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Sample records for activation energy determined

  1. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  2. Determining characteristics of melting cheese by activation energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C was measured from temperature sweeps of various cheeses to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Seven cheese varieties were heated in a rheometer from 22 to 70 deg C, and Ea was calculated from the resulting ...

  3. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  4. Quantitative determination of activation energies in mechanochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Franziska; Wenzel, Klaus-Jürgen; Rademann, Klaus; Emmerling, Franziska

    2016-08-17

    Mechanochemical reactions often result in 100% yields of single products, making purifying procedures obsolete. Mechanochemistry is also a sustainable and eco-friendly method. The ever increasing interest in this method is contrasted by a lack in mechanistic understanding of the mechanochemical reactivity and selectivity. Recent in situ investigations provided direct insight into formation pathways. However, the currently available theories do not predict temperature T as an influential factor. Here, we report the first determination of an apparent activation energy for a mechanochemical reaction. In a temperature-dependent in situ study the cocrystallisation of ibuprofen and nicotinamide was investigated as a model system. These experiments provide a pivotal step towards a comprehensive understanding of milling reaction mechanisms. PMID:27498986

  5. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  6. Influence of source composition and particle energy on the determination of gross alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Timón, A Fernández; Vargas, M Jurado; Sánchez, A B Ruano; Pérez, J de la Torre; Sánchez, A Martín

    2013-12-01

    The influence of different source compositions and α-particle energies on the detection efficiency of a gas-flow proportional counter was examined using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Efficiency variation with alpha-particle energy was very marked, being less significant with the substrate composition. These results show that the determination of gross alpha activity in an unknown sample must be carried out very carefully in order to give a correct estimation of its activity. PMID:24184741

  7. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size. PMID:23637685

  8. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝ J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  9. Determination of Wetting Behavior, Spread Activation Energy, and Quench Severity of Bioquenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, K. Narayan; Fernandes, Peter

    2007-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils such as sunflower, coconut, groundnut, castor, cashewnut shell (CNS), and palm oils as quench media (bioquenchants) for industrial heat treatment by assessing their wetting behavior and severity of quenching. The relaxation of contact angle was sharp during the initial stages, and it became gradual as the system approached equilibrium. The equilibrium contact angle decreased with increase in the temperature of the substrate and decrease in the viscosity of the quench medium. A comparison of the relaxation of the contact angle at various temperatures indicated the significant difference in spreading of oils having varying viscosity. The spread activation energy was determined using the Arrhenius type of equation. Oils with higher viscosity resulted in lower cooling rates. The quench severity of various oil media was determined by estimating heat-transfer coefficients using the lumped capacitance method. Activation energy for spreading determined using the wetting behavior of oils at various temperatures was in good agreement with the severity of quenching assessed by cooling curve analysis. A high quench severity is associated with oils having low spread activation energy.

  10. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  11. Determination of reaction rates and activation energy in aerobic composting processes for yard waste.

    PubMed

    Uma, R N; Manjula, G; Meenambal, T

    2007-04-01

    The reaction rates and activation energy in aerobic composting processes for yard waste were determined using specifically designed reactors. Different mixture ratios were fixed before the commencement of the process. The C/N ratio was found to be optimum for a mixture ratio of 1:6 containing one part of coir pith to six parts of other waste which included yard waste, yeast sludge, poultry yard waste and decomposing culture (Pleurotosis). The path of stabilization of the wastes was continuously monitored by observing various parameters such as temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity, C.O.D, VS at regular time intervals. Kinetic analysis was done to determine the reaction rates and activation energy for the optimum mixture ratio under forced aeration condition. The results of the analysis clearly indicated that the temperature dependence of the reaction rates followed the Arrhenius equation. The temperature coefficients were also determined. The degradation of the organic fraction of the yard waste could be predicted using first order reaction model. PMID:18476403

  12. Toward an Automatic Determination of Enzymatic Reaction Mechanisms and Their Activation Free Energies.

    PubMed

    Zinovjev, Kirill; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2013-08-13

    We present a combination of the string method and a path collective variable for the exploration of the free energy surface associated to a chemical reaction in condensed environments. The on-the-fly string method is employed to find the minimum free energy paths on a multidimensional free energy surface defined in terms of interatomic distances, which is a convenient selection to study bond forming/breaking processes. Once the paths have been determined, a reaction coordinate is defined as a measure of the advance of the system along these paths. This reaction coordinate can be then used to trace the reaction Potential of Mean Force from which the activation free energy can be obtained. This combination of methodologies has been here applied to the study, by means of Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics simulations, of the reaction catalyzed by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyzes the methylation of guanidinoacetate by S-adenosyl-l-methionine, a reaction that involves a methyl transfer and a proton transfer and for which different reaction mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:26584125

  13. Verification of energy's role as a determinant of US economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    A series of single-equation dynamic regression models are constructed to test the hypotheses that both ''thermodynamic'' and economic-efficiency (t-efficiency and e-efficiency, respectively) configurations of lagged energy variables are statistically informative separately and jointly about subsequent changes in real gross national product (GNP) per capita and in unemployment rate. Separately, t-efficiency is based on quantity of energy used per unit of GNP, while e-efficiency is based on real price of tested energy variables. Used jointly, the two measure real energy cost per unit of real GNP. Tested subperiods are within the 1890-1985 period. Macroeconomic activity is found to be much less informative about energy variables that are energy variables about macroeconomic activity. One-way tests are conducted in which the informativeness of major e-efficiency (wholesale price) variables and budget-share variables about subsequent macroeconomic activity are compared to the informativeness of the e-efficiency energy variable and the combined e- and t-efficiencies energy variable respectively. The energy variables are found to represent the only major category of expenditure whose statistical tests for informativeness about subsequent macroeconomic activity result in coefficient signs that consistently imply a statistically significant negative effect on subsequent macroeconomic activity in the full 1890-1985 period. 64 refs., 14 tabs.

  14. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  15. Direct determination of the activation energy for the reaction of nitric oxide with ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Borders, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The activation energy for the reaction of nitric oxide with ozone has been directly measured as a function of temperature. The instrument constructed for this study consisted of two flow tubes that are connected together at each end, where the reaction zone temperature of each flow tube was controlled independently. The reaction of nitric oxide and ozone was pseudo-first order ((NO)/(O/sub 3/) greater than or equal to 250) and studied by following the reduction of the chemiluminescence of one of the products (NO/sup *//sub 2/(/sup 2/B/sub 1,2/)) of the reaction. The chemiluminescence was measured using a microcomputer-controlled photon counter designed for these studies. The activation energy has been found to vary with temperature. The activation energy varies from 2390 +/- 10 calories at 216 K to 2970 +/- 60 calories at 333 K. The variation over the complete temperature range studied (204-353 K) is large enough (650 calories) that the errors associated with the method cannot account for all of the variation. There are other pathways for this reaction other than ground state reactants going to ground state products, and their contribution to the activation energy (approx.500 calories) has been found to be sufficient to account for the observed variation with temperature when added to the variation predicted by either transition state (180 calories) or collision (150 calories) theory.

  16. Electrochemical determination of activation energies for methanol oxidation on polycrystalline platinum in acidic and alkaline electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jamie L; Volpe, David J; Abruña, Héctor D

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation pathways of methanol (MeOH) have been the subject of intense research due to its possible application as a liquid fuel in polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The design of improved catalysts for MeOH oxidation requires a deep understanding of these complex oxidation pathways. This paper will provide a discussion of the literature concerning the extensive research carried out in acidic and alkaline electrolytes. It will highlight techniques that have proven useful in the determination of product ratios, analysis of surface poisoning, anion adsorption, and oxide formation processes, in addition to the effects of temperature on the MeOH oxidation pathways at bulk polycrystalline platinum (Pt(poly)) electrodes. This discussion will provide a framework with which to begin the analysis of activation energy (E(a)) values. This kinetic parameter may prove useful in characterizing the rate-limiting step of the MeOH oxidation at an electrode surface. This paper will present a procedure for the determination of E(a) values for MeOH oxidation at a Pt(poly) electrode in acidic and alkaline media. Values from 24-76 kJ mol(-1) in acidic media and from 36-86 kJ mol(-1) in alkaline media were calculated and found to be a function of applied potential and direction of the potential sweep in a voltammetric experiment. Factors that influence the magnitude of the calculated E(a) include surface poisoning from MeOH oxidation intermediates, anion adsorption from the electrolyte, pH effects, and oxide formation processes. These factors are all potential, and temperature, dependent and must clearly be addressed when citing E(a) values in the literature. Comparison of E(a) values must be between systems of comparable electrochemical environment and at the same potential. E(a) values obtained on bulk Pt(poly), compared with other catalysts, may give insight into the superiority of other Pt-based catalysts for MeOH oxidation and lead to the development of new catalysts

  17. Efficient Method for the Determination of the Activation Energy of the Iodide-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, William; Lee, James; Abid, Nauman; DeMeo, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    An experiment is described that determines the activation energy (E[subscript a]) of the iodide-catalyzed decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide in a much more efficient manner than previously reported in the literature. Hydrogen peroxide, spontaneously or with a catalyst, decomposes to oxygen and water. Because the decomposition reaction is…

  18. Comparison of Activity Determination of Radium 226 in FUSRAP Soil using Various Energy Lines - 12299

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian; Donakowski, Jough; Hays, David

    2012-07-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood Superfund Site as the primary radioanalytical tool for quantization of activities of the radionuclides of concern in site soil. When selecting energy lines in gamma spectroscopy, a number of factors are considered including assumptions concerning secondary equilibrium, interferences, and the strength of the lines. The case of the Maywood radionuclide of concern radium-226 (Ra-226) is considered in this paper. At the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site, one of the daughters produced from radioactive decay of Ra-226, lead-214 (Pb- 214), is used to quantitate Ra-226. Another Ra-226 daughter, bismuth-214 (Bi-214), also may be used to quantitate Ra-226. In this paper, a comparison of Ra-226 to Pb-214 activities and Ra-226 to Bi-214 activities, obtained using gamma spectrometry for a large number of soil samples, was performed. The Pb-214, Bi-214, and Ra-226 activities were quantitated using the 352 kilo electron volt (keV), 609 keV, and 186 keV lines, respectively. The comparisons were made after correcting the Ra-226 activities by a factor of 0.571 and both ignoring and accounting for the contribution of a U-235 interfering line to the Ra-226 line. For the Pb-214 and Bi-214 activities, a mean in-growth factor was employed. The gamma spectrometer was calibrated for efficiency and energy using a mixed gamma standard and an energy range of 59 keV to 1830 keV. The authors expect other sites with Ra-226 contamination in soil may benefit from the discussions and points in this paper. Proper use of correction factors and comparison of the data from three different gamma-emitting radionuclides revealed agreement with expectations and provided confidence that using such correction factors generates quality data. The results indicate that if contamination is low level and due to NORM, the Ra-226 can be measured directly if corrected to subtract the contribution from U-235. If there is

  19. Method for Determining the Activation Energy Distribution Function of Complex Reactions by Sieving and Thermogravimetric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Bufalo, Gennaro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-14

    A method for studying the kinetics of thermal degradation of complex compounds is suggested. Although the method is applicable to any matrix whose grain size can be measured, herein we focus our investigation on thermogravimetric analysis, under a nitrogen atmosphere, of ground soft wheat and ground maize. The thermogravimetric curves reveal that there are two well-distinct jumps of mass loss. They correspond to volatilization, which is in the temperature range 298-433 K, and decomposition regions go from 450 to 1073 K. Thermal degradation is schematized as a reaction in the solid state whose kinetics is analyzed separately in each of the two regions. By means of a sieving analysis different size fractions of the material are separated and studied. A quasi-Newton fitting algorithm is used to obtain the grain size distribution as best fit to experimental data. The individual fractions are thermogravimetrically analyzed for deriving the functional relationship between activation energy of the degradation reactions and the particle size. Such functional relationship turns out to be crucial to evaluate the moments of the activation energy distribution, which is unknown in terms of the distribution calculated by sieve analysis. From the knowledge of moments one can reconstruct the reaction conversion. The method is applied first to the volatilization region, then to the decomposition region. The comparison with the experimental data reveals that the method reproduces the experimental conversion with an accuracy of 5-10% in the volatilization region and of 3-5% in the decomposition region. PMID:26671287

  20. Determination of activation energy of pyrolysis of carton packaging wastes and its pure components using thermogravimetry.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Larissa M; Xavier, Thiago P; Barrozo, Marcos Antonio S; Bacelos, Marcelo S; Lira, Taisa S

    2016-07-01

    Many processes have been used for recycling of carton packaging wastes. The pyrolysis highlights as a promising technology to be used for recovering the aluminum from polyethylene and generating products with high heating value. In this paper, a study on pyrolysis reactions of carton packaging wastes and its pure components was performed in order to estimate the kinetic parameters of these reactions. For this, dynamic thermogravimetric analyses were carried out and two different kinds of kinetic models were used: the isoconversional and Independent Parallel Reactions. Isoconversional models allowed to calculate the overall activation energy of the pyrolysis reaction, in according to their conversions. The IPR model, in turn, allowed the calculation of kinetic parameters of each one of the carton packaging and paperboard subcomponents. The carton packaging pyrolysis follows three separated stages of devolatilization. The first step is moisture loss. The second stage is perfectly correlated to devolatilization of cardboard. The third step is correlated to devolatilization of polyethylene. PMID:27156364

  1. Determination of angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity in cell culture using fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, R A; Bersanetti, P A; Farias, S L; Juliano, L; Juliano, M A; Casarini, D E; Carmona, A K; Paiva, A C M; Pesquero, J B

    2007-04-15

    An assay using fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides was developed to assess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity directly on the membrane of transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) stably expressing the full-length somatic form of the enzyme. The advantage of the new method is the possibility of using selective substrates for the two active sites of the enzyme, namely Abz-FRK(Dnp)P-OH for somatic ACE, Abz-SDK(Dnp)P-OH for the N domain, and Abz-LFK(Dnp)-OH for the C domain. Hydrolysis of a peptide bond between the donor/acceptor pair (Abz/Dnp) generates detectable fluorescence, allowing quantitative measurement of the enzymatic activity. The kinetic parameter K(m) for the hydrolysis of the three substrates by ACE in this system was also determined and the values are comparable to those obtained using the purified enzyme in solution. The specificity of the activity was demonstrated by the complete inhibition of the hydrolysis by the ACE inhibitor lisinopril. Therefore, the results presented in this work show for the first time that determination of ACE activity directly on the surface of intact CHO cells is feasible and that the method is reliable and sensitive. In conclusion, we describe a methodology that may represent a new tool for the assessment of ACE activity which will open the possibility to study protein interactions in cells in culture. PMID:17320031

  2. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Role and Activities Related to U.S. Department of Energy Incidental Waste Determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, A.H.; Esh, D.W.; Ridge, A.C.

    2006-07-01

    Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for certain non-high level waste (HLW) determinations. Under the NDAA, NRC performs consultative technical reviews of DOE's waste determinations and monitors DOE's disposal actions for such waste, but the NRC does not have regulatory authority over DOE's waste disposal activities. The NDAA provides the criteria that must be met to determine that waste is not HLW. The criteria require that the waste does not need to be disposed of in a geologic repository, that highly radioactive radionuclides be removed to the maximum extent practical, and that the performance objectives of 10 CFR 61, Subpart C, be met. The performance objectives contain criteria for protection of the public, protection of inadvertent intruders, protection of workers, and stability of the disposal site after closure. This paper describes NRC's approach to implementing its responsibilities under the NDAA, as well as similar activities being performed for sites not covered by the NDAA. (authors)

  3. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  4. Clarifications regarding the use of model-fitting methods of kinetic analysis for determining the activation energy from a single non-isothermal curve

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper provides some clarifications regarding the use of model-fitting methods of kinetic analysis for estimating the activation energy of a process, in response to some results recently published in Chemistry Central journal. Findings The model fitting methods of Arrhenius and Savata are used to determine the activation energy of a single simulated curve. It is shown that most kinetic models correctly fit the data, each providing a different value for the activation energy. Therefore it is not really possible to determine the correct activation energy from a single non-isothermal curve. On the other hand, when a set of curves are recorded under different heating schedules are used, the correct kinetic parameters can be clearly discerned. Conclusions Here, it is shown that the activation energy and the kinetic model cannot be unambiguously determined from a single experimental curve recorded under non isothermal conditions. Thus, the use of a set of curves recorded under different heating schedules is mandatory if model-fitting methods are employed. PMID:23383684

  5. Method for the determination of Pd-catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of high-energy polarized-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Marguí, E; Van Meel, K; Van Grieken, R; Buendía, A; Fontàs, C; Hidalgo, M; Queralt, I

    2009-02-15

    In medicinal chemistry, Pd is perhaps the most-widely utilized precious metal, as catalyst in reactions which represent key transformations toward the synthesis of new active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The disadvantage of this metal-catalyzed chemistry is that expensive and toxic metal residues are invariably left bound to the desired product. Thus, stringent regulatory guidelines exist for the amount of residual Pd that a drug candidate is allowed to contain. In this work, a rapid and simple method for the determination of Pd in API samples by high-energy polarized-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been developed and validated according to the specification limits of current legislation (10 mg kg(-1) Pd) and the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines). Sample and calibration standards preparation includes a first step of homogenization and then, in a second step, the pressing of the powdered material into pellets without any chemical treatment. The use of several synthetic calibration standards made of cellulose to simulate the API matrix appears to be an effective means to obtain reliable calibration curves with a good spread of data points over the working range. With the use of the best measuring conditions, the limit of detection (0.11 mg kg(-1) Pd) as well as the limit of quantitation (0.37 mg kg(-1) Pd) achieved meet rigorous requirements. The repeatability of the XRF measurement appeared to be less than 2%, while the precision of the whole method was around 7%. Trueness was evaluated by analyzing spiked API samples at the level of the specification limit and calculating the recovery factor, which was better than 95%. To study the applicability of the developed methodology for the intended purpose, three batches of the studied API were analyzed for their Pd content, and the attained results were comparable to those obtained by the

  6. Energy assessment: physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

  7. Surface free energy ( γsd) of active carbons determined by inverse gas chromatography: influences of the origin of precursors, the burn off level and the chemical modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossarutto, L.; Vagner, C.; Finqueneisel, G.; Weber, J. V.; Zimny, T.

    2001-06-01

    The dispersive component of the surface free energies ( γsd) of commercial active carbons (AC) from various origins were determined by inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution (IGC-ID). This method discriminates clearly the AC produced from wood (and activated/carbonised with phosphoric acid) and those from coconut-shell (carbonised and steam activated at 850°C). The values for the last AC (from coconut) are twice higher than the values for AC of wood origin. The structure and shape of the pores have to be considered to explain these values. It seems that for AC, IGC-ID globally characterises the most energetic micropores. This can be observed, in this work, by two ways: (i) washing of commercial AC (chemically activated) allows to liberate a part of the micropores blocked by soluble phosphate and consequently increases the γsd value; (ii) modifying coconuts AC by chemical treatment (formamide) results in a strong decrease of both microporosity and γsd value. On the contrary, thermal activation of the modified AC increases at the same time the microporosity and the surface free energy. Finally, we demonstrate that the IGC method is also an useful tool to monitor in situ the evolutions of the surface properties of carbonaceous materials.

  8. Science Activities in Energy: Chemical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 15 activities relating to chemical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  9. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  10. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  11. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686

  12. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686

  13. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  14. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  15. Activities Handbook for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred; Krockover, Gerald H.

    The purpose of this handbook is to present information about energy and to translate this information into learning activities for children. Chapter 1, "Energy: A Delicate Dilemma," presents activities intended to provide an introduction to energy and energy usage. Chapter 2, "What are the Sources of Energy?" provides background information and…

  16. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  17. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  18. Determination of energy expenditure during heavy exercise, normal daily activity, and sleep using the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.P.; Hoyt, R.W.; Settle, R.G.; O'Toole, M.; Hiller, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    Energy expenditure of four subjects was measured by the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method to determine if energy expenditure could be determined over short periods. Three subjects were studied while they performed 8 h of heavy exercise in a laboratory environment. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exercise. Estimated energy expended during 8 h of high-intensity exercise for three subjects was 757 +/- 118 kcal/h by the doubly-labelled-water method using urine and a two-point calculation, which compared favorably with 735 +/- 82 kcal/h obtained by respiratory gas exchange. For the fourth subject, daytime, nighttime, and daily energy expenditure was calculated by both the two-pair method and decay-curve analysis of urine and saliva samples collected in the morning and at night. Daytime and nighttime energy expenditures differed significantly (p less than 0.05).

  19. Determining the activation energies and slip systems for dislocation nucleation in body-centered cubic mo and face-centered cubic Ni single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Bei, Hongbin; Li, T.; Gao, Y. F.; George, Easo P; Nieh, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoindentation tests were performed on single crystals of Mo and Ni. The critical shear stress for the first pop-in was {approx}1/7 of the shear modulus in both crystals. The dependence of pop-in probability on load was understood in terms of a thermally activated dislocation nucleation process. Comparison of the activation energies suggests nucleation of full dislocations in Mo and partial dislocations in Ni. The activation energy analysis also offers information on the specific slip system on which dislocations are nucleated.

  20. How do sterols determine the antifungal activity of amphotericin B? Free energy of binding between the drug and its membrane targets.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anna; Baginski, Maciej; Czub, Jacek

    2010-12-29

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is a well-known polyene antibiotic used to treat systemic fungal infections. It is commonly accepted that the presence of sterols in the membrane is essential for the AmB biological activity, that is, for the formation of transmembrane ion channels. The selective toxicity of AmB for fungal cells is attributed to the fact that it is more potent against fungal cell membranes containing ergosterol than against the mammalian membranes with cholesterol. According to the "primary complex" hypothesis, AmB associates with sterols in a membrane to form binary complexes, which may subsequently assemble into a barrel-stave channel. To elucidate the molecular nature of the AmB selectivity for ergosterol-containing membranes, in the present work, we used computational methods to study the formation of the putative AmB/sterol complexes in a lipid bilayer. The free energy profiles for the AmB-sterol association in phospholipid bilayers containing 30 mol % of sterols were calculated and thoroughly analyzed. The results obtained confirm the formation of specific AmB/ergosterol complexes and are used to determine the energetic and structural origin of the enhanced affinity of AmB for ergosterol than for cholesterol. The significance of this affinity difference for the mechanism of action of AmB is discussed. The data obtained allowed us also to suggest a possible origin of the increased selectivity of a novel class of less toxic AmB derivatives. PMID:21126070

  1. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  2. Enzyme activity determination using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M. J.; Southworth, T.; Watson, N. G.; Povey, M. J. W.

    2014-04-01

    Here are presented the results of a novel approach to the measurement of enzyme reaction rates in which ultrasound velocity measurement is used. Our results show enzyme activity is observable, in the acoustic context, and that furthermore this offers the potential to estimate the rate of reaction over different substrate concentrations and temperatures. Findings are corroborated with optical microscopy and rheological measurements. Ultrasound velocity measurement can be performed without the need for aliquot extraction and offers an efficient, non-invasive and dynamic method to monitor enzyme activity.

  3. Structural Determinants of Sleeping Beauty Transposase Activity.

    PubMed

    Abrusán, György; Yant, Stephen R; Szilágyi, András; Marsh, Joseph A; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Barabás, Orsolya; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    Transposases are important tools in genome engineering, and there is considerable interest in engineering more efficient ones. Here, we seek to understand the factors determining their activity using the Sleeping Beauty transposase. Recent work suggests that protein coevolutionary information can be used to classify groups of physically connected, coevolving residues into elements called "sectors", which have proven useful for understanding the folding, allosteric interactions, and enzymatic activity of proteins. Using extensive mutagenesis data, protein modeling and analysis of folding energies, we show that (i) The Sleeping Beauty transposase contains two sectors, which span across conserved domains, and are enriched in DNA-binding residues, indicating that the DNA binding and endonuclease functions of the transposase coevolve; (ii) Sector residues are highly sensitive to mutations, and most mutations of these residues strongly reduce transposition rate; (iii) Mutations with a strong effect on free energy of folding in the DDE domain of the transposase significantly reduce transposition rate. (iv) Mutations that influence DNA and protein-protein interactions generally reduce transposition rate, although most hyperactive mutants are also located on the protein surface, including residues with protein-protein interactions. This suggests that hyperactivity results from the modification of protein interactions, rather than the stabilization of protein fold. PMID:27401040

  4. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  5. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data.

    PubMed

    Welle, F; Franz, R

    2011-01-01

    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  6. High-energy polarized-beam energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis combined with activated thin layers for cadmium determination at trace levels in complex environmental liquid samples.

    PubMed

    Marguí, Eva; Fontàs, Clàudia; Van Meel, Katleen; Van Grieken, René; Queralt, Ignasi; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a new method for trace level Cd determination in complex environmental liquid samples. Thin layers activated with the extractant Aliquat 336 were prepared either by direct impregnation of commercial polymeric supports or by physical inclusion in a cellulose triacetate matrix, and both were effectively used to collect Cd present at low concentration in different aqueous matrixes. Quantitation of Cd contained in the thin layers was performed by high-energy polarized-beam energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The effects of various experimental parameters such as layer composition, equilibration time, and instrumental conditions have been investigated. The analysis of different impregnated layers contacted with solutions ranging from 5 to 8000 microg L-1 Cd showed a linear response between the Cd concentration in the aqueous solutions and the metal present in the thin layer, with a detection limit of 0.7 microg L-1. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analyzing spiked seawater samples and a synthetic water sample containing, besides Cd, high amounts of other metal pollutants such as Ni, Cu, and Pb. The attained results were comparable to those obtained by anodic stripping voltammetry or inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. PMID:18327919

  7. Experimental determination of ice sublimation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, R.; Canto, J.; Satorre, M. A.; Domingo, M.

    2011-11-01

    In Astrophysics, the study of ices is important due to the wide range of scenarios in which they are present. Their physical and chemical characteristics play an important role in the study of the interstellar medium (ISM). The assessment of the energy of sublimation allows us to improve our understanding of physical and/or chemical processes that take place where ices are present. The energy of sublimation E_sub is defined as the change of energy between solid and gas phase of certain molecule. This value is important to determinate other thermodynamical parameters such as the reticular energy of ionic compounds, the energy of formation in gas phase from the energy of formation in condensed phase, or to estimate the sublimation rate, which is very important in determining the evolution of surfaces of astrophysical objects.

  8. Determining Enzyme Activity by Radial Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bill D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses advantages of radial diffusion assay in determining presence of enzyme and/or rough approximation of amount of enzyme activities. Procedures are included for the preparation of starch-agar plates, and the application and determination of enzyme. Techniques using plant materials (homogenates, tissues, ungerminated embryos, and seedlings)…

  9. Random bursts determine dynamics of active filaments.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christoph A; Suzuki, Ryo; Schaller, Volker; Aranson, Igor S; Bausch, Andreas R; Frey, Erwin

    2015-08-25

    Constituents of living or synthetic active matter have access to a local energy supply that serves to keep the system out of thermal equilibrium. The statistical properties of such fluctuating active systems differ from those of their equilibrium counterparts. Using the actin filament gliding assay as a model, we studied how nonthermal distributions emerge in active matter. We found that the basic mechanism involves the interplay between local and random injection of energy, acting as an analog of a thermal heat bath, and nonequilibrium energy dissipation processes associated with sudden jump-like changes in the system's dynamic variables. We show here how such a mechanism leads to a nonthermal distribution of filament curvatures with a non-Gaussian shape. The experimental curvature statistics and filament relaxation dynamics are reproduced quantitatively by stochastic computer simulations and a simple kinetic model. PMID:26261319

  10. Random bursts determine dynamics of active filaments

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Christoph A.; Suzuki, Ryo; Schaller, Volker; Aranson, Igor S.; Bausch, Andreas R.; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Constituents of living or synthetic active matter have access to a local energy supply that serves to keep the system out of thermal equilibrium. The statistical properties of such fluctuating active systems differ from those of their equilibrium counterparts. Using the actin filament gliding assay as a model, we studied how nonthermal distributions emerge in active matter. We found that the basic mechanism involves the interplay between local and random injection of energy, acting as an analog of a thermal heat bath, and nonequilibrium energy dissipation processes associated with sudden jump-like changes in the system’s dynamic variables. We show here how such a mechanism leads to a nonthermal distribution of filament curvatures with a non-Gaussian shape. The experimental curvature statistics and filament relaxation dynamics are reproduced quantitatively by stochastic computer simulations and a simple kinetic model. PMID:26261319

  11. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  12. Aspects of energy transitions: History and determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Peter A.

    Energy intensity in the U.S. from 1780 to 2010 shows a declining trend when traditional energy is included, in contrast to the "inverted U-curve" seen when only commercial energy is considered. The analysis quantifies use of human and animal muscle power, wind and water power, biomass, harvested ice, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. Historical prices are provided for many energy resources. The analysis reaffirms the importance of innovation in conversion technologies in energy transitions. An increase in energy intensity in the early 20th century is explained by diminishing returns to pre-electric manufacturing systems, which produced a transformation in manufacturing. In comparison to similar studies for other countries, the U.S. has generally higher energy intensity. A population-weighted series of heating degree days and cooling degree days partially explains differences in energy intensity. Series are developed for 231 countries and territories with multiple reference temperatures, with a "wet-bulb" series accounting for the effects of humidity. Other variables considered include energy prices, income per capita, and governance indices. A panel regression of thirty-two countries from 1995 to 2010 establishes GDP per capita and share of primary energy as determinants of energy intensity, but fails to establish statistical significance of the climate variables. A group mean regression finds average heating and cooling degree days to be significant predictors of average energy intensity over the study period, increasing energy intensity by roughly 1.5 kJ per 2005 international dollar for each annual degree day. Group mean regression results explain differences in countries' average energy intensity, but not changes within a country over time. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) influences the economic competitiveness and environmental impacts of an energy resource and is one driver of energy transitions. The EROI of U.S. petroleum production has declined since 1972

  13. Structural determination of glycosphingolipids as lithiated adducts by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using low-energy collisional-activated dissociation on a triple stage quadrupole instrument.

    PubMed

    Hsu, F F; Turk, J

    2001-01-01

    Structural characterization of glycosphingolipids as their lithiated adducts using low-energy collisional-activated dissociation (CAD) tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) is described. The tandem mass spectra contain abundant fragment ions reflecting the long chain base (LCB), fatty acid, and the sugar constituent of the molecule and permit unequivocal identification of cerebrosides, di-, trihexosyl ceramides and globosides. The major fragmentation pathways arise from loss of the sugar moiety to yield a lithiated ceramide ion, which undergoes further fragmentation to form multiple fragment ions that confirm the structures of the fatty acid and LCB. The mechanisms for the ion formation and the possible configuration of the fragment ions, resulting from CAD of the lithiated molecular ions ([M + Li]+) of monoglycosylceramides are proposed. The mechanisms were supported by CAD and source CAD tandem mass spectra of various cerebrosides and of their analogous molecules prepared by H-D exchange. Constant neutral loss and precursor ion scannings to identify galactosylceramides with sphingosine or sphinganine LCB subclasses, and with specific N-2-hydroxyl fatty acid subclass in mixtures are also demonstrated. PMID:11142362

  14. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  15. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  16. METHODS USED IN DETERMINATION OF CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview and historical perspective of the many available methods for cholinesterase (ChE) activity determination. ue to the almost universal use of the spectrophotometric assay in wildlife toxicology, the remainder of the chapter focuses on this techniqu...

