposed DAEM is successfully validated with TGA experimental data.

  5. Exploring Metrics to Express Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity in Youth

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Robert G.; Butte, Nancy F.; Crouter, Scott E.; Trost, Stewart G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Bassett, David R.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Berrigan, David; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determine whether one metric can be used for all healthy children. Such a metric could improve our ability to further advance the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. Methods A secondary analysis of oxygen uptake (VO2) data obtained from five sites was completed, that included 947 children ages 5 to 18 years, who engaged in 14 different activities. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was computed based on Schofield Equations [Hum Nutr Clin Nut. 39(Suppl 1), 1985]. Absolute oxygen uptake (ml.min-1), oxygen uptake per kilogram body mass (VO2 in ml.kg-1.min-1), net oxygen uptake (VO2 – resting metabolic rate), allometric scaled oxygen uptake (VO2 in ml.kg-0.75.min-1) and YOUTH-MET (VO2.[resting VO2] -1) were calculated. These metrics were regressed with age, sex, height, and body mass. Results Net and allometric-scaled VO2, and YOUTH-MET were least associated with age, sex and physical characteristics. For moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities, allometric scaling was least related to age and sex. For sedentary and low-intensity activities, YOUTH-MET was least related to age and sex. Conclusions No energy expenditure metric completely eliminated the influence of age, physical characteristics, and sex. The Adult MET consistently overestimated EE. YOUTH-MET was better for expressing energy expenditure for sedentary and light activities, whereas allometric scaling was better for moderate and vigorous intensity activities. From a practical perspective, The YOUTH-MET may be the more feasible metric for improving of the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. PMID:26102204

  6. HEPDOOP: High-Energy Physics Analysis using Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhimji, W.; Bristow, T.; Washbrook, A.

    2014-06-01

    We perform a LHC data analysis workflow using tools and data formats that are commonly used in the "Big Data" community outside High Energy Physics (HEP). These include Apache Avro for serialisation to binary files, Pig and Hadoop for mass data processing and Python Scikit-Learn for multi-variate analysis. Comparison is made with the same analysis performed with current HEP tools in ROOT.

  7. Sustainable Biofuel Project: Emergy Analysis of South Florida Energy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Amponsah, Nana Yaw; Izursa, Jose-Luis; Hanlon, Edward A.; Capece, John C.

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluates the sustainability of various farming systems, namely (1) sugarcane on organic and mineral soils and (2) energycane and sweet sorghum on mineral soils. The primary objective of the study is to compare the relative sustainability matrices of these energy crops and their respective farming systems. These matrices should guide decision and policy makers to determine the overall sustainability of an intended or proposed bioethanol project related to any of these studied crops. Several different methods of energy analysis have been proposed to assess the feasibility or sustainability of projects exploiting natural resources (such as (Life Cycle Analysis, Energy Analysis, Exergy Analysis, Cost Benefit Analysis, Ecological Footprint, etc.). This study primarily focused on the concept of Emergy Analysis, a quantitative analytical technique for determining the values of nonmonied and monied resources, services and commodities in common units of the solar energy it took to make them. With this Emergy Analysis study, the Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center intends to provide useful perspective for different stakeholder groups to (1) assess and compare the sustainability levels of above named crops cultivation on mineral soils and organic soils for ethanol production and (2) identify processes within the cultivation that could be targeted for improvements. The results provide as much insight into the assumptions inherent in the investigated approaches as they do into the farming systems in this study.

  8. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  9. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States, Sensitivity analysis-cost of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.M.; Kroll, P.; Nilo, B.

    1982-12-01

    The Geothermal Resources Interactive Temporal Simulation (GRITS) model is a computer code designed to estimate the costs of geothermal energy systems. The interactive program allows the user to vary resource, demand, and financial parameters to observe their effects on delivered costs of direct-use geothermal energy. Due to the large number and interdependent nature of the variables that influence these costs, the variables can be handled practically only through computer modeling. This report documents a sensitivity analysis of the cost of direct-use geothermal energy where each major element is varied to measure the responsiveness of cost to changes in that element. It is hoped that this analysis will assist those persons interested in geothermal energy to understand the most significant cost element as well as those individuals interested in using the GRITS program in the future.

  10. Proceedings of the 1987 socioeconomic energy research and analysis conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The Department of Energy (the Department) convened the first Socioeconomic Energy Research and Analysis Conference in May 1987, in the spirit of constructive dialogue and mutual concern about numerous energy issues and problems. The objective was to provide a national forum for illuminating specific energy and related socioeconomic issues of our nation and discussing realistic approaches to energy policy assessments. This action was based on the Department's commitment to lead the way in developing a pragmatic framework or energy policy determinations, by incorporating constructive policy impact assessment methods into the decisionmaking process. In this rapidly developing industry with high energy technologies, a strong federal role and targeted government programs are essential for the development and integration of minorities into various industry segments. Furthermore, a responsive energy program for all segments of the population must be sensitive to (a) the impact of energy policies on the overall growth of the economy; (b) the differential impact of energy policies on various industries; and (c) the pattern of change in the structure of the social environment. The socioeconomic researchers and energy policy analysts who presented papers or participated in this national forum assisted the Department's efforts to build an energy structure which is truly responsive to the needs of the various population segmets of our nation. The conference participants were also given the opportunity to critique some unique energy policy assessment methodologies which have been conducted mainly at Argonne National Laboratory, under the sponsorship and guidance of the Research and Education Divisions of my Office. Individual papers, in this proceedings have been cataloged separately.

  11. Analysis of surface energy balance closure over heterogeneous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soojin; Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Kyu Rang; Park, Young-San

    2014-11-01

    Surface energy balance closure has been examined using eddy covariance measurements and other observations at one industrial and three agricultural sites near the Nakdong River during daytime. Energy balance closure was evaluated by calculating the long-term averaged energy balance ratio (EBR), the ratio of turbulent energy fluxes to available energy, and the statistical regression of turbulent energy fluxes against available energy using half-hourly data. The EBR of all sites ranges from 0.46 to 0.83 while the coefficient of determination ( R 2) ranges from 0.37 to 0.77. The energy balance closure was relatively poor compared to homogeneous sites, indicating the influence of surface heterogeneity. Unmeasured heat storage terms also seem to play a role in the surface energy budget at the industrial and irrigated sites. The energy balance closure was better in conditions of high wind speed, low downward short wave radiation, and high friction velocity, which suggests the role of heat storage term and surface heterogeneity in surface energy balance at these sites. Spectrum analysis shows a sharp roll-off at the low frequency in co-spectrum, which indicates that low-frequency motions do not significantly contribute to turbulent fluxes. Both the spectra and cospectra in unstable conditions show a broad peak indicating the influence of multiple sizes of large eddies over heterogeneous sites. Most of ogive curves for the kinematic latent and sensible heat fluxes reach an asymptote within 30 minutes regardless of the EBR value, indicating that low frequency motion is not a main factor for energy imbalance. However, stationary eddies due to landscape heterogeneity still remains as a possible cause for energy imbalance.

  12. Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles Dennison; Giebels, Berrie

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV γ rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of γ-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called ;blazars;. The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with γ-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of a few FSRQs and several BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of γ-ray-emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Soft γ-ray emission has been detected from a few nearby Seyfert galaxies, though it is not clear whether those γ rays originate from the nucleus. Blazars and their misaligned counterparts make up most of the ≳100 MeV extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), and are suspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future ;Cherenkov Telescope Array;, in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on the ground, will write the next chapter

  13. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  14. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    PubMed

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  15. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Muenster, M.; Meibom, P.

    2010-12-15

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO{sub 2} quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO{sub 2} quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  16. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  17. Vibroacoustic optimization using a statistical energy analysis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culla, Antonio; D`Ambrogio, Walter; Fregolent, Annalisa; Milana, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an optimization technique for medium-high frequency dynamic problems based on Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method is presented. Using a SEA model, the subsystem energies are controlled by internal loss factors (ILF) and coupling loss factors (CLF), which in turn depend on the physical parameters of the subsystems. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of subsystem energy to CLF's is performed to select CLF's that are most effective on subsystem energies. Since the injected power depends not only on the external loads but on the physical parameters of the subsystems as well, it must be taken into account under certain conditions. This is accomplished in the optimization procedure, where approximate relationships between CLF's, injected power and physical parameters are derived. The approach is applied on a typical aeronautical structure: the cabin of a helicopter.

  18. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  19. Infiltration modeling guidelines for commercial building energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan; Winiarski, David W.; Jarnagin, Ronald E.

    2009-09-30

    This report presents a methodology for modeling air infiltration in EnergyPlus to account for envelope air barrier characteristics. Based on a review of various infiltration modeling options available in EnergyPlus and sensitivity analysis, the linear wind velocity coefficient based on DOE-2 infiltration model is recommended. The methodology described in this report can be used to calculate the EnergyPlus infiltration input for any given building level infiltration rate specified at known pressure difference. The sensitivity analysis shows that EnergyPlus calculates the wind speed based on zone altitude, and the linear wind velocity coefficient represents the variation in infiltration heat loss consistent with building location and weather data.

  20. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Charu; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J.; Bednarek, Maria; Novak, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of melanocortin peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  2. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  3. Decision Analysis Tool to Compare Energy Pathways for Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    With the goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, oil imports, and energy costs, a wide variety of automotive technologies are proposed to replace the traditional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine (g-ICE). A prototype model, Analytica Transportation Energy Analysis Model (ATEAM), has been developed using the Analytica decision modeling environment, visualizing the structure as a hierarchy of influence diagrams. The report summarized the FY2010 ATEAM accomplishments.

  4. NREL's System Advisor Model Simplifies Complex Energy Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The energy market is diversifying. In addition to traditional power sources, decision makers can choose among solar, wind, and geothermal technologies as well. Each of these technologies has complex performance characteristics and economics that vary with location and other project specifics, making it difficult to analyze the viability of such projects. But that analysis is easier now, thanks to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  5. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  6. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis Short Course. Introduction to X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Paul; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This course will cover practical applications of the energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to x-ray microanalysis. Topics covered will include detector technology, advances in pulse processing, resolution and performance monitoring, detector modeling, peak deconvolution and fitting, qualitative and quantitative analysis, compositional mapping, and standards. An emphasis will be placed on use of the EDS for quantitative analysis, with discussion of typical problems encountered in the analysis of a wide range of materials and sample geometries.

