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Sample records for activation energy consistent

  1. Analytical gradients of complete active space self-consistent field energies using Cholesky decomposition: Geometry optimization and spin-state energetics of a ruthenium nitrosyl complex

    SciTech Connect

    Delcey, Mickaël G.; Freitag, Leon; González, Leticia; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Aquilante, Francesco; Lindh, Roland

    2014-05-07

    We present a formulation of analytical energy gradients at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory employing density fitting (DF) techniques to enable efficient geometry optimizations of large systems. As an example, the ground and lowest triplet state geometries of a ruthenium nitrosyl complex are computed at the DF-CASSCF level of theory and compared with structures obtained from density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP, BP86, and M06L functionals. The average deviation of all bond lengths compared to the crystal structure is 0.042 Å at the DF-CASSCF level of theory, which is slightly larger but still comparable with the deviations obtained by the tested DFT functionals, e.g., 0.032 Å with M06L. Specifically, the root-mean-square deviation between the DF-CASSCF and best DFT coordinates, delivered by BP86, is only 0.08 Å for S{sub 0} and 0.11 Å for T{sub 1}, indicating that the geometries are very similar. While keeping the mean energy gradient errors below 0.25%, the DF technique results in a 13-fold speedup compared to the conventional CASSCF geometry optimization algorithm. Additionally, we assess the singlet-triplet energy vertical and adiabatic differences with multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) using the DF-CASSCF and DFT optimized geometries. It is found that the vertical CASPT2 energies are relatively similar regardless of the geometry employed whereas the adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps are more sensitive to the chosen triplet geometry.

  2. Does life consistently maximise energy intensity?

    PubMed

    Milewski, Antoni V; Mills, Anthony J

    2010-11-01

    We propose that a basic biological imperative of all organisms is to maximise energy (E) intensity, defined as the average rate of energy use per unit area of the Earth's surface. The dominant organism in any given environment is predicted to be that exerting the greatest E intensity regardless of evolutionary origin. Our 'theory of biological E intensity' thus explains variation in life form in terms of adaptations as opposed to accidents of biological history. It defines the competitive criterion in all metabolic pathways and industrial processes as the average rate of kinetic energy use, excluding heating but including all directed biological kinesis at scales up to the whole organism. A suggested unit for E intensity is joules per square meter per year. Because catalysts are crucial to extremely rapid use of energy (and therefore maximisation of E intensity), catalytic nutrient elements can be viewed as the ultimate means of life. It follows that a common denominator of all dominant organisms would be the acquisition of an optimal catalytic formula as determined by concentrations and ratios of C, H, O, N, S, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Cd, I, W, and Hg. The likely local shortages of various of these elements can theoretically be alleviated by various changes in the size, shape, and/or behaviour of organisms, depending on the environment. Thus, the availability, and potential for supplementation, of catalytic elements would be the ultimate basis for adaptation, largely determining which life form dominates in any particular location. The theory predicts the following. (1) In nutrient-rich environments offering the optimal catalytic formula, dominant organisms will be microbes. This is because microbes, and prokaryotes in particular, excel in E intensity through rapid biomolecular turnover, enabling them to usurp resources despite minimising biomass, complexity, and information. (2) Where the environment is catabolically dystrophic (i

  3. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-07-29

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits.

  4. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  5. Size-consistent self-consistent configuration interaction from a complete active space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Amor, Nadia; Maynau, Daniel

    1998-04-01

    The size-consistent self-consistent (SC) 2 method is based on intermediate Hamiltonians and ensures size-extensivity of any configuration interaction (CI) by correcting its diagonal elements. In this work, an (SC) 2 dressing is proposed on a complete active space SDCI. This approach yields a more efficient code which can treat larger multireference problems. Tests are proposed on the potential energy curve of F 2, the bond stretching of water and the inclusion of an Be atom in the H 2 molecule. Comparisons with approximate methods such as average quadratic coupled cluster (AQCC) are presented. AQCC appears as a good approximation to (SC) 2.

  6. Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling using Space, Energy and Angle

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Mosher, Scott W; Evans, Thomas M

    2012-08-01

    For challenging radiation transport problems, hybrid methods combine the accuracy of Monte Carlo methods with the global information present in deterministic methods. One of the most successful hybrid methods is CADIS Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling. This method uses a deterministic adjoint solution to construct a biased source distribution and consistent weight windows to optimize a specific tally in a Monte Carlo calculation. The method has been implemented into transport codes using just the spatial and energy information from the deterministic adjoint and has been used in many applications to compute tallies with much higher figures-of-merit than analog calculations. CADIS also outperforms user-supplied importance values, which usually take long periods of user time to develop. This work extends CADIS to develop weight windows that are a function of the position, energy, and direction of the Monte Carlo particle. Two types of consistent source biasing are presented: one method that biases the source in space and energy while preserving the original directional distribution and one method that biases the source in space, energy, and direction. Seven simple example problems are presented which compare the use of the standard space/energy CADIS with the new space/energy/angle treatments.

  7. Consistent estimation of Gibbs energy using component contributions.

    PubMed

    Noor, Elad; Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S; Milo, Ron; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2013-01-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of reactions are increasingly being used in metabolic modeling for applying thermodynamic constraints on reaction rates, metabolite concentrations and kinetic parameters. The increasing scope and diversity of metabolic models has led scientists to look for genome-scale solutions that can estimate the standard Gibbs energy of all the reactions in metabolism. Group contribution methods greatly increase coverage, albeit at the price of decreased precision. We present here a way to combine the estimations of group contribution with the more accurate reactant contributions by decomposing each reaction into two parts and applying one of the methods on each of them. This method gives priority to the reactant contributions over group contributions while guaranteeing that all estimations will be consistent, i.e. will not violate the first law of thermodynamics. We show that there is a significant increase in the accuracy of our estimations compared to standard group contribution. Specifically, our cross-validation results show an 80% reduction in the median absolute residual for reactions that can be derived by reactant contributions only. We provide the full framework and source code for deriving estimates of standard reaction Gibbs energy, as well as confidence intervals, and believe this will facilitate the wide use of thermodynamic data for a better understanding of metabolism.

  8. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  9. Consistent high-energy constraints in the anomalous QCD sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, Pablo; Sanz Cillero, Juan José

    2014-06-01

    The anomalous < VVP > Green function and related form-factors (π0 →γ*γ* and τ- →X-ντ vector form-factors, with X- = (KKπ)-, φ- γ, (φV)-) are analyzed in this letter in the large-NC limit. Within the single (vector and pseudoscalar) resonance approximation and the context of Resonance Chiral Theory, we show that all these observables overdetermine in a consistent way a unique set of compatible high-energy constraints for the resonance couplings. This result is in agreement with analogous relations found in the even intrinsic-parity sector of QCD like, e.g., FV2 = 3F2. The antisymmetric tensor formalism is considered for the spin-one resonance fields. Finally, we have also worked out and provide here the relation between the two bases of odd intrinsic-parity Lagrangian operators commonly employed in the literature.

  10. An energy-consistent fracture model for ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2017-02-01

    The fracture behavior of ferroelectrics has been intensively studied in recent decades, though currently a widely accepted fracture mechanism is still lacking. In this work, enlightened by previous experimental observations that crack propagation in ferroelectrics is always accompanied by domain switching, we propose a micromechanical model in which both crack propagation and domain switching are controlled by energy-based criteria. Both electric energy and mechanical energy can induce domain switching, while only mechanical energy can drive crack propagation. Furthermore, constrained domain switching is considered in this model, leading to the gradient domain switching zone near the crack tip. Analysis results show that stress-induced ferroelastic switching always has a toughening effect as the mechanical energy release rate serves as the driving force for both fracture and domain switching. In comparison, the electric-field-induced switching may have either a toughening or detoughening effect. The proposed model can qualitatively agree with the existing experimental results.

  11. Nanoscale energy-route selector consisting of multiple photo-switchable fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer structures on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ryo; Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-04-01

    We report on a nanoscale energy-route selector consisting of multiple fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) structures switched by external signaling with multiple wavelengths of light. In each FRET structure, a specific activator molecule is incorporated to a FRET pair of a donor and an acceptor to control the activation of the acceptor. Owing to this configuration, the FRET structures are switched independently, and an energy route is selected. Two photo-switchable FRET structures, one consists of Alexa Fluor 568 (donor), Cy5 (acceptor), and Alexa Fluor 405 (activator), and the other consists of Alexa Fluor 568 (donor), Cy5.5 (acceptor), and Cy3 (activator), were constructed using DNA strands modified with fluorescence molecules. Switching rates for the individual FRET structures were measured as 64 and 49 %, respectively. An energy-route selector was then assembled with the FRET structures which share a single donor. Experimental results demonstrate that the energy route can be changed repeatedly by activation control using three wavelengths of light.

  12. [Pharmacological activity echinochrome A singly and consisting of BAA "Timarin"].

    PubMed

    Artiukov, A A; Popov, A M; Tsybul'skiĭ, A V; Krivoshapko, O N; Poliakova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological activity of echinochrome A (EchA) alone and in the biologically active additives (BAA) "Timarin", administered per os has been investigated on volunteers. EchA decreased serum glutatione (GSH) and increased catalase activity 1 h after treatment; catalase activity normalized, while GSH exceeded the initial level 3 h after the treatment. Changes in serum lipid spectrum, demonstrating reduction of the risk atherogenesis were determined.

  13. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  14. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  15. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  16. Appropriate Measures and Consistent Standard for High Energy Laser Beam Quality (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    may be distributed to individuals. “Appropriate measures and consistent standard for high energy laser beam quality” Dr. T. Sean Ross (AFRL/DELO... High Power Solid State Laser Branch b Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Laser Division, Tactical Systems Branch Ross...e2 must be used. If the power or energy measured in the small area around the focal spot is Ps and the total laser output power or energy is P, the

  17. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  18. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  19. Consistent post-reaction vibrational energy redistribution in DSMC simulations using TCE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges Sebastião, Israel; Alexeenko, Alina

    2016-10-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method has been widely applied to study shockwaves, hypersonic reentry flows, and other nonequilibrium flow phenomena. Although there is currently active research on high-fidelity models based on ab initio data, the total collision energy (TCE) and Larsen-Borgnakke (LB) models remain the most often used chemistry and relaxation models in DSMC simulations, respectively. The conventional implementation of the discrete LB model, however, may not satisfy detailed balance when recombination and exchange reactions play an important role in the flow energy balance. This issue can become even more critical in reacting mixtures involving polyatomic molecules, such as in combustion. In this work, this important shortcoming is addressed and an empirical approach to consistently specify the post-reaction vibrational states close to thermochemical equilibrium conditions is proposed within the TCE framework. Following Bird's quantum-kinetic (QK) methodology for populating post-reaction states, the new TCE-based approach involves two main steps. The state-specific TCE reaction probabilities for a forward reaction are first pre-computed from equilibrium 0-D simulations. These probabilities are then employed to populate the post-reaction vibrational states of the corresponding reverse reaction. The new approach is illustrated by application to exchange and recombination reactions relevant to H2-O2 combustion processes.

  20. A priori complete active space self consistent field localized orbitals: an application on linear polyenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Celestino; Sparta, Manuel; Cimiraglia, Renzo

    2006-03-01

    A recently proposed a priori localization technique is used to exploit the possibility to reduce the number of active orbitals in a Complete Active Space Self Consistent Field calculation. The work relies on the fact that the new approach allows a strict control on the nature of the active orbitals and therefore makes it possible to include in the active space only the relevant orbitals. The idea is tested on the calculation of the energy barrier for rigid rotation of linear polyenes. In order to obtain a relevant set of data, a number of possible rotations around double bonds have been considered in the ethylene, butadiene, hexatriene, octatetraene, decapentaene, dodecahexaene molecules. The possibility to reduce the dimension of the active space has been investigated, considering for each possible rotation different active spaces ranging from the minimal dimension of 2 electrons in 2 π orbitals to the π-complete space. The results show that the rigid isomerization in the polyene molecules can be described with a negligible loss in accuracy with active spaces no larger than ten orbitals and ten electrons. In the special case of the rotation around the terminal double bond, the space can be further reduced to six orbitals and six electrons with a large decrease of the computational cost. An interesting summation rule has been found and verified for the stabilization of the energy barriers as a function of the dimension of the conjugated lateral chains and of the dimension of the active space.

  1. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides…

  2. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  3. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura

    2016-07-12

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.

  4. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  5. Spill-to-spill and daily proton energy consistency with a new accelerator control system.

    PubMed

    Moyers, M F; Ghebremedhin, A

    2008-05-01

    The Loma Linda University proton accelerator has had several upgrades installed including synchrotron dipole power supplies and a system for monitoring the beam energy. The consistency of the energy from spill-to-spill has been tested by measuring the depth ionization at the distal edge as a function of time. These measurements were made with a minimally equipped beamline to reduce interference from confounding factors. The consistency of the energy over several months was measured in a treatment room beamline using an ionization chamber based daily quality assurance device. The results showed that the energy of protons delivered from the accelerator (in terms of water equivalent range) was consistent from spill-to-spill to better than +/-0.03 mm at 70, 155, and 250 MeV and that the energy check performed each day in the treatment room over a several month period was within +/-0.11 mm (+/-0.06 MeV) at 149 MeV. These results are within the tolerances required for the energy stacking technique.

  6. The Consistency of Attitude and Behavior by Adolescents in the Area of Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Jacque R.; Chamberlain, Valerie M.

    This study examined the relationship between the energy use for personal and family activities. Data were collected from a sample of 227 students in 11 secondary public schools in central city, suburban, small town, and rural areas. Students completed instruments that measured energy conservation attitudes, behaviors, and levels of attitudinal…

  7. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  8. Thermodynamically consistent phase field theory of phase transformations with anisotropic interface energies and stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Warren, James A.

    2015-10-01

    The main focus of this paper is to introduce, in a thermodynamically consistent manner, an anisotropic interface energy into a phase field theory for phase transformations. Here we use a small strain formulation for simplicity, but we retain some geometric nonlinearities, which are necessary for introducing correct interface stresses. Previous theories have assumed the free energy density (i.e., gradient energy) is an anisotropic function of the gradient of the order parameters in the current (deformed) state, which yields a nonsymmetric Cauchy stress tensor. This violates two fundamental principles: the angular momentum equation and the principle of material objectivity. Here, it is justified that for a noncontradictory theory the gradient energy must be an isotropic function of the gradient of the order parameters in the current state, which also depends anisotropically on the direction of the gradient of the order parameters in the reference state. A complete system of thermodynamically consistent equations is presented. We find that the main contribution to the Ginzburg-Landau equation resulting from small strains arises from the anisotropy of the interface energy, which was neglected before. The explicit expression for the free energy is justified. An analytical solution for the nonequilibrium interface and critical nucleus has been found and a parametric study is performed for orientation dependence of the interface energy and width as well as the distribution of interface stresses.

  9. A General Pressure Gradient Formulation for Ocean Models - Part II: Energy, Momentum, and Bottom Torque Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y.; Wright, D.

    1998-01-01

    A formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography-following coordinates is proposed and diagnostically analyzed by Song. We investigate numerical consistency with respect to global energy conservation, depth-integrated momentum changes, and the represent of the bottom pressure torque.

  10. On consistent micromechanical estimation of macroscopic elastic energy, coherence energy and phase transformation strains for SMA materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition

  11. Consistent Estimates of Tsunami Energy Show Promise for Improved Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V.; Song, Y. Tony; Tang, L.; Bernard, E. N.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Wei, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Early tsunami warning critically hinges on rapid determination of the tsunami hazard potential in real-time, before waves inundate critical coastlines. Tsunami energy can quickly characterize the destructive potential of generated waves. Traditional seismic analysis is inadequate to accurately predict a tsunami's energy. Recently, two independent approaches have been proposed to determine tsunami source energy: one inverted from the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) data during the tsunami propagation, and the other derived from the land-based coastal global positioning system (GPS) during tsunami generation. Here, we focus on assessing these two approaches with data from the March 11, 2011 Japanese tsunami. While the GPS approach takes into consideration the dynamic earthquake process, the DART inversion approach provides the actual tsunami energy estimation of the propagating tsunami waves; both approaches lead to consistent energy scales for previously studied tsunamis. Encouraged by these promising results, we examined a real-time approach to determine tsunami source energy by combining these two methods: first, determine the tsunami source from the globally expanding GPS network immediately after an earthquake for near-field early warnings; and then to refine the tsunami energy estimate from nearby DART measurements for improving forecast accuracy and early cancelations. The combination of these two real-time networks may offer an appealing opportunity for: early determination of the tsunami threat for the purpose of saving more lives, and early cancelation of tsunami warnings to avoid unnecessary false alarms.

  12. 15 CFR 930.154 - Listing activities subject to routine interstate consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency of Federal Activities Having Interstate Coastal Effects § 930.154 Listing activities... listed activity will occur, as well as with relevant Federal agencies. (c) Demonstrate effects....

  13. 15 CFR 930.154 - Listing activities subject to routine interstate consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency of Federal Activities Having Interstate Coastal Effects § 930.154 Listing activities... listed activity will occur, as well as with relevant Federal agencies. (c) Demonstrate effects....

  14. Intrinsic deep hole trap levels in Cu2O with self-consistent repulsive Coulomb energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bolong

    2016-03-01

    The large error of the DFT+U method on full-filled shell metal oxides is due to the residue of self-energy from the localized d orbitals of cations and p orbitals of the anions. U parameters are selfconsistently found to achieve the analytical self-energy cancellation. The improved band structures based on relaxed lattices of Cu2O are shown based on minimization of self-energy error. The experimentally reported intrinsic p-type trap levels are contributed by both Cu-vacancy and the O-interstitial defects in Cu2O. The latter defect has the lowest formation energy but contributes a deep hole trap level while the Cuvacancy has higher energy cost but acting as a shallow acceptor. Both present single-particle levels spread over nearby the valence band edge, consistent to the trend of defects transition levels. By this calculation approach, we also elucidated the entanglement of strong p-d orbital coupling to unravel the screened Coulomb potential of fully filled shells.

  15. 18- and 24-month-olds' discrimination of gender-consistent and inconsistent activities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sara E; Flom, Ross

    2007-02-01

    18- and 24-month-olds' ability to discriminate gender-stereotyped activities was assessed. Using a preferential looking paradigm, toddlers viewed male and female actors performing masculine and feminine-stereotyped activities. Consistent with our predictions, and previous research, 24-month-olds, but not 18-month-olds, looked longer at the gender-inconsistent activities than the gender-consistent activities. Results are discussed in terms of toddlers emerging gender stereotypes and perception of everyday events.

  16. On Multiscale Modeling: Preserving Energy Dissipation Across the Scales with Consistent Handshaking Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    A mesh objective crack band model was implemented within the generalized method of cells micromechanics theory. This model was linked to a macroscale finite element model to predict post-peak strain softening in composite materials. Although a mesh objective theory was implemented at the microscale, it does not preclude pathological mesh dependence at the macroscale. To ensure mesh objectivity at both scales, the energy density and the energy release rate must be preserved identically across the two scales. This requires a consistent characteristic length or localization limiter. The effects of scaling (or not scaling) the dimensions of the microscale repeating unit cell (RUC), according to the macroscale element size, in a multiscale analysis was investigated using two examples. Additionally, the ramifications of the macroscale element shape, compared to the RUC, was studied.

  17. Accelerating self-consistent field convergence with the augmented Roothaan–Hall energy function

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiangqian; Yang, Weitao

    2010-01-01

    Based on Pulay’s direct inversion iterative subspace (DIIS) approach, we present a method to accelerate self-consistent field (SCF) convergence. In this method, the quadratic augmented Roothaan–Hall (ARH) energy function, proposed recently by Høst and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 124106 (2008)], is used as the object of minimization for obtaining the linear coefficients of Fock matrices within DIIS. This differs from the traditional DIIS of Pulay, which uses an object function derived from the commutator of the density and Fock matrices. Our results show that the present algorithm, abbreviated ADIIS, is more robust and efficient than the energy-DIIS (EDIIS) approach. In particular, several examples demonstrate that the combination of ADIIS and DIIS (“ADIIS+DIIS”) is highly reliable and efficient in accelerating SCF convergence. PMID:20136307

  18. A dual-energy approach for improvement of the measurement consistency in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Anton; Pejryd, Lars

    2016-11-01

    Computed tomography is increasingly adopted by industries for metrological and material evaluation. The technology enables new measurement possibilities, while also challenging old measurement methods in their established territories. There are, however, uncertainties related with the computed tomography method. Investigation of multi-material components with, in particular, varying material thickness can result in unreliable measurements. In this paper the effects of multi-materials, and differing material thickness, on computed tomography measurement consistency has been studied. The aim of the study was to identify measurement inconsistencies and attempt to correct these with a dual-energy computed tomography approach. In this pursuit, a multi-material phantom was developed, containing reliable measurement points and custom-ability with regards to material combinations. A dual-energy method was developed and implemented using sequential acquisition and pre-reconstruction fusing of projections. It was found that measurements made on the multi-material phantom with a single computed tomography scan were highly inconsistent. It was also found that the dual-energy approach was able to reduce the measurement inconsistencies. However, more work is required with the automation of the dual-energy approach presented in this paper since it is highly operator dependant.

  19. Energy intake highs and lows: how much does consistency matter in weight control?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Diane L.; Schumacher, Leah M.; Schaumberg, Katherine; Piers, Amani D.; Gaspar, Monika E.; Lowe, Michael R.; Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Behavioural weight control programmes recommend adherence to daily energy intake goals, yet also allow for flexibility in intake across days. Evidence is lacking as to whether intake consistency is important for weight control. The current study explored the relation between day-to-day intake consistency and weight loss in the context of behavioural weight loss treatment and examined the relationship between variability in intake and several factors known to be associated with weight control success. Participants (N = 283) enrolled in a 12-month behavioural weight loss programme completed 24-h recalls of dietary intake and psychological measures. At the end of treatment, low intake variability and greater weight loss were associated, but variability was not predictive of weight loss independent of mean intake in continuous analyses. Interestingly, participants who met the programme goal of ≥10% weight loss had less intake variability compared to those who lost <10%, although groups did not differ significantly on mean intake. Results suggest that daily intake consistency may facilitate successful weight loss for some. Additionally, autonomous motivation for weight management and cognitive dietary restraint were inversely related to end-of-treatment intake variability. Additional research is needed to examine whether recommendations to limit intake variability during behavioural weight loss treatment improve long-term weight control. PMID:27020845

  20. Dissipation, generalized free energy, and a self-consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemically driven open subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a system situated in a sustained environment with influx and efflux is usually treated as a subsystem in a larger, closed “universe.” A question remains with regard to what the minimally required description for the surrounding of such an open driven system is so that its nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be established solely based on the internal stochastic kinetics. We provide a solution to this problem using insights from studies of molecular motors in a chemical nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) with sustained external drive through a regenerating system or in a quasisteady state (QSS) with an excess amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We introduce the key notion of minimal work that is needed, Wmin, for the external regenerating system to sustain a NESS (e.g., maintaining constant concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi for a molecular motor). Using a Markov (master-equation) description of a motor protein, we illustrate that the NESS and QSS have identical kinetics as well as the second law in terms of the same positive entropy production rate. The heat dissipation of a NESS without mechanical output is exactly the Wmin. This provides a justification for introducing an ideal external regenerating system and yields a free-energy balance equation between the net free-energy input Fin and total dissipation Fdis in an NESS: Fin consists of chemical input minus mechanical output; Fdis consists of dissipative heat, i.e. the amount of useful energy becoming heat, which also equals the NESS entropy production. Furthermore, we show that for nonstationary systems, the Fdis and Fin correspond to the entropy production rate and housekeeping heat in stochastic thermodynamics and identify a relative entropy H as a generalized free energy. We reach a new formulation of Markovian nonequilibrium thermodynamics based on only the internal kinetic equation without further reference to

  1. Dissipation, generalized free energy, and a self-consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemically driven open subsystems.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a system situated in a sustained environment with influx and efflux is usually treated as a subsystem in a larger, closed "universe." A question remains with regard to what the minimally required description for the surrounding of such an open driven system is so that its nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be established solely based on the internal stochastic kinetics. We provide a solution to this problem using insights from studies of molecular motors in a chemical nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) with sustained external drive through a regenerating system or in a quasisteady state (QSS) with an excess amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We introduce the key notion of minimal work that is needed, W(min), for the external regenerating system to sustain a NESS (e.g., maintaining constant concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi for a molecular motor). Using a Markov (master-equation) description of a motor protein, we illustrate that the NESS and QSS have identical kinetics as well as the second law in terms of the same positive entropy production rate. The heat dissipation of a NESS without mechanical output is exactly the W(min). This provides a justification for introducing an ideal external regenerating system and yields a free-energy balance equation between the net free-energy input F(in) and total dissipation F(dis) in an NESS: F(in) consists of chemical input minus mechanical output; F(dis) consists of dissipative heat, i.e. the amount of useful energy becoming heat, which also equals the NESS entropy production. Furthermore, we show that for nonstationary systems, the F(dis) and F(in) correspond to the entropy production rate and housekeeping heat in stochastic thermodynamics and identify a relative entropy H as a generalized free energy. We reach a new formulation of Markovian nonequilibrium thermodynamics based on only the internal kinetic equation without further

  2. Energy dependence of hadronic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, T. A.; Groom, D. E.; Job, P. K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Stevenson, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Two features of high-energy hadronic cascades have long been known to shielding specialists: a) in a high-energy hadronic cascade in a given material (incident E ≳ 10 GeV), the relative abundance and spectrum of each hadronic species responsible for most of the energy deposition is independent of the energy or species of the incident hadron, and b) because π0 production bleeds off more and more energy into the electromagnetic sector as the energy of the incident hadron increases, the absolute level of this low-energy hadronic activity ( E ≲ 1 GeV) rises less rapidly than the incident energy, and in fact rises very nearly as a power of the incident energy. Both features are of great importance in hadron calorimetry, where it is the "universal spectrum" which makes possible the definition of an intrinsic {e}/{h}, and the increasing fraction of the energy going into π0's which leads to the energy dependence of {e}/{π}. We present evidence for the "universal spectrum," and use an induction argument and simulation results to demonstrate that the low-energy activity ss Em, with 0.80 ≲ m ≲ 0.85. The hadronic activity produced by incident pions is 15-20% less than that initiated by protons.

  3. Fully Implicit Energy and Charge Conserving, Discretely Consistent Moment System for Vlasov-Ampere System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taitano, William; Knoll, Dana; Chacon, Luis; Chen, Guangye; Daughton, Bill

    2012-10-01

    [1][2] pioneered the implicit moment method (IMM) for kinetic plasma simulation. In the classic IMM approach, upon convergence of the discrete kinetic and fluid moment system within a timestep, a discretization truncation inconsistency between the two systems can exist. Additionally, when using the total stress tensor from the kinetic system as closure for the moment system, the stiff hyperbolic waves are not effectively decoupled from the kinetic system and accelerated in the moment system. In this presentation, we advance the original IMM approach by 1) addressing the discrete truncation consistency between the kinetic and moment system, and 2) improve the IMM approach by introducing the idea of density normalized stress tensor to efficiently isolate and implicitly step over the stiff hyperbolic isothermal wave in the moment system. We will present the significance of these improvements on the IMM method by discussing energy conservation and nonlinear convergence rate of the method for a multiscale two species ion acoustic shockwave problem. Additional results of the method accelerated via Anderson acceleration will be presented. [4pt][1] R.J. Mason, J. Comp. Phys., 1981. [2] J.U. Brackbill et al. J. Comp. Phys., 1982. [3] W.T. Taitano et al. SISC, 2012 in review.

  4. Department of Energy seismic siting and design decisions: Consistent use of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, J.K.; Chander, H.

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all nuclear or non-nuclear facilities shall be designed, constructed and operated so that the public, the workers, and the environment are protected from the adverse impacts of Natural Phenomena Hazards including earthquakes. The design and evaluation of DOE facilities to accommodate earthquakes shall be based on an assessment of the likelihood of future earthquakes occurrences commensurate with a graded approach which depends on the potential risk posed by the DOE facility. DOE has developed Standards for site characterization and hazards assessments to ensure that a consistent use of probabilistic seismic hazard is implemented at each DOE site. The criteria included in the DOE Standards are described, and compared to those criteria being promoted by the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for commercial nuclear reactors. In addition to a general description of the DOE requirements and criteria, the most recent probabilistic seismic hazard results for a number of DOE sites are presented. Based on the work completed to develop the probabilistic seismic hazard results, a summary of important application issues are described with recommendations for future improvements in the development and use of probabilistic seismic hazard criteria for design of DOE facilities.

  5. Energy Model of Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Romanyshyn, Yuriy; Smerdov, Andriy; Petrytska, Svitlana

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of the neurophysiological strength-duration (amplitude-duration) curve of neuron activation (which relates the threshold amplitude of a rectangular current pulse of neuron activation to the pulse duration), as well as with the use of activation energy constraint (the threshold curve corresponds to the energy threshold of neuron activation by a rectangular current pulse), an energy model of neuron activation by a single current pulse has been constructed. The constructed model of activation, which determines its spectral properties, is a bandpass filter. Under the condition of minimum-phase feature of the neuron activation model, on the basis of Hilbert transform, the possibilities of phase-frequency response calculation from its amplitude-frequency response have been considered. Approximation to the amplitude-frequency response by the response of the Butterworth filter of the first order, as well as obtaining the pulse response corresponding to this approximation, give us the possibility of analyzing the efficiency of activating current pulses of various shapes, including analysis in accordance with the energy constraint.

  6. Perturbative correction for the basis set incompleteness error of complete-active-space self-consistent field.

    PubMed

    Kong, Liguo; Valeev, Edward F

    2010-11-07

    To reduce the basis set incompleteness of the complete-active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function and energy we develop a second-order perturbation correction due to single excitations to complete set of unoccupied states. Other than the one- and two-electron integrals, only one- and two-particle reduced density matrices are required to compute the correction, denoted as [2](S). Benchmark calculations on prototypical ground-state bond-breaking problems show that only the aug-cc-pVXZ basis is needed with the [2](S) correction to match the accuracy of CASSCF energies of the aug-cc-pV(X+1)Z quality.

  7. How Consistent are Recent Variations in the Tropical Energy and Water Cycle Resolved by Satellite Measurements?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, F. R.; Lu, H.-I.

    2004-01-01

    One notable aspect of Earth's climate is that although the planet appears to be very close to radiative balance at top-of-atmosphere (TOA), the atmosphere itself and underlying surface are not. Profound exchanges of energy between the atmosphere and oceans, land and cryosphere occur over a range of time scales. Recent evidence from broadband satellite measurements suggests that even these TOA fluxes contain some detectable variations. Our ability to measure and reconstruct radiative fluxes at the surface and at the top of atmosphere is improving rapidly. One question is 'How consistent, physically, are these diverse remotely-sensed data sets'? The answer is of crucial importance to understanding climate processes, improving physical models, and improving remote sensing algorithms. In this work we will evaluate two recently released estimates of radiative fluxes, focusing primarily on surface estimates. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project 'FD' radiative flux profiles are available from mid-1983 to near present and have been constructed by driving the radiative transfer physics from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global model with ISCCP clouds and TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder)thermodynamic profiles. Full and clear sky SW and LW fluxes are produced. A similar product from the NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Project using different radiative flux codes and thermodynamics from the NASA/Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) assimilation model makes a similar calculation of surface fluxes. However this data set currently extends only through 1995. We also employ precipitation measurements from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Finally, ocean evaporation estimates from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are considered as well as derived evaporation from the NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis. Additional information is included in the original extended

  8. A complete active space self-consistent field study of the photochemistry of nitrosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez, Daniel; Arenas, Juan F.; Otero, Juan C.; Soto, Juan

    2006-10-01

    Photodissociation mechanisms of nitrosamine (NH2NO) have been studied at the complete active space self-consistent field level of theory in conjunction with atomic-natural-orbital-type basis sets. In addition, the energies of all the critical points and the potential energy curves connecting them have been recomputed with the multiconfigurational second-order perturbation method. Ground state minimum of nitrosamine has a C1 nonplanar structure with the hydrogen atoms of the amino moiety out of the plane defined by the N-N-O bonds. Electronic transitions to the three lowest states are allowed by selection rules: (i) S0→S3 (7.41eV) has an oscillator strength of f =0.0006 and it is assigned as an (npO)0→(πNO*)2 transition, (ii) S0→S2 (5.86eV ) has an oscillator strength of f =0.14 and it is assigned as an npN→πNO* transition, and (iii) S0→S1 (2.98eV ) has an oscillator strength of f =0.002 and it is assigned as an npO→πNO* transition. It is found that N-N bond cleavage is the most likely process in all the photochemical relevant states, namely, S1 (1A″1), S2 (2A'1), and T1 (1A″3). While S1 and T1 yield exclusively homolytic dissociation: NH2NO →NH2 (1B12)+NO(XΠ2), on S2 the latter process constitutes the major path, but two additional minor channels are also available: adiabatic homolytic dissociation: NH2NO →NH2 (1A12)+NO(XΠ2), and adiabatic oxygen extrusion: NH2NO →NH2N (1A13)+O(P3). The excited species NH2 (1A12) experiences a subsequent ultrafast decay to the ground state, the final products in all cases the fragments being in their lowest electronic state. We have not found a unimolecular mechanism connecting excited states with the ground state. In addition, homolytic dissociation in the ground state, tautomerizations to NHNOH and NHNHO, and intersystem crossings to T1 are considered. The most favorable process on this state is the isomerization to NHNOH.

  9. Fully relativistic complete active space self-consistent field for large molecules: Quasi-second-order minimax optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Jefferson E.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2015-01-28

    We develop an efficient algorithm for four-component complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) methods on the basis of the Dirac equation that takes into account spin–orbit and other relativistic effects self-consistently. Orbitals are optimized using a trust-region quasi-Newton method with Hessian updates so that energies are minimized with respect to rotations among electronic orbitals and maximized with respect to rotations between electronic and positronic orbitals. Utilizing density fitting and parallel computation, we demonstrate that Dirac–Coulomb CASSCF calculations can be routinely performed on systems with 100 atoms and a few heavy-elements. The convergence behavior and wall times for octachloridodirhenate(III) and a tungsten methylidene complex are presented. In addition, the excitation energies of octachloridodirhenate(III) are reported using a state-averaged variant.

  10. Fully relativistic complete active space self-consistent field for large molecules: Quasi-second-order minimax optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Jefferson E.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2015-01-01

    We develop an efficient algorithm for four-component complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) methods on the basis of the Dirac equation that takes into account spin-orbit and other relativistic effects self-consistently. Orbitals are optimized using a trust-region quasi-Newton method with Hessian updates so that energies are minimized with respect to rotations among electronic orbitals and maximized with respect to rotations between electronic and positronic orbitals. Utilizing density fitting and parallel computation, we demonstrate that Dirac-Coulomb CASSCF calculations can be routinely performed on systems with 100 atoms and a few heavy-elements. The convergence behavior and wall times for octachloridodirhenate(III) and a tungsten methylidene complex are presented. In addition, the excitation energies of octachloridodirhenate(III) are reported using a state-averaged variant.