  17. Experiments to Determine the Efficiency of Various Energy Conversions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, D.; Goodwin, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are experiments used in the "Physical Science and Man" course at Hartley CAE which enable determinations of efficiencies of two energy conversion processes, namely, electricity into heat and burning gas to produce heat. Activities for comparing the processes are suggested. (DS)

  18. Protein energy landscapes determined by five-dimensional crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Marius; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2013-12-01

    Barriers of activation within the photocycle of a photoactive protein were extracted from comprehensive time courses of time resolved crystallographic data collected at multiple temperature settings. Free-energy landscapes decisively determine the progress of enzymatically catalyzed reactions [Cornish-Bowden (2012 ▶), Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics, 4th ed.]. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies transient-state kinetics with structure determination [Moffat (2001 ▶), Chem. Rev.101, 1569–1581; Schmidt et al. (2005 ▶), Methods Mol. Biol.305, 115–154; Schmidt (2008 ▶), Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Medicine and Biology] because both can be determined from the same set of X-ray data. Here, it is demonstrated how barriers of activation can be determined solely from five-dimensional crystallography, where in addition to space and time, temperature is a variable as well [Schmidt et al. (2010 ▶), Acta Cryst. A66, 198–206]. Directly linking molecular structures with barriers of activation between them allows insight into the structural nature of the barrier to be gained. Comprehensive time series of crystallographic data at 14 different temperature settings were analyzed and the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the barriers of activation were determined. One hundred years after the discovery of X-ray scattering, these results advance X-ray structure determination to a new frontier: the determination of energy landscapes.

  19. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  20. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  1. Activation Energies of Plasmonic Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo; Dumett Torres, Daniel; Jain, Prashant K

    2016-05-11

    The activation energy of a catalytic reaction serves not only as a metric of the efficacy of a catalyst but also as a potential indicator of mechanistic differences between the catalytic and noncatalytic reaction. However, activation energies are quite underutilized in the field of photocatalysis. We characterize in detail the effect of visible light excitation on the activation enthalpy of an electron transfer reaction photocatalyzed by plasmonic Au nanoparticles. We find that in the presence of visible light photoexcitation, the activation enthalpy of the Au nanoparticle-catalyzed electron transfer reaction is significantly reduced. The reduction in the activation enthalpy depends on the excitation wavelength, the incident laser power, and the strength of a hole scavenger. On the basis of these results, we argue that the activation enthalpy reduction is directly related to the photoelectrochemical potential built-up on the Au nanoparticle under steady-state light excitation, analogous to electrochemical activation. Under optimum light excitation conditions, a potential as high as 240 mV is measured. The findings constitute more precise insights into the mechanistic role and energetic contribution of plasmonic excitation to chemical reactions catalyzed by transition metal nanoparticles. PMID:27064549

  2. Divergent transcriptional activities determine limb identity

    PubMed Central

    Ouimette, Jean-François; Jolin, Marisol Lavertu; L'honoré, Aurore; Gifuni, Anthony; Drouin, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Limbs develop using a common genetic programme despite widely differing morphologies. This programme is modulated by limb-restricted regulators such as hindlimb (HL) transcription factors Pitx1 and Tbx4 and the forelimb (FL) Tbx5. Both Tbx factors have been implicated in limb patterning and growth, but their relative activities and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this paper, we show that Tbx4 and Tbx5 harbour conserved and divergent transcriptional regulatory domains that account for their roles in limb development. In particular, both factors share an activator domain and the ability to stimulate limb growth. However, we find that Tbx4 is the primary effector of HL identity for both skeletal and muscle development; this activity relies on a repressor domain that is inactivated by a human TBX4 small-patella syndrome mutation. We propose that limb identity is largely achieved by default in FL, whereas a specific repressor activity unique to Tbx4 determines HL identity. PMID:20975709

  3. Protein energy landscapes determined by five-dimensional crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marius; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2013-01-01

    Free-energy landscapes decisively determine the progress of enzymatically catalyzed reactions [Cornish-Bowden (2012 ▶), Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics, 4th ed.]. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies transient-state kinetics with structure determination [Moffat (2001 ▶), Chem. Rev. 101, 1569–1581; Schmidt et al. (2005 ▶), Methods Mol. Biol. 305, 115–154; Schmidt (2008 ▶), Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Medicine and Biology] because both can be determined from the same set of X-ray data. Here, it is demonstrated how barriers of activation can be determined solely from five-dimensional crystallo­graphy, where in addition to space and time, temperature is a variable as well [Schmidt et al. (2010 ▶), Acta Cryst. A66, 198–206]. Directly linking molecular structures with barriers of activation between them allows insight into the structural nature of the barrier to be gained. Comprehensive time series of crystallo­graphic data at 14 different temperature settings were analyzed and the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the barriers of activation were determined. One hundred years after the discovery of X-ray scattering, these results advance X-ray structure determination to a new frontier: the determination of energy landscapes. PMID:24311594

  4. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  5. Change of energy expenditure from physical activity is the most powerful determinant of improved insulin sensitivity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease participating in an intensive lifestyle modification program.

    PubMed

    Audelin, Marie C; Savage, Patrick D; Toth, Michael J; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Schneider, David J; Bunn, Janice Y; Ludlow, Maryann; Ades, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    The objective was to evaluate the determinants of change (Δ) in insulin sensitivity in overweight coronary artery disease male patients without diabetes after an intensive lifestyle intervention. All patients received nutritional counseling and performed 4 months of exercise training (ET) according to 1 of 2 protocols: aerobic ET (65%-70% of peak aerobic capacity [VO(2)]) 25 to 40 minutes 3 times a week (n = 30) or walking (50%-60% of peak VO(2)) 45 to 60 minutes at least 5 times a week (n = 30). Data from participants of both ET groups were pooled, and post-intensive lifestyle intervention results were compared with baseline data. The primary outcome was Δ insulin sensitivity (m-value) assessed by the criterion standard technique, the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Changes in weight, body mass index, total and percentage fat mass (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan), waist circumference, total abdominal and visceral fat (by computed tomographic scan), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, peak VO(2), daily energy intake, and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) (by doubly labeled water technique) were also assessed. Daily energy intake decreased by 335 kcal, and PAEE increased by 482 kcal/d (all P < .0001). The mean weight loss was 6.4 kg, and the mean improvement in m-value was 1.6 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute. Univariate determinants of Δ m-value were low baseline PAEE, walking protocol, Δ weight, Δ body mass index, Δ total and percentage fat mass, Δ waist circumference, Δ total abdominal and visceral fat, and Δ PAEE (all P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the only significant determinant of Δ m-value was Δ PAEE (P < .02). In this analysis, the most powerful determinant of improved insulin sensitivity in overweight coronary artery disease patients is the change in PAEE. PMID:22152649

  6. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William

    1999-01-01

    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  7. Neutron Flux Spectra Determination by Multiple Foil Activation - Iterative Method.

    1994-07-08

    Version 00 Neutron energy spectra are determined by an analysis of experimental activation detector data. As with the original CCC-112/SAND-II program, which was developed at Air Force Weapons Laboratory, this code system consists of four modules, CSTAPE, SLACTS, SLATPE, and SANDII. The first three modules pre-process the dosimetry cross sections and the trial function spectrum library. The last module, SANDII, actually performs the iterative spectrum characterization.

  8. [Determination of riboflavin kinase activity in yeast].

    PubMed

    Shavlovsky, G M; Kashchenko, V E

    1975-01-01

    It is established that the main reason of the riboflavin kinase (RFK, EC 2.7.1.26) low specific activity in the cell-free extracts of the yeast Pichia guillermondii Wickerham ATCC 9058 is the presence of alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1), effectively destructing flaven mononucleotide. By chromatography of the cell-free extracts of P. guillermondii on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sphadex C-50, CM-cellulose, Sephadexes G-75 and G-100 RFK and alkaline phosphatase may be separated completely. Any of these procedures results in a several times increase of the RFK activity as compared with the initial preparation. One failed to obtain a similar effect by fractionation of the extracts with amminium sulphate and by hydroxylapatite chromatography. A simple method is developed for determining the activity of RFK in the cell-free extracts of yeast on the basis of negative adsorption of this enzyme on DEAE-Sephadex A-50. A selective inhibition of alkaline phosphatase by ions Be2+ and F- yields a less satisfactory result. The data are presented on the PFK activity of certain species of flavinogenic (Pichia guillermondii, Torulopsis camdida) and non-flavinogenic (Pichia ohmeri, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cervisiae) yeast. PMID:174262

  9. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  10. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1 The Design... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  11. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  12. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  13. Determination of fungal activity in modified wood by means of micro-calorimetry and determination of total esterase activity

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pradeep; Dyckmans, Jens; Militz, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Beech and pine wood blocks were treated with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylen urea (DMDHEU) to increasing weight percent gains (WPG). The resistance of the treated specimens against Trametes versicolor and Coniophora puteana, determined as mass loss, increased with increasing WPG of DMDHEU. Metabolic activity of the fungi in the wood blocks was assessed as total esterase activity (TEA) based on the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate and as heat or energy production determined by isothermal micro-calorimetry. Both methods revealed that the fungal activity was related with the WPG and the mass loss caused by the fungi. Still, fungal activity was detected even in wood blocks of the highest WPG and showed that the treatment was not toxic to the fungi. Energy production showed a higher consistency with the mass loss after decay than TEA; higher mass loss was more stringently reflected by higher heat production rate. Heat production did not proceed linearly, possibly due to the inhibition of fungal activity by an excess of carbon dioxide. PMID:18542949

  14. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  15. Rapid determination of the energy magnitude Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giacomo, D.; Parolai, S.; Bormann, P.; Saul, J.; Grosser, H.; Wang, R.; Zschau, J.

    2009-04-01

    The magnitude of an earthquake is one of the most used parameters to evaluate the earthquake's damage potential. However, many magnitude scales developed over the past years have different meanings. Among the non-saturating magnitude scales, the energy magnitude Me is related to a well defined physical parameter of the seismic source, that is the radiated seismic energy ES (e.g. Bormann et al., 2002): Me = 2/3(log10 ES - 4.4). Me is more suitable than the moment magnitude Mw in describing an earthquake's shaking potential (Choy and Kirby, 2004). Indeed, Me is calculated over a wide frequency range of the source spectrum and represents a better measure of the shaking potential, whereas Mw is related to the low-frequency asymptote of the source spectrum and is a good measure of the fault size and hence of the static (tectonic) effect of an earthquake. The calculation of ES requires the integration over frequency of the squared P-waves velocity spectrum corrected for the energy loss experienced by the seismic waves along the path from the source to the receivers. To accout for the frequency-dependent energy loss, we computed spectral amplitude decay functions for different frequenciesby using synthetic Green's functions (Wang, 1999) based on the reference Earth model AK135Q (Kennett et al., 1995; Montagner and Kennett, 1996). By means of these functions the correction for the various propagation effects of the recorded P-wave velocity spectra is performed in a rapid and robust way, and the calculation of ES, and hence of Me, can be computed at the single station. We analyse teleseismic broadband P-waves signals in the distance range 20°-98°. We show that our procedure is suitable for implementation in rapid response systems since it could provide stable Me determinations within 10-15 minutes after the earthquake's origin time. Indeed, we use time variable cumulative energy windows starting 4 s after the first P-wave arrival in order to include the earthquake rupture

  16. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  17. Transport energy: determinants and policy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkerley, J.; Hoch, I.; Bouhdili, C.

    1985-09-01

    Expanding oil consumption by the transportation sector, already a major oil consumer, poses an economic threat to many developing countries. The report presents an overview of past trends in transport energy consumption and analyzes these trends systematically via regression analyses based on data from 80 developing and industrial countries (including new data on total and sectoral fuel consumption, numbers of trucks and buses, GDP, gasoline and diesel prices, and demographic and geographic features). Results of these analyses are supplemented by case studies of India and Ecuador. Results reveal high-income and low-price elasticities for fuel consumption and suggest that, despite rising fuel prices, increases in fuel consumption and vehicle ownership will outstrip increases in economic activity. This situation will require adapted fuel-price policies, which are critical in explaining fuel consumption. However, given the low price elasticities, price policies should be supplemented by improving vehicle efficiency and truck load factors, providing attractive alternative forms of public transportation, and reducing road congestion.

  18. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Ruth

    This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  19. Determination of beta activity in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.B.; Robinson, B.P.

    1963-01-01

    Many elements have one or more naturally radioactive isotopes, and several hundred other radionuclides have been produced artificially. Radioactive substances may be present in natural water as a result of geochemical processes or the release of radioactive waste and other nuclear debris to the environment. The Geological Survey has developed methods for measuring certain of these .radioactive substances in water. Radioactive substances often are present in water samples in microgram quantities or less. Therefore, precautions must be taken to prevent loss of material and to assure that the sample truly represents its source at the time of collection. Addition of acids, complexing agents, or stable isotopes often aids in preventing loss of radioactivity on container walls, on sediment, or on other solid materials in contact with the sample. The disintegration of radioactive atoms is a random process subject to established methods of statistical analysis. Because many water samples contain small amounts of radioactivity, low-level counting techniques must be used. The usual assumption that counting data follow a Gaussian distribution is invalid under these conditions, and statistical analyses must be based on the Poisson distribution. The gross beta activity in water samples is determined from the residue left after evaporation of the sample to dryness. Evaporation is accomplished first in a teflon dish, then the residue is transferred with distilled water to a counting planchet and again is reduced to dryness. The radioactivity on the planchet is measured with an anticoincidence-shielded, low-background, beta counter and is compared with measurements of a strontium-90-yttrium-90 standard prepared and measured in the same manner. Control charts are used to assure consistent operation of the counting instrument.

  20. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... determined the energy efficiency of the basic model, either from testing the basic model or from applying...

  1. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. Link to an amendment... such equipment in commerce unless the manufacturer has determined the energy efficiency of the...

  2. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... determined the energy efficiency of the basic model, either from testing the basic model or from applying...

  3. Rapid determination of the energy magnitude Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giacomo, D.; Parolai, S.; Bormann, P.; Grosser, H.; Saul, J.; Wang, R.; Zschau, J.

    2009-12-01

    The magnitude of an earthquake is one of the most used parameters to evaluate the earthquake’s damage potential. Among the non-saturating magnitude scales, the energy magnitude Me is related to a well defined physical parameter of the seismic source, that is the radiated seismic energy Es (e.g. Bormann et al., 2002): Me = 2/3(log10 Es - 4.4). Me is more suitable than the moment magnitude Mw in describing an earthquake's shaking potential (Choy and Kirby, 2004). Indeed, Me is calculated over a wide frequency range of the source spectrum and represents a better measure of the shaking potential, whereas Mw is related to the low-frequency asymptote of the source spectrum and is a good measure of the fault size and hence of the static (tectonic) effect of an earthquake. We analyse teleseismic broadband P-waves signals in the distance range 20°-98° to calculate Es. To correct the frequency-dependent energy loss experienced by the P-waves during the propagation path, we use pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions for different frequencies obtained from numerical simulations of Green’s functions (Wang, 1999) given the reference Earth model AK135Q (Kennett et al., 1995; Montagner and Kennett, 1996). By means of these functions the correction for the various propagation effects of the recorded P-wave velocity spectra is performed in a rapid and robust way, and the calculation of ES, and hence of Me, can be computed at the single station. We show that our procedure is suitable for implementation in rapid response systems since it could provide stable Me determinations within 10-15 minutes after the earthquake’s origin time, even in case of great earthquakes. We tested our procedure for a large dataset composed by about 770 earthquakes globally distributed in the Mw range 5.5-9.3 recorded at the broadband stations managed by the IRIS, GEOFON, and GEOSCOPE global networks, as well as other regional seismic networks. Me and Mw express two different aspects of

  4. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  5. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  6. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  7. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  8. Intrinsic free energy in active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2015-10-01

    Basing our arguments on the theory of active liquid crystals, we demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that the activity can induce an effective free energy which enhances ordering in extensile systems of active rods and in contractile suspensions of active discs. We argue that this occurs because any ordering fluctuation is enhanced by the flow field it produces. A phase diagram in the temperature-activity plane compares ordering due to a thermodynamic free energy to that resulting from the activity. We also demonstrate that activity can drive variations in concentration, but for a different physical reason that relies on the separation of hydrodynamic and diffusive time scales.

  9. Cosmic ray spectral deformation caused by energy determination errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Per; Wannemark, Conny

    2005-08-01

    Using simulation methods, distortion effects on energy spectra caused by errors in the energy determination have been investigated. For cosmic ray proton spectra falling steeply with kinetic energy E as E-2.7, significant effects appear. When magnetic spectrometers are used to determine the energy, the relative error increases linearly with the energy and distortions with a sinusoidal form appear starting at an energy that depends significantly on the error distribution but at an energy lower than that corresponding to the maximum detectable rigidity of the spectrometer. The effect should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different experiments, often having different error distributions.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  11. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  12. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year 1990 applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities. Four MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for energy testing and program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities.

  13. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  14. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  15. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  16. Energy and Energy Conservation Activities for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottinelli, Charles A., Ed.; Dow, John O., Ed.

    This manual contains fifteen energy activities suitable for high school physical and environmental science and mathematics classrooms. The activities are independent, each having its own objectives, introduction, and background information. A special section of each activity is written for the instructor and contains limits, sample data, and…

  17. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. R.; Dinator, M. I.; Cerda, P.

    1989-04-01

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce 11C and 13N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm 2. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center.

  18. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  19. The activation energy for creep of columbium /niobium/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulden, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activation energy for creep of nominally pure columbium (niobium) was determined in the temperature range from 0.4 to 0.75 T sub M by measuring strain rate changes induced by temperature shifts at constant stress. A peak in the activation energy vs temperature curve was found with a maximum value of 160 kcal/mole. A pretest heat treatment of 3000 F for 30 min resulted in even higher values of activation energy (greater than 600 kcal/mole) in this temperature range. The activation energy for the heat-treated columbium (Nb) could not be determined near 0.5 T sub M because of unusual creep curves involving negligible steady-state creep rates and failure at less than 5% creep strain. It is suggested that the anomalous activation energy values and the unusual creep behavior in this temperature range are caused by dynamic strain aging involving substitutional atom impurities and that this type of strain aging may be in part responsible for the scatter in previously reported values of activation energy for creep of columbium (Nb) near 0.5 T sub M.

  20. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  1. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  2. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  3. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  4. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  5. Distributed Energy Communications & Controls, Lab Activities - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to develop controls for inverter-based renewable and non-renewable distributed energy systems to provide local voltage, power and power quality support for loads and the power grid. The objectives are to (1) develop adaptive controls for inverter-based distributed energy (DE) systems when there are multiple inverters on the same feeder and (2) determine the impact of high penetration high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) air conditioning (A/C) units on power systems during sub-transmission faults which can result in an A/C compressor motor stall and assess how inverter-based DE can help to mitigate the stall event. The Distributed Energy Communications & Controls Laboratory (DECC) is a unique facility for studying dynamic voltage, active power (P), non-active power (Q) and power factor control from inverter-based renewable distributed energy (DE) resources. Conventionally, inverter-based DE systems have been designed to provide constant, close to unity power factor and thus not provide any voltage support. The DECC Lab interfaces with the ORNL campus distribution system to provide actual power system testing of the controls approach. Using mathematical software tools and the DECC Lab environment, we are developing and testing local, autonomous and adaptive controls for local voltage control and P & Q control for inverter-based DE. We successfully tested our active and non-active power (P,Q) controls at the DECC laboratory along with voltage regulation controls. The new PQ control along with current limiter controls has been tested on our existing inverter test system. We have tested both non-adaptive and adaptive control modes for the PQ control. We have completed several technical papers on the approaches and results. Electric power distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) due to air conditioning (A/C) compressor motor stall. Local voltage collapse from FIDVR is

  6. 78 FR 63459 - Notice of Active Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Department of the Air Force Notice of Active Duty Determination AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Proposed Federal Register Notice of Active Duty Determination Under Public Law 95-202. SUMMARY: On September 30, 2013, the Secretary of the Air Force, acting as Executive Agent of the Secretary...

  7. Determination of Multidimensional Intermolecular Potential Energy Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ronald Carl

    High resolution spectroscopy of the low frequency van der Waals vibrations (also referred to as Vibration -Rotation-Tunneling (VRT) spectroscopy) in weakly bound complexes provides the means to probe intermolecular forces with unprecedented detail and precision. We present an overview of the experimental information on intermolecular forces and intermolecular dynamics which has been obtained by far infrared VRT spectroscopy of 18 complexes. We then turn to a detailed examination of the Ar-H_2O complex, a simple prototype for the study of intermolecular forces. The measurement and analysis of 9 VRT bands is described. These data are first used to obtain a qualitative description of the intermolecular potential energy surface (IPS). A new simple and efficient method for calculating the eigenvalues of the multidimensional intermolecular dynamics on the IPS has been developed. This algorithm (an adaptation of the Collocation Method) was then used in a direct fit to obtain an accurate and detailed description of the intermolecular forces acting within the Ar-H_2O complex.

  8. Energy Cost of Common Activities in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lyden, Kate; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty; Alhassan, Sofiya

    2014-01-01

    Background The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth assigns MET values to a wide range of activities. However, only 35% of activity MET values were derived from energy cost data measured in youth; the remaining activities were estimated from adult values. Purpose To determine the energy cost of common activities performed by children and adolescents and compare these data to similar activities reported in the compendium. Methods Thirty-two children (8–11 years old) and 28 adolescents (12–16 years) completed 4 locomotion activities on a treadmill (TRD) and 5 age-specific activities of daily living (ADL). Oxygen consumption was measured using a portable metabolic analyzer. Results In children, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 3 activities [basketball, bike riding, and Wii tennis (1.1–3.5 METs lower)]. In adolescents, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 4 ADLs [basketball, bike riding, board games, and Wii tennis (0.3–2.5 METs lower)] and 3 TRDs [2.24 m·s−1, 1.56 m·s−1, and 1.34 m·s−1 (0.4–0.8 METs lower)]. Conclusion The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is an invaluable resource to applied researchers. Inclusion of empirically derived data would improve the validity of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth. PMID:22398418

  9. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  10. Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) was calculated from temperature sweeps of cheeses with contrasting characteristics to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Cheddar, Colby, whole milk Mozzarella, low moisture part skim Mozzarella, Parmesan, soft goat, and Queso Fre...

  11. Interferometric technique for determining the energy deposition in gas-flow nuclear-pumped lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pikulev, A A

    2001-06-30

    An interference technique is developed for determining the energy deposition in gas-flow lasers pumped by uranium fission fragments. It is shown that four types of interference patterns may be formed. Algorithms are presented for determining the type of interference and for enumerating the maxima in interference pattern. (lasers, active media)

  12. An electrostatic suspension method for determining photoionization energies of solids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A.

    1973-01-01

    A sample is suspended on a quartz fibre in an electrostatic condenser and the onset of ionization with photon energy is determined through the potential required to restore zero deflection. Results for a few organic semiconductors are given.

  13. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  14. Energy expended by boys playing active video games.

    PubMed

    White, Kate; Schofield, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming experience or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary activities (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a maximal fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most active video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children. PMID:20810313

  15. Sequential quadratic programming method for determining the minimum energy path.

    PubMed

    Burger, Steven K; Yang, Weitao

    2007-10-28

    A new method, referred to as the sequential quadratic programming method, is presented for determining minimum energy paths. The method is based on minimizing the points representing the path in the subspace perpendicular to the tangent of the path while using a penalty term to prevent kinks from forming. Rather than taking one full step, the minimization is divided into a number of sequential steps on an approximate quadratic surface. The resulting method can efficiently determine the reaction mechanism, from which transition state can be easily identified and refined with other methods. To improve the resolution of the path close to the transition state, points are clustered close to this region with a reparametrization scheme. The usefulness of the algorithm is demonstrated for the Muller-Brown potential, amide hydrolysis, and an 89 atom cluster taken from the active site of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase for the reaction which catalyzes 2-oxo-4-hexenedioate to the intermediate 2-hydroxy-2,4-hexadienedioate. PMID:17979319

  16. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  17. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  18. Accurate Mass Determinations in Decay Chains with Missing Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-C; Gunion, John F.; Han Zhenyu; Engelhardt, Dalit; McElrath, Bob

    2008-06-27

    Many beyond the standard model theories include a stable dark matter candidate that yields missing or invisible energy in collider detectors. If observed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, we must determine if its mass and other properties (and those of its partners) predict the correct dark matter relic density. We give a new procedure for determining its mass with small error.

  19. Accurate mass determinations in decay chains with missing energy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Engelhardt, Dalit; Gunion, John F; Han, Zhenyu; McElrath, Bob

    2008-06-27

    Many beyond the standard model theories include a stable dark matter candidate that yields missing or invisible energy in collider detectors. If observed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, we must determine if its mass and other properties (and those of its partners) predict the correct dark matter relic density. We give a new procedure for determining its mass with small error. PMID:18643654

  20. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  1. Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

  2. Using Polarimetry to Determine the CEBAF Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2014-06-01

    As Jefferson Lab begins operations with its upgraded CEBAF a ccelerator, the lab once again needs to experimentally determine the absolute beam energy of the machine. Previously, the CE- BAF beam energy was determined using precision measurement s of the bending magnet integral fields along with beam position information. The result obta ined from this technique was cross- checked with elastic scattering from hydrogen where knowle dge of the scattering angles of the electron and proton allow the beam energy to be determined. Wh ile the field integral method will still work with the upgraded machine, the elastic cross sect ion becomes too small to make preci- sion measurements at angles that are large enough to be easil y accessible; thus a new technique for energy determination has been sought. It will be shown th at by making use of polarimetry, one can use CEBAF’s polarized electrons’ g-2 spin precessio n to determine the absolute beam energy. This can be done in a single hall if the parameters of t he machine, such as the injector energy and linac imbalance, are known or with two halls witho ut any knowledge of the machine parameters

  3. Determination of equilibrium free energy from nonequilibrium work measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L. Y.; Bastien, D. A.; Espejel, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    The fluctuation–dissipation theorem (FDT) of Brownian dynamics (BD) is applied to extract the equilibrium free-energy profile from the nonequilibrium, irreversible work measured in single-molecule pulling experiments. Two sets of in silico experiments are performed to explore the free-energy landscape of deca-alanine peptide as a function of its end-to-end distance and to determine the free-energy profile of water permeation through the channels of aquaglyceroporin GlpF. With a small number of pulling paths sampled, the BD-FDT is shown to produce accurate estimates of the free-energy profiles for both systems. PMID:20463999

  4. Characterization of activation energy for flow in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, Y. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2011-01-15

    The molar volume (V{sub m}) scaled flow activation energy ({Delta}E), namely as the activation energy density {rho}{sub E}={Delta}E/V{sub m}, is proposed to describe the flow of metallic glasses. Based on the energy landscape, both the shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for the {rho}{sub E} of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in metallic glasses. The expression of {rho}{sub E} is determined experimentally to be a simple expression of {rho}{sub E}=(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The energy density perspective depicts a realistic picture for the flow in metallic glasses and is suggestive for understanding the glass transition and deformation in metallic glasses.

  5. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  6. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  7. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  8. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  9. Hardee County Energy Activities - Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Described are over 70 activities designed to help students develop writing skills by examining energy issues. Intended for middle school students, the lessons were developed by Hardee County, Florida teachers. Learning strategies employed include class discussions, analogies, word puzzles, letter writing, sentence completions, vocabulary building…

  10. Development of a new biosensor for determination of catalase activity.

    PubMed

    Teke, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is one of the major antioxidant enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of H2O2. The aim of this study was to suggest a new method for the assay of catalase activity. For this purpose, an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase for determination of catalase activity was developed. Immobilization of glucose oxidase was made by a cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde on a Clark-type electrode (dissolved oxygen probe). Optimization and characterization properties of the biosensor were studied and determination of catalase activity in defined conditions was investigated in artificial serum solution. The results were compared with a reference method. PMID:24499365

  11. Activation energy of water structural transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmanskiy, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the nature of molecular motions that dominate in the thermodynamics of anomalies of liquid water properties in the range of 0-100 °C has been studied. Temperature dependencies of water properties have been approximated by exponential functions and the activation energies for water structure transitions have been evaluated. The activation energy values were compared with the energy spectra of characteristic vibrations and with those of cooperative molecular motion in the lattice-type structure of hydrogen bonds. It has been found that it is the reaction of hydrogen bond breaking that mainly limits the abnormal dynamics of water viscosity, self-diffusion, dielectric relaxation time and electric conductivity. It has been assumed that the thermodynamics of cooperative motion and resonance phenomena in water clusters form a basis for the differentiation mechanism of extrema points in temperature dependencies of water density, isobaric heat capacity, sound velocity, surface tension coefficient and compressibility.

  12. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  13. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  14. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  15. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  16. Precise determination of neutron binding energy of 64Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telezhnikov, S. A.; Granja, C.; Honzatko, J.; Pospisil, S.; Tomandl, I.

    2016-05-01

    The neutron binding energy in 64Cu has been accurately measured in thermal neutron capture. A composite target of natural Cu and NaCl was used on a high flux neutron beam using a large measuring time. The γ-ray spectrum emitted in the ( n, γ) reaction was measured with a HPGe detector in large statistics (up to 106 events per channel). Intrinsic limitations of HPGe detectors, which restrict the accuracy of energy calibration, were determined. The value B n of 64Cu was determined as 7915.867(24) keV.

  17. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  18. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  19. Direct determination of phosphatase activity from physiological substrates in cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhongyuan; Do, Le Duy; Bechkoff, Géraldine; Mebarek, Saida; Keloglu, Nermin; Ahamada, Saandia; Meena, Saurabh; Magne, David; Pikula, Slawomir; Wu, Yuqing; Buchet, René

    2015-01-01

    A direct and continuous approach to determine simultaneously protein and phosphate concentrations in cells and kinetics of phosphate release from physiological substrates by cells without any labeling has been developed. Among the enzymes having a phosphatase activity, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) performs indispensable, multiple functions in humans. It is expressed in numerous tissues with high levels detected in bones, liver and neurons. It is absolutely required for bone mineralization and also necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis. We provided the proof of concept that infrared spectroscopy is a reliable assay to determine a phosphatase activity in the osteoblasts. For the first time, an overall specific phosphatase activity in cells was determined in a single step by measuring simultaneously protein and substrate concentrations. We found specific activities in osteoblast like cells amounting to 116 ± 13 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for PPi, to 56 ± 11 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for AMP, to 79 ± 23 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for beta-glycerophosphate and to 73 ± 15 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for 1-alpha-D glucose phosphate. The assay was also effective to monitor phosphatase activity in primary osteoblasts and in matrix vesicles. The use of levamisole--a TNAP inhibitor--served to demonstrate that a part of the phosphatase activity originated from this enzyme. An IC50 value of 1.16 ± 0.03 mM was obtained for the inhibition of phosphatase activity of levamisole in osteoblast like cells. The infrared assay could be extended to determine any type of phosphatase activity in other cells. It may serve as a metabolomic tool to monitor an overall phosphatase activity including acid phosphatases or other related enzymes. PMID:25785438

  20. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1 Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  1. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  2. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  3. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  4. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  5. Direct potentiometric determination of diastase activity in honey.