  7. Ionization energy and active cation vibrations of trans-2-fluorostyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pei Ying; Tzeng, Sheng Yuan; Hsu, Ya Chu; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2017-02-01

    We applied the two-color resonant two-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) technique to record the cation spectra of trans-2-fluorostyrene by ionizing via six intermediate vibronic levels. The adiabatic ionization energy was determined to be 69 304 ± 5 cm-1. The distinct MATI bands at 67, 124, 242, 355, 737, 806, 833, and 993 cm-1 were assigned to the active cation vibrations related to out-of-plane substituent-sensitive bending vibrations and in-plane ring deformation and bending motions. Many combination vibrations were also observed. Our experimental results suggest that the molecular geometry and vibrational coordinates of the trans-2-fluorostyrene cation in the D0 state resemble those of the neutral species in the S1 state.

  8. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common energy package.'' Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  9. Value analysis of wind energy systems to electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, D.; Harper, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the value of utility-operated wind energy systems to electric utilities. The analysis is performed by a package of computer models that interface with most conventional utility planning models. Weather data are converted to wind turbine output powers, which are used to modify the utility load representation. Execution of the utility planning models with both the original and modified load representation yields the gross and marginal value ($/rated kW/) of the added wind energy systems. This value is then compared with cost estimates to determine if for economic reasons the wind energy system should be included in future generation plans.

  10. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

  11. Home Economics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document was developed to provide home economics teachers with background information on energy, and activities that can be used/adapted with a minimum of preparation time. The…

  12. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  13. An Analysis of Military Family Housing Energy Consumption.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    ftG? 129 AN ANAYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING ENEM / CONSUMPTION(U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH MRIOHT-PATTERSON RFI OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS...111110 W, IM 111 1- L 4.0 1 2.0- L..25 0 ricFILE CMP voww 00 AN ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING ENERGY CONSUMPTION THESIS/ William L. Jones Captain...University, the United States Air Force, or the Department of Defense. . AFITiGEM/DEM/87S-12 .’ AN ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING ENERGY CONSUMPTION

  14. Energy expenditure during tennis play: a preliminary video analysis and metabolic model approach.

    PubMed

    Botton, Florent; Hautier, Christophe; Eclache, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate, using video analysis, what proportion of the total energy expenditure during a tennis match is accounted for by aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively. The method proposed involved estimating the metabolic power (MP) of 5 activities, which are inherent to tennis: walking, running, hitting the ball, serving, and sitting down to rest. The energy expenditure concerned was calculated by sequencing the activity by video analysis. A bioenergetic model calculated the aerobic energy expenditure (EEO2mod) in terms of MP, and the anaerobic energy expenditure was calculated by subtracting this (MP - EEO2mod). Eight tennis players took part in the experiment as subjects (mean ± SD: age 25.2 ± 1.9 years, weight 79.3 ± 10.8 kg, VO2max 54.4 ± 5.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The players started off by participating in 2 games while wearing the K4b2, with their activity profile measured by the video analysis system, and then by playing a set without equipment but with video analysis. There was no significant difference between calculated and measured oxygen consumptions over the 16 games (p = 0.763), and these data were strongly related (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). The EEO2mod was quite weak over all the games (49.4 ± 4.8% VO2max), whereas the MP during points was up to 2 or 3 times the VO2max. Anaerobic metabolism reached 32% of the total energy expenditure across all the games 67% for points and 95% for hitting the ball. This method provided a good estimation of aerobic energy expenditure and made it possible to calculate the anaerobic energy expenditure. This could make it possible to estimate the metabolic intensity of training sessions and matches using video analysis.

  15. Reimagining What's Possible: How NREL's Energy Analysis and Decision Support Capabilities are Guiding Energy Systems Transformation at Home and Around the World; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This engaging brochure shows examples of how NREL enables energy system transformation through robust capabilities in energy analysis and decision support. By reimagining what's possible for renewable energy, NREL contributes to the Department of Energy mission to create energy systems that are cleaner, more reliable, and more secure.

  16. Using NASA Satellite and Model Analysis for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Chandler, W. S.; Whitlock, C. H.; Westberg, D. J.; Zhang, T.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation describes the successful tailoring of NASA research data sets to meet environmental information needs of the renewable energy sector. The data sets currently used for these purposes include the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Surface Radiation Budget data set (SRB), the FLASHFlux (Fast Longwave and SHortwave Fluxes from Global CERES and MODIS observations), and the NASA GSFC Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) versions 4.0.3 and 5.0/5.1. These data are available through the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) web interface (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse). The NASA Earth Science Applied Science program has supported the development of the SSE web interface through a project called the Prediction of World Energy Resource (POWER, http://power.larc.nasa.gov/). The paths of modifying/preparing these data sets for energy applications for the SSE web site are described. These data help engineers, architects, and project analysts develop feasibility studies for renewable energy technology projects, make regional assessments and long-term energy market forecasts. Thus, small-scale projects to regional energy analysis may benefit from this information. The SSE web site has nearly 50,000 users worldwide and version 6.0 is now averaging 250,000 and 60,000 hits and data downloads per month, respectively. Examples of the usage of these data sets are shown to help describe the need and impact of this information. These examples come from the many collaborative partners in this work such as the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Natural Resources Canada RETScreen project. The presentation also gives potential future data needs of these types of technologies and how NASA data could help contribute to meeting those needs. This is particularly pertinent facing the growing needs to develop clean energy sources to

  17. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  18. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  19. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  20. How Do Pseudocapacitors Store Energy? Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Illustration.

    PubMed

    Costentin, Cyrille; Porter, Thomas R; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2017-03-15

    Batteries and electrochemical double layer charging capacitors are two classical means of storing electrical energy. These two types of charge storage can be unambiguously distinguished from one another by the shape and scan-rate dependence of their cyclic voltammetric (CV) current-potential responses. The former shows peak-shaped current-potential responses, proportional to the scan rate v or to v(1/2), whereas the latter displays a quasi-rectangular response proportional to the scan rate. On the contrary, the notion of pseudocapacitance, popularized in the 1980s and 1990s for metal oxide systems, has been used to describe a charge storage process that is faradaic in nature yet displays capacitive CV signatures. It has been speculated that a quasi-rectangular CV response resembling that of a truly capacitive response arises from a series of faradaic redox couples with a distribution of potentials, yet this idea has never been justified theoretically. We address this problem by first showing theoretically that this distribution-of-potentials approach is closely equivalent to the more physically meaningful consideration of concentration-dependent activity coefficients resulting from interactions between reactants. The result of the ensuing analysis is that, in either case, the CV responses never yield a quasi-rectangular response ∝ ν, identical to that of double layer charging. Instead, broadened peak-shaped responses are obtained. It follows that whenever a quasi-rectangular CV response proportional to scan rate is observed, such reputed pseudocapacitive behaviors should in fact be ascribed to truly capacitive double layer charging. We compare these results qualitatively with pseudocapacitor reports taken from the literature, including the classic RuO2 and MnO2 examples, and we present a quantitative analysis with phosphate cobalt oxide films. Our conclusions do not invalidate the numerous experimental studies carried out under the pseudocapacitance banner but

  1. Active Contours Driven by Multi-Feature Gaussian Distribution Fitting Energy with Application to Vessel Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Huimao; He, Kan; Chang, Yan; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Active contour models are of great importance for image segmentation and can extract smooth and closed boundary contours of the desired objects with promising results. However, they cannot work well in the presence of intensity inhomogeneity. Hence, a novel region-based active contour model is proposed by taking image intensities and 'vesselness values' from local phase-based vesselness enhancement into account simultaneously to define a novel multi-feature Gaussian distribution fitting energy in this paper. This energy is then incorporated into a level set formulation with a regularization term for accurate segmentations. Experimental results based on publicly available STructured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) demonstrate our model is more accurate than some existing typical methods and can successfully segment most small vessels with varying width.

  2. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  3. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory - Semiannual Report: April 1, 1990, Through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1990. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. MELs are equipped for the on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. This report describes the testing, test results, and suggested courses of action.

  4. Analysis of Hydrogen and Competing Technologies for Utility-Scale Energy Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.

    2010-02-11

    Presentation about the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's analysis of hydrogen energy storage scenarios, including analysis framework, levelized cost comparison of hydrogen and competing technologies, analysis results, and conclusions drawn from the analysis.

  5. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  6. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Existing Building Energy Efficiency Analysis: November 17, 2009 - June 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, P.; Potes, A.

    2010-06-01

    In June 2009, the State of Hawaii enacted an Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (EEPS) with a target of 4,300 gigawatt hours (GWh) by 2030 (Hawaii 2009). Upon setting this goal, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working with select local stakeholders, partnered to execute the first key step toward attaining the EEPS goal: the creation of a high-resolution roadmap outlining key areas of potential electricity savings. This roadmap was divided into two core elements: savings from new construction and savings from existing buildings. BAH focused primarily on the existing building analysis, while NREL focused on new construction forecasting. This report presents the results of the Booz Allen Hamilton study on the existing building stock of Hawaii, along with conclusions on the key drivers of potential energy efficiency savings and on the steps necessary to attain them.

  7. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  8. AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

  9. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  10. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  11. Activity related energy expenditure, appetite and energy intake: potential implications for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance.

  12. A sustainability analysis of geothermal energy development on the island of Dominica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Kiyana Marie-Jose

    Dominica is heavily dependent on fossil fuels to meet its electricity generation needs. Dominica's volcanic origin and current volcanic activity allow the island to be an ideal place for the production of geothermal energy. Once geothermal exploration and development has begun in Dominica, it is uncertain whether the efforts will produce an environmentally, economically and socially feasible exploitation of the resource. Using content analysis and cost benefit analysis, this study examined the impacts of geothermal energy development based on the triple bottom line of sustainability for the Wotten Waven community, as well as the island as a whole. The results indicate that this project will have an overall positive impact on the triple bottom line of sustainability for Dominica. Therefore, geothermal energy may provide substantial net benefits to economic and sustainable development of the island. Assessing the sustainability of geothermal development is important as Dominica begins to produce geothermal energy.

  13. Conditions for transmission path analysis in energy distribution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonès, Àngels; Guasch, Oriol

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we explore under which conditions transmission path analysis (TPA) developed for statistical energy analysis (SEA) can be applied to the less restrictive energy distribution (ED) models. It is shown that TPA can be extended without problems to proper-SEA systems whereas the situation is not so clear for quasi-SEA systems. In the general case, it has been found that a TPA can always be performed on an ED model if its inverse influence energy coefficient (EIC) matrix turns to have negative off-diagonal entries. If this condition is satisfied, it can be shown that the inverse EIC matrix automatically becomes an M-matrix. An ED graph can then be defined for it and use can be made of graph theory ranking path algorithms, previously developed for SEA systems, to classify dominant paths in ED models. A small mechanical system consisting of connected plates has been used to illustrate some of the exposed theoretical results.