  11. Fully relativistic complete active space self-consistent field for large molecules: quasi-second-order minimax optimization.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jefferson E; Shiozaki, Toru

    2015-01-28

    We develop an efficient algorithm for four-component complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) methods on the basis of the Dirac equation that takes into account spin-orbit and other relativistic effects self-consistently. Orbitals are optimized using a trust-region quasi-Newton method with Hessian updates so that energies are minimized with respect to rotations among electronic orbitals and maximized with respect to rotations between electronic and positronic orbitals. Utilizing density fitting and parallel computation, we demonstrate that Dirac-Coulomb CASSCF calculations can be routinely performed on systems with 100 atoms and a few heavy-elements. The convergence behavior and wall times for octachloridodirhenate(III) and a tungsten methylidene complex are presented. In addition, the excitation energies of octachloridodirhenate(III) are reported using a state-averaged variant.

  12. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  13. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  14. Self-consistently optimized statistical mechanical energy functions for sequence structure alignment.

    PubMed Central

    Koretke, K. K.; Luthey-Schulten, Z.; Wolynes, P. G.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative form of the principle of minimal frustration is used to obtain from a database analysis statistical mechanical energy functions and gap parameters for aligning sequences to three-dimensional structures. The analysis that partially takes into account correlations in the energy landscape improves upon the previous approximations of Goldstein et al. (1994, 1995) (Goldstein R, Luthey-Schulten Z, Wolynes P, 1994, Proceedings of the 27th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press. pp 306-315; Goldstein R, Luthey-Schulten Z, Wolynes P, 1995, In: Elber R, ed. New developments in theoretical studies of proteins. Singapore: World Scientific). The energy function allows for ordering of alignments based on the compatibility of a sequence to be in a given structure (i.e., lowest energy) and therefore removes the necessity of using percent identity or similarity as scoring parameters. The alignments produced by the energy function on distant homologues with low percent identity (less than 21%) are generally better than those generated with evolutionary information. The lowest energy alignment generated with the energy function for sequences containing prosite signatures but unknown structures is a structure containing the same prosite signature, providing a check on the robustness of the algorithm. Finally, the energy function can make use of known experimental evidence as constraints within the alignment algorithm to aid in finding the correct structural alignment. PMID:8762136

  15. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  16. Communication: Smoothing out excited-state dynamics: Analytical gradients for dynamically weighted complete active space self-consistent field

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, W. J.

    2014-11-07

    State averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) is a workhorse for determining the excited-state electronic structure of molecules, particularly for states with multireference character; however, the method suffers from known issues that have prevented its wider adoption. One issue is the presence of discontinuities in potential energy surfaces when a state that is not included in the state averaging crosses with one that is. In this communication I introduce a new dynamical weight with spline (DWS) scheme that mimics SA-CASSCF while removing energy discontinuities due to unweighted state crossings. In addition, analytical gradients for DWS-CASSCF (and other dynamically weighted schemes) are derived for the first time, enabling energy-conserving excited-state ab initio molecular dynamics in instances where SA-CASSCF fails.

  17. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Results Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. Conclusions The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies. PMID:24314274

  18. A consistent muscle activation strategy underlies crawling and swimming in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Victoria J.; Branicky, Robyn; Yemini, Eviatar; Liewald, Jana F.; Gottschalk, Alexander; Kerr, Rex A.; Chklovskii, Dmitri B.; Schafer, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Although undulatory swimming is observed in many organisms, the neuromuscular basis for undulatory movement patterns is not well understood. To better understand the basis for the generation of these movement patterns, we studied muscle activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a range of locomotion patterns: in low viscosity fluids the undulation has a wavelength longer than the body and propagates rapidly, while in high viscosity fluids or on agar media the undulatory waves are shorter and slower. Theoretical treatment of observed behaviour has suggested a large change in force–posture relationships at different viscosities, but analysis of bend propagation suggests that short-range proprioceptive feedback is used to control and generate body bends. How muscles could be activated in a way consistent with both these results is unclear. We therefore combined automated worm tracking with calcium imaging to determine muscle activation strategy in a variety of external substrates. Remarkably, we observed that across locomotion patterns spanning a threefold change in wavelength, peak muscle activation occurs approximately 45° (1/8th of a cycle) ahead of peak midline curvature. Although the location of peak force is predicted to vary widely, the activation pattern is consistent with required force in a model incorporating putative length- and velocity-dependence of muscle strength. Furthermore, a linear combination of local curvature and velocity can match the pattern of activation. This suggests that proprioception can enable the worm to swim effectively while working within the limitations of muscle biomechanics and neural control. PMID:25551155

  19. A consistent muscle activation strategy underlies crawling and swimming in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Butler, Victoria J; Branicky, Robyn; Yemini, Eviatar; Liewald, Jana F; Gottschalk, Alexander; Kerr, Rex A; Chklovskii, Dmitri B; Schafer, William R

    2015-01-06

    Although undulatory swimming is observed in many organisms, the neuromuscular basis for undulatory movement patterns is not well understood. To better understand the basis for the generation of these movement patterns, we studied muscle activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a range of locomotion patterns: in low viscosity fluids the undulation has a wavelength longer than the body and propagates rapidly, while in high viscosity fluids or on agar media the undulatory waves are shorter and slower. Theoretical treatment of observed behaviour has suggested a large change in force-posture relationships at different viscosities, but analysis of bend propagation suggests that short-range proprioceptive feedback is used to control and generate body bends. How muscles could be activated in a way consistent with both these results is unclear. We therefore combined automated worm tracking with calcium imaging to determine muscle activation strategy in a variety of external substrates. Remarkably, we observed that across locomotion patterns spanning a threefold change in wavelength, peak muscle activation occurs approximately 45° (1/8th of a cycle) ahead of peak midline curvature. Although the location of peak force is predicted to vary widely, the activation pattern is consistent with required force in a model incorporating putative length- and velocity-dependence of muscle strength. Furthermore, a linear combination of local curvature and velocity can match the pattern of activation. This suggests that proprioception can enable the worm to swim effectively while working within the limitations of muscle biomechanics and neural control.

  20. A consistent scalar-tensor cosmology for inflation, dark energy and the Hubble parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. H.-T.; Reid, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Rodrigues, D.; Al Alawi, M.; Bingham, R.; Mendonça, J. T.; Davies, T. B.

    2016-11-01

    A Friedman cosmology is investigated based on scalar-tensor gravitation with general metric coupling and scalar potential functions. We show that for a broad class of such functions, the scalar field can be dynamically trapped using a recently suggested mechanism. The trapped scalar can drive inflation and accelerated cosmic expansion, compatible with standard requirements. The inflationary phase admits a natural exit with a value of the Hubble parameter dictated by the duration of inflation in a parameter independent manner. For inflationary duration consistent with the GUT description, the resulting Hubble parameter is found to be consistent with its observed value.

  1. A complete active space self-consistent field study of the photochemistry of nitrosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaez, Daniel; Arenas, Juan F.; Otero, Juan C.; Soto, Juan

    2006-10-28

    Photodissociation mechanisms of nitrosamine (NH{sub 2}NO) have been studied at the complete active space self-consistent field level of theory in conjunction with atomic-natural-orbital-type basis sets. In addition, the energies of all the critical points and the potential energy curves connecting them have been recomputed with the multiconfigurational second-order perturbation method. Ground state minimum of nitrosamine has a C{sub 1} nonplanar structure with the hydrogen atoms of the amino moiety out of the plane defined by the N-N-O bonds. Electronic transitions to the three lowest states are allowed by selection rules: (i) S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 3} (7.41 eV) has an oscillator strength of f=0.0006 and it is assigned as an (np{sub O}){sup 0}{yields}({pi}{sub NO}*){sup 2} transition, (ii) S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 2} (5.86 eV) has an oscillator strength of f=0.14 and it is assigned as an np{sub N}{yields}{pi}{sub NO}* transition, and (iii) S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 1} (2.98 eV) has an oscillator strength of f=0.002 and it is assigned as an np{sub O}{yields}{pi}{sub NO}* transition. It is found that N-N bond cleavage is the most likely process in all the photochemical relevant states, namely, S{sub 1} (1 {sup 1}A{sup ''}), S{sub 2} (2 {sup 1}A{sup '}), and T{sub 1} (1 {sup 3}A{sup ''}). While S{sub 1} and T{sub 1} yield exclusively homolytic dissociation: NH{sub 2}NO{yields}NH{sub 2} (1 {sup 2}B{sub 1})+NO(X {sup 2}{pi}), on S{sub 2} the latter process constitutes the major path, but two additional minor channels are also available: adiabatic homolytic dissociation: NH{sub 2}NO{yields}NH{sub 2} (1 {sup 2}A{sub 1})+NO(X {sup 2}{pi}), and adiabatic oxygen extrusion: NH{sub 2}NO{yields}NH{sub 2}N (1 {sup 3}A{sub 1})+O({sup 3}P). The excited species NH{sub 2} (1 {sup 2}A{sub 1}) experiences a subsequent ultrafast decay to the ground state, the final products in all cases the fragments being in their lowest electronic state. We have not found a unimolecular mechanism connecting

  2. Self-consistent determination of fullerene binding energies BE (C+n-C2), n=58ṡ ṡ ṡ44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörgötter, R.; Dünser, B.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.; Foltin, M.; Klots, C. E.; Laskin, J.; Lifshitz, C.

    1996-01-01

    Using recently measured accurate relative partial ionization cross section functions for production of the C60 fragment ions C+58 through C+44 by electron impact ionization, we have determined the respective binding energies BE(C+n-C2), with n=58,...,44, using a novel self-consistent procedure. Appearance energies were determined from ionization efficiency curves. Binding energies were calculated from the corresponding appearance energies with the help of the finite heat bath theory. Then using these binding energies we calculated with transition state theory (TST), the corresponding breakdown curves, and compared these calculated ones with the ones derived from the measured cross sections. The good agreement between these breakdown curves proves the consistency of this multistep calculation scheme. As the only free parameter in this procedure is the binding energy C+58-C2, we studied the influence of different transition states chosen in the determination of this binding energy via TST theory and iterative comparison with breakdown curve measurements. Based on this study we can conclude that extremely loose transition states can be confidently excluded, and that somewhat looser transition states than those used earlier result in an upward change of the binding energy of less than 10% yielding an upper limit for the binding energy C+58-C2 of approximately 7.6 eV.

  3. An atomic orbital-based formulation of the complete active space self-consistent field method on graphical processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenstein, Edward G.; Luehr, Nathan; Ufimtsev, Ivan S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2015-06-14

    Despite its importance, state-of-the-art algorithms for performing complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) computations have lagged far behind those for single reference methods. We develop an algorithm for the CASSCF orbital optimization that uses sparsity in the atomic orbital (AO) basis set to increase the applicability of CASSCF. Our implementation of this algorithm uses graphical processing units (GPUs) and has allowed us to perform CASSCF computations on molecular systems containing more than one thousand atoms. Additionally, we have implemented analytic gradients of the CASSCF energy; the gradients also benefit from GPU acceleration as well as sparsity in the AO basis.

  4. Energy regeneration model of self-consistent field of electron beams into electric power*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmin, B. N.; Ryzhov, D. R.; Trifanov, I. V.; Snezhko, A. A.; Savelyeva, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    We consider physic-mathematical models of electric processes in electron beams, conversion of beam parameters into electric power values and their transformation into users’ electric power grid (onboard spacecraft network). We perform computer simulation validating high energy efficiency of the studied processes to be applied in the electric power technology to produce the power as well as electric power plants and propulsion installation in the spacecraft.

  5. Hierarchical expansion of the kinetic energy operator in curvilinear coordinates for the vibrational self-consistent field method.

    PubMed

    Strobusch, D; Scheurer, Ch

    2011-09-28

    A new hierarchical expansion of the kinetic energy operator in curvilinear coordinates is presented and modified vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) equations are derived including all kinematic effects within the mean field approximation. The new concept for the kinetic energy operator is based on many-body expansions for all G matrix elements and its determinant. As a test application VSCF computations were performed on the H(2)O(2) molecule using an analytic potential (PCPSDE) and different hierarchical approximations for the kinetic energy operator. The results indicate that coordinate-dependent reduced masses account for the largest part of the kinetic energy. Neither kinematic couplings nor derivatives of the G matrix nor its determinant had significant effects on the VSCF energies. Only the zero-point value of the pseudopotential yields an offset to absolute energies which, however, is irrelevant for spectroscopic problems.

  6. Fully self-consistent study of charge-exchange resonances and the impact on the symmetry energy parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Cao, Li-Gang; Colò, G.; Sagawa, H.

    2016-10-01

    We have examined within a fully self-consistent theoretical framework the energy difference between the anti-analog giant dipole resonance (AGDR) and the isobaric analog state (IAS), EAGDR-EIAS , as an indicator of the neutron skin and of the density behavior of the symmetry energy. We have improved two specific points in our HF+RPA calculations: (1) the exchange term of the two-body Coulomb interaction is treated exactly without Slater approximation; and (2) the two-parameters spin-orbit interaction is treated in a consistent way within the energy density functional theory. The estimated values for the neutron skin in 208Pb and the slope parameter of symmetry energy are compared with previous analysis available in the literature.

  7. Antiproliferative and GH-inhibitory activity of chimeric peptides consisting of GHRP-6 and somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, P; Singh, A T; Mukherjee, R

    1999-06-07

    Chimeric peptides consisting of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP-6) linked to somatostatin (6-11) via an amide bond to provide the effector parts of both the peptides were synthesized. The anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, and GH-inhibitory activities of these chimeric peptides were determined in vitro in the rat pituitary adenoma cell line GH3. One of the chimeric peptides, GSD, exhibited significantly greater (p < 0.001) anti-neoplastic and GH-inhibitory activity, as compared to RC-160. The hybrid peptides displayed high affinity binding to somatostatin receptors on GH3 cells. The bioactivity of GSD was found to be mediated by the stimulation of tyrosine phosphatase, involving a cGMP-dependent pathway, through pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. Such potent GH-inhibitory chimeric peptides may be of potential importance in the therapy of acromegaly, as well as provide novel tools to study the regulation of GH secretion by GHRP and somatostatin.

  8. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  9. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  10. A Self-Consistent Radiative Transfer Model for Simulating Active and Passive Observations of Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    Current generation sensors suites such as those included on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active / Passive (SMAP) exploit a combination to provide a greater understanding of geophysical phenomena. While "operationalized" retrieval algorithms require fast forward models, the ability to perform higher fidelity simulations is necessary for understanding the physics of remote sensing problems to test assumptions and to develop parameterizations for the fast models. To ensure proper synergy between active and passive modeling, forward models must be consistent between the two sensor types. This work presents a self-consistent active and passive radiative transfer model for simulating radar and radiometer responses to precipitation. To accomplish this, we extend the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) version 2.3 to solve the radiative transfer equation for radar under multiple scattering conditions using Monte Carlo integration. Early versions of ARTS (1.1 and later) included a passive Monte Carlo solver, and ARTS is capable of handling atmospheres of up to three dimensions with ellipsoidal planetary geometries. The modular nature of ARTS facilitates extensibility, and the well-developed ray-tracing tools are suited for implementation of Monte Carlo algorithms. Finally, since ARTS handles the full Stokes vector, co- and cross-polarized reflectivity products are possible for scenarios that include nonspherical particles, with or without preferential alignment. The accuracy of the forward model will be demonstrated, and the effects of multiple scattering will be detailed. The three-dimensional nature of the radiative transfer model will be useful for understanding the effects of nonuniform beamfill and multiple scattering for spatially heterogeneous precipitation events. This targets of this forward model are GPM (the Dual-wavelength Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI)) and airborne sensors

  11. Local dark matter and dark energy as estimated on a scale of ~1 Mpc in a self-consistent way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Dark energy was first detected from large distances on gigaparsec scales. If it is vacuum energy (or Einstein's Λ), it should also exist in very local space. Here we discuss its measurement on megaparsec scales of the Local Group. Aims: We combine the modified Kahn-Woltjer method for the Milky Way-M 31 binary and the HST observations of the expansion flow around the Local Group in order to study in a self-consistent way and simultaneously the local density of dark energy and the dark matter mass contained within the Local Group. Methods: A theoretical model is used that accounts for the dynamical effects of dark energy on a scale of ~1 Mpc. Results: The local dark energy density is put into the range 0.8-3.7ρv (ρv is the globally measured density), and the Local Group mass lies within 3.1-5.8×1012 M⊙. The lower limit of the local dark energy density, about 4/5× the global value, is determined by the natural binding condition for the group binary and the maximal zero-gravity radius. The near coincidence of two values measured with independent methods on scales differing by ~1000 times is remarkable. The mass ~4×1012 M⊙ and the local dark energy density ~ρv are also consistent with the expansion flow close to the Local Group, within the standard cosmological model. Conclusions: One should take into account the dark energy in dynamical mass estimation methods for galaxy groups, including the virial theorem. Our analysis gives new strong evidence in favor of Einstein's idea of the universal antigravity described by the cosmological constant.

  12. Self-consistent simulation of CdTe solar cells with active defects

    DOE PAGES

    Brinkman, Daniel; Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; ...

    2015-07-21

    We demonstrate a self-consistent numerical scheme for simulating an electronic device which contains active defects. As a specific case, we consider copper defects in cadmium telluride solar cells. The presence of copper has been shown experimentally to play a crucial role in predicting device performance. The primary source of this copper is migration away from the back contact during annealing, which likely occurs predominantly along grain boundaries. We introduce a mathematical scheme for simulating this effect in 2D and explain the numerical implementation of the system. Lastly, we will give numerical results comparing our results to known 1D simulations tomore » demonstrate the accuracy of the solver and then show results unique to the 2D case.« less

  13. Self-consistent simulation of CdTe solar cells with active defects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, Daniel; Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Ringhofer, Christian; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica

    2015-07-21

    We demonstrate a self-consistent numerical scheme for simulating an electronic device which contains active defects. As a specific case, we consider copper defects in cadmium telluride solar cells. The presence of copper has been shown experimentally to play a crucial role in predicting device performance. The primary source of this copper is migration away from the back contact during annealing, which likely occurs predominantly along grain boundaries. We introduce a mathematical scheme for simulating this effect in 2D and explain the numerical implementation of the system. Lastly, we will give numerical results comparing our results to known 1D simulations to demonstrate the accuracy of the solver and then show results unique to the 2D case.

  14. Self-consistent simulation of CdTe solar cells with active defects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, Daniel; Ringhofer, Christian; Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Vasileska, Dragica; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian

    2015-07-21

    We demonstrate a self-consistent numerical scheme for simulating an electronic device which contains active defects. As a specific case, we consider copper defects in cadmium telluride solar cells. The presence of copper has been shown experimentally to play a crucial role in predicting device performance. The primary source of this copper is migration away from the back contact during annealing, which likely occurs predominantly along grain boundaries. We introduce a mathematical scheme for simulating this effect in 2D and explain the numerical implementation of the system. Finally, we will give numerical results comparing our results to known 1D simulations to demonstrate the accuracy of the solver and then show results unique to the 2D case.

  15. Momentum-Dependent Lifetime Broadening of Electron Energy Loss Spectra: A Self-Consistent Coupled-Plasmon Model.

    PubMed

    Bourke, J D; Chantler, C T

    2015-02-05

    The complex dielectric function and associated energy loss spectrum of a condensed matter system is a fundamental material parameter that determines both the optical and electronic scattering behavior of the medium. The common representation of the electron energy loss function (ELF) is interpreted as the susceptibility of a system to a single- or bulk-electron (plasmon) excitation at a given energy and momentum and is commonly derived as a summation of noninteracting free-electron resonances with forms constrained by adherence to some externally determined optical standard. This work introduces a new causally constrained momentum-dependent broadening theory, permitting a more physical representation of optical and electronic resonances that agrees more closely with both optical attenuation and electron scattering data. We demonstrate how the momentum dependence of excitation resonances may be constrained uniquely by utilizing a coupled-plasmon model, in which high-energy excitations are able to relax into lower-energy excitations within the medium. This enables a robust and fully self-consistent theory with no free or fitted parameters that reveals additional physical insight not present in previous work. The new developments are applied to the scattering behavior of solid molybdenum and aluminum. We find that plasmon and single-electron lifetimes are significantly affected by the presence of alternate excitation channels and show for molybdenum that agreement with high-precision electron inelastic mean free path data is dramatically improved for energies above 20 eV.

  16. Consistency tests in guaranteed simulation of nonlinear uncertain systems with application to an activated sludge process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletting, Marco; Rauh, Andreas; Aschemann, Harald; Hofer, Eberhard P.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, interval arithmetic simulation techniques are presented to determine guaranteed enclosures of the state variables of both continuous and discrete-time systems with uncertain but bounded parameters. In nonlinear uncertain systems axis-parallel interval boxes are mapped to complexly shaped regions in the state space that represent sets of possible combinations of state variables. The approximation of each region by a single interval box causes an accumulating overestimation from time-step to time-step, usually called the wrapping effect. The algorithm presented in this paper minimizes the wrapping effect by applying consistency techniques based on interval Newton methods. Subintervals that do not belong to the exact solution at a given time can be eliminated in order to give a tighter but still conservative approximation of the exact solution. Additionally, efficient splitting and merging strategies are employed to limit the number of subintervals. The proposed algorithm is applied to the simulation of an activated sludge process in biological wastewater treatment.

  17. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  18. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  19. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year 1990 applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities. Four MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for energy testing and program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities.

  20. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  1. 15 CFR 930.154 - Listing activities subject to routine interstate consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT... bodies, river basins, boundaries under the State's coastal nonpoint pollution control program, or...

  2. 15 CFR 930.154 - Listing activities subject to routine interstate consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT... bodies, river basins, boundaries under the State's coastal nonpoint pollution control program, or...

  3. 15 CFR 930.154 - Listing activities subject to routine interstate consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT... bodies, river basins, boundaries under the State's coastal nonpoint pollution control program, or...

  4. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory with space partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-02-01

    Aiming at efficient numerical analysis of time-dependent (TD) many-electron dynamics of atoms involving multielectron continua, the TD restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory with space partition (TD-RASSCF-SP) is presented. The TD-RASSCF-SP wave function is expanded in terms of TD configuration-interaction coefficients with Slater determinants composed of two kinds of TD orbitals: M ̂ orbitals are defined to be nonvanishing in the inner region (V ̂), a small volume around the atomic nucleus, and M ˇ orbitals are nonvanishing in the large outer region (V ˇ). For detailed discussion of the SP strategy, the equations of motion are derived by two different formalisms for comparison. To ensure continuous differentiability of the wave function across the two regions, one of the formalisms makes use of the property of the finite-element discrete-variable-representation (FEDVR) functions and introduces additional time-independent orbitals. The other formalism is more general and is based on the Bloch operator as in the R -matrix theory, but turns out to be less practical for numerical applications. Hence, using the FEDVR-based formalism, the numerical performance is tested by computing double-ionization dynamics of atomic beryllium in intense light fields. To achieve high accuracy, M ̂ should be set large to take into account the strong many-electron correlation around the nucleus. On the other hand, M ˇ can be set much smaller than M ̂ for capturing the weaker correlation between the two outgoing photoelectrons. As a result, compared with more accurate multiconfigurational TD Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method, the TD-RASSCF-SP method may achieve comparable accuracy in the description of the double-ionization dynamics. There are, however, difficulties related to the stiffness of the equations of motion of the TD-RASSCF-SP method, which makes the required time step for this method smaller than the one needed for the MCTDHF approach.

  5. Towards a Self-Consistent Physical Framework for Modeling Coupled Human and Physical Activities during the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Studies of the response of global climate to anthropogenic activities rely upon scenarios for future human activity to provide a range of possible trajectories for greenhouse gases emissions over the coming century. Sophisticated integrated models are used to explore not only what will happen, but what should happen in order to optimize societal well-being. Hundreds of equations might be used to account for the interplay between human decisions, technological change, and macroeconomic priniciples. In contrast, the model equations used to describe geophysical phenomena look very different because they are a) purely deterministic and b) consistent with basic thermodynamic laws. This inconsistency between macroeconomics and physics suggests a rather unhappy marriage. During the Anthropocene the evolution of humanity and our environment will become increasingly intertwined. Representing such a coupling suggests a need for a common theoretical basis. To this end, the approach that is described here is to treat civilization like any other physical process, that is as an open, non-equilibrium thermodynamic system that dissipates energy and diffuses matter in order to sustain existing circulations and to further its material growth. Theoretical arguments and over 40 years of measurements show that a very general representation of global economic wealth (not GDP) has been tied to rates of global primary energy consumption through a constant 7.1 ± 0.1 mW per year 2005 USD. This link between physics and economics leads to very simple expressions for how fast civilization and its rate of energy consumption grow. These are expressible as a function of rates of energy and material resource discovery and depletion, and of the magnitude of externally imposed decay. The equations are validated through hindcasts that show, for example, that economic conditions in the 1950s can be invoked to make remarkably accurate forecasts of present rates of global GDP growth and primary energy

  6. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Ruth

    This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  7. Thermopower and conductivity activation energies in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Dyalsingh, H.M.; Kakalios, J.

    1996-12-31

    The long range fluctuation model has been widely used to account for the difference in activation energies seen experimentally in dark conductivity and thermopower measurements in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The authors report on a test of this model using measurements of the conductivity and thermoelectric effects carried out in both open and short circuit configurations. While the thermopower activation energy is less than that of the dark conductivity, the short circuit Seebeck conductivity is found to be nearly identical to the dark conductivity in both activation energy and magnitude, consistent with the long range fluctuation model.

  8. Solid consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  9. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-12-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions (one of them recurrent) inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with other available differently defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in Active Regions NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. The quantity 1/4π{B}n\\cdot{B}p is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear to the difference between the potential (Bp) and the non-potential magnetic field (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density shows clear changes before the powerful solar flares in Active Region NOAA 11158, which is consistent with the change in magnetic fields in the flaring lower atmosphere.

  10. A stock-flow consistent input-output model with applications to energy price shocks, interest rates, and heat emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Matthew; Hartley, Brian; Richters, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    By synthesizing stock-flow consistent models, input-output models, and aspects of ecological macroeconomics, a method is developed to simultaneously model monetary flows through the financial system, flows of produced goods and services through the real economy, and flows of physical materials through the natural environment. This paper highlights the linkages between the physical environment and the economic system by emphasizing the role of the energy industry. A conceptual model is developed in general form with an arbitrary number of sectors, while emphasizing connections with the agent-based, econophysics, and complexity economics literature. First, we use the model to challenge claims that 0% interest rates are a necessary condition for a stationary economy and conduct a stability analysis within the parameter space of interest rates and consumption parameters of an economy in stock-flow equilibrium. Second, we analyze the role of energy price shocks in contributing to recessions, incorporating several propagation and amplification mechanisms. Third, implied heat emissions from energy conversion and the effect of anthropogenic heat flux on climate change are considered in light of a minimal single-layer atmosphere climate model, although the model is only implicitly, not explicitly, linked to the economic model.

  11. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  12. Maier-Saupe model of polymer nematics: Comparing free energies calculated with Self Consistent Field theory and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Greco, Cristina; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Jeff Z Y; Kremer, Kurt; Daoulas, Kostas Ch

    2016-11-14

    Self Consistent Field (SCF) theory serves as an efficient tool for studying mesoscale structure and thermodynamics of polymeric liquid crystals (LC). We investigate how some of the intrinsic approximations of SCF affect the description of the thermodynamics of polymeric LC, using a coarse-grained model. Polymer nematics are represented as discrete worm-like chains (WLC) where non-bonded interactions are defined combining an isotropic repulsive and an anisotropic attractive Maier-Saupe (MS) potential. The range of the potentials, σ, controls the strength of correlations due to non-bonded interactions. Increasing σ (which can be seen as an increase of coarse-graining) while preserving the integrated strength of the potentials reduces correlations. The model is studied with particle-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and SCF theory which uses partial enumeration to describe discrete WLC. In MC simulations the Helmholtz free energy is calculated as a function of strength of MS interactions to obtain reference thermodynamic data. To calculate the free energy of the nematic branch with respect to the disordered melt, we employ a special thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme invoking an external field to bypass the first-order isotropic-nematic transition. Methodological aspects which have not been discussed in earlier implementations of the TI to LC are considered. Special attention is given to the rotational Goldstone mode. The free-energy landscape in MC and SCF is directly compared. For moderate σ the differences highlight the importance of local non-bonded orientation correlations between segments, which SCF neglects. Simple renormalization of parameters in SCF cannot compensate the missing correlations. Increasing σ reduces correlations and SCF reproduces well the free energy in MC simulations.

  13. Maier-Saupe model of polymer nematics: Comparing free energies calculated with Self Consistent Field theory and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Cristina; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Jeff Z. Y.; Kremer, Kurt; Daoulas, Kostas Ch.

    2016-11-01

    Self Consistent Field (SCF) theory serves as an efficient tool for studying mesoscale structure and thermodynamics of polymeric liquid crystals (LC). We investigate how some of the intrinsic approximations of SCF affect the description of the thermodynamics of polymeric LC, using a coarse-grained model. Polymer nematics are represented as discrete worm-like chains (WLC) where non-bonded interactions are defined combining an isotropic repulsive and an anisotropic attractive Maier-Saupe (MS) potential. The range of the potentials, σ, controls the strength of correlations due to non-bonded interactions. Increasing σ (which can be seen as an increase of coarse-graining) while preserving the integrated strength of the potentials reduces correlations. The model is studied with particle-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and SCF theory which uses partial enumeration to describe discrete WLC. In MC simulations the Helmholtz free energy is calculated as a function of strength of MS interactions to obtain reference thermodynamic data. To calculate the free energy of the nematic branch with respect to the disordered melt, we employ a special thermodynamic integration (TI) scheme invoking an external field to bypass the first-order isotropic-nematic transition. Methodological aspects which have not been discussed in earlier implementations of the TI to LC are considered. Special attention is given to the rotational Goldstone mode. The free-energy landscape in MC and SCF is directly compared. For moderate σ the differences highlight the importance of local non-bonded orientation correlations between segments, which SCF neglects. Simple renormalization of parameters in SCF cannot compensate the missing correlations. Increasing σ reduces correlations and SCF reproduces well the free energy in MC simulations.

  14. Functional and Behavioral Product Information Representation and Consistency Validation for Collaboration in Product Lifecycle Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baysal, Mehmet Murat

    2012-01-01

    Information models that represent the function, assembly and behavior of artifacts are critical in the conceptual development of a product and its evaluation. Much research has been conducted in this area; however, existing models do not relate function, behavior and structure in a comprehensive and consistent way. In this work, NIST's Core…

  15. Models for low-energy Lorentz violation in the photon sector: Addendum to 'Consistency of isotropic modified Maxwell theory'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhamer, F. R.; Schreck, M.

    2012-03-01

    In a previous article, Klinkhamer and Schreck (2011) [1], we established the consistency of isotropic modified Maxwell theory for a finite range of the Lorentz-violating parameter κ, which includes both positive and negative values of κ. As an aside, we mentioned the existence of a physical model which, for low-energy photons, gives rise to isotropic modified Maxwell theory with a positive parameter κ (corresponding to a "slow" photon). Here, we present a related model which gives rise to isotropic modified Maxwell theory with a negative parameter κ (corresponding to a "fast" photon). Both models have an identical particle content, photon and Dirac particles, but differ in the type of spacetime manifold considered.

  16. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  17. On a consistent high-order finite difference scheme with kinetic energy conservation for simulating turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisjono, Philipp; Kang, Seongwon; Pitsch, Heinz

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to present an accurate and consistent numerical framework for turbulent reacting flows based on a high-order finite difference (HOFD) scheme. It was shown previously by Desjardins et al. (2008) [4] that a centered finite difference scheme discretely conserving the kinetic energy and an upwind-biased scheme for the scalar transport can be combined into a useful scheme for turbulent reacting flows. With a high-order spatial accuracy, however, an inconsistency among discretization schemes for different conservation laws is identified, which can disturb a scalar field spuriously under non-uniform density distribution. Various theoretical and numerical analyses are performed on the sources of the unphysical error. From this, the derivative of the mass-conserving velocity and the local Péclet number are identified as the primary factors affecting the error. As a solution, an HOFD stencil for the mass conservation is reformulated into a flux-based form that can be used consistently with an upwind-biased scheme for the scalar transport. The effectiveness of the proposed formulation is verified using two-dimensional laminar flows such as a scalar transport problem and a laminar premixed flame, where unphysical oscillations in the scalar fields are removed. The applicability of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in an LES of a turbulent stratified premixed flame.

  18. Accurate energy bands calculated by the hybrid quasiparticle self-consistent GW method implemented in the ecalj package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Daiki; Sato, Kazunori; Kino, Hiori; Kotani, Takao

    2016-05-01

    We have recently implemented a new version of the quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) method in the ecalj package released at http://github.com/tkotani/ecalj. Since the new version of the ecalj package is numerically stable and more accurate than the previous versions, we can perform calculations easily without being bothered with tuning input parameters. Here we examine its ability to describe energy band properties, e.g., band-gap energy, eigenvalues at special points, and effective mass, for a variety of semiconductors and insulators. We treat C, Si, Ge, Sn, SiC (in 2H, 3C, and 4H structures), (Al, Ga, In) × (N, P, As, Sb), (Zn, Cd, Mg) × (O, S, Se, Te), SiO2, HfO2, ZrO2, SrTiO3, PbS, PbTe, MnO, NiO, and HgO. We propose that a hybrid QSGW method, where we mix 80% of QSGW and 20% of LDA, gives universally good agreement with experiments for these materials.

  19. Oil-containing waste water treating material consisting of modified active carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Shigeta, S.; Takenaka, Y.

    1982-03-16

    An oil-containing waste water treating material comprises an active carbon upon whose surface is chemically bonded at least one nitrogenous compound which is an amine or a quaternarized derivative thereof.

  20. Anharmonic free energies and phonon dispersions from the stochastic self-consistent harmonic approximation: Application to platinum and palladium hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, Ion; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Harmonic calculations based on density-functional theory are generally the method of choice for the description of phonon spectra of metals and insulators. The inclusion of anharmonic effects is, however, delicate as it relies on perturbation theory requiring a considerable amount of computer time, fast increasing with the cell size. Furthermore, perturbation theory breaks down when the harmonic solution is dynamically unstable or the anharmonic correction of the phonon energies is larger than the harmonic frequencies themselves. We present here a stochastic implementation of the self-consistent harmonic approximation valid to treat anharmonicity at any temperature in the nonperturbative regime. The method is based on the minimization of the free energy with respect to a trial density matrix described by an arbitrary harmonic Hamiltonian. The minimization is performed with respect to all the free parameters in the trial harmonic Hamiltonian, namely, equilibrium positions, phonon frequencies, and polarization vectors. The gradient of the free energy is calculated following a stochastic procedure. The method can be used to calculate thermodynamic properties, dynamical properties, and even anharmonic corrections to the Eliashberg function of the electron-phonon coupling. The scaling with the system size is greatly improved with respect to perturbation theory. The validity of the method is demonstrated in the strongly anharmonic palladium and platinum hydrides. In both cases, we predict a strong anharmonic correction to the harmonic phonon spectra, far beyond the perturbative limit. In palladium hydrides, we calculate thermodynamic properties beyond the quasiharmonic approximation, while in PtH, we demonstrate that the high superconducting critical temperatures at 100 GPa predicted in previous calculations based on the harmonic approximation are strongly suppressed when anharmonic effects are included.