    PubMed

    Sak-Bosnar, Milan; Sakač, Nikola

    2012-11-15

    A novel method for the determination of diastase activity is reported. The method is based on a direct potentiometric measurement of triiodide ion that is released when a starch-triiodide complex is hydrolysed by honey diastase. The increase of free triiodide ion concentration in a sample is found to be directly proportional to the diastase activity of the sample. A response mechanism of the platinum redox electrode is proposed, allowing a calculation of the diastase activity factor (F). The sensor and analyte parameters, including F, were obtained by least squares fitting of potentiometric data using the optimisation function of the Solver add-in of Microsoft Excel. The values of F obtained by the new direct potentiometric method were compared with those obtained using the standard Phadebas method (DN values), and the two values were found to agree within experimental error. Finally, the diastase activity of nine varieties of honey was determined using the novel method developed here. PMID:22868165

  6. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  7. Determining aerodynamic conductance of spar chambers from energy balance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aerodynamic conductance (gA) of SPAR chambers was determined from measurements of energy balance and canopy temperature over a peanut canopy. gA was calculated from the slope of sensible heat flux (H) versus canopy-to-air temperature difference. H and the canopy-to-air temperature were varied by...

  8. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  9. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  10. Experimentally Determined Binding Energies of Astrophysically Relevant Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmard, Aida; Graninger, Dawn; Oberg, Karin I.

    2016-06-01

    Small hydrocarbons represent an important organic reservoir in a variety of interstellar environments. Constraints on desorption temperatures and binding energies of hydrocarbons are thus necessary for accurate predictions of where and in which phase these molecules exist. Through a series of temperature programmed desorption experiments, we determined the desorption temperatures and binding energies of 1, 2, and 3-carbon interstellar hydrocarbons (CH4, H3CCH3, H2CCH2, C3H8, HCCCH3, and C3H6). These empirically determined values can be used to inform observations and models of the molecular spatial distribution in protoplanetary disks, thus providing insight into planetesimal composition. In addition, knowledge of hydrocarbon binding energies will refine simulations of grain surface chemistry, allowing for better predictions of the chemical conditions that lead to the production of complex organic molecules vital for life.

  11. Energy Expenditure during Sexual Activity in Young Healthy Couples

    PubMed Central

    Frappier, Julie; Toupin, Isabelle; Levy, Joseph J.; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylene; Karelis, Antony D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal) during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. Methods The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old) from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. Results Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively) whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal) and in women (76.2 kCal) when compared to measured energy expenditure. Conclusion The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS) in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise. PMID:24205382

  12. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures. PMID:26965669

  13. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan G; Korovin, Yury A; Natalenko, Anatoly A; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu; Stankovskiy, A Yu

    2010-01-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1 H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

  14. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Natalenko, A. A.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.; Mashnik, S. G.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.

    2010-12-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

  15. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  16. 15 CFR 930.35 - Negative determinations for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for... agency determines that there will not be coastal effects, then the Federal agency shall provide the State... developed initial findings on the coastal effects of the activity. (b) Content of a negative...

  17. 48 CFR 218.271 - Head of contracting activity determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head of contracting... Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 218.271 Head of contracting activity determinations. For contract..., biological, chemical, or radiological attack, the term “head of the agency” is replaced with “head of...

  18. 48 CFR 218.271 - Head of contracting activity determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head of contracting... Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 218.271 Head of contracting activity determinations. For contract..., biological, chemical, or radiological attack, the term “head of the agency” is replaced with “head of...

  19. 48 CFR 218.271 - Head of contracting activity determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head of contracting... Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 218.271 Head of contracting activity determinations. For contract..., biological, chemical, or radiological attack, the term “head of the agency” is replaced with “head of...

  20. 48 CFR 218.270 - Head of contracting activity determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head of contracting... Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 218.270 Head of contracting activity determinations. For contract..., biological, chemical, or radiological attack, the term “head of the agency” is replaced with “head of...

  1. 48 CFR 218.271 - Head of contracting activity determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head of contracting... Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 218.271 Head of contracting activity determinations. For contract..., biological, chemical, or radiological attack, the term “head of the agency” is replaced with “head of...

  2. Physical Activity and Its Determinants among Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chang, Yu-Yu; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a global public health problem, and it has been linked to many of the most serious illnesses facing many industrialized nations. There is little evidence examining the physical activity profile and determinants for the vulnerable population such as people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to…

  3. The Determinants of Participation in Physical Activity in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In light of the importance of physical activity, the aim of the present study is to examine the factors affecting participation in physical activity among adults in Malaysia. Methods A logistic regression model and the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey consisting of 30,992 respondents were used. Results Age, income, gender, education, marital status, region, house locality, job characteristics, and medical conditions are significantly associated with participation in physical activity. In particular, old individuals, high income earners, females, the well-educated, widowed or divorced individuals, East Malaysians, urban dwellers, the unemployed, and individuals who are not diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia are less likely to be physically active than others. Conclusion Because sociodemographic and health factors play an important role in determining physical activity, the government should take them into account when formulating policy. PMID:24955308

  4. Energy and Man's Environment: Activity Guide. An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication provides the goals, concepts, objectives, and rationale for the six activity guides in this series of energy education materials. The organization of this series, as presented in this publication, centers around six goals which correspond to the activity guides. Under each goal are several concepts, which in turn, have several…

  5. [Method of determining tissue renin activity using heterologous serum].

    PubMed

    Orbetsova, V Ts; Kiprov, D

    1979-01-01

    The authors described a method for determination of tissue renin activity with heterologous substrate. The preparation of the substrate was performed at several stages: salting with amonium sulfate; dialisis of the precipitate till complete separation of amonium sulfate molecules; distruction of angiotensinases by interchangeble souring and alcalization of the medium; lyophylization of the pure substrate. The obtained renin-substrate was preserved in ampules and its usage had a series of advantages--duration, economic, a possibility for standartization of the determination, etc., which were described in details in the article. The described in details also the quantitative determination of the renin activity in the tissues (renal and cerebral) with the help of the obtained substrate as the moments, modiied by the authors, were indicated. PMID:436712

  6. Determination of energy distribution for photon and neutron microdosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todo, A. S.

    This work was undertaken to provide basic physical data for use in both microdosimetry and dosimetry of high energy photons and also in the neutron radiation field. Described is the formalism to determine the initial electron energy spectra in water irradiated by photons with energies up to 1 GeV. Calculations were performed with a Monte Carlo computer code, PHOEL-3, which is also described. The code treats explicitly the production of electron-positron pairs, Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption, and the emission of Auger electrons following the occurrence of K-shell vacancies in oxygen. The tables give directly the information needed to specify the absolute single-collision kerma in water, which approximates tissue, at each photon energy. Results for continuous photon energy spectra can be obtained by using linear interpolation with the tables. The conditions under which first-collision kerma approximate absorbed dose are discussed. A formula is given for estimating bremsstrahlung energy loss, one of the principal differences between kerma and absorbed dose in practical cases. A study has been carried out, on the use of cylindrical, energy-proportional pulse-height detector for determining microdosimetric quantities, as neutron fractional dose spectra, D (L), in the function of linear energy transfer (LET). In the present study the Hurst detector was used; this device satisfies the requirement of the Bragg-Gray principle. A Monte Carlo Method was developed to obtain the D(L) spectrum from a measured pulse-height spectrum H(h), and the knowledge of the distribution of recoil-particle track lenght, P(T) in the sensitive volume of the detector. These developed programs to find P(T) and D(L) are presented. The distribution of D(L) in LET were obtained using a known distribution of P(T) and the measured H(h) spectrum fromthe Cf-2 52 neutron source. All the results are discussed and the conclusions are presented.

  7. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  8. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  9. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book. Revised [and Expanded] Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    A variety of energy activities are provided, including instructions for and questions related to energy films. The activities are organized into five sections. Section 1 (work) includes an activity focusing on movement and change. Section 2 (forms of energy) includes activities related to mechanical (movement), radiant (light), chemical (burning),…

  10. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  11. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  12. [Determinants of participation in physical activity in Peru].

    PubMed

    Cansino, Kenyi; Gálvez, Harold

    2014-01-01

    This document attempts to establish the determinants of participation in physical activity in Peru using the economic structure presented by Cawley and a participation choice model proposed by Humphreys and Ruseski. Through the National Survey of Nutritional, Biochemical, Socioeconomic and Cultural Indicators related to Chronic-Degenerative Diseases in 2006, a logistic model was estimated through which an observation was made: more educated individuals are more likely to participate in physical activities. Also, characteristics like socioeconomic status and employment decrease the likelihood of participating in physical activities due to a higher opportunity cost. In the same way, it was observed that adults are less likely to participate in physical activities due to biological characteristics related to age. PMID:24718541

  13. A determination of Mg(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical calculations employing large basis sets and including correlation are carried out for Mg(+) with methanol, water, and formaldehyde. For Mg(+) with ethanol and acetaldehyde, the trends in the binding energies are studied at the self-consistent-field level. The predictions for the binding energy of Mg(+) to methanol and water of 41 + or - 5 and 36 + or - 5 kcal/mol, respectively, are much less than the experimental upper bounds, of 61 + or - 5 and 60 + or - 5 kcal mol, determined by using photodissociation techniques. The theoretical results are inconsistent with the onset of Mg(+) production observed in the photodissociation experiments, as the smallest absorptions are calculated at about 80 kcal/mol for both Mg(+)-CH3OH and Mg(+)-H2O, and these transitions are to bound excited states. The binding energy for Mg(+) with formaldehyde is predicted to be similar to Mg(+)-H2O. The relative binding energies are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The binding energy of a second water molecule to Mg(+) is predicted to be similar to the first. This suggests that the reduced reaction rate observed for the second ligand is not a consequence of a significantly smaller binding energy, at least for the smaller ligards such as those considered in this work.

  14. Molecular Determinants of GS-9620-Dependent TLR7 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rebbapragada, Indrani; Birkus, Gabriel; Perry, Jason; Xing, Weimei; Kwon, HyockJoo; Pflanz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    GS-9620 is an orally administered agonist of Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 currently being evaluated in clinical studies for the treatment of chronic HBV and HIV patients. GS-9620 has shown antiviral efficacy in preclinical models of chronic hepadnavirus infection in woodchuck as well as chimpanzee. However, the molecular determinants of GS-9620-dependent activation of TLR7 are not well defined. The studies presented here elucidate GS-9620 subcellular distribution and characterize its molecular interactions with human TLR7 using structure-guided mutational analysis. Based on our results we present a molecular model of TLR7 bound to GS-9620. We also determine that several coding SNPs had no effect on GS-9620-dependent TLR7 activation. In addition, our studies provide evidence that TLR7 exists in a ligand-independent oligomeric state and that, TLR7 activation by GS-9620 is likely associated with compound-induced conformational changes. Finally, we demonstrate that activation of NF-κB and Akt pathways in primary plasmacytoid dendritic cells occur as immediate downstream cellular responses to GS-9620 stimulation. The data presented here further our understanding of the molecular parameters governing TLR7 activation by GS-9620, and more generally by nucleos/tide-related ligands. PMID:26784926

  15. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  16. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1 Each floor... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  17. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  18. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  19. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  20. Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber.

    PubMed Central

    Ravussin, E; Lillioja, S; Anderson, T E; Christin, L; Bogardus, C

    1986-01-01

    Daily human energy requirements calculated from separate components of energy expenditure are inaccurate and usually in poor agreement with measured energy intakes. Measurement of energy expenditure over periods of 24 h or longer is needed to determine more accurately rates of daily energy expenditure in humans. We provide a detailed description of a human respiratory chamber and methods used to determine rates of energy expenditure over 24-h periods in 177 subjects. The results show that: fat-free mass (FFM) as estimated by densitometry is the best available determinant of 24-h energy expenditures (24EE) and explains 81% of the variance observed between individuals (24EE [kcal/d] = 597 + 26.5 FFM); 24EE in an individual is very reproducible (coefficient of variation = 2.4%); and even when adjusted for differences in FFM, there is still considerable interperson variability of the daily energy expenditure. A large portion of the variability of 24EE among individuals, independent of differences in body size, was due to variability in the degree of spontaneous physical activity, i.e., "fidgeting," which accounted for 100-800 kcal/d in these subjects. Images PMID:3782471

  1. 76 FR 43287 - Building Energy Standards Program: Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the 2007 edition of the Energy Standard for Buildings, Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2007, (Standard 90.1-2007) would achieve greater......

  2. 76 FR 43298 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) has preliminarily determined that the 2010 edition of the Energy Standard for Buildings, Except Low- Rise Residential Buildings, American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2010, (Standard 90.1-2010 or the......

  3. 76 FR 64904 - Building Energy Standards Program: Final Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has determined that the 2010 edition of the Energy Standard for Buildings, Except Low- Rise Residential Buildings, American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2010, (Standard 90.1-2010 or the......

  4. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  5. Oklahoma Energy Awareness Education, Energy Education Activities, Grades 4-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication contains energy education activities for grades 4 through 12 and is part of a set of three publications. These activities are organized under five energy concepts: (1) energy is so basic that nothing moves without it; (2) conservation of energy; (3) there are other energy alternatives; (4) society depends on energy; and (5) the…

  6. NEW RENIN-INHIBITORS--STABILITY AND ACTIVITY DETERMINATION. PART III.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Dorota; Goldnik, Anna; Winiecka, Iwona; Jaworski, Paweł; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2016-01-01

    A series of new four potential renin inhibitors containing pseudodipeptides were synthesized. Stability for all compounds (1-4) in homogenates of liver, kidney, lung and in serum, gastric, intestinal juice and in the presence of α-chymotrypsin was determined. Compound 1 was unstable, compounds 2, 3 were stable, compound 4 was partly unstable, (liver and kidney homogenates, (α-chymotrypsin solution). Inhibitory activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by HPLC determination of lowering concentration of substrate (angiotensinogen) in the presence of renin and the potential renin inhibitor (compounds 1-4). Compound 1, 2, 3 and 4 showed inhibitory activity (1.7 x 10(-6), 9.6 x 10(-7), 1.05 x 10(-9) and 1.31 x 10(-7)M, respectively). PMID:27180425

  7. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Závorka, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR) during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA). This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources. PMID:24896256

  8. Energy Costs of Catfish Space Use as Determined by Biotelemetry

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Závorka, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR) during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA). This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources. PMID:24896256

  9. Determination of indium in standard rocks by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, O; Steinnes, E

    1966-08-01

    A rapid neutron activation method for the determination of indium in rocks, based on 54 min (116m)In, is described. The method has been applied to a series of geochemical standards including granite G-1 and diabase W-1. The precision is better than +/- 5% for samples containing more than 5 x 10(-10)g indium. Good agreement with previously published values for G-1 and W-1 has been obtained. PMID:18959988

  10. Determination Of The Activity Space By The Stereometric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloison, Y.; Crete, N.; Mollard, R.

    1980-07-01

    To determine the activity space of a sitting subject, it is necessary to go beyond the mere statistical description of morphology and the knowledge of the displacement volume. An anlysis of the positions or variations of the positions of the diverse segmental elements (arms, hands, lower limbs, etc...) in the course of a given activity is required. Of the various methods used to locate quickly and accurately the spatial positions of anatomical points, stereometry makes it possible to plot the three-dimensional coordinates of any point in space in relation to a fixed trirectangle frame of reference determined by the stereome-tric measuring device. Thus, regardless of the orientation and posture of the subject, his segmental elements can be easily pin-pointed, throughout the experiment, within the space they occupy. Using this method, it is possible for a sample of operators seated at an operation station and applying either manual controls or pedals and belonging to a population statistically defined from the data collected and the analyses produced by the anthropometric study to determine a contour line of reach capability marking out the usable working space and to know, within this working space, a contour line of preferential activity that is limited, in space, by the whole range of optimal reach capability of all the subjects.

  11. Social and proximate determinants of sexual activity in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Barden-O'Fallon, Janine; Tsui, Amy; Adewuyi, Alfred

    2003-10-01

    This study analyses the social, physiological and motivational determinants of sexual activity for 644 married women in rural areas of Osun State, Nigeria. The data come from the Fertility Awareness and Pregnancy Avoidance study conducted in 1993-94. Sexual activity is measured by three continuous variables: weekly frequency of (1) total sexual activity, (2) coital-only sex and (3) both coital/non-coital sex. Analyses of variance were performed to test the difference in group means between the predictor variables and measures of sexual activity. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were then performed for the three dependent variables. Two models are used: the first contains only those variables associated with an individual's demographic, social and economic status, and the second adds predictor variables associated with motivational and physiological factors. Results show that while many socioeconomic variables by themselves are significantly associated with sexual activity measures, the addition of physiological and motivational variables weakens their effects and lessens their original statistical significance. Additionally, the socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with frequency of sexual activity are not necessarily the same ones significantly associated with coital-only or combined coital/non-coital sex. While other studies have tended to focus either on socioeconomic or physiological factors, the joint examination of both types of influences seems to indicate that the latter have more proximate effects on the frequency of both coital and non-coital sexual activity of married women in this population. Contraceptive protection is shown to be highly positively associated with all three of the sexual activity measures, empirically confirming the important relationship between contraception and both coital and non-coital forms of sexual activity. PMID:14621254

  12. Adolescent girls' energy expenditure during dance simulation active computer gaming.

    PubMed

    Fawkner, Samantha G; Niven, Alisa; Thin, Alasdair G; Macdonald, Mhairi J; Oakes, Jemma R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the energy expended and intensity of physical activity achieved by adolescent girls while playing on a dance simulation game. Twenty adolescent girls were recruited from a local secondary school. Resting oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and heart rate were analysed while sitting quietly and subsequently during approximately 30 min of game play, with 10 min at each of three increasing levels of difficulty. Energy expenditure was predicted from VO(2) at rest and during game play at three levels of play, from which the metabolic equivalents (METS) of game playing were derived. Mean +/- standard deviation energy expenditure for levels 1, 2, and 3 was 3.63 +/- 0.58, 3.65 +/- 0.54, and 4.14 +/- 0.71 kcal . min(-1) respectively, while mean activity for each level of play was at least of moderate intensity (>3 METS). Dance simulation active computer games provide an opportunity for most adolescent girls to exercise at moderate intensity. Therefore, regular playing might contribute to daily physical activity recommendations for good health in this at-risk population. PMID:20013462

  13. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

    2013-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with (137)Cs and (60)Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

  14. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    PubMed Central

    Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137Cs and 60Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

  15. Structural Determinants of Clostridium difficile Toxin A Glucosyltransferase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pruitt, Rory N.; Chumbler, Nicole M.; Rutherford, Stacey A.; Farrow, Melissa A.; Friedman, David B.; Spiller, Ben; Lacy, D. Borden

    2012-03-28

    The principle virulence factors in Clostridium difficile pathogenesis are TcdA and TcdB, homologous glucosyltransferases capable of inactivating small GTPases within the host cell. We present crystal structures of the TcdA glucosyltransferase domain in the presence and absence of the co-substrate UDP-glucose. Although the enzymatic core is similar to that of TcdB, the proposed GTPase-binding surface differs significantly. We show that TcdA is comparable with TcdB in its modification of Rho family substrates and that, unlike TcdB, TcdA is also capable of modifying Rap family GTPases both in vitro and in cells. The glucosyltransferase activities of both toxins are reduced in the context of the holotoxin but can be restored with autoproteolytic activation and glucosyltransferase domain release. These studies highlight the importance of cellular activation in determining the array of substrates available to the toxins once delivered into the cell.

  16. 75 FR 53982 - Proposed Information Collection Request of the ETA 207, Nonmonetary Determination Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Determination Activities Report; Comment Request on Extension Without Change (OMB 1205-0150) AGENCY: Employment... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The ETA 207 Report, Nonmonetary Determination Activities, contains... proposed extension collection of the ETA 207, Nonmonetary Determinations Activities Report. Comments...

  17. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory†

    PubMed Central

    Vilseck, Jonah Z.; Tirado-Rives, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood–Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm3 mol−1. The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute–solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  18. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Vilseck, Jonah Z; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2015-04-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood-Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm(3) mol(-1). The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute-solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  19. Determinants of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Ambo Hospital, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengiste, Bezatu; Mesfin, Frehiwot; Godana, Wanzahun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis seen in cases in Ambo Hospital, Ethiopia. Design A facility-based prospective case-control study. Setting Patients attending Ambo Hospital from 01 December 2011 to 29 March 2012. Participants The sample included 312 adult patients attending Ambo Hospital. The main outcome measure was presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Explanatory measures Age, gender, occupation, educational status, marital status, place of residence, patient history of TB, family history of TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, smoking, alcohol intake, khat chewing, body mass index (BMI), employment, diabetes, history of asthma, previous history of worm infestation, history of hospitalisation, number of adults living in the household (HH), person per room, housing condition. Results A total of 312 study participants, including 104 active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases (cases) and 208 non-active PTB cases (controls), were recruited for the present study. Having one or more family member with a history of TB (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.50–12.90), marital status (OR = 7.6; 95% CI: 2.2–12.6), male gender (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4–7), rural residence (OR = 3.3; P = 0.012), being a current or past smoker (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1–7.2), BMI < 18.5 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.03–4.2), HIV infection (OR = 8.8; 95% CI: 2.4–23.8) and a history of worm infestation (OR = 6.4; 95% CI: 2.6–15.4) remained significant independent host-related factors for active PTB. Conclusion Patients who came from a compound with more than two HHs were more likely to develop active PTB than those who came from a compound with only one HH. Those who lived in houses with no windows were more likely to develop active PTB than those who lived in houses with one or more windows, had a family history of TB, lived in rural areas. Sex of the patient was a predicting factor. Not being the owner of the house was

  20. Molecular distances determined with resonant vibrational energy transfers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hailong; Wen, Xiewen; Li, Jiebo; Zheng, Junrong

    2014-04-01

    In general, intermolecular distances in condensed phases at the angstrom scale are difficult to measure. We were able to do so by using the vibrational energy transfer method, an ultrafast vibrational analogue of Förster resonance energy transfer. The distances among SCN(-) anions in KSCN crystals and ion clusters of KSCN aqueous solutions were determined with the method. In the crystalline samples, the closest anion distance was determined to be 3.9 ± 0.3 Å, consistent with the XRD result. In the 1.8 and 1 M KSCN aqueous solutions, the anion distances in the ion clusters were determined to be 4.4 ± 0.4 Å. The clustered anion distances in aqueous solutions are very similar to the closest anion distance in the KSCN crystal but significantly shorter than the average anion distance (0.94-1.17 nm) in the aqueous solutions if ion clustering did not occur. The result suggests that ions in the strong electrolyte aqueous solutions can form clusters inside of which they have direct contact with each other. PMID:24641170

  1. Rapid optical determination of β-lactamase and antibiotic activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The absence of rapid tests evaluating antibiotic susceptibility results in the empirical prescription of antibiotics. This can lead to treatment failures due to escalating antibiotic resistance, and also furthers the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. This study reports a rapid optical method to detect β-lactamase and thereby assess activity of β-lactam antibiotics, which could provide an approach for targeted prescription of antibiotics. The methodology is centred on a fluorescence quenching based probe (β-LEAF – β-Lactamase Enzyme Activated Fluorophore) that mimics the structure of β-lactam antibiotics. Results The β-LEAF assay was performed for rapid determination of β-lactamase production and activity of β-lactam antibiotic (cefazolin) on a panel of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains and clinical isolates. Four of the clinical isolates were determined to be lactamase producers, with the capacity to inactivate cefazolin, out of the twenty-five isolates tested. These results were compared against gold standard methods, nitrocefin disk test for β-lactamase detection and disk diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility, showing results to be largely consistent. Furthermore, in the sub-set of β-lactamase producers, it was demonstrated and validated that multiple antibiotics (cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefepime) could be assessed simultaneously to predict the antibiotic that would be most active for a given bacterial isolate. Conclusions The study establishes the rapid β-LEAF assay for β-lactamase detection and prediction of antibiotic activity using S. aureus clinical isolates. Although the focus in the current study is β-lactamase-based resistance, the overall approach represents a broad diagnostic platform. In the long-term, these studies form the basis for the development of assays utilizing a broader variety of targets, pathogens and drugs. PMID:24708478

  2. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    PubMed

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  3. Photodisintegration of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: A New Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Salamon, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a new calculation of the photodisintegration of ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray (UHCR) nuclei in intergalactic space. The critical interactions for energy loss and photodisintegration of UHCR nuclei occur with photons of the 2.73 K cosmic background radiation (CBR) and with photons of the infrared background radiation (IBR). We have reexamined this problem making use of a new determination of the IBR based on empirical data, primarily from IRAS galaxies, consistent with direct measurements and upper limits from TeV gamma-ray observations. We have also improved the calculation by including the specific threshold energies for the various photodisintegration interactions in our Monte Carlo calculation. With the new smaller IBR flux, the steepness of the Wien side of the now relatively more important CBR makes their inclusion essential for more accurate results. Our results indicate a significant increase in the propagation time of UHCR nuclei of a given energy over previous results. We discuss the possible significance of this for UHCR origin theory.

  4. Determination of phosphodiesterase I activity in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Hynie, I; Meuffels, M; Poznanski, W J

    1975-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase I (EC 3.1.4.1) activity was detected in normal human blood serum. The enzyme is stable at laboratory temperature for three days, but is inactivated at pH less than 7. The pH for optimum activity increases with the substrate concentration (under the conditions used, from pH 9.0 to 10.2) and, conversely, the Km increases with pH and buffer concentration. The enzyme is inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate but not by phosphate (0.1 mol/liter). We developed a simple quantitative method for its determination, based on hydrolysis of the p-nitrophenyl ester of thymidine 5'-monophosphate and subsequent measurement of the liberated p-nitrophenol at 400 nm in NaOH (0.1 mol/liter). Normal values (mean +/- 2 SD) were determined to be 33 +/- 6.4 U/liter. Preliminary studies indicate that phosphodiesterase I activity is greater than normal in serum of patients with necrotic changes in the liver or kidney or in cases of breast cancer, but not in that of patients with myocardial infarction, bone cancer, lung cancer, or chronic liver cirrhosis. PMID:168991

  5. A thermal approach to waveform-independent energy determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhring, Tobias; Spiegel, Thomas; Funck, Torsten

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a new device for power and rms value measurement is presented. Unlike the commercially available measurement equipment, this device is not limited to special waveforms. As a reaction to the increasing use of energy harvesters, which gather energy from the ambience to power low-power electronics, it is necessary to develop new measurement equipment that is not limited to sinusoidal signals (harvesters generally deliver nonsinusoidal signals). Therefore, a new device is presented based on an isothermal operating mode of a planar multijunction thermal converter (PMJTC). Unlike previous PMJTCs, this one is equipped with an additional gold heater and is operated by a regulating circuit, which is electrically isolated from the input. The output signal of the regulator is recorded and analyzed to determine the power and rms value of the input signal.

  6. Charge transfer activation energy for alkali atoms on Re and Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gładyszewski, Longin

    1993-09-01

    Ion and atom desorption energies for five alkali metals on Re and Ta were determined using the ion thermal emission noise method. The activation energies for the charge transfer process in the adsorbed state were calculated using a special energetic balance equation, which describes the surface ionization and thermal desorption effect. Energies for desorption of Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs from Re and Ta surfaces were determined by measuring the time autocorrelation function of the ion thermoemission current fluctuations.

  7. In vitro determination of the spermicidal activity of plant saponins.

    PubMed

    Primorac, M; Sekulović, D; Antonić, S

    1985-08-01

    The plant kingdom might yield an effective antifertility drug. A Mentha arvensis L. (Labiatae) fraction with uterotonic activity was isolated, and was found to be active on the nonpregnant as well as the pregnant rat uterus. According to folklore medicine, the Mexican plant Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. (zoapatle) possesses antifertility activity in women. The effect of various isolated preparations from this plant on early pregnancy were investigated in serveral rodent species including the mouse, rat hamster, and guinea pig. It was concluded that zoapatle plant extracts possess unique antifertility activity. Lin-Hsim and coworkers isolated fractions from Aristolochia molissima Hanceith contrceptive activity in female mice. Saponins of some plants were used in contraceptive formulations either as foaming agents or as spermicidal substances. Elbary and Nour investigated the spermicidal effects of saponins isolated from the following plants: Gypsophila paniculata L., Saponaria officinalis L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Griseb., Terminalia horrida Steud., Melilotus sicula Vitm., and Ruscus hypoglossum L. All of the saponins tested possessed spermicidal activity. Jain and coworkers isolated 2 new saponins in Pittosporum nilghrense with spermicidal effects. In this paper we have determined the spermicidal activity of saponins isolated from some Yugoslav plants, which in that aspect have not been investigated. The results are illustrated in the table. They show that all of the saponins tested were spermicidal in dependence on their nature. Saponins of Primula vulgaris Huds. and Cyclamen persicum Mill. immobilized human spermatozoa within a period of 20 s at a dilution 1:1000. Saponin of Gypsophila paniculata L. was spermicidal at dilution 1:20. These findings show that saponins isolated from some Yugoslav plants may be useful spermicides of natural origin. PMID:4080814

  8. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  9. Lysogen stability is determined by the frequency of activity bursts from the fate-determining gene

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Chenghang; So, Lok-hang; Sepúlveda, Leonardo A; Skinner, Samuel O; Golding, Ido

    2010-01-01

    The ability of living cells to maintain an inheritable memory of their gene-expression state is key to cellular differentiation. Bacterial lysogeny serves as a simple paradigm for long-term cellular memory. In this study, we address the following question: in the absence of external perturbation, how long will a cell stay in the lysogenic state before spontaneously switching away from that state? We show by direct measurement that lysogen stability exhibits a simple exponential dependence on the frequency of activity bursts from the fate-determining gene, cI. We quantify these gene-activity bursts using single-molecule-resolution mRNA measurements in individual cells, analyzed using a stochastic mathematical model of the gene-network kinetics. The quantitative relation between stability and gene activity is independent of the fine details of gene regulation, suggesting that a quantitative prediction of cell-state stability may also be possible in more complex systems. PMID:21119634

  10. Lysogen stability is determined by the frequency of activity bursts from the fate-determining gene.

    PubMed

    Zong, Chenghang; So, Lok-hang; Sepúlveda, Leonardo A; Skinner, Samuel O; Golding, Ido

    2010-11-30

    The ability of living cells to maintain an inheritable memory of their gene-expression state is key to cellular differentiation. Bacterial lysogeny serves as a simple paradigm for long-term cellular memory. In this study, we address the following question: in the absence of external perturbation, how long will a cell stay in the lysogenic state before spontaneously switching away from that state? We show by direct measurement that lysogen stability exhibits a simple exponential dependence on the frequency of activity bursts from the fate-determining gene, cI. We quantify these gene-activity bursts using single-molecule-resolution mRNA measurements in individual cells, analyzed using a stochastic mathematical model of the gene-network kinetics. The quantitative relation between stability and gene activity is independent of the fine details of gene regulation, suggesting that a quantitative prediction of cell-state stability may also be possible in more complex systems. PMID:21119634

  11. Fast self-attenuation determination of low energy gamma lines.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Kh

    2016-09-01

    Linear correlation between self-attenuation factor of 46.5keV ((210)Pb) and the 1764keV, 46.5 counts ratio has been developed in this work using triple superphosphate fertilizer samples. Similar correlation has been also developed for 63.3keV ((238)U). This correlation offers simple, fast, and accurate technique for self-attenuation determination of low energy gamma lines. Utilization of 46.5keV in the ratio has remarkably improved the technique sensitivity in comparison with other work, which used similar concept. The obtained results were used to assess the validity of transmission technique. PMID:27337648

  12. Distributed activation energy model parameters of some Turkish coals

    SciTech Connect

    Gunes, M.; Gunes, S.K.