  14. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  15. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  16. Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, R.; Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Cory, K.

    2012-09-01

    This report is a summary of the finance trends for small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) projects (PV <1 MW), large-scale PV projects (PV greater than or equal to 1 MW), and concentrated solar power projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI). The report presents REFTI data during the five quarterly periods from the fourth quarter of 2009 to the first half of 2011. The REFTI project relies exclusively on the voluntary participation of industry stakeholders for its data; therefore, it does not offer a comprehensive view of the technologies it tracks. Despite this limitation, REFTI is the only publicly available resource for renewable energy project financial terms. REFTI analysis offers usable inputs into the project economic evaluations of developers and investors, as well as the policy assessments of public utility commissions and others in the renewable energy industry.

  17. UNDERSTANDING FLOW OF ENERGY IN BUILDINGS USING MODAL ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    John Gardner; Kevin Heglund; Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg; Craig Rieger

    2013-07-01

    It is widely understood that energy storage is the key to integrating variable generators into the grid. It has been proposed that the thermal mass of buildings could be used as a distributed energy storage solution and several researchers are making headway in this problem. However, the inability to easily determine the magnitude of the building’s effective thermal mass, and how the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system exchanges thermal energy with it, is a significant challenge to designing systems which utilize this storage mechanism. In this paper we adapt modal analysis methods used in mechanical structures to identify the primary modes of energy transfer among thermal masses in a building. The paper describes the technique using data from an idealized building model. The approach is successfully applied to actual temperature data from a commercial building in downtown Boise, Idaho.

  18. Homogeneous near surface activity distribution by double energy activation for TLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.

    2007-10-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a versatile tool for activating thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the activated parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal activity-depth distribution in the sample. Different activity-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce activity that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant activity layer can be increased or the deviation of the activity distribution from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct activation, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases activation of a point-like spot (several mm2) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be activated uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory.

  19. Wind energy potential analysis in Al-Fattaih-Darnah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Salem, Abdelkarim Ali; Himawanto, Dwi Aries

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the wind energy potential in Al-Fattaih-Darnah, Libya, had been studied. Wind energy is very attractive because it can provide a clean and renewable energy. Due mostly to the uncertainty caused by the chaotic characteristics of wind near the earth's surface, wind energy characteristic need to be investigated carefully in order to get consistent power generation. This investigation was based on one year wind data measured in 2003. As a result of the analysis, wind speed profile and wind energy potential have been developed. The wind energy potential of the location is looked very promising to generate electricity. The annual wind speed of the site is 8.21 m/s and the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 7.97 m/s. The annual power density of the site is classified into class 3. The Polaris P50-500 wind turbine can produce 768.39 M Wh/year and has capacity factor of 17.54%.

  20. Risk analysis for renewable energy projects due to constraints arising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prostean, G.; Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Vartosu, A.

    2016-02-01

    Starting from the target of the European Union (EU) to use renewable energy in the area that aims a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020, this article illustrates the identification of risks for implementation of wind energy projects in Romania, which could lead to complex technical implications, social and administrative. In specific projects analyzed in this paper were identified critical bottlenecks in the future wind power supply chain and reasonable time periods that may arise. Renewable energy technologies have to face a number of constraints that delayed scaling-up their production process, their transport process, the equipment reliability, etc. so implementing these types of projects requiring complex specialized team, the coordination of which also involve specific risks. The research team applied an analytical risk approach to identify major risks encountered within a wind farm project developed in Romania in isolated regions with different particularities, configured for different geographical areas (hill and mountain locations in Romania). Identification of major risks was based on the conceptual model set up for the entire project implementation process. Throughout this conceptual model there were identified specific constraints of such process. Integration risks were examined by an empirical study based on the method HAZOP (Hazard and Operability). The discussion describes the analysis of our results implementation context of renewable energy projects in Romania and creates a framework for assessing energy supply to any entity from renewable sources.

  1. PEAR2.1. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.

    1992-01-16

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  2. Energy Performance Analysis of Ultra-Efficient Homes at Solar Decathlon 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garkhail, Rahul

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the various types of energy end-uses to be expected in future high efficiency single family residences. For this purpose, this study has analyzed monitored data from 14 houses in the 2013 Solar Decathlon competition, and segregates the energy consumption patterns in various residential end-uses (such as lights, refrigerators, washing machines, ...). The analysis was not straight-forward since these homes were operated according to schedules previously determined by the contest rules. The analysis approach allowed the isolation of the comfort energy use by the Heating, Venting and Cooling (HVAC) systems. HVAC are the biggest contributors to energy consumption during operation of a building, and therefore are a prime concern for energy performance during the building design and the operation. Both steady state and dynamic models of comfort energy use which take into account variations in indoor and outdoor temperatures, solar radiation and thermal mass of the building were explicitly considered. Steady State Inverse Models are frequently used for thermal analysis to evaluate HVAC energy performance. These are fast, accurate, offer great flexibility for mathematical modifications and can be applied to a variety of buildings. The results are presented as a horizontal study that compares energy consumption across homes to arrive at a generic rather than unique model - to be used in future discussions in the context of ultra efficient homes. It is suggested that similar analyses of the energy-use data that compare the performance of variety of ultra efficient technologies be conducted to provide more accurate indications of the consumption by end use for future single family residences. These can be used alongside the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and the Leading Indicator for Remodeling Activity (LIRA) indices to assist in planning and policy making related to residential energy sector.

  3. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  4. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching industrial arts/technology education. The activities are intended to present energy…

  5. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  6. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    shape requirements definitions for system upgrade or modification contracts and new baseline contracts. Finally, content analysis training and skill...back to the system designers, this information can then be used to shape requirements definition for system upgrade or modification contracts and new...Activity System Requirements Definition Ensuring the system requirements adequately reflect the stakeholder requirements Negotiating modifications to

  7. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Chief, Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity Li Yuanzhang, PhD Senior Statistician Department of Epidemiology David N...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AMSARA, Department of Epidemiology , Division of Preventive Medicine Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 503... Epidemiology of Injury form the Assessment of Recruit Strength and Motivation study ARMS) and Program

  8. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO2 or SnO2 nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  9. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  10. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  11. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, Limited Energy Study, Fort Hunter-Liggett, California; Volume 4 - programming documents

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Implement energy conservation retrofits in 44 buildings. (Current mission). This project will contribute toward achieving Department of Defense facility energy goals of a 20-percent reduction in energy use per gross square feet by FY2000 versus FY1985 baseline levels. This project will save $124,184 annually, resulting in a 5.9-year simple payback and a savings to investment ratio of 2.25. The annual energy savings is 2,188 MBTU of electricity, 3,277 MBTU of fuel oil and 4,242 MBTU of propane. All buildings and retrofit actions will be in active use throughout the amortization period. Unnecessary energy is currently being consumed for space heating and cooling systems, lighting systems, and generation of domestic hot water in facilities. If this project is not accomplished, an annual energy and operations and maintenance expense of $124,184 that could be avoided will be incurred. This project has been coordinated with the installation physical security plan, and no security improvements are required.

  12. Energy life cycle cost analysis: Guidelines for public agencies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The State of Washington encourages energy-efficient building designs for public agencies. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) supports this goal by identifying advances in building technology and sharing this information with the design community and public administrators responsible for major construction projects. Many proven technologies can reduce operating costs-and save energy-to an extent that justifies some increases in construction costs. WSEO prepared these Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) guidelines for the individuals who are responsible for preparing ELCCA submittals for public buildings. Key terms and abbreviations are provided in Appendix A. Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an overview-providing background, defining energy life cycle cost analysis, explaining which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements, and identifying changes to the guidelines that have been made since 1990. They explain {open_quotes}what needs to happen{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}why it needs to happen.{close_quotes} Chapters 3 to 7 provide the {open_quotes}how to,{close_quotes} the instructions and forms needed to prepare ELCCA submittals.

  13. High-energy spectra of active nuclei. 1: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaguti, G.; Bassani, L.; Caroli, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of high-energy spectra (E is greater than or equal to 0.01 keV) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The catalog contains 209 objects (140 Seyfert galaxies, 65 quasars, and 4 objects otherwise classified), for a total of 1030 spectra. Most of the data have been collected from the literature over a period spanning more than 20 yr starting from the early 1970s up to the end of 1992. For a numbner of objects (17), EXOSAT/ME data have been extracted and analyzed, and the 27 spectra obtained have been added to the database. For each object we report individual observation spectral fit parameters using a power-law model corrected for cold gas absorption along the line of sight (photon index, 1 keV intensity and hydrogen column density), plus other relevant data. It is hoped that this database can become a useful tool for the study of the AGN phenomenon in its various aspects.

  14. High energy neutrinos from radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Mészáros, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Most active galactic nuclei (AGN) lack prominent jets, and show modest radio emission and significant x-ray emission which arises mainly from the galactic core, very near the central black hole. We use a quantitative scenario of such core-dominated radio-quiet AGN, which attributes a substantial fraction of the x-ray emission to the presence of abortive jets involving the collision of gas blobs in the core. Here we investigate the consequences of the acceleration of protons in the shocks from such collisions. We find that protons will be accelerated up to energies above the pion photoproduction threshold on both the x rays and the UV photons from the accretion disk. The secondary charged pions decay, producing neutrinos. We predict significant fluxes of TeV-PeV neutrinos, and show that the AMANDA II detector is already constraining several important astrophysical parameters of these sources. Larger cubic kilometer detectors such as IceCube will be able to detect such neutrinos in less than one year of operation, or otherwise rule out this scenario.

  15. Calculating activation energies for temperature compensation in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2011-10-01

    Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.

  16. Activation energy of methyl radical decay in methane hydrate.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Kei; Nango, Kouhei; Sugahara, Takeshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari; Tani, Atsushi

    2005-11-10

    The thermal stability of gamma-ray-induced methyl radicals in methane hydrate was studied using the ESR method at atmospheric pressure and 210-260 K. The methyl radical decay proceeded with the second-order reaction, and ethane molecules were generated from the dimerization process. The methyl radical decay proceeds by two different temperature-dependent processes, that is, the respective activation energies of these processes are 20.0 +/- 1.6 kJ/mol for the lower temperature region of 210-230 K and 54.8 +/- 5.7 kJ/mol for the higher temperature region of 235-260 K. The former agrees well with the enthalpy change of methane hydrate dissociation into ice and gaseous methane, while the latter agrees well with the enthalpy change into liquid water and gaseous methane. The present findings reveal that methane hydrates dissociate into liquid (supercooled) water and gaseous methane in the temperature range of 235-260 K.