  1. Biomechanics of the vibrissa motor plant in rat: rhythmic whisking consists of triphasic neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Hill, Dan N; Bermejo, Roberto; Zeigler, H Philip; Kleinfeld, David

    2008-03-26

    The biomechanics of a motor plant constrain the behavioral strategies that an animal has available to extract information from its environment. We used the rat vibrissa system as a model for active sensing and determined the pattern of muscle activity that drives rhythmic exploratory whisking. Our approach made use of electromyography to measure the activation of all relevant muscles in both head-fixed and unrestrained rats and two-dimensional imaging to monitor the position of the vibrissae in head-fixed rats. Our essential finding is that the periodic motion of the vibrissae and mystacial pad during whisking results from three phases of muscle activity. First, the vibrissae are thrust forward as the rostral extrinsic muscle, musculus (m.) nasalis, contracts to pull the pad and initiate protraction. Second, late in protraction, the intrinsic muscles pivot the vibrissae farther forward. Third, retraction involves the cessation of m. nasalis and intrinsic muscle activity and the contraction of the caudal extrinsic muscles m. nasolabialis and m. maxillolabialis to pull the pad and the vibrissae backward. We developed a biomechanical model of the whisking motor plant that incorporates the measured muscular mechanics along with movement vectors observed from direct muscle stimulation in anesthetized rats. The results of simulations of the model quantify how the combination of extrinsic and intrinsic muscle activity leads to an enhanced range of vibrissa motion than would be available from the intrinsic muscles alone.

  2. Energy Conservation Activities, Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Colorado Educational Board of Cooperative Services, Boulder.

    This publication is a collection of energy education activities for grades 1-6. The activities were written or selected to be used with daily lesson plans and the existing school curriculum. Activities are classified by: (1) content area (fine arts, mathematics, physical education, reading and language arts, science, and social studies; and (2)…

  3. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

    2014-12-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson's disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0±5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5±7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6±5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9±12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson's disease-related network activity was also elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism.

  4. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  5. Direct Measurements of Local Coupling between Myosin Molecules Are Consistent with a Model of Muscle Activation.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Sam; Kad, Neil M

    2015-11-01

    Muscle contracts due to ATP-dependent interactions of myosin motors with thin filaments composed of the proteins actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Contraction is initiated when calcium binds to troponin, which changes conformation and displaces tropomyosin, a filamentous protein that wraps around the actin filament, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin. Myosin motors interact with each other indirectly via tropomyosin, since myosin binding to actin locally displaces tropomyosin and thereby facilitates binding of nearby myosin. Defining and modeling this local coupling between myosin motors is an open problem in muscle modeling and, more broadly, a requirement to understanding the connection between muscle contraction at the molecular and macro scale. It is challenging to directly observe this coupling, and such measurements have only recently been made. Analysis of these data suggests that two myosin heads are required to activate the thin filament. This result contrasts with a theoretical model, which reproduces several indirect measurements of coupling between myosin, that assumes a single myosin head can activate the thin filament. To understand this apparent discrepancy, we incorporated the model into stochastic simulations of the experiments, which generated simulated data that were then analyzed identically to the experimental measurements. By varying a single parameter, good agreement between simulation and experiment was established. The conclusion that two myosin molecules are required to activate the thin filament arises from an assumption, made during data analysis, that the intensity of the fluorescent tags attached to myosin varies depending on experimental condition. We provide an alternative explanation that reconciles theory and experiment without assuming that the intensity of the fluorescent tags varies.

  6. Direct Measurements of Local Coupling between Myosin Molecules Are Consistent with a Model of Muscle Activation

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Sam; Kad, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contracts due to ATP-dependent interactions of myosin motors with thin filaments composed of the proteins actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Contraction is initiated when calcium binds to troponin, which changes conformation and displaces tropomyosin, a filamentous protein that wraps around the actin filament, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin. Myosin motors interact with each other indirectly via tropomyosin, since myosin binding to actin locally displaces tropomyosin and thereby facilitates binding of nearby myosin. Defining and modeling this local coupling between myosin motors is an open problem in muscle modeling and, more broadly, a requirement to understanding the connection between muscle contraction at the molecular and macro scale. It is challenging to directly observe this coupling, and such measurements have only recently been made. Analysis of these data suggests that two myosin heads are required to activate the thin filament. This result contrasts with a theoretical model, which reproduces several indirect measurements of coupling between myosin, that assumes a single myosin head can activate the thin filament. To understand this apparent discrepancy, we incorporated the model into stochastic simulations of the experiments, which generated simulated data that were then analyzed identically to the experimental measurements. By varying a single parameter, good agreement between simulation and experiment was established. The conclusion that two myosin molecules are required to activate the thin filament arises from an assumption, made during data analysis, that the intensity of the fluorescent tags attached to myosin varies depending on experimental condition. We provide an alternative explanation that reconciles theory and experiment without assuming that the intensity of the fluorescent tags varies. PMID:26536123

  7. Teaching hands-on science activities: Variables that moderate attitude-behavior consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    The relationship between prospective elementary teachers' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to teach science using hands-on activities at least twice a week during their first year of employment was investigated. The findings suggest that measuring prospective teachers' attitudes toward science cannot adequately predict nor provide a satisfactory explanation of their science teaching behaviors. The findings also provide clear support for two hypotheses derived from Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action regarding the predictability of prospective teachers' intentions to teach science from their attitudes and subjective norms.Received: 25 October 1985

  8. Energy intake, physical activity, energy balance, and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sai Yi; DesMeules, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Energy intake, physical activity, and obesity are modifiable lifestyle factors. This chapter reviews and summarizes the epidemiologic evidence on the relation of energy intake, physical activity, and obesity to cancer. High energy intake may increase the risk of cancers of colon-rectum, prostate (especially advanced prostate cancer), and breast. However, because physical activity, body size, and metabolic efficiency are highly related to total energy intake and expenditure, it is difficult to assess the independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk. There are sufficient evidences to support a role of physical activity in preventing cancers of the colon and breast, whereas the association is stronger in men than in women for colon cancer and in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women for breast cancer. The evidence also suggests that physical activity likely reduces the risk of cancers of endometrium, lung, and prostate (to a lesser extent). On the other hand, there is little or no evidence that the risk of rectal cancer is related to physical activity, whereas the results have been inconsistent regarding the association between physical activity and the risks of cancers of pancreas, ovary and kidney. Epidemiologic studies provide sufficient evidence that obesity is a risk factor for both cancer incidence and mortality. The evidence supports strong links of obesity with the risk of cancers of the colon, rectum, breast (in postmenopausal women), endometrium, kidney (renal cell), and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Epidemiologic evidence also indicates that obesity is probably related to cancers of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, and aggressive prostate cancer, while it seems that obesity is not associated with lung cancer. The role of obesity in other cancer risks is unclear.

  9. Are the scaling properties of instrumental and long-term proxy temperature records consistent with a simple energy balance model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, Martin; Rypdal, Kristoffer

    2015-04-01

    In an editorial comment, M. E. Mann, Climatic Change (2011), 107:267-276, makes the assertion: "…the behaviour of the Hurst exponent H in instrumental and long-term proxy temperature reconstructions appears consistent with the results of a simple climate model (EBM) forced by estimated natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing changes, and subject to white noise stochastic weather forcing. Nothing more exotic than the physics of such a simple model is necessary to explain the apparent scaling behaviour in observed surface temperatures." This conclusion is drawn from application of a number of standard estimation techniques for H to realizations of the purely stochastically forced, and stochastic + radiatively forced, EBM. These estimates are compared to results from the same techniques applied to observation data. Such comparisons show overlap of the distributions of H-estimates for the model realizations and the observation records, which leads the author to conclude that the scaling properties of the observation data are consistent with this simple model. In this contribution we point out the flaws that arise from uncritical application of estimation techniques for the scaling exponent H to time series that do not exhibit scaling. For instance, the stochastically forced model signal is an AR(1) process, which scales like a Wiener process (H=3/2) on scales shorter than the autocorrelation time, and as a white noise (H=1/2) on longer time scales. There is no unique Hurst exponent for this process, but the author estimates it for each realization of the process, producing a distribution with 95% confidence interval (0.60,0.76). Careful examination of power spectra or fluctuation functions for model data and observation data, in particular of the residual resulting from subtracting the (deterministic) radiatively forced response from the observations, demonstrates very clearly that the scaling properties of the model data are different from those of the

  10. Recreational rates and future land-use preferences for four Department of Energy sites: consistency despite demographic and geographical differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2004-06-01

    The management of ecosystems has been improved by both a public understanding of ecosystem structure and function and by managers' understanding of public perceptions and attitudes. This is especially true for contaminated lands where there are a variety of remediation, restoration, and future land-use decisions to be made. This paper synthesizes several surveys from four US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the states of South Carolina, Idaho, Nevada, and New York. Although ethnic composition varied among the sites, age and gender did not. The percentage of the study population engaged in hunting ranged from 30% to 41% and that in fishing ranged from 55% to 74%. Average hunting rates ranged from 9 (New York) to 15 (South Carolina) days/year; average fishing rates ranged from 12 (New Mexico) to 38 (New York) days a year. Despite the demographic and recreational rate differences, there was remarkable agreement about future land uses. Maintaining these DOE sites as National Environmental Research Parks and using them for nonconsumptive recreation rated the highest. The lowest rated future land uses were current and additional nuclear waste storage and the building of homes and factories. People who participated in a recreational activity rated those future land uses higher than nonusers. While these data on recreational rates can be used to assess the potential risk to people using contaminated sites and to aid in setting clean-up standards based on potential risk, the information on land-use preferences can be used by managers to determine future use and to plan for such use. This information is particularly relevant to the Department of Energy's "Risk-based End State Vision."

  11. Chemical activation through super energy transfer collisions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan M; Nikow, Matthew; Ma, Jianqiang; Wilhelm, Michael J; Han, Yong-Chang; Sharma, Amit R; Bowman, Joel M; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2014-02-05

    Can a molecule be efficiently activated with a large amount of energy in a single collision with a fast atom? If so, this type of collision will greatly affect molecular reactivity and equilibrium in systems where abundant hot atoms exist. Conventional expectation of molecular energy transfer (ET) is that the probability decreases exponentially with the amount of energy transferred, hence the probability of what we label "super energy transfer" is negligible. We show, however, that in collisions between an atom and a molecule for which chemical reactions may occur, such as those between a translationally hot H atom and an ambient acetylene (HCCH) or sulfur dioxide, ET of chemically significant amounts of energy commences with surprisingly high efficiency through chemical complex formation. Time-resolved infrared emission observations are supported by quasi-classical trajectory calculations on a global ab initio potential energy surface. Results show that ∼10% of collisions between H atoms moving with ∼60 kcal/mol energy and HCCH result in transfer of up to 70% of this energy to activate internal degrees of freedom.

  12. Point of view: energy factors for food labelling and other purposes should be derived in a consistent fashion for all food components.

    PubMed

    Warwick, P M; Baines, J

    2000-12-01

    In Australia, the process by which food energy factors are derived for food labelling purposes is under review. One of the questions of international relevance is whether energy factors should be derived using a definition of metabolisable energy (ME) or a definition of net (metabolisable) energy (NME), or some mixture of the two. ME describes the food energy available for heat production and body gains. NME deducts obligatory thermogenesis from ME in an attempt to reflect the food energy that can be converted to ATP energy within the body. Some countries use NME to derive energy factors for novel food ingredients such as sugar alcohols and polydextrose, but continue to use ME for protein, fat, carbohydrate, and alcohol. The present paper puts a case for using a consistent system (ME at the present time) for all food components. Reasons for this include: consistent application to all food components allows valid comparisons between products; food energy values and estimates of energy expenditure (food energy requirements) should be directly comparable; NME does not account for all sources of thermogenesis; differences between ME and NME for sugar alcohols and polydextrose are small in the context of the whole diet; and the ME system does not preclude information about metabolic efficiency being provided as additional information. Any major change to the way in which energy values are expressed (e.g. global adoption of the NME system) merits wide discussion among the human nutrition community. One aim of this present paper is to stimulate this discussion.

  13. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  14. A unique geometry of the active site of angiotensin-converting enzyme consistent with structure-activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Dorica; Naylor, Christopher B.; Motoc, Ioan; Marshall, Garland R.

    1987-04-01

    Previous structure-activity studies of captopril and related active angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have led to the conclusion that the basic structural requirements for inhibition of ACE involve (a) a terminal carboxyl group; (b) an amido carbonyl group; and (c) different types of effective zinc (Zn) ligand functional groups. Such structural requirements common to a set of compounds acting at the same receptor have been used to define a pharmacophoric pattern of atoms or groups of atoms mutually oriented in space that is necessary for ACE inhibition from a stereochemical point of view. A unique pharmacophore model (within the resolution of approximately 0.15 Å) was observed using a method for systematic search of the conformational hyperspace available to the 28 structurally different molecules under study. The method does not assume a common molecular framework, and, therefore, allows comparison of different compounds that is independent of their absolute orientation. Consequently, by placing the carboxyl binding group, the binding site for amido carbonyl, and the Zn atom site in positions determined by ideal binding geometry with the inhibitors' functional groups, it was possible to clearly specify a geometry for the active site of ACE.

  15. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  16. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  17. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  18. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  19. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  20. Raman active high energy excitations in URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhot, Jonathan; Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain; Piekarz, Przemysław; Lapertot, Gérard; Aoki, Dai; Méasson, Marie-Aude

    2017-02-01

    We have performed Raman scattering measurements on URu2Si2 single crystals on a large energy range up to ∼1300 cm-1 and in all the Raman active symmetries as a function of temperature down to 15 K. A large excitation, active only in the Eg symmetry, is reported. It has been assigned to a crystal electric field excitation on the Uranium site. We discuss how this constrains the crystal electric field scheme of the Uranium ions. Furthermore, three excitations in the A1g symmetry are observed. They have been associated to double Raman phonon processes consistently with ab initio calculations of the phonons dispersion.

  1. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  2. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  3. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  4. Self-consistent particle-in-cell modelling of short pulse absorption and transport for high energy density physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, M. G.; Arber, T. D.; Sircombe, N. J.

    2016-03-01

    In order for detailed, solid density particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to run within a reasonable time frame, novel approaches to modelling high density material must be employed. For the purposes of modelling high intensity, short pulse laser-plasma interactions, however, these approaches must be consistent with retaining a full PIC model in the low-density laser interaction region. By replacing the standard Maxwell field solver with an electric field update based on a simplified Ohm's law in regions of high electron density, it is possible to access densities at and above solid without being subject to the standard grid and time step constraints. Such a model has recently been implemented in the PIC code EPOCH. We present the initial results of a detailed two-dimensional simulation performed to compare the adapted version of the code with recent experimental results from the Orion laser facility.

  5. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  6. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  7. Hybrid Energy Harvester Consisting of Piezoelectric Fibers with Largely Enhanced 20 V for Wearable and Muscle-Driven Applications.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ye, Jia-Cheng; Chen, Po-Chou; Ho, Hsi-Chun; Huang, Zih-Ming

    2015-08-12

    We present a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanogenerator (NG) with advantages of direct writing and in situ poling via near-field electrospinning (NFES), which is completely location addressable and substrate independent. The maximum output voltage reached 20 V from the three layers piled NGs with serial connections, and the maximum output current can exceed 390 nA with the parallel integration setup. Linear superposition and switching polarity of current and voltage tests were validated by the authentic piezoelectric output. Nanofiber (NF)-based devices with a length ∼5 cm can be easily attached on the human finger under folding-releasing at ∼45°, and the output voltage and current can reach 0.8 V and 30 nA, respectively. This work based on NFs can potentially have a huge impact on harvesting various external sources from mechanical energies.

  8. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  9. Xenopus Gq alpha subunit activates the phosphatidylinositol pathway in Xenopus oocytes but does not consistently induce oocyte maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Guttridge, K L; Smith, L D; Miledi, R

    1995-01-01

    We cloned the Xenopus laevis form of Gq alpha subunit to study its effects on oocyte maturation. Injection of Xenopus Gq alpha mRNA into stage 6 oocytes activated the phospholipase C/phosphatidylinositol pathway. The oocyte membrane became permeable to calcium ions and was able to generate transient inward currents (T(in)), due to the opening of Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- channels. The T(in) amplitude developed over several hours and disappeared by 24 hr. Diacylglycerol levels were found to parallel the appearance and disappearance of the T(in). The concurrent decline of T(in) values and diacylglycerol was not due to a failure in the synthesis of Gq alpha protein, which was produced continuously for > 24 hr. After Xenopus Gq alpha mRNA injection, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) was variable (0-100%) in stage 6 oocytes, whereas none of the stage 4 oocytes underwent GVBD. In contrast, stage 6 oocytes injected with mRNA encoding the Go alpha G protein consistently underwent GVBD but did not acquire T(in). Our results show that activation of phospholipase C is not an absolute requisite for the induction of maturation, although in oocytes of some frogs phospholipase C activation can trigger a pathway to GVBD. Images Fig. 7 PMID:7877971

  10. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  11. Effects of food consistency on the pattern of extrinsic tongue muscle activities during mastication in freely moving rabbits.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makoto; Harasawa, Yohji; Yamamura, Kensuke; Ariyasinghe, Sajjiv; Yamada, Yoshiaki

    2004-09-23

    The effects of physical characteristics of foods on the coordination of extrinsic tongue muscle activities during natural mastication were evaluated. Electromyograms of tongue-retractor (styloglossus, SG) and tongue-protractor (genioglossus, GG) muscles as well as the jaw-movement trajectories were recorded during raw rice and chow pellet chewing in the freely moving rabbit. Each masticatory cycle included a jaw closing (Cl) phase consisting of a fast-closing (FC) and a slow-closing (SC) phase, and a jaw opening (Op) phase. The duration of the Cl and SC phases was found to be much larger while the duration of the FC phase was much smaller during rice chewing than pellet chewing. The jaw movements during rice chewing had smaller amplitudes of the gape and lateral excursion of the jaw as compared with those during pellet chewing. The SG muscle had a double-peaked burst activity in each masticatory cycle with one peak during the Op phase (the SG1 burst) and the other during the Cl phase (the SG2 burst). They were significantly larger during pellet chewing as compared with rice chewing, but the duration of the SG2 burst was significantly longer during rice chewing than pellet chewing. The offset of the SG2 burst was delayed during rice chewing as compared with that during pellet chewing. There was little difference in the activity pattern of the GG burst between the foods. Our present results suggest that the SG muscle activity could be modified by the sensory feedback possibly to adapt to environmental demands during chewing.

  12. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  13. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  14. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching mathematics. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting…

  15. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  16. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  17. From chemical consistency to effective consistency in precise quality discrimination of Sophora flower-bud and Sophora flower: Discovering efficacy-associated markers by fingerprint-activity relationship modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xiong, Zi-Yue; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua; Gao, Wen; Li, Hui-Jun

    2017-01-05

    Chromatographic fingerprint has been extensively used as a comprehensive approach for quality evaluation of herbal medicines (HMs). However, similar chemical profiles do not always mean similar efficacies. The present work, taking Sophora flower-bud and Sophora flower as a typical case, attempts to develop a rational strategy based on fingerprint-activity relationship modeling to realize quality evaluation from chemical consistency to effective consistency. A total of 57 batches of Sophora samples were collected and their antioxidant and hyaluronidase inhibitory activities were measured. Chemical fingerprints were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS), and similarity analyses were calculated based on eight common characteristic peaks. Subsequently, three principal bioactive markers were discovered by correlating biological effects with chemical fingerprints via partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back propagation-artificial neural network modeling (BP-ANN). The selected markers were quantified by the 'single standard to determine multi-components' method, and then the quantitative data as well as their bioactive properties were subjected to principal component analysis to generate two clear-cut groups. This study not only demonstrates the necessity of effective consistency besides chemical consistency in the quality evaluation of HMs, but also provides an applicable strategy to screen out efficacy-associated markers by fingerprint-activity relationship modeling.

  18. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is

  19. Single-unit activity during natural vision: diversity, consistency, and spatial sensitivity among AF face patch neurons.

    PubMed

    McMahon, David B T; Russ, Brian E; Elnaiem, Heba D; Kurnikova, Anastasia I; Leopold, David A

    2015-04-08

    Several visual areas within the STS of the macaque brain respond strongly to faces and other biological stimuli. Determining the principles that govern neural responses in this region has proven challenging, due in part to the inherently complex stimulus domain of dynamic biological stimuli that are not captured by an easily parameterized stimulus set. Here we investigated neural responses in one fMRI-defined face patch in the anterior fundus (AF) of the STS while macaques freely view complex videos rich with natural social content. Longitudinal single-unit recordings allowed for the accumulation of each neuron's responses to repeated video presentations across sessions. We found that individual neurons, while diverse in their response patterns, were consistently and deterministically driven by the video content. We used principal component analysis to compute a family of eigenneurons, which summarized 24% of the shared population activity in the first two components. We found that the most prominent component of AF activity reflected an interaction between visible body region and scene layout. Close-up shots of faces elicited the strongest neural responses, whereas far away shots of faces or close-up shots of hindquarters elicited weak or inhibitory responses. Sensitivity to the apparent proximity of faces was also observed in gamma band local field potential. This category-selective sensitivity to spatial scale, together with the known exchange of anatomical projections of this area with regions involved in visuospatial analysis, suggests that the AF face patch may be specialized in aspects of face perception that pertain to the layout of a social scene.

  20. The male-determining activity on the Y chromosome of the housefly (Musca domestica L.) consists of separable elements.

    PubMed Central

    Hediger, M; Minet, A D; Niessen, M; Schmidt, R; Hilfiker-Kleiner, D; Cakir, S; Nöthiger, R; Dübendorfer, A

    1998-01-01

    In the common housefly, the presence or absence of a male-determining factor, M, is responsible for sex determination. In different strains, M has been found on the Y, on the X, or on any of the five autosomes. By analyzing a Y-autosomal translocation and a ring-shaped, truncated Y chromosome, we could show that M on the Y consists of at least two regions with M activity: One of them can be assigned to the short arm of the Y chromosome (MYS), which is largely C-banding negative, the other region lies on the C-banding positive long arm of the Y, including the centromeric part (MYL). Each region alone behaves as a hypomorphic M factor, causing many carriers to develop as intersexes of the mosaic type instead of as males. When introduced into the female germ line by transplantation of progenitor germ cells (pole cells), the MYS shows an almost complete maternal effect that predetermines 96% of the genotypic female (NoM) animals to develop as males. In contrast, the MYL has largely lost its maternal effect, and most of the NoM animals develop as females. Increasing the amount of product made by either of the two hypomorphic M factors (by combining the MYS and MYL or two MYS) leads to complete male development in almost every case. We thus assume that the Y chromosome carries at least two copies of M, and that these are functionally equivalent. PMID:9755197

  1. 76 FR 55278 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 810 RIN 1994-AA02 Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities AGENCY.... SUMMARY: DOE proposes to amend its regulation concerning unclassified assistance to foreign atomic energy... territories for which a general authorization for foreign atomic energy activities is available. This...

  2. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document contains teaching activities which are intended to strengthen students' mathematics skills and concepts, while broadening their understanding of energy concepts. Each of the 24…

  3. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  4. Exploring connections between statistical mechanics and Green's functions for realistic systems: Temperature dependent electronic entropy and internal energy from a self-consistent second-order Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welden, Alicia Rae; Rusakov, Alexander A.; Zgid, Dominika

    2016-11-01

    Including finite-temperature effects from the electronic degrees of freedom in electronic structure calculations of semiconductors and metals is desired; however, in practice it remains exceedingly difficult when using zero-temperature methods, since these methods require an explicit evaluation of multiple excited states in order to account for any finite-temperature effects. Using a Matsubara Green's function formalism remains a viable alternative, since in this formalism it is easier to include thermal effects and to connect the dynamic quantities such as the self-energy with static thermodynamic quantities such as the Helmholtz energy, entropy, and internal energy. However, despite the promising properties of this formalism, little is known about the multiple solutions of the non-linear equations present in the self-consistent Matsubara formalism and only a few cases involving a full Coulomb Hamiltonian were investigated in the past. Here, to shed some light onto the iterative nature of the Green's function solutions, we self-consistently evaluate the thermodynamic quantities for a one-dimensional (1D) hydrogen solid at various interatomic separations and temperatures using the self-energy approximated to second-order (GF2). At many points in the phase diagram of this system, multiple phases such as a metal and an insulator exist, and we are able to determine the most stable phase from the analysis of Helmholtz energies. Additionally, we show the evolution of the spectrum of 1D boron nitride to demonstrate that GF2 is capable of qualitatively describing the temperature effects influencing the size of the band gap.

  5. TiCl, TiH and TiH+ Bond Energies, a Test of a Correlation Consistent Ti Basis Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Correlation consistent basis sets are developed for Ti atom. The polarization functions are optimized for the average of the 3F and 5F states. One series of correlation consistent basis sets is for 3d and 4s correlation, while the second series includes 3s and 3p correlation as well as 3d and 4s correlation. These basis sets are tested using the Ti 3F-5F separation and the dissociation energies of TiCl X4Phi, TiH X4Phi, and TiH(+) X3Phi. The CCSD(T) complete basis set limit values are determined by extrapolation. The Douglas Kroll approach is used to compute the scalar relativistic effect. Spin-orbit effects are taken from experiment and/or computed at the CASSCF level. The Ti 3F-5F separation is in excellent agreement with experiment, while the TiCl, TiH, and TiH(+) bond energies are in good agreement with experiment. Extrapolation with the valence basis set is consistent with other atoms, while including 3s and 3p correlation appears to make extrapolation.

  6. Correlation-corrected energy bands of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}: A mutually consistent treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, D.; Ladik, J.

    1997-04-01

    The band structures and density of states (DOS) of important subunits (Cu-O planes and chains, both including apical oxygens) in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} were computed. As a first step we employed an {ital ab initio} Hartree-Fock (HF) crystal-orbital method to both subunits in a mutually consistent way embedding them also in a partially self-consistent Madelung potential of the 3D crystal. Afterwards the bands were corrected for correlation by a Green{close_quote}s-function method in second order of the Mo/ller-Plesset many-body perturbation theory. The main purpose of these rather large-scale calculations was to obtain reliable unfilled energy bands to be used in subsequent exciton bands calculations. This will make it possible to look more thoroughly at the proposed excitonic (polarization) mechanism of high-T{sub c} superconductivity. A comparison with calculations based on a local-density-functional (LDF) approximation showed good agreement to our approach in the valence-band energy region above {minus}8 eV while the LDF results agree well with experimental photoelectron spectra. In contrast to the LDF methods, we detected between {minus}8 and {minus}12 eV flat Cu3d energy bands, which correspond to satellite structures observed by experiment. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  8. A nearly exact MCSCF+CI calculation of the dissociation energy of OH. [Multiconfiguration, Self-Consistent Field plus Configuration Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.; Sharbaugh, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    The dissociation energy and dipole moment of the ground state of OH have been obtained with a newly developed multiconfiguration, self-consistent field plus configuration interaction CDC 7600 computer program. The computed value of the dissociation energy is 4.62 eV, which is within the uncertainty limits for the experimental value of 4.63 plus or minus 0.01 eV. The computed value of the dipole moment is 1.645 D, which is very close to the experimental result of 1.66 plus or minus 0.01 D. The present results are also compared to the data obtained from similar calculations with the BISON-MC computer program developed by Das and Wahl.

  9. Self-Consistent Simulation of Transport and Energy Deposition of Intense Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams in Solid-Density Matter.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Qiao, B; McGuffey, C; Wei, M S; Grabowski, P E; Beg, F N

    2015-07-31

    The first self-consistent hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of intense proton beam transport and energy deposition in solid-density matter is presented. Both the individual proton slowing-down and the collective beam-plasma interaction effects are taken into account with a new dynamic proton stopping power module that has been added to a hybrid PIC code. In this module, the target local stopping power can be updated at each time step based on its thermodynamic state. For intense proton beams, the reduction of target stopping power from the cold condition due to continuous proton heating eventually leads to broadening of the particle range and energy deposition far beyond the Bragg peak. For tightly focused beams, large magnetic field growth in collective interactions results in self-focusing of the beam and much stronger localized heating of the target.

  10. Benchmark Calculations with Correlated Molecular Wave Functions. XIII. Potential Energy Curves for He-2, Ne-2, and Ar-2 Using Correlation Consistent Basis Sets Through Augmented Sextuple Zeta.

    SciTech Connect

    Mourik, Van Tonja; Wilson, Angela K.; Dunning, Thomas H.

    1999-02-20

    The potential energy curves of the rare gas dimers He2, Ne2, and Ar2 have been computed using correlation consistent basis sets ranging from singly augmented aug-cc-pVDZ sets through triply augmented t-aug-cc-pV6Z sets, with the augmented sextuple basis sets being reported herein. Several methods for including electron correlation were investigated, namely Moller Plesset perturbation theory (MP2, MP3 and MP4) and coupled cluster theory [CCSD and CCSD(T)].

  11. A mixture-energy-consistent six-equation two-phase numerical model for fluids with interfaces, cavitation and evaporation waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pelanti, Marica; Shyue, Keh-Ming

    2014-02-15

    We model liquid–gas flows with cavitation by a variant of the six-equation single-velocity two-phase model with stiff mechanical relaxation of Saurel–Petitpas–Berry (Saurel et al., 2009) [9]. In our approach we employ phasic total energy equations instead of the phasic internal energy equations of the classical six-equation system. This alternative formulation allows us to easily design a simple numerical method that ensures consistency with mixture total energy conservation at the discrete level and agreement of the relaxed pressure at equilibrium with the correct mixture equation of state. Temperature and Gibbs free energy exchange terms are included in the equations as relaxation terms to model heat and mass transfer and hence liquid–vapor transition. The algorithm uses a high-resolution wave propagation method for the numerical approximation of the homogeneous hyperbolic portion of the model. In two dimensions a fully-discretized scheme based on a hybrid HLLC/Roe Riemann solver is employed. Thermo-chemical terms are handled numerically via a stiff relaxation solver that forces thermodynamic equilibrium at liquid–vapor interfaces under metastable conditions. We present numerical results of sample tests in one and two space dimensions that show the ability of the proposed model to describe cavitation mechanisms and evaporation wave dynamics.

  12. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  13. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  14. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  15. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  16. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  17. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and…

  18. Energy Conservation Activities for the Classroom K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Dept. of Energy, Frankfort.

    After a brief introduction entitled "Where Does the Energy We Use Come From," this unit presents 86 activities. Each activity gives the title, concept, objectives, subject area, level, time involved, materials needed, procedures, and related career activities. Topics cover everything from housing insulation to alternate sources of energy to energy…

  19. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 6. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 6 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade six. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  20. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 4. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 4 is one in a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade four. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  1. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Charu; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J.; Bednarek, Maria; Novak, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of melanocortin peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  2. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  3. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Rainer N

    2015-05-01

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phase components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. The new model preserves the accuracy of previous temperature

  4. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phasemore » components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of

  5. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phase components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of previous

  6. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  7. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How to Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Intermediate 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers in the intermediate elementary grades (3-5) and is designed to enable students to develop a comprehensive understanding of energy concepts. Each…

  8. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How To Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Intermediate 3-5. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers in the intermediate elementary grades (3-5) and is designed to enable students to develop a comprehensive understanding of energy concepts. Each…

  9. Multiconfiguration Self-Consistent Field Study on Formonitrile Imine and N-Substituted Nitrile Imines HCN2-R: Energy Component Analysis of the Pseudo-Jahn-Teller Effect.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Azumao; Muramatsu, Takashi; Koseki, Shiro

    2017-03-23

    Stable geometrical structures for formonitrile imine (1) and N-substituted nitrile imines HCN2-R (R = Li, BeH, BH2, CH3, CN, CCH, C6H5, NH2, OH, and F) (2-11) were examined by using the multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) method followed by second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) calculations and second-order multiconfiguration quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (MCQDPT2) calculations, together with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. The results show that 1 suffers a pseudo-Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion from a linear C∞v structure to a C1 structure via a planar bent Cs structure. Each of the others is found to undergo pseudo-JT distortion from a symmetrical structure to a planar bent Cs structure for 2, 3, and 7 and to a C1 structure for 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 11. At the stationary structures of 1-11, the structural characteristics were briefly discussed in terms of allenic and propargylic. To elucidate the nature of pseudo-JT distortions, energy component analyses were carried out at the MCSCF+SOCI level of theory at all of the stationary structures for the relevant molecules. In most of the molecules examined, pseudo-JT stabilizations were classified into two groups, one in which the stability arises from a lowering of the energy of the attractive term Ven and the other in which the stability results from a lowering of the energy of the repulsive terms Vnn and Vee. In addition to the above two groups, it was also found that the following three groups are responsible for the pseudo-JT stabilizations in a certain stage of the structural changes. Namely, one is a lowering of the energy of the term Vee observed in 6, another is a lowering of the energy of the terms Vee and Ven observed in 9-11, and the other is a lowering of the energy of the terms Ven and Vnn observed in 10. These energetic behaviors were accounted in terms of an elongation or a contraction of the molecular skeleton, a migration of electrons from one part of the molecule to other parts

  10. 29 CFR 779.212 - Enterprise must consist of related activities performed for a “common business purpose.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Common Business Purpose § 779.212 Enterprise must consist of related activities performed for a “common business purpose.” The related activities described in section 3(r) as included in the statutory enterprise are those performed for a “common...

  11. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  12. Standing wave tube electro active polymer wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Philippe; Wattez, Ambroise; Ardoise, Guillaume; Melis, C.; Van Kessel, R.; Fourmon, A.; Barrabino, E.; Heemskerk, J.; Queau, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 4 years SBM has developed a revolutionary Wave Energy Converter (WEC): the S3. Floating under the ocean surface, the S3 amplifies pressure waves similarly to a Ruben's tube. Only made of elastomers, the system is entirely flexible, environmentally friendly and silent. Thanks to a multimodal resonant behavior, the S3 is capable of efficiently harvesting wave energy from a wide range of wave periods, naturally smoothing the irregularities of ocean wave amplitudes and periods. In the S3 system, Electro Active Polymer (EAP) generators are distributed along an elastomeric tube over several wave lengths, they convert wave induced deformations directly into electricity. The output is high voltage multiphase Direct Current with low ripple. Unlike other conventional WECs, the S3 requires no maintenance of moving parts. The conception and operating principle will eventually lead to a reduction of both CAPEX and OPEX. By integrating EAP generators into a small scale S3, SBM achieved a world first: direct conversion of wave energy in electricity with a moored flexible submerged EAP WEC in a wave tank test. Through an extensive testing program on large scale EAP generators, SBM identified challenges in scaling up to a utility grid device. French Government supports the consortium consisting of SBM, IFREMER and ECN in their efforts to deploy a full scale prototype at the SEMREV test center in France at the horizon 2014-2015. SBM will be seeking strategic as well as financial partners to unleash the true potentials of the S3 Standing Wave Tube Electro Active Polymer WEC.