    2008-07-01

    A multi-reaction model based on distributed activation energy has been applied to some Turkish coals. The kinetic parameters of distributed activation energy model were calculated via computer program developed for this purpose. It was observed that the values of mean of activation energy distribution vary between 218 and 248 kJ/mol, and the values of standard deviation of activation energy distribution vary between 32 and 70 kJ/mol. The correlations between kinetic parameters of the distributed activation energy model and certain properties of coal have been investigated.

  13. Energy Expended by Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities during Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lante, Kerrie; Reece, John; Walkley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the energy expenditure of adults with and without intellectual disabilities during common activities of daily living (ADL), (2) use these values to evaluate the accuracy of equivalent activity values reported in the Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA), and (3) identify ADL that may confer a health…

  14. Determinants of the pace of global innovation in energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Trancik, Jessika E; Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867

  15. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970–2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867

  16. Determination and occurrence of AHH-active polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Lawrence M.; Schwartz, Ted R.; Feltz, Kevin; Kubiak, Timothy J.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of the 18 PCB congeners which are inducers of methylcholanthrene-like mixed function oxidase activity in animals and include the most toxic PCBs. Determinations of the toxic PCB congeners in samples of eggs of predatory fish and piscivorous birds of the Great Lakes and in Aroclor mixtures demonstrate that the apparent toxic potency of PCB residues in these samples is dominated by two congeners, 3,3′,4,4′,5- and 2,3,3′,4,4′-pentachlorobiphenyl. Furthermore, the analyses demonstrate that the potential toxicity of PCB residues can increase 5 to 10 fold as they reach upper levels of aquatic food chains and most often exceed the potential toxicity of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans in higher animals even in environments highly contaminated by the latter compounds.

  17. Common Enzymological Experiments Allow Free Energy Profile Determination

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The determination of a complete set of rate constants (free energy profiles; FEPs) for a complex kinetic mechanism is challenging. Enzymologists have devised a variety of informative steady-state kinetic experiments (e.g., Michaelis-Menten kinetics, viscosity dependence of kinetic parameters, KIEs, etc.) that each provide distinct information regarding a particular kinetic system. A simple method for combining steady-state experiments in a single analysis is presented here, which allows microscopic rate constants and intrinsic kinetic isotope effects to be determined. It is first shown that Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters (kcat and KM values), kinetic isotope efffets, solvent viscosity effects, and intermediate partitioning measurements are sufficient to define the rate constants for a reversible uni-uni mechanism with an intermediate, EZ, between the ES and EP complexes. Global optimization provides the framework to combine the independent experimental measurements, and the search for rate constants is performed using algorithms implemented in the biochemical software COPASI. This method is applied to the determination of FEPs for both alanine racemase and triosephosphate isomerase. The FEPs obtained from global optimization agree with those in the literature, with important exceptions. The method opens the door to routine and large-scale determination of FEPs for enzymes. PMID:23906433

  18. An active thermal control surfaces experiment. [spacecraft temperature determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.; Brown, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    An active flight experiment is described that has the objectives to determine the effects of the low earth natural environment and the Shuttle induced environment on selected thermal control and optical surfaces. The optical and thermal properties of test samples will be measured in-situ using an integrating sphere reflectrometer and using calorimetric methods. This experiment has been selected for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight which will be carried to orbit by the NASA Space Shuttle. The LDEF will remain in orbit to be picked up by a later Shuttle mission and returned for postflight evaluation.

  19. Neutron activation analysis for reference determination of the implantation dose of cobalt ions

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, R.P.H.; Bubert, H.; Palmetshofer, L.

    1992-05-15

    The authors prepared depth profilling reference materials by cobalt ion implantation at an ion energy of 300 keV into n-type silicon. The implanted Co dose was then determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) giving an analytical dynamic range of almost 5 decades and uncertainty of 1.5%. This form of analysis allows sources of error (beam spreading, misalignment) to be corrected. 70 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Determination of earthquake energy release in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Shapira, A.

    2000-12-01

    Seismic energy radiated by earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean region is estimated using the short-period (50 samples per second) seismic recordings made by the Israel Seismic Network during 1990-1997. Our data set is the whole S-wave window (from Sn until Lg falls to less than twice the noise level) from 133 earthquakes with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We obtained the attenuation function (1.850+/-0.005)logR+(0.00460+0.00005)Rloge+0.05, where the distance range is 50<=R<=1500km. We tested the dependence of the attenuation function on the azimuth and the distance. Despite the different propagation paths of the waves travelling through the continental crust of the Arabian Shield to the east or the intermediate crust of the Mediterranean Sea to the west, we show that from a statistical point of view the attenuation functions are similar. The energy estimation involves time-domain integration of the squared ground-motion velocity, assuming that the attenuation is known, following the method of Kanamori et al. (1993). For the magnitude range 3.0<=mB<=6.2 (magnitude determined by the National Earthquake Information Service, NEIS), we obtained the magnitude-energy relationship logE0=(2.09+/-0.10)mB+ (8.86+/-0.42). Comparison of the seismic energy and the seismic moment suggests that E~M00.19 and that Orowan's stress drop increases as M00.19. A refinement of the results is expected with the application of the method of Mayeda & Walter (1996) for energy estimation from coda envelopes using a large data set of broad-band observations.

  1. Determination of turbulent energy dissipation rate directly from MF-radar determined velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. M.; Nozawa, S.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    2000-02-01

    MF radar systems are able to determine horizontal neutral winds in the mesosphere and, to some extent in the lower thermosphere by cross-correlations of signals received at spaced antennas. Essentially, by also computing auto-correlations, signal fading may be measured which in turn is thought to be largely attributable to turbulence. Hitherto, estimates of upper limits for the turbulent energy dissipation rate have been derived from the characteristic fading times. In this paper, we propose that power spectra of the velocity components themselves may be used to yield estimates of turbulent energy dissipation rate. 2-minute resolution velocities from the Universities of Saskatchewan, Tromsø and Nagoya joint MF radar at 69°N, 19°E are used in a pilot analysis to illustrate and ratify the method.

  2. Interaction Determined Electron Energy Levels in One-Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thomas, Kalarikad; Smith, Luke; Creeth, Graham; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Jones, Geraint; Jonathan, Griffiths; UCL Collaboration; Cavendish Laboratory Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated electron transport in a quasi-one dimensional electron gas in the GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure designed so that the confinement potential can be progressively weakened. This causes the energy levels to decrease in energy relative to each other, however this decrease occurs at different rates, a feature attributed to the energy being determined by both confinement and the electron-electron repulsion which varies with the shape of the wavefunction. It is found that the initial ground state crosses the higher levels so resulting in missing plateaux of quantised conductance. A change in the nature of the ground state to a more extended form causes an increase in the capacitance between the confining gates and the electrons. Both crossings and anti-crossings of the levels are found and these will be discussed along with other consequences of the form of the level interactions. The effects of level crossing on the spin dependent 0.7 structure will be presented. Supported by EPSRC (UK).

  3. Chemical Determinants of antimalarial activity of reversed siderophores.

    PubMed Central

    Tsafack, A; Libman, J; Shanzer, A; Cabantchik, Z I

    1996-01-01

    Reversed siderophores (RSFs) are artificial hydroxamate-based iron chelators designed after the natural siderophore ferrichrome. The modular molecular design of RSF derivatives allowed the synthesis of various congeners with controlled iron-binding capacities and partition coefficients. These two physicochemical properties were assessed by a novel fluorescent method and were found to be the major determinants of RSF permeation across erythrocyte membranes and scavenging of compartmentalized iron. The partition coefficient apparently conferred upon RSFs two major features: (i) the ability to rapidly access iron pools of in vitro-grown Plasmodium falciparum at all developmental stages and to mobilize intracellular iron and transfer it to the medium and (ii) the ability to suppress parasite growth at all developmental stages. These features of RSFs were assessed by quantitative determination of the structure-activity relationships of the biological activities and partition coefficients spanning a wide range of values. The most effective RSF containing the aromatic group of phenylalanine (RSFm2phe) showed 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.60 +/- 0.03 nmol/ml in a 48-h test and a 2-h onset of inhibition of ring development at 5 nmol/ml. The lipophilic compound RSFm2phe and the lipophilic and esterase-cleavable compound RSFm2pee inhibited parasite growth at all developmental stages whether inhibition was assessed in a continuous mode or after discontinuing drug administration. The antimalarial effects of RSFm2phe and cleavable RSFm2pee were potentiated in the presence of desferrioxamine (DFO) at concentrations at which DFO alone had no effect on parasite growth. These studies provide experimental evidence indicating that the effective and persistent antimalarial actions of RSFs are associated with drug access to infected cells and scavenging of iron from intracellular parasites. Moreover, the optimal antimalarial actions of RSFs are apparently also determined by improved

  4. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  5. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  6. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  7. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  8. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  9. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  10. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  11. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  12. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  13. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  14. Determining the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling

    PubMed Central

    de Geus, B; De Smet, S; Nijs, J; Meeusen, R

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling, and to investigate whether cycling to work at a self‐chosen intensity corresponds to recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) for health improvement and ACSM recommendations for fitness improvement. Methods 18 healthy, untrained middle‐aged people, who did not cycle to work, underwent two maximal exercise tests (MT and MT2) in order to measure their maximal heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO2). MT2 was performed 24 weeks after MT. Participants were asked to cycle at least three times a week to their workplace over a one‐way minimum distance of 2 km. Data on cycling were recorded in a diary. 12 weeks after MT, a field test was conducted, where participants had to cycle to or from their workplace. The same measurements were taken as during MT as markers of exercise intensity. Metabolic equivalents (METs) and energy expenditure were calculated. Results The intensity during the field test was >75% of their maximal aerobic capacity. The mean (SD) MET value was 6.8 (1.9). The energy expenditure during the field test was 220 (115) kcal or 540 (139) kcal/h and 1539 (892) kcal/week. Men consumed significantly (p<0.01) more energy per hour than women. Conclusion Commuter cycling at a self‐selected intensity meets the CDC and ACSM recommendations for health improvement and the ACSM recommendations for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. However, as the participants cycled faster during the field test than during daily cycling, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:17021003

  15. Salinity and lithology determination from the sodium and chlorine activation lines

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, J.S.; Tapphorn, R.M.

    1983-09-13

    In the illustrative embodiments of the invention disclosed, the lithology and salinity of an earth formation traversed by a well bore are investigated by irradiating the formation with a neutron source and generating an energy spectrum of the activation gamma rays resulting therefrom. From the spectrum thus obtained, the level of the activation gamma radiation emitted by /sup 24/Na and that emitted by /sup 38/Cl are determined. The two intensity measurements are then combined, e.g., by forming a cross-plot or ratio thereof, to provide an indication of the lithology and salinity of the earth formation.

  16. School District Energy Conservation Activities. R-96-J-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    To help New York's State Department of Education assess public school districts' energy conservation activities, the results of an audit of school districts' energy conservation activities are presented. The audit shows that most school districts have made some efforts toward energy conservation and that the Department does provide some assistance…

  17. Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

    The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social…

  18. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Global Activity Module Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the World Energy Projection Plus (WEPS ) Global Activity Module (GAM) used to develop the International Energy Outlook for 2013 (IEO2013). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code.

  19. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  20. Activation energy of tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, Octavio G.; Munir, Zuhair A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2011-01-15

    The activation energy of a sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HPSPS) technique at 300 and 400 C. The ignition temperatures were investigated under high heating rates (500-2000 C min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Samples consolidated at 300 C exhibit an abrupt change in temperature response prior to the main ignition temperature. This change in temperature response is attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465 to 670 C. The activation energies of the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite consolidated at 300 and 400 C were determined to be 38{+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1} and 57 {+-} 2 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  3. Pyrolysis of activated sludge: energy analysis and its technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive study on the potential of pyrolysis of activated sludge to generate substances that can be used to produce energy was evaluated for its technical and environmental viability. The products of the process viz., pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis oil and char can readily be used by the major energy consumers viz., electricity and transportation. Based on the results obtained it is estimated that a 1 ton capacity process for pyrolysis of activated sludge can serve the electrical needs of a maximum of 239, 95 and 47 Indian houses per day, considering lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class, respectively. In addition the process would also produce the daily methane (CNG) requirement of 128 public transport buses. The process was determined to be technically feasible at low and medium temperatures for both, pyrolysis gas and electrical energy. The gas generated could be utilized as fuel directly while the oil generated would require pretreatment before its potential application. The process is potentially sustainable when commercialized and can self-sustain in continuous mode of operation in biorefinery context. PMID:25451771

  4. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and…

  5. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 4. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 4 is one in a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade four. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  6. Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 6. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Betty; And Others

    This activity notebook for grade 6 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade six. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

  7. Energy Conservation Activities for the Classroom K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Dept. of Energy, Frankfort.

    After a brief introduction entitled "Where Does the Energy We Use Come From," this unit presents 86 activities. Each activity gives the title, concept, objectives, subject area, level, time involved, materials needed, procedures, and related career activities. Topics cover everything from housing insulation to alternate sources of energy to energy…

  8. First experimentally determined thermodynamic values of francium: hydration energy, energy of partitioning, and thermodynamic radius.

    PubMed

    Delmau, Lætitia H; Moine, Jérôme; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A

    2013-08-01

    The Gibbs energy of partitioning of Fr(+) ion between water and nitrobenzene has been determined to be 14.5 ± 0.6 kJ/mol at 25 °C, the first ever Gibbs energy of partitioning for francium in particular and the first ever solution thermodynamic quantity for francium in general. This value enabled the ionic radius and standard Gibbs energy of hydration for Fr(+) to be estimated as 173 pm and -251 kJ/mol, respectively, the former value being significantly smaller than previously thought. A new experimental method was established using a cesium dicarbollide as a cation-exchange agent, overcoming problems inherent to the trace-level concentrations of francium. The methodology opens the door to the study of the partitioning behavior of francium to other water-immiscible solvents and the determination of complexation constants for francium binding by receptor molecules. PMID:23848436

  9. Determination of Dark Matter Properties at High-Energy Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Battaglia, Marco; Peskin, Michael E.; Wizansky, Tommer

    2006-11-05

    If the cosmic dark matter consists of weakly-interacting massive particles, these particles should be produced in reactions at the nextgeneration of high-energy accelerators. Measurements at these accelerators can then be used to determine the microscopic properties of the dark matter. From this, we can predict the cosmic density, the annihilation cross sections, and the cross sections relevant to direct detection. In this paper, we present studies in supersymmetry models with neutralino dark matter that give quantitative estimates of the accuracy that can be expected. We show that these are well matched to the requirements of anticipated astrophysical observations of dark matter. The capabilities of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) are expected to play a particularly important role in this study.

  10. Energy determination in industrial X-ray processing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Gregoire, O.; Stichelbaut, F.; Gomola, I.; Galloway, R. A.; Schlecht, J.

    2005-12-01

    In industrial irradiation facilities, the determination of maximum photon or electron energy is important for regulated processes, such as food irradiation, and for assurance of treatment reproducibility. With electron beam irradiators, this has been done by measuring the depth-dose distribution in a homogeneous material. For X-ray irradiators, an analogous method has not yet been recommended. This paper describes a procedure suitable for typical industrial irradiation processes, which is based on common practice in the field of therapeutic X-ray treatment. It utilizes a measurement of the slope of the exponential attenuation curve of X-rays in a thick stack of polyethylene plates. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests have been performed to verify the suitability and accuracy of the method between 3 MeV and 8 MeV.

  11. Determinants of uptake and maintenance of active commuting to school.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Elaine M; Dempster, Martin; Murphy, Marie H

    2016-07-01

    The objective was to identify determinants of uptake and maintenance of active school travel (AST) over 4 years in children aged 9 at baseline. Data from wave 1 (n=8502) and 2 (n=7479) of the Growing Up in Ireland study were analysed. At 9- and 13-years 25% and 20% engaged in AST. Children were more likely to maintain or take-up AST if they lived in an urban area. Change in distance to school influenced both maintenance and adoption of AST, with a negative impact seen for increased distance between 9 and 13 years and a positive impact seen for decreased distance. Some factors which predict uptake and maintenance of AST are modifiable and can inform intervention development. PMID:27160529

  12. Stellar activity effects on high energy exoplanet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2016-01-01

    High energy (X-ray / UV) observations of transiting exoplanets have revealed the presence of extended atmospheres around a number of systems. At such high energies, stellar radiation is absorbed high up in the planetary atmosphere, making X-ray and UV observations a potential tool for investigating the upper atmospheres of exoplanets. At these high energies, stellar activity can dramatically impact the observations. At short wavelengths the stellar disk appears limb-brightened, and active regions appear as extended bright features that evolve on a much shorter timescale than in the optical making it difficult . These features impact both the transit depth and shape, affecting our ability to measure the true planet-to-star radius ratio.I will show results of simulated exoplanet transit light curves using Solar data obtained in the soft X-ray and UV by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory to investigate the impact of stellar activity at these wavelengths. By using a limb-brightened transit model coupled with disk resolved Solar images in the X-ray, extreme- and far-UV I will show how both occulted and unocculted active regions can mimic an inflated planetary atmosphere by changing the depth and shape of the transit profile. I will also show how the disk integrated Lyman-alpha Solar irradiance varies on both short and long timescales and how this variability can impact our ability to recover the true radius ratio of a transiting exoplanet.Finally, I will present techniques on how to overcome these effects to determine the true planet-to-star radius in X-ray and UV observations.

  13. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  14. National Alliance of Clean Energy Incubator Activities - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Downing, P.E.

    2004-12-14

    Summary of activity related to development of the Alliance of Clean Energy Business Incubators and incubation services provided to the clean energy sector by the Advanced Technology Development Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

  15. Solar-energy absorber: Active infrared (IR) trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Efficiency of solar-energy absorbers may be improved to 95% by actively cooling their intermediate glass plates. This approach may be of interest to manufacturers of solar absorbers and to engineers and scientists developing new sources of energy.

  16. Determination of the nuclear level density at high excitation energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chbihi, A.; Sobotka, L.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z. ); Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Evaporation simulations are presented to illustrate the problems associated with the determination of the nuclear level density constant at high excitation energy from evaporation spectra. The methods of using either the total (whole chain) spectra or the difference (from two different initial excitation energies) spectra are discussed. Data from the study of the reaction 701 MeV {sup 28}Si+{sup 100}Mo are presented and both methods are used to extract the level density constant. We find that in order to reproduce the slopes of the light particle spectra the level density constant must have a value near 1/10{ital A}-- 1 / 11 {ital A} for excited nuclei with statistical temperatures in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 MeV. This presumes that the only parameter adjustment required to treat the decay of highly exited nuclei is the level density constant. If this is so, the shapes of the evaporation spectra imply a reduction in the level density constant from the value required to explain the decay of less highly excited nuclei, a conclusion reached by others. However, the reduced level density constant leads to an overproduction of deuterons and tritons. This suggests that a more complicated set of parameter adjustments may be required to treat the decay of highly excited nuclei.

  17. Exploring metrics to express energy expenditure of physical activity in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determin...

  18. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-11-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  19. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-01-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  20. Acylation Type Determines Ghrelin's Effects on Energy Homeostasis in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, Kristy M.; Chaudhary, Nilika; Müller, Timo D.; Kirchner, Henriette; Habegger, Kirk M.; Ottaway, Nickki; Smiley, David L.; DiMarchi, Richard; Hofmann, Susanna M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Holst, Birgitte; Pfluger, Paul T.; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal polypeptide that acts through the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) to promote food intake and increase adiposity. Activation of GHSR requires the presence of a fatty-acid (FA) side chain on amino acid residue serine 3 of the ghrelin molecule. However, little is known about the role that the type of FA used for acylation plays in the biological action of ghrelin. We therefore evaluated a series of differentially acylated peptides to determine whether alterations in length or stability of the FA side chain have an impact on the ability of ghrelin to activate GHSR in vitro or to differentially alter food intake, body weight, and body composition in vivo. Fatty acids principally available in the diet (such as palmitate C16) and therefore representing potential substrates for the ghrelin-activating enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) were used for dose-, time-, and administration/route-dependent effects of ghrelin on food intake, body weight, and body composition in rats and mice. Our data demonstrate that altering the length of the FA side chain of ghrelin results in the differential activation of GHSR. Additionally, we found that acylation of ghrelin with a long-chain FA (C16) delays the acute central stimulation of food intake. Lastly, we found that, depending on acylation length, systemic and central chronic actions of ghrelin on adiposity can be enhanced or reduced. Together our data suggest that modification of the FA side-chain length can be a novel approach to modulate the efficacy of pharmacologically administered ghrelin. PMID:22865372

  1. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at KAMINI shielding experiment location.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sujoy; Bagchi, Subhrojit; Prasad, R R; Venkatasubramanian, D; Mohanakrishnan, P; Keshavamurty, R S; Haridas, Adish; Arul, A John; Puthiyavinayagam, P

    2016-09-01

    The neutron spectrum at KAMINI reactor south beam tube end has been determined using multifoil activation method. This beam tube is being used for characterizing neutron attenuation of novel shield materials. Starting from a computed guess spectrum, the spectrum adjustment/unfolding procedure makes use of minimization of a modified constraint function representing (a) least squared deviations between the measured and calculated reaction rates, (b) a measure of sharp fluctuations in the adjusted spectrum and (c) the square of the deviation of adjusted spectrum from the guess spectrum. The adjusted/unfolded spectrum predicts the reaction rates accurately. The results of this new procedure are compared with those of widely used SAND-II code. PMID:27389881

  2. Density-based Energy Decomposition Analysis for Intermolecular Interactions with Variationally Determined Intermediate State Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.; Ayers, P.W.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-10-28

    The first purely density-based energy decomposition analysis (EDA) for intermolecular binding is developed within the density functional theory. The most important feature of this scheme is to variationally determine the frozen density energy, based on a constrained search formalism and implemented with the Wu-Yang algorithm [Q. Wu and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2498 (2003) ]. This variational process dispenses with the Heitler-London antisymmetrization of wave functions used in most previous methods and calculates the electrostatic and Pauli repulsion energies together without any distortion of the frozen density, an important fact that enables a clean separation of these two terms from the relaxation (i.e., polarization and charge transfer) terms. The new EDA also employs the constrained density functional theory approach [Q. Wu and T. Van Voorhis, Phys. Rev. A 72, 24502 (2005)] to separate out charge transfer effects. Because the charge transfer energy is based on the density flow in real space, it has a small basis set dependence. Applications of this decomposition to hydrogen bonding in the water dimer and the formamide dimer show that the frozen density energy dominates the binding in these systems, consistent with the noncovalent nature of the interactions. A more detailed examination reveals how the interplay of electrostatics and the Pauli repulsion determines the distance and angular dependence of these hydrogen bonds.

  3. Determination of the surface energy distributions of different processed lactose.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, Frank; Burnett, Daniel J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2007-11-01

    Particulate interactions between drug and lactose carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations are affected by the heterogenous energy distribution on the surface of the individual compounds. A new method based on Inverse Gas Chromatography at finite concentration is applied to study the energy heterogeneity of untreated, milled, and recrystallized lactose of similar particle size distribution. Energy distributions for the dispersive surface energy and the specific free energy of ethanol are obtained. Milling causes an increase in surface energy due to formation of amorphous regions. Untreated and recrystallized materials have similar surface energies at low surface coverages but show clear differences in energy distribution. PMID:18058321

  4. Activation and micropore structure determination of activated carbon-fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G.

    1997-09-05

    Rigid, high surface area activated carbon fiber composites have been produced with high permeabilities for environmental applications in gas and water purification. These novel monolithic adsorbents can be produced in single pieces to a given size and shape. The project involves a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), University of Kentucky. The carbon fiber composites are produced at the ORNL and activated at the CAER using different methods, with the aims of producing a uniform degree of activation, and of closely controlling pore structure and adsorptive properties. The main focus of the present work has been to find a satisfactory means to uniformly activate large samples of carbon fiber composites and produce controlled pore structures. Several environmental applications have been explored for the activated carbon fiber composites. One of these was to evaluate the activated composites for the separation of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures, and an apparatus was constructed specifically for this purpose. The composites were further evaluated in the cyclic recovery of volatile organics. The activated carbon fiber composites have also been tested for possible water treatment applications by studying the adsorption of sodium pentachlorophenolate, PCP.

  5. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Methods and Alternative Rating Methods: Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed modifications to the regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products...

  6. ActiveSeismoPick3D - automatic first arrival determination for large active seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paffrath, Marcel; Küperkoch, Ludger; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    We developed a tool for automatic determination of first arrivals in active seismic data based on an approach, that utilises higher order statistics (HOS) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC), commonly used in seismology, but not in active seismics. Automatic picking is highly desirable in active seismics as the number of data provided by large seismic arrays rapidly exceeds of what an analyst can evaluate in a reasonable amount of time. To bring the functionality of automatic phase picking into the context of active data, the software package ActiveSeismoPick3D was developed in Python. It uses a modified algorithm for the determination of first arrivals which searches for the HOS maximum in unfiltered data. Additionally, it offers tools for manual quality control and postprocessing, e.g. various visualisation and repicking functionalities. For flexibility, the tool also includes methods for the preparation of geometry information of large seismic arrays and improved interfaces to the Fast Marching Tomography Package (FMTOMO), which can be used for the prediction of travel times and inversion for subsurface properties. Output files are generated in the VTK format, allowing the 3D visualization of e.g. the inversion results. As a test case, a data set consisting of 9216 traces from 64 shots was gathered, recorded at 144 receivers deployed in a regular 2D array of a size of 100 x 100 m. ActiveSeismoPick3D automatically checks the determined first arrivals by a dynamic signal to noise ratio threshold. From the data a 3D model of the subsurface was generated using the export functionality of the package and FMTOMO.

  7. Determination of Endpoint Energy and Bremsstrahlung Spectra for High-Energy Radiation-Therapy Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Danny Joe

    Few attempts have been made to experimentally determine thick-target bremsstrahlung spectra of megavoltage therapy beams. For spectral studies using the Compton scattering technique, sodium iodine (NaI) detectors with relatively poor energy resolution have been used. Other experimental techniques for determining spectra are generally not suited for a clinical environment with the inherent time and space constraints. To gather more spectral information than previously obtained in the region near the endpoint energy, the use of a high-resolution intrinsic-germanium (Ge) detector was proposed. A response function matrix was determined from experimentally obtained pulse height distributions on the multichannel analyzer. The distributions were for nine various monoenergetic sources between 280 adn 1525 keV. The response function was used to convert the measured pulse height distributions to photon flux spectra using an iterative approximation technique with a computer. Photon flux spectra from the Sagittaire Linear Accelerator were obtained at average-electron endpoint energies of 15, 20, and 25 MeV. Two spectra were measured at the 25 MeV setting; one spectrum was measured along the central axis and one spectrum at 4(DEGREES) off axis. Photon spectra were also obtained for a Van de Graaff generator at the nominal endpoint energies of 2.2, 2.35, and 2.5 MeV. The results for both the linac and the Van de Graaff generator were compared with theoretical spectra and previously measured spectra where available. Also, photon spectra from a Theratron-80 (('60)Co) unit were determined for three field sizes and for a 10 x 10 cm. field with a lucite tray or a 45(DEGREES) wedge in the beam. The resulting spectra were compared to previously measured ('60)Co spectra.

  8. Three determinants in ezrin are responsible for cell extension activity.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, M; Roy, C; Montcourrier, P; Sahuquet, A; Mangeat, P

    1997-01-01

    The ERM proteins--ezrin, radixin, and moesin--are key players in membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. In insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses, amino acids 1-115 of ezrin were shown to inhibit an actin- and tubulin-dependent cell-extension activity located in ezrin C-terminal domain (ezrin310-586), whereas full-length ezrin1-586 did not induce any morphological change. To refine the mapping of functional domains of ezrin, 30 additional constructs were overexpressed in Sf9 cells, and the resulting effect of each was qualitatively and semiquantitatively compared. The removal of amino acids 13-30 was sufficient to release a cell-extension phenotype. This effect was abrogated if the 21 distal-most C-terminal amino acids were subsequently deleted (ezrin31-565), confirming the existence of a head-to-tail regulation in the whole molecule. Surprisingly, the deletion in full-length ezrin of the same 21 amino acids provided strong cell-extension competence to ezrin1-565, and this property was recovered in N-terminal constructs as short as ezrin1-310. Within ezrin1-310, amino acid sequences 13-30 and 281-310 were important determinants and acted in cooperation to induce cytoskeleton mobilization. In addition, these same residues are part of a new actin-binding site characterized in vitro in ezrin N-terminal domain. Images PMID:9285824

  9. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  10. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  11. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

  12. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  13. Okeechobee County Energy Education Activities--Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Over 60 energy education activities related to mathematics, science, social studies, and English comprise this manual for middle school teachers. Included are issues for discussion, puzzles, science investigations, story writing exercises, and energy cost calculation problems. Among the topics covered in these lessons are energy consumption…

  14. Activation energies of photoinduced unimolecular, bimolecular and termolecular processes on silica gel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Williams, Siân L; Worrall, David R; Kirkpatrick, Iain; Vancea, Anisoara; Pan, Jiawei

    2011-01-01

    Activation energies for energy and electron transfer have been measured in various systems on silica gel. In the case of ion-electron recombination, a facile technique involving fluorescence recovery is described which complements diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the study of these systems. In bimolecular anthracene/azulene systems, activation energies have been shown to be independent of pre-treatment temperature in the range 25-210 °C, demonstrating that physisorbed water plays little role in determining diffusion rates on silica gel. In a ternary anthracene/azulene/perylene system, we have for the first time presented comparative activation energies for the diffusion of azulene and its radical cation, and have shown a greater activation energy for diffusion of the latter species. PMID:20978659

  15. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  16. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  17. Determining Energy Saving Behavior and Energy Awareness of Secondary School Students According to Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktamis, Hilal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine energy saving behavior and energy awareness of secondary school students and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics (gender, residential area and grade level) on energy saving and energy awareness. The research is a survey model with an approach that aims to describe the current status. A total of…

  18. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:25264569

  19. Determination of the jet energy scale at the collider detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, A.; Canelli, Florencia; Heinemann, B.; Adelman, J.; Ambrose, D.; Arguin, J.-F.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Budd, H.; Chung, Y.S.; Chung, K.; Cooper, B.; Currat, C.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, T.; Erbacher, R.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Gibson, A.; Hatakeyama, K.; Happacher, F.; Hoffman, D.; /Argonne /UCLA /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., EFI /Fermilab /Florida U. /Frascati /Geneva U. /LBL, Berkeley /Liverpool U. /University Coll. London /Michigan State U. /Toronto U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2005-10-01

    A precise determination of the energy scale of jets at the Collider Detector at Fermilab at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider is described. Jets are used in many analyses to estimate the energies of partons resulting from the underlying physics process. Several correction factors are developed to estimate the original parton energy from the observed jet energy in the calorimeter. The jet energy response is compared between data and Monte Carlo simulation for various physics processes, and systematic uncertainties on the jet energy scale are determined. For jets with transverse momenta above 50 GeV the jet energy scale is determined with a 3% systematic uncertainty.