  17. Alternative definitions of the frozen energy in energy decomposition analysis of density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Horn, Paul R; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-02-28

    In energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of intermolecular interactions calculated via density functional theory, the initial supersystem wavefunction defines the so-called "frozen energy" including contributions such as permanent electrostatics, steric repulsions, and dispersion. This work explores the consequences of the choices that must be made to define the frozen energy. The critical choice is whether the energy should be minimized subject to the constraint of fixed density. Numerical results for Ne2, (H2O)2, BH3-NH3, and ethane dissociation show that there can be a large energy lowering associated with constant density orbital relaxation. By far the most important contribution is constant density inter-fragment relaxation, corresponding to charge transfer (CT). This is unwanted in an EDA that attempts to separate CT effects, but it may be useful in other contexts such as force field development. An algorithm is presented for minimizing single determinant energies at constant density both with and without CT by employing a penalty function that approximately enforces the density constraint.

  18. Towards a Net Zero Building Cluster Energy Systems Analysis for US Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    energy optimization process described to this point includes analysis of building energy efficiency improvements and optimization of energy generation... energy efficiency measures for each simulated building type. 3. Simulate the Energy Efficiency Cases – simulate the energy efficiency scenarios and...type identified in the building characterization step from the inventory. 2. Energy Efficiency Measures (EEM) – determine the appropriate building

  19. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  20. Vibrational energy distribution analysis (VEDA): scopes and limitations.

    PubMed

    Jamróz, Michał H

    2013-10-01

    The principle of operations of the VEDA program written by the author for Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis of theoretical vibrational spectra is described. Nowadays, the PED analysis is indispensible tool in serious analysis of the vibrational spectra. To perform the PED analysis it is necessary to define 3N-6 linearly independent local mode coordinates. Already for 20-atomic molecules it is a difficult task. The VEDA program reads the input data automatically from the Gaussian program output files. Then, VEDA automatically proposes an introductory set of local mode coordinates. Next, the more adequate coordinates are proposed by the program and optimized to obtain maximal elements of each column (internal coordinate) of the PED matrix (the EPM parameter). The possibility for an automatic optimization of PED contributions is a unique feature of the VEDA program absent in any other programs performing PED analysis.

  1. Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA): Scopes and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Michał H.

    2013-10-01

    The principle of operations of the VEDA program written by the author for Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis of theoretical vibrational spectra is described. Nowadays, the PED analysis is indispensible tool in serious analysis of the vibrational spectra. To perform the PED analysis it is necessary to define 3N-6 linearly independent local mode coordinates. Already for 20-atomic molecules it is a difficult task. The VEDA program reads the input data automatically from the Gaussian program output files. Then, VEDA automatically proposes an introductory set of local mode coordinates. Next, the more adequate coordinates are proposed by the program and optimized to obtain maximal elements of each column (internal coordinate) of the PED matrix (the EPM parameter). The possibility for an automatic optimization of PED contributions is a unique feature of the VEDA program absent in any other programs performing PED analysis.

  2. Energy response improvement for photon dosimetry using pulse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Dizaji H.

    2016-02-01

    During the last few years, active personal dosimeters have been developed and have replaced passive personal dosimeters in some external monitoring systems, frequently using silicon diode detectors. Incident photons interact with the constituents of the diode detector and produce electrons. These photon-induced electrons deposit energy in the detector's sensitive region and contribute to the response of diode detectors. To achieve an appropriate photon dosimetry response, the detectors are usually covered by a metallic layer with an optimum thickness. The metallic cover acts as an energy compensating shield. In this paper, a software process is performed for energy compensation. Selective data sampling based on pulse height is used to determine the photon dose equivalent. This method is applied to improve the energy response in photon dosimetry. The detector design is optimized for the response function and determination of the photon dose equivalent. Photon personal dose equivalent is determined in the energy range of 0.3-6 MeV. The error values of the calculated data for this wide energy range and measured data for 133Ba, 137Cs, 60Co and 241Am-Be sources respectively are up to 20% and 15%. Fairly good agreement is seen between simulation and dose values obtained from our process and specifications from several photon sources.

  3. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  4. Whole-House Energy Analysis Procedures for Existing Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes a proposed set of guidelines for analyzing the energy savings achieved by a package of retrofits or an extensive rehabilitation of an existing home. It also describes certain field test and audit methods that can help establish accurate building system performance characteristics that are needed for a meaningful simulation of whole-house energy use. Several sets of default efficiency values have been developed for older appliances that cannot be easily tested and for which published specifications are not readily available. These proposed analysis procedures are documented more comprehensively in NREL Technical Report TP-550-38238.

  5. Determination of Wetting Behavior, Spread Activation Energy, and Quench Severity of Bioquenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, K. Narayan; Fernandes, Peter

    2007-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils such as sunflower, coconut, groundnut, castor, cashewnut shell (CNS), and palm oils as quench media (bioquenchants) for industrial heat treatment by assessing their wetting behavior and severity of quenching. The relaxation of contact angle was sharp during the initial stages, and it became gradual as the system approached equilibrium. The equilibrium contact angle decreased with increase in the temperature of the substrate and decrease in the viscosity of the quench medium. A comparison of the relaxation of the contact angle at various temperatures indicated the significant difference in spreading of oils having varying viscosity. The spread activation energy was determined using the Arrhenius type of equation. Oils with higher viscosity resulted in lower cooling rates. The quench severity of various oil media was determined by estimating heat-transfer coefficients using the lumped capacitance method. Activation energy for spreading determined using the wetting behavior of oils at various temperatures was in good agreement with the severity of quenching assessed by cooling curve analysis. A high quench severity is associated with oils having low spread activation energy.

  6. Analysis of the energy impacts of the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology Small Grants Program: Method and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, B.; Kessel, J.; Kay, J.; Linse, J.; Tompson, S.; Homer, M.

    1981-08-01

    Methods for assessing the energy savings of projects in the appropriate technology program (AT) and how to apply these methods to obtain estimates of energy impacts was studied. Program energy savings were estimated from project savings by statistical inference. Direct energy savings and methods and results of the economic analysis are discussed. Indirect energy savings and program energy savings and the methods used to obtain them are estimated. Improvement of project selection which increase program energy savings and two approaches for conducting future energy impact studies are presented.

  7. Emission scenario of non-CO2 gases from energy activities and other sources in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kejun; Hu, Xiulian

    2005-09-01

    This paper gives a quantitative analysis on the non-CO(2) emissions related to energy demand, energy activities and land use change of six scenarios with different development pattern in 2030 and 2050 based on IPAC emission model. The various mitigation technologies and policies are assessed to understand the corresponding non-CO(2) emission reduction effect. The research shows that the future non-CO(2) emissions of China will grow along with increasing energy demand, in which thermal power and transportation will be the major emission and mitigation sectors. During the cause of future social and economic development, the control and mitigation of non-CO(2) emissions is a problem as challenging and pressing as that of CO(2) emissions. This study indicates that the energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, advanced nuclear power generation, fuel cell, coal-fired combined cycle, clean coal and motor vehicle emission control technologies will contribute to non-CO(2) emissions control and mitigation.

  8. Emission scenario of non-CO2 gases from energy activities and other sources in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kejun; Hu, Xiulian

    2005-12-01

    This paper gives a quantitative analysis on the non-CO2 emissions related to energy demand, energy activities and land use change of six scenarios with different development pattern in 2030 and 2050 based on IPAC emission model. The various mitigation technologies and policies are assessed to understand the corresponding non-CO2 emission reduction effect. The research shows that the future non-CO2 emissions of China will grow along with increasing energy demand, in which thermal power and transportation will be the major emission and mitigation sectors. During the cause of future social and economic development, the control and mitigation of non-CO2 emissions is a problem as challenging and pressing as that of CO2 emissions. This study indicates that the energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, advanced nuclear power generation, fuel cell, coal-fired combined cycle, clean coal and motor vehicle emission control technologies will contribute to non-CO2 emissions control and mitigation.

  9. Analysis of Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Measure Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.; Yee, S.; Brand, L.

    2013-09-01

    Through the Chicagoland Single Family Housing Characterization and Retrofit Prioritization report, the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit research team characterized 15 housing types in the Chicagoland region based on assessor data, utility billing history, and available data from prior energy efficiency programs. Within these 15 groups, a subset showed the greatest opportunity for energy savings based on BEopt Version 1.1 modeling of potential energy efficiency package options and the percent of the housing stock represented by each group. In this project, collected field data from a whole-home program in Illinois are utilized to compare marketplace-installed measures to the energy saving optimal packages previously developed for the 15 housing types. Housing type, conditions, energy efficiency measures installed, and retrofit cost information were collected from 19 homes that participated in the Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program in 2012, representing eight of the characterized housing groups. Two were selected for further case study analysis to provide an illustration of the differences between optimal and actually installed measures. Taken together, these homes are representative of 34.8% of the Chicagoland residential building stock. In one instance, actual installed measures closely matched optimal recommended measures.

  10. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We quantified the effect of environmental temperature on mouse energy homeostasis and body temperature. Methods The effect of environmental temperature (4–33 °C) on body temperature, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake in various mice (chow diet, high-fat diet, Brs3-/y, lipodystrophic) was measured using continuous monitoring. Results Body temperature depended most on circadian phase and physical activity, but also on environmental temperature. The amounts of energy expenditure due to basal metabolic rate (calculated via a novel method), thermic effect of food, physical activity, and cold-induced thermogenesis were determined as a function of environmental temperature. The measured resting defended body temperature matched that calculated from the energy expenditure using Fourier's law of heat conduction. Mice defended a higher body temperature during physical activity. The cost of the warmer body temperature during the active phase is 4–16% of total daily energy expenditure. Parameters measured in diet-induced obese and Brs3-/y mice were similar to controls. The high post-mortem heat conductance demonstrates that most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms. Conclusions At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis. PMID:26042200

  11. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-four multidisciplinary activities for grades seven through twelve are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I helps students understand energy and the current crisis by studying laws which govern energy flow and using examples of how these laws illustrate stable energy utilization…

  12. Energy in the Classroom, Vol. I, Activities Guide for K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kathy Baker; Sherman, Deborah Fick

    This booklet is a teacher's guide for teaching about energy, types of energy, sources of energy, and ways to conserve energy. It is designed for students in grades K-3. Included are a variety of activities, sheets that can be copied for handouts, and a bibliography of student references. (RH)

  13. Energy in the Classroom, Vol. II, Activities Guide for 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kathy Baker; Sherman, Deborah Fick

    This booklet is a teacher's guide for teaching about energy, types of energy, sources of energy, and ways to conserve energy. It is designed for students in grades 4-7. Included are a variety of activities, sheets that can be copied for handouts, and a bibliography of student references. (RH)

  14. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-seven multidisciplinary activities for grades K-6 are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I introduces students to the topic of energy by emphasizing human interaction with the environment. It focuses on personal energy, food as the source of human energy, food chains, and the sun as…

  15. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components

  16. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems: A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, Norman; Wang, Michael; Weber, Trudy; Darlington, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    An accurate assessment of future fuel/propulsion system options requires a complete vehicle fuel-cycle analysis, commonly called a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis. This WTW study analyzes energy use and emissions associated with fuel production (or well-to-tank [WTT]) activities and energy use and emissions associated with vehicle operation (or tank-to-wheels [TTW]) activities.