  13. Temporal patterns of deer-vehicle collisions consistent with deer activity pattern and density increase but not general accident risk.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Müller, Jörg; Held, Leonhard; Möst, Lisa; Mysterud, Atle

    2015-08-01

    The increasing number of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) across Europe during recent decades poses a serious threat to human health and animal welfare and increasing costs for society. DVCs are triggered by both a human-related and a deer-related component. Mitigation requires an understanding of the processes driving temporal and spatial collision patterns. Separating human-related from deer-related processes is important for identifying potentially effective countermeasures, but this has rarely been done. We analysed two time series of 341,655 DVCs involving roe deer and 854,659 non-deer-related accidents (non-DVCs) documented between 2002 and 2011. Nonparametric smoothing and temporal parametric modelling were used to estimate annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal patterns in DVCs, non-DVCs and adjusted DVCs. As we had access to data on both DVCs and non-DVCs, we were able to disentangle the relative role of human-related and deer-related processes contributing to the overall temporal DVC pattern. We found clear evidence that variation in DVCs was mostly driven by deer-related and not human-related activity on annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal scales. A very clear crepuscular activity pattern with high activity after sunset and around sunrise throughout the year was identified. Early spring and the mating season between mid-July and mid-August are typically periods of high roe deer activity, and as expected we found a high number of DVC during these periods, although these patterns differed tremendously during different phases of a day. The role of human activity was mainly reflected in fewer DVCs on weekends than on weekdays. Over the ten-year study period, we estimated that DVCs increased by 25%, whereas the number of non-DVCs decreased by 10%. Increasing deer densities are the most likely driver behind this rise in DVCs. Precise estimates of DVC patterns and their relationship to deer and human activity patterns allow implementation of specific mitigation

  14. Solution of self-consistent equations for the N 3LO nuclear energy density functional in spherical symmetry. The program HOSPHE (v1.02)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, B. G.; Dobaczewski, J.; Toivanen, J.; Veselý, P.

    2010-09-01

    We present solution of self-consistent equations for the N 3LO nuclear energy density functional. We derive general expressions for the mean fields expressed as differential operators depending on densities and for the densities expressed in terms of derivatives of wave functions. These expressions are then specified to the case of spherical symmetry. We also present the computer program HOSPHE (v1.02), which solves the self-consistent equations by using the expansion of single-particle wave functions on the spherical harmonic oscillator basis. Program summaryProgram title: HOSPHE (v1.02) Catalogue identifier: AEGK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 809 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 290 514 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran-90 Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Linux RAM: 50 MB Classification: 17.22 External routines: LAPACK ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/), BLAS ( http://www.netlib.org/blas/) Nature of problem: The nuclear mean-field methods constitute principal tools of a description of nuclear states in heavy nuclei. Within the Local Density Approximation with gradient corrections up to N 3LO [1], the nuclear mean-field is local and contains derivative operators up to sixth order. The locality allows for an effective and fast solution of the self-consistent equations. Solution method: The program uses the spherical harmonic oscillator basis to expand single-particle wave functions of neutrons and protons for the nuclear state being described by the N 3LO nuclear energy density functional [1]. The expansion coefficients are determined by the iterative diagonalization of the mean-field Hamiltonian, which depends non

  15. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  16. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  17. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics.

  18. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  19. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 3. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This notebook for grade 3 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade three. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  20. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How To Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units 1 through 8 containing three activities…

  1. Energy Conservation Activities for Elementary Grades (Or: How to Help Slim Down the Energy Monster). Iowa Developed Energy Activities Sampler, Primary K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This booklet provides activities for teachers to use in the primary elementary grades (K-2). The activities are organized into nine units, with units I through VIII containing three…

  2. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  3. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  4. Can Thromboelastography performed on kaolin-activated citrated samples from critically ill patients provide stable and consistent parameters?

    PubMed

    White, H; Zollinger, C; Jones, M; Bird, R

    2010-04-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) is a potentially useful tool but analysis within 4-6 min of collection imposes limitations on its use and access. The use of citrate blood tubes potentially increases the time frame for processing specimens. There is, however, limited research on the stability of citrate specimens, timing of processing and the accuracy of TEG results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of early and delayed processing on TEG parameters using kaolin-activated citrated blood samples in the intensive care population. TEG analysis was performed on 61 patients. Blood was collected into two 3.2% sodium citrate (0.105 m) tubes. Kaolin-activated samples were analysed at 15, 30 and 120 min postcollection. TEG parameters analysed included reaction time (R), clot formation time (K), alpha angle (alpha), maximum amplitude, LY30, the coagulation index, time to maximum rate of thrombus generation, maximum rate of thrombus generation and total thrombus generation. Sixty-one critically ill patients were included. The results of the anova showed that time from collection was significantly associated with the TEG((R)) results (P < 0.05). On comparison of individual outcome variables, this difference in most cases was due to changes over time from 30 to 120 min. Furthermore, progressive changes in TEG parameters such as decreasing R were suggestive of a trend toward hypercoagulability of the specimens. Processing of kaolin-activated citrate TEG specimens can begin as early as 15 min postvenipuncture. However, delaying processing by more than 30 min leads to a significant change in results.

  5. The self-consistent calculation of pseudo-molecule energy levels, construction of energy level correlation diagrams and an automated computation system for SCF-X(Alpha)-SW calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, H.

    1981-01-01

    The self consistent calculation of the electronic energy levels of noble gas pseudomolecules formed when a metal surface is bombarded by noble gas ions is discussed along with the construction of energy level correlation diagrams as a function of interatomic spacing. The self consistent field x alpha scattered wave (SCF-Xalpha-SW) method is utilized. Preliminary results on the Ne-Mg system are given. An interactive x alpha programming system, implemented on the LeRC IBM 370 computer, is described in detail. This automated system makes use of special PROCDEFS (procedure definitions) to minimize the data to be entered manually at a remote terminal. Listings of the special PROCDEFS and of typical input data are given.

  6. Light-activated Cryptochrome Reacts with Molecular Oxygen to Form a Flavin–Superoxide Radical Pair Consistent with Magnetoreception*

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Pavel; Ahmad, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavin-based photoreceptors occurring throughout the biological kingdom, which regulate growth and development in plants and are involved in the entrainment of circadian rhythms of both plants and animals. A number of recent theoretical works suggest that cryptochromes might also be the receptors responsible for the sensing of the magnetic field of the earth (e.g. in insects, migratory birds, or migratory fish). Cryptochromes undergo forward light-induced reactions involving electron transfer to excited state flavin to generate radical intermediates, which correlate with biological activity. Here, we give evidence of a mechanism for the reverse reaction, namely dark reoxidation of protein-bound flavin in Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome (AtCRY1) by molecular oxygen that involves formation of a spin-correlated FADH•–superoxide radical pair. Formation of analogous radical pairs in animal cryptochromes might enable them to function as magnetoreceptors. PMID:21467031

  7. Light-activated cryptochrome reacts with molecular oxygen to form a flavin-superoxide radical pair consistent with magnetoreception.

    PubMed

    Müller, Pavel; Ahmad, Margaret

    2011-06-17

    Cryptochromes are flavin-based photoreceptors occurring throughout the biological kingdom, which regulate growth and development in plants and are involved in the entrainment of circadian rhythms of both plants and animals. A number of recent theoretical works suggest that cryptochromes might also be the receptors responsible for the sensing of the magnetic field of the earth (e.g. in insects, migratory birds, or migratory fish). Cryptochromes undergo forward light-induced reactions involving electron transfer to excited state flavin to generate radical intermediates, which correlate with biological activity. Here, we give evidence of a mechanism for the reverse reaction, namely dark reoxidation of protein-bound flavin in Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome (AtCRY1) by molecular oxygen that involves formation of a spin-correlated FADH(•)-superoxide radical pair. Formation of analogous radical pairs in animal cryptochromes might enable them to function as magnetoreceptors.

  8. Consistent QBO-dependent effect of geomagnetic activity on the Northern Annular Mode during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliniemi, Ville; Asikainen, Timo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2016-04-01

    Several earlier studies have shown that geomagnetic activity (GA), as a proxy for energetic particle precipitation into the atmosphere, affects the winter-time Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which is the dominant circulation pattern in the northern hemisphere during winter. It has also been found that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) modulates the relationship between GA and NAM. However, some of the earlier studies on this QBO modulation have been mutually conflicting, with some studies suggesting a stronger positive relation in the easterly phase of the QBO, while other studies suggest a stronger positive relation in the westerly phase of the QBO. Here we study the QBO-GA-NAM relationship using a QBO reconstruction covering the whole 20th century. We find that the QBO modulation of the GA-NAM relation is temporally variable, which explains the earlier, seemingly differing results. Positive GA-NAM relation is found to be valid in the easterly QBO phase at 30 hPa during the whole 20th century. We also find that the QBO at 30 hPa represents the Holton-Tan relation for the surface circulation better than QBO at 50 hPa, and that the Holton-Tan relation is only observed during early/mid winter, while an anti-Holton-Tan relation is found in the late winter for strong geomagnetic activity. These results emphasize the variable but systematic response of NAM to energetic particle precipitation during the entire 20th century, and underline the importance of considering the preconditioning of the atmosphere when studying the solar-related effects upon climate.

  9. Verification of energy's role as a determinant of US economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    A series of single-equation dynamic regression models are constructed to test the hypotheses that both ''thermodynamic'' and economic-efficiency (t-efficiency and e-efficiency, respectively) configurations of lagged energy variables are statistically informative separately and jointly about subsequent changes in real gross national product (GNP) per capita and in unemployment rate. Separately, t-efficiency is based on quantity of energy used per unit of GNP, while e-efficiency is based on real price of tested energy variables. Used jointly, the two measure real energy cost per unit of real GNP. Tested subperiods are within the 1890-1985 period. Macroeconomic activity is found to be much less informative about energy variables that are energy variables about macroeconomic activity. One-way tests are conducted in which the informativeness of major e-efficiency (wholesale price) variables and budget-share variables about subsequent macroeconomic activity are compared to the informativeness of the e-efficiency energy variable and the combined e- and t-efficiencies energy variable respectively. The energy variables are found to represent the only major category of expenditure whose statistical tests for informativeness about subsequent macroeconomic activity result in coefficient signs that consistently imply a statistically significant negative effect on subsequent macroeconomic activity in the full 1890-1985 period. 64 refs., 14 tabs.

  10. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  11. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  12. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  13. Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Two Emerging Active Regions in the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.; Schuck, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158,are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term,(2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and(4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course.We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.

  14. MAGNETIC ENERGY AND HELICITY IN TWO EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Schuck, P. W.

    2012-12-20

    The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158, are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term, (2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and (4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course. We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.

  15. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  16. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  17. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  18. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  19. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  20. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  1. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  2. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  3. Removing the barrier to the calculation of activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O.; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-10-06

    Approaches for directly calculating the activation energy for a chemical reaction from a simulation at a single temperature are explored with applications to both classical and quantum systems. The activation energy is obtained from a time correlation function that can be evaluated from the same molecular dynamics trajectories or quantum dynamics used to evaluate the rate constant itself and thus requires essentially no extra computational work.

  4. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  5. Holistic Evaluation of Quality Consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injectables by Quantitative Fingerprinting in Combination with Antioxidant Activity and Chemometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong; Hou, Zhifei; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A widely used herbal medicine, Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injectable (ISHI) was investigated for quality consistency. Characteristic fingerprints of 23 batches of the ISHI samples were generated at five wavelengths and evaluated by the systematic quantitative fingerprint method (SQFM) as well as simultaneous analysis of the content of seven marker compounds. Chemometric methods, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to assist in fingerprint evaluation of the ISHI samples. Qualitative classification of the ISHI samples by SVM was consistent with PCA, and in agreement with the quantitative evaluation by SQFM. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the ISHI samples were determined by both the off-line and on-line DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryldrazyl) radical scavenging assays. A fingerprint–efficacy relationship linking the chemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity was established and validated using the partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models; and the online DPPH assay further revealed those components that had position contribution to the total antioxidant activity. Therefore, the combined use of the chemometric methods, quantitative fingerprint evaluation by SQFM, and multiple marker compound analysis in conjunction with the assay of antioxidant activity provides a powerful and holistic approach to evaluate quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:26872364

  6. Energy deposition in the earth's atmosphere due to impact of solar activity-generated disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Kan, L. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Dryer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Energy deposition in and dynamic responses of the terrestrial atmosphere to solar flare-generated shocks and other physical processes - such as particle precipitation and local heating - are investigated self-consistently in the context of hydrodynamics, the problem being treated as an initial boundary-value problem. It is extremely difficult to construct a general model for the line solar activity-magnetosphere-atmosphere; however, a limited model for this link is possible. The paper describes such a model, and presents some results on energy deposition into the earth's atmosphere due to solar activity-generated disturbances. Results from the present calculations are presented and discussed.

  7. Reactive Ni/Al Nanocomposites: Structural Characteristics and Activation Energy.

    PubMed

    Shuck, Christopher E; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2017-02-16

    Stochastically structured Ni/Al reactive nanocomposites (RNCs) were prepared using short-term high-energy ball milling. Several milling times were utilized to prepare RNCs with differing internal nanostructures. These internal structures were quantitatively and statistically analyzed by use of serial focused ion beam sectioning coupled with 3D reconstruction techniques. The reaction kinetics were analyzed using the electrothermal explosion technique for each milling condition. It is shown that the effective activation energy (Eef) ranges from 79 to 137 kJ/mol and is directly related to the surface area contact between the reactants. Essentially, the reaction kinetics can be accurately controlled through mechanical processing techniques. Finally, the nature of the reaction is considered; the mechanistic effect of the reactive and three diffusive activation energies on the effective activation energy is examined.

  8. Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making…

  9. Enzyme activation through the utilization of intrinsic dianion binding energy.

    PubMed

    Amyes, T L; Malabanan, M M; Zhai, X; Reyes, A C; Richard, J P

    2016-11-29

    We consider 'the proposition that the intrinsic binding energy that results from the noncovalent interaction of a specific substrate with the active site of the enzyme is considerably larger than is generally believed. An important part of this binding energy may be utilized to provide the driving force for catalysis, so that the observed binding energy represents only what is left over after this utilization' [Jencks,W.P. (1975) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas. Mol. Biol., 43: , 219-410]. The large ~12 kcal/mol intrinsic substrate phosphodianion binding energy for reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is divided into 4-6 kcal/mol binding energy that is expressed on the formation of the Michaelis complex in anchoring substrates to the respective enzyme, and 6-8 kcal/mol binding energy that is specifically expressed at the transition state in activating the respective enzymes for catalysis. A structure-based mechanism is described where the dianion binding energy drives a conformational change that activates these enzymes for catalysis. Phosphite dianion plays the active role of holding TIM in a high-energy closed active form, but acts as passive spectator in showing no effect on transition-state structure. The result of studies on mutant enzymes is presented, which support the proposal that the dianion-driven enzyme conformational change plays a role in enhancing the basicity of side chain of E167, the catalytic base, by clamping the base between a pair of hydrophobic side chains. The insight these results provide into the architecture of enzyme active sites and the development of strategies for the de novo design of protein catalysts is discussed.

  10. Monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen Pills using micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint coupled with prediction of antioxidant activity and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhengchao; Sun, Wanyang; Sun, Guoxiang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint method combined with quantification was developed and validated to evaluate the quality of Fufang Danshen Pills, a traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases, in which the tetrahedron optimization method was first used to optimize the background electrolyte solution. Subsequently, the index of the fingerprint information amount of I was performed as an excellent objective indictor to investigate the experimental conditions. In addition, a systematical quantified fingerprint method was constructed for evaluating the quality consistency of 20 batches of test samples obtained from the same drug manufacturer. The fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative determination of two components showed that the quality consistency of the test samples was quite good within the same commercial brand. Furthermore, the partial least squares model analysis was used to explore the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between active components and antioxidant activity in vitro, which can be applied for the assessment of anti-oxidant activity of Fufang Danshen pills and provide valuable medicinal information for quality control. The result illustrated that the present study provided a reliable and reasonable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen pills.

  11. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  12. Annual report and summaries of FY 1993 activities: Division of Energy Biosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The mission of the Energy Biosciences program is to generate fundamental information about plants and non-health related microorganisms that will constitute the base for new biotechnologies as well as supply information to improve usages of such organisms in their current form. The collective aims are totally consistent with the Department of Energy`s objectives of developing alternate energy sources, replacements for otherwise fossil energy derived products and providing critical fundamental information for the preservation and restoration of environmental conditions affected by energy related activities. The EB program takes full advantage of its organizational locale in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences to directly interact with such disciplines as Materials Sciences, Chemistry, Engineering and Geosciences to promote cross-disciplinary research and planning activities. One of the major specific objectives of the EB program is to probe the enormous capabilities of the specified organisms to carry out biochemical conversions. The limitation to realization of entirely new products and processes via biotechnology is the lack of basic understanding of natural processes. Such knowledge will then afford the advantage of developing procedures to the benefit of people and their society in providing new products along with providing new employment possibilities. This document consists of abstracts of projects supported in FY 1993.

  13. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  14. Canonical-ensemble state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) strategy for problems with more diabatic than adiabatic states: Charge-bond resonance in monomethine cyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Seth

    2015-01-28

    This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed (“microcanonical”) SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with “more diabatic than adiabatic” states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse “temperature,” unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space

  15. Canonical-ensemble state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) strategy for problems with more diabatic than adiabatic states: Charge-bond resonance in monomethine cyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Seth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed ("microcanonical") SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with "more diabatic than adiabatic" states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse "temperature," unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space valence

  16. Canonical-ensemble state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) strategy for problems with more diabatic than adiabatic states: charge-bond resonance in monomethine cyanines.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Seth

    2015-01-28

    This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed ("microcanonical") SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with "more diabatic than adiabatic" states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse "temperature," unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space valence

  17. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  18. The activation energy for dislocation nucleation at a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James R.; Beltz, Glenn E.

    1994-02-01

    T HE ACTIVATION energy for dislocation nucleation from a stressed crack tip is calculated within the Peierls framework, in which a periodic shear stress vs displacement relation is assumed to hold on a slip plane emanating from the crack tip. Previous results have revealed that the critical G (energy release rate corresponding to the "screened" crack tip stress field) for dislocation nucleation scales with γ us (the unstable stacking energy), in an analysis which neglects any coupling between tension and shear along the slip plane. That analysis represents instantaneous nucleation and takes thermal effects into account only via the weak temperature dependence of the elastic constants. In this work, the energy required to thermally activate a stable, incipient dislocation into its unstable "saddle-point" configuration is directly calculated for loads less than that critical value. We do so only with the simplest case, for which the slip plane is a prolongation of the crack plane. A first calculation reported is 2D in nature, and hence reveals an activation energy per unit length. A more realistic scheme for thermal activation involves the emission of a dislocation loop, an inherently 3D phenomenon. Asymptotic calculations of the activation energy for loads close to the critical load are performed in 2D and in 3D. It is found that the 3D activation energy generally corresponds to the 2D activation energy per unit length multiplied by about 5-10 Burgers vectors (but by as many as 17 very near to the critical loading). Implications for the emission of dislocations in copper, α-iron, and silicon at elevated temperature are discussed. The effects of thermal activation are very significant in lowering the load for emission. Also, the appropriate activation energy to correspond to molecular dynamics simulations of crack tips is discussed. Such simulations, as typically carried out with only a few atomic planes in a periodic repeat direction parallel to the crack tip, are

  19. Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Tanford, C

    1982-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic state of each substrate through the reaction cycle. These procedures clarify the mechanism of free energy transduction, even without step-by-step analysis. The results show that free energy exchange must occur in its entirety among protein-bound species. Imposition of conditions for an adequate rate of physiological function further indicates (i) that the standard free energy of hydrolysis of protein-bound ATP (to yield protein-bound products) needs to differ substantially from the standard free energy of hydrolysis in solution and (ii) that binding sites for the transported ions must have different affinities when facing opposite sides of the membrane. The results also demonstrate that step-by-step "basic" free energy changes (often used in the form of free energy level diagrams) are inherently unsuited for analysis of the mechanism of free energy transduction. PMID:6216483

  20. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  1. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  2. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  3. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  4. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  5. Quantitative meta-analysis of fMRI and PET studies reveals consistent activation in fronto-striatal-parietal regions and cerebellum during antisaccades and prosaccades.

    PubMed

    Jamadar, Sharna D; Fielding, Joanne; Egan, Gary F

    2013-01-01

    The antisaccade task is a classic task of oculomotor control that requires participants to inhibit a saccade to a target and instead make a voluntary saccade to the mirror opposite location. By comparison, the prosaccade task requires participants to make a visually-guided saccade to the target. These tasks have been studied extensively using behavioral oculomotor, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging in both non-human primates and humans. In humans, the antisaccade task is under active investigation as a potential endophenotype or biomarker for multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders. A large and growing body of literature has used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) to study the neural correlates of the antisaccade and prosaccade tasks. We present a quantitative meta-analysis of all published voxel-wise fMRI and PET studies (18) of the antisaccade task and show that consistent activation for antisaccades and prosaccades is obtained in a fronto-subcortical-parietal network encompassing frontal and supplementary eye fields (SEFs), thalamus, striatum, and intraparietal cortex. This network is strongly linked to oculomotor control and was activated to a greater extent for antisaccade than prosaccade trials. Antisaccade but not prosaccade trials additionally activated dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. We also found that a number of additional regions not classically linked to oculomotor control were activated to a greater extent for antisaccade vs. prosaccade trials; these regions are often reported in antisaccade studies but rarely commented upon. While the number of studies eligible to be included in this meta-analysis was small, the results of this systematic review reveal that antisaccade and prosaccade trials consistently activate a distributed network of regions both within and outside the classic definition of the oculomotor network.

  6. Quantitative meta-analysis of fMRI and PET studies reveals consistent activation in fronto-striatal-parietal regions and cerebellum during antisaccades and prosaccades

    PubMed Central

    Jamadar, Sharna D.; Fielding, Joanne; Egan, Gary F.

    2013-01-01

    The antisaccade task is a classic task of oculomotor control that requires participants to inhibit a saccade to a target and instead make a voluntary saccade to the mirror opposite location. By comparison, the prosaccade task requires participants to make a visually-guided saccade to the target. These tasks have been studied extensively using behavioral oculomotor, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging in both non-human primates and humans. In humans, the antisaccade task is under active investigation as a potential endophenotype or biomarker for multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders. A large and growing body of literature has used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) to study the neural correlates of the antisaccade and prosaccade tasks. We present a quantitative meta-analysis of all published voxel-wise fMRI and PET studies (18) of the antisaccade task and show that consistent activation for antisaccades and prosaccades is obtained in a fronto-subcortical-parietal network encompassing frontal and supplementary eye fields (SEFs), thalamus, striatum, and intraparietal cortex. This network is strongly linked to oculomotor control and was activated to a greater extent for antisaccade than prosaccade trials. Antisaccade but not prosaccade trials additionally activated dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. We also found that a number of additional regions not classically linked to oculomotor control were activated to a greater extent for antisaccade vs. prosaccade trials; these regions are often reported in antisaccade studies but rarely commented upon. While the number of studies eligible to be included in this meta-analysis was small, the results of this systematic review reveal that antisaccade and prosaccade trials consistently activate a distributed network of regions both within and outside the classic definition of the oculomotor network. PMID:24137150

  7. Energy-aware activity classification using wearable sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors.

  8. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors. PMID:25075266

  9. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  10. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-06-08

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  11. SU(4) skyrmions and activation energy anomaly in bilayer quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Z. F.; Tsitsishvili, G.

    2004-09-01

    The bilayer quantum Hall (QH) system has four energy levels in the lowest Landau level, corresponding to the layer and spin degrees of freedom. We investigate the system in the regime where all four levels are nearly degenerate and equally active. The underlying group structure is SU(4) . At ν=1 the QH state is a charge-transferable state between the two layers and the SU(4) isospin coherence develops spontaneously. Quasiparticles are isospin textures to be identified with SU(4) skyrmions. The skyrmion energy consists of the Coulomb energy, the Zeeman energy and the pseudo-Zeeman energy. The Coulomb energy consists of the self-energy, the capacitance energy and the exchange energy. At the balanced point only pseudospins are excited unless the tunneling gap is too large. Then, the SU(4) skyrmion evolves continuously from the pseudospin-skyrmion limit into the spin-skyrmion limit as the system is transformed from the balanced point to the monolayer point by controlling the bias voltage. Our theoretical result explains quite well the experimental data due to Murphy [S. Q. Murphy, J. P. Eisenstein, G. S. Boebinger, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 728 (1994)] and Sawada [A. Sawada, D. Terasawa, N. Kumada, M. Morino, K. Tagashira, Z. F. Ezawa, K. Muraki, T. Saku, and Y. Hirayama, Physica E 18, 118 (2003); D. Terasawa, M. Morino, K. Nakada, S. Kozumi, A. Sawada, Z. F. Ezawa, N. Kumada, K. Muraki, T. Saku, and Y. Hirayama, Physica E 22, 52 (2004)] on the activation energy anomaly induced by applying parallel magnetic field.

  12. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  13. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  14. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  15. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  16. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint—efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  17. Consistent inter‐individual differences in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in Boldness‐Shyness, Stress‐Activity, and Exploration‐Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Gunhold‐de Oliveira, Tina; Tadić, Zoran; Massen, Jorg J.M.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The study of animal personality, defined as consistent inter‐individual differences in correlated behavioral traits stable throughout time and/or contexts, has recently become one of the fastest growing areas in animal biology, with study species ranging from insects to non‐human primates. The latter have, however, only occasionally been tested with standardized experiments. Instead their personality has usually been assessed using questionnaires. Therefore, this study aimed to test 21 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in three family groups, in five different experiments, and their corresponding controls. We found that behavioral differences between our animals were not only consistent over time, but also across different contexts. Moreover, the consistent behaviors formed a construct of four major non‐social personality components: Boldness‐Shyness in Foraging, Boldness‐Shyness in Predation, Stress‐Activity, and Exploration‐Avoidance. We found no sex or age differences in these components, but our results did reveal differences in Exploration‐Avoidance between the three family groups. As social environment can have a large influence on behavior of individuals, our results may suggest group‐level similarity in personality (i.e., “group personality”) in common marmosets, a species living in highly cohesive social groups. Am. J. Primatol. 78:961–973, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27286098

  18. Energy expenditure and habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE) and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD) and SenseWear armband (SWA), were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr) simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113) without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal) did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training. Key pointsThe activity diary and Sensewear armband provide comparable estimates of TEE in adolescent sprint athletes.A high inter-individual variation was observed in time spent in high-intensity physical activities, advocating an individual based assessment when coaching

  19. Energy and angular dependence of active-type personal dosemeter for high-energy neutron.

    PubMed

    Rito, Hirotaka; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Oda, Keiji

    2011-07-01

    In order to develop an active-type personal dosemeter having suitable sensitivity to high-energy neutrons, the characteristic response of silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. An agreement of the shape of pulse-height distribution, its change with radiator thickness and the relative sensitivity was confirmed between the calculated and experimental results for 14.8-MeV neutrons. The angular dependence was estimated for other neutron energies, and found that the angular dependence decreased with the incident energy. The reason was also discussed with regard to the radiator thickness relative to maximum range of recoil protons.

  20. Determining characteristics of melting cheese by activation energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C was measured from temperature sweeps of various cheeses to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Seven cheese varieties were heated in a rheometer from 22 to 70 deg C, and Ea was calculated from the resulting ...

  1. Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) was calculated from temperature sweeps of cheeses with contrasting characteristics to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Cheddar, Colby, whole milk Mozzarella, low moisture part skim Mozzarella, Parmesan, soft goat, and Queso Fre...

  2. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  3. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  4. Mechanism and activation energy of magnetic skyrmion annihilation obtained from minimum energy path calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Igor S.; Jónsson, Hannes; Uzdin, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism and activation energy for the annihilation of a magnetic skyrmion is studied by finding the minimum energy path for the transition in a system described by a Heisenberg-type Hamiltonian extended to include dipole-dipole, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya, and anisotropy interactions so as to represent a Co monolayer on a Pt(111) surface. The annihilation mechanism involves isotropic shrinking of the skyrmion and slow increase of the energy until the transition state is reached after which the energy drops abruptly as the ferromagnetic final state forms. The maximum energy along the minimum energy path, which gives an estimate of the activation energy within the harmonic approximation of transition state theory, is found to be in excellent agreement with direct Langevin dynamics simulations at relatively high temperature carried out by Rohart et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 214412 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.214412]. The dipole-dipole interaction, the computationally most demanding term in the Hamiltonian, is found to be important but its effect on the stability of the skyrmion and shape of the transition path can be mimicked accurately by reducing the anisotropy constant in the Hamiltonian.

  5. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.

  6. Comparison of IUPAC k0 Values and Neutron Cross Sections to Determine a Self-consistent Set of Data for Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Revay, Zsolt

    2009-12-01

    Independent databases of nuclear constants for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been independently maintained by the physics and chemistry communities for many year. They contain thermal neturon cross sections s0, standardization values k0, and transition probabilities Pg. Chemistry databases tend to rely upon direct measurements of the nuclear constants k0 and Pg which are often published in chemistry journals while the physics databases typically include evaluated s0 and Pg data from a variety of experiments published mainly in physics journals. The IAEA/LBNL Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) also contains prompt and delayed g-ray cross sections sg from Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) measurements that can also be used to determine k0 and s0 values. As a result several independent databases of fundamental constants for NAA have evolved containing slightly different and sometimes discrepant results. An IAEA CRP for a Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis was established to compare these databases and investigate the possibilitiy of producing a self-consistent set of s0, k0, sg, and Pg values for NAA and other applications. Preliminary results of this IAEA CRP comparison are given in this paper.

  7. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  8. In situ measurement of activation energy for pyrolysis of ethanol as a first reaction in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohga, Yosuke; Inoue, Shuhei; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-10-01

    Using a quadrupole mass spectrometer we measured the activation energy of ethanol decomposition with various catalysts. In order to quantitatively evaluate the catalysts we subtracted their effect from that of the catalyst-free pyrolysis. As a result we derived the activation energies using iron, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum catalysts. These metals are typical catalysts in carbon nanotube synthesis, with two of them usually mixed empirically. This empirical preparation and use of catalysts is consistent with our results. Among these catalysts, iron reduced the activation energy most. Conversely, cobalt achieved a reduction of only 0.3 eV compared to the catalyst-free reaction.

  9. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  10. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  11. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  12. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    PubMed Central

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

  13. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy projects implemented in Alaska. The first, a sustainable technology energy partnerships (STEP) wind energy deployment project in Kotzebue will install 6 AOC 15/50 wind turbines and connect to the existing village diesel grid, consisting of approximately 1 MW average load. It seeks to develop solutions to the problems of arctic wind energy installations (transport, foundations, erection, operation, and maintenance), to establish a wind turbine test site, and to establish the Kotzebue Electric Association as a training and deployment center for wind/diesel technology in rural Alaska. The second project, a large village medium-penetration wind/diesel system, also in Kotzebue, will install a 1-2 MW windfarm, which will supplement the AOC turbines of the STEP project. The program will investigate the impact of medium penetration wind energy on power quality and system stability. The third project, the Alaska high-penetration wind/diesel village power pilot project in Wales will install a high penetration (80-100%) wind/diesel system in a remote Alaskan village. The system will include about 180 kW installed wind capacity, meeting an average village load of about 60 kW. This program will provide a model for high penetration wind retrofits to village diesel power systems and build the capability in Alaska to operate, maintain, and replicate wind/diesel technology. The program will also address problems of: effective use of excess wind energy; reliable diesel-off operation; and the role of energy storage.

  14. [Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, stereotypic movements or need for absolute consistency? The occurrence of repetitive activities in patients with pervasive developmental disorders--case studies].

    PubMed

    Bryńska, Anita; Lipińska, Elzbieta; Matelska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours in the form of stereotyped interests or specific routine activities are one ofthe diagnostic criteria in pervasive developmental disorders. The occurrence of repetitive behaviours in patients with pervasive developmental disorders is a starting point for questions about the type and classification criteria of such behaviours. The aim of the article is to present case studies of patients with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid symptoms in the form of routine activities, tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or stereotyped behaviours. The first case study describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and obsessive compulsive symptoms. The diagnostic problems regarding complex motor tics are discussed in the second case study which describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The third and fourth case study describes mono-zygotic twins with so called High Functioning Autism whose repetitive activities point to either obsessive compulsive symptoms, stereotypic movements, need for absolute consistency or echopraxia. The possible comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and symptoms in the form of repetitive behaviours, possible interactions as well as diagnostic challenges is discussed in the article.

  15. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  16. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  17. Time-resolved FTIR studies provide activation free energy, activation enthalpy and activation entropy for GTPase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus

    2004-12-01

    GTPases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP and P i, play a key role in the regulation of many biological processes. In this work, we quantify the activation parameters ΔG0∗,ΔH0∗andΔS0∗ for the hydrolysis reaction of GTP in water, in water with Mg 2+ ions and in Ras. Ras belongs to the superfamily of small GTPases (guanine nucleotide-binding proteins; GNBPs). Surprisingly, we find that in all cases, the activation energy consists mainly of enthalpic contributions. Additionally, the small entropic contributions in water and in Ras are similar, so that ΔΔ S* is close to 0. Thus the entropic contributions are only minor in GTPase catalysis and the enthalpic contributions from electrostatic interactions are key to the catalysis. The protein induced change in charge distribution of GTP can be monitored by time-resolved difference FTIR spectroscopy. For Ras the main effect due to protein binding is a charge shift towards the β-phosphate of GTP. This seems to have the main contribution to the catalytic mechanism. Because the G-domain of Ras is highly conserved in GNBPs, we propose that the finding here holds for all GNBPs.

  18. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  19. Time-dependent complete-active-space self-consistent-field method for atoms: Application to high-order harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.; Březinová, Iva; Lackner, Fabian; Nagele, Stefan; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    We present a numerical implementation of the time-dependent complete-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-CASSCF) method [Phys. Rev. A 88, 023402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023402] for atoms driven by a strong linearly polarized laser pulse. The present implementation treats the problem in its full dimensionality and introduces a gauge-invariant frozen-core approximation, an efficient evaluation of the Coulomb mean field scaling linearly with the number of basis functions, and a split-operator method specifically designed for stable propagation of stiff spatial derivative operators. We apply this method to high-harmonic generation in helium, beryllium, and neon and explore the role of electron correlations.