  20. Determinants of the activity of beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

    PubMed

    Livermore, D M

    1993-01-01

    Inhibitor combinations provide one strategy to overcome beta-lactamase-mediated resistance. Their success depends, obviously, on the inhibitor being able to bind and inactivate the beta-lactamase molecules. Clavulanate, sulbactam and tazobactam are irreversible inactivators of many beta-lactamases, forming covalent complexes which resist hydrolysis. 'Suicide' kinetics are seen with some, but not all, enzymes. All three compounds inactivate staphylococcal penicillinase, the chromosomal beta-lactamases of Proteus vulgaris and Bacteroides spp., and the Class IV beta-lactamases present in some klebsiellae. Tazobactam, but not the other compounds, has moderate activity against some Class I (AmpC) chromosomal beta-lactamases, notably that of Morganella morganii, but not that of Enterobacter cloacae. Both clavulanate and tazobactam are strong inhibitors of the widely distributed TEM and SHV plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases; sulbactam is a weaker inhibitor. Other factors, aside from the affinity of the inhibitor for the enzyme, co-determine the success or failure of inhibition. Potentiation is most readily achieved if little enzyme is produced, and if the organism is very permeable to the inhibitor. Thus, resistance to inhibitor combinations is rare in strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae that produce TEM-beta-lactamase, but is commoner in enterobacteria that produce this enzyme, since these are less permeable and sometimes manufacture very large amounts of enzyme. The partner beta-lactam agent is also important. Irrespective of the inhibitor used, piperacillin is easier to protect against TEM beta-lactamases and the M. morganii Class I enzyme than are ampicillin, amoxycillin or ticarcillin. This may relate to the lower affinity of piperacillin for these enzymes, or to its greater affinity for the bacterial penicillin-binding proteins. Finally, pH can affect the degree of inhibition achieved with sulphones for some beta-lactamases, notably TEM-1

  1. Determination of Teloschistes flavicans (sw) norm anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Eugênia C.; da Silva, Nicácio H.; Santos, Renata Almeida; Sudário, Ana Patrícia Paiva; Rodrigues e Silva, Antonio Alfredo; de Sousa Maia, Maria Bernadete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lichens produce a variety of substances that possesses pharmacological actions. However, rare products are submitted to rigorous scientific tests or have the risk potential or side effects evaluated. The lack of medical and sanitary control, absence of accurate botanical identification or purity certification, founded in diverse natural products, may represent great danger to population health. This work aimed to evaluate toxic effects and anti-inflammatory action in vivo of Teloschistes flavicans (Sw.) Norm. (TFN) unrefined extracts, as well as determinate its main constituents. Methods: The carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet implant induced granuloma methods were utilized, besides a classic acute toxicity test. TFN acetone extract inhibited carrageenan paw edema on 60, 120, and 180 min (inhibition percentiles of 45.03%, 60.59% and 41.72%). Results: TFN ethereal (inhibition percentiles of 23.95% and 29.01%) and chloroform (inhibition percentiles of 28.8% and 22.04%) extracts inhibited edema on 120 and 180 min. None of the extract inhibited the granuloma development. None of the extract caused death or other acute toxicity signs. Vicanicine (60.26% in ethereal extract and 51.17% in acetone extract), parietine (9.60% in ethereal extract and 15.38% on second), falacinol (0.78% in ether and 14.95% in acetone) and very low concentration of falacinal (0.15% in ethereal extract and 3.32% in acetone extract) were detected in the medicine. Conclusions: The tested extracts have antiedematogenic activity, but are not effective on subchronic inflammation. The extracts do not present toxic effects in administered doses. PMID:21808568

  2. Maintenance energy requirement determination of cats after spaying.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Chamberlin, Amy J; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    Neutering is often associated with obesity in companion animals. However, the maintenance energy requirement (MER) for these animals has not been clearly defined. The present study investigated the MER for spayed cats whose body weights (BW) began to increase shortly after ovariohysterectomy. A total of twenty-two shorthair adult female cats were fed complete and balanced diets in amounts to maintain their BW and body condition score (BCS) before the present study. All cats were spayed and the diet was fed for 11 weeks using the same MER as previously. During these weeks, all cats gained weight. Beginning with week 12, a weight-loss regimen was initiated until each cat achieved a BCS of 5 out of 9. After each cat obtained a BCS of 5, an appropriate amount of diet was fed to maintain its BW for at least 4 weeks to determine a modified MER. Daily food consumption, weekly BW and BCS were monitored. Blood was collected before and after weight loss for plasma biochemistry profiles. BW and BCS increased by 16 % and one point (P < 0.01), respectively, during the first 11 weeks after surgery, although food consumption was constant both pre- and post-surgery. The mean MER after obtaining a BCS of 5 was 313.6 (SEM 23.6) kJ/BW(0.67), which is 25 % lower than the current National Research Council recommendation and lower than the cat's requirement before surgery (P < 0.05). In conclusion, spaying significantly increased BW when using MER values for intact cats. Thus, 313.6 × ideal BW(0.67) kJ is proposed for the MER of spayed adult cats. PMID:22005410

  3. The free energy of DNA supercoiling is enthalpy-determined.

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, A; Hinz, H J

    1984-01-01

    The thermodynamics of superhelix formation was determined by combining superhelix density data with enthalpy values obtained from microcalorimetric measurements of the relaxation of supercoiled ColE1 amp plasmid DNA in the presence of topoisomerase I from Escherichia coli (omega protein). The thermodynamic quantities for superhelix formation at 37 degrees C in 10 mM Tris/2 mM MgCl2/1 mM EDTA pH 8, are: delta G = 921 kJ X (mol of plasmid)-1; delta H 2260 kJ X (mol of plasmid)-1; deltaS = 4.3 kJ X (mol of plasmid X K)-1. These data clearly demonstrate that the unfavorable Gibbs free energy associated with supercoiling of DNA results exclusively from the positive enthalpy involved in formation of superhelical turns. A positive overall entropy change accompanies superhelix formation, which overcompensates the expected decrease of configurational entropy. By neglecting contributions from bending, an estimate of the torsional rigidity C = 1.79 X 10(-19) erg X cm (1 erg = 0.1 microJ) of the supercoiled ColE1 amp plasmid DNA was made on the basis of the enthalpy value. This value is in excellent agreement with values of C derived from subnanosecond time-resolved fluorescence depolarization measurements for pBR322 DNA [Millar, D. P., Robbins, R. J. & Zewai, A.H. (1982) J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2080-2094]. The magnitude of C is larger than for linear DNAs, indicating that supercoiled DNA is more rigid than linear DNA. PMID:6369324

  4. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  5. Energy utilization rates during shuttle extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Waligora, J M; Kumar, K V

    1995-01-01

    The work rates or energy utilization rates during EVA are major factors in sizing of life support systems. These rates also provide a measure of ease of EVA and its cost in crew fatigue. From the first Shuttle EVA on the STS-6 mission in 1983, we have conducted 59 man-EVA and 341 man-hours of EVA. Energy utilization rates have been measured on each of these EVA. Metabolic rate was measured during each EVA using oxygen utilization corrected for suit leakage. From 1981-1987, these data were available for average data over the EVA or over large segments of the EVA. Since 1987, EVA oxygen utilization data were available at 2-minute intervals. The average metabolic rate on Shuttle EVA (194 kcal/hr.) has been significantly lower than metabolic rates during Apollo and Skylab missions. Peak rates have been below design levels, infrequent, and of short duration. The data suggest that the energy cost of tasks may be inversely related to the degree of training for the task. The data provide insight on the safety margins provided by life support designs and on the energy cost of Station construction EVA. PMID:11540993

  6. Energy Around Us. A Fall Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on energy uses, energy…

  7. THE MAGNETIC ENERGY-HELICITY DIAGRAM OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Raouafi, Nour-Eddine

    2012-11-01

    Using a recently proposed nonlinear force-free method designed for single-vector magnetograms of solar active regions, we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different active regions. We find a statistically robust, monotonic correlation between the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity in the studied regions. This correlation implies that magnetic helicity, in addition to free magnetic energy, may be an essential ingredient for major solar eruptions. Eruptive active regions appear well segregated from non-eruptive ones in both free energy and relative helicity with major (at least M-class) flares occurring in active regions with free energy and relative helicity exceeding 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}, respectively. The helicity threshold agrees well with estimates of the helicity contents of typical coronal mass ejections.

  8. Determination of antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria islandica (L) Ach.

    PubMed

    Gülçin, Ilhami; Oktay, Münir; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan; Aslan, Ali

    2002-03-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of C. islandica. The antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging and free radical scavenging activities were studied. The antioxidant activity increased with the increasing amount of extracts (from 50 to 500 microg) added to linoleic acid emulsion. About 50, 100, 250, and 500 microg of aqueous extract of C. islandica showed higher antioxidant activity than 500 microg of alpha-tocopherol. The samples showed 96, 99, 100, and 100% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid, respectively. On the other hand, the 500 microg of alpha-tocopherol showed 77% inhibition on peroxidation on linoleic acid emulsion. Like antioxidant activity, the reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging and free radical scavenging activities of C. islandica depends on concentration and increasing with increased amount of sample. The results obtained in the present study indicate that C. islandica is a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:11849836

  9. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A new N2-N2 rigid-rotor surface has been determined using extensive Ab Initio quantum chemistry calculations together with recent experimental data for the second virial coefficient. Rotational energy transfer is studied using the new potential energy surface (PES) employing the close coupling method below 200 cm(exp -1) and coupled state approximation above that. Comparing with a previous calculation based on the PES of van der Avoird et al.,3 it is found that the new PES generally gives larger cross sections for large (delta)J transitions, but for small (delta)J transitions the cross sections are either comparable or smaller. Correlation between the differences in the cross sections and the two PES will be attempted. The computed cross sections will also be compared with available experimental data.

  10. Active and Inactive Metabolic Pathways in Tumor Spheroids: Determination by GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Hunnewell, Michael; Forbes, Neil S.

    2016-01-01

    Active metabolic pathways in three-dimensional cancer-cell cultures are potential chemotherapeutic targets that would be effective throughout tumors. Chaotic vasculature creates cellular regions in tumors with distinct metabolic behavior that are only present in aggregate cell masses. To quantify cancer cell metabolism, transformed mouse fibroblasts were grown as spheroids and fed isotopically labeled culture medium. Metabolite uptake and production rates were measured as functions of time. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was used quantify the extent of labeling on amino acids present in cytoplasmic extracts. The labeling pattern identified several active and inactive metabolic pathways: glutaminolysis was found to be active, and malic enzyme and gluconeogenesis were inactive. Transformed cells in spheroids were also found to actively synthesize serine, cysteine, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and proline; and not synthesize glutamine. The activities of these pathways suggest that cancer cells consume glutamine for biosynthesis and not to provide cellular energy. Determining active metabolic pathways indicates how cells direct carbon flow and may lead to the discovery of novel molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:20014107

  11. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  12. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  13. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    PubMed

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. PMID:23670626

  14. Determination of stepsize parameters for intermolecular vibrational energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tardy, D.C.

    1992-03-01

    Intermolecular energy transfer of highly excited polyatomic molecules plays an important role in many complex chemical systems: combustion, high temperature and atmospheric chemistry. By monitoring the relaxation of internal energy we have observed trends in the collisional efficiency ({beta}) for energy transfer as a function of the substrate's excitation energy and the complexities of substrate and deactivator. For a given substrate {beta} increases as the deactivator's mass increase to {approximately}30 amu and then exhibits a nearly constant value; this is due to a mass mismatch between the atoms of the colliders. In a homologous series of substrate molecules (C{sub 3}{minus}C{sub 8}) {beta} decreases as the number of atoms in the substrate increases; replacing F with H increases {beta}. All substrates, except for CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 2}HCl below 10,000 cm{sup {minus}1}, exhibited that {beta} is independent of energy, i.e. <{Delta}E>{sub all} is linear with energy. The results are interpreted with a simple model which considers that {beta} is a function of the ocillators energy and its vibrational frequency. Limitations of current approximations used in high temperature unimolecular reactions were evaluated and better approximations were developed. The importance of energy transfer in product yields was observed for the photoactivation of perfluorocyclopropene and the photoproduction of difluoroethyne. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Determination of kinetic energy applied by center pivot sprinklers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kinetic energy of discrete drops impacting a bare soil surface is generally observed to lead to a drastic reduction in water infiltration rate due to soil surface seal formation. Under center pivot sprinkler irrigation, kinetic energy transferred to the soil prior to crop canopy development can...

  16. Energy and Change. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 3 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  17. Activation energies for oxygen reduction on platinum alloys: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alfred B; Roques, Jérôme; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Murthi, Vivek S; Markovic, Nenad M; Stamenkovic, Vojislav

    2005-01-27

    A combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the electrode potential dependencies of activation energies is presented for the first step in oxygen reduction over platinum and platinum alloy catalysts in both polycrystalline and carbon supported form. Tafel data for several of the catalysts are used to predict potential-dependent activation energies for oxygen reduction over the 0.6-0.9 V range in strong and weak acid. Comparisons with the theoretical curve show good agreement above 0.8 V, suggesting a fairly constant preexponential factor. Arrhenius determinations of activation energies over the 0.7-0.9 V range yield little trend for weak acid, possibly because of the larger uncertainties in the Arrhenius fits, but the strong acid results have smaller uncertainties and for them the measured activation energies trend up with potential. PMID:16851081

  18. Radiological and instrumental neutron activation analysis determined characteristics of size-fractionated fly ash.

    PubMed

    Peppas, T K; Karfopoulos, K L; Karangelos, D J; Rouni, P K; Anagnostakis, M J; Simopoulos, S E

    2010-09-15

    The concentration of trace elements and radionuclides in fly ash particles of different size can exhibit significant variation, due to the various processes taking place during combustion inside a coal-fired power plant. An investigation of this effect has been performed by analyzing samples of fly ash originating in two different coal-fired power plants, after separation into size fractions by sieving. The samples were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry, including low-energy techniques, radon exhalation measurement and instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of Al, As, Ga, K, La, Na, Mn, Mg, Sr, Sc, and V. Variations are observed in the results of various samples analyzed, while the activity balances calculated from the results of individual size fractions are consistent with those of the raw ash samples. Correlations among the radionuclides examined are also observed, while individual nuclide behavior varies between the two types of fly ash examined. PMID:20605322

  19. Determinants of Physical Activity in Middle School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Stewart G.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in sixth grade students. Student surveys on physical activity behavior and attitudes and measurement of MVPA indicated that the TRA and TPB accounted for only a small percentage of the variance in MVPA. (SM)

  20. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  1. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Objective Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Methods Young adults aged 18–35 (N = 97, 50 female) < 300 pounds played a Dance Dance Revolution game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterwards. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. Results A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ2(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA < .001; 90% CI = .000 - .206; p = .692. Enjoyment mediated the relationship between engagement and energy expenditure (indirect effect = .138, p = .028), but other mediated effects were not significant. Conclusion Engagement, enjoyment, and BMI affect energy expended during active video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PMID:23527520

  2. Determination of the polar and total surface energy distributions of particulates by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamal C; Larson, Ian; Morton, David A V; Stewart, Peter J

    2011-01-18

    This Letter reports a technique of measuring polar surface energy distributions of lactose using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The significance of this study is that the total surface energy distributions can now be characterized by combining the already known dispersive surface energy distribution with polar surface energy distribution determined in this study. The polar surface energy was calculated from the specific free energies for surface interactions with a monopolar basic probe, ethyl acetate, and a monopolar acidic probe, dichloromethane. PMID:21174410

  3. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds I. Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

    PubMed

    Hullar, I; Meleg, I; Fekete, S; Romvari, R

    1999-12-01

    The digestibility coefficient and metabolizable energy (ME) content of the most important pigeon feeds (corn, wheat, barley, red and white millet, sorghum, canary seed, peas, lentils, sunflower, and hemp) were determined. The experiment was carried out using 10 adult male homing pigeons. All feeds were fed alone, in a whole-grain form, ad libitum. Drinking water and grit were offered to the birds on a continuous basis. Each feedstuff was fed to five pigeons in 1-wk cycles. There was no significant difference between the values determined in pigeons and those reported in the literature for chickens among the digestibilities of the CP of the various feeds. For pigeons, the digestibility of carbohydrates (N-free extracts, NFE) was lower (e.g., 62.37 vs 83.00% for barley and 63.45 vs 77.00% for peas), whereas the ether extract (EE) was higher (e.g., 75.58 vs 61.00% for barley and 82.59 vs 80.00% for peas) in pigeons compared with chickens. As a result, the AMEn values determined in pigeons did not differ significantly from those reported for chickens but tended to be slightly higher. For feeds of high-oil content, that difference may be somewhat larger. The correlation between the CP, EE, crude fiber (CF), and NFE contents of the feeds and the ME values determined in this experiment were calculated by multivariate linear regression. It was concluded that it was more accurate to determine and tabulate the ME contents of other potential pigeon feeds directly by experimental methods rather than using an equation. PMID:10626652

  4. Sensors at Centrosomes Reveal Determinants of Local Separase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Agircan, Fikret Gurkan; Schiebel, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Separase is best known for its function in sister chromatid separation at the metaphase-anaphase transition. It also has a role in centriole disengagement in late mitosis/G1. To gain insight into the activity of separase at centrosomes, we developed two separase activity sensors: mCherry-Scc1(142-467)-ΔNLS-eGFP-PACT and mCherry-kendrin(2059-2398)-eGFP-PACT. Both localize to the centrosomes and enabled us to monitor local separase activity at the centrosome in real time. Both centrosomal sensors were cleaved by separase before anaphase onset, earlier than the corresponding H2B-mCherry-Scc1(142-467)-eGFP sensor at chromosomes. This indicates that substrate cleavage by separase is not synchronous in the cells. Depletion of the proteins astrin or Aki1, which have been described as inhibitors of centrosomal separase, did not led to a significant activation of separase at centrosomes, emphasizing the importance of direct separase activity measurements at the centrosomes. Inhibition of polo-like kinase Plk1, on the other hand, decreased the separase activity towards the Scc1 but not the kendrin reporter. Together these findings indicate that Plk1 regulates separase activity at the level of substrate affinity at centrosomes and may explain in part the role of Plk1 in centriole disengagement. PMID:25299182

  5. Using Microcomputers in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: Activation Energy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touvelle, Michele; Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, "Activation Energy," which is designed for use in physical chemistry classes and can be modified for kinetic experiments. Provides suggestions for instruction, sample program listings, and information on the availability of the program package. (ML)

  6. The Geography of Wind Energy: Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1985-01-01

    Today there are many attempts to use wind machines to confront the increasing costs of electricity. Described are activities to help secondary students understand wind energy, its distribution, applications, and limitations. (RM)

  7. Inhibition of peptidoglycan hydrolase activity in vivo and in vitro by energy uncouplers in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, D G; Ishiguro, E E

    1996-01-01

    The effects of energy uncouplers on in vivo and in vitro peptidoglycan hydrolase activities in Escherichia coli were determined. Sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone all inhibited ampicillin-induced lysis of exponential phase cultures, even when they were added to lysis-committed cultures. These energy uncouplers also inhibited the solubilization of radiolabeled peptidoglycan by bacterial suspensions that had been treated with 5% trichloroacetic acid by the method of Hartmann et al.3 to activate the peptidoglycan hydrolases. Therefore, the in vivo and in vitro activities of peptidoglycan hydrolases in E. coli are dependent on membrane energization. PMID:9158735

  8. Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2009-09-26

    Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

  9. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  10. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  11. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  12. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, Erik

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market of allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  13. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  14. A Frontier Molecular Orbital determination of the active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on a dispersed metal catalysts. The basis for these calculations is the reported finding that a large number of catalyzed reactions take place on single atom active sites on the metal surface. Thus, these sites can be considered as surface complexes made up of the central active atom surrounded by near-neighbor metal atom ligands'' with localized surface orbitals perturbed only by these ligands''. These complexes'' are based on a twelve coordinate species with the ligands'' attached to the t{sub 2g} orbitals and the coordinate axes coincident with the direction of the e{sub g} orbitals on the central atom. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  15. A Frontier Molecular Orbital determination of the active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on a dispersed metal catalysts. The basis for these calculations is the reported finding that a large number of catalyzed reactions take place on single atom active sites on the metal surface. Thus, these sites can be considered as surface complexes made up of the central active atom surrounded by near-neighbor metal atom ``ligands`` with localized surface orbitals perturbed only by these ``ligands``. These ``complexes`` are based on a twelve coordinate species with the ``ligands`` attached to the t{sub 2g} orbitals and the coordinate axes coincident with the direction of the e{sub g} orbitals on the central atom. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  16. Energy Consumption of Actively Beating Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2012-02-01

    Motile cilia and flagella are important for propelling cells or driving fluid over tissues. The microtubule-based core in these organelles, the axoneme, has a nearly universal ``9+2'' arrangement of 9 outer doublet microtubules assembled around two singlet microtubules in the center. Thousands of molecular motor proteins are attached to the doublets and walk on neighboring outer doublets. The motors convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into sliding motion between adjacent doublet microtubules, resulting in precisely regulated oscillatory beating. Using demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella as an experimental platform, we simultaneously monitor the axoneme's consumption of ATP and its beating dynamics while key parameters, such as solution viscosity and ATP concentration, are varied. Insights into motor cooperativity during beating and energetic consequences of hydrodynamic interactions will be presented.

  17. [Determination of hyaluronidase activity by the rivanol clot method].

    PubMed

    Azarenok, K S; Generalov, I I

    1994-01-01

    A method for hyaluronidase activity measurement in various biologic samples is suggested, based on rivanol capacity to form a clot with hyaluronic acid inversely proportional to this acid depolymerization under the effect of hyaluronidase. This method sensitivity is ten times higher than that of the mucin clot method; any colorimetric or fluorometric method can be used for detection. The method has been adapted to measurements of commercial hyaluronidase preparations and of blood serum hyaluronidase activity. PMID:7850237

  18. Multichannel Simultaneous Determination of Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.

    2000-09-12

    It is very important to find the best conditions for some enzymes to do the best catalysis in current pharmaceutical industries. Based on the results above, we could say that this set-up could be widely used in finding the optimal condition for best enzyme activity of a certain enzyme. Instead of looking for the best condition for enzyme activity by doing many similar reactions repeatedly, we can complete this assignment with just one run if we could apply enough conditions.

  19. Experimental determination of the deuterium binding energy with vacancies in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, M.; Ryabtsev, S.; Gasparyan, Yu.; Pisarev, A.

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium (D) interaction with vacancies in tungsten (W) was studied using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). In order to obtain a TDS spectrum with a prominent peak corresponding to D release from vacancies, a special procedure comprising damaging of a recrystallized W sample by low fluences of 10 keV/D ions, its annealing, and subsequent low-energy ion implantation, was utilized. This experimental sequence was performed several times in series; the only difference was the TDS heating rate that varied in the range of 0.15-4 K/s. The sum of the D binding energy (Eb) with vacancies and the activation energy for D diffusion (ED) in W was then directly determined from the slope of the Arrhenius-like plot ln(β / Tm2) versus 1/Tm, where β - heating rate and Tm - position of the respective peak in the TDS spectrum. The determined value of Eb + ED was 1.56 ± 0.06 eV.

  20. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  1. 76 FR 65634 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (76 FR 55278). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Goorevich, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20... assistance to foreign atomic energy activities (76 FR 55278). This regulation provides that persons...

  2. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  3. Effects of high activation energies on acoustic timescale detonation initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, J. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Vasilyev, O. V.

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic timescale Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) has been shown to occur through the generation of compression waves emitted by a hot spot or reaction centre where the pressure and temperature increase with little diminution of density. In order to compensate for the multi-scale nature of the physico-chemical processes, previous numerical simulations in this area have been limited to relatively small activation energies. In this work, a computational study investigates the effect of increased activation energy on the time required to form a detonation wave and the change in behaviour of each hot spot as the activation energy is increased. The simulations use a localised spatially distributed thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas to facilitate DDT. The Adaptive Wavelet-Collocation Method is used to solve efficiently the 1-D reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics. The DDT process as described in previous work is characterised by the formation of hot spots during an initial transient period, explosion of the hot spots and creation of an accelerating reaction front that reaches the lead shock and forms an overdriven detonation wave. Current results indicate that as the activation energy is raised the chemical heat release becomes more temporally distributed. Hot spots that produce an accelerating reaction front with low activation energies change behaviour with increased activation energy so that no accelerating reaction front is created. An acoustic timescale ratio is defined that characterises the change in behaviour of each hot spot.

  4. Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

  5. Activation energy-activation volume master plots for ion transport behavior in polymer electrolytes and supercooled molten salts.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Malcolm D; Imrie, Corrie T; Stoeva, Zlatka; Pas, Steven J; Funke, Klaus; Chandler, Howard W

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of activation energy versus activation volume "master plots" to explore ion transport in typical fragile glass forming systems exhibiting non-Arrhenius behavior. These systems include solvent-free salt complexes in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and low molecular weight poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) and molten 2Ca(NO3)2.3KNO3 (CKN). Plots showing variations in apparent activation energy EA versus apparent activation volume VA are straight lines with slopes given by M = DeltaEA/DeltaVA. A simple ion transport mechanism is described where the rate determining step involves a dilatation (expressed as VA) around microscopic cavities and a corresponding work of expansion (EA). The slopes of the master plots M are equated to internal elastic moduli, which vary from 1.1 GPa for liquid PPO to 5.0 GPa for molten CKN on account of differing intermolecular forces in these materials. PMID:16853106

  6. A phosphotyrosine switch determines the antitumor activity of ERβ

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bin; Cheng, Long; Chiang, Huai-Chin; Xu, Xiaojie; Han, Yongjian; Su, Hang; Wang, Lingxue; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Jing; Li, Xiaobing; Xie, Xiangyang; Wang, Tao; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R.; Curiel, Tyler J.; Yuan, Zhi-Min; Elledge, Richard; Hu, Yanfen; Ye, Qinong; Li, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ share considerable sequence homology yet exert opposite effects on breast cancer cell proliferation. While the proliferative role of ERα in breast tumors is well characterized, it is not clear whether the antitumor activity of ERβ can be mobilized in breast cancer cells. Here, we have shown that phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue (Y36) present in ERβ, but not in ERα, dictates ERβ-specific activation of transcription and is required for ERβ-dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth in culture and in murine xenografts. Additionally, the c-ABL tyrosine kinase and EYA2 phosphatase directly and diametrically controlled the phosphorylation status of Y36 and subsequent ERβ function. A nonphosphorylatable, transcriptionally active ERβ mutant retained antitumor activity but circumvented control by upstream regulators. Phosphorylation of Y36 was required for ERβ-mediated coactivator recruitment to ERβ target promoters. In human breast cancer samples, elevated phosphorylation of Y36 in ERβ correlated with high levels of c-ABL but low EYA2 levels. Furthermore, compared with total ERβ, the presence of phosphorylated Y36–specific ERβ was strongly associated with both disease-free and overall survival in patients with stage II and III disease. Together, these data identify a signaling circuitry that regulates ERβ-specific antitumor activity and has potential as both a prognostic tool and a molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:24960160

  7. Ligand determinants of nisin for its induction activity.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaoxuan; Teng, Kunling; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Fangyuan; Wang, Fangfang; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Nisin has been widely used in the food industry as a safe and natural preservative and has the potential to be used as a biomedicine. Improving nisin production is important for its enormous applications. Nisin A is produced in Lactococcus lactis and its biosynthesis is induced through the regulation of the 2-component system NisKR. In this study, alanine-scanning mutagenesis was applied to study the key structure or AA in nisin for inducing the 2-component system NisKR to regulate downstream gene expression. Assay of β-galactosidase activity revealed that either ring A or ring B was necessary for nisin to induce lacZ reporter gene expression. A substituted first ring formed by Thr2 and Cys7 in S3A instead of ring A (formed by Ser3 and Cys7) fully retained nisin induction activity. Mutation of cationic AA and addition of cationic ions hardly affected nisin induction activity. These results demonstrated that the N-terminal ring structures in nisin were involved in activating NisKR to act as an inducing molecule, whereas the electrostatic force might not contribute to this process. In addition, 2 specific residues were revealed to have potential for improving both nisin induction and antimicrobial activity, which might be used for increasing nisin production. PMID:27132090

  8. Activity Determinants among Mexican American Women in a Border Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mexican American women have the highest leisure-time physical inactivity prevalence of any ethnic minority group. Purpose: This study examined a sample of Mexican American females living near the U.S.-Mexico border to determine whether the variables of age, health status, educational level, marital status, and acculturation…

  9. 15 CFR 930.35 - Negative determinations for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... effects, Federal agencies shall follow § 930.33(a)(1), including an evaluation of the relevant enforceable policies of a management program and include the evaluation in the negative determination. The level of... COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency...