  17. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  18. Biochar as potential sustainable precursors for activated carbon production: Multiple applications in environmental protection and energy storage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Shao-Bo; Liu, Yun-Guo; Gu, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Wang, Xin; Liu, Shao-Heng; Jiang, Lu-Hua

    2017-03-01

    There is a growing interest of the scientific community on production of activated carbon using biochar as potential sustainable precursors pyrolyzed from biomass wastes. Physical activation and chemical activation are the main methods applied in the activation process. These methods could have significantly beneficial effects on biochar chemical/physical properties, which make it suitable for multiple applications including water pollution treatment, CO2 capture, and energy storage. The feedstock with different compositions, pyrolysis conditions and activation parameters of biochar have significant influences on the properties of resultant activated carbon. Compared with traditional activated carbon, activated biochar appears to be a new potential cost-effective and environmentally-friendly carbon materials with great application prospect in many fields. This review not only summarizes information from the current analysis of activated biochar and their multiple applications for further optimization and understanding, but also offers new directions for development of activated biochar.

  19. Method for Determining the Activation Energy Distribution Function of Complex Reactions by Sieving and Thermogravimetric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Bufalo, Gennaro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-14

    A method for studying the kinetics of thermal degradation of complex compounds is suggested. Although the method is applicable to any matrix whose grain size can be measured, herein we focus our investigation on thermogravimetric analysis, under a nitrogen atmosphere, of ground soft wheat and ground maize. The thermogravimetric curves reveal that there are two well-distinct jumps of mass loss. They correspond to volatilization, which is in the temperature range 298-433 K, and decomposition regions go from 450 to 1073 K. Thermal degradation is schematized as a reaction in the solid state whose kinetics is analyzed separately in each of the two regions. By means of a sieving analysis different size fractions of the material are separated and studied. A quasi-Newton fitting algorithm is used to obtain the grain size distribution as best fit to experimental data. The individual fractions are thermogravimetrically analyzed for deriving the functional relationship between activation energy of the degradation reactions and the particle size. Such functional relationship turns out to be crucial to evaluate the moments of the activation energy distribution, which is unknown in terms of the distribution calculated by sieve analysis. From the knowledge of moments one can reconstruct the reaction conversion. The method is applied first to the volatilization region, then to the decomposition region. The comparison with the experimental data reveals that the method reproduces the experimental conversion with an accuracy of 5-10% in the volatilization region and of 3-5% in the decomposition region.

  20. Climate change and energy security: an analysis of policy research

    SciTech Connect

    King, Marcus Dubois; Gulledge, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change's impacts on energy security is scattered across disparate fields of research and schools of thought. Much of this literature has been produced outside of the academy by scholars and practitioners working in "think tanks," government agencies, and international/multilateral institutions. Here we reviewed a selected set of 58 articles and reports primarily from such sources and performed textual analysis of the arguments. Our review of this literature identifies three potential mechanisms for linking climate change and energy security: Climate change may 1) create second-order effects that may exacerbate social instability and disrupt energy systems; 2) directly impact energy supply and/or systems or 3) influence energy security through the effects of climate-related policies. We identify emerging risks to energy security driven by climate mitigation tech-nology choices but find less evidence of climate change's direct physical impacts. We used both empirical and qualitative selection factors for choosing the grey literature sample. The sources we selected were published in the last 5 years, available through electronic media and were written in language accessible to general policy or academic readers. The organi-zations that published the literature had performed previous research in the general fields of energy and/or climate change with some analytical content and identified themselves as non-partisan. This literature is particularly valuable to scholars because identifies understudied relationships that can be rigorously assessed through academic tools and methodologies and informs a translational research agenda that will allow scholars to engage with practitioners to address challenges that lie at the nexus of climate change and energy security.

  1. Regional Analysis of Energy, Water, Land and Climate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Averyt, K.; Harriss, R. C.; Hibbard, K. A.; Newmark, R. L.; Rose, S. K.; Shevliakova, E.; Wilson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, water, and land systems interact in many ways and are impacted by management and climate change. These systems and their interactions often differ in significant ways from region-to-region. To explore the coupled energy-water-land system and its relation to climate change and management a simple conceptual model of demand, endowment and technology (DET) is proposed. A consistent and comparable analysis framework is needed as climate change and resource management practices have the potential to impact each DET element, resource, and region differently. These linkages are further complicated by policy and trade agreements where endowments of one region are used to meet demands in another. This paper reviews the unique DET characteristics of land, energy and water resources across the United States. Analyses are conducted according to the eight geographic regions defined in the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Evident from the analyses are regional differences in resources endowments in land (strong East-West gradient in forest, cropland and desert), water (similar East-West gradient), and energy. Demands likewise vary regionally reflecting differences in population density and endowment (e.g., higher water use in West reflecting insufficient precipitation to support dryland farming). The effect of technology and policy are particularly evident in differences in the energy portfolios across the eight regions. Integrated analyses that account for the various spatial and temporal differences in regional energy, water and land systems are critical to informing effective policy requirements for future energy, climate and resource management. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  3. Activities of the U. S. Department of Energy in education. Annual status report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The energy-related education activities administered in FY 1979 by DOE are described: projections for FY 1980 are also given. This document provides assistance for DOE program managers who wish to use the educational process in their operations, and it provides guidance and information to educators and the general public about DOE energy-related education activities. The education activities are classified as energy information (curriculum packages, studies, workshops and forums conferences, other materials), energy skills development, institutional resource enhancement, and other activities. A chart gives the category of activity, type of audience, and type of services provided. (RWR)

  4. Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The renewable energy penetration model

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the regional or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decisions; and the Regional Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM) which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. In 1993, the OUT supported the Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE) to form an expert panel to provide an independent review of the REP model and TFRM. This report contains the panel`s evaluation of the REP model; the TFRM is evaluated in a companion report. The panel did not review the REPAM. The panel met for a second time in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this second meeting. The remainder of this chapter provides a description of the REP model and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, transmission, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

  5. Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xin-Lin; Jin, Wu-Yin; Ma, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh-Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372122 and 11365014).

  6. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  7. Annual Energy Consumption Analysis Report for Richland Middle School

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing

    2003-12-18

    Richland Middle School is a single story, 90,000 square feet new school located in Richland, WA. The design team proposed four HVAC system options to serve the building. The proposed HVAC systems are listed as following: (1) 4-pipe fan coil units served by electrical chiller and gas-fired boilers, (2) Ground-source closed water loop heat pumps with water loop heat pumps with boiler and cooling tower, and (3) VAV system served by electrical chiller and gas-fired boiler. This analysis estimates the annual energy consumptions and costs of each system option, in order to provide the design team with a reasonable basis for determining which system is most life-cycle cost effective. eQuest (version 3.37), a computer-based energy simulation program that uses the DOE-2 simulation engine, was used to estimate the annual energy costs.

  8. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Annular Thermoelectric Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.; Hans, Ranjana

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the concept of an annular thermoelectric heat pump (ATEHP) has been introduced. An exoreversible thermodynamic model of the ATEHP considering the Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for dimensionless heating power, optimum current at the maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEHP are derived. The results show that the heating power, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEHP are lower than the flat-plate thermoelectric heat pump. The effects of annular shape parameter ( S r = r 2 /r 1), dimensionless temperature ratio ( θ = T h /T c) and the electrical contact resistances on the heating power, energy/exergy efficiency of an ATEHP have been studied. This study will help in the designing of actual ATEHP systems.

  9. On the transition from strombolian to fountaining activity: a thermal energy-based driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombrun, Maxime; Spampinato, Letizia; Harris, Andrew; Barra, Vincent; Caltabiano, Tommaso

    2016-02-01

    Since 1999, Mount Etna's (Italy) South-East crater system has been characterised by episodic lava fountaining. Each episode is characterised by initial strombolian activity followed by transition to sustained fountaining to feed high-effusion rate lava flow. Here, we use thermal infrared data recorded by a permanent radiometer station to characterise the transition to sustained fountaining fed by the New South-East crater that developed on the eastern flank of the South-East crater starting from January 2011. We cover eight fountaining episodes that occurred between 2012 and 2013. We first developed a routine to characterise event waveforms apparent in the precursory, strombolian phase. This allowed extraction of a database for thermal energy and waveform shape for 1934 events. We detected between 66 and 650 events per episode, with event durations being between 4 and 55 s. In total, 1508 (78 %) of the events had short waxing phases and dominant waning phases. Event frequency increased as climax was approached. Events had energies of between 3.0 × 106 and 5.8 × 109 J, with rank order analysis indicating the highest possible event energy of 8.1 × 109 J. To visualise the temporal evolution of retrieved parameters during the precursory phase, we applied a dimensionality reduction technique. Results show that weaker events occur during an onset period that forms a low-energy "sink". The transition towards fountaining occurs at 107 J, where subsequent events have a temporal trend towards the highest energies, and where sustained fountaining occurs when energies exceed 109 J. Such an energy-based framework allows researchers to track the evolution of fountaining episodes and to predict the time at which sustained fountaining will begin.

  10. PDT driven by energy-converting materials: a theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Jarod C.

    2009-02-01

    Materials have been developed which absorb radiation of one energy and emit light of another. We present a theoretical analysis of the use of these materials as light sources for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The advantage of this strategy is that radiation of higher particle energy (e.g. x ray or electron beam) or lower photon energy (e.g. infra-red) may have more favorable penetration in tissue or more readily available radiation sources than the radiation absorbed by the sensetizer. Our analysis is based on the transfer of energy from radiation fields to visible light. We analyze two scenarios: PDT pumped by (1) infrared light in a two-photon process and (2) ionizing radiation. In each case, we assume that the converting material and the sensitizer are matched sufficiently that the transfer of energy between them is essentially lossless. For the infinite and semiinfinite geometries typically used in PDT, we calculate the resulting photodynamic dose distribution, and compare it to the dose distribution expected for conventional PDT. We also calculate the dose of the incident beam (ionizing or infrared radiation) required to produce PDT-induced tumoricidal effects, and evaluate the expected toxicity in surrounding normal tissue. The toxicity is assumed to arise from thermal effects and acute ionizing radiation effects, for infrared and ionizing radiation, respectively. Our results predict that ionizing radiation will produce dose-limiting toxicity in most conventional geometries as a result of the high toxicity per unit energy of ionizing radiation. For infrared radiation, we predict that the toxicity can be moderated by proper choice of sensitizer and irradiation geometry and fractionation.