  20. Tropomyosin movement on F-actin during muscle activation explained by energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Marek; Moore, Jeffrey R; Fischer, Stefan; Lehman, William

    2014-03-01

    Muscle contraction is regulated by tropomyosin movement across the thin filament surface, which exposes or blocks myosin-binding sites on actin. Recent atomic structures of F-actin-tropomyosin have yielded the positions of tropomyosin on myosin-free and myosin-decorated actin. Here, the repositioning of α-tropomyosin between these locations on F-actin was systematically examined by optimizing the energy of the complex for a wide range of tropomyosin positions on F-actin. The resulting energy landscape provides a full-map of the F-actin surface preferred by tropomyosin, revealing a broad energy basin associated with the tropomyosin position that blocks myosin-binding. This is consistent with previously proposed low-energy oscillations of semi-rigid tropomyosin, necessary for shifting of tropomyosin following troponin-binding. In contrast, the landscape shows much less favorable energies when tropomyosin locates near its myosin-induced "open-state" position. This indicates that spontaneous movement of tropomyosin away from its energetic "ground-state" to the open-state is unlikely in absence of myosin. Instead, myosin-binding must drive tropomyosin toward the open-state to activate the thin filament. Additional energy landscapes were computed for disease-causing actin mutants that distort the topology of the actin-tropomyosin energy landscape, explaining their phenotypes. Thus, the computation of such energy landscapes offers a sensitive way to estimate the impact of mutations.

  1. Study of superconducting magnetic bearing applicable to the flywheel energy storage system that consist of HTS-bulks and superconducting-coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Ken; Tanaka, Yoshichika; Nakauchi, Masahiko

    2010-06-01

    The Railway Technical Research Institute conducted a study to develop a superconducting magnetic bearing applicable to the flywheel energy-storage system for railways. In the first step of the study, the thrust rolling bearing was selected for application, and adopted liquid-nitrogen-cooled HTS-bulk as a rotor, and adopted superconducting coil as a stator for the superconducting magnetic bearing. Load capacity of superconducting magnetic bearing was verified up to 10 kN in the static load test. After that, rotation test of that approximately 5 kN thrust load added was performed with maximum rotation of 3000rpm. In the results of bearing rotation test, it was confirmed that position in levitation is able to maintain with stability during the rotation. Heat transfer properties by radiation in vacuum and conductivity by tenuous gas were basically studied by experiment by the reason of confirmation of rotor cooling method. The experimental result demonstrates that the optimal gas pressure is able to obtain without generating windage drag. In the second stage of the development, thrust load capacity of the bearing will be improved aiming at the achievement of the energy capacity of a practical scale. In the static load test of the new superconducting magnetic bearing, stable 20kN-levitation force was obtained.

  2. Design and experiment study of a semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dehua; Chen, Long; Wang, Ruochen; Jiang, Haobin; Shen, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system is proposed to recover suspension vibration energy, as well as to reduce the suspension cost and demands for the motor-rated capacity. The system consists of an energy-regenerative damper and a DC-DC converter-based energy-regenerative circuit. The energy-regenerative damper is composed of an electromagnetic linear motor and an adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels. The linear motor just works as the generator to harvest the suspension vibration energy. The circuit can be used to improve the system’s energy-regenerative performance and to continuously regulate the motor’s electromagnetic damping force. Therefore, although the motor works as a generator and damps the isolation without an external power source, the motor damping force is controllable. The damping characteristics of the system are studied based on a two degrees of freedom vehicle vibration model. By further analyzing the circuit operation characteristics under different working modes, the double-loop controller is designed to track the desired damping force. The external-loop is a fuzzy controller that offers the desired equivalent damping. The inner-loop controller, on one hand, is used to generate the pulse number and the frequency to control the angle and the rotational speed of the step motor; on the other hand, the inner-loop is used to offer the duty cycle of the energy-regenerative circuit. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate such a new suspension system. The results show that the semi-active energy-regenerative suspension can improve vehicle ride comfort with the controllable damping characteristics of the linear motor. Meanwhile, it also ensures energy regeneration.

  3. Method to grow carbon thin films consisting entirely of diamond grains 3-5 nm in size and high-energy grain boundaries

    DOEpatents

    Carlisle, John A.; Auciello, Orlando; Birrell, James

    2006-10-31

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having an average grain size between 3 and 5 nanometers (nm) with not more than about 8% by volume diamond having an average grain size larger than 10 nm. A method of manufacturing UNCD film is also disclosed in which a vapor of acetylene and hydrogen in an inert gas other than He wherein the volume ratio of acetylene to hydrogen is greater than 0.35 and less than 0.85, with the balance being an inert gas, is subjected to a suitable amount of energy to fragment at least some of the acetylene to form a UNCD film having an average grain size of 3 to 5 nm with not more than about 8% by volume diamond having an average grain size larger than 10 nm.

  4. Directed transport of active particles over asymmetric energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, N; Maggi, C; Di Leonardo, R

    2014-08-21

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the transport of active colloids to target regions, delimited by asymmetric energy barriers. We show that it is possible to introduce a generalized effective temperature that is related to the local variance of particle velocities. The stationary probability distributions can be derived from a simple diffusion equation in the presence of an inhomogeneous effective temperature resulting from the action of external force fields. In particular, transition rates over asymmetric energy barriers can be unbalanced by having different effective temperatures over the two slopes of the barrier. By varying the type of active noise, we find that equal values of diffusivity and persistence time may produce strongly varied effective temperatures and thus stationary distributions.

  5. High-energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, Marek

    1994-01-01

    Two recent findings concerning high-energy radiation properties of active galactic nuclei -- discovery of breaks in hard X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies, and discovery of huge fluxes of hard gamma rays from blazars -- seem to press us to change our standard views about radiation production in these objects. I review briefly the existing radiation models, confront them with the newest observations, and discuss newly emerging theoretical pictures which attempt to account for the discoveries.

  6. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  7. Federal Assistance Program Quarterly Project Progress Report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information Dissemination, Public Outreach, and Technical Analysis Activities. Reporting Period: January 1 - March 31, 2001 [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    The final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  8. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them.

  9. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them. PMID:27561546

  10. Linking the SASSCAL WeatherNet and data management/rescue activities to provide consistent information for climate change assessments in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmschrot, J.; Kaspar, F.; Muche, G.; Hillmann, T.; Kanyanga, J.; Butale, M.; Nascimento, D.; Josenhans, K.; Falanga, E.; Neto, F. O. S.; Kruger, S.; Juergens, N.

    2014-12-01

    Many countries of Southern Africa face inadequate weather monitoring networks to provide reliable and consistent information for the development of efficient management strategies for sustainable water and land resources management, drought and flood risk analysis and forecasts as well as climate change impacts assessments. In addition, some existing networks are characterized by station data showing notable gaps in long-term observations. On the other hand, useful climate information is saved in historical documents and archives, but only barely explored up to now. Such documents are also available in archives of European meteorological services, partly also not yet in digital format. A main aim of the SASSCAL Initiative (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management; www.sasscal.org) is to improve the availability of reliable meteorological baseline data along with a set of analytical methods to strengthen the research capacities in the SASSCAL region including Angola, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia, and therewith to support and integrate information of existing national monitoring networks of the Southern African region. In close cooperation with the national weather authorities and various research institutions of the SASSCAL region, the above mentioned deficits are specifically addressed by i) extending the existing national monitoring networks through additional automatic weather stations and their integration in the SASSCAL WeatherNet which in near future hosts about 130 stations, ii) contributing to the development of Climate Data Management Systems (CDMS) at the national weather authorities in Angola, Botswana and Zambia and iii) the provision of additional time series of climate data based on the historic documents from various archives in all countries. The paper presents first results and shows how these efforts are linked to provide consistent climate information for Southern Africa in order to

  11. Exploring Metrics to Express Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity in Youth

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Robert G.; Butte, Nancy F.; Crouter, Scott E.; Trost, Stewart G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Bassett, David R.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Berrigan, David; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determine whether one metric can be used for all healthy children. Such a metric could improve our ability to further advance the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. Methods A secondary analysis of oxygen uptake (VO2) data obtained from five sites was completed, that included 947 children ages 5 to 18 years, who engaged in 14 different activities. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was computed based on Schofield Equations [Hum Nutr Clin Nut. 39(Suppl 1), 1985]. Absolute oxygen uptake (ml.min-1), oxygen uptake per kilogram body mass (VO2 in ml.kg-1.min-1), net oxygen uptake (VO2 – resting metabolic rate), allometric scaled oxygen uptake (VO2 in ml.kg-0.75.min-1) and YOUTH-MET (VO2.[resting VO2] -1) were calculated. These metrics were regressed with age, sex, height, and body mass. Results Net and allometric-scaled VO2, and YOUTH-MET were least associated with age, sex and physical characteristics. For moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities, allometric scaling was least related to age and sex. For sedentary and low-intensity activities, YOUTH-MET was least related to age and sex. Conclusions No energy expenditure metric completely eliminated the influence of age, physical characteristics, and sex. The Adult MET consistently overestimated EE. YOUTH-MET was better for expressing energy expenditure for sedentary and light activities, whereas allometric scaling was better for moderate and vigorous intensity activities. From a practical perspective, The YOUTH-MET may be the more feasible metric for improving of the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. PMID:26102204

  12. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  13. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  14. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context.

  15. DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The general conditions for DOD-DOE interactions were delineated in an October 1978, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that identified two basic goals: improving energy efficiency and availability within DOD, and utilizing DOD and DOE expertise and facilities to carry out projects of mutual interest. There has been considerable interaction between DOD and DOE, including a number of proposed joint initiatives but a systematic and coordinated approach for nurturing, maintaining, and expanding these relationships has not been developed. A DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities was held on March 10-12, 1980. The workshop was structured into five working groups - Mobility Fuels, Conservation, Fossil Fuels for Fixed Facilities, Solar and Renewable Energy Sources, and Special Projects - with DOD and DOE cochairmen for each. Over a hundred DOD and DOE management, program, and policymaking representatives were brought together by the workshop Steering Committee to identify specific programs for inclusion in an overall plan for implementing the MOU and to deal with fundamental issues and problems of maintaining future communications. The workshop accomplished its goals, these being to: (1) improve communication among the appropriate key DOD and DOE personnel at all levels and promote information exchange; (2) review ongoing and already-proposed joint DOD and DOE programs; (3) initiate a coordinated, systematic effort to establish joint DOD-DOE energy-security programs; and (4) propose specific programs and projects of mutual interest for inclusion in a follow-on joint-implementation plan.

  16. Estimates for systematic empirical corrections of consistent 4-21g ab initio geometries and their correlations to total energy group increments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Lothar; Van Alsenoy, C.; Scarsdale, J. N.

    The structural parameters of the completely relaxed 4-21G ab initio geometries of more than 30 basic organic compounds are compared to experimental results. Some ranges for systematic empirical corrections, which relate 4-21G bond distances to experimental parameters, are associated with total energy increments. In general, for the currently feasible comparisons, the following corrections can be given which relate calculated distances to experimental rg parameters and calculated angles to rs-structures : For C-C single bond distances, deviations bet-ween calculated and observed parameters ( rg) are in the ranges of -0.006(2) to -10(2) Å for normal or unstrained hydrocarbons; -0.011(3) to -O.O16(3) Å for cyclobutane type compounds; and +0.001(5) to +0.004(4) Å for CH 3 conjugated with CO. For C-O single bonds the ranges are -0.006(9) to + 0.002(3) Å for C-O conjugated with CO; and -0.019(3) to -0.027(9) Å for aliphatic and ether compounds. A very large and exceptional discrepancy exists for the highly strained ethylene oxide, rs — re = -0.049(5) Å and in CH 3OCH 3 and C 2H 5OCH 3 the rs - re differences are -0.029(5), -0.040(10) and -0.025(10) Å. Some of these discrepancies may also be due to deficiencies of the microwave substitution method caused by atomic coordinates close to inertial planes. For C-N bonds, two types of N-CH 3 corrections are from +0.005(6) to -0.006(6) and from -0.009(2) to -0.014(6) Å; and the range for N-CO is +0.012(3) to +0.028(4) Å. For isolated Cz.dbnd;C double bonds the range is + 0.025(2) to +0.028(2) Å. For conjugated CC double bonds the correction is less positive (+0.014(1) Å for benzene). For CO double bonds the corrections are -0.004(3) to +0.003(3) Å. For bond angles of type H-C-H, C-C-H, C-C-C, C-CO, C-C-O, O-CO, N-CO and C-CC the corrections are of the order of magnitude about 1-2° (or better). Angles centered at heteroatoms are less accurate than that, when hydrogen atoms are involved

  17. Molecular g-tensors from analytical response theory and quasi-degenerate perturbation theory in the framework of complete active space self-consistent field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Lan, Tran; Chalupský, Jakub; Yanai, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The molecular g-tensor is an important spectroscopic parameter provided by electron para magnetic resonance (EPR) measurement and often needs to be interpreted using computational methods. Here, we present two new implementations based on the first-order and second-order perturbation theories to calculate the g-tensors within the complete-active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function model. In the first-order method, the quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) is employed for constructing relativistic CASSCF states perturbed with the spin-orbit coupling operator, which is described effectively in one-electron form with the flexible nuclear screening spin-orbit approximation introduced recently by us. The second-order method is a newly reported approach built upon the linear response theory which accounts for the perturbation with respect to external magnetic field. It is implemented with the coupled-perturbed CASSCF (CP-CASSCF) approach, which provides an equivalent of untruncated sum-over-states expansion. The comparison of the performances between the first-order and second-order methods is shown for various molecules containing light to heavy elements, highlighting their relative strength and weakness. The formulations of QDPT and CP-CASSCF approaches as well as the derivation of the second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess picture change of Zeeman operators are given in detail.

  18. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Language Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Among the lessons included are an energy debate, puzzles, energy poetry, and energy life styles. Also contained in the IDEAS program are activity sets…

  19. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler: 6-12. Social Studies. Revised 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    Thirty-eight energy related classroom activities for sixth to twelfth grade are included in this document. The activities are based on the following conceptual themes: (1) energy is basic; (2) energy's usefulness is limited; (3) energy exchanges affect the environment; (4) energy conservation is essential; and (5) people can develop and share…

  20. Nonadiabatic coupling reduces the activation energy in thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J; Penfold, T J

    2017-03-22

    The temperature dependent rate of a thermally activated process is given by the Arrhenius equation. The exponential decrease in the rate with activation energy, which this imposes, strongly promotes processes with small activation barriers. This criterion is one of the most challenging during the design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters used in organic light emitting diodes. The small activation energy is usually achieved with donor-acceptor charge transfer complexes. However, this sacrifices the radiative rate and is therefore incommensurate with the high luminescence quantum yields required for applications. Herein we demonstrate that the spin-vibronic mechanism, operative for efficient TADF, overcomes this limitation. Nonadiabatic coupling between the lowest two triplet states give rise to a strong enhancement of the rate of reserve intersystem crossing via a second order mechanism and promotes population transfer between the T1 to T2 states. Consequently the rISC mechanism is actually operative between initial and final state exhibiting an energy gap that is smaller than between the T1 and S1 states. This contributes to the small activation energies for molecules exhibiting a large optical gap, identifies limitations of the present design procedures and provides a basis from which to construct TADF molecules with simultaneous high radiative and rISC rates.

  1. Analysing domestic activity to reduce household energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Fréjus, Myriam; Guibourdenche, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on the issue of behavioral change according to energy conservation constraints and on the status of sustainability in the design of ambient interactive systems at home. We point out how ergonomics contributes to the study of human factors underlying energy consumption. Relating to situated cognition and human computer interaction, our approach relies both on the ergonomic evaluation of feedback consumption displays and on the modeling of domestic activities in order to identify household concerns in real settings. We present empirical results to illustrate this global approach. The results of those studies allow the design of interactive systems: informative and pedagogical systems as well as pervasive and adaptive ambient systems. In our approach, sustainability is taken into account as a design criterion, as security could be, whereas the main design purpose is to aid households in their daily life in order to build a "sustainable situation".

  2. Activation Energies of Fragmentations of Disaccharides by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Szabó, Katalin E.; Antal, Borbála; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2014-03-01

    A simple multiple collision model for collision induced dissociation (CID) in quadrupole was applied for the estimation of the activation energy (Eo) of the fragmentation processes for lithiated and trifluoroacetated disaccharides, such as maltose, cellobiose, isomaltose, gentiobiose, and trehalose. The internal energy-dependent rate constants k(Eint) were calculated using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) or the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (RRK) theory. The Eo values were estimated by fitting the calculated survival yield (SY) curves to the experimental ones. The calculated Eo values of the fragmentation processes for lithiated disaccharides were in the range of 1.4-1.7 eV, and were found to increase in the order trehalose < maltose < isomaltose < cellobiose < gentiobiose.

  3. Male weasels decrease activity and energy expenditure in response to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zub, Karol; Fletcher, Quinn E; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The heat dissipation limit (HDL) hypothesis suggests that the capacity of endotherms to dissipate body heat may impose constraints on their energy expenditure. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts that endotherms should avoid the detrimental consequences of hyperthermia by lowering their energy expenditure and reducing their activity in response to high ambient temperatures (T(a)). We used an extensive data set on the daily energy expenditure (DEE, n = 27) and the daily activity time (AT, n = 48) of male weasels (Mustela nivalis) during the spring and summer breeding season to test these predictions. We found that T(a) was related in a "hump-shaped" (i.e. convex) manner to AT, DEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic scope (the ratio of DEE to RMR). These results support the HDL hypothesis because in response to warm Tas male weasels reduced their AT, DEE, and RMR. Although the activity and energy expenditure of large endotherms are most likely to be constrained in response to warm Tas because they are less able to dissipate heat, our results suggest that small endotherms may also experience constraints consistent with the HDL hypothesis.

  4. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  5. Cytosolic calcium coordinates mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Amit K; Ivannikov, Maxim V; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R; Macleod, Gregory T

    2012-01-25

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations that blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+ and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11 nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13 nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates, [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs.

  6. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  7. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  8. Consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  9. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  10. CALCULATING ENERGY STORAGE DUE TO TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGION NOAA AR 11112

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana

    2012-04-10

    The minimum current corona model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore developed an automated tracking algorithm to generate a consistent connectivity matrix as the photospheric source regions evolve over time. We have applied this method to NOAA Active Region 11112, which underwent a GOES M2.9 class flare around 19:00 on 2010 October 16th, and calculated a lower bound on the free magnetic energy buildup of {approx}8.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg over 3 days.

  11. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  12. Carbon Nanotube Thin Films for Active Noise Cancellation, Solar Energy Harvesting, and Energy Storage in Building Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shan

    This research explores the application of carbon nanotube (CNT) films for active noise cancellation, solar energy harvesting and energy storage in building windows. The CNT-based components developed herein can be integrated into a solar-powered active noise control system for a building window. First, the use of a transparent acoustic transducer as both an invisible speaker for auxiliary audio playback and for active noise cancellation is accomplished in this work. Several challenges related to active noise cancellation in the window are addressed. These include secondary path estimation and directional cancellation of noise so as to preserve auxiliary audio and internal sounds while preventing transmission of external noise into the building. Solar energy can be harvested at a low rate of power over long durations while acoustic sound cancellation requires short durations of high power. A supercapacitor based energy storage system is therefore considered for the window. Using CNTs as electrode materials, two generations of flexible, thin, and fully solid-state supercapacitors are developed that can be integrated into the window frame. Both generations consist of carbon nanotube films coated on supporting substrates as electrodes and a solid-state polymer gel layer for the electrolyte. The first generation is a single-cell parallel-plate supercapacitor with a working voltage of 3 Volts. Its energy density is competitive with commercially available supercapacitors (which use liquid electrolyte). For many applications that will require higher working voltage, the second-generation multi-cell supercapacitor is developed. A six-cell device with a working voltage as high as 12 Volts is demonstrated here. Unlike the first generation's 3D structure, the second generation has a novel planar (2D) architecture, which makes it easy to integrate multiple cells into a thin and flexible supercapacitor. The multi-cell planar supercapacitor has energy density exceeding that of

  13. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-21

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004)]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  14. Macroautophagy regulates energy metabolism during effector T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Vanessa M; Valdor, Rut; Patel, Bindi; Singh, Rajat; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando

    2010-12-15

    Macroautophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosomal-mediated protein degradation that plays a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by recycling amino acids, reducing the amount of damaged proteins, and regulating protein levels in response to extracellular signals. We have found that macroautophagy is induced after effector T cell activation. Engagement of the TCR and CD28 results in enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) processing, increased numbers of LC3-containing vesicles, and increased LC3 flux, indicating active autophagosome formation and clearance. The autophagosomes formed in stimulated T cells actively fuse with lysosomes to degrade their cargo. Using a conditional KO mouse model where Atg7, a critical gene for macroautophagy, is specifically deleted in T cells, we have found that macroautophagy-deficient effector Th cells have defective IL-2 and IFN-γ production and reduced proliferation after stimulation, with no significant increase in apoptosis. We have found that ATP generation is decreased when autophagy is blocked, and defects in activation-induced cytokine production are restored when an exogenous energy source is added to macroautophagy-deficient T cells. Furthermore, we present evidence showing that the nature of the cargo inside autophagic vesicles found in resting T cells differs from the cargo of autophagosomes in activated T cells, where mitochondria and other organelles are selectively excluded. These results suggest that macroautophagy is an actively regulated process in T cells that can be induced in response to TCR engagement to accommodate the bioenergetic requirements of activated T cells.

  15. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  16. Social Studies. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document provides activities for teachers to use with students in teaching social studies. The activities are intended to demonstrate the impact of energy technology on today's society.…

  17. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Bing Xue, Jia-Dan Zheng, Xuming E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn; Fang, Wei-Hai E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn

    2014-05-21

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S{sub 2}(A′) state: the radiative S{sub 2,min} → S{sub 0} transition and the nonradiative S{sub 2} → S{sub 1} internal conversion via CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  18. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Bing; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2014-05-21

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S2(A'), S6(A'), and S7(A') excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S2(A'), S6(A'), and S7(A') excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S2/S1) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S2(A') state: the radiative S(2,min) → S0 transition and the nonradiative S2 → S1 internal conversion via CI(S2/S1). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S1/T1) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  19. Energy- and Activity-Dependent Loss Timescales for Inner Magnetospheric keV-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) inner magnetospheric drift physics model has recently been modified to include keV-energy electron scattering rates by VLF chorus and hiss waves, thus allowing for the calculation of the electron phase space distribution in the inner magnetosphere and electron precipitation to the upper atmosphere. Comparisons of calculated electron fluxes are made with low-Earth orbit electron precipitation data and dayside electron measurements to validate the scattering implementation procedure. The energy-dependent scattering rate coefficients are adjusted to take into account geomagnetic activity and plasmapause location, providing a scattering rate that best matches the simulations to the observed electron fluxes. In addition, the electron ring current intensities and spatio-temporal evolution are compared against simulation results for the hot ion species. While the electron total energy content is typically 10 times smaller than the ion total energy content in the inner magnetosphere, it can be significantly higher than this during the late main phase of magnetic storms.

  20. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory for laser-driven many-electron dynamics. II. Extended formulation and numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2014-06-01

    The time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method is formulated based on the TD variational principle. The SCF based TD orbitals contributing to the expansion of the wave function are classified into three groups, between which orbital excitations are considered with the RAS scheme. In analogy with the configuration-interaction singles (CIS), singles-and-doubles (CISD), and singles-doubles-and-triples (CISDT) methods in quantum chemistry, the TD-RASSCF-S, -SD, and -SDT methods are introduced as extensions of the TD-RASSCF-doubles (-D) method [Phys. Rev. A 87, 062511 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.062511]. Based on an analysis of the numerical cost and test calculations for one-dimensional (1D) models of atomic helium, beryllium, and carbon, it is shown that the TD-RASSCF-S and -D methods are computationally feasible for systems with many electrons and more accurate than the TD Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and TDCIS methods. In addition to the discussion of methodology, an analysis of electron dynamics in the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) process is presented. For the 1D beryllium atom, a state-resolved analysis of the HHG spectrum based on the time-independent HF orbitals shows that while only single-orbital excitations are needed in the region below the cutoff, single- and double-orbital excitations are essential beyond, where accordingly the single-active-electron (SAE) approximation and the TDCIS method break down. On the other hand, the TD-RASSCF-S and -D methods accurately describe the multiorbital excitation processes throughout the entire region of the HHG spectrum. For the 1D carbon atom, our calculations show that multiorbital excitations are essential in the HHG process even below the cutoff. Hence, in this test system a very accurate treatment of electron correlation is required. The TD-RASSCF-S and -D approaches meet this demand, while the SAE approximation and the TDCIS method are inadequate.

  1. Subcellular localization of phospholipase Cζ in human sperm and its absence in DPY19L2-deficient sperm are consistent with its role in oocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Escoffier, Jessica; Yassine, Sandra; Lee, Hoi Chang; Martinez, Guillaume; Delaroche, Julie; Coutton, Charles; Karaouzène, Thomas; Zouari, Raoudha; Metzler-Guillemain, Catherine; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Ray, Pierre F.; Fissore, Rafael; Arnoult, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified the DPY19L2 gene as the main genetic cause of human globozoospermia (70%) and described that Dpy19l2 knockout (KO) mice faithfully reproduce the human phenotype of globozoospermia making it an excellent model to characterize the molecular physiopathology of globozoospermia. Recent case studies on non-genetically characterized men with globozoospermia showed that phospholipase C, zeta (PLCζ), the sperm factor thought to induce the Ca2+ oscillations at fertilization, was absent from their sperm, explaining the poor fertilization potential of these spermatozoa. Since 30% of globozoospermic men remain genetically uncharacterized, the absence of PLCζ in DPY19L2 globozoospermic men remains to be formally established. Moreover, the precise localization of PLCζ and the reasons underlying its loss during spermatogenesis in globozoospermic patients are still not understood. Herein, we show that PLCζ is absent, or its presence highly reduced, in human and mouse sperm with DPY19L2-associated globozoospermia. As a consequence, fertilization with sperm from Dpy19l2 KO mice failed to initiate Ca2+ oscillations and injected oocytes remained arrested at the metaphase II stage, although a few human oocytes injected with DPY19L2-defective sperm showed formation of 2-pronuclei embryos. We report for the first time the subcellular localization of PLCζ in control human sperm, which is along the inner acrosomal membrane and in the perinuclear theca, in the area corresponding to the equatorial region. Because these cellular components are absent in globozoospermic sperm, the loss of PLCζ in globozoospermic sperm is thus consistent and reinforces the role of PLCζ as an oocyte activation factor necessary for oocyte activation. In our companion article, we showed that chromatin compaction during spermiogenesis in Dpy19l2 KO mouse is defective and leads to sperm DNA damage. Together, these defects explain the poor fertilization potential of DPY19L2

  2. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  3. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  4. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  5. Redox Active Polymers as Soluble Nanomaterials for Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Mark; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-11-15

    It is an exciting time for exploring the synergism between the chemical and dimensional properties of redox nanomaterials for addressing the manifold performance demands faced by energy storage technologies. The call for widespread adoption of alternative energy sources requires the combination of emerging chemical concepts with redesigned battery formats. Our groups are interested in the development and implementation of a new strategy for nonaqueous flow batteries (NRFBs) for grid energy storage. Our motivation is to solve major challenges in NRFBs, such as the lack of membranes that simultaneously allow fast ion transport while minimizing redox active species crossover between anolyte (negative electrolyte) and catholyte (positive electrolyte) compartments. This pervasive crossover leads to deleterious capacity fade and materials underutilization. In this Account, we highlight redox active polymers (RAPs) and related polymer colloids as soluble nanoscopic energy storing units that enable the simple but powerful size-exclusion concept for NRFBs. Crossover of the redox component is suppressed by matching high molecular weight RAPs with simple and inexpensive nanoporous commercial separators. In contrast to the vast literature on the redox chemistry of electrode-confined polymer films, studies on the electrochemistry of solubilized RAPs are incipient. This is due in part to challenges in finding suitable solvents that enable systematic studies on high polymers. Here, viologen-, ferrocene- and nitrostyrene-based polymers in various formats exhibit properties that make amenable their electrochemical exploration as solution-phase redox couples. A main finding is that RAP solutions store energy efficiently and reversibly while offering chemical modularity and size versatility. Beyond the practicality toward their use in NRFBs, the fundamental electrochemistry exhibited by RAPs is fascinating, showing clear distinctions in behavior from that of small molecules. Whereas

  6. Two-component multi-configurational second-order perturbation theory with Kramers restricted complete active space self-consistent field reference function and spin-orbit relativistic effective core potential.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inkoo; Lee, Yoon Sup

    2014-10-28

    We report the formulation and implementation of KRCASPT2, a two-component multi-configurational second-order perturbation theory based on Kramers restricted complete active space self-consistent field (KRCASSCF) reference function, in the framework of the spin-orbit relativistic effective core potential. The zeroth-order Hamiltonian is defined as the sum of nondiagonal one-electron operators with generalized two-component Fock matrix elements as scalar factors. The Kramers symmetry within the zeroth-order Hamiltonian is maintained via the use of a state-averaged density, allowing a consistent treatment of degenerate states. The explicit expressions are derived for the matrix elements of the zeroth-order Hamiltonian as well as for the perturbation vector. The use of a fully variational reference function and nondiagonal operators in relativistic multi-configurational perturbation theory is reported for the first time. A series of initial calculations are performed on the ionization potential and excitation energies of the atoms of the 6p-block; the results display a significant improvement over those from KRCASSCF, showing a closer agreement with experimental results. Accurate atomic properties of the superheavy elements of the 7p-block are also presented, and the electronic structures of the low-lying excited states are compared with those of their lighter homologues.

  7. Redox Active Colloids as Discrete Energy Storage Carriers.

    PubMed

    Montoto, Elena C; Nagarjuna, Gavvalapalli; Hui, Jingshu; Burgess, Mark; Sekerak, Nina M; Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Wei, Teng-Sing; Kneer, Marissa; Grolman, Joshua; Cheng, Kevin J; Lewis, Jennifer A; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2016-10-12

    Versatile and readily available battery materials compatible with a range of electrode configurations and cell designs are desirable for renewable energy storage. Here we report a promising class of materials based on redox active colloids (RACs) that are inherently modular in their design and overcome challenges faced by small-molecule organic materials for battery applications, such as crossover and chemical/morphological stability. RACs are cross-linked polymer spheres, synthesized with uniform diameters between 80 and 800 nm, and exhibit reversible redox activity as single particles, as monolayer films, and in the form of flowable dispersions. Viologen-based RACs display reversible cycling, accessing up to 99% of their capacity and 99 ± 1% Coulombic efficiency over 50 cycles by bulk electrolysis owing to efficient, long-distance intraparticle charge transfer. Ferrocene-based RACs paired with viologen-based RACs cycled efficiently in a nonaqueous redox flow battery employing a simple size-selective separator, thus demonstrating a possible application that benefits from their colloidal dimensions. The unprecedented versatility in RAC synthetic and electrochemical design opens new avenues for energy storage.

  8. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  9. Activation energy of tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, Octavio G.; Munir, Zuhair A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2011-01-15

    The activation energy of a sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HPSPS) technique at 300 and 400 C. The ignition temperatures were investigated under high heating rates (500-2000 C min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Samples consolidated at 300 C exhibit an abrupt change in temperature response prior to the main ignition temperature. This change in temperature response is attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465 to 670 C. The activation energies of the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite consolidated at 300 and 400 C were determined to be 38{+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1} and 57 {+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  10. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  11. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis.

  12. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  13. The ABC's of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H., Ed.; Bitner, Betty L., Ed.

    This resource guide consists of activities related to 26 separate energy topics (one for each letter of the alphabet). Topic areas are: approaches to problems related to energy shortages; biomass; conserving energy; demand for energy in the year 2000; economics and energy; fossil fuels; geothermal energy; hydroelectric power; insulation; energy…

  14. Activation energy distributions predicted by dispersive kinetic models for nucleation and denucleation: anomalous diffusion resulting from quantization.

    PubMed

    Skrdla, Peter J

    2011-06-23

    The activation energy distributions underpinning the two complementary dispersive kinetic models described by the author in a recent work (Skrdla, P. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 9329) are derived and investigated. In the case of nucleation rate-limited conversions, which exhibit "acceleratory" sigmoidal transients (a kind of S-shaped stretched exponential conversion profile), an activation energy distribution visually similar to the Maxwell-Boltzmann (M-B) distribution is recovered, consistent with the original derivation of that model. In the case of predominantly "deceleratory" conversions, the activation energy distribution is skewed from normal in the opposite direction. While the "M-B-like" activation energy distribution supports the empirical observation of a rate enhancement as a function of the conversion time in nucleation rate-limited processes, the complementary distribution, with its pronounced low-energy tail, reflects a slow-down in the specific rate as the conversion progresses, consistent with experimentally observed denucleation rate-limited conversions. Activation energy distributions were also plotted for real-world data (Qu, H.; Louhi-Kultanen, M.; Kallas, J. Cryst. Growth Des. 2007, 7, 724), depicting the impact of various additives on the nucleation rate-limited kinetics of the solvent-mediated phase transformation of the crystalline drug carbamazepine. Last, by coupling the author's dispersive kinetic description of the time-dependent activation energy for nucleation to the classical description of the critical nucleus energy provided by the Kelvin equation, an accelerated hopping mechanism for the diffusion of monomers to the growing embryo surface was observed. That hopping mechanism was rationalized by modifying the Einstein-Smoluchowski (E-S) equation to allow it to describe the "supra-brownian" molecular motion thought to lie at the heart of nucleation kinetics.

  15. MAX '91: An advanced payload for the exploration of high energy processes on the active sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The results of a NASA science working group established to study a follow-on to the Solar Maximum Mission are given. A complement of instruments is suggested, with the primary objective of studying the physics of energetic processes in cosmic plasmas by observing high-energy phenomena in solar flares. High-quality flare observations will be possible with these instruments during the next peak in solar activity expected to last from 1990 through at least 1995. The primary objective of MAX '91 is to study energetic processes in cosmic plasmas by observing high-energy phenomena in solar flares. These processes, which are of general astrophysical importance, include energy release, particle acceleration, and energy transport. Results from comprehensive observing programs conducted during the last solar cycle have demonstrated the great scientific potential of high-energy emissions for addressing these central physical processes. Consequently, a payload optimized for observations of high-energy solar flare phenomena is suggested for MAX '91. It consists of the following four specific instruments: (1) a Fourier-transform X-ray and gamma-ray imager covering the energy range from a few keV to 1 MeV with arcsecond spatial resolution; (2) a cooled germanium X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer with keV spectral resolution covering the energy range from 10 keV to 50 MeV; (3) Bragg spectrometers with high spectral resolution at wavelengths between 1 and 9 angstrons; and (4) a soft X-ray, EUV, or UV imaging instrument with arcsecond spatial resolution.