  10. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  11. Energy Expenditure of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Jerry L.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is frequently a component of interventions designed to diminish weight gain in children. It is essential to determine whether the energy expenditure (EE) elicited by these interventions is sufficient to reduce the rate of weight gain. Purpose To quantify the EE of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum (PAAC) intervention. This intervention involved two 10-min physically active academic lessons per day, taught by classroom teachers. Methods We assessed EE of PAAC in 19 males and 19 females using both an indirect calorimeter (IC) (COSMED K4b2) and an accelerometer (ActiGraph) (AC). Independent t-tests were used to evaluate gender differences. Dependent t-tests were used to examine the difference between EE assessed by IC and AC. The agreement between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was evaluated using a Bland-Altman plot. A Pearson correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was calculated. Results There were no significant gender differences for age, BMI, or EE; therefore, analyses by gender were not performed. The mean EE measured by IC was 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min(3.4 METs). Mean EE estimated by AC (1.8 ± 0.9 kcal/min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than EE measured by IC (mean underestimation = 1.3 kcal/min). The Bland-Altman plot suggested increased underestimation with increased levels of EE. The 95% limits of agreement were large (-2.8 to +0.3 kcal/min). The correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was r = 0.68 (P < 0.001). Conclusion PAAC elicited a level of EE that may prevent excessive weight gain in children. AC significantly underestimated the EE of PAAC lessons and may not provide useful EE estimates in this context. PMID:18614939

  12. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Increases Energy Expenditure: Relation to Brown Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Leenen, Loes; Rijkers, Kim; Cornips, Erwin; Majoie, Marian; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. Methods and Findings Fifteen patients with stable VNS therapy (age: 45±10yrs; body mass index; 25.2±3.5 kg/m2) were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%). Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUVMean; 0.55±0.25 versus 0.67±0.46, P = 0.619). However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off) was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001). Conclusions VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. Trial Registration The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282. PMID:24194874

  13. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  14. Determination of host RNA helicases activity in viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    RNA helicases are encoded by all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and a minority of viruses. Activity of RNA helicases is necessary for all steps in the expression of cells and viruses and the host innate response to virus infection. Their vast functional repertoire is attributable to the core ATPase-dependent helicase domain in conjunction with flanking domains that are interchangeable and engage viral and cellular cofactors. Here, we address the important issue of host RNA helicases that are necessary for replication of a virus. The chapter covers approaches to identification and characterization of candidate helicases and methods to define the biochemical and biophysical parameters of specificity and functional activity of the enzymes. We discuss the context of cellular RNA helicase activity and virion-associated RNA helicases. The methodology and choice of controls fosters the assessment of the virologic scope of RNA helicases across divergent cell lineages and viral replication cycles. PMID:22713331

  15. 78 FR 40194 - Proposed Information Collection Request of the ETA 207, Nonmonetary Determination Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Determination Activities Report; Comment Request on Extension Without Change (OMB 1205-0150) AGENCY: Employment....Edward@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The ETA 207 Report, Nonmonetary Determination... concerning the proposed extension collection of the ETA 207, Nonmonetary Determinations Activities...

  16. Determination of the Spontaneous Locomotor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jared K.; Kowalski, Suzanne; Rogina, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an excellent model organism to study environmental and genetic manipulations that affect behavior. One such behavior is spontaneous locomotor activity. Here we describe our protocol that utilizes Drosophila population monitors and a tracking system that allows continuous monitoring of the spontaneous locomotor activity of flies for several days at a time. This method is simple, reliable, and objective and can be used to examine the effects of aging, sex, changes in caloric content of food, addition of drugs, or genetic manipulations that mimic human diseases. PMID:24747955

  17. [Method of quantitative determination of staphylococcal hyaluronidase activity].

    PubMed

    Generalov, I I

    1998-03-01

    The proposed method for measuring hyaluronidase activity of microorganism is based on prevention of hyaluronic acid clot formation with rivanol under the effect of hyaluronidase. This made possible the quantitative and qualitative detection of hyaluronidase activities of different staphylococcus species and strains. The maximum level of the enzyme and highest rate of its detection were typical of St. aureus. Its strains producing hyaluronidase in quantities of at least 0.5 IU are significantly (p < 0.01) more often isolated from medical staff. PMID:9575732

  18. Determination of the spontaneous locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jared K; Kowalski, Suzanne; Rogina, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an excellent model organism to study environmental and genetic manipulations that affect behavior. One such behavior is spontaneous locomotor activity. Here we describe our protocol that utilizes Drosophila population monitors and a tracking system that allows continuous monitoring of the spontaneous locomotor activity of flies for several days at a time. This method is simple, reliable, and objective and can be used to examine the effects of aging, sex, changes in caloric content of food, addition of drugs, or genetic manipulations that mimic human diseases. PMID:24747955

  19. Neutron energy determination with a high-purity germanium detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Gene A.

    1992-01-01

    Two areas that are related to planetary gamma-ray spectrometry are investigated. The first task was the investigation of gamma rays produced by high-energy charged particles and their secondaries in planetary surfaces by means of thick target bombardments. The second task was the investigation of the effects of high-energy neutrons on gamma-ray spectral features obtained with high-purity Ge-detectors. For both tasks, as a function of the funding level, the experimental work was predominantly tied to that of other researchers, whenever there was an opportunity to participate in bombardment experiments at large or small accelerators for charged particles.

  20. Energy yield determination of concentrator solar cells using laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisz, John F.; García, Iván; McMahon, William E.; Steiner, Myles A.; Ochoa, Mario; France, Ryan M.; Habte, Aron; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a four junction inverted metamorphic solar cell that has been completely characterized in the laboratory at room temperature using measurements fit to a comprehensive optoelectronic model of the multijunction solar cells. A simple model of the temperature dependence is used predict the performance of the solar cell under varying temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted.

  1. Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making…

  2. Energy level and half-life determinations from photonuclear reaction on Ga target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoyun, Serkan; Bayram, Tuncay; Dulger, Fatih; Đapo, Haris; Boztosun, Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Photonuclear reactions are important tools in the understanding of the nucleus. These reactions are also interesting for realizing the element creation processes in stellar environment. The use of bremsstrahlung photons generated from clinic linear accelerator is practical for performing these type of reactions. In this study, the bremsstrahlung photons with endpoint energy of 18MeV have been used for activating gallium target material. After irradiation, the transition energies and half-lives associated with the decay of 68Ga, 70Ga and 72Ga isotopes have been determined The values obtained for half-life of 68Ga, 70Ga and 72Ga isotopes are 67.5±0.9min, 21.1±0.9min and 13.8±0.4h, respectively. It has been seen that the values are consistent with the present literature values. In addition, the new measurements of gamma-ray energies for transition energies have been obtained comparable to the literature values with good uncertainties.

  3. Determining importance and grading of items and activities for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeKlever, R.; Verna, B.

    1993-12-31

    Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN), in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project, has been responsible for the Title 2 designs of the initial structures, systems, and components for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and the creation of the design output documents for the Surface-Based Testing (SBT) programs. The ESF and SBT programs are major scientific contributors to the overall site characterization program which will determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain to contain a proposed High Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW) repository. Accurate, traceable and objective characterization and testing documentation that is germane to the protection of public health and safety, and the environment, and that satisfies all the requirements of 10 CFR Part 60(1), must be established, evaluated and accepted. To assure that these requirements are satisfied, specific design functions and products, including items and activities depicted within respective design output documents, are subjected to the requirements of an NRC and DOE-approved Quality Assurance (QA) program. An evaluation (classification) is applied to these items and activities to determine their importance to radiological safety (ITS) and waste isolation (ITWI). Subsequently, QA program controls are selected (grading) for the items and activities. RSN has developed a DOE-approved classification process that is based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and that uses accident/impact scenarios. Results from respective performance assessment and test interference evaluations are also integrated into the classification analyses for various items. The methodology and results of the RSN classification and grading processes, presented herein, relative to ESF and SBT design products, demonstrates a solid, defensible methodological basis for classification and grading.

  4. On the determination of oxygen abundances in chromospherically active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, T.; Micela, G.

    2004-08-01

    We discuss oxygen abundances derived from [O I] λ6300s and the O I triplet in stars spanning a wide range in chromospheric activity level, and show that these two indicators yield increasingly discrepant results with higher chromospheric/coronal activity measures. While the forbidden and permitted lines give fairly consistent results for solar-type disk dwarfs, spuriously high O I triplet abundances are observed in young Hyades and Pleiades stars, as well as in individual components of RS CVn binaries (up to 1.8 dex). The distinct behaviour of the [O I]-based abundances which consistently remain near-solar suggests that this phenomenon mostly results from large departures from LTE affecting the O I triplet at high activity level that are currently unaccounted for, but also possibly from a failure to adequately model the atmospheres of K-type stars. These results suggest that some caution should be exercised when interpreting oxygen abundances in active binaries or young open cluster stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (Proposals 64.L-0249 and 071.D-0260). Table \\ref{tab_data} is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  5. Determinants of Activity and Participation in Preschoolers with Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Grantiana P. K.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Chung, Raymond C. K.; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, activity (the execution of a task or action by an individual), and participation (involvement in a life situation) are important components in the assessment of health and functioning of an individual. The purpose of…

  6. Employing Magnetic Levitation to Monitor Reaction Kinetics and Measure Activation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Lauren; Cesafsky, Karen E.; Le, Tran; Park, Aileen; Malicky, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive undergraduate-level kinetics experiment that uses magnetic levitation to monitor the progress and determine the activation energy of a condensation reaction on a polymeric solid support. The method employs a cuvette filled with a paramagnetic solution positioned between two strong magnets. The…

  7. Energy and time determine scaling in biological and computer designs.

    PubMed

    Moses, Melanie; Bezerra, George; Edwards, Benjamin; Brown, James; Forrest, Stephanie

    2016-08-19

    Metabolic rate in animals and power consumption in computers are analogous quantities that scale similarly with size. We analyse vascular systems of mammals and on-chip networks of microprocessors, where natural selection and human engineering, respectively, have produced systems that minimize both energy dissipation and delivery times. Using a simple network model that simultaneously minimizes energy and time, our analysis explains empirically observed trends in the scaling of metabolic rate in mammals and power consumption and performance in microprocessors across several orders of magnitude in size. Just as the evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular animals in biology are associated with shifts in metabolic scaling, our model suggests that the scaling of power and performance will change as computer designs transition to decentralized multi-core and distributed cyber-physical systems. More generally, a single energy-time minimization principle may govern the design of many complex systems that process energy, materials and information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431524

  8. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test a series of hypotheses regarding the influences of household characteristics (such as education, age, sex, race, income, and size of household), building characteristics (such as age, ownership, and type), and electricity prices on the use of ENERGY STAR appliances.

  9. Experimental determination of fragment excitation energies in multifragmentation events

    SciTech Connect

    Marie, N.; Natowitz, J.B.; Cibor, J.; Hagel, K.; Wada, R.; Chbihi, A.; Le Fevre, A.; Salou, S.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Gingras, L.; Auger, G.; Laville, J.L.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Tirel, O.; Assenard, M.; Eudes, P.; Germain, M.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.; Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B.; Frankland, J.D.; Plagnol, E.; Rivet, M.F.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Peter, J.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Buchet, P.; Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Dore, D.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Parlog, M.; Tabacaru, G.; Rosato, E.; Gourio, D.; Majka, Z.

    1998-07-01

    For 50 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Sn multifragmentation events, we deduced, by means of correlation techniques, the multiplicities of the hydrogen and helium isotopes which were emitted by the hot primary excited fragments produced at the stage of the disassembly of an equilibrated hot source. We also derived the relative kinetic energy distributions between the primary clusters and the light charged particles that they evaporate. From the comparison between the secondary multiplicities observed experimentally and the multiplicities predicted by the GEMINI model, we concluded that the source breaks into primary fragments which are characterized by the same N/Z ratio as the combined system. Knowing the secondary light charged particle multiplicities and kinetic energies, we reconstructed the average charges of the hot fragments and we estimated their mean excitation energies. The fragment excitation energies are equal to 3.0 MeV/nucleon for the full range of intermediate mass fragment atomic number. This global constancy indicates that, on the average, thermodynamical equilibrium was achieved at the disassembly stage of the source. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. The extent of these urban areas across the world can be seen in an image of city lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. In many areas of North America and Europe, it is difficult to separate individual cities because of the dramatic growth and sprawl of urbanized areas. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. One of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) which was reported as early as 1833 for London and 1862 for Paris. The urban heat island results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature difference between the urban and surrounding countryside is highly dependent on the structure of the urban area, amount of solar immolation received during the day, and atmospheric conditions during the night. These night time air temperature differences can be in the range of 2 to 5 C. or greater. Although day time air temperature differences between urban areas and the countryside exists during the day, atmospheric mixing and stability reduce the magnitude. This phenomena is not limited to large urban areas, but also occurs in smaller metropolitan areas. The UHI has significant impacts on the urban air quality, meteorology, energy use, and human health. The UPI can be mitigated through increasing the amount of vegetation and modification of urban surfaces using high albedo materials for roofs and paved surfaces. To understand why the urban heat island phenomenon exists it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo is a major component of

  11. Energy effective approach for activation of metallurgical slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, I. N.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mamulat, S. L.; Suvorov, D. S.; Saltikova, Y. S.; Yudin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of the process of mechanical activation of metallurgical slag using different approaches - ball milling and electromagnetic vortex apparatus. Particle size distribution and structure of mechanically activated slag samples were investigated, as well as energetic parameters of the activation process. It was shown that electromagnetic vortex activation is more energy effective and allows to produce microscale milled slag-based concrete using very short treatment time. Activated slag materials can be used as clinker-free cement in civilian and road construction, providing ecology-friendly technology and recycling of high-tonnage industrial waste.

  12. Muscular development and physical activity as major determinants of femoral bone mass acquisition during growth

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Ara, I; Perez-Gomez, J; Dorado, C; Calbet, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate to what extent bone mass accrual is determined by physical activity and changes in lean, fat, and total body mass during growth. Methods: Twenty six physically active and 16 age matched control boys were followed up for three years. All subjects were prepubertal at the start of the survey (mean (SEM) age 9.4 (0.3) years). The weekly physical activity of the active boys included compulsory physical education sessions (80–90 minutes a week), three hours a week of extracurricular sports participation, and occasional sports competitions at weekends. The physical activity of the control group was limited to the compulsory physical education curriculum. Bone mineral content (BMC) and areal density (BMD), lean mass, and fat mass were measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. Results: The effect of sports participation on femoral bone mass accrual was remarkable. Femoral BMC and BMD increased twice as much in the active group as in the controls over the three year period (p<0.05). The greatest correlation was found between the increment in femoral bone mass and the increment in lean mass (BMC r = 0.67 and BMD r = 0.69, both p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed enhancement in lean mass as the best predictor of the increment in femoral bone BMC (R = 0.65) and BMD (R = 0.69). Conclusions: Long term sports participation during early adolescence results in greater accrual of bone mass. Enhancement of lean mass seems to be the best predictor of this bone mass accumulation. However, for a given muscle mass, a greater level of physical activity is associated with greater bone mass and density in peripubertal boys. PMID:16118297

  13. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  14. Evaluation of pancreatin stability through enzyme activity determination.

    PubMed

    Terra, Gleysson De Paula; Vinícius De Farias, Marcus; Trevisan, Marcello Garcia; Garcia, Jerusa Simone

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatin is a biotechnological product containing an enzyme complex, obtained from porcine pancreas, that is employed in treating pancreatic diseases. Experiments regarding the stability of the pharmaceutical formulation containing pancreatin were performed using standard binary mixtures with 6 excipients in a 1:1 ratio (m/m) and a commercial formulation. To accomplish these goals, samples were stored for 1, 3 and 6 months at 40 ± 1 °C and 75 ± 5 % relative humidity (RH) and 40 ± 1 °C and 0 % RH. Stress testing was also performed. All samples were analyzed to evaluate the α-amylase, lipase and protease activities through UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The results revealed that the excipient proprieties and the storage conditions affected enzyme stability. Humidity was a strong influencing factor in the reduction of α-amylase and protease activities. Stress testing indicated that pH 9.0 and UV light did not induce substantial alterations in enzyme activity. PMID:27383890

  15. Comparison of methods to estimate physical activity and energy expenditure in African American children.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Smith, B A; Sherman, W M; Kirby, T E

    2005-06-01

    Low levels of physical activity and high levels of obesity among children in the US is a public health concern. Accurate methods to estimate physical activity are needed to determine the efficacy of intervention programs and to explore relationships between daily physical activity and health status in children. The purpose of this study was to compare the simultaneous use of the Tritrac-R3D accelerometer (Tritrac), Yamax SW-200 Digiwalker step-counter (Digiwalker) and the Self Administered Physical Activity Checklist (SAPAC) to assess physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in African-American children aged 7 to 10 years, using the doubly-labeled water (DLW) as the criterion method. Physical activity and energy expenditure were measured over seven consecutive days under free-living conditions. Resting metabolic rate and peak VO(2) were measured before the experimental period. There was no difference in physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) measured by Tritrac or DLW (p > 0.05). Tritrac activity counts were highly correlated with DLW-PAEE (r = 0.81). High correlations between Digiwalker and DLW were observed when body weight was considered. A low correlation (r = 0.49) was observed between the physical activity energy expenditure by SAPAC and DLW. In conclusion, with some limitations the Tritrac and Digiwalker can provide useful and accurate information about PA and EE in 7- to 10-year-old children. PMID:15895319

  16. Determining neutrino absorption spectra at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Scholten, O; Van Vliet, A R E-mail: A.R.van.Vliet@student.rug.nl

    2008-06-15

    A very efficient method for measuring the flux of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos is through the detection of radio waves which are emitted by the particle shower in the lunar regolith. The highest acceptance is reached for radio waves in the frequency band of 100-200 MHz which can be measured with modern radio telescopes. In this work we investigate the sensitivity of this detection method to structures in the UHE neutrino spectrum caused by their absorption on the low energy relic anti-neutrino background through the Z boson resonance. The position of the absorption peak is sensitive to the neutrino mass and the redshift of the source. A new generation of low frequency digital radio telescopes will provide excellent detection capabilities for measuring these radio pulses, thus making our consideration here very timely.

  17. Influence of several metal ions on the gelation activation energy of silicon tetraethoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nine metal cations Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Cu(2+), Al(3+), La(3+), and Y(3+) on silica gel formation has been investigated by studying the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) in the presence of metal nitrates. The influence of water:TEOS mole ratio, metal ion concentration, and the reaction temperature has been investigated. The overall activation energy for gel formation has been determined from the temperature dependence of the time of gelation for each system. The activation energy for -Si-O-Si- network formation is found to be 54.5 kJ/mol. The gel formation time as well as the activation energy sharply increase in the presence of Cu(2+), Al(3+), La(3+) and Y(3+). In contrast, the presence of Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), or Sr(2+) lowers the gelation time, but has no appreciable effect on the activation energy. This difference may be attributed to the participation or nonparticipation of the metal ions in the formation of the three-dimensional polymeric network during the polycondensation step. The concentration of metal ion Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Y(3+) or the water:TEOS mole ratio had no appreaciable effect on the gelation activation energy. A simple test has been proposed to determine whether a metal ion would act as a network intermediate or modifier in silica and other glassy networks.

  18. Influence of several metal ions on the gelation activation energy of silicon tetraethoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of nine metal cations (Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Cu(2+), Al(3+), La(3+), and Y(3+) on silica gel formation has been investigated by studying the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) in the presence of metal nitrates. The influence of water: TEOS mole ratio, metal ion concentration, and the reaction temperature has been investigated. The overall activation energy for gel formation has been determined from the temperature dependence of the time of gelation for each system. The activation energy for -Si-O-Si- network formation is found to be 54.5 kJ/mol. The gel formation time as well as the activation energy sharply increase in the presence of Cu(2+), Al(3+), La(3+) and Y(3+). In contrast, the presence of Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), or, Sr(2+) lowers the gelation time, but has no appreciable effect on the activation energy. This difference may be attributed to the participation or nonparticipation of the metal ions in the formation of the three-dimensional polymeric network during the polycondensation step. The concentration of metal ion (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Y(3+) or the water: TEOS mole ratio had no appreciable effect on the gelation activation energy. A simple test has been proposed to determine whether a metal ion would act as a network intermediate or modifier in silica and other glassy networks.

  19. The determination of the stacking fault energy in copper-nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, H. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for determining the stacking fault energies of a series of nickel-copper alloys to gain an insight into the embrittling effect of hydrogen are evaluated. Plans for employing weak beam dark field electron microscopy to determine stacking fault energies are outlined.

  20. Re-determination of bound state resonance energies in He/graphite scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S.; Kara, A.; Frankl, D. R.

    1986-05-01

    Binding energies of 4He atoms physisorbed on graphite (0001) surfaces were re-determined with improved resolution and precision. Energies are several tenths of an meV deeper than found in previous determinations, and an additional high-lying level is resolved. These results are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations.

  1. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  2. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers: Structure Determination and Trends in Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbing; Lohith, Katheryn; Rosario, Margaret; Pulliam, Thomas H; O'Connor, Robert D; Bell, Lori J; Bewley, Carole A

    2016-07-22

    Antibacterial-guided fractionation of the Dictyoceratid sponges Lamellodysidea sp. and two samples of Dysidea granulosa yielded 14 polybrominated, diphenyl ethers including one new methoxy-containing compound (8). Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data of the natural product and their methoxy derivatives. Most of the compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity with low- to sub-microgram mL(-1) minimum inhibitory concentrations against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium, and two compounds inhibited Escherichia coli in a structure-dependent manner. PMID:27399938

  3. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water.

    PubMed

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10^{-23}m^{3}), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes. PMID:27627349

  4. Energy-aware Activity Classification using Wearable Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bo; Montoye, Alexander; Moore, Rebecca; Pfeiffer, Karin; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-29

    This paper presents implementation details, system characterization, and the performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity analysis. Specific machine learning mechanisms are implemented for recognizing a target set of activities with both out-of-body and on-body processing arrangements. Impacts of energy consumption by the on-body sensors are analyzed in terms of activity detection accuracy for out-of-body processing. Impacts of limited processing abilities for the on-body scenario are also characterized in terms of detection accuracy, by varying the background processing load in the sensor units. Impacts of varying number of sensors in terms of activity classification accuracy are also evaluated. Through a rigorous systems study, it is shown that an efficient human activity analytics system can be designed and operated even under energy and processing constraints of tiny on-body wearable sensors. PMID:25075266

  5. Gas chromatographic determination of the interconversion energy barrier for dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, J; Krupcík, J; Májek, P; Skacáni, I; Jakubík, T; Sandra, P; Armstrong, D W

    2007-05-25

    The enantiomers of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate undergo interconversion during gas chromatographic separation on chiral stationary phases. In this paper the on-column apparent interconversion kinetic and thermodynamic activation data were determined for dimethyl, diethyl, propylbutyl and dibutyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers by gas chromatographic separation of the racemic mixtures on a capillary column containing a polydimethylsiloxane stationary phase coupled to 2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tertbutyldimethylsilyl-beta-cyclodextrin. A deconvolution method was used to determine the individual enantiomer peak areas and retention times that are needed to calculate the interconversion rate constants and the energy barriers. The apparent rate constants and interconversion energy barriers decrease slightly with an increase in the alkyl chain length of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate esters. The optimum conformation of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate molecules, their separation selectivity factors and apparent interconversion enthalpy and entropy data changes with the alkyl chain length. The dependence of the apparent interconversion energy barrier (deltaG(app)(a-->b), deltaG(app)(b-->a)) on temperature was used to determine the apparent activation enthalpy (deltaH(app)(a-->b), deltaH(app)(b-->a)) and apparent entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) (where a denotes the first and b second eluted enantiomer). The comparison of the activation enthalpy and entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) indicated that the interconversion of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series is an entropy driven process at 160 degrees C. Data obtained for dimethyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series at 120 degrees C (deltaG(app)(a-->b) = 123.3 and deltaG(app)(b-->a) = 124.4 kJ mol(-1)) corresponds (at the 95% confidence interval) with the value of deltaG(#) = 128+/-1 kJ mol(-1) found at this

  6. Theoretical determination of the alkali-metal superoxide bond energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sodupe, Mariona; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The bond dissociation energies for the alkali-metal superoxides have been computed using extensive Gaussian basis sets and treating electron correlation at the modified coupled-pair functional level. Our computed D0 values are 61.4, 37.2, 40.6, and 38.4 kcal/mol for LiO2, NaO2, KO2, and RbO2, respectively. These values, which are expected to be lower bounds and accurate to 2 kcal/mol, agree well with some of the older flame data, but rule out several recent experimental measurements.

  7. Activation Energy of Extracellular Enzymes in Soils from Different Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Steinweg, J. Megan; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Frerichs, Joshua; Mayes, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme dynamics are being incorporated into soil carbon cycling models and accurate representation of enzyme kinetics is an important step in predicting belowground nutrient dynamics. A scarce number of studies have measured activation energy (Ea) in soils and fewer studies have measured Ea in arctic and tropical soils, or in subsurface soils. We determined the Ea for four typical lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the A and B horizons of seven soils covering six different soil orders. We also elucidated which soil properties predicted any measurable differences in Ea. β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were measured at five temperatures, 4, 21, 30, 40, and 60°C. Ea was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase Ea values for both A and B horizons in this study were similar to previously reported values, however we could not make a direct comparison for B horizon soils because of the lack of data. There was no consistent relationship between hydrolase enzyme Ea and the environmental variables we measured. Phenol oxidase was the only enzyme that had a consistent positive relationship between Ea and pH in both horizons. The Ea in the arctic and subarctic zones for peroxidase was lower than the hydrolases and phenol oxidase values, indicating peroxidase may be a rate limited enzyme in environments under warming conditions. By including these six soil types we have increased the number of soil oxidative enzyme Ea values reported in the literature by 50%. This study is a step towards better quantifying enzyme kinetics in different climate zones. PMID:23536898

  8. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply. PMID:22470340

  9. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

  10. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

  11. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

  12. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

  13. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, water use rate, and other required disclosure content. 305.5 Section 305.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS ENERGY...

  14. Dynamic Determination of Active-Site Reactivity in Semiquinone Photolyase by the Cofactor Photoreduction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Photolyase contains a flavin cofactor in a fully reduced form as its functional state to repair ultraviolet-damaged DNA upon blue light absorption. However, after purification, the cofactor exists in its oxidized or neutral semiquinone state. Such oxidization eliminates the repair function, but it can be reverted by photoreduction, a photoinduced process with a series of electron-transfer (ET) reactions. With femtosecond absorption spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, we completely recharacterized such photoreduction dynamics in the semiquinone state. Comparing with all previous studies, we identified a new intramolecular ET pathway, determined stretched ET behaviors, refined all ET time scales, and finally evaluated the driving forces and reorganization energies for eight elementary ET reactions. Combined with the oxidized-state photoreduction dynamics, we elucidated the different active-site properties of the reduction ability and structural flexibility in the oxidized and semiquinone states, leading to the dramatically different ET dynamics and photoreduction efficiency in the two states. PMID:24803991

  15. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  16. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-03-03

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  17. 40 CFR 153.125 - Criteria for determination of pesticidal activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... function simply to enhance or prolong the activity of an active ingredient by physical action, such as... pesticidal activity. 153.125 Section 153.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Ingredients § 153.125 Criteria for determination of pesticidal activity. (a) An ingredient will be...

  18. 40 CFR 153.125 - Criteria for determination of pesticidal activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... function simply to enhance or prolong the activity of an active ingredient by physical action, such as... pesticidal activity. 153.125 Section 153.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Ingredients § 153.125 Criteria for determination of pesticidal activity. (a) An ingredient will be...

  19. 40 CFR 153.125 - Criteria for determination of pesticidal activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... function simply to enhance or prolong the activity of an active ingredient by physical action, such as... pesticidal activity. 153.125 Section 153.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Ingredients § 153.125 Criteria for determination of pesticidal activity. (a) An ingredient will be...

  20. 40 CFR 153.125 - Criteria for determination of pesticidal activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... function simply to enhance or prolong the activity of an active ingredient by physical action, such as... pesticidal activity. 153.125 Section 153.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Ingredients § 153.125 Criteria for determination of pesticidal activity. (a) An ingredient will be...

  1. The determinants and trends in household energy consumption in United States during 2001-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, Sadasivan

    Objective: The focus of this study is a broad examination of household energy consumption for appliance use, space heating, space cooling, and water heating in United States over the period 2001-2009 using Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) from the years 2001 and 2009. Methods: Linear Regression Analysis is used to identfy determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Regression based decomposition analysis is used to identify trends in residential energy consumption for each of the end uses. Results: The study identified current determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. These determinants are employed in the study to predict trends in household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Based on the results policy interventions at local and federal level for energy conservation are suggested.

  2. Determination of a monoclonal antibody binding activity using immunodetection.

    PubMed

    Schenerman, M A; Collins, T J

    1994-03-01

    A method for measuring the binding of chimeric IgG BR-96 to the Lewis Y antigen using the ImmunoDetection technology has been developed. The procedure is rapid (2 min), highly reproducible (< 5% CV), and has excellent correlation with the Lewis Y and anti-idiotypic enzyme immunoassays. Samples that were degraded by heat or by repeated freeze-thaw cycles showed reduced binding activity. There was minimal cross-reactivity with other proteins typically found in hybridoma media or with another chimeric IgG directed against a different antigen (L6). The fact that this assay can be performed using conventional HPLC equipment makes it especially attractive because it can be completely automated using equipment readily available. PMID:8203752

  3. The Role of Active Region Coronal Magnetic Field in Determining Coronal Mass Ejection Propagation Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Dai, Xinghua; Yang, Zhongwei; Huang, Chong; Hu, Huidong

    2015-11-01

    We study the role of the coronal magnetic field configuration of an active region (AR) in determining the propagation direction of a coronal mass ejection (CME). The CME occurred in the AR 11944 (S09W01) near the disk center on 2014 January 7 and was associated with an X1.2 flare. A new CME reconstruction procedure based on a polarimetric technique is adopted, which shows that the CME changed its propagation direction by around 28° in latitude within 2.5 {R}⊙ and 43° in longitude within 6.5 {R}⊙ with respect to the CME source region. This significant non-radial motion is consistent with the finding of Möstl et al. We use nonlinear force-free field and potential field source surface extrapolation methods to determine the configurations of the coronal magnetic field. We also calculate the magnetic energy density distributions at different heights based on the extrapolations. Our results show that the AR coronal magnetic field has a strong influence on the CME propagation direction. This is consistent with the “channeling” by the AR coronal magnetic field itself, rather than deflection by nearby structures. These results indicate that the AR coronal magnetic field configuration has to be taken into account in order to determine CME propagation direction correctly.

  4. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  5. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  6. LDEF (Prelaunch), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four (4) experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in peripheral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The identifica tion plate on the lower right corner of the experiment mounting plate identifies the experiments location and orientation in the experiment tray. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, consist of a primary experiment and three (3) sub experiments mounted on an aluminum mount ing plate. The primary experiment components include six (6) stacks of CR-39 passive detectors in individual aluminum housings and an aluminum mounting structure, configured to provide the desired exposure for the detector stacks. The secondary experiments consist of the Neutron and Proton Activation experiment that expose metal samples to the ambient flux throughout the mis sion, the Microsphere Dosimetry experiment housed in a cylindrical aluminum container and the Flux Measurement by Ion Trapping experiment consisting of a variety of sample materials that are exposed to the space environment for the total mission. The exterior surfaces of the mounting plate, the experiment housings and the support structure are coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint.The experiment is assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners and safety wire.