  11. Power Loss Analysis and Comparison of Segmented and Unsegmented Energy Coupling Coils for Wireless Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sai Chun; McDannold, Nathan J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the power losses of unsegmented and segmented energy coupling coils for wireless energy transfer. Four 30-cm energy coupling coils with different winding separations, conductor cross-sectional areas, and number of turns were developed. The four coils were tested in both unsegmented and segmented configurations. The winding conduction and intrawinding dielectric losses of the coils were evaluated individually based on a well-established lumped circuit model. We found that the intrawinding dielectric loss can be as much as seven times higher than the winding conduction loss at 6.78 MHz when the unsegmented coil is tightly wound. The dielectric loss of an unsegmented coil can be reduced by increasing the winding separation or reducing the number of turns, but the power transfer capability is reduced because of the reduced magnetomotive force. Coil segmentation using resonant capacitors has recently been proposed to significantly reduce the operating voltage of a coil to a safe level in wireless energy transfer for medical implants. Here, we found that it can naturally eliminate the dielectric loss. The coil segmentation method and the power loss analysis used in this paper could be applied to the transmitting, receiving, and resonant coils in two- and four-coil energy transfer systems. PMID:26640745

  12. Power Loss Analysis and Comparison of Segmented and Unsegmented Energy Coupling Coils for Wireless Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sai Chun; McDannold, Nathan J

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigated the power losses of unsegmented and segmented energy coupling coils for wireless energy transfer. Four 30-cm energy coupling coils with different winding separations, conductor cross-sectional areas, and number of turns were developed. The four coils were tested in both unsegmented and segmented configurations. The winding conduction and intrawinding dielectric losses of the coils were evaluated individually based on a well-established lumped circuit model. We found that the intrawinding dielectric loss can be as much as seven times higher than the winding conduction loss at 6.78 MHz when the unsegmented coil is tightly wound. The dielectric loss of an unsegmented coil can be reduced by increasing the winding separation or reducing the number of turns, but the power transfer capability is reduced because of the reduced magnetomotive force. Coil segmentation using resonant capacitors has recently been proposed to significantly reduce the operating voltage of a coil to a safe level in wireless energy transfer for medical implants. Here, we found that it can naturally eliminate the dielectric loss. The coil segmentation method and the power loss analysis used in this paper could be applied to the transmitting, receiving, and resonant coils in two- and four-coil energy transfer systems.

  13. Energy loss analysis of an integrated space power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. D.; Ribeiro, P. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of studies related to conceptual topologies of an integrated utility-like space power system are described. The system topologies are comparatively analyzed by considering their transmission energy losses as functions of mainly distribution voltage level and load composition. The analysis is expedited by use of a Distribution System Analysis and Simulation (DSAS) software. This recently developed computer program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) uses improved load models to solve the power flow within the system. However, present shortcomings of the software with regard to space applications, and incompletely defined characteristics of a space power system make the results applicable to only the fundamental trends of energy losses of the topologies studied. Accountability, such as included, for the effects of the various parameters on the system performance can constitute part of a planning tool for a space power distribution system.

  14. Design and Development of an Affective Interface for Supporting Energy-saving Activities and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kyoko; Tomita, Daisuke; Imaki, Tomotaka; Hongo, Taishiro; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    Toward a sustainable society, energy and environmental issues are very important and controversial problems, and it is expected to support various human activities for the measures by using Information Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an affective interface for supporting people's energy-saving activities. First, a model for supporting people's energy-saving activities involving affective elements has been constructed for supporting people's energy-saving activities, based on social psychological approaches. Based on the proposed model, the requirements on an affective interface for people's energy-saving activities have been considered. In this study, the affective interface presents suitable energy-saving activities and current electric energy consumption by a character agent with a graphical shape and synthesized voice. The character agent recommends people's energy-saving activities, tells the method of energy-saving activities and the effectiveness, and so on. The affective interface for supporting energy-saving activities has been designed in detail and developed. Then, the evaluation experiment of the developed interface has been conducted, and the results of the experiments were analyzed.

  15. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides learning activities for teachers to use with students in industrial arts/technology education. Each of the 17…

  16. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3).

  17. Validating Accelerometry as a Measure of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Monica C.; Balraj, Elizabeth; DiSanzo, Beth L.; Ivey, Frederick M.; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.; Treuth, Margarita S.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accelerometers can objectively measure steps taken per day in individuals without gait deficits, but accelerometers also have the ability to estimate frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activity. However, thresholds to distinguish varying levels of activity intensity using the Actical brand accelerometer are standardized only for the general population and may underestimate intensity in stroke. Objective To derive Actical activity count thresholds specific to stroke disability for use in more accurately gauging time spent at differing activity levels. Methods Men (n=18) and women (n=10) with chronic hemiparetic gait (4±2 years latency, 43% Caucasian, 56% African American, ages of 47–83 yrs, BMI 19 – 48 kg/m2) participated in the study. Actical accelerometers were placed on the non-paretic hip to obtain accelerometry counts during eight activities of varying intensity: 1) watching TV; 2) seated stretching; 3) standing stretching; 4) floor sweeping; 5) stepping in place; 6) over-ground walking; 7) lower speed treadmill walking (1.0 mph at 4% incline); and 8) higher speed treadmill walking (2.0 mph at 4% incline). Simultaneous portable monitoring (Cosmed K4b2) enabled quantification of energy cost for each activity in metabolic equivalents (METs, or oxygen consumption in multiples of resting level). Measurements were obtained for 10 min of standard rest and 5 minutes during each of the eight activities. Results Regression analysis yielded the following new stroke-specific Actical minimum thresholds: 125 counts per minute (cpm) for sedentary/light activity, 667 cpm for light/moderate activity, and 1546 cpm for moderate/vigorous activity. Conclusion Our revised cut-points better reflect activity levels after stroke and suggest significantly lower thresholds relative to those observed for the general population of healthy individuals. We conclude that the standard, commonly applied Actical thresholds are inappropriate for this unique population

  18. Energy spectrum analysis - A model of echolocation processing. [in animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Titlebaum, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper proposes a frequency domain approach based on energy spectrum analysis of the combination of a signal and its echoes as the processing mechanism for the echolocation process used by bats and other animals. The mechanism is a generalized wide-band one and can account for the large diversity of wide-band signals used for orientation. The coherency in the spectrum of the signal-echo combination is shown to be equivalent to correlation.

  19. A THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF HIGH ENERGY SYNTHETIC FOODS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An analysis is presented of the possibilities of incorporating synthetic foods into the diets of personnel engaged in long duration, manned space...appropriate substitutes for the lower energy carbohydrates that normally make up approximately 50 percent of the diet . Various classes or organic...synthetic alpha-amino acids and their peptides of chain lengths in excess of that found in leucine. Methods of reducing possible ketogenic effects are discussed. (Author)

  20. Bulk Materials Analysis Using High-Energy Positron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Glade, S C; Asoka-Kumar, P; Nieh, T G; Sterne, P A; Wirth, B D; Dauskardt, R H; Flores, K M; Suh, D; Odette, G R

    2002-11-11

    This article reviews some recent materials analysis results using high-energy positron beams at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are combining positron lifetime and orbital electron momentum spectroscopic methods to provide electron number densities and electron momentum distributions around positron annihilation sites. Topics covered include: correlation of positron annihilation characteristics with structural and mechanical properties of bulk metallic glasses, compositional studies of embrittling features in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel, pore characterization in Zeolites, and positron annihilation characteristics in alkali halides.

  1. NREL's System Advisor Model Simplifies Complex Energy Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    NREL has developed a tool -- the System Advisor Model (SAM) -- that can help decision makers analyze cost, performance, and financing of any size grid-connected solar, wind, or geothermal power project. Manufacturers, engineering and consulting firms, research and development firms, utilities, developers, venture capital firms, and international organizations use SAM for end-to-end analysis that helps determine whether and how to make investments in renewable energy projects.

  2. Data Analysis for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (otec)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    Unit Number 01. The author wishes to thank Mr. David Boswell of DTNSRDC, Annapolis, Maryland for his work on OTEC software development. The...assistance of Mr. Glenn Grannemann of Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in reviewing Panama City OTEC data analysis techniques is...FOR OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY Technical Memodnndum CONVERSION ( OTEC ) , * IERFORMING Ono, XCIPOOT mulesea 7. AUTNORf.) .. CONTRACT OR GRANT S411jbdb .ftf

  3. Representing energy efficiency diagnosis strategies in cognitive work analysis.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Antony; Jamieson, Greg A

    2017-03-01

    This article describes challenges encountered in applying Jens Rasmussen's Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) framework to the practice of energy efficiency Monitoring & Targeting (M&T). Eight theoretic issues encountered in the analysis are described with respect to Rasmussen's work and the modeling solutions we adopted. We grappled with how to usefully apply Work Domain Analysis (WDA) to analyze categories of domains with secondary purposes and no ideal grain of decomposition. This difficulty encouraged us to pursue Control Task (ConTA) and Strategies (StrA) analysis, which are under-explored as bases for interface design. In ConTA we found M&T was best represented by two interlinked work functions; one controlling energy, the other maintaining knowledge representations. From StrA, we identified a popular representation-dependent strategy and inferred information required to diagnose faults in system performance and knowledge representation. This article presents and discusses excerpts from our analysis, and outlines their application to diagnosis support tools.

  4. Communicating Wave Energy: An Active Learning Experience for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Trongnghia; Hou, Gene; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an education project to communicate the wave energy concept to high school students. A virtual reality system that combines both hardware and software is developed in this project to simulate the buoy-wave interaction. This first-of-its-kind wave energy unit is portable and physics-based, allowing students to conduct a number of…

  5. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... Washington, DC on October 18, 2011. Anne Harrington, Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P...