  16. Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles Dennison; Giebels, Berrie

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV γ rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of γ-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called ;blazars;. The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with γ-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of a few FSRQs and several BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of γ-ray-emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Soft γ-ray emission has been detected from a few nearby Seyfert galaxies, though it is not clear whether those γ rays originate from the nucleus. Blazars and their misaligned counterparts make up most of the ≳100 MeV extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), and are suspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future ;Cherenkov Telescope Array;, in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on the ground, will write the next chapter

  17. EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2016-03-10

    We adopt an isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field to estimate the magnetic energy and helicity spectra as well as current helicity spectra of two individual active regions (NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11515) and the change of the spectral indices during their development as well as during the solar cycle. The departure of the spectral indices of magnetic energy and current helicity from 5/3 are analyzed, and it is found that it is lower than the spectral index of the magnetic energy spectrum. Furthermore, the fractional magnetic helicity tends to increase when the scale of the energy-carrying magnetic structures increases. The magnetic helicity of NOAA 11515 violates the expected hemispheric sign rule, which is interpreted as an effect of enhanced field strengths at scales larger than 30–60 Mm with opposite signs of helicity. This is consistent with the general cycle dependence, which shows that around the solar maximum the magnetic energy and helicity spectra are steeper, emphasizing the large-scale field.

  18. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  20. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  1. Ionization energy and active cation vibrations of trans-2-fluorostyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pei Ying; Tzeng, Sheng Yuan; Hsu, Ya Chu; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2017-02-01

    We applied the two-color resonant two-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) technique to record the cation spectra of trans-2-fluorostyrene by ionizing via six intermediate vibronic levels. The adiabatic ionization energy was determined to be 69 304 ± 5 cm-1. The distinct MATI bands at 67, 124, 242, 355, 737, 806, 833, and 993 cm-1 were assigned to the active cation vibrations related to out-of-plane substituent-sensitive bending vibrations and in-plane ring deformation and bending motions. Many combination vibrations were also observed. Our experimental results suggest that the molecular geometry and vibrational coordinates of the trans-2-fluorostyrene cation in the D0 state resemble those of the neutral species in the S1 state.

  2. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  3. Home Economics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document was developed to provide home economics teachers with background information on energy, and activities that can be used/adapted with a minimum of preparation time. The…

  4. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  5. Skipping breakfast reduces energy intake and physical activity in healthy women who are habitual breakfast eaters: A randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Eiichi; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yonekura, Satomi; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-03-09

    Many epidemiological studies indicate a positive relationship between skipping breakfast (SB) and obesity. However, it is unclear whether SB affects energy intake and physical activity during the day. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of SB on energy intake and physical activity under free-living conditions. The present study used a randomized, crossover trial design comparing eating breakfast (EB) and SB days. Twenty lean, healthy women 21-25years old who were habitual breakfast eaters (≥5daysperweek) took part in this study. On EB days, participants were provided a standard breakfast (542kcal). The meals and physical activity after breakfast were under free-living conditions. The meals consisted of foods available at supermarkets, restaurants, and convenience stores. Dietary intake was evaluated by adding values from food labels. Physical activity was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Energy intake at lunch was significantly increased after SB compared with EB (+131±188kcal; p=0.0057). Total energy intake per day was significantly lower after SB compared with EB (-262±428kcal, p=0.013). Physical activity energy expenditure was slightly lower after SB compared with EB (-41±75kcal in the morning, p=0.024; -56±129kcalperday, p=0.064). Step counts and time spent physically active over the whole day were not significantly different between conditions. Skipping breakfast reduced energy intake during the day and morning physical activity in healthy women who were habitual breakfast eaters. The decreased energy expenditure related to physical activity after SB did not exceed the decreased energy intake.

  6. Network Consistent Data Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases.

  7. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles.

  8. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  9. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory - Semiannual Report: April 1, 1990, Through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1990. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. MELs are equipped for the on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. This report describes the testing, test results, and suggested courses of action.

  10. Energetically consistent collisional gyrokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Burby, J. W.; Brizard, A. J.; Qin, H.

    2015-10-15

    We present a formulation of collisional gyrokinetic theory with exact conservation laws for energy and canonical toroidal momentum. Collisions are accounted for by a nonlinear gyrokinetic Landau operator. Gyroaveraging and linearization do not destroy the operator's conservation properties. Just as in ordinary kinetic theory, the conservation laws for collisional gyrokinetic theory are selected by the limiting collisionless gyrokinetic theory.

  11. Potential energy curves for the a /sup 3/. sigma. /sub u//sup +/ and c /sup 3/. sigma. /sup +//sub g/ states of He/sub 2/ consistent with differential scattering, ab initio theory, and low-temperature exchange rates

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, R.M.; Siddiqui, H.R.; Siska, P.E.

    1986-06-15

    Crossed beam scattering experiments on He*(2 /sup 3/S)+He at energies of 0.94, 1.51, and 2.24 kcal/mol have been combined with ab initio theory and kinetic data on metastability exchange rates to produce new estimates of the title potential energy curves. The long-range potential barrier in the a state is found to be 1.43 +- 0.05 kcal/mol at a separation of 2.717 +- 0.04 A. Combining these results with those for the corresponding singlet states from an earlier paper (J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5027 (1984)), we discuss the long-range behavior of the curves, particularly with respect to curve crossing between a given pair of g and u states. These crossings, which conform to theoretical predictions, appear to be essential for a consistent description of all available data.

  12. Time-resolved Förster-resonance-energy-transfer DNA assay on an active CMOS microarray

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David Eric; Gong, Ping; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    We present an active oligonucleotide microarray platform for time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assays. In these assays, immobilized probe is labeled with a donor fluorophore and analyte target is labeled with a fluorescence quencher. Changes in the fluorescence decay lifetime of the donor are measured to determine the extent of hybridization. In this work, we demonstrate that TR-FRET assays have reduced sensitivity to variances in probe surface density compared with standard fluorescence-based microarray assays. Use of an active array substrate, fabricated in a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, provides the additional benefits of reduced system complexity and cost. The array consists of 4096 independent single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) pixel sites and features on-chip time-to-digital conversion. We demonstrate the functionality of our system by measuring a DNA target concentration series using TR-FRET with semiconductor quantum dot donors. PMID:18515059

  13. Free-energy landscape of ion-channel voltage-sensor-domain activation.

    PubMed

    Delemotte, Lucie; Kasimova, Marina A; Klein, Michael L; Tarek, Mounir; Carnevale, Vincenzo

    2015-01-06

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) are membrane-bound protein modules that confer voltage sensitivity to membrane proteins. VSDs sense changes in the transmembrane voltage and convert the electrical signal into a conformational change called activation. Activation involves a reorganization of the membrane protein charges that is detected experimentally as transient currents. These so-called gating currents have been investigated extensively within the theoretical framework of so-called discrete-state Markov models (DMMs), whereby activation is conceptualized as a series of transitions across a discrete set of states. Historically, the interpretation of DMM transition rates in terms of transition state theory has been instrumental in shaping our view of the activation process, whose free-energy profile is currently envisioned as composed of a few local minima separated by steep barriers. Here we use atomistic level modeling and well-tempered metadynamics to calculate the configurational free energy along a single transition from first principles. We show that this transition is intrinsically multidimensional and described by a rough free-energy landscape. Remarkably, a coarse-grained description of the system, based on the use of the gating charge as reaction coordinate, reveals a smooth profile with a single barrier, consistent with phenomenological models. Our results bridge the gap between microscopic and macroscopic descriptions of activation dynamics and show that choosing the gating charge as reaction coordinate masks the topological complexity of the network of microstates participating in the transition. Importantly, full characterization of the latter is a prerequisite to rationalize modulation of this process by lipids, toxins, drugs, and genetic mutations.

  14. Free-energy landscape of ion-channel voltage-sensor–domain activation

    PubMed Central

    Delemotte, Lucie; Kasimova, Marina A.; Klein, Michael L.; Tarek, Mounir; Carnevale, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) are membrane-bound protein modules that confer voltage sensitivity to membrane proteins. VSDs sense changes in the transmembrane voltage and convert the electrical signal into a conformational change called activation. Activation involves a reorganization of the membrane protein charges that is detected experimentally as transient currents. These so-called gating currents have been investigated extensively within the theoretical framework of so-called discrete-state Markov models (DMMs), whereby activation is conceptualized as a series of transitions across a discrete set of states. Historically, the interpretation of DMM transition rates in terms of transition state theory has been instrumental in shaping our view of the activation process, whose free-energy profile is currently envisioned as composed of a few local minima separated by steep barriers. Here we use atomistic level modeling and well-tempered metadynamics to calculate the configurational free energy along a single transition from first principles. We show that this transition is intrinsically multidimensional and described by a rough free-energy landscape. Remarkably, a coarse-grained description of the system, based on the use of the gating charge as reaction coordinate, reveals a smooth profile with a single barrier, consistent with phenomenological models. Our results bridge the gap between microscopic and macroscopic descriptions of activation dynamics and show that choosing the gating charge as reaction coordinate masks the topological complexity of the network of microstates participating in the transition. Importantly, full characterization of the latter is a prerequisite to rationalize modulation of this process by lipids, toxins, drugs, and genetic mutations. PMID:25535341

  15. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  16. Activity related energy expenditure, appetite and energy intake: potential implications for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance.

  17. Homogeneous near surface activity distribution by double energy activation for TLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.

    2007-10-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a versatile tool for activating thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the activated parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal activity-depth distribution in the sample. Different activity-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce activity that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant activity layer can be increased or the deviation of the activity distribution from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct activation, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases activation of a point-like spot (several mm2) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be activated uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory.

  18. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  19. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching industrial arts/technology education. The activities are intended to present energy…

  20. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level II (Grades (3-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  1. Energetically consistent collisional gyrokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Burby, J. W.; Brizard, A. J.; Qin, H.

    2015-10-30

    Here, we present a formulation of collisional gyrokinetic theory with exact conservation laws for energy and canonical toroidal momentum. Collisions are accounted for by a nonlinear gyrokinetic Landau operator. Gyroaveraging and linearization do not destroy the operator's conservation properties. Just as in ordinary kinetic theory, the conservation laws for collisional gyrokinetic theory are selected by the limiting collisionless gyrokinetic theory. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  2. Consistent force field modeling of matrix isolated molecules. V. Minimum energy path potential to the conformer conversion of 1,2-difluoroethane: Ar 364, ab initio calculation of electric multipole moments and electric polarization contribution to the conversion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunde, R.; Ha, T.-K.; Günthard, H. H.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper results of consistent force field modeling (CFF) of the potential function to conversion of the gauche (g) to the trans (t) conformer of 1,2-difluoroethane (DFE) isolated in an argon matrix will be reported. Starting point are locally stable configurations gDFE:Ar 364 (defect GH1) and tDFE:Ar 364 (TH1) obtained in previous work from CFF modeling of a cube shaped Ar 364 fragment containing one DFE molecule in its center. Using the dihedral angle of DFE as an independent parameter the minimum energy path of the conversion process gDFE:Ar 364→tDFE:Ar 364 will be determined by CFF energy minimization. Determination of the minimum energy path is found to require large numbers of energy minimization steps and to lead to a rather complicated motion of the molecule with respect to the crystal fragment. Surprisingly the molecule-matrix interactions lead to a reduction of the g-t barrier by ≈500 cal/mol and to a stabilization of the trans species by ≈500 cal/mol. This finding is a consequence of a delicate interplay of matrix-molecule and matrix-matrix interactions. Calculation of the electric polarization energy (induced dipole-first-order polarization approximation) is based on extended ab initio calculations of dipole and quadrupole moments and a bond polarizability estimate of the first-order polarizability of DFE as a function of the internal rotation angle, on Fourier expansion of multipole components and use of symmetry for reduction of the order of the linear system defining the (self-consistent) induced dipole moments of all Ar atoms. Electric polarization is found to alter the potential function of the conversion process in a profound way: the g-t barrier and the t-g energy difference are increased to ≈3000 cal/mol and to ≈1500 cal/mol respectively (≈2500 and ≈530 cal/mol respectively for free DFE). Further applications of the technique developed in this work to related problems of matrix isolated molecules, e.g., vibrational matrix

  3. Activity of antifungal organobismuth(III) compounds derived from alkyl aryl ketones against S. cerevisiae: comparison with a heterocyclic bismuth scaffold consisting of a diphenyl sulfone.

    PubMed

    Murafuji, Toshihiro; Tomura, Mai; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Miyakawa, Isamu

    2014-07-29

    A series of hypervalent organobismuth(III) compounds derived from alkyl aryl ketones [XBi(5-R'C6H3-2-COR)(Ar)] was synthesized to investigate the effect of the compounds' structural features on their antifungal activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to bismuth heterocycles [XBi(5-RC6H3-2-SO2C6H4-1'-)] derived from diphenyl sulfones, a systematic quantitative structure-activity relationship study was possible. The activity depended on the Ar group and increased for heavier X atoms, whereas lengthening the alkyl chain (R) or introducing a substituent (R') reduced the activity. IBi(C6H4-2-COCH3)(4-FC6H4) was the most active. Its activity was superior to that of the related acyclic analogues ClBi[C6H4-2-CH2N(CH3)2](Ar) and ClBi(C6H4-2-SO2 tert-Bu)(Ar) and also comparable to that of heterocyclic ClBi(C6H4-2-SO2C6H4-1'-), which was the most active compound in our previous studies. Density function theory calculations suggested that hypervalent bismuthanes undergo nucleophilic addition with a biomolecule at the bismuth atom to give an intermediate ate complex. For higher antifungal activity, adjusting the lipophilicity-hydrophilicity balance, modeling the three-dimensional molecular structure around the bismuth atom, and stabilizing the ate complex appear to be more important than tuning the Lewis acidity at the bismuth atom.

  4. Solar energy in Italy: A profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, C. A.

    1980-12-01

    The energy profile includes: imported energy sources; solar research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. The country overview includes: Italian Republic geopolitical analysis; economic analysis; and cultural aspects.

  5. Uncovering the Spectral Energy Distribution in Active Galaxies Using High Ionization Mid-Infrared Emission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendez, M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The shape of the spectral energy distribution of active galaxies in the EUV soft X-ray band (13.6 eV to 1 keV) is uncertain because obscuration by dust and gas can hamper our view of the continuum. To investigate the shape of the spectral energy distribution in this energy band, we have generated a set of photoionization models which reproduce the small dispersion found in correlations between high-ionization mid-infrared emission lines in a sample of hard X-ray selected AGN. Our calculations show that a broken power-law continuum model is sufficient to reproduce the [Ne V]14.32 microns/[Ne III], [Ne V]24.32 microns/[O IV]25.89 micron and [O IV] 25.89 microns/[Ne III] ratios, and does not require the addition of a "big bump" EUV model component. We constrain the EUV-soft X-ray slope, alpha(sub i), to be between 1.5 - 2.0 and derive a best fit of alpha(sub i) approx. 1.9 for Seyfert 1 galaxies, consistent with previous studies of intermediate redshift quasars. If we assume a blue bump model, most sources in our sample have derived temperatures between T(sub BB) = 10(exp 5.18) K to 10(exp 5.7) K, suggesting that the peak of this component spans a large range of energies extending from approx. (Lambda)600 A to > (Lambda)1900 A. In this case, the best fitting peak energy that matches the mid-infrared line ratios of Seyfert 1 galaxies occurs between approx. (Lambda)700-(Lambda)1000 A. Despite the fact that our results do not rule out the presence of an EUV bump, we conclude that our power-law model produces enough photons with energies > 4 Ry to generate the observed amount of mid-infrared emission in our sample of BAT AGN.

  6. Controlling activation site density by low-energy far-field stimulation in cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Hörning, Marcel; Takagi, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-06-01

    Tachycardia and fibrillation are potentially fatal arrhythmias associated with the formation of rotating spiral waves in the heart. Presently, the termination of these types of arrhythmia is achieved by use of antitachycardia pacing or cardioversion. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, in that they either have limited application or produce undesirable side effects. Low-energy far-field stimulation has recently been proposed as a superior therapy. This proposed therapeutic method would exploit the phenomenon in which the application of low-energy far-field shocks induces a large number of activation sites ("virtual electrodes") in tissue. It has been found that the formation of such sites can lead to the termination of undesired states in the heart and the restoration of normal beating. In this study we investigate a particular aspect of this method. Here we seek to determine how the activation site density depends on the applied electric field through in vitro experiments carried out on neonatal rat cardiac tissue cultures. The results indicate that the activation site density increases exponentially as a function of the intracellular conductivity and the level of cell isotropy. Additionally, we report numerical results obtained from bidomain simulations of the Beeler-Reuter model that are quantitatively consistent with our experimental results. Also, we derive an intuitive analytical framework that describes the activation site density and provides useful information for determining the ratio of longitudinal to transverse conductivity in a cardiac tissue culture. The results obtained here should be useful in the development of an actual therapeutic method based on low-energy far-field pacing. In addition, they provide a deeper understanding of the intrinsic properties of cardiac cells.

  7. Controlling activation site density by low-energy far-field stimulation in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörning, Marcel; Takagi, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-06-01

    Tachycardia and fibrillation are potentially fatal arrhythmias associated with the formation of rotating spiral waves in the heart. Presently, the termination of these types of arrhythmia is achieved by use of antitachycardia pacing or cardioversion. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, in that they either have limited application or produce undesirable side effects. Low-energy far-field stimulation has recently been proposed as a superior therapy. This proposed therapeutic method would exploit the phenomenon in which the application of low-energy far-field shocks induces a large number of activation sites (“virtual electrodes”) in tissue. It has been found that the formation of such sites can lead to the termination of undesired states in the heart and the restoration of normal beating. In this study we investigate a particular aspect of this method. Here we seek to determine how the activation site density depends on the applied electric field through in vitro experiments carried out on neonatal rat cardiac tissue cultures. The results indicate that the activation site density increases exponentially as a function of the intracellular conductivity and the level of cell isotropy. Additionally, we report numerical results obtained from bidomain simulations of the Beeler-Reuter model that are quantitatively consistent with our experimental results. Also, we derive an intuitive analytical framework that describes the activation site density and provides useful information for determining the ratio of longitudinal to transverse conductivity in a cardiac tissue culture. The results obtained here should be useful in the development of an actual therapeutic method based on low-energy far-field pacing. In addition, they provide a deeper understanding of the intrinsic properties of cardiac cells.

  8. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  9. Effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects: evidence for passive and active over-consumption of energy.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R

    2004-08-01

    The effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects have been the subject of a number of controlled studies recently. Unlike the evidence for other macronutrients, there is minimal evidence for any compensatory reduction in food intake in response to energy ingested as alcohol. In contrast, all studies testing intake within 1 h of preload ingestion report a higher intake of food following alcohol relative to energy-matched controls, although this short-term stimulatory effect is not evident if the test meal is delayed beyond 1 h. This time-course suggests that short-term stimulation of appetite may be mediated by the pharmacological action of alcohol on the appetite control system, either through enhanced orosensory reward or impaired satiety. In the long term, energy ingested as alcohol is additive to energy from other sources, suggesting that moderate alcohol consumption results in long-term passive over-consumption alongside short-term active over-consumption of energy through appetite stimulation. Despite the consistency of enhanced energy intake after moderate alcohol, evidence of an association between alcohol in the diet and obesity remains contentious, although the most recent results suggest that alcohol intake correlates with BMI. Future research needs to address this issue and clarify the mechanisms underlying appetite stimulation by alcohol.

  10. High-energy spectra of active nuclei. 1: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaguti, G.; Bassani, L.; Caroli, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of high-energy spectra (E is greater than or equal to 0.01 keV) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The catalog contains 209 objects (140 Seyfert galaxies, 65 quasars, and 4 objects otherwise classified), for a total of 1030 spectra. Most of the data have been collected from the literature over a period spanning more than 20 yr starting from the early 1970s up to the end of 1992. For a numbner of objects (17), EXOSAT/ME data have been extracted and analyzed, and the 27 spectra obtained have been added to the database. For each object we report individual observation spectral fit parameters using a power-law model corrected for cold gas absorption along the line of sight (photon index, 1 keV intensity and hydrogen column density), plus other relevant data. It is hoped that this database can become a useful tool for the study of the AGN phenomenon in its various aspects.

  11. High energy neutrinos from radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Mészáros, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Most active galactic nuclei (AGN) lack prominent jets, and show modest radio emission and significant x-ray emission which arises mainly from the galactic core, very near the central black hole. We use a quantitative scenario of such core-dominated radio-quiet AGN, which attributes a substantial fraction of the x-ray emission to the presence of abortive jets involving the collision of gas blobs in the core. Here we investigate the consequences of the acceleration of protons in the shocks from such collisions. We find that protons will be accelerated up to energies above the pion photoproduction threshold on both the x rays and the UV photons from the accretion disk. The secondary charged pions decay, producing neutrinos. We predict significant fluxes of TeV-PeV neutrinos, and show that the AMANDA II detector is already constraining several important astrophysical parameters of these sources. Larger cubic kilometer detectors such as IceCube will be able to detect such neutrinos in less than one year of operation, or otherwise rule out this scenario.

  12. Calculating activation energies for temperature compensation in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2011-10-01

    Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.

  13. Activation energy of methyl radical decay in methane hydrate.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Kei; Nango, Kouhei; Sugahara, Takeshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari; Tani, Atsushi

    2005-11-10

    The thermal stability of gamma-ray-induced methyl radicals in methane hydrate was studied using the ESR method at atmospheric pressure and 210-260 K. The methyl radical decay proceeded with the second-order reaction, and ethane molecules were generated from the dimerization process. The methyl radical decay proceeds by two different temperature-dependent processes, that is, the respective activation energies of these processes are 20.0 +/- 1.6 kJ/mol for the lower temperature region of 210-230 K and 54.8 +/- 5.7 kJ/mol for the higher temperature region of 235-260 K. The former agrees well with the enthalpy change of methane hydrate dissociation into ice and gaseous methane, while the latter agrees well with the enthalpy change into liquid water and gaseous methane. The present findings reveal that methane hydrates dissociate into liquid (supercooled) water and gaseous methane in the temperature range of 235-260 K.

  14. Consistent Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  15. Propagation of Epileptiform Activity Can Be Independent of Synaptic Transmission, Gap Junctions, or Diffusion and Is Consistent with Electrical Field Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Ladas, Thomas P.; Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S.; Gonzalez-Reyes, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of activity in neural tissue is generally associated with synaptic transmission, but epileptiform activity in the hippocampus can propagate with or without synaptic transmission at a speed of ∼0.1 m/s. This suggests an underlying common nonsynaptic mechanism for propagation. To study this mechanism, we developed a novel unfolded hippocampus preparation, from CD1 mice of either sex, which preserves the transverse and longitudinal connections and recorded activity with a penetrating microelectrode array. Experiments using synaptic transmission and gap junction blockers indicated that longitudinal propagation is independent of chemical or electrical synaptic transmission. Propagation speeds of 0.1 m/s are not compatible with ionic diffusion or pure axonal conduction. The only other means of communication between neurons is through electric fields. Computer simulations revealed that activity can indeed propagate from cell to cell solely through field effects. These results point to an unexpected propagation mechanism for neural activity in the hippocampus involving endogenous field effect transmission. PMID:24453330

  16. Propagation of epileptiform activity can be independent of synaptic transmission, gap junctions, or diffusion and is consistent with electrical field transmission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Ladas, Thomas P; Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S; Gonzalez-Reyes, Luis E; Durand, Dominique M

    2014-01-22

    The propagation of activity in neural tissue is generally associated with synaptic transmission, but epileptiform activity in the hippocampus can propagate with or without synaptic transmission at a speed of ∼0.1 m/s. This suggests an underlying common nonsynaptic mechanism for propagation. To study this mechanism, we developed a novel unfolded hippocampus preparation, from CD1 mice of either sex, which preserves the transverse and longitudinal connections and recorded activity with a penetrating microelectrode array. Experiments using synaptic transmission and gap junction blockers indicated that longitudinal propagation is independent of chemical or electrical synaptic transmission. Propagation speeds of 0.1 m/s are not compatible with ionic diffusion or pure axonal conduction. The only other means of communication between neurons is through electric fields. Computer simulations revealed that activity can indeed propagate from cell to cell solely through field effects. These results point to an unexpected propagation mechanism for neural activity in the hippocampus involving endogenous field effect transmission.

  17. Some New Observations on Activation Energy of Crystal Growth for Thermally Activated Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Kumar, A

    2016-02-18

    Calorimetric study of glass/crystal phase transformation in disordered semiconductors is a significant tool for understanding their crystallization kinetics. Such studies provide the basis for practical application of glasses. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is one of the advanced techniques for the analysis of thermally induced crystallization in glassy or amorphous systems. We are reporting the nonisothermal DSC measurements on four amorphous systems of Se70Te30 alloy with Ag, Cd, Sb, and Zn as chemical modifiers. In general, the rate constant (K) shows Arrhenian dependence on temperature (T), i.e., K = K0 exp (-Eg/RT) where Eg is the activation energy of crystal growth and K0 is called the pre-exponential factor of rate constant. In the present work, an experiment is designed to see the effect of composition on the activation energy of crystal growth. We have found Meyer-Neldel relation (MNR) between Eg and K0 for present systems. Another interesting feature of present work is the observation of further relation between Meyer-Neldel prefactor and Meyer-Neldel energy.

  18. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  19. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  20. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-four multidisciplinary activities for grades seven through twelve are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I helps students understand energy and the current crisis by studying laws which govern energy flow and using examples of how these laws illustrate stable energy utilization…

  1. Energy in the Classroom, Vol. I, Activities Guide for K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kathy Baker; Sherman, Deborah Fick

    This booklet is a teacher's guide for teaching about energy, types of energy, sources of energy, and ways to conserve energy. It is designed for students in grades K-3. Included are a variety of activities, sheets that can be copied for handouts, and a bibliography of student references. (RH)

  2. Energy in the Classroom, Vol. II, Activities Guide for 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kathy Baker; Sherman, Deborah Fick

    This booklet is a teacher's guide for teaching about energy, types of energy, sources of energy, and ways to conserve energy. It is designed for students in grades 4-7. Included are a variety of activities, sheets that can be copied for handouts, and a bibliography of student references. (RH)

  3. K.E.E.P. - Kentucky's Energy Education Program Activities for the Classroom, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Nancy Stearns, Ed.; And Others

    Seventy-seven multidisciplinary activities for grades K-6 are contained in this revised edition of energy education lessons for Kentucky students. Section I introduces students to the topic of energy by emphasizing human interaction with the environment. It focuses on personal energy, food as the source of human energy, food chains, and the sun as…

  4. Consistent quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  5. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Enhad A.; Western, Max J.; Nightingale, Thomas E.; Peacock, Oliver J.; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  6. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  7. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  8. Activities of the U. S. Department of Energy in education. Annual status report, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The energy-related education activities administered in FY 1979 by DOE are described: projections for FY 1980 are also given. This document provides assistance for DOE program managers who wish to use the educational process in their operations, and it provides guidance and information to educators and the general public about DOE energy-related education activities. The education activities are classified as energy information (curriculum packages, studies, workshops and forums conferences, other materials), energy skills development, institutional resource enhancement, and other activities. A chart gives the category of activity, type of audience, and type of services provided. (RWR)

  9. Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xin-Lin; Jin, Wu-Yin; Ma, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh-Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372122 and 11365014).

  10. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  11. Indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulates Neuronal Bioelectric Activity in Rat Hippocampus at Dietary-Consistent Amounts.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Mario; Carletti, Fabio; Gambino, Giuditta; Tutone, Marco; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Sardo, Pierangelo; Almerico, Anna Maria; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-26

    Indicaxanthin is a bioactive and bioavailable betalain pigment from the Opuntia ficus-indica fruits. In this in vivo study, kinetic measurements showed that indicaxanthin is revealed in the rat brain within 1 h from oral administration of 2 μmol/kg, an amount compatible with a dietary consumption of cactus pear fruits in humans. A peak (20 ± 2.4 ng of indicaxanthin per whole brain) was measured after 2.5 h; thereafter the molecule disappeared with first order kinetics within 4 h. The potential of indicaxanthin to affect neural activities was in vivo investigated by a microiontophoretic approach. Indicaxanthin, administered in a range between 0.085 ng and 0.34 ng per neuron, dose-dependently modulated the rate of discharge of spontaneously active neurons of the hippocampus, with reduction of the discharge and related changes of latency and duration of the effect. Indicaxanthin (0.34 ng/neuron) showed inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced excitation, indicating activity at the level of glutamatergic synapses. A molecular target of indicaxanthin is suggested by in silico molecular modeling of indicaxanthin with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the most represented of the glutamate receptor family in hippocampus. Therefore, at nutritionally compatible amounts indicaxanthin (i) crosses the rat BBB and accumulates in brain; (ii) can affect the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons locally treated with amounts comparable with those measured in the brain; and (iii) modulates glutamate-induced neuronal excitation. The potential of dietary indicaxanthin as a natural neuromodulatory agent deserves further mechanistic and neurophysiologic investigation.

  12. Rational Design of Engineered Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Consisting Exclusively of Arginine and Tryptophan, and Their Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Deslouches, Berthony; Steckbeck, Jonathan D.; Craigo, Jodi K.; Doi, Yohei; Mietzner, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens underscores the need for new antimicrobial agents to overcome the resistance mechanisms of these organisms. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) provide a potential source of new antimicrobial therapeutics. We previously characterized a lytic base unit (LBU) series of engineered CAPs (eCAPs) of 12 to 48 residues demonstrating maximum antibacterial selectivity at 24 residues. Further, Trp substitution in LBU sequences increased activity against both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus under challenging conditions (e.g., saline, divalent cations, and serum). Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the optimal length and, therefore, the cost for maximum eCAP activity under physiologically relevant conditions could be significantly reduced using only Arg and Trp arranged to form idealized amphipathic helices. Hence, we developed a novel peptide series, composed only of Arg and Trp, in a sequence predicted and verified by circular dichroism to fold into optimized amphipathic helices. The most effective antimicrobial activity was achieved at 12 residues in length (WR12) against a panel of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical isolates, including extensively drug-resistant strains, in saline and broth culture and at various pH values. The results demonstrate that the rational design of CAPs can lead to a significant reduction in the length and the number of amino acids used in peptide design to achieve optimal potency and selectivity against specific pathogens. PMID:23507278

  13. A novel antimicrobial protein for plant protection consisting of a Xanthomonas oryzae harpin and active domains of cecropin A and melittin

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yi‐Zhou; Li, Yu‐Rong; Zou, Hua‐Song; Zou, Li‐Fang; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Gong‐You

    2011-01-01

    Summary Discoveries about antimicrobial peptides and plant defence activators have made possible the de novo and rational design of novel peptides for use in crop protection. Here we report a novel chimeric protein, Hcm1, which was made by linking the active domains of cecropin A and melittin to the hypersensitive response (HR)‐elicitor Hpa1 of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf streak. The resulting chimeric protein maintained not only the HR‐inducing property of the harpin, but also the antimicrobial activity of the cecropin A‐melittin hybrid. Hcm1 was purified from engineered Escherichia coli and evaluated in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the 50% effective dose (ED50) against important plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Importantly, the protein acted as a potential pesticide by inducing disease resistance for viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens. This designed drug can be considered as a lead compound for use in plant protection, either for the development of new broad‐spectrum pesticides or for expression in transgenic plants. PMID:21895994

  14. Design and Development of an Affective Interface for Supporting Energy-saving Activities and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kyoko; Tomita, Daisuke; Imaki, Tomotaka; Hongo, Taishiro; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    Toward a sustainable society, energy and environmental issues are very important and controversial problems, and it is expected to support various human activities for the measures by using Information Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an affective interface for supporting people's energy-saving activities. First, a model for supporting people's energy-saving activities involving affective elements has been constructed for supporting people's energy-saving activities, based on social psychological approaches. Based on the proposed model, the requirements on an affective interface for people's energy-saving activities have been considered. In this study, the affective interface presents suitable energy-saving activities and current electric energy consumption by a character agent with a graphical shape and synthesized voice. The character agent recommends people's energy-saving activities, tells the method of energy-saving activities and the effectiveness, and so on. The affective interface for supporting energy-saving activities has been designed in detail and developed. Then, the evaluation experiment of the developed interface has been conducted, and the results of the experiments were analyzed.

  15. Industrial Technology. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides learning activities for teachers to use with students in industrial arts/technology education. Each of the 17…

  16. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3).

  17. Communicating Wave Energy: An Active Learning Experience for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Trongnghia; Hou, Gene; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an education project to communicate the wave energy concept to high school students. A virtual reality system that combines both hardware and software is developed in this project to simulate the buoy-wave interaction. This first-of-its-kind wave energy unit is portable and physics-based, allowing students to conduct a number of…

  18. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... Washington, DC on October 18, 2011. Anne Harrington, Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P...

  19. ENERGY EFFICIENT THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR NATURAL GAS ENGINE AFTERTREATMENT VIA ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen

    2004-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  20. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  1. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2005-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  2. Mississippi Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Report. A snap shot of related activities in the state of Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Sumesh M.; Linton, Joseph A.

    2011-05-11

    In recent years, due to concerns over national security from both economic and military standpoints, increased attention has been given to the production of renewable energy in order to reduce American dependence on foreign supplies of energy. These concerns, along with those related to the effect of fossil fuels on the environment, have served to heighten the enthusiasm for finding replacements for traditional energy sources, along with helping to highlight the need for energy efficiency in American homes and businesses. Throughout the nation, this has been exemplified in an increased entrepreneurial activity to produce liquid fuels, thermal energy and electricity from a vast range of sources such as plants, trees, bacteria, the sun, wind, waves and the Earth itself. Coupled with tax subsidies, loan guarantees, renewable fuel standards, and various other government incentives and legislative encouragements we have seen a big jump in the production of renewable energy in the United States in the last ten years. But we are just getting started!

  3. Disruption and activation of blood platelets in contact with an antimicrobial composite coating consisting of a pyridinium polymer and AgBr nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kris N; Knetsch, Menno L; Sen, Ayusman; Sambhy, Varun; Koole, Leo H

    2009-09-01

    Composite materials made up from a pyridinium polymer matrix and silver bromide nanoparticles embedded therein feature excellent antimicrobial properties. Most probably, the antimicrobial activity is related to the membrane-disrupting effect of both the polymer matrix and Ag(+) ions; both may work synergistically. One of the most important applications of antimicrobial materials would be their use as surface coatings for percutaneous (skin-penetrating) catheters, such as central venous catheters (CVCs). These are commonly used in critical care, and serious complications due to bacterial infection occur frequently. This study aimed at examining the possible effects of a highly antimicrobial pyridinium polymer/AgBr composite on the blood coagulation system, i.e., (i) on the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of thrombin and a fibrin cross-linked network, and (ii) on blood platelets. Evidently, pyridinium/AgBr composites could not qualify as coatings for CVCs if they trigger blood coagulation. Using a highly antimicrobial composite of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-co-poly(4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide) (NPVP) and AgBr nanoparticles as a thin adherent surface coating on Tygon elastomer tubes, it was found that contacting blood platelets rapidly acquire a highly activated state, after which they become substantially disrupted. This implies that NPVP/AgBr is by no means blood-compatible. This disqualifies the material for use as a CVC coating. This information, combined with earlier findings on the hemolytic effects (i.e., disruption of contacting red blood cells) of similar materials, implies that this class of antimicrobial materials affects not only bacteria but also mammalian cells. This would render them more useful outside the biomedical field.