  7. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  8. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  9. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  10. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  11. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sabour, M F; Abdel-Basset, N

    2002-07-01

    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted, moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA), in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1). The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 keV was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination. Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 +/- 5.1 ppm. Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 +/- 32.6 ppm. The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 +/- 54.4 ppm, were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites. PMID:12211982

  12. Muscle activation and energy-requirements for varying postures in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Leferink, Svenja; Darrah, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine energy expenditure and muscle activity among children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP), across several conditions that approximate sedentary behavior, and standing. Study design Subjects with spastic CP (n=19; 4–20 years of age; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I to V) participated in this cohort study. Energy-expenditure and muscle activity were measured during lying supine, sitting with support, sitting without support, and standing. Energy-expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry and expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs). Muscle activation was recorded using surface electromyography. The recorded values were calculated for every child and then averaged per posture. Results Mean energy expenditure was >1.5 METs during standing for all GMFCS levels. There was a non-significant trend for greater muscle activation for all postures with less support. Only for children classified at GMFCS level III standing resulted in significantly greater muscle activation (p<0.05) compared with rest. Conclusion Across all GMFCS levels, children and adolescents with CP had elevated energy expenditure during standing that exceeded the sedentary threshold of 1.5 METs. Our findings suggest that changing a child’s position to standing may contribute to the accumulation of light activity and reduction of long intervals of sedentary behavior. PMID:25151195

  13. A Fluorescent Reporter of AMPK activity and Cellular Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Peiling; Zheng, Bin; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated when the AMP/ATP ratio in cells is elevated due to energy stress. Here we describe a biosensor, AMPKAR, which exhibits enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in response to phosphorylation by AMPK, allowing spatio-temporal monitoring of AMPK activity in single cells. We show that this reporter responds to a variety of stimuli that are known to induce energy stress and that the response is dependent on AMPK α1 & α2 and on the upstream kinase, LKB1. Interestingly we found that AMPK activation is confined to the cytosol in response to energy stress but can be observed in both the cytosol and nucleus in response to calcium elevation. Finally, using this probe with U2OS cells in a microfluidics device, we observed a very high cell-to-cell variability in the amplitude and time course of AMPK activation and recovery in response to pulses of glucose deprivation. PMID:21459332

  14. A system for measuring thermal activation energy levels in silicon by thermally stimulated capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrum, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.

  15. Active heterotrophic biomass and sludge retention time (SRT) as determining factors for biodegradation kinetics of pharmaceuticals in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Gallé, Tom; Yargeau, Viviane; Fischer, Klaus

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigates the biodegradation of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) by active biomass in activated sludge. Active heterotrophs (X(bh)) which are known to govern COD removal are suggested as a determining factor for biological PhAC removal as well. Biodegradation kinetics of five polar PhACs were determined in activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants which differed in size, layout and sludge retention time (SRT). Results showed that active fractions of the total suspended solids (TSS) differed significantly between the two sludges, indicating that TSS does not reveal information about heterotrophic activity. Furthermore, PhAC removal was significantly faster in the presence of high numbers of heterotrophs and a low SRT. Pseudo first-order kinetics were modified to include X(bh) and used to describe decreasing PhAC elimination with increasing SRT. PMID:21652206

  16. Surface-Energy Dependent Contact Activation of Blood Factor XII

    PubMed Central

    Golas, Avantika; Parhi, Purnendu; Dimachkie, Ziad O.; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension τao=γlvocosθ in dyne/cm, where γlvo is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and θ is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties −36<τao<72 dyne/cm (0° ≤ θ < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20<τao<40 dyne/cm (55° < θ < 75°) range over which activation yield (putatively FXIIa) rises just above detection limits. Activation is very rapid upon contact with all activators tested and did not significantly vary over 30 minutes of continuous FXII-procoagulant contact. Results suggest that materials falling within the 20<τao<40 dyne/cm surface-energy range should exhibit minimal activation of blood-plasma coagulation through the intrinsic pathway. Surface chemistries falling within this range are, however, a perplexingly difficult target for surface engineering because of the critical balance that must be struck between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. Results are interpreted within the context of blood plasma coagulation and the role of water and proteins at procoagulant surfaces. PMID:19892397

  17. Viscosity, glass transition and activation energy of solid cis-polyisoprene and trans-polyisoprene blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baboo, Mahesh; Sharma, Kananbala; Saxena, N. S.

    2011-11-01

    Blends of cis-polyisoprene (CPI) and trans-polyisoprene (TPI) have been prepared by solution casting to study viscosity, glass transition temperature and activation energy for the glass transition. The viscosity of blends having different weight ratios has been obtained through a single experiment measuring storage and loss modulus using the dynamic mechanical analyser technique. The glass transition temperature is determined through the temperature at which the minimum of temperature derivative curve of viscosity falls. The activation energy of glass transition and fragility index have been obtained by employing the Vogel-Fulchar-Tammann (VFT) equation by assuming non-Arrhenius behaviour of viscosity of polymer blends. Results indicate that both glass transition and activation energy for the glass transition are influenced by composition and crosslink density of the blend.

  18. Religiosity as a Determinant of Physical Activity: The Case of Judaism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2002-01-01

    Proposes religion/religiosity as an alternative determinant for understanding physical activity patterns, using the religion of Judaism as a vehicle for understanding such a relationship. The paper reviews previously investigated determinants, argues for religion as a determinant, and offers a limited agenda for beginning the study of religion and…

  19. Determination of the mean solid-liquid interface energy of pivalic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Gliksman, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A high-confidence solid-liquid interfacial energy is determined for an anisotropic material. A coaxial composite having a cylindrical specimen chamber geometry provides a thermal gradient with an axial heating wire. The surface energy is derived from measurements of grain boundary groove shapes. Applying this method to pivalic acid, a surface energy of 2.84 erg/sq cm was determined with a total systematic and random error less than 10 percent. The value of interfacial energy corresponds to 24 percent of the latent heat of fusion per molecule.

  20. 78 FR 64414 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... concerning Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities since 1986. (76 FR 55278) The NOPR reflected a need.... ] DATES: DOE will continue to accept written comments on the SNOPR published August 2, 2013 (78 FR 46829... a second opportunity to comment. (78 FR 46829) II. Second Public Meeting A public meeting on...

  1. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  2. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  3. High energy expenditure masks low physical activity in obesity

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate energy expenditure in lean and obese individuals, focusing particularly on physical activity and severely obese individuals. Design Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was assessed using doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry, activity EE (AEE) by difference and time spent in physical activity by multisensor activity monitors. Subjects 177 lean, Class I and severely obese individuals (age 31–56, BMI 20–64 kg/m2). Results All components of EE were elevated in obese individuals. For example, TDEE was 2404±95 kcal/d in lean and 3244 ± 48 kcal/d in Class III obese. After appropriate adjustment, RMR was similar in all groups. Analysis of AEE by body weight and obesity class indicated a lower AEE in the obese. Confirming lower physical activity, obese individuals spent less time engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (2.7±1.3, 1.8±0.6, 2.0±1.4 and 1.2±1.0 hr/d in lean, Class I, Class II and Class III), and more time in sedentary behaviors. Conclusions There was no indication of metabolic efficiency in even the severely obese, as adjusted RMR was similar across all groups. The higher AEE observed in the obese is consistent with a higher cost of activities due to higher body weight. However, the magnitude of the higher AEE (20 to 25% higher in obese) is lower than expected (weight approximately 100% higher in Class III). Confirming a lower volume of physical activity in the obese, the total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and average daily MET level were lower with increasing obesity. These findings demonstrate that high body weight in obesity leads to a high TDEE and AEE which masks the fact that they are less physically active, which can be influenced by duration or intensity of activity, than lean individuals. PMID:23090575

  4. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  5. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  6. Hepatic ERK activity plays a role in energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ping; Feng, Bin; Li, Yujie; He, Qin; Xu, Haiyan

    2013-08-15

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38, have been reported to play important roles in energy homeostasis. In this study, we show that the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is increased in the livers of diet induced and genetically obese mice. Activation of ERK in the livers of lean mice by over-expressing the constitutively active MAPK kinase 1 (MEK CA) results in decreased energy expenditure, lowered expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, increases fasting hyperglycemia and causes systemic insulin resistance. Interestingly, hepatic glycogen content is markedly increased and expression of G6Pase gene is decreased in mice over-expressing MEK CA compared to control mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), therefore hepatic glucose output is not likely the major contributor of hyperglycemia. One potential mechanism of decreased expression of G6Pase gene by MEK CA is likely due to ERK mediated phosphorylation and cytosolic retention of FOXO1. Adipocytes isolated from MEK CA mice display increased lipolysis. Circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in these mice are also increased, which possibly contribute to systemic insulin resistance and subsequent hyperglycemia. Consistent with these results, knocking down ERK expression in the liver of diet induced obese (DIO) mice improves systemic insulin and glucose tolerance. These results indicate that increased hepatic ERK activity in DIO mice may contribute to increased liver glycogen content and decreased energy expenditure in obesity. PMID:23732116

  7. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  8. Intensity of physical activity in the energy expenditure of older adults.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Lisa H; Matthews, Charles E; Schoeller, Dale A; Havighurst, Thomas C; Kim, KyungMann

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the intensity of activity contributing to physical activity energy expenditure in older adults. In 57 men and women aged ≥ 65, total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water and resting metabolic rate was measured using indirect calorimetry to calculate a physical activity index (PAI). Sedentary time and physical activity of light and moderate to vigorous (mod/vig) intensity was measured using an accelerometer. The subjects were 75 ± 7 yrs (mean ± SD) of age and 79% female. Subjects spent 66 ± 8, 25 ± 5, and 9 ± 4% of monitor wear time in sedentary, light, and mod/vig activity per day, respectively. In a mixture regression model, both light (β = 29.6 [15.6-43.6, 95% CI]), p < .001) and mod/vig intensity activity (β = 28.7 [7.4-50.0, 95% CI]), p = .01) were strongly associated with PAI, suggesting that both light and mod/vig intensity activities are major determinants of their physical activity energy expenditure. PMID:24306390

  9. Intensity of Physical Activity in the Energy Expenditure of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Colbert, Lisa H.; Matthews, Charles E.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Havighurst, Thomas C.; Kim, KyungMann

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the intensity of activity contributing to physical activity energy expenditure in older adults. In 57 men and women aged ≥65, total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water, and resting metabolic rate was measured using indirect calorimetry to calculate a physical activity index (PAI). Sedentary time, and physical activity of light and moderate/vigorous (mod/vig) intensity was measured using an accelerometer. The subjects were 75 ± 7 yrs (mean ± SD) of age and 79% female. Subjects spent 66 ± 8, 25 ± 5, and 9 ± 4% of monitor wear time in sedentary, light, and mod/vig activity per day, respectively. In a mixture regression model, both light (β=29.6 (15.6 – 43.6, 95%CI)), p<0.001) and mod/vig intensity activity (β=28.7 (7.4 – 50.0, 95%CI)), p=0.01) were strongly associated with PAI, suggesting that both light and mod/vig intensity activities are major determinants of their physical activity energy expenditure. PMID:24306390

  10. Extending the energy range of materials activation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, R. A.

    2004-08-01

    Activation calculations are an essential contribution to understanding the interactions of fusion materials with neutrons. The existing state-of-the-art tools such as EASY-2003 enable calculations to be carried out with neutrons up to 20 MeV. Plans to expose fusion components to high neutron fluxes include the IFMIF materials testing facility. This accelerator-based device will produce neutrons with a high-energy tail up to about 55 MeV. In order to carry out activation calculations on materials exposed to such neutrons it is necessary to extend the energy range of the data libraries. An extension of the European Activation System (EASY) to a new version, EASY-2004, for testing has been completed. The existing reactions have been extended up to 60 MeV and new classes of reactions added using calculated cross sections. Results of preliminary calculations in an IFMIF relevant neutron field are given.

  11. SU-E-T-543: Measurement of Neutron Activation From Different High Energy Varian Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, T; Madsen, S; Sudowe, R; Meigooni, A Soleimani

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV may induce photonuclear reactions in high Z components of the accelerator. These liberated neutrons can then activate the structural components of the accelerator and other materials in the beam path through neutron capture reactions. The induced activity within the accelerator may contribute to additional dose to both patients and personnel. This project seeks to determine the total activity and activity per activated isotope following irradiation in different Varian accelerators at energies above 10 MeV. Methods: A Varian 21IX accelerator was used to irradiate a 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm solid water phantom with 15 MV x-rays. The phantom was placed at an SSD of 100 cm and at the center of a 20 cm × 20 cm field. Activation induced gamma spectra were acquired over a 5 minute interval after 1 and 15 minutes from completion of the irradiation. All measurements were made using a CANBERRA Falcon 5000 Portable HPGe detector. The majority of measurements were made in scattering geometry with the detector situated at 90° to the incident beam, 30 cm from the side of the phantom and approximately 10 cm from the top. A 5 minute background count was acquired and automatically subtracted from all subsequent measurements. Photon spectra were acquired for both open and MLC fields. Results: Based on spectral signatures, nuclides have been identified and their activities calculated for both open and MLC fields. Preliminary analyses suggest that activities from the activation products in the microcurie range. Conclusion: Activation isotopes have been identified and their relative activities determined. These activities are only gross estimates since efficiencies have not been determined for this source-detector geometry. Current efforts are focused on accurate determination of detector efficiencies using Monte Carlo calculations.

  12. High energy neutrinos from primary cosmic rays accelerated in the cores of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectra and high-energy neutrino fluxes are calculated from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) such as quasars and Seyfert galaxies using recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in the AGN. Collectively AGN should produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10 exp 4 and 10 exp 10 GeV. Measurement of this background could be critical in determining the energy-generation mechanism, evolution, and distribution of AGN. High-energy background spectra and spectra from bright AGN such as NGC4151 and 3C273 are predicted which should be observable with present detectors. High energy AGN nus should produce a sphere of stellar disruption around their cores which could explain their observed broad-line emission regions.

  13. Type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase homo- and heterodimerization determines its membrane localization and activity.

    PubMed

    Lacalle, Rosa Ana; de Karam, Juan C; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Artetxe, Ibai; Peregil, Rosa M; Sot, Jesús; Rojas, Ana M; Goñi, Félix M; Mellado, Mario; Mañes, Santos

    2015-06-01

    Type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PIP5KIs; α, β, and γ) are a family of isoenzymes that produce phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] using phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate as substrate. Their structural homology with the class II lipid kinases [type II phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (PIP4KII)] suggests that PIP5KI dimerizes, although this has not been formally demonstrated. Neither the hypothetical structural dimerization determinants nor the functional consequences of dimerization have been studied. Here, we used Förster resonance energy transfer, coprecipitation, and ELISA to show that PIP5KIβ forms homo- and heterodimers with PIP5KIγ_i2 in vitro and in live human cells. Dimerization appears to be a general phenomenon for PIP5KI isoenzymes because PIP5KIβ/PIP5KIα heterodimers were also detected by mass spectrometry. Dimerization was independent of actin cytoskeleton remodeling and was also observed using purified proteins. Mutagenesis studies of PIP5KIβ located the dimerization motif at the N terminus, in a region homologous to that implicated in PIP4KII dimerization. PIP5KIβ mutants whose dimerization was impaired showed a severe decrease in PI(4,5)P2 production and plasma membrane delocalization, although their association to lipid monolayers was unaltered. Our results identify dimerization as an integral feature of PIP5K proteins and a central determinant of their enzyme activity. PMID:25713054

  14. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  15. Mimicking enzymatic active sites on surfaces for energy conversion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutzler, Rico; Stepanow, Sebastian; Grumelli, Doris; Lingenfelder, Magalí; Kern, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    centers are adequately separated by the linking molecules and constitute promising candiates for heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in synthesis, characterization, and catalytic performance of metal-organic networks are highlighted in this Account. Experimental results like structure determination of the networks, charge and spin distribution in the metal centers, and catalytic mechanisms for electrochemical reactions are presented. In particular, we describe the activity of two networks for the oxygen reduction reaction in a combined scanning tunneling microscopy and electrochemical study. The similarities and differences of the networks compared to metallo-enzymes will be discussed, such as the metal surface that operates as a geometric template and concomitantly functions as an electron reservoir, and how this leads to a new class of bioinspired catalysts. The possibility to create functional two-dimensional coordination complexes at surfaces taking inspiration from nature opens up a new route for the design of potent nanocatalyst materials for energy conversion. PMID:26121410

  16. Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

  17. Improving assessment of daily energy expenditure by identifying types of physical activity with a single accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2009-09-01

    Accelerometers are often used to quantify the acceleration of the body in arbitrary units (counts) to measure physical activity (PA) and to estimate energy expenditure. The present study investigated whether the identification of types of PA with one accelerometer could improve the estimation of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Total energy expenditure (TEE) of 15 subjects was measured with the use of double-labeled water. The physical activity level (PAL) was derived by dividing TEE by sleeping metabolic rate. Simultaneously, PA was measured with one accelerometer. Accelerometer output was processed to calculate activity counts per day (AC(D)) and to determine the daily duration of six types of common activities identified with a classification tree model. A daily metabolic value (MET(D)) was calculated as mean of the MET compendium value of each activity type weighed by the daily duration. TEE was predicted by AC(D) and body weight and by AC(D) and fat-free mass, with a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 1.47 MJ/day, and 1.2 MJ/day, respectively. The replacement in these models of AC(D) with MET(D) increased the explained variation in TEE by 9%, decreasing SEE by 0.14 MJ/day and 0.18 MJ/day, respectively. The correlation between PAL and MET(D) (R(2) = 51%) was higher than that between PAL and AC(D) (R(2) = 46%). We conclude that identification of activity types combined with MET intensity values improves the assessment of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Future studies could develop models to objectively assess activity type and intensity to further increase accuracy of the energy expenditure estimation. PMID:19556460

  18. Prediction of Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Wong, William W.; Lee, Jong Soo; Adolph, Anne L.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Zakeri, Issa F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Accurate, nonintrusive and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) for prediction of EE using room calorimetry and doubly labeled water (DLW), and established accelerometry cut-points for PA levels. Methods Fifty preschoolers, mean±SD age 4.5±0.8 y, participated in room calorimetry for minute-by-minute measurements of EE, accelerometer counts (AC) (Actiheart and ActiGraph GT3X+) and HR (Actiheart). Free-living, 105 children, aged 4.6±0.9 years, completed the 7-d DLW procedure while wearing the devices. AC cut-points for PA levels were established using smoothing splines and receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Based on calorimetry, mean percent errors for EE were -2.9±10.8% and -1.1±7.4% for CSTS models, and -1.9±9.6 and 1.3±8.1% for MARS models using the Actiheart and ActiGraph+HR devices, respectively. Based on DLW, mean percent errors were -0.5±9.7% and 4.1±8.5% for CSTS models and 3.2±10.1% and 7.5±10.0% for MARS models using the Actiheart and ActiGraph+HR devices, respectively. Applying activity EE thresholds, final accelerometer cut-points were determined: 41, 449, and 1,297 cpm for Actiheart x-axis; 820, 3,908, and 6,112 cpm for ActiGraph vector magnitude; and 240, 2,120, and 4,450 cpm for ActiGraph x-axis for sedentary/light, light/moderate, and moderate/vigorous PA (MVPA). Based on confusion matrices, correctly classified rates were 81–83% for sedentary PA, 58–64% for light PA and 62–73% for MVPA. Conclusion The lack of bias and acceptable limits of agreement affirm the validity of the CSTS and MARS models for the prediction of EE in preschool-aged children. Accelerometer cut-points are satisfactory for classification of sedentary, light and moderate-vigorous levels of PA in preschoolers

  19. A low-energy determination of αs at three loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairo, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We review one of the most accurate low-energy determinations of αs. Comparing at short distances the QCD static energy at three loops and resummation of the next-to-next-to leading logarithms with its determination in 2+1-flavor lattice QCD, we obtain αs (1.5 GeV) = 0.336+0.012-0.008, which corresponds to αs (MZ) = 0.1166+0.012-0.008. We discuss future perspectives.

  20. Activation and Micropore Structure Determination of Activated Carbon-Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.

    1999-04-23

    Previous work focused on the production of carbon fiber composites and subsequently activating them to induce adsorbent properties. One problem related to this approach is the difficulty of uniformly activating large composites. In order to overcome this problem, composites have been made from pre-activated fibers. The loss of surface area upon forming the composites after activation of the fibers was investigated. The electrical resistivity and strength of these composites were compared to those made by activation after forming. It was found that the surface area is reduced by about 35% by forming the composite from pre-activated fibers. However, the properties of the activated sample are very uniform: the variation in surface area is less than {+-}0.5%. So, although the surface area is somewhat reduced, it is believed that making composites from pre-activated fibers could be useful in applications where the BET surface area is not required to be very high. The strength of the composites produced from pre-activated fibers is lower than for composites activated after forming when the carbon burnoff is below 45%. For higher burnoffs, the strength of composites made with pre-activated fibers is as good or better. In both cases, there is a dramatic decrease in strength when the fiber:binder ratio is reduced below 4:1. The electrical resistivity is slightly higher for composites made from pre-activated fibers than for composites that are activated after forming, other parameters being constant (P-200 fibers, similar carbon burnoffs). For both types of composite the resistivity was also found to increase with carbon burnoff. This is attributed to breakage of the fiber causing shorter conductive paths. The electrical resistivity also increases when the binder content is lowered, which suggests that there are fewer solid contact points between the fibers.

  1. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

  2. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  3. 76 FR 142 - Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... AGENCY Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy... Petitions for Review of a Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit issued to Russell City Energy Center, LLC by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (``BAAQMD''). DATES:...

  4. Determining the electron energy distribution near the plasma potential in the earth's ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.; Hays, P. B.; Cutler, J. R.; Dobbs, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A determination of the plasma potential using an electrostatic analyzer is described in which the potential difference between the instrument slit system and surrounding plasma is minimized. Data obtained from rocket-borne instrumentation demonstrate the viability of this technique for electron fluxes between thermal energies (about 0.5 V) and suprathermal energies (many volts).

  5. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  6. Determination of factor X activator in the venom of the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus).

    PubMed

    Stocker, K; Fischer, H; Brogli, M

    1986-01-01

    Factor X activator in Echis carinatus venom was determined by incubating the zymogen 'factor X' with venom, interrupting the activation process by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and measuring the generated proteinase 'factor Xa' by means of a synthetic chromogenic substrate. A comparison of factor X- and prothrombin-activating potencies in E. carinatus venoms of five different geographic origins revealed no correlation between these two procoagulant activities. PMID:3715901

  7. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  8. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, M.; Baloković, M.; Stern, D.; Arévalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Fuerst, F.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S.; Puccetti, S.; Rivers, E.; Vasudevan, R.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-05-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (>10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman & Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with NH measured from 1024 to 1026 cm-2, and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, fc, is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, LX, where fc = (-0.41 ± 0.13)log10(LX/erg s-1)+18.31 ± 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in LX (1041.5-1044 erg s-1). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with LX > 1042.5 erg s-1.

  9. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  10. Intensity of Resistance Exercise Determines Adipokine and Resting Energy Expenditure Responses in Overweight Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Tournis, Symeon; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Thomakos, Petros M.; Taxildaris, Kyriakos; Mastorakos, George; Mitrakou, Asimina

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the time course of leptin, adiponectin, and resting energy expenditure (REE) responses in overweight elderly males after acute resistance exercise protocols of various intensity configurations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty inactive men (65–82 years) were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 10/group): control, low-intensity resistance exercise, moderate-intensity resistance exercise, and high-intensity resistance exercise. Exercise energy cost, REE, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, insulin, lactate, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and glycerol were determined at baseline, immediately after exercise, and during a 72-h recovery period. RESULTS Exercise energy cost was lower in high-intensity than in low-intensity and moderate-intensity groups (221.6 ± 8.8 vs. 295.6 ± 10.7 and 281.6 ± 9.8 kcal, P < 0.001). Lactate, glucose, NEFAs, and glycerol concentrations increased (P < 0.001) after exercise and returned to baseline thereafter in all groups. REE increased (P < 0.001) in all groups at 12 h in an intensity-dependent manner (P < 0.05). REE reached baseline after 48 h in the low- and moderate-intensity groups and after 72 h in the high-intensity group. Cortisol peaked in all active groups after exercise (P < 0.001) and remained elevated (P < 0.001) for 12 h. After adjustment for plasma volume shifts, leptin remained unaltered. Adiponectin concentration increased after 12 h and remained elevated for 24 h only in the high-intensity group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise does not alter circulating leptin concentration but does increase REE and adiponectin in an intensity-dependent manner for as long as 48 and 24 h, respectively, in overweight elderly individuals. It appears that resistance exercise may represent an effective approach for weight management and metabolic control in overweight elderly individuals. PMID:19729520

  11. Estimation of free-living energy expenditure using a novel activity monitor designed to minimize obtrusiveness.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Plasqui, Guy; Goris, Annelies H C; Westerterp, Klass R

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a novel activity monitor designed to be minimally obtrusive in predicting free-living energy expenditure. Subjects were 18 men and 12 women (age: 41 +/- 11 years, BMI: 24.4 +/- 3 kg/m(2)). The habitual physical activity was monitored for 14 days using a DirectLife triaxial accelerometer for movement registration (Tracmor(D)) (Philips New Wellness Solutions, Lifestyle Incubator, the Netherlands). Tracmor(D) output was expressed as activity counts per day (Cnts/d). Simultaneously, total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in free living conditions using doubly labeled water (DLW). Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and the physical activity level (PAL) were determined from TEE and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR). A multiple-linear regression model predicted 76% of the variance in TEE, using as independent variables SMR (partial-r(2) = 0.55, P < 0.001), and Cnts/d (partial r(2) = 0.21, P < 0.001). The s.e. of TEE estimates was 0.9 MJ/day or 7.4% of the average TEE. A model based on body mass (partial-r(2) = 0.31, P < 0.001) and Cnts/d (partial-r(2) = 0.23, P < 0.001) predicted 54% of the variance in TEE. Cnts/d were significantly and positively associated with AEE (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), PAL (r = 0.68, P < 0.001), and AEE corrected by body mass (r = 0.71, P < 0.001). This study showed that the Tracmor(D) is a highly accurate instrument for predicting free-living energy expenditure. The miniaturized design did not harm the ability of the instrument in measuring physical activity and in determining outcome parameters of physical activity such as TEE, AEE, and PAL. PMID:20186133

  12. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  13. Directed transport of active particles over asymmetric energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, N; Maggi, C; Di Leonardo, R

    2014-08-21

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the transport of active colloids to target regions, delimited by asymmetric energy barriers. We show that it is possible to introduce a generalized effective temperature that is related to the local variance of particle velocities. The stationary probability distributions can be derived from a simple diffusion equation in the presence of an inhomogeneous effective temperature resulting from the action of external force fields. In particular, transition rates over asymmetric energy barriers can be unbalanced by having different effective temperatures over the two slopes of the barrier. By varying the type of active noise, we find that equal values of diffusivity and persistence time may produce strongly varied effective temperatures and thus stationary distributions. PMID:24978345

  14. Determinants of leisure-time physical activity and future intention to practice in Spanish college students.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    Few studies analyze determinants and patterns of physical activity among college students, so it has not been possible to carry out effective interventions to promote this practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between some personal, social, and environmental determinants, practice of physical activity and future intention to practice in a sample of 639 university students (321 men and 318 women), mean age 21.43 years (+/- 2.78). Physical fitness self-perception, physical activity history, and coach's support to practice physical activity have a direct effect on the practice of physical activity and an indirect effect on future intention to practice, both in men and women. The practice of physical activity has also a direct effect on future intention to practice. Likewise, the participation in sport competitions predicts practice of physical activity and future intention in men, whereas being a member of a sports club predicts practice and future intention in women. PMID:19476226

  15. THE EQUILIBRIUM FLUORIDE CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED ALUMINA. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PH AND COMPETING IONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research on the determination of the equilibrium fluoride adsorption capacity of small columns of acid pretreated activated alumina (Alcoa F-1 grade). The experimental observations verified the expectation that fluoride is very favorably adsorbed in preferen...

  16. 75 FR 49913 - Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ..., determined that service of the group known as the ``''Honorably Discharged Members of The Gold Coast Native... at Then `American Camp,' Now Named `Burma Camp,' Ghana' '' shall not be considered ``active...

  17. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  18. Dodging the dark matter degeneracy while determining the dynamics of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busti, Vinicius C.; Clarkson, Chris

    2016-05-01

    One of the key issues in cosmology is to establish the nature of dark energy, and to determine whether the equation of state evolves with time. When estimating this from distance measurements there is a degeneracy with the matter density. We show that there exists a simple function of the dark energy equation of state and its first derivative which is independent of this degeneracy at all redshifts, and so is a much more robust determinant of the evolution of dark energy than just its derivative. We show that this function can be well determined at low redshift from supernovae using Gaussian Processes, and that this method is far superior to a variety of parameterisations which are also subject to priors on the matter density. This shows that parametrised models give very biased constraints on the evolution of dark energy.

  19. Precise Determination of the Lyman-1 Transition Energy in Hydrogen-like Gold Ions with Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Kilbourne, C.; Kiselev, O.; McCammon, D.; Scholz, P.

    2014-09-01

    The precise determination of the transition energy of the Lyman-1 line in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. We report the determination of the Lyman-1 transition energy of gold ions (Au) with microcalorimeters at the experimental storage ring at GSI. X-rays produced by the interaction of 125 MeV/u Au ions with an internal argon gas-jet target were detected. The detector array consisted of 14 pixels with silicon thermistors and Sn absorbers, for which an energy resolution of 50 eV for an X-ray energy of 59.5 keV was obtained in the laboratory. The Lyman-1 transition energy was determined for each pixel in the laboratory frame, then transformed into the emitter frame and averaged. A Dy-159 source was used for energy calibration. The absolute positions of the detector pixels, which are needed for an accurate correction of the Doppler shift, were determined by topographic measurements and by scanning a collimated Am-241 source across the cryostat window. The energy of the Lyman-1 line in the emitter frame is eV, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty in the position of the cryostat relative to the interaction region of beam and target.

  20. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. PMID:24727398

  1. Density Functional Theory Calculations of Activation Energies for Carrier Capture by Defects in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modine, N. A.; Wright, A. F.; Lee, S. R.

    The rate of defect-induced carrier recombination is determined by both defect levels and carrier capture cross-sections. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely and successfully used to predict defect levels, but only recently has work begun to focus on using DFT to determine carrier capture cross-sections. Lang and Henry developed the theory of carrier-capture by multiphonon emission in the 1970s and showed that carrier-capture cross-sections differ between defects primarily due to differences in their carrier capture activation energies. We present an approach to using DFT to calculate carrier capture activation energies that does not depend on an assumed configuration coordinate and that fully accounts for anharmonic effects, which can substantially modify carrier activation energies. We demonstrate our approach for intrinisic defects in GaAs and GaN and discuss how our results depend on the choice of exchange-correlation functional and the treatment of spin polarization. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. [The characterization of microbial lipases. 1. The determination of lipase activity].