  6. Pressure Systems Stored-Energy Threshold Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, Samuel S.

    2009-08-25

    Federal Regulation 10 CFR 851, which became effective February 2007, brought to light potential weaknesses regarding the Pressure Safety Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The definition of a pressure system in 10 CFR 851 does not contain a limit based upon pressure or any other criteria. Therefore, the need for a method to determine an appropriate risk-based hazard level for pressure safety was identified. The Laboratory has historically used a stored energy of 1000 lbf-ft to define a pressure hazard; however, an analytical basis for this value had not been documented. This document establishes the technical basis by evaluating the use of stored energy as an appropriate criterion to establish a pressure hazard, exploring a suitable risk threshold for pressure hazards, and reviewing the methods used to determine stored energy. The literature review and technical analysis concludes the use of stored energy as a method for determining a potential risk, the 1000 lbf-ft threshold, and the methods used by PNNL to calculate stored energy are all appropriate. Recommendations for further program improvements are also discussed

  7. A hydrogen energy carrier. Volume 2: Systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, R. L. (Editor); Blank, L. (Editor); Cady, T. (Editor); Cox, K. (Editor); Murray, R. (Editor); Williams, R. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems analysis of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the United States indicated that it is feasible to use hydrogen in all energy use areas, except some types of transportation. These use areas are industrial, residential and commercial, and electric power generation. Saturation concept and conservation concept forecasts of future total energy demands were made. Projected costs of producing hydrogen from coal or from nuclear heat combined with thermochemical decomposition of water are in the range $1.00 to $1.50 per million Btu of hydrogen produced. Other methods are estimated to be more costly. The use of hydrogen as a fuel will require the development of large-scale transmission and storage systems. A pipeline system similar to the existing natural gas pipeline system appears practical, if design factors are included to avoid hydrogen environment embrittlement of pipeline metals. Conclusions from the examination of the safety, legal, environmental, economic, political and societal aspects of hydrogen fuel are that a hydrogen energy carrier system would be compatible with American values and the existing energy system.

  8. Improving energy data collection and analysis in developing countries: a comparative study in Aganda, Liberia, and Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Burchfield, S.A.

    1986-06-01

    This study assesses the resources available for collecting/analyzing data in energy-planning agencies and organizations in Uganda, Liberia, and Sudan. It examines the quality of the national energy assessments and energy supply/demand balance statements conducted, and makes recommendations on training needs, energy planning activities, and data collection/analysis problems. Interviews were conducted with host government and A.I.D. personnel involved in energy-planning activities and projects. Data quality was analyzed using a standardized rating sheet based on recommendations of the U.N. Statistical Commission. The findings identified a number of analytic and institutional problems common to all three countries, and delineated criteria which lead to the success or failure of energy-planning activities.

  9. Mississippi Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Report. A snap shot of related activities in the state of Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Sumesh M.; Linton, Joseph A.

    2011-05-11

    In recent years, due to concerns over national security from both economic and military standpoints, increased attention has been given to the production of renewable energy in order to reduce American dependence on foreign supplies of energy. These concerns, along with those related to the effect of fossil fuels on the environment, have served to heighten the enthusiasm for finding replacements for traditional energy sources, along with helping to highlight the need for energy efficiency in American homes and businesses. Throughout the nation, this has been exemplified in an increased entrepreneurial activity to produce liquid fuels, thermal energy and electricity from a vast range of sources such as plants, trees, bacteria, the sun, wind, waves and the Earth itself. Coupled with tax subsidies, loan guarantees, renewable fuel standards, and various other government incentives and legislative encouragements we have seen a big jump in the production of renewable energy in the United States in the last ten years. But we are just getting started!

  10. U.S. Department of Energy thermal energy storage research activities review: 1989 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.W.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offers the opportunity for the recovery and re-use of heat currently rejected to the ambient environment. Further, through the ability of TES to match an energy supply with a thermal energy demand, TES increases efficiencies of energy systems and improves capacity factors of power plants. The US Department of Energy has been the leader in TES research, development, and demonstration since recognition in 1976 of the need for fostering energy conservation as a component of the national energy budget. The federal program on TES R and D is the responsibility of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The overall program is organized into three program areas: diurnal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat for use in residential and commercial buildings on a daily cycle; industrial--relating primarily to higher temperature heat for use in industrial and utility processes on an hourly to daily cycle; seasonal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat or chill for use in residential complexes (central supply as for apartments or housing developments), commercial (light manufacturing, processing, or retail), and industrial (space conditioning) on a seasonal to annual cycle. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Roadmap to the multidisciplinary design analysis and optimisation of wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Perez-Moreno, S.; Zaaijer, M. B.; Bottasso, C. L.; Dykes, K.; Merz, K. O.; Réthoré, P.-E.; Zahle, F.

    2016-09-01

    A research agenda is described to further encourage the application of Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimisation (MDAO) methodologies to wind energy systems. As a group of researchers closely collaborating within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 37 for Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated Research, Design and Development, we have identified challenges that will be encountered by users building an MDAO framework. This roadmap comprises 17 research questions and activities recognised to belong to three research directions: model fidelity, system scope and workflow architecture. It is foreseen that sensible answers to all these questions will enable to more easily apply MDAO in the wind energy domain. Beyond the agenda, this work also promotes the use of systems engineering to design, analyse and optimise wind turbines and wind farms, to complement existing compartmentalised research and design paradigms.

  12. Experimental and numerical study of cellulose-based electro-active paper energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    In this present study experimental and finite element analysis of cellulose based electro-active paper energy harvester is presented. Electro-active paper coated with metal electrode is a smart form of cellulose and exhibit piezoelectric effect. Specimens were prepared by depositing electrodes on both sides of the cellulose film. A 50 mm x 50 mm cellulose film coated with aluminum electrodes was bonded on 100 mm x 50 mm x 1 mm aluminum host structure. The voltage output to input acceleration frequency response across a load resistor of 1 MΩ is recorded by conventional energy harvesting experimental setup at the fundamental vibration mode of the EAPap cantilever beam. A coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element model is developed in which load resistor is directly connected to energy scavenging device. Voltage output FRF is measured for the cases, without proof mass, and by adding a 2 grams proof mass near the tip of the cantilever. The experimental voltage FRF value is 7.6 V/g at 75.1 Hz and is improved to 13.8 V/g at 62.2 Hz when a stainless steel proof mass of 2 grams is added. The presented CPC-FEM model results agree reasonably well with the experimental results. Despite the fact that the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient of electro-active paper is lower than other available piezoelectric materials, it is biocompatible, cheap and naturally occurring polymeric material. It is also very flexible and posses similar piezoelectric characteristics such a PVDF which inspire to use EAPap in energy harvesting applications.

  13. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  14. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  15. Communication: Activation energy of tension-induced pore formation in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Karal, Mohammad Abu Sayem; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-08-28

    Tension plays a vital role in pore formation in biomembranes, but the mechanism of pore formation remains unclear. We investigated the temperature dependence of the rate constant of constant tension (σ)-induced pore formation in giant unilamellar vesicles of lipid membranes using an experimental method we developed. By analyzing this result, we determined the activation energy (Ua) of tension-induced pore formation as a function of tension. A constant (U0) that does not depend on tension was found to contribute significantly to Ua. Analysis of the activation energy clearly indicated that the dependence of Ua on σ in the classical theory is correct, but that the classical theory of pore formation is not entirely correct due to the presence of U0. We can reasonably consider that U0 is a nucleation free energy to form a hydrophilic pre-pore from a hydrophobic pre-pore or a region with lower lateral lipid density. After obtaining U0, the evolution of a pre-pore follows a classical theory. Our data provide valuable information that help explain the mechanism of tension-induced pore formation in biomembranes and lipid membranes.

  16. Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei do not use Krebs cycle activity for energy generation.

    PubMed

    van Weelden, Susanne W H; Fast, Beate; Vogt, Achim; van der Meer, Pieter; Saas, Joachim; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Boshart, Michael

    2003-04-11

    The importance of a functional Krebs cycle for energy generation in the procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei was investigated under physiological conditions during logarithmic phase growth of a pleomorphic parasite strain. Wild type procyclic cells and mutants with targeted deletion of the gene coding for aconitase were derived by synchronous in vitro differentiation from wild type and mutant (Delta aco::NEO/Delta aco::HYG) bloodstream stage parasites, respectively, where aconitase is not expressed and is dispensable. No differences in intracellular levels of glycolytic and Krebs cycle intermediates were found in procyclic wild type and mutant cells, except for citrate that accumulated up to 90-fold in the mutants, confirming the absence of aconitase activity. Surprisingly, deletion of aconitase did not change differentiation nor the growth rate or the intracellular ATP/ADP ratio in those cells. Metabolic studies using radioactively labeled substrates and NMR analysis demonstrated that glucose and proline were not degraded via the Krebs cycle to CO(2). Instead, glucose was degraded to acetate, succinate, and alanine, whereas proline was degraded to succinate. Importantly, there was absolutely no difference in the metabolic products released by wild type and aconitase knockout parasites, and both were for survival strictly dependent on respiration via the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Hence, although the Krebs cycle enzymes are present, procyclic T. brucei do not use Krebs cycle activity for energy generation, but the mitochondrial respiratory chain is essential for survival and growth. We therefore propose a revised model of the energy metabolism of procyclic T. brucei.

  17. Identification of general linear relationships between activation energies and enthalpy changes for dissociation reactions at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Angelos; Liu, Z-P; Zhang, C J; Alavi, Ali; King, David A; Hu, P

    2003-04-02

    The activation energy to reaction is a key quantity that controls catalytic activity. Having used ab inito calculations to determine an extensive and broad ranging set of activation energies and enthalpy changes for surface-catalyzed reactions, we show that linear relationships exist between dissociation activation energies and enthalpy changes. Known in the literature as empirical Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relationships, we identify and discuss the physical origin of their presence in heterogeneous catalysis. The key implication is that merely from knowledge of adsorption energies the barriers to catalytic elementary reaction steps can be estimated.

  18. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer.

  19. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  20. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter with Controlled Geometry: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, Nathan; Lawson, Michael; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan

    2015-09-09

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel wave energy converter device concept that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The proposed concept combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter with active control surfaces. These active control surfaces allow for the device geometry to be altered, which leads to changes in the hydrodynamic properties. The device geometry will be controlled on a sea state time scale and combined with wave-to-wave power-take-off control to maximize power capture, increase capacity factor, and reduce design loads. The paper begins with a traditional linear frequency domain analysis of the device performance. Performance sensitivity to foil pitch angle, the number of activated foils, and foil cross section geometry is presented to illustrate the current design decisions; however, it is understood from previous studies that modeling of current oscillating wave energy converter designs requires the consideration of nonlinear hydrodynamics and viscous drag forces. In response, a nonlinear model is presented that highlights the shortcomings of the linear frequency domain analysis and increases the precision in predicted performance.