  4. Excited-state potential-energy surfaces of metal-adsorbed organic molecules from linear expansion Δ-self-consistent field density-functional theory (ΔSCF-DFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Reinhard J.; Reuter, Karsten

    2013-07-01

    Accurate and efficient simulation of excited state properties is an important and much aspired cornerstone in the study of adsorbate dynamics on metal surfaces. To this end, the recently proposed linear expansion Δ-self-consistent field method by Gavnholt et al. [Phys. Rev. B 78, 075441 (2008)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.78.075441 presents an efficient alternative to time consuming quasi-particle calculations. In this method, the standard Kohn-Sham equations of density-functional theory are solved with the constraint of a non-equilibrium occupation in a region of Hilbert-space resembling gas-phase orbitals of the adsorbate. In this work, we discuss the applicability of this method for the excited-state dynamics of metal-surface mounted organic adsorbates, specifically in the context of molecular switching. We present necessary advancements to allow for a consistent quality description of excited-state potential-energy surfaces (PESs), and illustrate the concept with the application to Azobenzene adsorbed on Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces. We find that the explicit inclusion of substrate electronic states modifies the topologies of intra-molecular excited-state PESs of the molecule due to image charge and hybridization effects. While the molecule in gas phase shows a clear energetic separation of resonances that induce isomerization and backreaction, the surface-adsorbed molecule does not. The concomitant possibly simultaneous induction of both processes would lead to a significantly reduced switching efficiency of such a mechanism.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy thermal energy storage research activities review: 1989 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.W.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offers the opportunity for the recovery and re-use of heat currently rejected to the ambient environment. Further, through the ability of TES to match an energy supply with a thermal energy demand, TES increases efficiencies of energy systems and improves capacity factors of power plants. The US Department of Energy has been the leader in TES research, development, and demonstration since recognition in 1976 of the need for fostering energy conservation as a component of the national energy budget. The federal program on TES R and D is the responsibility of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The overall program is organized into three program areas: diurnal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat for use in residential and commercial buildings on a daily cycle; industrial--relating primarily to higher temperature heat for use in industrial and utility processes on an hourly to daily cycle; seasonal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat or chill for use in residential complexes (central supply as for apartments or housing developments), commercial (light manufacturing, processing, or retail), and industrial (space conditioning) on a seasonal to annual cycle. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock Adjusted Energy-Consistent Pseudopotential for Uranium: Spin-Orbit Configuration Interaction and Fock-Space Coupled-Cluster Study of U4+ and U5+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Anna; Cao, Xiaoyan; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Dolg, Michael

    2009-07-01

    In order to assess the accuracy of a recently adjusted relativistic energy-consistent small-core pseudopotential for uranium, the U5+ (5f1 subconfiguration) spin-orbit splitting as well as the fine structure of the U4+ (5f2 subconfiguration) spectrum have been calculated. The pseudopotential has been adjusted to four-component all-electron data, i.e., at the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock level using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian with a Fermi nucleus charge distribution and perturbatively including the Breit interaction. Its performance in a dressed effective Hamiltonian spin-orbit configuration interaction framework is compared to that of an older scalar-relativistic Wood-Boring adjusted pseudopotential, supplemented by a valence spin-orbit term, as well as to all-electron calculations using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian. Electron correlation is accounted for by the multireference configuration interaction method with and without the Davidson correction and with different frozen-orbital spaces. Our best calculations show satisfactory agreement with experimental data; i.e., the mean absolute (relative) deviations amount to 183 (2.4%) and 948 cm-1 (5.1%) for the U5+ and the U4+ fine-structure energy levels, respectively. Even better agreement, comparable to the one for rigorous highly correlated four-component all-electron data, is obtained in intermediate Hamiltonian Fock-space coupled-cluster calculations applying the new pseudopotential.

  7. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  8. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  9. Identification of general linear relationships between activation energies and enthalpy changes for dissociation reactions at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Angelos; Liu, Z-P; Zhang, C J; Alavi, Ali; King, David A; Hu, P

    2003-04-02

    The activation energy to reaction is a key quantity that controls catalytic activity. Having used ab inito calculations to determine an extensive and broad ranging set of activation energies and enthalpy changes for surface-catalyzed reactions, we show that linear relationships exist between dissociation activation energies and enthalpy changes. Known in the literature as empirical Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relationships, we identify and discuss the physical origin of their presence in heterogeneous catalysis. The key implication is that merely from knowledge of adsorption energies the barriers to catalytic elementary reaction steps can be estimated.

  10. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer.

  11. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer. PMID:26658304

  12. Activation energy for a model ferrous-ferric half reaction from transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel-Grau, Christof; Sprik, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Activation parameters for the model oxidation half reaction of the classical aqueous ferrous ion are compared for different molecular simulation techniques. In particular, activation free energies are obtained from umbrella integration and Marcus theory based thermodynamic integration, which rely on the diabatic gap as the reaction coordinate. The latter method also assumes linear response, and both methods obtain the activation entropy and the activation energy from the temperature dependence of the activation free energy. In contrast, transition path sampling does not require knowledge of the reaction coordinate and directly yields the activation energy [C. Dellago and P. G. Bolhuis, Mol. Simul. 30, 795 (2004), 10.1080/08927020412331294869]. Benchmark activation energies from transition path sampling agree within statistical uncertainty with activation energies obtained from standard techniques requiring knowledge of the reaction coordinate. In addition, it is found that the activation energy for this model system is significantly smaller than the activation free energy for the Marcus model, approximately half the value, implying an equally large entropy contribution.

  13. A summary of USSR thermionic energy conversion activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasor, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the research and development associated with thermionic energy conversion in the USSR. Consideration is given to the basic physics of the thermionic converter, the development of thermionic nuclear reactors including the three TOPAZ models, radioisotope-heated generators, and the thermionic topping of fossil-fueled electric-power plants. Comparisons are made between U.S. and USSR capabilities in thermionic energy conversion and potential cooperative programs are noted.

  14. Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

  15. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-03

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA.

  16. Energy Expenditure of Selected Household Activities during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Freedson, Patty S.; Roberts, Dawn E.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Fragala, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurately measuring pregnancy physical activity is critical to assess the percentage of pregnant women meeting the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines. In addition, valid assessment of pregnancy physical activity is important for epidemiologic studies assessing the relationship between physical activity and…

  17. Energy and Change. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 3 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  18. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  19. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  20. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s aircraft activities

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    On October 19, 1998, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) was asked to undertake a review of the Department of Energy`s aircraft activities. It was also requested that they report back within 90 days. The OIG has gathered information concerning the number of aircraft, the level of utilization, and the cost of the Department`s aircraft operations. They have also briefly summarized four issues that, in their judgment, may require management attention.

  1. Dengue Virus NS1 Protein Modulates Cellular Energy Metabolism by Increasing Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Allonso, Diego; Andrade, Iamara S.; Conde, Jonas N.; Coelho, Diego R.; Rocha, Daniele C. P.; da Silva, Manuela L.; Ventura, Gustavo T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue is one of the main public health concerns worldwide. Recent estimates indicate that over 390 million people are infected annually with the dengue virus (DENV), resulting in thousands of deaths. Among the DENV nonstructural proteins, the NS1 protein is the only one whose function during replication is still unknown. NS1 is a 46- to 55-kDa glycoprotein commonly found as both a membrane-associated homodimer and a soluble hexameric barrel-shaped lipoprotein. Despite its role in the pathogenic process, NS1 is essential for proper RNA accumulation and virus production. In the present study, we identified that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) interacts with intracellular NS1. Molecular docking revealed that this interaction occurs through the hydrophobic protrusion of NS1 and the hydrophobic residues located at the opposite side of the catalytic site. Moreover, addition of purified recombinant NS1 enhanced the glycolytic activity of GAPDH in vitro. Interestingly, we observed that DENV infection promoted the relocalization of GAPDH to the perinuclear region, where NS1 is commonly found. Both DENV infection and expression of NS1 itself resulted in increased GAPDH activity. Our findings indicate that the NS1 protein acts to increase glycolytic flux and, consequently, energy production, which is consistent with the recent finding that DENV induces and requires glycolysis for proper replication. This is the first report to propose that NS1 is an important modulator of cellular energy metabolism. The data presented here provide new insights that may be useful for further drug design and the development of alternative antiviral therapies against DENV. IMPORTANCE Dengue represents a serious public health problem worldwide and is caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV). Estimates indicate that half of the global population is at risk of infection, with almost 400 million cases occurring per year. The NS1 glycoprotein is found in both the

  2. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  3. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  4. Illustrating the Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles provide students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis, making such profiles useful as teaching and learning tools. Traditional kinetic topics, such as the effect of pH on enzyme activity, are often not discussed in terms of Gibbs energy profiles. Herein, the symbolism of Gibbs…

  5. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  6. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  7. Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity of a measure of public support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T) in a population-based sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2012-04-01

    Active living is a broad conceptualization of physical activity that incorporates domains of exercise; recreational, household, and occupational activities; and active transportation. Policy makers develop and implement a variety of transportation policies that can influence choices about how to travel from one location to another. In making such decisions, policy makers act in part in response to public opinion or support for proposed policies. Measures of the public's support for policies aimed at promoting active transportation can inform researchers and policy makers. This study examined the internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a newly developed measure of the public's support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T). A series of 17 items representing potential policies for promoting active transportation was generated. Two samples of participants (n = 2,001 and n = 2,502) from Montreal, Canada, were recruited via random digit dialling. Analyses were conducted on the combined data set (n = 4,503). Participants were aged 18 through 94 years (58% female). The concurrent and discriminant validity of the PAL-T was assessed by examining relationships with physical activity and smoking. To explore the usability of the PAL-T, predicted scale scores were compared to the summed values of responses. Results showed that the internal consistency of the PAL-T was 0.70. Multilevel regression demonstrated no relationship between the PAL-T and smoking status (p > 0.05) but significant relationships with utilitarian walking (p < 0.05) and cycling (p < 0.01) for at least 30 minutes on 5 days/week. The PAL-T has acceptable internal consistency and good concurrent and discriminant validity. Measuring public opinion can inform policy makers and support advocacy efforts aimed at making built environments more suitable for active transportation while allowing researchers to examine the antecedents and

  8. Serum metabolites related to cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity energy expenditure, sedentary time and vigorous activity.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Floegel, Anna; Knüppel, Sven; Vigl, Matthaeus; Drogan, Dagmar; Adamski, Jerzy; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics in a population- based study. A total of 100 subjects provided 2 fasting blood samples and engaged in a CRF and PA measurement at 2 visits 4 months apart. CRF was estimated from a step test, whereas physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), time spent sedentary and time spend in vigorous activity were measured by a combined heart rate and movement sensor for a total of 8 days. Serum metabolite concentrations were determined by flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS). Linear mixed models were applied with multivariable adjustment and p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Furthermore, we explored the associations between CRF, PA and two metabolite factors that have previously been linked to risk of Type 2 diabetes. CRF was associated with two phosphatidylcholine clusters independently of all other exposures. Lysophosphatidylcholine C14:0 and methionine were significantly negatively associated with PAEE and sedentary time. CRF was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. Vigorous activity was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes risk factor in the mutually adjusted model. Our results suggest that CRF and PA are associated with serum metabolites, especially CRF with phosphatidylcholines and with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. PAEE and sedentary time were associated with methionine. The identified metabolites could be potential mediators of the protective effects of CRF and PA on chronic disease risk.

  9. Final report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities. April 1, 1999 to December 31, 2001. USDOE Grant No. DE-FG01-99-EE35098

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    This is the final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association, and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  10. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Science component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also contained in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE…

  11. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  12. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Home Economics component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  13. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Introduction for the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681),…

  14. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler 6-12. Home Economics. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    This set of activities is intended to assist home economics teachers in incorporating basic energy education concepts into traditional home economics topics. Awareness activities that are intended to help students develop an understanding of fundamental energy conservation concepts and, at the same time, apply these concepts in home economics…

  15. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  16. Polyphosphate - an ancient energy source and active metabolic regulator

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are a several molecules on Earth that effectively store energy within their covalent bonds, and one of these energy-rich molecules is polyphosphate. In microbial cells, polyphosphate granules are synthesised for both energy and phosphate storage and are degraded to produce nucleotide triphosphate or phosphate. Energy released from these energetic carriers is used by the cell for production of all vital molecules such as amino acids, nucleobases, sugars and lipids. Polyphosphate chains directly regulate some processes in the cell and are used as phosphate donors in gene regulation. These two processes, energetic metabolism and regulation, are orchestrated by polyphosphate kinases. Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) can currently be categorized into three groups (PPK1, PPK2 and PPK3) according their functionality; they can also be divided into three groups according their homology (EcPPK1, PaPPK2 and ScVTC). This review discusses historical information, similarities and differences, biochemical characteristics, roles in stress response regulation and possible applications in the biotechnology industry of these enzymes. At the end of the review, a hypothesis is discussed in view of synthetic biology applications that states polyphosphate and calcium-rich organelles have endosymbiotic origins from ancient protocells that metabolized polyphosphate. PMID:21816086

  17. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  18. Logistic distributed activation energy model--Part 1: Derivation and numerical parametric study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Jin, Chuan; Yang, Songyuan; Chen, Yong

    2011-01-01

    A new distributed activation energy model is presented using the logistic distribution to mathematically represent the pyrolysis kinetics of complex solid fuels. A numerical parametric study of the logistic distributed activation energy model is conducted to evaluate the influences of the model parameters on the numerical results of the model. The parameters studied include the heating rate, reaction order, frequency factor, mean of the logistic activation energy distribution, standard deviation of the logistic activation energy distribution. The parametric study addresses the dependence on the forms of the calculated α-T and dα/dT-T curves (α: reaction conversion, T: temperature). The study results would be very helpful to the application of the logistic distributed activation energy model, which is the main subject of the next part of this series.

  19. Concept of variable activation energy and its validity in nonisothermal kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guanglei; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Zhongsuo

    2011-06-09

    The concept of variable activation energy in solid-state kinetics under nonisothermal conditions has been suffering from doubt and controversy. Rate equations of nonisothermal kinetics of solid decomposition, which involve the factors of thermodynamics conditions, pressure of gaseous product, structure parameters of solid, and/or extent of conversion, are derived from the models of the interface reaction, the diffusion of gaseous product, and the nuclei growth of the solid product, respectively. The definition of the validity function in the rate equations represents the influence of the factors on the reaction rate. A function of variable activation energy depending on the validity function is also developed. The changing trend and degree of activation energy are extrapolated from the function of variable activation energy and based on the data of nonisothermal thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. It is shown that the concept of variable activation energy is meaningfully applicable to solid-state reactions under nonisothermal conditions.

  20. How Much Energy Can Be Stored in Solar Active Region Magnetic Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, J.; Downs, C.; Torok, T.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Major solar eruptions such as X-class flares and very fast coronal mass ejections usually originate in active regions on the Sun. The energy that powers these events is believed to be stored as free magnetic energy (energy above the potential field state) prior to eruption. While coronal magnetic fields are not in general force-free, active regions have very strong magnetic fields and at low coronal heights the plasma beta is therefore very small, making the field (in equilibrium) essentially force-free. The Aly-Sturrock theorem shows that the energy of a fully force-free field cannot exceed the energy of the so-called open field. If the theorem holds, this places an upper limit on the amount of free energy that can be stored: the maximum free energy (MFE) is the difference between the open field energy and the potential field energy of the active region. In thermodynamic MHD simulations of a major eruption (the July 14, 2000 'Bastille' day event) and a modest event (February 13, 2009, we have found that the MFE indeed bounds the energy stored prior to eruption. We compute the MFE for major eruptive events in cycles 23 and 24 to investigate the maximum amount of energy that can be stored in solar active regions.Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  1. Determining Individual Phase Flow Properties in a Quench and Partitioning Steel with In Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction and Multiphase Elasto-Plastic Self-Consistent Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaohua; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yangdong

    2016-12-01

    The micromechanical properties of the constituent phases were characterized for advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) produced by a quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process with in situ tensile loading under synchrotron-based, high-energy X-ray diffraction. The constituent phases present are retained austenite and three martensites (tempered, untampered, and freshly formed martensites). For the material investigated, the 200 and 220 lattice strains of the retained austenite phase were calculated by examining the changes of the X-ray diffraction peak positions during deformation. The 200 and 211 lattice strains of the various martensitic phases with similar crystal structures were determined by separating their overlapped diffraction peaks. Apart from tempered and untempered martensite, the diffraction peaks of freshly formed martensite as a result of austenite-to-martensite transformation can also be separated due to a high initial austenite volume fraction. The phase stresses are first estimated with an empirical relationship through the X-ray diffraction elastic constants. A multiphase elasto-plastic self-consistent model is next used for more accurate determination of the constitutive behaviors of the various phases by comparing the predicted lattice strain distributions and global stress-strain curves with the measured ones. The determined constitutive laws will be used for microstructure-based modeling for sheet formability of the Q&P AHSS steel.

  2. Estimating the voltage-dependent free energy change of ion channels using the median voltage for activation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sandipan; Chanda, Baron

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are crucial for electrical activity and chemical signaling in a variety of cell types. Structure-activity studies involving electrophysiological characterization of mutants are widely used and allow us to quickly realize the energetic effects of a mutation by measuring macroscopic currents and fitting the observed voltage dependence of conductance to a Boltzmann equation. However, such an approach is somewhat limiting, principally because of the inherent assumption that the channel activation is a two-state process. In this analysis, we show that the area delineated by the gating charge displacement curve and its ordinate axis is related to the free energy of activation of a voltage-gated ion channel. We derive a parameter, the median voltage of charge transfer (V(m)), which is proportional to this area, and prove that the chemical component of free energy change of a system can be obtained from the knowledge of V(m) and the maximum number of charges transferred. Our method is not constrained by the number or connectivity of intermediate states and is applicable to instances in which the observed responses show a multiphasic behavior. We consider various models of ion channel gating with voltage-dependent steps, latent charge movement, inactivation, etc. and discuss the applicability of this approach in each case. Notably, our method estimates a net free energy change of approximately -14 kcal/mol associated with the full-scale activation of the Shaker potassium channel, in contrast to -2 to -3 kcal/mol estimated from a single Boltzmann fit. Our estimate of the net free energy change in the system is consistent with those derived from detailed kinetic models (Zagotta et al. 1994. J. Gen. Physiol. doi:10.1085/jgp.103.2.321). The median voltage method can reliably quantify the magnitude of free energy change associated with activation of a voltage-dependent system from macroscopic equilibrium measurements. This will be particularly useful

  3. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project; energy resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Oil, natural gas, and coal (energy resources) have been produced from rocks in the Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming for more than a century, and significant quantities of oil and gas continue to be developed in the study area of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (fig. 1). As an infrastructure resource, energy resources helped to fuel past development of (1) urban areas in the Front Range as well as (2) some of the manufacturing and mining upon which the urban centers were built and thrived. At present, much of the oil and gas extracted from rocks beneath the Front Range urban corridor is used locally; the people living in the urban area provide a need and viable marketplace for these commodities.

  4. Self-consistent structure of metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, D. M.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1977-01-01

    A calculation is presented of the total energy of metallic hydrogen for a family of face-centered tetragonal lattices carried out within the self-consistent phonon approximation. The energy of proton motion is large and proper inclusion of proton dynamics alters the structural dependence of the total energy, causing isotropic lattices to become favored. For the dynamic lattice the structural dependence of terms of third and higher order in the electron-proton interaction is greatly reduced from static lattice equivalents.

  5. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rappold, K.

    1995-09-25

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

  6. Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Indian Data Centers. Final Report for Phase I Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Suprotim; Raje, Sanyukta; Kumar, Satish; Sartor, Dale; Greenberg, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This report documents Phase 1 of the “Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Indian Data Centers” initiative to support the development of an energy efficiency policy framework for Indian data centers. The initiative is being led by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)-U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and under the guidance of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). It is also part of the larger Power and Energy Efficiency Working Group of the US-India Bilateral Energy Dialogue. The initiative consists of two phases: Phase 1 (November 2014 – September 2015) and Phase 2 (October 2015 – September 2016).

  7. A wearable sensor module with a neural-network-based activity classification algorithm for daily energy expenditure estimation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Wang, Jeen-Shing; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a wearable module and neural-network-based activity classification algorithm for energy expenditure estimation. The purpose of our design is first to categorize physical activities with similar intensity levels, and then to construct energy expenditure regression (EER) models using neural networks in order to optimize the estimation performance. The classification of physical activities for EER model construction is based on the acceleration and ECG signal data collected by wearable sensor modules developed by our research lab. The proposed algorithm consists of procedures for data collection, data preprocessing, activity classification, feature selection, and construction of EER models using neural networks. In order to reduce the computational load and achieve satisfactory estimation performance, we employed sequential forward and backward search strategies for feature selection. Two representative neural networks, a radial basis function network (RBFN) and a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), were employed as EER models for performance comparisons. Our experimental results have successfully validated the effectiveness of our wearable sensor module and its neural-network-based activity classification algorithm for energy expenditure estimation. In addition, our results demonstrate the superior performance of GRNN as compared to RBFN.

  8. Determining Linac Beam Energy from C-11/O-15 Activity Ratios in Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardman, Ryan; Shepherd, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A method for precisely measuring the beam energy of 20-25 MeV electron linear accelerator was developed. Polyoxymethylene (Delrin) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (acrylic) samples were irradiated with an electron linac at several energy settings of the accelerator simultaneously producing C-11 and O-15 via photonuclear reactions within each of the polymers. Using gamma-ray spectroscopy the activity ratios of C-11/O-15 were measured by analyzing the decay of activity vs. time. The C-11/O-15 ratio exhibits an energy dependence due to differences in the production cross section vs. energy. The observed dependence can be matched to predictions of the activity ratio vs. energy, developed from GEANT4 Monte Carlo models of an electromagnetic shower and knowledge of the cross sections, in order to determine the energy of the beam at a sub-MeV level of precision. National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates.

  9. Lactate Effectively Covers Energy Demands during Neuronal Network Activity in Neonatal Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Mukhtarov, Marat; Bregestovski, Piotr; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experimental data indicate that lactate is efficiently used for energy by the mature brain, the direct measurements of energy metabolism parameters during neuronal network activity in early postnatal development have not been performed. Therefore, the role of lactate in the energy metabolism of neurons at this age remains unclear. In this study, we monitored field potentials and contents of oxygen and NAD(P)H in correlation with oxidative metabolism during intense network activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of neonatal brain slices. We show that in the presence of glucose, lactate is effectively utilized as an energy substrate, causing an augmentation of oxidative metabolism. Moreover, in the absence of glucose lactate is fully capable of maintaining synaptic function. Therefore, during network activity in neonatal slices, lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing aerobic energy metabolism. PMID:21602909

  10. Hermes III endpoint energy calculation from photonuclear activation of 197Au and 58Ni foils

    SciTech Connect

    Parzyck, Christopher Thomas

    2014-09-01

    A new process has been developed to characterize the endpoint energy of HERMES III on a shot-to-shot basis using standard dosimetry tools from the Sandia Radiation Measurements Laboratory. Photonuclear activation readings from nickel and gold foils are used in conjunction with calcium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters to derive estimated electron endpoint energies for a series of HERMES shots. The results are reasonably consistent with the expected endpoint voltages on those shots.

  11. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  12. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-04-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  13. A comparison of energy-resolved vibrational activation/dissociation characteristics of protonated and sodiated high mannose N-glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Aboufazeli, Forouzan; Kolli, Venkata; Dodds, Eric D

    2015-04-01

    Fragmentation of glycopeptides in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) plays a pivotal role in site-specific protein glycosylation profiling by allowing specific oligosaccharide compositions and connectivities to be associated with specific loci on the corresponding protein. Although MS/MS analysis of glycopeptides has been successfully performed using a number of distinct ion dissociation methods, relatively little is known regarding the fragmentation characteristics of glycopeptide ions with various charge carriers. In this study, energy-resolved vibrational activation/dissociation was examined via collision-induced dissociation for a group of related high mannose tryptic glycopeptides as their doubly protonated, doubly sodiated, and hybrid protonated sodium adduct ions. The doubly protonated glycopeptide ions with various compositions were found to undergo fragmentation over a relatively low but wide range of collision energies compared with the doubly sodiated and hybrid charged ions, and were found to yield both glycan and peptide fragmentation depending on the applied collision energy. By contrast, the various doubly sodiated glycopeptides were found to dissociate over a significantly higher but narrow range of collision energies, and exhibited only glycan cleavages. Interestingly, the hybrid protonated sodium adduct ions were consistently the most stable of the precursor ions studied, and provided fragmentation information spanning both the glycan and the peptide moieties. Taken together, these findings illustrate the influence of charge carrier over the energy-resolved vibrational activation/dissociation characteristics of glycopeptides, and serve to suggest potential strategies that exploit the analytically useful features uniquely afforded by specific charge carriers or combinations thereof.

  14. A Comparison of Energy-Resolved Vibrational Activation/Dissociation Characteristics of Protonated and Sodiated High Mannose N-Glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboufazeli, Forouzan; Kolli, Venkata; Dodds, Eric D.

    2015-04-01

    Fragmentation of glycopeptides in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) plays a pivotal role in site-specific protein glycosylation profiling by allowing specific oligosaccharide compositions and connectivities to be associated with specific loci on the corresponding protein. Although MS/MS analysis of glycopeptides has been successfully performed using a number of distinct ion dissociation methods, relatively little is known regarding the fragmentation characteristics of glycopeptide ions with various charge carriers. In this study, energy-resolved vibrational activation/dissociation was examined via collision-induced dissociation for a group of related high mannose tryptic glycopeptides as their doubly protonated, doubly sodiated, and hybrid protonated sodium adduct ions. The doubly protonated glycopeptide ions with various compositions were found to undergo fragmentation over a relatively low but wide range of collision energies compared with the doubly sodiated and hybrid charged ions, and were found to yield both glycan and peptide fragmentation depending on the applied collision energy. By contrast, the various doubly sodiated glycopeptides were found to dissociate over a significantly higher but narrow range of collision energies, and exhibited only glycan cleavages. Interestingly, the hybrid protonated sodium adduct ions were consistently the most stable of the precursor ions studied, and provided fragmentation information spanning both the glycan and the peptide moieties. Taken together, these findings illustrate the influence of charge carrier over the energy-resolved vibrational activation/dissociation characteristics of glycopeptides, and serve to suggest potential strategies that exploit the analytically useful features uniquely afforded by specific charge carriers or combinations thereof.

  15. Influence of intense physical activity on energy balance and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Doucet, E

    1999-02-01

    The reduced contribution of physical activity to daily energy expenditure and the accessibility to high-fat foods have put an excessive burden on energy balance, resulting in an increase in the prevalence of obesity throughout the world. In this context, fat gain can be seen as a natural adaptation to deal with a fattening lifestyle, since the hormonal adaptations that accompany fat gain favour the readjustment of energy expenditure to energy intake. Intense physical activity would also seem to facilitate the regulation of energy balance, since it increases the energy cost of exercise, increases post-exercise energy expenditure and the potential of skeletal muscles to utilize lipids, and also favours a decrease in post-exercise intake. Moreover, the effects of intense exercise seem to be mediated by an activation of sympathetic nervous system activity that seems to be specific to skeletal muscle. It is also important to manipulate macronutrient composition in order to reduce fat intake, because unhealthy food habits can favour overfeeding and thus overcome the energy deficit caused by regular physical activity. Under free-living conditions, the combination of vigorous activity and healthy food practices can amount to a substantial weight loss which is comparable with that of other non-surgical approaches to treat obesity.

  16. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  17. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  18. 78 FR 46829 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Supporting Commercial Power Reactors 3. ``Deemed Exports'' and ``Deemed Re-Exports'' 4. Technology Transfers... Hoc Utility Group (a number of companies that operate 56 nuclear reactors at 35 sites), offered... research''; Assistance for certain mining and milling activities, and certain fusion reactors because...

  19. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes.

  20. Energy from the Sea. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  1. Activation energies and temperature effects from electrical spectra of soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent permittivity often has soil-specific temperature responses as well as soil water responses. These variations affect dielectric sensors, often requiring site-specific calibrations. Variations of permittivity as a function of frequency and temperature can be used to calculate activation energ...

  2. Calculation of activation energies for hydrogen-atom abstractions by radicals containing carbon triple bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Laufer, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Activation energies are calculated by the bond-energy-bond-order (BEBO) and the bond-strength-bond-length (BSBL) methods for the reactions of C2H radicals with H2, CH4, and C2H6 and for the reactions of CN radicals with H2 and CH4. The BSBL technique accurately predicts the activation energies for these reactions while the BEBO method yields energies averaging 9 kcal higher than those observed. A possible reason for the disagreement is considered.

  3. Activation energies of metal atomization and nitrate and sulfate decomposition in concentrated matrices (10 -1 M).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bihan, A.; Le Garrec, H.; Cabon, J. Y.; Guern, Y.

    1998-08-01

    This paper reports on activation energies measured during copper and manganese atomization in a graphite furnace in the presence of large amounts of nitrate and sulfate matrices. It also deals with activation energies corresponding to the decomposition of these matrices and to the atomization of their metal, i.e. Na, Ca or Mg. These results were obtained from Arrhenius-type calculations carried out on specific and non-specific absorbance values. Atomization was achieved under a very high gas flow which allowed us to get to the source function. Some of the calculated energies were compared to reaction energies deduced from tables of thermodynamic data.

  4. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  5. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  6. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  7. Neuroimaging and Neuroenergetics: Brain Activations as Information-Driven Reorganization of Energy Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain activations, giving birth to an emerging branch of neuroscience--neuroenergetics. However, no common definition of "brain activation" exists thus far. In this article, we define brain activation as the information-driven reorganization of energy flows in a population of…

  8. Energy Expended by Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities during Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lante, Kerrie; Reece, John; Walkley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the energy expenditure of adults with and without intellectual disabilities during common activities of daily living (ADL), (2) use these values to evaluate the accuracy of equivalent activity values reported in the Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA), and (3) identify ADL that may confer a health…

  9. Effect of alloying on the self-diffusion activation energy in γ-iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, A. A.; Sokolov, S. F.; Kolbasnikov, N. G.; Sokolov, D. F.

    2011-11-01

    The experimental data on the self-diffusion coefficient of austenite with different chemical compositions obtained by the radioactive isotope method have been analyzed quantitatively. The self-diffusion activation energy in pure γ-iron is shown to be ˜312 kJ/mol. Alloying of austenite with such elements as Mn, Mo, Nb, Ti, and Si (to a lower degree) increases the self-diffusion activation energy, and alloying with C, V, or Cr (for the element content ≥3 at %) decreases it. The empirical formula is derived for calculation of the self-diffusion activation energy in austenite solid solutions with complex composition.

  10. The Activation Energy Of Ignition Calculation For Materials Based On Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantuch, Peter; Wachter, Igor; Martinka, Jozef; Kuracina, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    This article deals with the activation energy of ignition calculation of plastics. Two types of polyamide 6 and one type of polypropylene and polyurethane were selected as samples. The samples were tested under isothermal conditions at several temperatures while times to ignition were observed. From the obtained data, activation energy relating to the moment of ignition was calculated for each plastics. The values for individual plastics were different. The highest activation energies (129.5 kJ.mol-1 and 106.2 kJ.mol-1) were achieved by polyamides 6, while the lowest was determined for a sample of polyurethane.

  11. Activation energy and entropy for viscosity of wormlike micelle solutions.

    PubMed

    Chandler, H D

    2013-11-01

    The viscosities of two surfactant solutions which form wormlike micelles (WLMs) were studied over a range of temperatures and strain rates. WLM solutions appear to differ from many other shear thinning systems in that, as the shear rate increases, stress-shear rate curves tend to converge with temperature rather than diverge and this can sometimes lead to higher temperature curves crossing those at lower. Behaviour was analysed in terms of activation kinetics. It is suggested that two mechanisms are involved: Newtonian flow, following an Arrhenius law superimposed on a non-Newtonian flow described by a stress assisted kinetic law, this being a more general form of the Arrhenius law. Anomalous flow is introduced into the kinetic equation via a stress dependent activation entropy term.

  12. The density-of-states concept versus the experimentally determined distribution of activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaenssens, G.J.; Arkhipov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    Random fluctuations of localized state energies will result in thermal release of carriers trapped in those states at shorter times than would be observed from a stationary distribution of the same energies. An experimentally observed distribution of activation energies will hence differ from the distribution of average energies of the states involved. It will also be temperature-dependent. In a-Si:H, low-frequency fluctuations with a spectrum comparable to the one of 1/f noise, can account for the measured temperature dependence of the distribution. They also explain the apparent shift in localized-state energy under steady-state illumination.

  13. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  14. Density functional calculation of activation energies for lattice and grain boundary diffusion in alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yinkai; Gong, Yu; Duan, Zhiyao; Wang, Guofeng

    2013-06-01

    To acquire knowledge on the lattice and grain boundary diffusion processes in alumina, we have determined the activation energies of elementary O and Al diffusive jumps in the bulk crystal, Σ3(0001) grain boundaries, and Σ3(101¯0) grain boundaries of α-Al2O3 using the first-principles density functional theory method. Specifically, we calculated the activation energies for four elementary jumps of both O and Al lattice diffusion in alumina. It was predicted that the activation energy of O lattice diffusion varied from 3.58 to 5.03 eV, while the activation energy of Al lattice diffusion ranged from 1.80 to 3.17 eV. As compared with experimental measurements, the theoretical predictions of the activation energy for lattice diffusion were lower and thus implied that there might be other high-energy diffusive jumps in the experimental alumina samples. Moreover, our results suggested that the Al lattice diffusion was faster than the O lattice diffusion in alumina, in agreement with experiment observations. Furthermore, it was found from our calculations for α-Al2O3 that the activation energies of O and Al grain boundary diffusion in the high-energy Σ3(0001) grain boundaries were significantly lower than those of the lattice diffusion. In contrast, the activation energies of O and Al grain boundary diffusion in the low-energy Σ3(101¯0) grain boundaries could be even higher than those of the lattice diffusion.