    PubMed

    Bariszlovich, M; Meusel, D; Tülsner, M

    1990-01-01

    In the selection of an appropriate method for activity determination of lipases existing technical equipment, kind of enzymes, number of samples investigated (e.g. in routine analysis), and expected sensitivity range have to be taken into account. Titrimetric methods and above all copper salt methods with their high detection sensitivity are the most suitable procedures for activity determination of lipases used in laboratories and institutions without equipment for radiochemical analysis. PMID:2233988

  3. Energy and angular dependence of active-type personal dosemeter for high-energy neutron.

    PubMed

    Rito, Hirotaka; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Oda, Keiji

    2011-07-01

    In order to develop an active-type personal dosemeter having suitable sensitivity to high-energy neutrons, the characteristic response of silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. An agreement of the shape of pulse-height distribution, its change with radiator thickness and the relative sensitivity was confirmed between the calculated and experimental results for 14.8-MeV neutrons. The angular dependence was estimated for other neutron energies, and found that the angular dependence decreased with the incident energy. The reason was also discussed with regard to the radiator thickness relative to maximum range of recoil protons. PMID:21613268

  4. The effect of different inter-pad distances on the determination of active drag using the Measuring Active Drag system.

    PubMed

    Schreven, S; Toussaint, H M; Smeets, J B J; Beek, P J

    2013-07-26

    The Measuring Active Drag (MAD) system was developed to determine active drag in swimming by measuring the push-off force exerted at fixed pads placed below the waterline. The imposed inter-pad distance, which to date has been kept constant while using the MAD system, could affect the active drag because it requires the use of different stroke frequencies. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effect of inter-pad distance on active drag at a given speed. In particular, drag-velocity curves at three different inter-pad distances (1.25m, 1.35m and 1.45m) were determined using the MAD system for eleven competitive swimmers. Variation of 16% in inter-pad distance (14% change in stroke frequency) revealed no significant difference in calculated active drag between different inter-pad distances and a low (<5%) average coefficient of variation over different inter-pad distances was found. In addition, inter-test reliability, which was determined for the two 1.35m conditions only, was high (ICC>0.90) for measurements on two consecutive days. The results suggest that it may not be necessary to adapt the inter-pad distance of the MAD system based on anthropometric characteristics of the subject or the velocity-related stroke length in free swimming. PMID:23791187

  5. Determining the Views and Adequacy of the Preschool Teachers Related to Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akçay, Nilüfer Okur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the views and adequacy of the preschool teachers related to science activities. The study is based on descriptive survey model. The sample of the study consists of 47 preschool teachers working in Agri city center. Personal information form, semi-structured interview form to determine the views of the…

  6. 75 FR 61858 - Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity... solicits comments for information needed to determine the reasonable value of properties for guaranteed or... PRA of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3501--3521), Federal agencies must obtain approval from...

  7. 78 FR 59773 - Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity... solicits comments for information needed to determine the reasonable value of properties for guaranteed or.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the PRA of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), Federal agencies...

  8. 75 FR 61249 - Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity... solicits comments for information needed to determine the reasonable value of properties for guaranteed or... PRA of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3501--3521), Federal agencies must obtain approval from...

  9. 75 FR 78808 - Agency Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value) Activity Under.... SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), this notice... INFORMATION: Title: VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value VA Form 26- 1805 and 26-1805-1....

  10. Developing Preservice Science Teachers' Self-Determined Motivation toward Environment through Environmental Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop pre-service science teachers' self-determined motivation toward environment before, after and five months following the environmental course activities guided by self-determination theory. The sample of the study was 33 pre-service science teachers who participated in an environmental science course. This…

  11. Motivation and Physical Activity Behaviors among Older Women: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of our study was to examine the motivational determinants of older women's dropout and participation in physical activity (PA). Older women who dropped out (n = 242) or remained (n = 332) in an organized PA program completed the Sport Motivation Scale as well as health and PA measures. We found…

  12. Determination of the Exciton Binding Energy Using Photothermal and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzałkowski, K.; Zakrzewski, J.; Maliński, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, experimental photoluminescence (PL) and piezoelectric photothermal (PPT) spectra of selected II-VI binary crystals are presented and analyzed. The quantitative analysis of the photothermal spectra was performed using a modified and extended Jackson-Amer model. The values of the bandgap energies of investigated semiconductors were computed from the PT amplitude and phase spectra. From the temperature dependence of the exciton emission so-called "excitonic energy gaps" have been determined. It follows from the theory that the exciton binding energy is the difference of these two values of energy gaps derived from PPT and PL spectroscopy.

  13. 12 CFR 225.27 - Procedures for determining scope of nonbanking activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for determining scope of nonbanking activities. 225.27 Section 225.27 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Nonbanking Activities...

  14. Gender Differences Regarding Motivation for Physical Activity among College Students: A Self-Determination Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauderdale, Michael E.; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Irwin, Carol C.; Layne, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown a decline in physical activity (PA) across college years, females being less physically active compared with males. Scholars have suggested studies to understand gender differences in PA and to examine motivational processes to facilitate college students' PA. Grounded in self-determination theory, the purpose of this…

  15. 29 CFR 779.238 - Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis. 779.238 Section 779.238 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.238 Engagement in described activities...

  16. 29 CFR 779.238 - Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis. 779.238 Section 779.238 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.238 Engagement in described activities...

  17. 29 CFR 779.238 - Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis. 779.238 Section 779.238 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.238 Engagement in described activities...

  18. 29 CFR 779.238 - Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis. 779.238 Section 779.238 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.238 Engagement in described activities...

  19. 15 CFR 930.38 - Consistency determinations for activities initiated prior to management program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal Agency Activities § 930.38 Consistency determinations for... activities initiated prior to management program approval. 930.38 Section 930.38 Commerce and Foreign...

  20. 29 CFR 779.238 - Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engagement in described activities determined on annual basis. 779.238 Section 779.238 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.238 Engagement in described activities...

  1. Exploring Metrics to Express Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity in Youth

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Robert G.; Butte, Nancy F.; Crouter, Scott E.; Trost, Stewart G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Bassett, David R.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Berrigan, David; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determine whether one metric can be used for all healthy children. Such a metric could improve our ability to further advance the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. Methods A secondary analysis of oxygen uptake (VO2) data obtained from five sites was completed, that included 947 children ages 5 to 18 years, who engaged in 14 different activities. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was computed based on Schofield Equations [Hum Nutr Clin Nut. 39(Suppl 1), 1985]. Absolute oxygen uptake (ml.min-1), oxygen uptake per kilogram body mass (VO2 in ml.kg-1.min-1), net oxygen uptake (VO2 – resting metabolic rate), allometric scaled oxygen uptake (VO2 in ml.kg-0.75.min-1) and YOUTH-MET (VO2.[resting VO2] -1) were calculated. These metrics were regressed with age, sex, height, and body mass. Results Net and allometric-scaled VO2, and YOUTH-MET were least associated with age, sex and physical characteristics. For moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities, allometric scaling was least related to age and sex. For sedentary and low-intensity activities, YOUTH-MET was least related to age and sex. Conclusions No energy expenditure metric completely eliminated the influence of age, physical characteristics, and sex. The Adult MET consistently overestimated EE. YOUTH-MET was better for expressing energy expenditure for sedentary and light activities, whereas allometric scaling was better for moderate and vigorous intensity activities. From a practical perspective, The YOUTH-MET may be the more feasible metric for improving of the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. PMID:26102204

  2. Calorimetric method for determination of {sup 51}Cr neutrino source activity

    SciTech Connect

    Veretenkin, E. P. Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Mirmov, I. N.

    2015-12-15

    Experimental study of nonstandard neutrino properties using high-intensity artificial neutrino sources requires the activity of the sources to be determined with high accuracy. In the BEST project, a calorimetric system for measurement of the activity of high-intensity (a few MCi) neutrino sources based on {sup 51}Cr with an accuracy of 0.5–1% is created. In the paper, the main factors affecting the accuracy of determining the neutrino source activity are discussed. The calorimetric system design and the calibration results using a thermal simulator of the source are presented.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Salvia fruticosa: An HPLC Determination of Phenolic Contents.

    PubMed

    Boukhary, Rima; Raafat, Karim; Ghoneim, Asser I; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26881007

  4. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Salvia fruticosa: An HPLC Determination of Phenolic Contents

    PubMed Central

    Boukhary, Rima; Ghoneim, Asser I.; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26881007

  5. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Language Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Among the lessons included are an energy debate, puzzles, energy poetry, and energy life styles. Also contained in the IDEAS program are activity sets…

  6. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  7. Physical Activity Assessment: Biomarkers and Self-Report of Activity-Related Energy Expenditure in the WHI

    PubMed Central

    Neuhouser, Marian L.; Di, Chongzhi; Tinker, Lesley F.; Thomson, Cynthia; Sternfeld, Barbara; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Sims, Stacy; Curb, J. David; Lamonte, Michael; Seguin, Rebecca; Johnson, Karen C.; Prentice, Ross L

    2013-01-01

    We used a biomarker of activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) to assess measurement properties of self-reported physical activity and to determine the usefulness of AREE regression calibration equations in the Women's Health Initiative. Biomarker AREE, calculated as the total energy expenditure from doubly labeled water minus the resting energy expenditure from indirect calorimetry, was assessed in 450 Women's Health Initiative participants (2007–2009). Self-reported AREE was obtained from the Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire (AAFQ), the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR), and the Women's Health Initiative Personal Habits Questionnaire (PHQ). Eighty-eight participants repeated the protocol 6 months later. Reporting error, measured as log(self-report AREE) minus log(biomarker AREE), was regressed on participant characteristics for each instrument. Body mass index was associated with underreporting on the AAFQ and PHQ but overreporting on PAR. Blacks and Hispanics underreported physical activity levels on the AAFQ and PAR, respectively. Underreporting decreased with age for the PAR and PHQ. Regressing logbiomarker AREE on logself-reported AREE revealed that self-report alone explained minimal biomarker variance (R2 = 7.6, 4.8, and 3.4 for AAFQ, PAR, and PHQ, respectively). R2 increased to 25.2, 21.5, and 21.8, respectively, when participant characteristics were included. Six-month repeatability data adjusted for temporal biomarker variation, improving R2 to 79.4, 67.8, and 68.7 for AAFQ, PAR, and PHQ, respectively. Calibration equations “recover” substantial variation in average AREE and valuably enhance AREE self-assessment. PMID:23436896

  8. Energy Conservation Education for New York State. Interdisciplinary Learning Activities. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Provided in this document are 18 energy conservation activities designed to supplement regular classroom learning activities. A matrix correlating activity number with grade level and subject areas is included. Titles of activities are: puzzles; energy quiz; energy-related careers; reading a meter; trading calories for kilo-watts; conserving home…

  9. Nanoscale friction as a function of activation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. W. F.; Rahnejat, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the scale-dependence of friction is increasingly viewed as a critical quest. With progressively thinner films, mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication have become commonplace. Therefore, at the micro-scale a greater need for mitigating friction is desired in order to improve operational efficiency of many machines and mechanisms. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use low friction hard wear-resistant advanced coatings to guard against wear. In parallel, there has been much attention paid to lubricant rheology and formulation. However, only in recent times there has been an emerging view of lubricant-surface combination as a system. In this perspective it is essential to relate the observed and measured friction at component level to the underlying interactions in micro/nano-scales. This is the approach in this paper. Observed phenomenon at micro-scale are related back to the activation energies of lubricant-surface system, providing in particular results for surface modified Ni-SiC coated specimen in combination with formulated lubricants, the combination of which represent the lubricant-surface system of choice in cylinders of high performance race engine. The nano-scale conjunction of an AFM tip with lubricated surface-engineered specimen, subjected to various conjunctional loading and sliding kinematics is investigated. It is shown that the measured frictional characteristics can be adequately described in terms of activation energies in line with the Eyring’s thermal activation model for cases of fairly smooth asperity tip contact conjunctions.

  10. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO2 emissions.

  11. A pediatric correlational study of stride interval dynamics, energy expenditure and activity level.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Denine; Sejdic, Ervin; Zabjek, Karl; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    The strength of time-dependent correlations known as stride interval (SI) dynamics has been proposed as an indicator of neurologically healthy gait. Most recently, it has been hypothesized that these dynamics may be necessary for gait efficiency although the supporting evidence to date is scant. The current study examines over-ground SI dynamics, and their relationship with the cost of walking and physical activity levels in neurologically healthy children aged nine to 15 years. Twenty participants completed a single experimental session consisting of three phases: 10 min resting, 15 min walking and 10 min recovery. The scaling exponent (α) was used to characterize SI dynamics while net energy cost was measured using a portable metabolic cart, and physical activity levels were determined based on a 7-day recall questionnaire. No significant linear relationships were found between a and the net energy cost measures (r < .07; p > .25) or between α and physical activity levels (r = .01, p = .62). However, there was a marked reduction in the variance of α as activity levels increased. Over-ground stride dynamics do not appear to directly reflect energy conservation of gait in neurologically healthy youth. However, the reduction in the variance of α with increasing physical activity suggests a potential exercise-moderated convergence toward a level of stride interval persistence for able-bodied youth reported in the literature. This latter finding warrants further investigation. PMID:24722770

  12. DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The general conditions for DOD-DOE interactions were delineated in an October 1978, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that identified two basic goals: improving energy efficiency and availability within DOD, and utilizing DOD and DOE expertise and facilities to carry out projects of mutual interest. There has been considerable interaction between DOD and DOE, including a number of proposed joint initiatives but a systematic and coordinated approach for nurturing, maintaining, and expanding these relationships has not been developed. A DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities was held on March 10-12, 1980. The workshop was structured into five working groups - Mobility Fuels, Conservation, Fossil Fuels for Fixed Facilities, Solar and Renewable Energy Sources, and Special Projects - with DOD and DOE cochairmen for each. Over a hundred DOD and DOE management, program, and policymaking representatives were brought together by the workshop Steering Committee to identify specific programs for inclusion in an overall plan for implementing the MOU and to deal with fundamental issues and problems of maintaining future communications. The workshop accomplished its goals, these being to: (1) improve communication among the appropriate key DOD and DOE personnel at all levels and promote information exchange; (2) review ongoing and already-proposed joint DOD and DOE programs; (3) initiate a coordinated, systematic effort to establish joint DOD-DOE energy-security programs; and (4) propose specific programs and projects of mutual interest for inclusion in a follow-on joint-implementation plan.

  13. Active minimization of energy density in three-dimensional enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate and develop a novel approach for actively controlling the sound field in enclosures that is based on the acoustic energy density. Typically the acoustic field in an enclosure has been controlled by minimizing the sum of the squared pressures from several microphones distributed throughout the enclosure. The approach investigated in this study involved minimizing the acoustic energy density at the sensor locations, rather than the squared pressure. Research previous to this study in a simple one-dimensional enclosure showed that improved global attenuation of the acoustic field is often obtained by minimizing the energy density, rather than the pressure. The current study built on the previous research by extending the method of controlling the acoustic energy density to three-dimensional enclosures. The study was intended to help establish if improved control can still be expected in a more general enclosure. The study was designed to be both analytical/numerical and experimental in nature.

  14. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  15. Analysing domestic activity to reduce household energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Fréjus, Myriam; Guibourdenche, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on the issue of behavioral change according to energy conservation constraints and on the status of sustainability in the design of ambient interactive systems at home. We point out how ergonomics contributes to the study of human factors underlying energy consumption. Relating to situated cognition and human computer interaction, our approach relies both on the ergonomic evaluation of feedback consumption displays and on the modeling of domestic activities in order to identify household concerns in real settings. We present empirical results to illustrate this global approach. The results of those studies allow the design of interactive systems: informative and pedagogical systems as well as pervasive and adaptive ambient systems. In our approach, sustainability is taken into account as a design criterion, as security could be, whereas the main design purpose is to aid households in their daily life in order to build a "sustainable situation". PMID:22316779

  16. Size effect on fracture energy of concrete determined by three-point bending

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Jueshi; Luo Hui

    1997-07-01

    The three-point bending test of a notched specimen is a common method of determining the fracture energy of concrete. Because there exist size effects on the test results, its validity is in doubt. Theoretical analysis shows that the size effect is mainly caused by inaccuracy in the formula used to calculate the fracture energy, but not due to shortcoming of the test method. The theoretical analysis has been verified with some experimental results on mortar.

  17. Two-Screen Method for Determining Electron Beam Energy and Deflection from Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Tynan, G R; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; Leurent, V; Palastro, J P; Ralph, J E; Froula, D H; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Wang, T L; Joshi, C

    2009-04-24

    Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) experiments have been performed at the Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In order to unambiguously determine the output electron beam energy and deflection angle at the plasma exit, we have implemented a two-screen electron spectrometer. This system is comprised of a dipole magnet followed by two image plates. By measuring the electron beam deviation from the laser axis on each plate, both the energy and deflection angle at the plasma exit are determined through the relativistic equation of motion.

  18. Determination of thickness and composition of high-k dielectrics using high-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Grande, P. L.; Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS ; Vos, M.; Venkatachalam, D. K.; Elliman, R. G.; Nandi, S. K.; Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611; Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331

    2013-08-12

    We demonstrate the application of high-energy elastic electron backscattering to the analysis of thin (2–20 nm) HfO{sub 2} overlayers on oxidized Si substrates. The film composition and thickness are determined directly from elastic scattering peaks characteristic of each element. The stoichiometry of the films is determined with an accuracy of 5%–10%. The experimental results are corroborated by medium energy ions scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements, and clearly demonstrate the applicability of the technique for thin-film analysis. Significantly, the presented technique opens new possibilities for nm depth profiling with high spatial resolution in scanning electron microscopes.

  19. Comparison of two methods for assaying reducing sugars in the determination of carbohydrase activities.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Alexander V; Kondratyeva, Elena G; Sinitsyn, Arkady P

    2011-01-01

    The Nelson-Somogyi (NS) and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assays for reducing sugars are widely used in measurements of carbohydrase activities against different polysaccharides. Using twelve commercial enzyme preparations, the comparison of the NS and DNS assays in determination of cellulase, β-glucanase, xylanase, and β-mannanase activities was carried out. When cellulase activities against CMC were measured, the DNS assay gave activity values, which were typically 40-50% higher than those obtained with the NS assay. In the analysis of the xylanase, β-mannanase, and β-glucanase activities, the overestimations by the DNS assay were much more pronounced (the observed differences in the activities were 3- to 13-fold). Reasons for preferential use of the NS assay for measuring activities of carbohydrases other than cellulases are discussed. PMID:21647284

  20. Metrological activity determination of 133Ba by sum-peak absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, R. L.; de Almeida, M. C. M.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; Santos, A.; de Veras, E. V.; Rangel, J.; Trindade, O. L.

    2016-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation provides gamma sources of radionuclide and standardized in activity with reduced uncertainties. Relative methods require standards to determine the sample activity while the absolute methods, as sum-peak, not. The activity is obtained directly with good accuracy and low uncertainties. 133Ba is used in research laboratories and on calibration of detectors for analysis in different work areas. Classical absolute methods don't calibrate 133Ba due to its complex decay scheme. The sum-peak method using gamma spectrometry with germanium detector standardizes 133Ba samples. Uncertainties lower than 1% to activity results were obtained.

  1. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brightman, M.; Balokovic, M.; Stern, D.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N(sub H) greater than 1.5 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (greater than 10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N(sub H) measured from 10(exp 24) to 10(exp 26) cm(exp -2), and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f(sub c), is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, L(sub X), where f(sub c) = (-0.41 +/- 0.13)log(sub 10)(L(sub X)/erg s(exp -1))+18.31 +/- 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L(sub X) (10(exp 41.5) - 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1)). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 42.5) erg s(exp -1).

  2. Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Caloric Intake and Activity Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Calvin, Andrew D.; Carter, Rickey E.; Adachi, Taro; G. Macedo, Paula; Albuquerque, Felipe N.; van der Walt, Christelle; Bukartyk, Jan; Davison, Diane E.; Levine, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies link short sleep duration to obesity and weight gain. Insufficient sleep appears to alter circulating levels of the hormones leptin and ghrelin, which may promote appetite, although the effects of sleep restriction on caloric intake and energy expenditure are unclear. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of sleep restriction on caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Methods: We conducted a randomized study of usual sleep vs a sleep restriction of two-thirds of normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit. The main outcomes were caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Results: Caloric intake in the sleep-restricted group increased by +559 kcal/d (SD, 706 kcal/d, P = .006) and decreased in the control group by −118 kcal/d (SD, 386 kcal/d, P = .51) for a net change of +677 kcal/d (95% CI, 148-1,206 kcal/d; P = .014). Sleep restriction was not associated with changes in activity energy expenditure (P = .62). No change was seen in levels of leptin (P = .27) or ghrelin (P = .21). Conclusions: Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in caloric consumption with no change in activity energy expenditure or leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Increased caloric intake without any accompanying increase in energy expenditure may contribute to obesity in people who are exposed to long-term sleep restriction. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01334788; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23392199

  3. Quantum coherence enabled determination of the energy landscape in light-harvesting complex II.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Tessa R; Ginsberg, Naomi S; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R

    2009-12-24

    The near-unity efficiency of energy transfer in photosynthesis makes photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes a promising avenue for developing new renewable energy technologies. Knowledge of the energy landscape of these complexes is essential in understanding their function, but its experimental determination has proven elusive. Here, the observation of quantum coherence using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is employed to directly measure the 14 lowest electronic energy levels in light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), the most abundant antenna complex in plants containing approximately 50% of the world's chlorophyll. We observe that the electronically excited states are relatively evenly distributed, highlighting an important design principle of photosynthetic complexes that explains the observed ultrafast intracomplex energy transfer in LHCII. PMID:20014871

  4. Actively controlled vehicle suspension with energy regeneration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar David, Sagiv; Zion Bobrovsky, Ben

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative dual purpose automotive suspension topology, combining for the first time the active damping qualities with mechanical vibrations power regeneration capabilities. The new configuration consists of a linear generator as an actuator, a power processing stage based on a gyrator operating under sliding mode control and dynamics controllers. The researched design is simple and energetically efficient, enables an accurate force-velocity suspension characteristic control as well as energy regeneration control, with no practical implementation constraints imposed over the theoretical design. Active damping is based on Skyhook suspension control scheme, which enables overcoming the passive damping tradeoff between high- and low-frequency performance, improving both body isolation and the tire's road grip. The system-level design includes configuration of three system operation modes: passive, semi-active or fully active damping, all using the same electro-mechanical infrastructure, and each focusing on different objective: dynamics improvement or power regeneration. Conclusively, the innovative hybrid suspension is theoretically researched, practically designed and analysed, and proven to be feasible as well as profitable in the aspects of power regeneration, vehicle dynamics improvement and human health risks reduction.

  5. Modeling of moisture diffusivity, activation energy and energy consumption in fluidized bed drying of rough rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanali, Majid; Banisharif, Alireza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    The present work was an attempt to assess the effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and energy consumption of rough rice in a batch fluidized bed dryer. Drying experiments were conducted at drying air temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C, superficial fluidization velocities of 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 m/s, and solids holdup of 1.32 kg. Drying kinetics showed that the whole fluidized bed drying of rough rice occurred in the falling rate period. The effective moisture diffusivity was described by an Arrhenius equation. The evaluated effective moisture diffusivity increased with drying air temperature and superficial fluidization velocity and was found to vary from 4.78 × 10-11 to 1.364 × 10-10 m2/s with R2 higher than 0.9643. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were found to be in the range of 36.59-44.31 kJ/mol and 4.71 × 10-5-7.15 × 10-4 m2/s, respectively. Both maximum values of the specific energy consumption of 74.73 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 12.43 MJ were obtained at 60 °C drying air temperature and 2.8 m/s superficial fluidization velocity. Both minimum values of the specific energy consumption of 29.98 MJ/kg and the total energy need of 4.85 MJ were obtained under drying air temperature of 70 °C and superficial fluidization velocity of 2.3 m/s.

  6. The maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures: definition and determination

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yang; Yang, Hou-Yun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; He, Chuan-Shu; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production from wastes has many advantages compared to various chemical methods. Methodology for characterizing the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures is essential for monitoring reactor operation in fermentative hydrogen production, however there is lack of such kind of standardized methodologies. In the present study, a new index, i.e., the maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity (SHAm) of anaerobic mixed cultures, was proposed, and consequently a reliable and simple method, named SHAm test, was developed to determine it. Furthermore, the influences of various parameters on the SHAm value determination of anaerobic mixed cultures were evaluated. Additionally, this SHAm assay was tested for different types of substrates and bacterial inocula. Our results demonstrate that this novel SHAm assay was a rapid, accurate and simple methodology for determining the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures. Thus, application of this approach is beneficial to establishing a stable anaerobic hydrogen-producing system. PMID:24912488

  7. The maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures: definition and determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Yang; Yang, Hou-Yun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; He, Chuan-Shu; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production from wastes has many advantages compared to various chemical methods. Methodology for characterizing the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures is essential for monitoring reactor operation in fermentative hydrogen production, however there is lack of such kind of standardized methodologies. In the present study, a new index, i.e., the maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity (SHAm) of anaerobic mixed cultures, was proposed, and consequently a reliable and simple method, named SHAm test, was developed to determine it. Furthermore, the influences of various parameters on the SHAm value determination of anaerobic mixed cultures were evaluated. Additionally, this SHAm assay was tested for different types of substrates and bacterial inocula. Our results demonstrate that this novel SHAm assay was a rapid, accurate and simple methodology for determining the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures. Thus, application of this approach is beneficial to establishing a stable anaerobic hydrogen-producing system.

  8. Continuous method to determine the trypsin inhibitor activity in soybean flour.

    PubMed

    Coscueta, Ezequiel R; Pintado, Manuela E; Picó, Guillermo A; Knobel, Gastón; Boschetti, Carlos E; Malpiedi, Luciana Pellegrini; Nerli, Bibiana B

    2017-01-01

    The determination of trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity is of importance to evaluate the nutritional value of soybean flours. An analytical method, which involves a continuous spectrophotometric rate determination for trypsin activity against the substrate N-benzoyl-DL-arginine p-nitroanilide, is proposed as an alternative to the standard discontinuous assay. Stopping the reaction with acetic acid and a centrifugation/filtration step to decrease turbidity are not required, thus reducing costs and sample preparation time. The TI activity of different flour samples, determined by both assays, demonstrated to be statistically comparable, irrespective of the TI concentration level. The coefficients of variation of the novel method did not exceed 8% at any concentration level. The curves of progress reaction showed a non-linear behavior in samples without TI. A reduction of incubation time from 10min to 2min increased the method sensitivity and extended its linear range. A more economical, faster and simpler assay was developed. PMID:27507460

  9. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  10. The Energy Challenge: An Activity Master Program About our Energy Past, Present, and Future for Grades 5 Through 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents 24 spirit duplicating activity masters and background materials for energy education in grades 5 through 8. These interdisciplinary materials are arranged in 6 units. Unit titles are: (1) Energy Overview; (2) Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas; (3) Energy Resources for Today and Tomorrow; (4) Energy Conservation;…

  11. Determination of the Exciton Binding Energy in CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, R; Lee, J; Wolcott, A; Zhang, J; Terminello, L; van Buuren, T

    2009-10-27

    The exciton binding energy (EBE) in CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been determined using x-ray spectroscopy. Using x-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy, the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) edge shifts as a function of particle size have been determined and combined to obtain the true band gap of the QDs (i.e. without and exciton). These values can be compared to the excitonic gap obtained using optical spectroscopy to determine the EBE. The experimental EBE results are compared with theoretical calculations on the EBE and show excellent agreement.

  12. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  13. The energy balance and pressure in the solar transition zone for network and active region features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, K. R.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.; Brueckner, G. E.; Vanhoosier, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The electron pressure and energy balance in the solar transition zone are determined for about 125 network and active region features on the basis of high spectral and spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet spectra. Si III line intensity ratios obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory high-resolution telescope and spectrograph during a rocket flight are used as diagnostics of electron density and pressure for solar features near 3.5 x 10 to the 4th K. Observed ratios are compared with the calculated dependence of the 1301 A/1312 A and 1301 A/1296 A line intensity ratios on electron density, temperature and pressure. Electron densities ranging from 2 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm to 10 to the 12th/cu cm and active region pressures from 3 x 10 to the 15th to 10 to the 16th/cu cm K are obtained. Energy balance calculations reveal the balance of the divergence of the conductive flux and turbulent energy dissipation by radiative energy losses in a plane-parallel homogeneous transition zone (fill factor of 1), and an energy source requirement for a cylindrical zone geometry (fill factor less than 0.04).

  14. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Physical Activity in Soccer Referees During Match-Play

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Alberto Inácio; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Fernandez, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs). The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer) was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil), Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint). The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765), with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006), and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs) with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play. Key points

  15. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  16. A modified method for the characterisation and activity determination of large area sources.

    PubMed

    Svec, A; Janssen, H; Pernická, L; Klein, R

    2006-01-01

    Large area sources emitting alpha and beta radiations, respectively, are often used for calibrations of surface contamination monitors and meters. It is well known, however, that their properties are strongly influenced by their construction and by their active layer preparation. Non-uniformity of activity distributions over the active surface and the thickness of absorption and backscattering layers cause changes not only in the ratio of particle emission rate and activity but also in emitted particle spectra distributions. Consequently, different sources need to be characterised by one or more parameters related to their emitted particle spectra and used for their activity determination. A modified method based on simple particle absorption spectrometry has been developed. The correlation between a source characteristic parameter and its radiation detection efficiency is utilised for its activity estimation. PMID:16549354

  17. Determination of human plasma xanthine oxidase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Moriwaki, Y; Takahashi, S; Tsutsumi, Z; Yamakita, J; Nasako, Y; Hiroishi, K; Higashino, K

    1996-06-01

    An assay for human plasma xanthine oxidase activity was developed with pterin as the substrate and the separation of product (isoxanthopterin) by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The reaction mixture consists of 60 microliters of plasma and 240 microliters of 0.2 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) containing 113 microM pterin. With this assay, the activity of plasma xanthine oxidase could be easily determined despite its low activity. As a result, it could be demonstrated that the intravenous administration of heparin or the oral administration of ethanol did not increase plasma xanthine oxidase activity in normal subjects, and also that plasma xanthine oxidase activity was higher in patients with hepatitis C virus infection than in healthy subjects or patients with gout. In addition, a single patient with von Gierke's disease showed a marked increase in the plasma activity of this enzyme, relative to that apparent in normal subjects. PMID:8811453

  18. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... forth in subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 to make this determination. The fuel selection life cycle cost... conversion factors in Table 602.2 yields the Design Energy Use for the proposed design: ER06oc00.030 Where f1, f2, * * * fi are the fuel conversion factors in Table 602.2. 603.2 Required Life Cycle Cost...

  19. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forth in subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 to make this determination. The fuel selection life cycle cost... conversion factors in Table 602.2 yields the Design Energy Use for the proposed design: ER06oc00.030 Where f1, f2, * * * fi are the fuel conversion factors in Table 602.2. 603.2 Required Life Cycle Cost...

  20. Determination of nuclear symmetry energy in the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long

    2008-05-15

    Within the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) approach a general formalism is established for the study of asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) described by the four-nucleon interactions. Restricting ourselves to the double-bubble approximation (DBA), we determine the bulk properties of ANM, in particular, the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, which is in good agreement with data of recent analyses.