  2. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004), 10.1080/08927020412331294869]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  3. A summary of USSR thermionic energy conversion activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasor, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the research and development associated with thermionic energy conversion in the USSR. Consideration is given to the basic physics of the thermionic converter, the development of thermionic nuclear reactors including the three TOPAZ models, radioisotope-heated generators, and the thermionic topping of fossil-fueled electric-power plants. Comparisons are made between U.S. and USSR capabilities in thermionic energy conversion and potential cooperative programs are noted.

  4. Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to BOEM on the identification and delineation of offshore leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM in 2012. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of BOEM's Rhode Island/Massachusetts (RIMA) WEA leasing areas. The objective of the NREL evaluation was to assess the proposed delineation of the two leasing areas and determine if the division is reasonable and technically sound. Additionally, the evaluation aimed to identify any deficiencies in the delineation. As part of the review, NREL performed the following tasks: 1. Performed a limited review of relevant literature and RIMA call nominations. 2. Executed a quantitative analysis and comparison of the two proposed leasing areas 3. Conducted interviews with University of Rhode Island (URI) staff involved with the URI Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) 4. Prepared this draft report summarizing the key findings.

  5. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  6. Performance analysis of the Jersey City Total Energy Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, C. W.; Ryan, J. D.; Phillips, C. W.

    1982-08-01

    Engineering, economic, environmental, and reliability data from a 486 - unit apartment/commercial complex was gathered. The complex was designed to recover waste heat from diesel engines to make the central equipment building a total energy (TE) plant. Analysis of the data indicates that a significant savings in fuel is possible by minor modifications in plant procedures. The results of an analysis of the quality of utility services supplied to the consumers on the site and an analysis of a series of environmental tests made the effects of the plant on air quality and noise are included. In general, although those systems utilizing the TE concept showed a significant savings in fuel, such systems do not represent attractive investments compared to conventional systems.

  7. Energy balance for analysis of complex metabolic networks.

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Daniel A; Liang, Shou-dan; Qian, Hong

    2002-01-01

    Predicting behavior of large-scale biochemical networks represents one of the greatest challenges of bioinformatics and computational biology. Computational tools for predicting fluxes in biochemical networks are applied in the fields of integrated and systems biology, bioinformatics, and genomics, and to aid in drug discovery and identification of potential drug targets. Approaches, such as flux balance analysis (FBA), that account for the known stoichiometry of the reaction network while avoiding implementation of detailed reaction kinetics are promising tools for the analysis of large complex networks. Here we introduce energy balance analysis (EBA)--the theory and methodology for enforcing the laws of thermodynamics in such simulations--making the results more physically realistic and revealing greater insight into the regulatory and control mechanisms operating in complex large-scale systems. We show that EBA eliminates thermodynamically infeasible results associated with FBA. PMID:12080101

  8. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  9. Energy Expenditure of Selected Household Activities during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Freedson, Patty S.; Roberts, Dawn E.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Fragala, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurately measuring pregnancy physical activity is critical to assess the percentage of pregnant women meeting the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines. In addition, valid assessment of pregnancy physical activity is important for epidemiologic studies assessing the relationship between physical activity and…

  10. Energy and Change. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 3 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  11. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  12. Effective field theory of dark energy: a dynamical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Frusciante, Noemi; Raveri, Marco; Silvestri, Alessandra E-mail: mraveri@sissa.it

    2014-02-01

    The effective field theory (EFT) of dark energy relies on three functions of time to describe the dynamics of background cosmology. The viability of these functions is investigated here by means of a thorough dynamical analysis. While the system is underdetermined, and one can always find a set of functions reproducing any expansion history, we are able to determine general compatibility conditions for these functions by requiring a viable background cosmology. In particular, we identify a set of variables that allows us to transform the non-autonomous system of equations into an infinite-dimensional one characterized by a significant recursive structure. We then analyze several autonomous sub-systems, obtained truncating the original one at increasingly higher dimension, that correspond to increasingly general models of dark energy and modified gravity. Furthermore, we exploit the recursive nature of the system to draw some general conclusions on the different cosmologies that can be recovered within the EFT formalism and the corresponding compatibility requirements for the EFT functions. The machinery that we set up serves different purposes. It offers a general scheme for performing dynamical analysis of dark energy and modified gravity models within the model independent framework of EFT; the general results, obtained with this technique, can be projected into specific models, as we show in one example. It also can be used to determine appropriate ansätze for the three EFT background functions when studying the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in the context of large scale structure tests of gravity.

  13. Energy-based analysis of biochemical cycles using bond graphs.

    PubMed

    Gawthrop, Peter J; Crampin, Edmund J

    2014-11-08

    Thermodynamic aspects of chemical reactions have a long history in the physical chemistry literature. In particular, biochemical cycles require a source of energy to function. However, although fundamental, the role of chemical potential and Gibb's free energy in the analysis of biochemical systems is often overlooked leading to models which are physically impossible. The bond graph approach was developed for modelling engineering systems, where energy generation, storage and transmission are fundamental. The method focuses on how power flows between components and how energy is stored, transmitted or dissipated within components. Based on the early ideas of network thermodynamics, we have applied this approach to biochemical systems to generate models which automatically obey the laws of thermodynamics. We illustrate the method with examples of biochemical cycles. We have found that thermodynamically compliant models of simple biochemical cycles can easily be developed using this approach. In particular, both stoichiometric information and simulation models can be developed directly from the bond graph. Furthermore, model reduction and approximation while retaining structural and thermodynamic properties is facilitated. Because the bond graph approach is also modular and scaleable, we believe that it provides a secure foundation for building thermodynamically compliant models of large biochemical networks.

  14. Energy-based analysis of biochemical cycles using bond graphs

    PubMed Central

    Gawthrop, Peter J.; Crampin, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic aspects of chemical reactions have a long history in the physical chemistry literature. In particular, biochemical cycles require a source of energy to function. However, although fundamental, the role of chemical potential and Gibb's free energy in the analysis of biochemical systems is often overlooked leading to models which are physically impossible. The bond graph approach was developed for modelling engineering systems, where energy generation, storage and transmission are fundamental. The method focuses on how power flows between components and how energy is stored, transmitted or dissipated within components. Based on the early ideas of network thermodynamics, we have applied this approach to biochemical systems to generate models which automatically obey the laws of thermodynamics. We illustrate the method with examples of biochemical cycles. We have found that thermodynamically compliant models of simple biochemical cycles can easily be developed using this approach. In particular, both stoichiometric information and simulation models can be developed directly from the bond graph. Furthermore, model reduction and approximation while retaining structural and thermodynamic properties is facilitated. Because the bond graph approach is also modular and scaleable, we believe that it provides a secure foundation for building thermodynamically compliant models of large biochemical networks. PMID:25383030

  15. PEAR: a microcomputer program for residential energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.; Huang, Y.J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Bull, J.

    1985-11-01

    We have designed a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences), which is written with user-friendly input and output and runs on the IBM PC. PEAR provides an easy-to-use and very fast compilation and extrapolation of a comprehensive DOE-2.1 database for residential buildings. The current version, which covers five residential building prototypes in over 800 locations, estimates energy and cost savings resulting from typical conversion measures such as ceiling, wall and floor insulation, window type and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to adjust for optional measures including roof or wall color, movable insulation, whole-house fans, night temperature setback, reflective or heat absorbing glass, thermal mass in exterior walls, and two attached sunspace options. The program is designed to be used as a research tool by energy and policy analysts, and as a non-technical energy calculation method by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  16. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  17. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  18. Swimming active droplet: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, M.; Stark, H.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, an active microswimmer was constructed where a micron-sized droplet of bromine water was placed into a surfactant-laden oil phase. Due to a bromination reaction of the surfactant at the interface, the surface tension locally increases and becomes non-uniform. This drives a Marangoni flow which propels the squirming droplet forward. We develop a diffusion-advection-reaction equation for the order parameter of the surfactant mixture at the droplet interface using a mixing free energy. Numerical solutions reveal a stable swimming regime above a critical Marangoni number M but also stopping and oscillating states when M is increased further. The swimming droplet is identified as a pusher whereas in the oscillating state it oscillates between being a puller and a pusher.

  19. On the Possible Association of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Active Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Porter, Troy A.; Cheung, Chi C.

    2008-05-14

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies >57 EeV that suggests a correlation with the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within {approx}75 Mpc. However, this analysis does not take into account AGN morphology. A detailed study of the sample of AGN whose positions correlate with the CR events shows that most of them are classified as Seyfert 2 and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies which do not differ from other local AGN of the same types. Therefore, the claimed correlation between the CR events observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory and local active galaxies should be considered as resulting from a chance coincidence, if the production of the highest energy CRs is not episodic in nature, but operates in a single object on long ({ge} Myr) timescales. Additionally, most of the selected sources do not show significant jet activity, and hence--in the framework of the jet paradigm--there are no reasons for expecting them to accelerate CRs up to the highest energies, {approx}10{sup 20} eV, at all. If the extragalactic magnetic fields and the sources of these CRs are coupled with matter, it is possible that the deflection angle is larger than expected in the case of a uniform source distribution due to effectively larger fields. A future analysis has to take into account AGN morphology and may yield a correlation with a larger deflection angle and/or more distant sources. We further argue that Cen A alone could be associated with at least 4 events due to its large radio extent, and Cen B can be associated with more than 1 event due to its proximity to the Galactic plane and, correspondingly, the stronger Galactic magnetic field the ultra high energy CRs (UHECRs) encounter during propagation. If the UHECRs associated with these events are indeed accelerated by Cen A and Cen B, their deflection angles may provide information on the

  20. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy projects implemented in Alaska. The first, a sustainable technology energy partnerships (STEP) wind energy deployment project in Kotzebue will install 6 AOC 15/50 wind turbines and connect to the existing village diesel grid, consisting of approximately 1 MW average load. It seeks to develop solutions to the problems of arctic wind energy installations (transport, foundations, erection, operation, and maintenance), to establish a wind turbine test site, and to establish the Kotzebue Electric Association as a training and deployment center for wind/diesel technology in rural Alaska. The second project, a large village medium-penetration wind/diesel system, also in Kotzebue, will install a 1-2 MW windfarm, which will supplement the AOC turbines of the STEP project. The program will investigate the impact of medium penetration wind energy on power quality and system stability. The third project, the Alaska high-penetration wind/diesel village power pilot project in Wales will install a high penetration (80-100%) wind/diesel system in a remote Alaskan village. The system will include about 180 kW installed wind capacity, meeting an average village load of about 60 kW. This program will provide a model for high penetration wind retrofits to village diesel power systems and build the capability in Alaska to operate, maintain, and replicate wind/diesel technology. The program will also address problems of: effective use of excess wind energy; reliable diesel-off operation; and the role of energy storage.