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase and energy balance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Orhan, Yelda C; Zha, Xiaoming; Esencan, Ecem; Chatterton, Robert T; Bulun, Serdar E

    2017-01-01

    Cancer growth and metastasis depends on the availability of energy. Energy-sensing systems are critical in maintaining a balance between the energy supply and utilization of energy for tumor growth. A central regulator in this process is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In times of energy deficit, AMPK is allosterically modified by the binding of increased levels of AMP and ADP, making it a target of specific AMPK kinases (AMPKKs). AMPK signaling prompts cells to produce energy at the expense of growth and motility, opposing the actions of insulin and growth factors. Increasing AMPK activity may thus prevent the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Activated AMPK also suppresses aromatase, which lowers estrogen formation and prevents breast cancer growth. Biguanides can be used to activate AMPK, but AMPK activity is modified by many different interacting factors; understanding these factors is important in order to control the abnormal growth processes that lead to breast cancer neoplasia. Fatty acids, estrogens, androgens, adipokines, and another energy sensor, sirtuin-1, alter the phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Isoforms of AMPK differ among tissues and may serve specific functions. Targeting AMPK regulatory processes at points other than the upstream AMPKKs may provide additional approaches for prevention of breast cancer neoplasia, growth, and metastasis. PMID:28337254

  16. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Increases Energy Expenditure: Relation to Brown Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Leenen, Loes; Rijkers, Kim; Cornips, Erwin; Majoie, Marian; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. Methods and Findings Fifteen patients with stable VNS therapy (age: 45±10yrs; body mass index; 25.2±3.5 kg/m2) were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%). Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUVMean; 0.55±0.25 versus 0.67±0.46, P = 0.619). However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off) was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001). Conclusions VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. Trial Registration The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282. PMID:24194874

  17. Functional Domain Walls as Active Elements for Energy Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Junqiao

    2016-10-12

    In the past five years in the duration of this project (July 2011-July 2016), we have made a wide range of achievements in both basic research and energy applications along the direction planned in the original proposal. These achievements were reflected by 13 articles published in peer-reviewed journals including Nature Communications, Nano Letters, etc., and one currently in revision at Science. These papers have been accumulatively cited for more than 660 times as of October 2016, according to Web of Science statistics. Specifically, we have made impactful discoveries in the following fields. Basic Research. We have investigated in depth the materials physics of the representative quantum material, VO2, on which most of our project is anchored. We have discovered that independent diffusion of heat and charge in the absence of quasiparticles in metallic VO2 leads to an anomalously low electronic thermal conductivity, dramatically violating the Wiedemann-Franz law, which is a robust law governing behavior of normal conductors stating that free electrons transport heat proportionally to the charge they transport. In addition, we have discovered a peculiar thermal rectification effect based on its phase transition, as well as a gating response of the phase transition. In parallel to the work on VO2, we have also made breakthroughs in investigation of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs): we have experimentally demonstrate a strong anisotropy in in-plane thermal conductivity of black phosphorous, discovered a new, unusual member of the TMDs family, ReS2, where the bulk behaves as monolayers due to electronic and vibrational decoupling, unusual interaction between physi-sorbed molecules and 2D semiconductors, and thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in some 2D TMDs. Applications. Based on the understanding and knowledge gained from the basic investigation, we have developed novel tools and

  18. para-Nitrophenyl sulfate activation of human sulfotransferase 1A1 is consistent with intercepting the E[middle dot]PAP complex and reformation of E[middle dot]PAPS.

    PubMed

    Tyapochkin, Eduard; Cook, Paul F; Chen, Guangping

    2009-10-23

    Cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT)-catalyzed sulfation regulates biological activities of various biosignaling molecules and metabolizes hydroxyl-containing drugs and xenobiotics. The universal sulfuryl group donor for SULT-catalyzed sulfation is adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), whereas the reaction products are a sulfated product and adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate (PAP). Although SULT-catalyzed kinetic mechanisms have been studied since the 1980s, they remain unclear. Human SULT1A1 is an important phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme. Previously, isotope exchange at equilibrium indicated steady-state ordered mechanism with PAPS and PAP binding to the free SULT1A1 (Tyapochkin, E., Cook, P. F., and Chen, G. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 11894-11899). On the basis of activation of SULT1A1 by para-nitrophenyl sulfate (pNPS), an ordered bypass mechanism has been proposed where pNPS sulfates PAP prior to its release from the E.PAP complex regenerating E.PAPS. Data are consistent with uncompetitive substrate inhibition by naphthol as a result of formation of the E.PAP.naphthol dead-end complex; formation of the complex is corroborated by naphthol/PAP double inhibition experiments. pNPS activation data demonstrate an apparent ping-pong behavior with pNPS adding to E.PAP, and competitive inhibition by naphthol consistent with formation of the E.PAP.naphthol complex. Exchange against forward reaction flux (PAPS plus naphthol) beginning with [35S]PAPS and generating [35S]naphthyl sulfate is also consistent with pNPS intercepting the E.PAP complex. Overall, data are consistent with the proposed ordered bypass mechanism.

  19. Active AC/DC control for wideband piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, A.; Grézaud, R.; Pillonnet, G.; Gasnier, P.; Despesse, G.; Badel, A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a simple interface circuit enabling resonant frequency tuning of highly coupled piezoelectric harvesters. This work relies on an active AC/DC architecture that introduces a tunable short-circuit sequence in order to control the phase between the piezoelectric current and voltage, allowing the emulation of a capacitive load. It is notably shown that this short-circuit time increases the harvested power when the piezoelectric operates outside of resonance. Measurements on a piezoelectric harvester exhibiting a large global coupling coefficient (k2 = 15.3%) have been realized and have proven the efficiency and potential of this technique.

  20. Generalized Energy Equipartition in Harmonic Oscillators Driven by Active Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Claudio; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Pellicciotta, Nicola; Lepore, Alessia; Angelani, Luca; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of colloidal beads confined by a harmonic potential in a bath of swimming E. coli bacteria. The resulting dynamics is well approximated by a Langevin equation for an overdamped oscillator driven by the combination of a white thermal noise and an exponentially correlated active noise. This scenario leads to a simple generalization of the equipartition theorem resulting in the coexistence of two different effective temperatures that govern dynamics along the flat and the curved directions in the potential landscape.

  1. Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-12-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) contain caffeine and are a new, popular category of beverage. It has been suggested that EDs enhance physical and cognitive performance; however, it is unclear whether the claimed benefits are attributable to components other than caffeine. A typical 235 mL ED provides between 40 and 250 mg of caffeine, equating to doses that improve cognitive and, at the higher levels, physical performance. EDs often contain taurine, guaraná, ginseng, glucuronolactone, B-vitamins, and other compounds. A literature search using PubMed, Psych Info, and Google Scholar identified 32 articles that examined the effects of ED ingredients alone and/or in combination with caffeine on physical or cognitive performance. A systematic evaluation of the evidence-based findings in these articles was then conducted. With the exception of some weak evidence for glucose and guaraná extract, there is an overwhelming lack of evidence to substantiate claims that components of EDs, other than caffeine, contribute to the enhancement of physical or cognitive performance. Additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies replicated across laboratories are needed in order to assess claims made for these products.

  2. Active Wake Redirection Control to Improve Energy Yield (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Fleming, P.; DeGeorge, E.; Bulder, B; White, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Wake effects can dramatically reduce the efficiency of waked turbines relative to the unwaked turbines. Wakes can be deflected, or 'redirected,' by applying yaw misalignment to the turbines. Yaw misalignment causes part of the rotor thrust vector to be pointed in the cross-stream direction, deflecting the flow and the wake. Yaw misalignment reduces power production, but the global increase in wind plant power due to decreased wake effect creates a net increase in power production. It is also a fairly simple control idea to implement at existing or new wind plants. We performed high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of the wake flow of the proposed Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW) that predict that under certain waking conditions, wake redirection can increase plant efficiency by 10%. This means that by applying wake redirection control, for a given watersheet area, a wind plant can either produce more power, or the same amount of power can be produced with a smaller watersheet area. With the power increase may come increased loads, though, due to the yaw misalignment. If misalignment is applied properly, or if layered with individual blade pitch control, though, the load increase can be mitigated. In this talk we will discuss the concept of wake redirection through yaw misalignment and present our CFD results of the FACW project. We will also discuss the implications of wake redirection control on annual energy production, and finally we will discuss plans to implement wake redirection control at FACW when it is operational.

  3. Activity Sheets. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Power Company, Educational Services Dept., Charlotte, NC.

    This document consists of energy vocabulary activities, three games, worksheets, laboratory activities/exercises, and an introductory classroom exercise designed to introduce energy concepts to students. Vocabulary activities focus on coal and energy consumption. The three games (with instructions) focus on various aspects of energy and energy…

  4. Energy Efficient Catalytic Activation of Hydrogen peroxide for Green Chemical Processes: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Terrence J.; Horwitz, Colin

    2004-11-12

    A new, highly energy efficient approach for using catalytic oxidation chemistry in multiple fields of technology has been pursued. The new catalysts, called TAML® activators, catalyze the reactions of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants for the exceptionally rapid decontamination of noninfectious simulants (B. atrophaeus) of anthrax spores, for the energy efficient decontamination of thiophosphate pesticides, for the facile, low temperature removal of color and organochlorines from pulp and paper mill effluent, for the bleaching of dyes from textile mill effluents, and for the removal of recalcitrant dibenzothiophene compounds from diesel and gasoline fuels. Highlights include the following: 1) A 7-log kill of Bacillus atrophaeus spores has been achieved unambiguously in water under ambient conditions within 15 minutes. 2) The rapid total degradation under ambient conditions of four thiophosphate pesticides and phosphonate degradation intermediates has been achieved on treatment with TAML/peroxide, opening up potential applications of the decontamination system for phosphonate structured chemical warfare agents, for inexpensive, easy to perform degradation of stored and aged pesticide stocks (especially in Africa and Asia), for remediation of polluted sites and water bodies, and for the destruction of chemical warfare agent stockpiles. 3) A mill trial conducted in a Pennsylvanian bleached kraft pulp mill has established that TAML catalyst injected into an alkaline peroxide bleach tower can significantly lower color from the effluent stream promising a new, more cost effective, energy-saving approach for color remediation adding further evidence of the value and diverse engineering capacity of the approach to other field trials conducted on effluent streams as they exit the bleach plant. 4) Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), including 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, the most recalcitrant sulfur compounds in diesel and gasoline, can be completely removed from model gasoline

  5. The elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies Applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.

  6. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  7. Exploring metrics to express energy expenditure of physical activity in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determin...

  8. Nonhomeostatic control of human appetite and physical activity in regulation of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Borer, Katarina T

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin and leptin, putative controllers of human appetite, have no effect on human meal-to-meal appetite but respond to variations in energy availability. Nonhomeostatic characteristics of appetite and spontaneous activity stem from inhibition by leptin and ghrelin of brain reward circuit that is responsive to energy deficit, but refractory in obesity, and from the operation of a meal-timing circadian clock.

  9. Award Winning Energy Education Activities for Elementary and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Helen H., Ed.

    This publication contains descriptions of the winning entries to the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Teacher Participation Contest conducted in 1976. This was a nationwide contest for the design of activities around energy themes at any grade level, K-12. The ten winning entries described here are: (1) Energy Units for Primary Grades;…

  10. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  11. Influence of Molting and Starvation on Digestive Enzyme Activities and Energy Storage in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Among the many biological responses studied in ecotoxicology, energy-based biomarkers such as digestive enzyme activities and energy reserves appear to be useful predictive tools for detecting physiological disturbances in organisms. However, the use of these biological responses as biomarkers could be limited by the effects of confounding factors (biotic and abiotic) and physiological processes, such as the reproductive cycle. Thus, the optimal use of these biomarkers will be facilitated by understanding the effects of these factors on the energy metabolism of the sentinel species being studied. We considered abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity) in a previous study, whereas the present study investigated the effects of gender, the female reproductive stage, and food availability on the digestive enzyme activities and energy storage of Gammarus fossarum. The results indicated that, during the female reproductive cycle, the activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase, and trypsin) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of reserves (proteins, lipids, and sugar) increased until the last premolt stage. Restricted food diets only led to decreased amylase activities in both sexes. Food starvation also induced a decrease in the energy outcomes in females, whereas there were no effects in males. In general, the biochemical (digestive enzyme activities) and physiological (energy reserves) responses were more stable in males than in females. These results support the use of males fed ad libitum to limit the effects of confounding factors when using these energy biomarkers in Gammarus fossarum during biomonitoring programs. PMID:24788197

  12. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy.

  13. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  14. On total turbulent energy and the passive and active role of buoyancy in turbulent momentum and mass transfer.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Michel A J; Pietrzak, Julie D

    Measurements of turbulent fluctuations of horizontal and vertical components of velocity, salinity and suspended particulate matter are presented. Turbulent Prandtl numbers are found to increase with stratification and to become larger than 1. Consequently, the vertical turbulent mass transport is suppressed by buoyancy forces, before the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and vertical turbulent momentum exchange are inhibited. With increasing stratification, the buoyancy fluxes do not cease, instead they become countergradient. We find that buoyantly driven motions play an active role in the transfer of mass. This is in agreement with trends derived from Monin-Obukhov scaling. For positive Richardson flux numbers (Ri f ), the log velocity profile in the near-bed layer requires correction with a drag reduction. For negative Ri f , the log velocity profile should be corrected with a drag increase, with increasing |Ri f |. This highlights the active role played by buoyancy in momentum transfer and the production of TKE. However, the data do not appear to entirely follow Monin-Obukhov scaling. This is consistent with the notion that the turbulence field is not in equilibrium. The large stratification results in the decay of turbulence and countergradient buoyancy fluxes act to restore equilibrium in the energy budget. This implies that there is a finite adjustment timescale of the turbulence field to changes in velocity shear and density stratification. The energy transfers associated with the source and sink function of the buoyancy flux can be modeled with the concept of total turbulent energy.

  15. On total turbulent energy and the passive and active role of buoyancy in turbulent momentum and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nijs, Michel A. J.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements of turbulent fluctuations of horizontal and vertical components of velocity, salinity and suspended particulate matter are presented. Turbulent Prandtl numbers are found to increase with stratification and to become larger than 1. Consequently, the vertical turbulent mass transport is suppressed by buoyancy forces, before the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and vertical turbulent momentum exchange are inhibited. With increasing stratification, the buoyancy fluxes do not cease, instead they become countergradient. We find that buoyantly driven motions play an active role in the transfer of mass. This is in agreement with trends derived from Monin-Obukhov scaling. For positive Richardson flux numbers (Ri f ), the log velocity profile in the near-bed layer requires correction with a drag reduction. For negative Ri f , the log velocity profile should be corrected with a drag increase, with increasing |Ri f |. This highlights the active role played by buoyancy in momentum transfer and the production of TKE. However, the data do not appear to entirely follow Monin-Obukhov scaling. This is consistent with the notion that the turbulence field is not in equilibrium. The large stratification results in the decay of turbulence and countergradient buoyancy fluxes act to restore equilibrium in the energy budget. This implies that there is a finite adjustment timescale of the turbulence field to changes in velocity shear and density stratification. The energy transfers associated with the source and sink function of the buoyancy flux can be modeled with the concept of total turbulent energy.

  16. Depolarization after resonance energy transfer (DARET): a sensitive fluorescence-based assay for botulinum neurotoxin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Marcella A; Williams, Dudley; Okawa, Yumiko; Holguin, Bret; James, Nicholas G; Ross, Justin A; Roger Aoki, K; Jameson, David M; Steward, Lance E

    2011-06-01

    The DARET (depolarization after resonance energy transfer) assay is a coupled Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-fluorescence polarization assay for botulinum neurotoxin type A or E (BoNT/A or BoNT/E) proteolytic activity that relies on a fully recombinant substrate. The substrate consists of blue fluorescent protein (BFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) flanking SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa) residues 134-206. In this assay, the substrate is excited with polarized light at 387 nm, which primarily excites the BFP, whereas emission from the GFP is monitored at 509 nm. Energy transfer from the BFP to the GFP in the intact substrate results in a substantial depolarization of the GFP emission. The energy transfer is eliminated when the fluorescent domains separate on cleavage by the endopeptidase, and emission from the directly excited GFP product fragment is then highly polarized, resulting in an overall increase in polarization. This increase in polarization can be monitored to assay the proteolytic activity of BoNT/A and BoNT/E in real time. It allows determination of the turnover rate of the substrate and the kinetic constants (V(max) and k(cat)) based on the concentration of cleaved substrate determined directly from the measurements using the additivity properties of polarization. The assay is amenable to high-throughput applications.

  17. Determination of Total Daily Energy Requirements and Activity Patterns of Service Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    conducted at Fort Bragg/Camp Mckall during a Combat Support Hospital training exercise , during the first year of the grant. Isotope and activity ...water, physical activity patterns energy expenditure, military nutrition, hydration status. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 16. PRICE CODE 17 SECURITY...Devices, Ft. Walton Beach, Fl.) will be employed to assess patterns of rest and activity , total physical activity and to estimate duration and

  18. Energy-Dependent Electron Activated Dissociation of Metal-Adducted Permethylated Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang; Huang, Yiqun; Lin, Cheng; Costello, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of varying the electron energy and cationizing agents on electron activated dissociation (ExD) of metal-adducted oligosaccharides were explored, using permethylated maltoheptaose as the model system. Across the examined range of electron energy, the metal-adducted oligosaccharide exhibited several fragmentation processes, including electron capture dissociation (ECD) at low energies, hot-ECD at intermediate energies, and electronic excitation dissociation (EED) at high energies. The dissociation threshold depended on the metal charge carrier(s), whereas the types and sequence spans of product ions were influenced by the metal-oligosaccharide binding pattern. Theoretical modeling contributed insight into the metal-dependent behavior of carbohydrates during low-energy ECD. When ExD was applied to a permethylated high mannose N-linked glycan, EED provided more structural information than either collision-induced dissociation (CID) or low-energy ECD, thus demonstrating its potential for oligosaccharide linkage analysis. PMID:22881449

  19. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning activities embodying the substance metaphor for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of activities called Energy Theater. We illustrate several mechanisms by which the blended aspect of the learning environment promotes productive intellectual engagement with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including distinguishing among energy processes, disambiguating matter and energy, identifying energy transfer, and representing energy as a conserved quantity. Conceptual advancement appears to be promoted especially by the symbolic material and social structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants and objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope, and by Energy Theater's embodied action, including body locomotion, gesture, and coordination of speech with symbolic spaces in the Energy Theater arena. Our conclusions are (1) that specific conceptual metaphors can be leveraged to benefit science instruction via the blending of an abstract space of ideas with multiple modes of concrete human action, and (2) that participants' structured improvisation plays an important role in leveraging the blend for their intellectual development.

  20. A time to search: finding the meaning of variable activation energy.

    PubMed

    Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2016-07-28

    This review deals with the phenomenon of variable activation energy frequently observed when studying the kinetics in the liquid or solid phase. This phenomenon commonly manifests itself through nonlinear Arrhenius plots or dependencies of the activation energy on conversion computed by isoconversional methods. Variable activation energy signifies a multi-step process and has a meaning of a collective parameter linked to the activation energies of individual steps. It is demonstrated that by using appropriate models of the processes, the link can be established in algebraic form. This allows one to analyze experimentally observed dependencies of the activation energy in a quantitative fashion and, as a result, to obtain activation energies of individual steps, to evaluate and predict other important parameters of the process, and generally to gain deeper kinetic and mechanistic insights. This review provides multiple examples of such analysis as applied to the processes of crosslinking polymerization, crystallization and melting of polymers, gelation, and solid-solid morphological and glass transitions. The use of appropriate computational techniques is discussed as well.

  1. Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maximum power point without using resistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability.

  2. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-06

    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  3. Influence of Delipation on the Energy Metabolism in Pig Parthenogenetically Activated Embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Niu, Y; Chi, D; Zeng, Y; Liu, H; Dai, Y; Li, J

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed not only to measure the effect of delipation on the developmental viability of pig parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos, but also to evaluate the changes of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and gene (Acsl3, Acadsb, Acaa2, Glut1) expression level at different stages after delipation. Results showed that no effect was observed on the cleavage ability, but significant lower blastocyst rate was obtained in delipated embryos. Copy number of mtDNA decreased gradually from MII to four-cell stages and subsequently kept consistent with blastocyst stage both in delipated and control embryos, but the copy number of mtDNA in delipated embryos was similar to that in the control groups no matter at which developmental stage was observed. Both in delipated and control embryos, ATP content progressive decreased from one-cell to blastocyst stages, while just at one-cell stage, a significant decrease of ATP level was observed in delipated embryos compared with that of control. The level of ROS increased obviously after delipation at cleavage stage, but no difference was seen at blastocyst stage. Finally, the expression level of genes related to fatty acids beta-oxidation (Acadsb and Acaa2) was decreased, while the expression level of genes related to glucose metabolism (Glut 1) was upregulated after delipation. In conclusion, the reduction of lipids in pig oocytes will affect the developmental competence of pig PA embryos by disturbed energy metabolism and ROS stress.

  4. Energy and economic activity in the United States: Evidence from 1900 to 1945

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, B.S.; Andrews, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Applying Hsiao`s version of the Granger causality method, this article makes the first attempt to examine causality between (1) energy and growth and (2) energy and employment, by applying the recently developed methods of cointegration and Hsiao`s version of the Granger causality to transformed US data for the period 1900--1945. Phillips-Perron tests reveal that the original series of energy data are not stationary, and therefore a first differencing is performed to induce stationarity. The study finds interestingly that there is causality unidirectionally running from energy to growth without feedback. It is also found that there are no causal links between energy and employment. The results of this study are consistent with some past studies using postwar-period data but contrary to some other past studies that covered the period after World War II.

  5. Fundamentals of tandem mass spectrometry: a dynamics study of simple C-C bond cleavage in collision-activated dissociation of polyatomic ions at low energy.

    PubMed

    Shukla, A K; Qian, K; Anderson, S; Futrell, J H

    1990-02-01

    The loss of methyl radical in collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of acetone and propane molecular ions has been studied at low energy using a tandem hybrid mass spectrometer. Although the two processes are very similar chemically and energetically, very different dynamical features are observed. Acetyl ions from acetone ion are predominantly backward-scattered, with intensity maxima lying inside and outside the elastic scattering circle, confirming our previous observation that electronically excited states are important in low-energy acetone CAD. Ethyl ions from propane ion show a forward-scattered peak maximum at a nonzero scattering angle, which is consistent with generally accepted models for vibrational excitation and redistribution of energy before dissociation. Both processes demonstrate that CAD at low energy proceeds via small-impact-parameter collisions with momentum transfer. Comparison of the present results with higher energy CAD dynamics studies and earlier work leads to some tentative general conclusions about energy transfer in these processes.

  6. Measuring slope to improve energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Glen E; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2013-03-01

    This technical note describes methods to improve activity energy expenditure estimates by using a multi-sensor board (MSB) to measure slope. Ten adults walked over a 4-km (2.5-mile) course wearing an MSB and mobile calorimeter. Energy expenditure was estimated using accelerometry alone (base) and 4 methods to measure slope. The barometer and global positioning system methods improved accuracy by 11% from the base (p < 0.05) to 86% overall. Measuring slope using the MSB improves energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities.

  7. The Work and Home Activities Questionnaire: Energy Expenditure Estimates and Association With Percent Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D.; Block, Torin J.; Norris, Jean; Dalvi, Tapashi B.; Fung, Ellen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding and increasing physical activity requires assessment of occupational, home, leisure and sedentary activities. Methods A physical activity questionnaire was developed using data from a large representative U.S. sample; includes occupational, leisure and home-based domains; and produces estimates of energy expenditure, percent body fat, minutes in various domains, and meeting recommendations. It was tested in 396 persons, mean age 44 years. Estimates were evaluated in relation to percent body fat measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median energy expenditure was 2,365 kcal (women) and 2.960 kcal (men). Women spent 35.1 minutes/day in moderate household activities, 13.0 minutes in moderate leisure and 4.0 minutes in vigorous activities. Men spent 18.0, 22.5 and 15.6 minutes/day in those activities, respectively. Men and women spent 276.4 and 257.0 minutes/day in sedentary activities. Respondents who met recommendations through vigorous activities had significantly lower percent body fat than those who did not, while meeting recommendations only through moderate activities was not associated with percent body fat. Predicted and observed percent body fat correlated at r = .73 and r = .82 for men and women respectively, P < .0001. Conclusions This questionnaire may be useful for understanding health effects of different components of activity, and for interventions to increase activity levels. PMID:19998851

  8. Metabolomics analysis of Cistus monspeliensis leaf extract on energy metabolism activation in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells.

  9. Metabolomics Analysis of Cistus monspeliensis Leaf Extract on Energy Metabolism Activation in Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Yoichi; Han, Junkyu; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Energy metabolism is a very important process to improve and maintain health from the point of view of physiology. It is well known that the intracellular ATP production is contributed to energy metabolism in cells. Cistus monspeliensis is widely used as tea, spices, and medical herb; however, it has not been focusing on the activation of energy metabolism. In this study, C. monspeliensis was investigated as the food resources by activation of energy metabolism in human intestinal epithelial cells. C. monspeliensis extract showed high antioxidant ability. In addition, the promotion of metabolites of glycolysis and TCA cycle was induced by C. monspeliensis treatment. These results suggest that C. monspeliensis extract has an ability to enhance the energy metabolism in human intestinal cells. PMID:22523469

  10. The activation energy for Mg acceptor in the Ga-rich InGaN alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen; Wei, Tong; Chen, Li-Ying; Wang, Sha-Sha; Wang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The activation energy for Mg acceptor in InxGa1-xN alloys is investigated. It is found that there are three factors to influence the activation energy for Mg acceptor. One is the stronger dependence of the VBM of InxGa1-xN depending on In content than that of the Mg acceptor energy level. The other is the concentration of Mg acceptors. Another is the extending of the valence band-tail states into the band gap. In addition, a model based on modifying the effective mass model is developed. It is found that the model can describe the activation energy for Mg acceptor in the Ga-rich InxGa1-xN alloys well after considering the influence of the valence band-tail states.

  11. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G R; Wetzstein, C J; Fields, D A; Brown, A; Bamman, M M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effects 26 wk of resistance training have on resting energy expenditure (REE), total free-living energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), engagement in free-living physical activity as measured by the activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in 61- to 77-yr-old men (n = 8) and women (n = 7). Before and after training, body composition (four-compartment model), strength, REE, TEE (doubly labeled water), AEE (TEE - REE + thermic response to meals), and ARTE (AEE adjusted for energy cost of standard activities) were evaluated. Strength (36%) and fat-free mass (2 kg) significantly increased, but body weight did not change. REE increased 6.8%, whereas resting RER decreased from 0.86 to 0.83. TEE (12%) and ARTE (38%) increased significantly, and AEE (30%) approached significance (P = 0.06). The TEE increase remained significant even after adjustment for the energy expenditure of the resistance training. In response to resistance training, TEE increased and RER decreased. The increase in TEE occurred as a result of increases in both REE and physical activity. These results suggest that resistance training may have value in increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation rates in older adults, thereby improving their metabolic profiles.

  12. Muscle activation and energy expenditure of sedentary behavior alternatives in young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Nicholas L; Keenan, Kevin G; Strath, Scott J; Forseth, Bethany M; Cho, Chi C; Swartz, Ann M

    2016-09-21

    The physiological mechanisms that underlie the metabolic benefits of breaking up sedentary behavior (SB) have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study is to compare energy expenditure (EE) and muscle activation (MA) responses to sitting and four SB alternatives in younger and older adults. Twenty-two adults, grouped by age (21-35 and 62-76 years), completed five randomly ordered 20 min tasks: (1) continuous sitting (Sit), (2) sitting on a stability ball (Ball), (3) continuous standing (Stand), (4) sitting interrupted by walking (S/W), and (5) sitting interrupted by standing (S/S). Muscle activation of two upper (trapezius and erector spinae) and two lower (rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius) body muscles and total body EE were measured continuously. A linear mixed model using gender and age as a covariate with Bonferroni adjustment were used to determine significant differences between tasks. Collectively, S/W produced significantly higher MA and EE compared with Sit (p  <  0.001). Stand and Ball provided significantly greater EE, but not MA, compared to Sit (p  <  0.05), while S/S did not significantly change EE or MA compared to Sit. There were no net EE differences when comparing age groups across the tasks. Upper body MA was not consistent in both age groups across tasks. Specifically, during S/W the upper body MA of older adults (9.7  ±  1.5% MVC) was double that of young adults (4.8  ±  0.7% MVC, p  =  0.006). Lower body MA responded similarly to all tasks in both age groups. Disrupting sitting with walking produced the largest increase in EE and MA compared to other SB alternatives in both age groups. These results are important considering the wide use of SB alternatives by researchers and public health practitioners.

  13. Activation energy-activation volume master plots for ion transport behavior in polymer electrolytes and supercooled molten salts.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Malcolm D; Imrie, Corrie T; Stoeva, Zlatka; Pas, Steven J; Funke, Klaus; Chandler, Howard W

    2005-09-08

    We demonstrate the use of activation energy versus activation volume "master plots" to explore ion transport in typical fragile glass forming systems exhibiting non-Arrhenius behavior. These systems include solvent-free salt complexes in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and low molecular weight poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) and molten 2Ca(NO3)2.3KNO3 (CKN). Plots showing variations in apparent activation energy EA versus apparent activation volume VA are straight lines with slopes given by M = DeltaEA/DeltaVA. A simple ion transport mechanism is described where the rate determining step involves a dilatation (expressed as VA) around microscopic cavities and a corresponding work of expansion (EA). The slopes of the master plots M are equated to internal elastic moduli, which vary from 1.1 GPa for liquid PPO to 5.0 GPa for molten CKN on account of differing intermolecular forces in these materials.

  14. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  15. [The effect of limiting neuronal energy metabolism on the level of impulse activity and membrane potentials].

    PubMed

    Voronova, N V; Chumachenko, A A

    1989-01-01

    The changes of the membrane potential and the frequency of impulse activity of the crayfish stretch receptor neuron have been studied under condition of energy supply deficiency. The energetic metabolism inhibitors have been found not to exert a significant effect on the membrane potential. The activity of the glycolysis process and the Krebs cycle have different effect on the sensitivity of the generating mechanism.

  16. Activity-Based Approach for Teaching Aqueous Solubility, Energy, and Entropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Laura; Marano, Nadia; Glazier, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    We describe an activity-based approach for teaching aqueous solubility to introductory chemistry students that provides a more balanced presentation of the roles of energy and entropy in dissolution than is found in most general chemistry textbooks. In the first few activities, students observe that polar substances dissolve in water, whereas…

  17. The Universal House: Energy, Shelter & The California Indian. Activity Guide, 4th/5th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Energy Extension Service, Sacramento.

    This activity guide links energy awareness with resource management and traditional California Indian cultures for the 3rd-6th grade span. The materials combine cooperative, hands-on activities with background information and learning extensions. The interdisciplinary lessons are built upon themes, concepts, and learning processes outlined in…

  18. Accurate and efficient calculation of excitation energies with the active-space particle-particle random phase approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Du; Yang, Weitao

    2016-10-13

    An efficient method for calculating excitation energies based on the particle-particle random phase approximation (ppRPA) is presented. Neglecting the contributions from the high-lying virtual states and the low-lying core states leads to the significantly smaller active-space ppRPA matrix while keeping the error to within 0.05 eV from the corresponding full ppRPA excitation energies. The resulting computational cost is significantly reduced and becomes less than the construction of the non-local Fock exchange potential matrix in the self-consistent-field (SCF) procedure. With only a modest number of active orbitals, the original ppRPA singlet-triplet (ST) gaps as well as the low-lying single and doublemore » excitation energies can be accurately reproduced at much reduced computational costs, up to 100 times faster than the iterative Davidson diagonalization of the original full ppRPA matrix. For high-lying Rydberg excitations where the Davidson algorithm fails, the computational savings of active-space ppRPA with respect to the direct diagonalization is even more dramatic. The virtues of the underlying full ppRPA combined with the significantly lower computational cost of the active-space approach will significantly expand the applicability of the ppRPA method to calculate excitation energies at a cost of O(K^{4}), with a prefactor much smaller than a single SCF Hartree-Fock (HF)/hybrid functional calculation, thus opening up new possibilities for the quantum mechanical study of excited state electronic structure of large systems.« less

  19. Accurate and efficient calculation of excitation energies with the active-space particle-particle random phase approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Du; Yang, Weitao

    2016-10-13

    An efficient method for calculating excitation energies based on the particle-particle random phase approximation (ppRPA) is presented. Neglecting the contributions from the high-lying virtual states and the low-lying core states leads to the significantly smaller active-space ppRPA matrix while keeping the error to within 0.05 eV from the corresponding full ppRPA excitation energies. The resulting computational cost is significantly reduced and becomes less than the construction of the non-local Fock exchange potential matrix in the self-consistent-field (SCF) procedure. With only a modest number of active orbitals, the original ppRPA singlet-triplet (ST) gaps as well as the low-lying single and double excitation energies can be accurately reproduced at much reduced computational costs, up to 100 times faster than the iterative Davidson diagonalization of the original full ppRPA matrix. For high-lying Rydberg excitations where the Davidson algorithm fails, the computational savings of active-space ppRPA with respect to the direct diagonalization is even more dramatic. The virtues of the underlying full ppRPA combined with the significantly lower computational cost of the active-space approach will significantly expand the applicability of the ppRPA method to calculate excitation energies at a cost of O(K^{4}), with a prefactor much smaller than a single SCF Hartree-Fock (HF)/hybrid functional calculation, thus opening up new possibilities for the quantum mechanical study of excited state electronic structure of large systems.

  20. Accurate and efficient calculation of excitation energies with the active-space particle-particle random phase approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Du; Yang, Weitao

    2016-10-01

    An efficient method for calculating excitation energies based on the particle-particle random phase approximation (ppRPA) is presented. Neglecting the contributions from the high-lying virtual states and the low-lying core states leads to the significantly smaller active-space ppRPA matrix while keeping the error to within 0.05 eV from the corresponding full ppRPA excitation energies. The resulting computational cost is significantly reduced and becomes less than the construction of the non-local Fock exchange potential matrix in the self-consistent-field (SCF) procedure. With only a modest number of active orbitals, the original ppRPA singlet-triplet (ST) gaps as well as the low-lying single and double excitation energies can be accurately reproduced at much reduced computational costs, up to 100 times faster than the iterative Davidson diagonalization of the original full ppRPA matrix. For high-lying Rydberg excitations where the Davidson algorithm fails, the computational savings of active-space ppRPA with respect to the direct diagonalization is even more dramatic. The virtues of the underlying full ppRPA combined with the significantly lower computational cost of the active-space approach will significantly expand the applicability of the ppRPA method to calculate excitation energies at a cost of O(K4), with a prefactor much smaller than a single SCF Hartree-Fock (HF)/hybrid functional calculation, thus opening up new possibilities for the quantum mechanical study of excited state electronic structure of large systems.